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Sample records for nanocrystalline microwave dielectric

  1. Microwave dielectrics: solid solution, ordering and microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 6. Microwave dielectrics: solid solution, ordering and microwave dielectric properties of ( 1 − x ) Ba(Mg 1 / 3 Nb 2 / 3 )O 3 − x Ba(Mg 1 / 8 Nb 3 / 4 )O3 ceramics. YOGITA BISHT RICHA TOMAR PULLANCHIYODAN ABHILASH DEEPA RAJENDRAN LEKSHMI M ...

  2. Improvement in the microwave dielectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Microwave dielectric ceramics in the Sr1–xBaxCa4Nb4TiO17 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0⋅75) composition series were fabricated via a solid-state mixed oxide route. ... wavelengths of microwaves in a dielectric medium and free space, respectively. Several ceramic .... The reflections from all the compositions were identical and could be ...

  3. Improvement in the microwave dielectric properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. XRD; processing; phase; ceramics. 1. Introduction. Ceramics are extensively studied due to their unique microwave dielectric properties which make them potential candidate materials for manufacture of compact and low- cost dielectric resonators for wireless telecommunication devices (Reaney and Idles 2006).

  4. Temperature Dependent Dielectric Behavior of Nanocrystalline Ca Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samariya, Arvind; Pareek, S. P.; Sharma, P. K.; Prasad, Arun S.; Dhawan, M. S.; Dolia, S. N.; Sharma, K. B.

    Dielectric behaviour of Nanocrystalline CaFe2O4 ferrite synthesized by advanced sol- gel method has been investigated as a function of frequency at different temperatures. Rietveld profile refinement of the XRD pattern confirms formation of cubic spinel structure of the specimen.The dispersion in dielectric behavior of CaFe2O4ferrite sample has been observed in the temperature range of 100-250˚C as a function of frequency in the range 75 kHz to 10 MHz Both the real value of dielectric constant (ɛ‧) and the dielectric loss factor (tanδ) decrease with frequency. This decrease in the values of ɛ‧ and tanδ could be explained on the basis of available ferrous, i.e. Fe2+, ions on octahedral sites such that beyond a certain frequency of applied electric field the electronic exchange between the ferrous and ferric ions i.e. Fe2+↔Fe3+ cannot follow the applied alternating electric field.

  5. Dielectric properties of nanocrystalline Co-Mg ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Jyoti, E-mail: jyotijoshi.phy2008@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Sharma, Neha [Department of Physics, VEC Lakhanpur, Sarguja University, Ambikapur (C.G.) (India); Parashar, Jyoti; Saxena, V.K.; Bhatnagar, D. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Sharma, K.B. [Department of Physics, S. S. Jain Subodh P. G. College, Jaipur (India)

    2015-11-15

    Nanocrystalline powder samples with chemical formula Co{sub x}Mg{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) have been synthesized by sol–gel auto combustion method using citric acid as fuel agent. The rietveld refinement study of x-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the spinel single phase formation for all samples. Dielectric constant (ε′), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) and AC conductivity of Co{sub x}Mg{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles have been measured at room temperature in the frequency range from 1000 Hz to 120 MHz. The dielectric dispersion observed at lower frequency region is attributed to Maxwell–Wagner two layer model, which is in agreement with Koops phenomenological theory. The observed results have been explained by polarization which is attributed to the electron exchange between Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions. The temperature variation of ε′ and tanδ for some particular frequencies were studied. The rapid increase in ε′ and tan δ has been explained using thermally activated electron exchange between Fe{sup 2+} ↔ Fe{sup 3+} and Co{sup 2+} ↔ Co{sup 3+} ions at adjacent octahedral sites. The role of interfacial polarization has been focused to explain the high dispersion in ε′ and tanδ with temperature observed at low frequencies. - Graphical abstract: (a) TEM image of Co{sub 0.4}Mg{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows the nano size of the synthesized ferrite particles and (b) Dielectric constant behavior with frequency of Co{sub x}Mg{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite.

  6. New calibration algorithms for dielectric-based microwave moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    New calibration algorithms for determining moisture content in granular and particulate materials from measurement of the dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency are proposed. The algorithms are based on identifying empirically correlations between the dielectric properties and the par...

  7. Nano-crystalline Magnesium Substituted Cadmium Ferrites as X-band Microwave Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhongale, S. R.; Ingawale, H. R.; Shinde, T. J.; Pubby, Kunal; Bindra Narang, Sukhleen; Vasambekar, P. N.

    2017-11-01

    The magnetic and electromagnetic properties of nanocrystalline spinel ferrites with chemical formula MgxCd1-xFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) prepared by oxalate co-precipitation method under microwave sintering technique were studied. The magnetic and dielectric parameters of ferrites were determined by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and vector network analyzer (VNA) respectively. Magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetizations (Ms), coercive force (Hc), remnant magnetization (Mr), Yafet-Kittel (Y-K) angle of ferrites were determined from hysteresis loops. The variation of real permittivity (ε‧), dielectric loss tangent (tanδe), real permeability (μ‧) and magnetic loss tangent (tanδm) with frequency and Mg2+content were studied in X-band frequency range. The values of ε‧, tanδe, μ‧ and tanδm of ferrites were observed to be in range of 4.2 - 6.12, 2.9 × 10-1 - 6 × 10-2, 0.6 - 1.12 and 4.5 × 10-1 - 2 × 10-3 respectively for the prepared compositions. The study of variation of reflection loss with frequency of all ferrites shows that ferrite with magnesium content x = 0.4 can be potential candidate for microwave applications in X-band.

  8. Synthesis and microwave dielectric properties of Ca substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Extensive research has been carried out in the last three decades on dielectric ceramics due to their unique electri- cal properties which make them suitable candidates as dielectric resonators for microwave based wireless tele- communication industry by reducing the size and cost of filters and antennas in the circuit.

  9. Dielectric properties of materials at microwave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Křivánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the review of the present state of art in the measurement of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with different kinds of materials. It is analysis of the possibilities of the mea­surement of the interaction of high frequencies waves (microwaves with materials and proposal of the experimental method for the studies mentioned above.The electromagnetic field consists of two components: electric and magnetic field. The influence of these components on materials is different. The influence of the magnetic field is negligible and it has no impact on practical use. The influence of the electric field is strong as the interaction between them results in the creation of electric currents in the material (Křivánek and Buchar, 1993.Experiments focused on the evaluation of the complex dielectric permitivity of different materials have been performed. The permitivity of solid material is also measurable by phasemethod, when the specimen is a part of transmission sub-circuit. Microwave instrument for complex permittivity measurement works in X frequency band (8.2–12.5 GHz, the frequency 10.1 GHz was used for all the measurement in the laboratory of physics, Mendel University in Brno. The extensive number of experimental data have been obtained for different materials. The length of the square side of the ae­rial open end was 50 mm and internal dimensions of waveguides were 23 mm × 10 mm. The samples have form of the plate shape with dimensions 150 mm × 150 mm × 4 mm.

  10. Dielectric properties of biomass/biochar mixtures at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material dielectric properties are important for understanding their response to microwaves. Carbonaceous materials are considered good microwave absorbers and can be mixed with dry biomasses, which are otherwise low- loss materials, to improve the heating efficiency of biomass feedstocks. In this ...

  11. Handbook on dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials

    CERN Document Server

    Komarov, Vyacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    The application of microwave energy for thermal processing of different materials and substances is a rapidly growing trend in modern science and engineering. In fact, optimal design work involving microwaves is impossible without solid knowledge of the properties of these materials. Here s a practical reference that collects essential data on the dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials, saving you countless hours on projects in a wide range of areas, including microwave design and heating, applied electrodynamics, food science, and medical technology. This unique book provides hard-to-find information on complex dielectric permittivity of media at industrial, scientific, and medical frequencies (430 MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8 GHz, and 24.125GHz). Written by a leading expert in the field, this authoritative book does an exceptional job at presenting critical data on various materials and explaining what their key characteristics are concerning microwaves.

  12. Dielectric characterization of materials at microwave frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. de los Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a coaxial line was used to connect a microwave-frequency Network Analyzer and a base moving sample holder for dielectric characterization of ferroelectric materials in the microwave range. The main innovation of the technique is the introduction of a special sample holder that eliminates the air gap effect by pressing sample using a fine pressure system control. The device was preliminary tested with alumina (Al2O3 ceramics and validated up to 2 GHz. Dielectric measurements of lanthanum and manganese modified lead titanate (PLTM ceramics were carried out in order to evaluate the technique for a high permittivity material in the microwave range. Results showed that such method is very useful for materials with high dielectric permittivities, which is generally a limiting factor of other techniques in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 2 GHz.

  13. Structural, electrical and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline Mg-Zn ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Malik, M.A.; Nasir, S.; Mubeen, M.; Khan, K.; Maqsood, A.

    2011-01-01

    The nanocrystalline Mg-Zn ferrites having general formula Mg/sub 1-x/Zn/sub x/Fe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0. 5) were prepared by WOWS sol-gel route. All prepared samples were sintered at 700 deg. C for 2 h. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique was used to investigate structural properties of the samples. The crystal structure was found to be spinel. The crystallite size, lattice parameters and porosity of samples were calculated by XRD data analysis as function of zinc concentration. The crystallite size for each sample was calculated using the Scherrer formula considering the most intense (3 1 1) peak and the range obtained was 34-68 nm. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent and AC electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline Mg-Zn ferrites are investigated as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent increased with increase of Zn concentration. All the electrical properties are explained in accordance with Maxwell Wagner model and K/sub oops/ phenomenological theory. (author)

  14. Exploiting dimensionality and defect mitigation to create tunable microwave dielectrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lee, Ch.-H.; Orloff, N.D.; Birol, T.; Zhu, Y.; Goian, Veronica; Rocas, E.; Haislmaier, R.; Vlahos, E.; Mundy, J.A.; Kourkoutis, L.F.; Nie, Y.; Biegalski, M.D.; Zhang, J.; Bernhagen, M.; Benedek, N.A.; Kim, Y.; Brock, J.D.; Uecker, R.; Xi, X.X.; Gopalan, V.; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Kamba, Stanislav; Muller, D.A.; Takeuchi, I.; Booth, J.C.; Fennie, C.J.; Schlom, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 502, Oct (2013), s. 532-536 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/1163; GA MŠk LD12026; GA MŠk(CZ) LH13048 Keywords : microwave dielectrics * ferroelectrics * strain Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 42.351, year: 2013

  15. Sintering behaviour and microwave dielectric properties of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    427Nd0.182)TiO3; SmAlO3; microwave dielectric properties; oxygen octahedral distortion. 1. Introduction. The proliferation of commercial wireless technologies, such as cellular phones, global positioning systems and satellite broadcasting, has ...

  16. Synthesis and microwave dielectric properties of Ca substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Patch antenna; theoretical density; phase; ceramics. Abstract. Microwave dielectric ceramics in Sr1-CaLa4Ti4.93Zr0.07O17 (0 ≤ ≤ 0.5) composition series were processed via a solid-state sintering rout. X-ray diffraction revealed single phase ceramics. Ca substitutions for Sr tuned f towards zero with ...

  17. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  18. Microwave dielectric heating of drops in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Humphry, Katherine J; Brown, Keith A; Sandberg, Lori; Weitz, David A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2009-06-21

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picolitre-scale drop of water, enabling very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature change of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperature changes as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature and can benefit from this new technique.

  19. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    material collected by former Soviet Union robots and Apollo astronauts. With the completion of the first round of lunar exploration by human beings, the study of lunar microwave brightness tempe- rature was completely forgotten. Accompanied by a new upcoming era of lunar exploration and the development of science and ...

  20. Pd/C Catalysis under Microwave Dielectric Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS provides a novel and efficient means of achieving heat organic reactions. Nevertheless, the potential arcing phenomena via microwave (MW interaction with solid metal catalysts has limited its use by organic chemists. As arcing phenomena are now better understood, new applications of Pd/C-catalyzed reactions under MW dielectric heating are now possible. In this review, the state of the art, benefits, and challenges of coupling MW heating with heterogeneous Pd/C catalysis are discussed to inform organic chemists about their use with one of the most popular heterogeneous catalysts.

  1. Microwave PECVD of nanocrystalline diamond with rf induced bias nucleation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frgala, Z.; Jašek, O.; Karásková, M.; Zajíčková, L.; Buršíková, V.; Franta, D.; Matějková, Jiřina; Rek, Antonín; Klapetek, P.; Buršík, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), s. 1218-1223 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition * self- bias Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  2. Synthesis and microwave dielectric properties of Ca substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    commercial applications as dielectric resonators (DRs) for base stations require high relative electric permittivity ... high positive τf precluded its application at microwave frequencies. Nd substitutions for La in SrLa4Ti5O17 ... (Aldrich, 99 + %) dried at ~ 185 °C and La2O3 (Aldrich,. 99⋅95%), ZrO2 (Aldrich, 99.95%), and TiO2 ...

  3. Microwave dielectric relaxation in cubic bismuth based pyrochlores containing titanium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, H.; Kamba, Stanislav; Du, H.; Zhang, M.; Chia, Ch.; Veljko, Sergiy; Denisov, Sergey; Kadlec, Filip; Petzelt, Jan; Yao, X.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, - (2006), 014105/1-014105/7 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : microwave ceramic * dielectric and infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  4. Microwave measurement and modeling of the dielectric properties of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bijay Lal

    Some of the important applications of microwaves in the industrial, scientific and medical sectors include processing and treatment of various materials, and determining their physical properties. The dielectric properties of the materials of interest are paramount irrespective of the applications, hence, a wide range of materials covering food products, building materials, ores and fuels, and biological materials have been investigated for their dielectric properties. However, very few studies have been conducted towards the measurement of dielectric properties of green vegetations, including commercially important plant crops such as alfalfa. Because of its high nutritional value, there is a huge demand for this plant and its processed products in national and international markets, and an investigation into the possibility of applying microwaves to improve both the net yield and quality of the crop can be beneficial. Therefore, a dielectric measurement system based upon the probe reflection technique has been set up to measure dielectric properties of green plants over a frequency range from 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture contents from 12%, wet basis to 79%, wet basis, and temperatures from -15°C to 30°C. Dielectric properties of chopped alfalfa were measured with this system over frequency range of 300 MHz to 18 GHz, moisture content from 11.5%, wet basis, to 73%, wet basis, and density over the range from 139 kg m-3 to 716 kg m-3 at 23°C. The system accuracy was found to be +/-6% and +/-10% in measuring the dielectric constant and loss factor respectively. Empirical, semi empirical and theoretical models that require only moisture content and operating frequency were determined to represent the dielectric properties of both leaves and stems of alfalfa at 22°C. The empirical models fitted the measured dielectric data extremely well. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (r2) for dielectric constant and loss factor of leaves

  5. Dielectric Characteristics and Microwave Absorption of Graphene Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rubrice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many types of materials are elaborated for microwave absorption applications. Carbon-based nanoparticles belong to these types of materials. Among these, graphene presents some distinctive features for electromagnetic radiation absorption and thus microwave isolation applications. In this paper, the dielectric characteristics and microwave absorption properties of epoxy resin loaded with graphene particles are presented from 2 GHz to 18 GHz. The influence of various parameters such as particle size (3 µm, 6–8 µm, and 15 µm and weight ratio (from 5% to 25% are presented, studied, and discussed. The sample loaded with the smallest graphene size (3 µm and the highest weight ratio (25% exhibits high loss tangent (tanδ = 0.36 and a middle dielectric constant ε′ = 12–14 in the 8–10 GHz frequency range. As expected, this sample also provides the highest absorption level: from 5 dB/cm at 4 GHz to 16 dB/cm at 18 GHz.

  6. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  7. Low-temperature microwave and THz dielectric response in novel microwave ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Noujni, Dmitri; Pashkin, Alexej; Petzelt, Jan; Pullar, R. C.; Axelsson, A.-K.; McN Alford, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 1845-1851 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric properties * spectroscopy * perovskites * microwave ceramics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2006

  8. Evaluation of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichrou; Izumi, Yoshinobu; Sunagawa, Takeyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-strand break is important to elucidate the biological effect of ionizing radiations. The conventional methods for DNA-strand break evaluation have been achieved by Agarose gel electrophoresis and others using an electrical property of DNAs. Such kinds of DNA-strand break evaluation systems can estimate DNA-strand break, according to a molecular weight of DNAs. However, the conventional method needs pre-treatment of the sample and a relatively long period for analysis. They do not have enough sensitivity to detect the strand break products in the low-dose region. The sample is water, methanol and plasmid DNA solution. The plasmid DNA pUC118 was multiplied by using Escherichia coli JM109 competent cells. The resonance frequency and Q-value were measured by means of microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy. When a sample is located at a center of the electric field, resonance curve of the frequency that existed as a standing wave is disturbed. As a result, the perturbation effect to perform a resonance with different frequency is adopted. The resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in a concentration of methanol as the model of the biological material, and the Q-value decreased. The absorption peak in microwave power spectrum of the double-strand break plasmid DNA shifted from the non-damaged plasmid DNA. Moreover, the sharpness of absorption peak changed resulting in change in Q-value. We confirmed that a resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in concentration of the plasmid DNA. We developed a new technique for an evaluation of DNA damage. In this paper, we report the evaluation method of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

  9. Evaluation of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichrou; Izumi, Yoshinobu [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Evaluation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-strand break is important to elucidate the biological effect of ionizing radiations. The conventional methods for DNA-strand break evaluation have been achieved by Agarose gel electrophoresis and others using an electrical property of DNAs. Such kinds of DNA-strand break evaluation systems can estimate DNA-strand break, according to a molecular weight of DNAs. However, the conventional method needs pre-treatment of the sample and a relatively long period for analysis. They do not have enough sensitivity to detect the strand break products in the low-dose region. The sample is water, methanol and plasmid DNA solution. The plasmid DNA pUC118 was multiplied by using Escherichia coli JM109 competent cells. The resonance frequency and Q-value were measured by means of microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy. When a sample is located at a center of the electric field, resonance curve of the frequency that existed as a standing wave is disturbed. As a result, the perturbation effect to perform a resonance with different frequency is adopted. The resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in a concentration of methanol as the model of the biological material, and the Q-value decreased. The absorption peak in microwave power spectrum of the double-strand break plasmid DNA shifted from the non-damaged plasmid DNA. Moreover, the sharpness of absorption peak changed resulting in change in Q-value. We confirmed that a resonance frequency shifted to higher frequency with an increase in concentration of the plasmid DNA. We developed a new technique for an evaluation of DNA damage. In this paper, we report the evaluation method of DNA damage using microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Mechanisms of Microwave Loss Tangent in High Performance Dielectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingtao

    The mechanism of loss in high performance microwave dielectrics with complex perovskite structure, including Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O 3, Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3, ZrTiO4-ZnNb 2O6, Ba(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, and BaTi4O9-BaZn2Ti4O11, has been investigated. We studied materials synthesized in our own lab and from commercial vendors. Then the measured loss tangent was correlated to the optical, structural, and electrical properties of the material. To accurately and quantitatively determine the microwave loss and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectra as a function of temperature and magnetic field, we developed parallel plate resonator (PPR) and dielectric resonator (DR) techniques. Our studies found a marked increase in the loss at low temperatures is found in materials containing transition metal with unpaired d-electrons as a result of resonant spin excitations in isolated atoms (light doping) or exchange coupled clusters (moderate to high doping); a mechanism that differs from the usual suspects. The loss tangent can be drastically reduced by applying static magnetic fields. Our measurements also show that this mechanism significantly contributes to room temperature loss, but does not dominate. In order to study the electronic structure of these materials, we grew single crystal thin film dielectrics for spectroscopic studies, including angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiment. We have synthesized stoichiometric Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3 [BCT] (100) dielectric thin films on MgO (100) substrates using Pulsed Laser Deposition. Over 99% of the BCT film was found to be epitaxial when grown with an elevated substrate temperature of 635 °C, an enhanced oxygen pressures of 53 Pa and a Cd-enriched BCT target with a 1 mol BCT: 1.5 mol CdO composition. Analysis of ultra violet optical absorption results indicate that BCT has a bandgap of 4.9 eV.

  11. Rapid synthesis of tantalum oxide dielectric films by microwave microwave-assisted atmospheric chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiege, Nicholas; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Shannon, Mark A.; Masel, Richard I.

    2008-01-01

    Microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition has been used to generate high quality, high-k dielectric films on silicon at high deposition rates with film thicknesses varying from 50 nm to 110 μm using inexpensive equipment. Characterization of the post deposition products was performed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film growth was determined to occur via rapid formation and accumulation of tantalum oxide clusters from tantalum (v) ethoxide (Ta(OC 2 H 5 ) 5 ) vapor on the deposition surface

  12. Microwave reflection measurements of the dielectric properties of concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The use of microwave reflection measurements to continuously and nondestructively monitor the hydration of concrete is described. The method relies upon the influence of the free-water content on the dielectric properties of the concrete. Use of the ...

  13. Microwave Dielectric Properties of XM46 and a Surrogate Liquid Propellant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bossoli, Robert

    1998-01-01

    .... The dielectric constant (permittivity) of LP was determined in support of possible studies of the feasibility of using microwave energy to preheat LP for more consistent electric ignition in regenerative liquid propellant guns (RLPG...

  14. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Soil and Vegetation and Their Estimation From Spaceborne Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, M. Craig; McDonald, Kyle C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is largely tutorial in nature and provides an overview of the microwave dielectric properties of certain natural terrestrial media (soils and vegetation) and recent results in estimating these properties remotely from airborne and orbital synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

  15. Dispersion of Dielectric Permittivity in a Nanocrystalline Cellulose-Triglycine Sulfate Composite at Low and Ultralow Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu'o'ng, Nguyen Hoai; Sidorkin, A. S.; Milovidova, S. D.

    2018-03-01

    The dispersion of dielectric permittivity in nanocrystalline cellulose-triglycine sulfate composites is studied in the range of frequencies from 10-3 to 106 Hz, at temperatures varying from room temperature to the temperature of phase transition in this composite (54°C), in weak electric fields (1 V cm-1). Two behaviors for the dielectric dispersion are identified in the studied frequency range: at ultralow frequencies (10-3-10 Hz), the dispersion is due to Maxwell-Wagner polarization, while at higher frequencies (10-106 Hz), the dispersion is due to the movement of domain walls in the embedded triglycine sulfate crystallites. An additional peak in the temperature-dependent profiles of dielectric permittivity is detected at lower temperatures in freshly prepared samples of the considered composite; we associate it with the presence of residual water in these samples.

  16. Dielectric characterization of Bentonite clay at various moisture contents and with mixtures of biomass in the microwave spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the potential for using bentonite as a microwave absorber for microwave-assisted biomass pyrolysis based on the dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of bentonite at different moisture contents were measured using a coaxial line dielectric probe and vector network analyzer...

  17. Dielectric properties of Zea mays kernels - studies for microwave power processing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Emanoil; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.r [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves absorption in biological samples can be predicted by their specific dielectrical properties. In this paper, the dielectric properties ({epsilon}' and {epsilon}'') of corn (Zea mays) kernels in the 500 MHz - 20 GHz frequencies range are presented. A short analysis of the microwaves absorption process is also presented, in correlation with the specific thermal properties of the samples, measured by simultaneous TGA-DSC method.

  18. Dielectric characteristics of food-stuff in the process of their thermal treatment with microwave field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhirnov, V. V.; Dokhov, A. I.; Solonskaya, S. V.; Strelchenko, V. I.

    2003-01-01

    Results of investigations into dynamics of dielectric characteristics volumetric distribution variation in the process of food-stuff thermal treatment under microwave-band electromagnetic fields action are given. The calculated relations for defining distribution of temperature variations, moisture content and excessive pressure in the food-stuff volume at thermal treatment under the microwave radiation action exerting the main effect on ε' and ε" dielectric characteristics' variation in the ...

  19. Dielectric Properties of Zinc Oxide Leach Residues Relevant to Microwave Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weifeng; Luo, Zhumei; Chen, Junruo; Zhang, Libo; Liu, Peng

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first study on dielectric properties of zinc oxide leach residues (ZOLR) relating to microwave drying. Dielectric properties of ZOLR were measured by cylindrical cavity perturbation method. The three-dimensional response surface plots show that both the dielectric constant and the loss factor of ZOLR tend to decline while the penetration depth of the microwave energy in ZOLR increases in the process of microwave drying. The largest penetration depth of microwave energy in ZOLR is 50 mm. The results obtained from the experiments are useful not only in developing large-scale industrial microwave drying system but also in numerical simulating of the distribution of the temperature field of ZOLR.

  20. Magnetic and dielectric properties of perovskite type nanocrystalline SrFeO3-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manimuthu, P.; Ashok Kumar, K.; Ezhilarasi, V.S.; Venkateswaran, C.

    2012-01-01

    SrFeO 3δ belongs to the Ruddelson-Popper class of system exhibiting technologically interesting electronic and magnetic properties. Stoichiometric SrFeO 3 is metallic and helical antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature (T N ) of 134 K. In particular, SrFeO 3 with Fe in the 4+ state receives greatest attention. The unusual valence state of Fe 4+ in the octahedral site is unstable during the high temperature annealing process and gradually reduces to stable Fe 3+ . Due to this charge conversion, oxygen vacancies are formed for charge compensation. Depending on the oxygen content, the material possesses different structural and electronic properties. For δ= 0, 0.13, 0.27 and 0.5, it takes cubic-SrFeO 3 , tetragonal-SrFeO 2 . 87 (Sr 8 Fe 8 O 23 ), orthorhombic-SrFeO 2.73 , (Sr 4 Fe 4 O 11 ) and brownmilletrate-orthorhombic-SrFeO 2.5 (Sr 2 Fe 2 O 5 ) phases, respectively. Any intermediate composition results in a mixture of two neighbouring phases. So, SrFeO 3-δ has gained interest not only because of iron in 4+ state but also due to its oxygen deficiency. The perovskite type nanocrystalline SrFeO 3δ has been prepared by thermal decomposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the prepared sample is in cubic perovskite phase. HRSEM image shows nanocrystalline sized particles of irregular shape with large agglomerations. Room temperature magnetization and Mösbauer measurements reveal paramagnetic behavior. Thermo-magnetization curve clearly shows a Neel transition temperature around 106 K which is lower than that of the stoichiometric SrFeO 3 (T N = 134 K). From the Mössbauer result, three charge states of Fe ions (i.e., Fe 4+ , Fe 3.5+ and Fe 3+ ) are evident. The corresponding oxygen deficient phase has been identified from the relative areas of three Fe ions in the sample and is found to be δ ∼ 0.19. Electrical and dielectric behaviors of the sample have been analyzed using an impedance analyzer from 303 K to 473 K. The results will be discussed

  1. Anisotropic Dielectric Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites during Microwave Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linglin; Li, Yingguang; Zhou, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Microwave cuing technology is a promising alternative to conventional autoclave curing technology in high efficient and energy saving processing of polymer composites. Dielectric properties of composites are key parameters related to the energy conversion efficiency during the microwave curing process. However, existing methods of dielectric measurement cannot be applied to the microwave curing process. This paper presented an offline test method to solve this problem. Firstly, a kinetics model of the polymer composites under microwave curing was established based on differential scanning calorimetry to describe the whole curing process. Then several specially designed samples of different feature cure degrees were prepared and used to reflect the dielectric properties of the composite during microwave curing. It was demonstrated to be a feasible plan for both test accuracy and efficiency through extensive experimental research. Based on this method, the anisotropic complex permittivity of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite during microwave curing was accurately determined. Statistical results indicated that both the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the composite increased at the initial curing stage, peaked at the maximum reaction rate point and decreased finally during the microwave curing process. Corresponding mechanism has also been systematically investigated in this work.

  2. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  3. Dielectric properties, optimum formulation and microwave baking conditions of chickpea cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifakı, Yaşar Özlem; Şakıyan, Özge

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate dielectric properties with quality parameters, and to optimize cake formulation and baking conditions by response surface methodology. Weight loss, color, specific volume, hardness and porosity were evaluated. The samples with different DATEM (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2%) and chickpea flour concentrations (30, 40 and 50%) were baked in microwave oven at different power (300, 350, 400 W) and baking times (2.50, 3.0, 3.50 min). It was found that microwave power showed significant effect on color, while baking time showed effect on weight loss, porosity, hardness, specific volume and dielectric properties. Emulsifier level affected porosity, specific volume and dielectric constant. Chickpea flour level affected porosity, color, hardness and dielectric properties of cakes. The optimum microwave power, baking time, DATEM level and chickpea flour level were found as 400 W, 2.84 min, 1.2% and 30%, respectively. The comparison between conventionally baked and the microwave baked cakes at optimum points showed that color difference, weight loss, specific volume and porosity values of microwave baked cakes were less than those of conventionally baked cakes, on the other hand, hardness values were higher. Moreover, a negative correlation between dielectric constant and porosity, and weight loss values were detected for microwave baked samples. A negative correlation between dielectric loss factor and porosity was observed. These correlations indicated that quality characteristics of a microwave baked cake sample can be assessed from dielectric properties. These correlations provides understanding on the behavior of food material during microwave processing.

  4. Effects of LiF on microwave dielectric properties of 0.25Ca0.8Sr0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    telecommunications. Generally, it is not easy to find materials which satisfy these three characteristics for microwave dielectric applications, because the materials with high dielectric constant have a high dielectric loss and large τf value. After the dielectric characteristics of the perovskite structure A1–xA′xBO3 are reported ...

  5. Dielectric measurements on PWB materials at microwave frequencies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In quest of finding new substrate for printed wiring board (PWB) having low dielectric constant, we have made PSF/PMMA blends and evaluated the dielectric parameters at 8.92 GHz frequency and at 35°C temperature. Incorporating PMMA in PSF matrix results in reduced dielectric constant than that of pure PSF.

  6. Effect of Gd{sup 3+} substitution on structural, magnetic, dielectric and optical properties of nanocrystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Seema [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307 (India); Kumar, Manoj, E-mail: mkumar.phy@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307 (India); Chhoker, Sandeep [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida 201307 (India); Kumar, Arun; Singh, Mahavir [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 5 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Nanoparticles of CoGd{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 4} with x=0.0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10 and 0.15 were synthesized by co-precipitation method. Gd{sup 3+} substitution effect on different properties of nanocrystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been studied. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of single phase cubic mixed spinel structure. Cation distribution has been proposed from Rietveld refined data. Mössbauer spectra at room temperature showed two ferrimagnetic Zeeman sextets with one superparamagnetic doublet. Mössbauer parameters suggested that Gd{sup 3+} ions occupy the octahedral site in CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Room temperature magnetic measurements exhibited that the saturation magnetization decreased from 91 emu/gm to 54 emu/gm for x=0.0 to 0.15 samples. The coercivity decreased from 1120 Oe to 340 Oe for x=0.0 to 0.07 samples and increased from 400 Oe to 590 Oe for x=0.10 and 0.15 samples, respectively. Raman analysis showed that the degree of inversion with Gd{sup 3+} substitution supporting the variation of coercivity. Electron spin resonance spectra revealed the dominancy of superexchange interactions in these samples. Optical band gap measurement suggested that all samples are indirect band gap materials and band gap has been decreased with Gd{sup 3+} substitution. Both dielectric constant and dielectric loss is found to decrease because of the decrease in hopping rate with the Gd{sup 3+} substitution for Fe{sup 3+} at the octahedral sites. Low dielectric loss suggested the applicability of Gd{sup 3+} doped CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for high frequency microwave device applications. - Highlights: • Gd{sup 3+} ions were successfully added in to the spinel lattice of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • Magnetic hysteresis loss is influenced by Gd{sup 3+} doping. • All doped samples exhibit normal dielectric dispersion behaviour of spinel ferrites. • UV–vis diffuse spectroscopy concludes band gap is reduced by Gd{sup 3+} doping.

  7. Dielectric and Microwave Properties of Siloxane Rubber/Carbon Black Nanocomposites and Their Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Hartomy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dielectric and microwave properties of carbon black/siloxane rubber-based nanocomposites have been investigated in the frequency range from 1 GHz till 12 GHz according to the content of carbon black and the frequency. It has been established that the increasing frequency and filler content lead to an increase in the relative permittivity and tangent of dielectric loss angle. At higher filler content, the effects become more pronounced, especially those upon dielectric loss. It has been also established that there are two well-distinguished areas in all dependences of microwave properties on frequency and filler content increasing. The first is between 1 and 8 GHz wherein the reflection and attenuation of microwaves do not change considerably with frequency and filler content alternation while shielding effectiveness worsens. The second area is between 8 and 12 GHz wherein the reflection and attenuation of microwaves increase drastically with the increasing frequency and filler content. Shielding effectiveness improves, too. It has been established that in all cases the degree of correlation between dielectric and microwave properties evaluated on the basis of the coefficients of correlation calculation is perfect.

  8. Research on the honeycomb restrain layer application to the high power microwave dielectric window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Shao, Hao; Huang, Wenhua; Guo, Letian

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric window breakdown is an important problem of high power microwave radiation. A honeycomb layer can suppress the multipactor in two directions to restrain dielectric window breakdown. This paper studies the effect of the honeycomb restrain layer on improving the dielectric window power capability. It also studies the multipactor suppression mechanism by using the electromagnetic particle-in-cell software, gives the design method, and accomplishes the test experiment. The experimental results indicated that the honeycomb restrain layer can effectively improve the power capability twice.

  9. Development of anatomically and dielectrically accurate breast phantoms for microwave imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, M.; Lohfeld, S.; Ruvio, G.; Browne, J.; Krewer, F.; Ribeiro, C. O.; Inacio Pita, V. C.; Conceicao, R. C.; Jones, E.; Glavin, M.

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. In the United States alone, it accounts for 31% of new cancer cases, and is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of deaths in American women. More than 184,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year resulting in approximately 41,000 deaths. Early detection and intervention is one of the most significant factors in improving the survival rates and quality of life experienced by breast cancer sufferers, since this is the time when treatment is most effective. One of the most promising breast imaging modalities is microwave imaging. The physical basis of active microwave imaging is the dielectric contrast between normal and malignant breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The dielectric contrast is mainly due to the increased water content present in the cancerous tissue. Microwave imaging is non-ionizing, does not require breast compression, is less invasive than X-ray mammography, and is potentially low cost. While several prototype microwave breast imaging systems are currently in various stages of development, the design and fabrication of anatomically and dielectrically representative breast phantoms to evaluate these systems is often problematic. While some existing phantoms are composed of dielectrically representative materials, they rarely accurately represent the shape and size of a typical breast. Conversely, several phantoms have been developed to accurately model the shape of the human breast, but have inappropriate dielectric properties. This study will brie y review existing phantoms before describing the development of a more accurate and practical breast phantom for the evaluation of microwave breast imaging systems.

  10. Microwave-assisted sintering of non-stoichiometric strontium bismuth niobate ceramic: Structural and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rajveer [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India); Department of Physics, Atmaram Sanatan Dharma College, University of Delhi, Dhaula Kuan, New Delhi 110021 (India); Luthra, Vandna [Department of Physics, Gargi College, University of Delhi, Siri Fort Road, New Delhi 110049 (India); Tandon, R.P., E-mail: ram_tandon@hotmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007 (India)

    2016-11-01

    In recent years the microwave sintering has been utilized for the synthesis of materials in enhancement of the properties. In this paper strontium bismuth niobate (Sr{sub 0.8}Bi{sub 2.2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}:SBN) bulk ceramic has been synthesized by microwave reactive sintering and conventional heating techniques. A relative density of 99.6% has been achieved for microwave sintered SBN, which is higher than that of (98.81%) conventionally sintered SBN. The phase formation of SBN synthesized by both processes has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of SBN was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microstructure was found to be more uniform in case of SBN sintered by microwave sintering. The dielectric properties of SBN were studied as a function of frequency in the temperature range of 30–500 °C. Both the samples synthesized by two different processes were found to follow Curie–Weiss law above the transition temperature. The Curie temperature was found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN. The dielectric constant and the transition temperature were observed to be higher for SBN ceramic synthesized by microwave sintering technique. The ac and dc activation energy values were also found to be higher for microwave sintered SBN as compared to conventional sintering technique.

  11. Dielectric measurements on PWB materials at microwave frequencies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    . Introduction. Dielectric materials have many important functions in the microelectronics industry. New packaging technology re- quires substrates with low permittivity. As electrical com- ponents are miniaturized, the need for well characterized.

  12. Development of Improved Microwave Dielectric Materials and Devices using Advanced Experimental and Theoretical Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newman, Nathan; Schilfgaarde, Van

    2008-01-01

    ... some dielectric materials exhibit markedly better performance than others. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations elucidated the physical reason for this desirable microwave properties in Ba(Cd1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BCT) and Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 (BZT...

  13. Microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of (Zn1–x Mgx) 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By appropriate Mg substitution for Zn, the sintering range is widened and the sintering temperature of Zn2SiO4 ceramics can be lowered effectively. SEM shows that Mg-substitution for Zn can promote the grain growth of Zn2SiO4. Moreover, the microwave dielectric properties strongly depended on the substitution content of ...

  14. Near-field scanning microwave microscopy and its applications in characterization of dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinxin

    Dielectric properties of materials are related to their microstructure, defects and compositional variations. Traditional impedance measurement of dielectric properties is an average performed on the length scale of the microwave wavelength, which is not sensitive to local structure and compositional variations. The nondestructive mapping technique of near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) has been shown to be an effective technique for investigating the local dielectric properties variation. The development of near-field SMM and its application in characterization of dielectric ceramics are presented in this work. The local surface dielectric properties of a variety of bulk specimens were characterized with SMM, while their microstructures were characterized with backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy. The compositions and phases were identified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The local dielectric properties variations causing the contrast in SMM images were correlated to the local microstructures and chemical variations, such as defects, nonstoichiometric compositions, solid-solution, phase separations, and so on. SMM characterization has been used to detect defects in single crystals, such as twinning structure in a LaAlO3 single crystal; to present topographic and grain boundary effects in bulk polycrystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ); to differentiate chemical variations, such as oxygen-deficient "cored" titania crystal, and Zn/Co varied BZCN312 matrices; to characterize inhomogeneities of dielectric properties in a co-fired CMT30/CMT40 ceramic; to discover a new phase with unknown dielectric properties, such as BZCN816 phase in BZCN312 matrices; to investigate stabilized components, such as La 2/3TiO3 phase stabilized by LaAlO3 phase; to study solid solution, such as LT3-LAO solid solution and LAO-STO solid solution; to study phase

  15. Dielectric properties of hardwood species at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, H.; Ay, N.

    2004-01-01

    Dielectric measurements at 9.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz were made for the three hardwoods Euramerican hybrid poplar, alder, and oriental beech. The method used was based on Von Hippel's transmission line method. The measurements were carried out at room temperature of 20 deg - 24 deg C. The dielectric properties of the wood species were determined for the three principal structural directions at six different moisture conditions, covering the range of 0% to 28% moisture content. Results indicated that the behavior of all wood species studied is quantitatively similar. In general, the dielectric properties increase within the range studied with rising moisture content. The grain direction of the wood also plays a significant role

  16. Effect of Microwave Heating on the Dielectric Properties and Components of Iron-Fortified Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-shu Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the iron-fortified milk as research object, this paper makes a research on the influence of iron on the dielectric properties and wave absorption properties and effect of nutritional components, such as casein and whey protein in milk, and thermostability in the process of microwave heating, and rapid heat transfer method in ferrous gluconate–milk and ferrous chloride–milk, respectively. The results show that the iron of ionic form has greater influence to convert microwave to heat energy and the effect of microwave absorption properties was greater for ferrous chloride than for ferrous gluconate at high concentration. The effect of different forms of iron on the composition of milk was different, and the composition of milk systems was more stable by microwave heating, but the rapid heat transfer method is superior in the aim of increasing the nutritional value of milk. The ferrous gluconate–milk system has a better thermal stability than ferrous chloride–milk system. From the aspect of dielectric induction, the paper discovers the response rules of iron and evaluates the microwave thermal safety of the traditional and the iron-fortified products by microwave heating.

  17. Microwave dielectric characterization of binary mixture of formamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric relaxation measurements of formamide (FMD)–,- dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) solvent mixtures have been carried out over the entire concentration range using time domain reflectometry technique at 25, 35 and 45° C in thefrequency range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz. The mixtures exhibit a principle dispersion of ...

  18. Microwave dielectric tangent losses in KDP and DKDP crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    properties of KDP-type crystals. In the present work, we shall consider the third- and fourth-order phonon anharmonic interaction terms [12,13] into pseudospin lattice coupled mode (PLCM) model of KH2PO4 crystal. The phonon anharmonic interactions are found to be very important in explaining dielectric, thermal and ...

  19. Dielectric measurements on PWB materials at microwave frequencies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    depends on both the dielectric constant and transmission- line structure. ... the standing wave. The sample, length L cm, is then placed in the sample holder, which is a waveguide (~ 10 cm long) with a fine, accurately cut, longitudinal slot at the middle. ... the angular frequency and c0 the velocity of light, c the thickness of the ...

  20. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver nanosized crystallites have been synthesized in aqueous and polyols viz., ethylene glycol and glycerol, using a microwave technique. Dispersions of colloidal silver have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate both in the presence and absence of stabilizer poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP). It was observed that ...

  1. Microwave dielectric characterization of binary mixture of formamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz. The mixtures exhibit a principle dispersion of the Davidson–Cole relaxation type at microwave frequencies. Bilinear calibration method is used to obtain complex permittivity ε*. (ω) from complex reflection coefficient ρ*. (ω) over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 10 GHz.

  2. Microwave dielectric characterization of binary mixture of formamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The mixtures exhibit a principle dispersion of the Davidson–Cole relaxation type at microwave frequencies. Bilinear calibration method is used to obtain complex permittivity *() from complex reflection coefficient ρ*() over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 10 GHz. The excess permittivity (E), excessinverse relaxation ...

  3. Novel Polymeric Dielectric Materials for the Additive Manufacturing of Microwave Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Shamus E.

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the deployment of additive manufacturing (AM) due to the perceived benefits of lower cost, higher quality, and a smaller environmental footprint. And while the hardware behind most of AM processes is mature, the study and development of material feedstock(s) are in their infancy, particularly so for niche areas. In this dissertation, we look at novel polymeric materials to support AM for microwave devices. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the benefits of AM, followed by the specific motivation for this work, and finally a scope defining the core objectives. Chapter 2 delves into a higher-level background of dielectric theory and includes a brief overview of the two common dielectric spectroscopy techniques used in this work. The remaining chapters, summarized below, describe experiments in which novel polymeric materials were developed and their microwave dielectric properties measured. Chapter 3 describes the successful synthesis of polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE)/polyacrylate (PA) core-shell nanoparticles and their measured microwave dielectric properties. PTFE/PA core-shell nanoparticles with spherical morphology were successfully made by aerosol deposition followed by a brief annealing. The annealing temperature is closely controlled to exceed the glass transition (Tg) of the PA shell yet not exceed the Tg of the PTFE core. Furthermore, the annealing promotes coalescence amongst the PA shells of neighboring nanoparticles and results in the formation of a contiguous PA matrix that has excellent dispersion of PTFE cores. The measured dielectric properties agree well with theoretical predictions and suggest the potential of this material as a feedstock for AM microwave devices. Chapter 4 delves into the exploration of various polyimide systems with the aim of replacing the PA in the previously studied PTFE/PA core-shell nanoparticles. Fundamental relationships between polymer attributes (flexibility/rigidity and

  4. Fluid and microfluidic dielectric measurement using a cavity perturbation method at microwave C-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Aref

    The utilization of cavity perturbation technique in dielectric property measurement of fluid and micro-fluid is investigated in this thesis to better assist the ever-growing needs of science and technology for analysis and characterization of such materials in various applications from genetics, MEMS devices, to consumer product industry. Development of different techniques for measuring complex dielectric properties of fluid and micro-fluids at Giga (10 9)-Hz frequencies is of significant importance as their usage is increasingly coupled with infrared and microwave electromagnetic wavelengths. Conventional cavity perturbation method could provide a sensitive and convenient system for measuring fluids of low (e.g., epsilonr method that is however suitable for a sensitive, accurate, and reliable measurement of high permittivity polar liquids at microwave C-band is the goal in the current work. Systematic studies are carried out, using de-ionic (DI) water as test specimens, to evaluate the influence of sample's container, volume, dimension, and temperature on the sensitivity and reliability of microwave dielectric measurement. The cavity perturbation measurement of DI water in a 1 mm diameter capillary tube showed well-defined temperature dependence of dielectric permittivity and loss coefficients of water. Observation of a permittivity peak in temperature range tested at 4GHz around -10 °C implies an important relaxation in low temperatures at microwave C-band, which corresponds to a critical slowing down of polarization reorientation in crystallized (icy) H2O. Numerical simulations using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) COMSOL suites were conducted to established the optimum amount of liquid water for cavity perturbation testing at microwave C-band (in perfectly conducting condition). The results showed at TE103 mode the tube D4= 4mm diameter (272 muL liquid volume capacity) provides the best measurement sensitivity in terms of resonant shift and low loss while for

  5. Integrated microwave resonant device for dielectric analysis of microfluidic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, D J; Porch, A; Barrow, D A [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Allender, C J, E-mail: rowedj@cf.ac.uk [Welsh School of Pharmacy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3NB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-12

    Herein we present a device for performing non-contact dielectric spectroscopy upon liquids in a microfluidic environment. The device is comprised of a compression-sealed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) chip with an embedded coaxial resonator, which is overmoded for dielectric measurements at six discrete frequencies between 1 and 8 GHz. A novel capacitive coupling structure allows transmission measurements to be taken from one end of the resonator, and an optimised microchannel design maximises sensitivity and repeatability. The use of a PTFE substrate and a non-contact measurement gives excellent chemical and biological compatibility. A simple 'fingerprint' method for identifying solvents is demonstrated, whereby a sample is characterised by air-referenced changes in complex frequency. Complex permittivity values are also obtained via a perturbation theory-based inversion. A combination of experimental and simulated results is used to characterise the device behaviour, limits of operation and measurement uncertainty. The high stability of temporal measurements, coupled with the robustness of the design, make this device ideal for analytical chemistry and industrial process control.

  6. Low-firing Li2ZnTi3O8 microwave dielectric ceramics with BaCu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave ceramics; XRD; SEM; dielectric properties; LTCC. 1. Introduction. To achieve the miniaturization of microwave (MW) compo- nents for wireless communication, low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology becomes an important method because of its predominance in enabling the fabrication of.

  7. Impedance spectroscopy and dielectric studies of nanocrystalline iron doped barium strontium titanate ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reenu Jacob

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate compounds have great research attention due to their good electric and in some case interesting magnetic properties. The synthesis and characterization of iron doped barium strontium titanate (BSFTO make an attempt to understand its structure and investigate electric/dielectric properties. The formation of a perovskite compound with tetragonal phase was confirmed through X-ray structural studies. Dielectric and electrical impedance properties of the sintered BSFTO ceramics were measured in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 2 MHz and at different temperatures (up to 600 °C. It was shown that the properties of this material are highly dependent on temperature and frequency. The nature of frequency dependence of AC conductivity confirms the Jonscher’s power law. The temperature dependence of DC conductivity obeys the Arrhenius behaviour.

  8. Dielectric Behaviour of Zn/Al-NO3 LDHs Filled with Polyvinyl Chloride Composite at Low Microwave Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethar Y. Salih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have shown great interest in improving the thermal, mechanical, dielectric, and microwave properties of pure polymers through the use of polymer-based composites. The essential properties of polymer-based composites can be modified by varying the amount of Zn/Al-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH added to polyvinyl chloride (PVC. Therefore, by determining the optimal ratio of LDH in the PVC matrix, the dielectric properties of PVC-LDH composites can be improved. An LDH was prepared using the coprecipitation method, while PVC-LDH composites were prepared using tetrahydrofuran (THF as the solvent. The composites were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and room temperature dielectric measurements were investigated using an RF Impedance/Material Analyzer (Agilent 4291. The results confirmed that the prepared composites were pure. Additionally, the presence of LDH in the PVC matrix was verified. The dielectric measurements showed that an increase in the LDH concentration leads to an increase in the dielectric constant and the dielectric loss factor. When used as dielectric filler in the PVC matrix, the LDH improved the dielectric properties of the fabricated composites. The results indicate that these composites show great potential for use as microwave absorbers at low microwave frequencies.

  9. Enhanced microwave absorption in ZnO/carbonyl iron nano-composites by coating dielectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chang; Fang Qingqing; Yan Fangliang; Wang Weina; Wu Keyue; Liu Yanmei; Lv Qingrong; Zhang Hanming; Zhang Qiping; Li Jinguang; Ding Qiongqiong

    2012-01-01

    The microwave absorption properties of zinc oxide/carbonyl iron composite nanoparticles fabricated by high energy ball milling were studied at 0–20 GHz. Experiments showed that ZnO as a kind of dielectric material coating carbonyl iron particles made the bandwidth of reflection loss (RL)<−5 dB expanding to the low frequency, and enhanced absorption effect obviously. For a 3 mm thickness absorber of ZnO/carbonyl iron after 30 h milling, the values of RL<−5 dB and RL<−8 dB were obtained in the frequency range from 7.0 GHz to 17.8 GHz and from 9.8 dB to 14.9 dB, respectively, and its strongest RL peak was −29.34 dB at 13.59 GHz. The magnetic loss of carbonyl iron particles and the dielectric loss of ZnO particles were the main mechanisms of microwave absorption for the composites. - Highlights: ► We fabricated zinc oxide/carbonyl iron composites by high energy ball milling. ► ZnO dielectric property increased absorption effect and absorption bandwidth. ► Absorbing frequence of composites is expanding to low frequency direction. ► The craft of high energy ball milling is easy to realize commerce production.

  10. Analysis of Dielectric Properties On Agricultural Waste for Microwave Communication Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Nurul Ain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of dielectric properties of agricultural waste for microwave communication application such as microwave absorber and antenna. The residues products – rice straw, rice husk, banana leaves and sugar cane bagasse were studied in the range between 1-20GHz. Firstly, the 2 types of resins namely Epoxy der 331 and Polyamine clear hardener were mixed with the agricultural waste materials to produce the small size of agricultural waste sample. Then, the sample were measured using PNA network analyzer. The permittivity and tangent loss of different agricultural waste samples have been measured using dielectric probe technique. Besides, other objectives of this paper is to replace the conventional printed circuit board (PCB using FR4, Taconic, and Roger material with the agricultural waste material. Besides that, the different percentage of filer for each agricultural waste materials were also investigated to specify the best material to be used as the substrate board and as the resonant material. the result shows the average of dielectric constants and the average of the tangent loss of agricultural waste materials.

  11. Excellent microwave response derived from the construction of dielectric-loss 1D nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sisi; Quan, Bin; Liang, Xiaohui; Lv, Jing; Yang, Zhihong; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2018-05-01

    Increasing efforts have recently been devoted to the artificial design and function of nanostructures for their application prospects in catalysis, drug delivery, energy storage, and microwave absorption. With the advantages of natural abundance, low cost, and environment friendliness, a one-dimensional (1D) MnO2 nanowire (MW) is the representative dielectric-loss absorber for its special morphology and crystalline structure. However, its low reflection loss (RL) value due to its thin thickness limits its wide development and application in the microwave absorption field. In this work, artificially designed MnO2@AIR@C (MCs), namely, 1D hollow carbon nanotubes filled with nano-MnO2, were designed and synthesized. It is found that the RL value of the MC is almost lower than -10 dB. Furthermore, the RL value was able to achieve -18.9 dB with an effective bandwidth (-10 dB) of 5.84 GHz at 2.25 mm. Simultaneously, the dielectric and interfacial polarization became stronger while the impedance matching was much better than in the single MWs. Hence, the rational design and fabrication of micro-architecture are essential and MC has great potential to be an outstanding microwave absorber.

  12. Dielectric and magnetic losses of microwave electromagnetic radiation in granular structures with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lutsev, L V; Tchmutin, I A; Ryvkina, N G; Kalinin, Y E; Sitnikoff, A V

    2003-01-01

    We have studied dielectric and magnetic losses in granular structures constituted by ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Co, Fe, B) in an insulating amorphous a-SiO sub 2 matrix at microwave frequencies, in relation to metal concentration, substrate temperatures and gas content, in the plasma atmosphere in sputtering and annealing. The magnetic losses are due to fast spin relaxation of nanoparticles, which becomes more pronounced with decreasing metal content and occur via simultaneous changes in the granule spin direction and spin polarization of electrons on exchange-split localized states in the matrix (spin-polarized relaxation mechanism). The difference between the experimental values of the imaginary parts of magnetic permeability for granular structures prepared in Ar and Ar + O sub 2 atmospheres is determined by different electron structures of argon and oxygen impurities in the matrix. To account for large dielectric losses in granular structures, we have developed a model of cluster electron states (CESs)....

  13. Spectroscopic diagnostics and modeling of Ar/H2/CH4 microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, G.; Hassouni, K.; Benedic, F.; Mohasseb, F.; Roepcke, J.; Gicquel, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper Ar/H 2 /CH 4 microwave discharges used for nanocrystalline diamond chemical vapor deposition in a bell-jar cavity reactor were characterized by both experimental and modeling investigations. Discharges containing 1% CH 4 and H 2 percentages ranging between 2% and 7% were analyzed as a function of the input microwave power under a pressure of 200 mbar. Emission spectroscopy and broadband absorption spectroscopy were carried out in the UV-visible spectral range in order to estimate the gas temperature and the C 2 density within the plasma. Infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy was achieved in order to measure the mole fractions of carbon-containing species such as CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , and C 2 H 6 . A thermochemical model was developed and used in order to estimate the discharge composition, the gas temperature, and the average electron energy in the frame of a quasihomogeneous plasma assumption. Experiments and calculations yielded consistent results with respect to plasma temperature and composition. A relatively high gas temperature ranging between 3000 and 4000 K is found for the investigated discharge conditions. The C 2 density estimated from both experiments and modeling are quite high compared with what is generally reported in the literature for the same kind of plasma system. It ranges between 10 13 and 10 14 cm -3 in the investigated power range. Infrared absorption measurements and model predictions indicate quite low densities of methane and acetylene, while the atomic carbon density calculated by the model ranges between 10 13 and 10 15 cm -3 . The methane and hydrogen introduced in the feed gas are subject to a strong dissociation, which results in a surprisingly high H-atom population with mole fraction ranging between 0.04 and 0.16. Result analysis shows that the power coupling efficiency would range between 70% and 90%, which may at least explain the relatively high values obtained, as compared with those reported in the

  14. Microwave and infrared dielectric response of monoclinic bismuth zinc niobate based pyrochlore ceramics with ion substitution in A site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, H.; Kamba, Stanislav; Zhang, M.; Yao, X.; Denisov, Sergey; Kadlec, Filip; Petzelt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 3 (2006), 034109/1-034109/4 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0993 Grant - others:National 973 project of China(CN) 2002CB613302; NSFC project of China(CN) 20272085 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : microwave spectroscopy * infrared spectroscopy * intrinsic and extrinsic microwave dielectric Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  15. Change in Dielectric Properties in the Microwave Frequency Region of Polypyrrole–Coated Textiles during Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hakansson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex permittivity of conducting polypyrrole (PPy-coated Nylon-Lycra textiles is measured using a free space transmission measurement technique over the frequency range of 1–18 GHz. The aging of microwave dielectric properties and reflection, transmission and absorption for a period of 18 months is demonstrated. PPy-coated fabrics are shown to be lossy over the full frequency range. The levels of absorption are shown to be higher than reflection in the tested samples. This is attributed to the relatively high resistivity of the PPy-coated fabrics. Both the dopant concentration and polymerisation time affect the total shielding effectiveness and microwave aging behaviour. Distinguishing either of these two factors as being exclusively the dominant mechanism of shielding effectiveness is shown to be difficult. It is observed that the PPy-coated Nylon-Lycra samples with a p-toluene sulfonic acid (pTSA concentration of 0.015 M and polymerisation times of 60 min and 180 min have 37% and 26% decrease in total transmission loss, respectively, upon aging for 72 weeks at room temperature (20 °C, 65% Relative humidity (RH. The concentration of the dopant also influences the microwave aging behaviour of the PPy-coated fabrics. The samples with a higher dopant concentration of 0.027 mol/L pTSA are shown to have a transmission loss of 32.6% and 16.5% for short and long polymerisation times, respectively, when aged for 72 weeks. The microwave properties exhibit better stability with high dopant concentration and/or longer polymerization times. High pTSA dopant concentrations and/or longer polymerisation times result in high microwave insertion loss and are more effective in reducing the transmission and also increasing the longevity of the electrical properties.

  16. Dielectric-ferrite film heterostructures for magnetic field controlled resonance microwave components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavislyak, I.V., E-mail: zav@univ.kiev.ua [Faculty of Radiophysics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Popov, M.A., E-mail: maxim_popov@univ.kiev.ua [Faculty of Radiophysics, Electronics and Computer Systems, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Solovyova, E.D., E-mail: solovyovak@mail.ru [Department of Solid State Chemistry, V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Solopan, S.A., E-mail: solopan@ukr.net [Department of Solid State Chemistry, V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine); Belous, A.G., E-mail: belous@ionc.kiev.ua [Department of Solid State Chemistry, V.I. Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, 32/34 Prospect Palladina, Kyiv-142, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of M-type BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BHF) on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate have been produced. • Synthesis conditions of thermally stable film-forming solutions have been studied. • The temperature range for the pre-heat treatment of BHF films has been defined. • The BHF films after rapid heating are characterized by a c-axis magnetic texture. • Obtained BHF films are characterized by a c-axis magnetic texture. • The texture degree of obtained BHF films decreases with increasing film thickness. • Obtained BHF films are promising for application in high-density recording media. - Abstract: An investigation of the composite “α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric resonator-thick ferrite film” heterostructures magnetic field tunable microwave properties has been conducted. Thick high-density high-quality NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and M-type hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} films were deposited on the surface of the dielectric by tape-casting technique. Specific organic suspensions for ferrite films synthesis were developed; optimal conditions for pre-heat treatment and annealing have been defined. It was found, that magnetic field has a profound impact on microwave transmission characteristic of composite resonator, including peak absorption level and unloaded Q-factor. Both effects were attributed to increase of the magnetic part of the composite resonator internal losses at frequencies close to ferromagnetic resonance. Since qualitatively similar results were obtained for both cm-wave (with nickel ferrite) and mm-wave (with barium hexaferrite) resonators, the proposed method of electronic control over dielectric resonator properties can be successfully utilized in a very broad frequency range, basically, from few GHz to more than 100 GHz.

  17. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Gaiser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam impedance; wavelength variations in foam thickness, roughness of foam layer interfaces with air and seawater; and foam scattering parameters such as size parameter, and refraction index. Using these, we analyze the scattering, absorption, reflection and transmission in foam and gain insights into why volume scattering in foam is weak; why the main absorption losses are confined to the wet portion of the foam; how the foam impedance matching provides the transmission of electromagnetic radiation in foam and maximizes the absorption; and what is the potential for surface scattering at the foam layers boundaries. We put all these elements together and offer a conceptual understanding for the high, black-body-like emissivity of foam floating on the sea surface. We also consider possible scattering regimes in foam.

  18. Microwave absorption by a lossy dielectric sphere in a rectangular cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.

    1991-01-01

    A new theory of absorption of microwave power by a lossy dielectric sphere in a resonant rectangular chamber is developed here. In this treatment, resonant modes of the cavity are resolved into traveling plane-wave fields, and Mie's theory of scattering and absorption of a plane electromagnetic wave by a sphere is utilized. The fields in the cavity containing the sphere are found by superposition of results for the individual scattering problem for each traveling plane wave. Absorbed power is then calculated by evaluating the time-averaged Poynting vector and integrating over the surface of the sphere. Applications of microwave power absorption are discussed, with particular emphasis on processing of materials. Numerical studies based on the newly derived formulas are presented. The results exhibit the manner in which microwave absorption is influenced by a number of different experimentally controllable parameters. The examples considered were chosen with a view toward designing experiments and apparatus for containerless processing of materials in the microgravity environment of space.

  19. An electrode-free method of characterizing the microwave dielectric properties of high-permittivity thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Pashkov, V.; Kempa, Martin; Kamba, Stanislav; Eremenko, A.; Molchanov, V.; Poplavko, Y.; Yakymenko, Y.; Lee, J.H.; Schlom, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 2 (2011), 024106/1-024106/6 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : microwave characterization * ferroelectrics * thin film * dielectric resonator Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.168, year: 2011

  20. Effect of doping on the dielectric properties of cerium oxide in the microwave and far-infrared frequency range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santha, N. I.; Sebastian, M. T.; Mohanan, P.; McN.Alford, N.; Sarma, K.; Pullar, R. C.; Kamba, Stanislav; Pashkin, Alexej; Samoukhina, Polina; Petzelt, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 7 (2004), s. 1233-1237 ISSN 0002-7820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0612; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : microwave cearmics * dielectric dispersion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2004

  1. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Boron Carbide by Direct Microwave Carbothermal Reduction of Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo F. K. Gunnewiek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The excellent physical and chemical properties of boron carbide make it suitable for many applications. However, its synthesis requires a large amount of energy and is time-consuming. Microwave carbothermal reduction is a fast technique for producing well crystallized equiaxial boron carbide nanoparticles of about 50 nm and very few amounts of elongated nanoparticles were also synthesized. They presented an average length of 82 nm and a high aspect ratio (5.5. The total reaction time was only 20 minutes, which disfavor the growing process, leading to the synthesis of nanoparticles. Microwave-assisted synthesis leaded to producing boron-rich boron carbide. Increasing the forward power increases the boron content and enhances the efficiency of the reaction, resulting in better crystallized boron carbide.

  2. An analysis of the microwave dielectric properties of solvent-oil feedstock mixtures at 300-3000 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terigar, Beatrice G; Balasubramanian, Sundar; Boldor, Dorin

    2010-08-01

    Microwaves can be a more efficient method than traditional thermal treatment to deliver the energy required for heating in solvent-oil extraction due to its volumetric, direct coupling with the material. An understanding of the behavior of dielectric properties of solvent-feedstock mixtures is important for designing and optimizing any microwave-based extraction process. In this study rice bran and soybean flour were mixed separately with four different solvents (methanol, ethanol, hexane and isopropanol) at different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 w/w). For the samples mixed with ethanol, the dielectric properties were measured at 23, 30, 40 and 50 degrees C, while for all other sample-solvent mixtures experiments were performed at room temperature. Dielectric properties were determined using a vector network analyzer and dielectric probe kit using the open-ended coaxial probe method in the frequency range of 300 MHz to 3 GHz. Results from the study indicate that dielectric constants were dependent on frequency and were strongly influenced by temperature, mix ratio and solvent type. The dielectric loss of all mixtures except those with hexane (which were virtually zero) varied with frequency and temperature, solvent type, and mix ratio. Most of the results presented are emphasized at 433, 915 and 2450 MHz, frequencies allocated by the Federal Communication Commission (F.C.C.) for microwave applications. The results of the study, presented here for the first time to our knowledge, will help in selection of appropriate solvent, mixing ratio and frequency for designing microwave-assisted oil extraction systems. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Phase evolution and microwave dielectric properties of A5M5O17-type ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of A5M5O17 (A = Na, Ca, Sr, La, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Yb; B = Ti, Nb, Ta type compounds were prepared by a solid-state sintering route and characterized in terms of structure, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties. The compatibility of rare earths with mixed niobate/tantalate and titanate phases was investigated. The larger ionic radii mismatch resulted in the formation of pyrochlore and/or mixed phases while in other cases, pure A5M5O17 phase was formed. The samples exhibited relative permittivity in the range of 35 to 82, quality factor (Q × fo = 897 GHz to 11946 GHz and temperature coefficient of resonance frequency (τf = -120 ppm/°C to 318 ppm/°C.

  4. Near-field microwave detection of corrosion precursor pitting under thin dielectric coatings in metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.; Zoughi, R.; Austin, R.; Wood, N.; Engelbart, R.

    2003-01-01

    Detection of corrosion precursor pitting on metallic surfaces under various coatings and on bare metal is of keen interest in evaluation of aircraft fuselage. Near-field microwave nondestructive testing methods, utilizing open-ended rectangular waveguides and coaxial probes, have been used extensively for detection of surface flaws in metals, both on bare metal and under a dielectric coating. This paper presents the preliminary results of using microwave techniques to detect corrosion precursor pitting under paint and primer, applique and on bare metal. Machined pits of 500 μm diameter were detected using open-ended rectangular waveguides at V-Band under paint and primer and applique, and on bare metal. Using coaxial probes, machined pits with diameters down to 150 μm on bare metal were also detected. Relative pit size and density were shown on a corrosion-pitted sample using open-ended rectangular waveguides at frequencies of 35 GHz to 70 GHz. The use of Boeing's MAUS TM scanning systems provided improved results by alleviating standoff variation and scanning artifact. Typical results of this investigation are also presented

  5. Enhancing the Performance of the Microwave Absorbing Materials by Using Dielectric Resonator Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar H. Al-Zoubi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a technique for enhancing the performance of microwave absorbing materials in terms of weight, thickness, and bandwidth. The introduced technique is based on fabricating the microwave absorbing (MA material in a structure comprised of an array of circular cylinder dielectric resonators (CDR backed by a perfect electric conductor (PEC ground plane. Numerical electromagnetic methods are employed to study the properties of the proposed MA array structures, where 3D full wave simulation using finite-element method is implemented. The obtained results show that the performance of the MA-CDR arrays significantly outperforms that of a flat layer composed of the same material and having equivalent thickness. A flat layer of MA material with thickness of 5 mm backed by perfect electric conductor (PEC shows as low as -50 dB reflection loss (RL peak and ~3 GHz 10-dB bandwidth, whereas an MA-CDR array, composed of the same MA material, of height of 4 mm can achieve as low as ~−50 dB RL peak and ~12 GHz 10-dB RL bandwidth.

  6. Morphological evolution of Bi2Se3 nanocrystalline materials synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Sumit; Behera, P.; Mishra, A. K.; Krishnan, M.; Patidar, M. M.; Singh, D.; Gangrade, M.; Venkatesh, R.; Deshpande, U. P.; Phase, D. M.; Ganesan, V.

    2018-04-01

    Structural, morphological and spectroscopic properties of Bi2Se3 nanoparticles synthesized by microwave assisted solvothermal method were investigated systematically. A controlled synthesis of different morphologies by a small variation in synthesis procedure is demonstrated. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of single phase. Crystallite and particle size reductions were studied with XRD and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). Different morphologies such as hexagonal nanoflakes with cross section of around˜6µm, nanoflower and octahedral agglomerated crystals of nearly ˜60 nm size have been observed in scanning electron microscope while varying the microwave assisted synthesis procedures. A significant blue shift observed in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy evidences the energy gap tuning as a result of morphological evolution. The difference in morphology observed in this three fast, facile and scalable synthesis is advantageous for tuning the thermoelectric figure of merit and for probing the surface states of these topological insulators. Low temperature resistivity remains similar for all three variants depicting a 2D character as evidenced by a -lnT term of localization.

  7. High-resolution nondestructive testing of multilayer dielectric materials using wideband microwave synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hee; James, Robin; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-04-01

    Fiber Reinforced Polymer or Plastic (FRP) composites have been rapidly increasing in the aerospace, automotive and marine industry, and civil engineering, because these composites show superior characteristics such as outstanding strength and stiffness, low weight, as well as anti-corrosion and easy production. Generally, the advancement of materials calls for correspondingly advanced methods and technologies for inspection and failure detection during production or maintenance, especially in the area of nondestructive testing (NDT). Among numerous inspection techniques, microwave sensing methods can be effectively used for NDT of FRP composites. FRP composite materials can be produced using various structures and materials, and various defects or flaws occur due to environmental conditions encountered during operation. However, reliable, low-cost, and easy-to-operate NDT methods have not been developed and tested. FRP composites are usually produced as multilayered structures consisting of fiber plate, matrix and core. Therefore, typical defects appearing in FRP composites are disbondings, delaminations, object inclusions, and certain kinds of barely visible impact damages. In this paper, we propose a microwave NDT method, based on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging algorithms, for stand-off imaging of internal delaminations. When a microwave signal is incident on a multilayer dielectric material, the reflected signal provides a good response to interfaces and transverse cracks. An electromagnetic wave model is introduced to delineate interface widths or defect depths from the reflected waves. For the purpose of numerical analysis and simulation, multilayered composite samples with various artificial defects are assumed, and their SAR images are obtained and analyzed using a variety of high-resolution wideband waveforms.

  8. Structural, Magnetic and Microwave Properties of Nanocrystalline Ni-Co-Gd Ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Alireza; Parvizi, Roghaieh; Rezaei, Ghasem; Vaseghi, Behrooz; Khordad, Reza

    2018-02-01

    A series of Co- and Gd-substituted NiFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles with the formula Ni1- x Co x Fe2- y Gd y O4 (where x = 0.0-1.0 and y = 0.0-0.1) have been successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy results indicated that a highly crystallized spherical ferrite nanoparticle structure was obtained along with an increase in the lattice parameters. Compositional analysis of the prepared nanoferrite powders has been carried out using energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra. The EDX analysis reveals the presence of Ni, Co, Gd and Fe elements in the specimens. Magnetization and the coercive field improved dramatically with an increase in the amount of cobalt and gadolinium added, attributed to the redistribution of cations in the spinel nanoferrite structure. Saturation magnetization and coercivity values up to 99 emu/g and 918 Oe, respectively, were measured using a vibration sample magnetometer at room temperature. Comparative microwave absorption experiments demonstrated that the reflection loss (RL) properties enhanced with increasing substitution of cations in the Ni-ferrite spinel structure for an absorber thickness of 1.8 mm. A maximum RL of - 26.7 dB was obtained for substituted Ni-Co-Gd nanoferrite with x = 1.0 and y = 0.1 at a frequency of 9.4 GHz with a bandwidth of 3.6 GHz (RL ≤ - 10 dB). Experimental results revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles possessed great potential in microwave absorption applications.

  9. Optical and microwave dielectric properties of pulsed laser deposited Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Andrews; Goud, J. Pundareekam; Raju, K. C. James [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India); Emani, Sivanagi Reddy [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Telangana 500046 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited (PLD) sodium bismuth titanate thin films (NBT), are investigated at wavelengths of 190-2500 nm. Microwave dielectric properties were investigated using the Split Post Dielectric Resonator (SPDR) technique. At 10 GHz, the NBT films have a dielectric constant of 205 and loss tangent of 0.0373 at room temperature. The optical spectra analysis reveals that NBT thin films have an optical band gap E{sub g}=3.55 eV and it has a dielectric constant of 3.37 at 1000 nm with dielectric loss of 0.299. Hence, NBT is a promising candidate for photonic device applications.

  10. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazebnik, Mariya [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Popovic, Dijana [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); McCartney, Leah [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Watkins, Cynthia B [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lindstrom, Mary J [Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Harter, Josephine [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sewall, Sarah [Department of Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ogilvie, Travis [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Magliocco, Anthony [Department of Pathology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Breslin, Tara M [Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Temple, Walley [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Mew, Daphne [Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Booske, John H [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Okoniewski, Michal [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hagness, Susan C [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2007-10-21

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  11. A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, Mariya; Popovic, Dijana; McCartney, Leah; Watkins, Cynthia B.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Harter, Josephine; Sewall, Sarah; Ogilvie, Travis; Magliocco, Anthony; Breslin, Tara M.; Temple, Walley; Mew, Daphne; Booske, John H.; Okoniewski, Michal; Hagness, Susan C.

    2007-10-01

    The development of microwave breast cancer detection and treatment techniques has been driven by reports of substantial contrast in the dielectric properties of malignant and normal breast tissues. However, definitive knowledge of the dielectric properties of normal and diseased breast tissues at microwave frequencies has been limited by gaps and discrepancies across previously published studies. To address these issues, we conducted a large-scale study to experimentally determine the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of a variety of normal, malignant and benign breast tissues, measured from 0.5 to 20 GHz using a precision open-ended coaxial probe. Previously, we reported the dielectric properties of normal breast tissue samples obtained from reduction surgeries. Here, we report the dielectric properties of normal (adipose, glandular and fibroconnective), malignant (invasive and non-invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas) and benign (fibroadenomas and cysts) breast tissue samples obtained from cancer surgeries. We fit a one-pole Cole-Cole model to the complex permittivity data set of each characterized sample. Our analyses show that the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal adipose-dominated tissues in the breast is considerable, as large as 10:1, while the contrast in the microwave-frequency dielectric properties between malignant and normal glandular/fibroconnective tissues in the breast is no more than about 10%.

  12. Preparation, crystal structure, and dielectric characterization of Li2W2O7 ceramic at RF and microwave frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwu Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Single phase Li2W2O7 with anorthic structure was prepared by the conventional solid-state reaction method at 550∘C and the anorthic structure was stable up to 660∘C. The dielectric properties at radio frequency (RF and microwave frequency range were characterized. The sample sintered at 640∘C exhibited the optimum microwave dielectric properties with a relative permittivity of 12.2, a quality factor value of 17,700GHz (at 9.8GHz, and a temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency of −232ppm/∘C as well as a high relative density ∼94.1%. Chemical compatibility measurement indicated Li2W2O7 did not react with aluminum electrodes when sintered at 640∘C for 4h.

  13. Structural, dielectric and impedance spectroscopic studies of Ni0.5Zn0.5‑xLixFe2O4 nanocrystalline ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Davuluri; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-09-01

    Nanocrystalline lithium substituted Ni-Zn ferrites with composition Ni0.5Zn0.5‑xLixFe2O4 (x = 0.00-0.25 in steps of 0.05) were synthesized by the citrate gel auto-combustion method and were sintered at 1000∘C for 4 h in air atmosphere. The structural, dielectric, impedance spectroscopic and magnetic properties were studied by using X-ray diffraction, impedance analyzer and vibrating sample magnetometer respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns confirm that all samples exhibit a single phase cubic spinel structure. Suitable cation distribution for all compositions has been proposed by using the X-ray diffraction line intensity calculations and the theoretical lattice parameter for each composition was observed in close agreement with the experimental ones and thereby supporting the proposed distribution. An increase in the saturation magnetization was observed up to x = 0.10 level of Li+ substitution and thereafter magnetization reduced for higher concentrations to the highest level of Li+ substitution. The dielectric constant and the DC resistivity of Ni-Zn-Li ferrites were noticed to decrease with increase in the Li+ ion concentration. The impedance spectroscopic studies by using the Cole-Cole plots were studied in order to obtain the relaxation time, grain resistance and grain capacitance. AC conductivity initially remained almost independent of frequency for lower frequencies and thereafter for higher frequencies the AC conductivity increased with increase of Lithium concentration.

  14. Correlation between infrared, THz and microwave dielectric properties of vanadium doped antiferroelectric BiNbO.sub.4./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Wang, H.; Berta, Milan; Kadlec, Filip; Petzelt, Jan; Zhou, D.; Yao, X.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 2861-2865 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : sintering * spectroscopy * dielectric properties * insulators * microwave resonators Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2006

  15. Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust with PVC: dielectric characterization and pyrolysis-leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, Sam; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E

    2014-06-15

    Microwave treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied in this work. A comprehensive characterization of the dust as well as assessing the suitability of using the thermal de-chlorination of the common plastic (PVC) under inert atmosphere was carried out to assess the possibility of Zn and other heavy metals extraction (Pb and Cd) from EAFD. The dielectric and thermal properties of EAFD, PVC and their mixtures were measured. Once combined and heated the metal oxides present in the dust reacted with HCl released from PVC during thermal de-chlorination, forming metal chlorides which were subsequently recovered by leaching with water. It was found that zinc chloride could be almost completely recovered in the leaching stage, with the overall recovery of Zn reaching 97% when the EAFD:PVC ratio was 1:2. The investigation highlighted that franklinite, the most refractory mineral to leaching, was completely destroyed. The leaching residue was found to compose mainly of magnetite and hematite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Low-temperature sintering and compatibility with silver electrode of Ba4MgTi11O27 microwave dielectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiuli; Zhou, Huanfu; Fang, Liang; Liu, Laijun; Li, Changda; Guo, Ruli; Wang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Ba 4 MgTi 11 O 27 microwave dielectric ceramic was investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dielectric measurement. The pure Ba 4 MgTi 11 O 27 ceramic shows a high sintering temperature (∼1275 o C) and good microwave dielectric properties as Q x f of 19,630 GHz, ε r of 36.1, τ f of 14.6 ppm/ o C. It was found that the addition of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) can effectively lower the sintering temperature from 1275 to 925 o C, and does not induce much degradation of the microwave dielectric properties. The BCB-doped Ba 4 MgTi 11 O 27 ceramics can be compatible with Ag electrode, which makes it a promising ceramic for LTCC technology application.

  17. Study on Structural and Dielectric Properties of Ultra-Low-Fire Integratable Dielectric Film for High-Frequency and Microwave Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Sheng; Zhang, Jihua; Wu, Kaituo; Wang, Lei; Chen, Hongwei

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultra-low-fire ceramic composites of Zn2Te3O8-30 wt.%TiTe3O8 (ZTT) were prepared by a solid-state reaction method. Densified at 600°C, the best microwave dielectric properties at 8.5 GHz were measured with the ɛ r , tan δ, Q × f, and τ f as 25.6, 1.5 × 10-4, 56191 GHz and 1.66 ppm/°C, respectively. Thin films of ultra-low-fire ZTT were prepared by a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. ZTT films which deposited on Au/NiCr/SiO2/Si (100) substrates at 200°C showed good adhesion. From ultra-low-fire ceramic to ultra-low-fire ZTT thin films, the latter maintained all the good high-frequency dielectric properties of the former: high dielectric constant ( ɛ r ˜ 25) and low dissipation factor (tan δ < 5×10-3), low leakage current density (˜ 10-9 A/cm2) and ultra low processing temperature. These excellent properties of the ultra-low-fire ZTT thin film make it possible to be integrated in MMIC and be applied in the research of GaN and GaAs MOSFET devices.

  18. Microwave frequency effects on the photoactivity of TiO 2: Dielectric properties and the degradation of 4-chlorophenol, bisphenol A and methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sakai, Futoshi; Kajitani, Masatsugu; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2009-03-01

    Microwave frequency (2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz) effects on the photoactivity of P-25 TiO 2 were examined for the photodecomposition of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP), bisphenol A (BPA) and methylene blue (MB), and by the characterization of dielectric properties. Changes in microwave (MW) irradiation efficiency between water and the TiO 2 particulates were examined at two MW frequencies on the basis of penetration depth of the microwaves and the dielectric loss factor. TiO 2 particles in aqueous media were less photoactive under 5.8-GHz microwave radiation in degrading the organic substrates than under 2.45-GHz microwaves for otherwise identical temperature conditions. Factors that affect the photoactivity of TiO 2 at the two frequencies are briefly discussed.

  19. Complex dielectric modulus and relaxation response at low microwave frequency region of dielectric ceramic Ba6-3xNd8+2xTi18O54

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chian Heng Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The desirable characteristics of Ba6-3xNd8+2xTi18O54 include high dielectric constant, low loss tangent, and high quality factor developed a new field for electronic applications. The microwave dielectric properties of Ba6-3xNd8+2xTi18O54, with x = 0.15 ceramics at different sintering temperatures (600–1300°C were investigated. The phenomenon of polarization produced by the applied electric field was studied. The dielectric properties with respect to frequency from 1 MHz to 1.5 GHz were measured using Impedance Analyzer, and the results were compared and analyzed. The highest dielectric permittivity and lowest loss factor were defined among the samples. The complex dielectric modulus was evaluated from the measured parameters of dielectric measurement in the same frequency range, and used to differentiate the contribution of grain and grain boundary.

  20. Effect of milling process on the microwave dielectric properties of Ba2Ti9O20 materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-B.; Leou, K.-C.; Chia, C.-T; Cheng, C.-S.; Chou, C.-C.; Lin, I-N.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the milling process on the characteristics of Ba 2 Ti 9 O 20 materials were investigated. The chemical analyses using transmission electron microscopy (EDAX in TEM) revealed that the SiO 2 species incorporated into the Ba 2 Ti 9 O 20 materials were expelled by the Ba 2 Ti 9 O 20 grains. It induced the dissociation of the Ba 2 Ti 9 O 20 materials near the grain boundaries and degraded the microwave dielectric properties of the materials. The same phenomenon was assumed to be the procedure by which the high-energy-milling (HEM) process using Si 3 N 4 grinding media (Si 3 N 4 -HEM) deleteriously influenced the microwave dielectric properties for the Ba 2 Ti 9 O 20 materials. Utilizing the three-dimensional-milling (3DM) process in place of the Si 3 N 4 -HEM one markedly improved the characteristics of the Ba 2 Ti 9 O 20 materials. The 3DM-processed samples own the same crystallinity as the HEM-processed ones but possess a pronouncedly more uniform microstructure and, therefore, exhibit a superior quality factor [(Q x f) 3DM = 28 500 GHz and (Q x f) HEM = 21,900 GHz] with the same large dielectric constant (K = 38-39), when sintered at the same conditions (1350 0 C/4 h). Such a phenomenon is ascribed to the fact that the 3DM process can pulverize the powders efficiently but induce no SiO 2 -contamination

  1. Dielectric behaviour of nanocrystalline Cu0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4 ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, S. P.; Samariya, Arvind; Sharma, P. K.; Prasad, Arun S.; Dhawan, M. S.; Dolia, S. N.; Sharma, K. B.

    2013-06-01

    Nanocystalline Cu0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4 of average particle size 3 nm was synthesized through chemical coprecipitation method followed by annealing at various temperatures. The formation of cubic spinel structure in single phase and the crystallite growth was confirmed using XRD. The dielectric behavior as a function of frequency in the range 75 kHz to 10 MHz was studied at room temperature. Both dielectric constant (ɛ') and the loss factor (tanδ) decreases with frequency for all samples. This decrease in the values could be explained on the basis of available ferrous, i.e. Fe2+, ions at octahedral sites such that beyond a certain frequency of applied electric field the electronic exchange between the ferrous and ferric ions i.e. Fe2+↔Fe3+ cannot follow the applied alternating electric field.

  2. Dielectric and Microwave Absorption Properties of TiC-Al2O3/Silica Coatings at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Luo, Fa; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    The dielectric property and microwave attenuation performance of a TiC micropowder-filled Al2O3/silica coating were studied. The permittivity of the coating increases gradually with increasing TiC content, which can be attributed to the enhancement of polarization ability and the increase of coating conductivity. Meanwhile, the high-temperature microwave attenuation property of the 30 wt.% TiC-loaded coating was investigated in the temperature range of 25-250°C. Both the real and imaginary parts of complex permittivity exhibit obvious temperature-dependent behavior and increase with the rise of temperature. In the studied temperature range, this coating exhibits an excellent microwave absorption property. A strong absorption peak with minimum RL of -55.2 dB is obtained at 11.8 GHz when the temperature reaches 150°C. Furthermore, the absorption bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) exhibits a widening tendency with the increase of temperature. As the temperature rises from 25°C to 250°C, the effective bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) expands from 2.2 GHz to 3.2 GHz. These results suggest that the TiC-Al2O3/silica coating could be a desirable candidate for microwave absorbtion in the measured frequency and temperature ranges.

  3. A wafer-level multi-chip module process with thick photosensitive benzocyclobutene as the dielectric for microwave application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiajie; Sun, Xiaowei; Luo, Le

    2011-06-01

    A wafer-level microwave multi-chip module (MMCM) packaging process is presented. Thick photosensitive-benzocyclobutene (photo-BCB) polymer (about 25 µm/layer) is used as the dielectric for its simplified process and the capability of obtaining desirable electrical, chemical and mechanical properties at high frequencies. The MMCM packaging structure contains a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip embedded in a lossy-silicon wafer, a microwave band-pass filter (BPF) and two layers of BCB/Au interconnection. Key processes of fabrication are described in detail. The non-uniformity of BCB film and the sidewall angle of the via-holes for inter-layer connection are tested. Via-chains prepared by metal/BCB multilayer structures are tested through the Kelvin test structure to investigate the resistances of inter-layer connection. The average value is measured to be 73.5 mΩ. The electrical characteristic of this structure is obtained by a microwave transmission performance test from 15 to 30 GHz. The measurement results show good consistency between the bare MMIC die and the packaged die in the test frequency band. The gain of the MMIC chip after packaging is better than 18 dB within the designed operating frequency range (from 23 to 25 GHz). When the packaged MMIC chip is connected to a BPF, the maximum gain is still measured to reach 11.95 dB at 23.8 GHz.

  4. A wafer-level multi-chip module process with thick photosensitive benzocyclobutene as the dielectric for microwave application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jiajie; Sun, Xiaowei; Luo, Le

    2011-01-01

    A wafer-level microwave multi-chip module (MMCM) packaging process is presented. Thick photosensitive-benzocyclobutene (photo-BCB) polymer (about 25 µm/layer) is used as the dielectric for its simplified process and the capability of obtaining desirable electrical, chemical and mechanical properties at high frequencies. The MMCM packaging structure contains a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chip embedded in a lossy-silicon wafer, a microwave band-pass filter (BPF) and two layers of BCB/Au interconnection. Key processes of fabrication are described in detail. The non-uniformity of BCB film and the sidewall angle of the via-holes for inter-layer connection are tested. Via-chains prepared by metal/BCB multilayer structures are tested through the Kelvin test structure to investigate the resistances of inter-layer connection. The average value is measured to be 73.5 mΩ. The electrical characteristic of this structure is obtained by a microwave transmission performance test from 15 to 30 GHz. The measurement results show good consistency between the bare MMIC die and the packaged die in the test frequency band. The gain of the MMIC chip after packaging is better than 18 dB within the designed operating frequency range (from 23 to 25 GHz). When the packaged MMIC chip is connected to a BPF, the maximum gain is still measured to reach 11.95 dB at 23.8 GHz

  5. Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval through Combined Radar/Radiometer Ground Based Simulator with Special Reference to Dielectric Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prashant K., ,, Dr.; O'Neill, Peggy, ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    indicated a higher performance in terms of soil moisture retrieval accuracy for the Mironov dielectric model (RMSE of 0.035 m3/m3), followed by Dobson, Wang & Schmugge, and Hallikainen. This analysis indicates that Mironov dielectric model is promising for passive-only microwave soil moisture retrieval and could be a useful choice for SMAP satellite soil moisture retrieval. Keywords: Dielectric models; Single Channel Algorithm, Combined Radar/Radiometer, Soil moisture; L band References: Behari, J. (2005). Dielectric Behavior of Soil (pp. 22-40). Springer Netherlands O'Neill, P. E., Lang, R. H., Kurum, M., Utku, C., & Carver, K. R. (2006), Multi-Sensor Microwave Soil Moisture Remote Sensing: NASA's Combined Radar/Radiometer (ComRAD) System. In IEEE MicroRad, 2006 (pp. 50-54). IEEE. Srivastava, P. K., Han, D., Rico Ramirez, M. A., & Islam, T. (2013), Appraisal of SMOS soil moisture at a catchment scale in a temperate maritime climate. Journal of Hydrology, 498, 292-304. USDA OPE3 web site at http://www.ars.usda.gov/Research/.

  6. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  7. Miniaturized Hand Held Microwave Interference Scanning System for Nde of Dielectric Armor and Armor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Karl F.; Little, Jack R.; Ellingson, William A.; Meitzler, Thomas J.; Green, William

    2011-06-01

    Inspection of ceramic-based armor has advanced through development of a microwave-based, portable, non-contact NDE system. Recently, this system was miniaturized and made wireless for maximum utility in field applications. The electronic components and functionality of the laboratory system are retained, with alternative means of position input for creation of scan images. Validation of the detection capability was recently demonstrated using specially fabricated surrogates and ballistic impact-damaged specimens. The microwave data results have been compared to data from laboratory-based microwave interferometry systems and digital x-ray imaging. The microwave interference scanning has been shown to reliably detect cracks, laminar features and material property variations. The authors present details of the system operation, descriptions of the test samples used and recent results obtained.

  8. Influence of microwave plasma parameters on light emission from SiV color centers in nanocrystalline diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himics László

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Zero phonon line (ZPL shape, position and integral intensity of SiV defect center in diamond is presented for nanocrystalline diamond (NCD films grown at different conditions, NCD films of average grain sizes from ~50 nm up to ~180 nm have been deposited onto c-Si wafer at substrate temperature of 700 and 850oC from mixture with different CH4 and H2 ratios using MWCVD process. Light emission of SiV defect center and Raman scattering properties of NCD samples were measured on a Renishaw micro-Raman spectrometer with 488 nm excitation. Scanning electron microscopy images were used for monitoring surface morphology and for the analysis of the average grain sizes. Sample thickness was determined by in situ laser reflection interferometry. Characteristics of SiV ZPL are discussed in light of the morphology, bonding structure and average grain size of NCD films.

  9. Room Temperature Magnetic Behavior In Nanocrystalline Ni-Doped Zro2 By Microwave-Assisted Polyol Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimita Rath, Pragyan; Parhi, Pankaj Kumar; Ranjan Panda, Sirish; Priyadarshini, Barsharani; Ranjan Sahoo, Tapas

    2017-08-01

    This article, deals with a microwave-assisted polyol method to demonstrate a low temperature route polyol precursors decompose exothermically below 300°C. IR data confirms the reduction of Zr(OH)4 precipitates to ZrO2, in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the TGA analysis.

  10. Microwave and millimeter wave dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of epsilon-gallium-iron-oxide nano-powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Liu; Afsar, Mohammed N.; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2015-05-01

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) and strontium ferrite (SrFe12O19), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A series of gallium-substituted ɛ-iron oxides (ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3) are synthesized, which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range of 30 GHz to 150 GHz. The ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, in-waveguide transmission and reflection method and the free space magneto-optical approach have been employed to study these newly developed ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 particles in millimeter waves. These techniques enable to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the microwave and millimeter wave frequency range from single set of direct measurements. The complex dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability spectra of ɛ-GaxFe2-xO3 are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  11. Low temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis of wood sawdust for phenolic rich compounds: Kinetics and dielectric properties analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hu; Bao, Liwei; Kong, Lingzhao; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-08-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of wood sawdust for phenolic rich compounds was carried out between 400 and 550°C in a batch reactor. An efficient preparation of liquid products was observed at 500°C with a yield of 58.50%, which was similar to conventional fast pyrolysis. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds in liquid product reached up to 78.7% (area) in which the alkoxy phenols contributed 81.8% at 500°C. Microwave thermogravimetric analysis using KAS method was used firstly to investigate the low-temperature pyrolytic behaviors and activation energy. The results indicated that effective pyrolytic range was 250-400°C and average activation energy was 42.78kJ/mol, which were 50-100°C and 50-100kJ/mol lower than conventional pyrolysis, respectively. Analysis on dielectric properties of pyrolytic products confirmed that accelerated pyrolysis and low temperature were attributed to the formation of instantaneous "hot spots". Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microwave dielectric relaxation spectroscopy study of propylene glycol/ethanol binary mixtures: Temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwam, T.; Shihab, Suriya; Murthy, V. R. K.; Tiong, Ha Sie; Sreehari Sastry, S.

    2017-05-01

    Complex dielectric permittivity measurements of propylene glycol (PG) in ethanol at various mole fractions were measured by using open-ended coaxial probe technique at different temperatures in the frequency range 0.02 propylene glycol and ethanol and their binary system have been evaluated theoretically at gaseous state as well as alcoholic medium by using PCM and IEFPCM solvation models from the Hatree-Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT-B3LYP) methods with 6-311G* and 6-311G** basis sets. The obtained results have been interpreted in terms of the short and long range ordering of the dipoles, Kirkwood correlation factor (geff), thermodynamic parameters, mean molecular polarizability (αM) and interaction in the mixture through hydrogen bonding. Dielectric relaxation study of propylene glycol in ethanol medium Determination of excess dielectric and thermodynamic parameters Comparison of experimental dipole moment with theoretical calculations Interpretation of the molecular interactions in the liquid through H-bonding Correlation between the evaluated dielectric parameters and theoretical results

  13. Design of microwave dielectric resonator antenna using MZTO-CSTO composite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rajput, S.S.; Keshri, S.; Gupta, V.R.; Gupta, N.; Bovtun, Viktor; Petzelt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 3 (2012), s. 2355-2362 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : composites * permittivity * dielectric resonator antenna * radiation pattern Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2012

  14. Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Ba3Ti5Nb6O28 ceramics with BaCu(B2O5) additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huanfu; Wang Hong; Chen Yuehua; Li Kecheng; Yao Xi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) additions on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba 3 Ti 5 Nb 6 O 28 ceramic have been investigated using dilatometer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dielectric measurement. The pure Ba 3 Ti 5 Nb 6 O 28 ceramic shows a high sintering temperature (∼1250 deg. C) and good microwave dielectric properties as Q x f of 11,400 GHz, ε r of 37.0, τ f of -8 ppm deg. C -1 . It was found that the addition of BCB to Ba 3 Ti 5 Nb 6 O 28 could lower the sintering temperature from 1250 to 925 deg. C. The reduced sintering temperature was attributed to the BCB liquid phase. The addition of BCB also enhanced the microwave dielectric properties to Q x f of 19,191 GHz, ε r of 38.2, τ f of 12 ppm deg. C -1

  15. Effect of Dielectric Properties of a Solvent-Water Mixture Used in Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidants from Potato Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were measured at different temperatures from 20 to 80 °C at two frequencies 915 MHz and 2450 MHz. These frequencies are most commonly used on industrial and domestic scales respectively. In this study, the dielectric properties of a methanol-water mixture were found to be dependent on temperature, solvent concentration, and presence of plant matrix. Linear and quadratic equations were developed to establish the dependency between factors. At 2450 MHz, the dielectric constant of methanol-water mixtures was significantly affected by concentration of methanol rather than by temperature, whereas the dielectric loss factor was significantly affected by temperature rather than by methanol concentration. Introduction of potato peel led to an increase in the effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of the methanol fractions. At 915 MHz, both the dielectric properties were significantly affected by the increase in temperature and solvent concentration, while the presence of potato peel had no significant effect on the dielectric properties. Statistical analysis of the dissipation factor at 915 and 2450 MHz revealed that both temperature and solvent concentration had a significant effect on it, whereas introduction of potato peels at 915 MHz reduced the effect of temperature as compared to 2450 MHz. The total phenolic yield of the microwave-assisted extraction process was significantly affected by the solvent concentration, the dissipation factor of the methanol-water mixture and the extraction time.

  16. Efficient Preparation of Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2 and V/TiO2 Thin Layers Using Microwave Drying and/or Microwave Calcination Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žabová, Hana; Sobek, Jiří; Církva, Vladimír; Šolcová, Olga; Kment, Štěpán; Hájek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 182, č. 12 (2009), s. 3387-3392 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1212; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : thin layers * V-doped titanium dioxide * microwaves Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.340, year: 2009

  17. Dielectric and magnetic properties of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} at 2.45 GHz and heating capacity for potential uses under microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polaert, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.polaert@insa-rouen.fr [LSPC (Laboratoire de Sécurité des Procédés Chimiques). Institut National des Sciences Appliquées INSA Rouen (France); Bastien, Samuel [Département de génie chimique et de génie biotechnologique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Legras, Benoit [LSPC (Laboratoire de Sécurité des Procédés Chimiques). Institut National des Sciences Appliquées INSA Rouen (France); Département de génie chimique et de génie biotechnologique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Estel, Lionel [LSPC (Laboratoire de Sécurité des Procédés Chimiques). Institut National des Sciences Appliquées INSA Rouen (France); Braidy, Nadi [Département de génie chimique et de génie biotechnologique, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper presents the dielectric and magnetic properties, measured at 2.45 GHz, of a new nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, synthetized by plasma technology. These properties were measured by the small perturbation method in a resonant cavity, from 293 to 513 K. Using these values, the adiabatic heating of nanoparticles of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} under microwave irradiation was also modeled. The wave propagation equation (Maxwell's equation) coupled to the heat transfer in the solid was numerically solved. The influence of parameters such as the bed volume, its porosity, the microwave incident power or the microwave system geometry is discussed. This study demonstrates that NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be rapidly heated up to at least 513 K under microwaves and can probably achieve higher temperatures according to the thermal insulation. The magnetic contribution to heating overcomes the dielectric one in the explored temperature range. Very efficient energy yield (>90%) can then be achieved when the magnetic field position is centered over the bed. - Highlights: • A new nickel ferrite, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, was synthetized by plasma technology. • Its dielectric and magnetic properties were measured at 2.45 GHz. • The adiabatic heating of nanoparticles of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} under microwave was modeled. • NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be rapidly heated up to at least 513 K. • The magnetic contribution to heating overcomes the dielectric one from 293 K to 513 K.

  18. Dielectric properties of Al-substituted Co ferrite nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tric loss, ε″ and dielectric loss tangent, tan δ, have been studied for nanocrystalline ferrite samples as a func- tion of frequency. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss obtained for the nanocrystalline ferrites proposed by this technique possess lower value than that of the ferrites prepared by other methods for the same ...

  19. Magnetic, dielectric and microwave absorption properties of rare earth doped Ni–Co and Ni–Co–Zn spinel ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiou, Charalampos, E-mail: stergiou@cperi.certh.gr

    2017-03-15

    In this article we analyze the electromagnetic properties of rare earth substituted Ni–Co and Ni–Co–Zn cubic ferrites in the microwave band, along with their performance as microwave absorbing materials. Ceramic samples with compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2−x}R{sub x}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.25}Co{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2−x}R{sub x}O{sub 4} (R=Y and La, x=0, 0.02), fabricated with the solid state reaction method, were characterized with regard to the complex permeability μ*(f) and permittivity ε*(f) up to 20 GHz. The rare earth substitutions basically affect the microwave μ*(f) spectra and the dynamic magnetization mechanisms of domain wall motion and magnetization rotation. Key parameters for this effect are the reduced magnetocrystalline anisotropy and the created crystal inhomogeneities. Moreover, permittivity is increased with the Y and La content, due to the enhancement of the dielectric orientation polarization. Regarding the electromagnetic wave attenuation, the prepared ferrites exhibit narrowband return losses (RL) by virtue of the cancellation of multiple reflections, when their thickness equals an odd multiple of quarter-wavelength. Interestingly, the zero-reflection conditions are satisfied in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic resonance. As the rare earth doping shifts this mechanism to lower frequencies, loss peaks with RL>46 dB occur at 4.1 GHz and 5 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni–Co–Zn spinels, whereas peaks with RL>40 dB appear at 18 GHz and 19 GHz for Y and La-doped Ni–Co spinels, respectively. The presented experimental findings underline the potential of cubic ferrites with high Co concentration in the suppression of electromagnetic reflections well above the 1 GHz region. - Highlights: • Due to cation distribution, magnetic anisotropy drops in Y and La doped samples. • Microwave permeability spectra shift to lower frequencies with rare earth doping. • Permittivity is increased due to crystal modifications

  20. Dielectric properties of microwave absorbing sheets produced with silicone and polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza de Castro Folgueras

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to produce sheets of microwave absorbing materials using conductive polyaniline dispersed in a silicone rubber matrix and to characterize the electromagnetic properties (absorption, transmission and reflection of electromagnetic energy; and electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of these sheets in the X-band (8 - 12 GHz. Two sheets were produced: one 2.80 mm thick and the other 4.39 mm thick. The thinner sheet absorbed incident microwave energy more efficiently, attenuating up to 88% of the incident electromagnetic energy. Also, calculations were performed in order to determine the electromagnetic parameters that optimize the absorbent properties of these sheets. These calculations showed that these materials can be combined and altered to produce absorbing materials with a wide range of absorbing characteristics.

  1. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of nano-crystalline diamondfilms prepared at various substrate temperatures and pulsed plasma frequencies using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition apparatus with linear antenna delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mistrík, J.; Janíček, P.; Taylor, Andrew; Fendrych, František; Fekete, Ladislav; Jäger, Aleš; Nesládek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 571, č. 1 (2014), s. 230-237 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Grant - others:COST Nano TP(XE) MP0901; OP VK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0306 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * thin films * microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition * pulsed plasma * low deposition temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.759, year: 2014

  2. Proceedings of microwave processing of materials 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the third MRS Symposium on Microwave Processing of Materials. Topics covered include: Microwave Processing Overviews, Numerical Modeling Techniques, Microwave Processing System Design, Microwave/Plasma Processing, Microwave/Materials Interactions, Microwave Processing of Ceramics, Microwave Processing of Polymers, Microwave Processing of Hazardous Wastes, Microwave NDE Techniques and Dielectric Properties and Measurements

  3. Microwave and millimeter wave dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of epsilon-gallium-iron-oxide nano-powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Liu, E-mail: liu.chao@tufts.edu; Afsar, Mohammed N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    In millimeter wave frequency range, hexagonal ferrites with high uniaxial anisotropic magnetic fields are used as absorbers. These ferrites include M-type barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and strontium ferrite (SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}), which have natural ferromagnetic resonant frequency range from 40 GHz to 60 GHz. However, the higher frequency range lacks suitable materials that support the higher frequency ferromagnetic resonance. A series of gallium-substituted ε-iron oxides (ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3}) are synthesized, which have ferromagnetic resonant frequencies appearing over the frequency range of 30 GHz to 150 GHz. The ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} is synthesized by the sol-gel method. The particle sizes are observed to be smaller than 100 nm. In this paper, in-waveguide transmission and reflection method and the free space magneto-optical approach have been employed to study these newly developed ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} particles in millimeter waves. These techniques enable to obtain precise transmission spectra to determine the dielectric and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic ferrites in the microwave and millimeter wave frequency range from single set of direct measurements. The complex dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability spectra of ε-Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 2−x}O{sub 3} are shown in this paper. Strong ferromagnetic resonances at different frequencies determined by the x parameter are found.

  4. Effect of CuO addition on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CuO-doped CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics were synthesized via a traditional solid-state reaction method, and their sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The results showed that appropriate CuO addition could accelerate the sintering process and assist the densification of CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics, which could effectively lower the densification temperature from 1250 °C to 1050 °C. However, the addition of CuO undermined the microwave dielectric properties. The optimal amount of CuO addition was found to be 0.8 wt%, and the derived CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramic sintered at 1100 °C presented good microwave dielectric properties of εr=7.27, Q×f=16,850 GHz and τf=−39.53 ppm/°C, which is much better than those of pure CaSiO3 ceramic sintered at 1340 oC (Q×f=13,109 GHz. The chemical compatibility of the above ceramic with 30 Pd/70 Ag during the cofiring process has also been investigated, and the result showed that there was no chemical reaction between palladium–silver alloys and ceramics.

  5. Structural and dielectric properties of doped ferrite nanomaterials suitable for microwave and biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Sadiq

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sol–gel auto-combustion method was adopted to synthesize nanomaterials of single-phase X-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition of Sr2−xGdxNi2Fe28−yCdyO46 (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10 and y=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5. The structural properties were carried out by XRD analysis and the lattice parameters show variation with the doping of Gd–Cd. The average particle size measured by TEM was in the range of 8–10 nm which is beneficial in obtaining suitable signal-to-noise ratio in recording media and biomedical applications. The room temperature resistivity enhanced with the increase of the dopant concentration. The increase in resistivity indicates that the synthesized materials can be considered good for the formation of the multilayer chip inductors (MLCIs as well as for the reduction of eddy current losses. The dielectric constant decreased with the increase in the frequency which is the general reported trend of the hexagonal ferrites and can be explained on the basis of Koop׳s theory and Maxwell–Wagner polarization-model. The abnormal dielectric behavior indicates the formation of small polarons in the material. The maximum value of tangent loss at low frequencies reflects the application of these materials in medium frequency devices (MF.

  6. In-plane microwave dielectric properties of paraelectric barium strontium titanate thin films with anisotropic epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. K.; Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.; Bellotti, J. A.

    2005-08-01

    In-plane dielectric properties of ⟨110⟩ oriented epitaxial (Ba0.60Sr0.40)TiO3 thin films in the thickness range from 25-1200nm have been investigated under the influence of anisotropic epitaxial strains from ⟨100⟩ NdGaO3 substrates. The measured dielectric properties show strong residual strain and in-plane directional dependence. Below 150nm film thickness, there appears to be a phase transition due to the anisotropic nature of the misfit strain relaxation. In-plane relative permittivity is found to vary from as much as 500-150 along [11¯0] and [001] respectively, in 600nm thick films, and from 75 to 500 overall. Tunability was found to vary from as much as 54% to 20% in all films and directions, and in a given film the best tunability is observed along the compressed axis in a mixed strain state, 54% along [11¯0] in the 600nm film for example.

  7. Synthesis, structural and microwave dielectric properties of Al2W3-xMoxO12 (x = 0-3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjith, A.; James, Nijesh K.; Ratheesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solid state synthesis of phase pure Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) compositions. → Sintering studies of Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) ceramics. → Structural and microstructural evaluation using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM studies. → Microwave dielectric property evaluation of Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) ceramics through Hakki and Coleman post resonator and cavity perturbation techniques. → Structure-property correlation through Laser Raman studies. - Abstract: Low dielectric ceramics in the Al 2 W 3-x Mo x O 12 (x = 0-3) system have been prepared through solid state ceramic route. The phase purity of the ceramic compositions has been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The microstructure of the sintered ceramics was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The crystal structure of the ceramic compositions as a result of Mo substitution has been studied using Laser Raman spectroscopy. The microwave dielectric properties of the ceramics were studied by Hakki and Coleman post resonator and cavity perturbation techniques. Al 2 Mo x W 3-x O 12 (x = 0-3) ceramics exhibited low dielectric constant and relatively high unloaded quality factor. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of the compositions is found to be in the range -41 to -72 ppm/deg. C.

  8. Measurement and analysis of a microwave oscillator stabilized by a sapphire dielectric ring resonator for ultra-low noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon

    1990-01-01

    Phase-noise measurements are presented for a microwave oscillator whose frequency is stabilized by a whispering-gallery sapphire ring resonator with Q of 200,000. This mode involves little metallic conduction and allows nearly full use of the very low dielectric loss in sapphire. Several mode families have been identified, in good agreement with frequency calculations. For a 5-cm wheel resonator in a 7.6-cm container, Q values above 100,000 were found at room temperature for all of the modes in this sequence. Coupling Q-values for these same modes ranged from 10,000 (n = 5) to 100,000 (n = 10) for a WR112 waveguide port at the center of the cylinder wall of the containing can. Phase noise measurements for a transistor oscillator locked to the n = 10 (7.84-GHz) mode showed a 1/f cubed dependence for low offset frequencies, and a value of L(f) = -55 dB/Hz at an offset of 10 Hz from the carrier.

  9. Dielectric microwave absorbing material processed by impregnation of carbon fiber fabric with polyaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza de Castro Folgueras

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available It is a known fact that the adequate combination of components and experimental conditions may produce materials with specific requirements. This study presents the effect of carbon fiber fabric impregnation with polyaniline conducting polymer aiming at the radar absorbing material processing. The experiments consider the sample preparation with one and two impregnations. The prepared samples were evaluated by reflectivity measurements, in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The correlation of the results shows that the quantity of impregnated material influences the performance of the processed microwave absorber. This study shows that the proposed experimental route provides flexible absorbers with absorption values of the incident radiation close to 87%.

  10. Semiconductor-to-metallic flipping in a ZnFe2O4–graphene based smart nano-system: Temperature/microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameer, Shahid; Gul, Iftikhar Hussain; Mahmood, Nasir; Mujahid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Zn-(FeO 2 ) 2 –graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis with different percentages of graphene. The structure of the nanocomposite was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy, Ultraviolet–Visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The structural growth and morphological aspects were analyzed using scanning/transmission electron microscopy, revealing marvelous micro-structural features of the assembled nano-system resembling a maple leaf. To determine the composition, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used. Microwave magneto-dielectric spectroscopy revealed the improved dielectric properties of the nano-composite compared to those of the parent functional nanocrystals. Temperature gradient dielectric spectroscopy was used over the spectral range from 100 Hz to 5 MHz to reveal the phenomenological effect that the nanosystem flips from its usual semiconductor nature to a metallic nature with sensing temperature. Electrical conductivity and dielectric analysis indicated that the dielectric loss and the dielectric permittivity increased at room temperature. This extraordinary switching capability of the functionalized graphene nanosystem opens up a new dimension for engineering advanced and efficient smart composite materials. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zn-(FeO 2 ) 2 –graphene smart nano-composites were synthesized using a novel modified solvothermal synthesis. • The synthesized nano-system exhibits marvelous leaf like microstructure. • These nano-composites show improved magneto dielectric response. • This engineered smart nano-system shows phenomenological flipping from semiconductor like nature to metallic behavior

  11. Synthesis, magnetic and dielectric properties of Er-Ni doped Sr-hexaferrite nanomaterials for applications in High density recording media and microwave devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem, E-mail: naeemashiqqau@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan); Hernandez Gomez, Pablo [Departmento Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Qureshi, Ashfaq Mahmood [Department of Chemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800 (Pakistan)

    2012-01-15

    A sol-gel combustion method has been successfully employed for the synthesis of Sr-hexaferrite nanomaterials doped with Er{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+} at strontium and iron sites, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the single magnetoplumbite phase and the crystallite size was found to be in the range of 14-16 nm, suitable for obtaining signal-to-noise ratio in the high density recording media. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (M{sub s}), remanence (M{sub r}) and coercivity (H{sub c}) were calculated from hysteresis loops. M{sub s}, M{sub r} and H{sub c} are observed to increase with the Er-Ni content. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}') and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) is found to decrease with the increase in frequency and is explained on the basis of Maxwell-Wagner and Koops theory. The decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss but increase in saturation magnetization and remanence with Er-Ni content suggests that the materials are suitable for applications in microwave devices and high density recording media . - Highlights: > A Simple and economic method has been used for synthesis of materials. > The main aim for substitution of Er-Ni in Sr-hexaferrite is to improve magnetic properties and to reduce the crystallite size. > We are able to improve the saturation magnetization and remanence with the doping of Er-Ni. > Crystallite size is in the range 16-14 nm, which is much smaller than that reported earlier. > Dielectric constant is reduced which makes the material suitable for microwave devices.

  12. Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb2O8 ceramics with BaCu(B2O5) additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dongxiang; Dou Gang; Guo Mei; Gong Shuping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The sintering temperature of ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics with BCB was reduced to 950 deg. C. → The properties were dependent on densification, grain sizes and crystalline phases. → The ε r 32.56, Q x f = 20,100 GHz (f = 5.128 GHz) and τ f = -64.87 ppm/deg. C were achieved. → It represented very promising candidates as LTCC dielectric materials. - Abstract: The phases, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics with BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) additions prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pure ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramic shows a high sintering temperature of about 1250 deg. C. However, it was found that the addition of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) lowered the sintering temperature of ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics from above 1250 deg. C to 950 deg. C due to the BCB liquid-phase. The results showed that the microwave dielectric properties were strongly dependent on densification, crystalline phases and grain size. Addition of 3 wt% BCB in ZnTiNb 2 O 8 ceramics sintered at 950 deg. C afforded excellent dielectric properties of ε r = 32.56, Q x f = 20,100 GHz (f = 5.128 GHz) and τ f = -64.87 ppm/deg. C. These represent very promising candidates for LTCC dielectric materials.

  13. Microwave dielectric properties of low-fired Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jian-Li [School of Science, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Fu, Zhi-Fen, E-mail: fuzhifen80@sina.com [School of Science, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China); Liu, Peng [College of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Bing; Li, Yang [School of Science, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: This figure gives the Q × f and τ{sub f} of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics sintered at various temperatures with different LiF contents. Addition of LiF enhanced the sinterability and optimized the microwave dielectric properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics. The excellent microwave dielectric properties (ε{sub r} = 15.8, Q × f = 64,500 GHz, and τ{sub f} = −0.2 ppm/°C) of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics sintered at 850 °C illustrated that LiF is a simple effective sintering aids for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics. Such sample was compatible with Ag electrodes, suitable for the low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) applications. - Highlights: • Temperature stability of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were improved by doping MgO. • The low-fired Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics are fabricated. • LiF liquid phase reduced sintering temperature of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics to 850 °C. • The low-fired Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics possess well microwave dielectric properties. • The sample was compatible with Ag electrodes and suitable for LTCC applications. - Abstract: We fabricated the low-fired Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–MgO ceramics doped with LiF by a conventional solid-state route, and investigated systematically their sintering characteristics, microstructures and microwave dielectric properties. The results showed that temperature stability of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were improved by doping MgO. Well microwave dielectric properties for Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}–13 wt%MgO (LTM) ceramics with ε{sub r} = 16.4, Q × f = 87,500 GHz, and τ{sub f} = −1.2 ppm/°C were obtained at 1325 °C. Furthermore, addition of LiF enhanced the sinterability and optimized the microwave dielectric properties of LTM ceramics. A typically sample of LTM-4 wt%LiF ceramics with optimum dielectric properties (ε{sub r} = 15.8, Q × f = 64,500 GHz, and τ{sub f} = −0.2 ppm/°C) were achieved at 850 °C for 4 h. Such

  14. Tailoring order–disorder temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Lai Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The order–disorder temperature (To–d of Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3 ceramics was determined via X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. To–d was determined to be between 1425 and 1450 °C by a quenching method. The endothermic peak in the DTA curve shows the order–disorder transition. B2O3 was applied to tune the densification temperature (Ts and tailor the microwave dielectric properties. The ordering degree and unloaded quality factor (Qf are improved when Ts is reduced to 1400 °C at B2O3 content of 0.25 mol%. Ts is further decreased and the ordering degree and Qf are decreased when B2O3 content is increased to 0.5 mol%. The dielectric constant (εr and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf decrease slightly with increasing B2O3 content. The optimum microwave dielectric properties (i.e., εr = 34.0, Qf = 50,400 GHz, τf = 5.5 × 10−6/°C are obtained for the Ba[(Co0.6Zn0.41/3Nb2/3]O3-0.25 mol% B2O3 ceramics sintered at a lower temperature.

  15. Development of a microwave dielectric spectroscopy system for materials characterization using the open-ended coaxial probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Ruiz, I.; Aviles-Castro, D. [Centro Nacional de Metrologia, Queretaro (Mexico); Jardon-Aguilar, H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy is a measurement technique to characterize the interaction between electromagnetic energy and macroscopic samples as a function of frequency. It is based on the measurement of complex permittivity plus conductivity and it has shown to be very useful to provide information about internal structure of matter. It has some advantages over others like optical or chemical analysis: it is very fast, easy to implement, requires little or no preparation of the sample, it can be non-destructive and/or minimally intrusive. In this paper the development of a dielectric spectroscopy system for the microwave frequency range (50 MHz-20 GHz), using an open-ended coaxial probe as sensor, is described. The complete system includes a vector network analyzer, a microwave coaxial cable, the probe, a sample holder and a computer to automate measurements and further data processing. This system has been used to measure some liquid and solid materials such as alcohol, water and Teflon. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity as function of frequency, for several sugarcane alcohol and deionised water mixtures, tequilas and Teflon samples are given. Measurement repeatability and accuracy considerations were taken and it was identified that uncertainty of reference standards and system repeatability are the most important error sources. Also, it was found that open-ended coaxial probe technique is appropriate for measuring not only liquids but also solid materials. Some of the obtained results were compared to those reported in literature and good convergence was observed. [Spanish] La espectroscopia dielectrica es una tecnica moderna de medicion para caracterizar la interaccion entre la energia electromagnetica y muestras macroscopicas como funcion de la frecuencia. Esta tecnica se basa en la medicion de la permitividad compleja y conductividad de los materiales y ha mostrado ser muy util para proporcionar informacion sobre la estructura interna de estos. Tiene

  16. Effect of BaCu(B2O5) additive on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of BaTi4O9 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jong-Bong; Kim, Min-Han; Kim, Jae-Chul; Nahm, Sahn; Paik, Jong-Hoo; Kim, Jong-Hee

    2006-01-01

    BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) additive was used to decrease the sintering temperature of the BaTi 4 O 9 ceramics. The amount of Ba 4 Ti 13 O 30 second phase increased with the addition of BCB, whereas that of the BaTi 4 O 9 phase decreased. The bulk density and dielectric constant (ε γ ) considerably increased with the addition of BCB. An increase in the Q-value was also observed for the BaTi 4 O 9 ceramics with a small amount of BCB. Good microwave dielectric properties with values of ε γ =32, Q x f 10800 GHz and τ f =32 ppm/degC were obtained in the BaTi 4 O 9 ceramics with 12.0 mol% of BCB sintered at 875degC for 2h. (author)

  17. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  18. Preparation, phase structure and microwave dielectric properties of CoLi2/3Ti4/3O4 ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Huanfu; Liu, Xiaobin; Chen, Xiuli; Fang, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: For chemical compatibility tests with silver electrode, mixtures of ceramic powders with 20 wt% Ag powders were cofired and analyzed to detect interactions between the low-fired samples and electrodes. XRD patterns and backscattered electron image of CoLi 2/3 Ti 4/3 O 4 ceramics added with 1.5 wt% BCB cofired with Ag at 900 °C for 2 h are presented in . Backscattered electron image analysis reveals no interaction to form new phases after firing. This observation is also confirmed by the evidence of no difference between the XRD patterns before and after firing. It is obvious that the reaction of low-fired CoLi 2/3 Ti 4/3 O 4 ceramics with Ag electrodes did not occur. Highlights: ► A new microwave dielectric ceramic with good properties was reported. ► The addition of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) can lower the sintering temperature from 1050 °C to 900 °C. ► The addition of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) does not induce degradation of properties. ► BCB added CoLi 2/3 Ti 4/3 O 4 ceramics can co-fire with Ag electrode. -- Abstract: A new low loss microwave dielectric ceramic with composition of CoLi 2/3 Ti 4/3 O 4 was prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The compound has a cubic spinel structure [Fd-3m (227)] similar to MgFe 2 O 4 with lattice parameters of a = 8.3939 Å, V = 591.42 Å 3 , Z = 8 and ρ = 4.30 g/cm 3 . This ceramic has a low sintering temperature (∼1050 °C) and good microwave dielectric properties with relative permittivity of 21.4, Q × f value of 35,000 GHz and τ f value of −22 ppm/°C. Furthermore, the addition of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) can effectively lower the sintering temperature from 1050 °C to 900 °C and does not induce much degradation of the microwave dielectric properties. Compatibility with Ag electrode indicates that the BCB added CoLi 2/3 Ti 4/3 O 4 ceramics are good candidates for LTCC applications.

  19. Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of Zn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics with ZnO additive for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Ching-Fang, E-mail: cftseng@nuu.edu.tw; Chen, Po-Hsien; Lin, Po-An

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • The microwave dielectric properties of ZnO-doped Zn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics were investigated. • By ZnO additions, the dielectric properties were associated with the unit cell volume, polarizability, and microstructure. • At 920 °C, ZTN doped with 2 wt% ZnO had excellent microwave dielectric properties for the application of LTCC. - Abstract: The Zn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics had been prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method and the influence of ZnO additive doping on their sintering temperature, densification, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The addition of ZnO as liquid phase flux can effectively decrease the sintering temperature of the Zn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics from 1100 to 920 °C, and well-densified microwave ceramics with uniform grains at 920 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed all samples exhibited orthorhombic ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase and ZnO phase. The Zn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics with 2 wt% ZnO sintered at 920 °C for 6 h showed good microwave dielectric properties of Q × f = 98,100 GHz, ε{sub r} = 33.2, and τ{sub f} = −59.3 ppm/°C. Good microwave dielectric properties and low firing temperature made Zn{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics a promising candidate for LTCC application in wireless communication system.

  20. Magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties of La–Cu substituted Sr-hexaferrites for use in microwave LTCC devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Long, E-mail: penglong@cuit.edu.cn; Li, Lezhong; Zhong, Xiaoxi; Hu, Yun; Tu, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Rui

    2016-04-25

    The Sr{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0–0.4) ferrites with appropriate amount of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}·SiO{sub 2}·ZnO (BBSZ) glass were prepared by traditional solid phase method at low sintering temperatures compatible with low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology. Detailed effects of La–Cu substitution amount on their crystal structure, magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties were investigated. The results show that the pure M-type phase is obtained for the ferrites with x ≤ 0.3. With further increasing x, the multiphase structure is inevitably formed, where the LaFeO{sub 3} phase coexists with the M-type phase. In the single M-type phase region, the variation of magnetic properties with La–Cu substitution amount is well explained based on the occupancy effects of La{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+} in magnetoplumbite structure. Suitable La–Cu substitution with x = 0.25 raises the saturation magnetization to a maximum value of 67.5 emu/g. The intrinsic coercivity decreases from 3.68 to 3.43 kOe with x increasing from 0 to 0.3, which is mainly dominated by the reduced magnetic anisotropy field. Electrical transport behavior of the ferrites is found to follow the impurity semiconductor, and the effect of La–Cu substitution on the direct-current resistivity is observed. Their polarization behavior in test frequency range of 1 kHz–10 MHz obeys the charge polarization mechanism, which happens since the frequency of the hopping of electron exchange between Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} is far from the frequency of alternating-current field. - Highlights: • Low temperature sintered Sr-hexaferrites with La–Cu doing are successfully prepared. • Magnetic properties are well explained considering the occupancy effects of La{sup 3+} and Cu{sup 2+}. • Electrical transport behavior follows the conduction mechanism of semiconductors. • Polarization behavior obeys charge polarization mechanism of ferrite materials

  1. The relationship between bond ionicity, lattice energy, coefficient of thermal expansion and microwave dielectric properties of Nd(Nb(1-x)Sb(x))O4 ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Yonggui; Wang, Xiuyu

    2015-06-28

    The crystalline structure refinement, chemical bond ionicity, lattice energy and coefficient of thermal expansion were carried out for Nd(Nb(1-x)Sb(x))O4 ceramics with a monoclinic fergusonite structure to investigate the correlations between the crystalline structure, phase stability, bond ionicity, lattice energy, coefficient of thermal expansion, and microwave dielectric properties. The bond ionicity, lattice energy, and coefficient of thermal expansion of Nd(Nb(1-x)Sb(x))O4 ceramics were calculated using a semiempirical method based on the complex bond theory. The phase structure stability varied with the lattice energy which was resulted by the substitution constant of Sb(5+). With the increasing of the Sb(5+) contents, the decrease of Nb/Sb-O bond ionicity was observed, which could be contributed to the electric polarization. The ε(r) had a close relationship with the Nb/Sb-O bond ionicity. The increase of the Q×f and |τ(f)| values could be attributed to the lattice energy and the coefficient of thermal expansion. The microwave dielectric properties of Nd(Nb(1-x)Sb(x))O4 ceramics with the monoclinic fergusonite structure were strongly dependent on the chemical bond ionicity, lattice energy and coefficient of thermal expansion.

  2. Phase, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of A-site deficient (La, Nd2/3TiO3 perovskite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (La, Nd2/3TiO3 ceramics were prepared through a conventional solid state mixed oxide route. For phase and microstructure analysis, XRD and SEM were used, respectively. Microwave dielectric properties were measured using a network analyzer. XRD patterns revealed the formation of the parent (La, Nd2/3TiO3 phase along with (La, Nd4Ti9O24 as a secondary phase. The microstructure consisted of rectangular and needle shaped grains, which decreased in size from 4 μm to 2 μm with an increase in sintering temperature from 1300 °C to 1350 °C. Decrease in grain size caused an increase in density of the samples from 4.81 g/cm3 to 5.17 g/cm3. Microwave dielectric properties of the samples calcined and sintered in air atmosphere were εr = 40.35, Q × f = 3499 GHz and τf = 0 ppm/°C, whereas for a sample calcined in nitrogen and sintered in air they were εr = 40.18, Q × f = 4077 GHz and τf = +4.9 ppm/°C, respectively.

  3. Microwave dielectric properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics doped with LiF for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yi-Zhou; Yang, Hui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Guo-Hua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Zhang, Qi-Long, E-mail: mse237@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2013-03-05

    Highlights: ► LiF can effectively reduce the sintering temperature of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics to 950 °C. ► LiF was uniformly distributed in the matrix, and continuous solid solution formed. ► Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics with 2.5 wt.% LiF sintered at 950 °C possessed very high Q × f value. ► The low-temperature sintering ceramics are compatible with Ag electrodes. -- Abstract: Sintering characteristics and microwave dielectric properties of LiF (≤4.0 wt.%) doped Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were studied in this paper. The phase presence, surface morphology and according energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis were determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, respectively. The addition of LiF as sintering aid can effectively reduce the sintering temperature of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics, and well-densified microwave ceramics with uniform grains could be obtained under 950 °C. Continuous solid solution formed for all doped samples in which LiF was uniformly distributed in the matrix. In addition, it is found that 1.0–3.0 wt.% amount of LiF can significantly improve microwave dielectric properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics. The temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ{sub f}) decreased with increasing the amount of LiF addition. Typically, optimum dielectric microwave of ε{sub r} = 24.01, Q × f = 75,500 GHz, and τ{sub f} = 36.2 ppm/°C was achieved for 2.5 wt.% LiF doped samples sintered at 950 °C for 3 h. The chemical compatibilities of 2.5 wt.% LiF doped ceramics with silver were also investigated. The low-temperature sintering ceramics are compatible with Ag electrodes, and therefore, suitable for low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) application.

  4. A new temperature stable microwave dielectric ceramics: ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} sintered at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Mei [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gong Shuping, E-mail: spgong@mail.hust.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Dou Gang; Zhou Dongxiang [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-05-19

    Highlights: > The sintering temperature of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8}-xTiO{sub 2} ceramics with BCB was reduced to 950 deg. C. > The {tau}{sub f} was modified to 0 ppm/deg. C with reasonably good Q x f and {epsilon}{sub r}. > The {epsilon}{sub r} = 38.89, Q x f = 14,500 GHz and {tau}{sub f} = 0 ppm/deg. C were achieved. > It represented very promising candidates as LTCC dielectric materials. - Abstract: The phases, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8}-xTiO{sub 2} composite ceramics with different weight percentages of BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) additive prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the microwave dielectric properties were strongly dependent on densification, grain sizes and crystalline phases. The sintering temperature of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramics was reduced from 1250 deg. C to 950 deg. C by doping BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) additive and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ({tau}{sub f}) was adjusted from negative value of -52 ppm/deg. C to 0 ppm/deg. C by incorporating TiO{sub 2}. Addition of 2 wt% BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) in ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8}-xTiO{sub 2} (x = 0.8) ceramics sintered at 950 deg. C showed excellent dielectric properties of {epsilon}{sub r} = 38.89, Q x f = 14,500 GHz (f = 4.715 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = 0 ppm/deg. C, which represented very promising candidates as LTCC dielectrics for LTCC applications.

  5. Dielectric and magnetic behavior of nanocrystalline Cu{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadoun, Priya, E-mail: priya4jadoun@gmail.com; Sharma, Jyoti; Prashant, B. L.; Dolia, S. N.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Saxena, V. K. [Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302012 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The mixed copper cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (Cu{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) have been synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion route with aqueous metal nitrates and citric acid as the precursor. The crystal structure has been analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. XRD reveals the formation of single phase cubic spinel structure. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for morphological studies. The dielectric measurements at room temperature show the decrease in dielectric constant with increasing frequency which is attributed to Maxwell Wagner model and conduction mechanism in ferrites.The magnetic measurements show ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and large coercivity is observed on cooling down the temperature to 20 K.

  6. Large area deposition of boron doped nano-crystalline diamond films at low temperatures using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition with linear antenna delivery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Andrew; Fekete, Ladislav; Hubík, Pavel; Jäger, Aleš; Janíček, P.; Mortet, Vincent; Mistrík, J.; Vacík, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, AUG (2014), s. 27-34 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : large area * low temperature * boron doped nano-crystalline diamond * linear antenna MW PE CVD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.919, year: 2014

  7. Microwave dielectric properties of CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Mohd Fariz Ab; Abu, Mohamad Johari; Zaman, Rosyaini Afindi; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Karim, Saniah Ab; Mohamed, Julie Juliewatty, E-mail: juliewatty.m@umk.edu.my [Advance Materials Research Cluster, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan (Malaysia); Ain, Mohd Fadzil [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    (1-x)CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} + (x)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite (0 ≤ x ≤0.25) was prepared via conventional solid-state reaction method. The fabrication of sample was started with synthesizing stoichiometric CCTO from CaCO{sub 3}, CuO and TiO{sub 2} powders, then wet-mixed in deionized water for 24 h. The process was continued with calcined CCTO powder at 900 °C for 12 h before sintered at 1040 °C for 10 h. Next, the calcined CCTO powder with different amount of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were mixed for 24 h, then palletized and sintered at 1040 °C for 10. X-ray diffraction analysis on the sintered samples showed that CCTO powder was in a single phase, meanwhile the trace of secondary peaks which belong to CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) could be observed in the other samples Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the grain size of the sample is firstly increased with addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.01), then become smaller with the x > 0.01. Microwave dielectric properties showed that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (x = 0.01) was remarkably reduced the dielectric loss while slightly increased the dielectric permittivity. However, further addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was reduced both dielectric loss and permittivity at least for an order of magnitude.

  8. Synthesis of nanocrystalline fluorinated hydroxyapatite by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorinated hydroxyapatite, (FHA, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2-F), possesses higher corrosion resistance in biofluids than pure HA and reduces the risk of dental caries. The present work deals with the synthesis of nanocrystalline FHAs by microwave processing. The crystal size and morphology of the nanopowders were ...

  9. RF and microwave dielectric properties of stored-grain insects and their implications for potential insect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.; Bartley, P.G. Jr.; Lawrence, K.C.

    1998-01-01

    The permittivities of bulk samples of adult insects of the rice weevil, red flour beetle, sawtoothed grain beetle, and lesser grain borer were measured at single frequencies of 9.4 and 11.7 Ghz in X-band waveguide at about 23 degrees C, and permittivities of homogenized samples of the same species were measured from 0.2 to 20 GHz at temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer. Sample densities for the coaxial-line probe measurements were determined from the X-band measurements with a linear relationship between the cube root of the dielectric constant and sample bulk density determined from permittivity measurements on bulk samples of the adult insects in a waveguide sample holder taken with the short-circuited line technique. Since linearity of the cube root of the dielectric constant with bulk density is consistent with the Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga dielectric mixture equation, this equation was used to calculate estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects from measured permittivities and volume fractions determined from measured bulk density and adult insect density determined by air-comparison pycnometer measurements. Estimated dielectric constants and loss factors of the insects are presented graphically for temperatures from 10 to 70 degrees C, and tabulated data are provided for range information and comparative purposes

  10. Preparation, phase structure and microwave dielectric properties of CoLi{sub 2/3}Ti{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Huanfu, E-mail: zhouhuanfu@163.com [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu, Xiaobin; Chen, Xiuli; Fang, Liang [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Nonferrous Metals and Specific Materials Processing, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Materials and New Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2012-05-15

    Graphical abstract: For chemical compatibility tests with silver electrode, mixtures of ceramic powders with 20 wt% Ag powders were cofired and analyzed to detect interactions between the low-fired samples and electrodes. XRD patterns and backscattered electron image of CoLi{sub 2/3}Ti{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} ceramics added with 1.5 wt% BCB cofired with Ag at 900 Degree-Sign C for 2 h are presented in . Backscattered electron image analysis reveals no interaction to form new phases after firing. This observation is also confirmed by the evidence of no difference between the XRD patterns before and after firing. It is obvious that the reaction of low-fired CoLi{sub 2/3}Ti{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} ceramics with Ag electrodes did not occur. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new microwave dielectric ceramic with good properties was reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) can lower the sintering temperature from 1050 Degree-Sign C to 900 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) does not induce degradation of properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BCB added CoLi{sub 2/3}Ti{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} ceramics can co-fire with Ag electrode. -- Abstract: A new low loss microwave dielectric ceramic with composition of CoLi{sub 2/3}Ti{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} was prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method. The compound has a cubic spinel structure [Fd-3m (227)] similar to MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with lattice parameters of a = 8.3939 Angstrom-Sign , V = 591.42 Angstrom-Sign {sup 3}, Z = 8 and {rho} = 4.30 g/cm{sup 3}. This ceramic has a low sintering temperature ({approx}1050 Degree-Sign C) and good microwave dielectric properties with relative permittivity of 21.4, Q Multiplication-Sign f value of 35,000 GHz and {tau}{sub f} value of -22 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. Furthermore, the addition of BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) (BCB) can effectively lower the sintering temperature from 1050 Degree-Sign C to 900 Degree-Sign C and

  11. Effect of plasma composition on nanocrystalline diamond layers deposited by a microwave linear antenna plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Andrew; Ashcheulov, Petr; Čada, Martin; Fekete, Ladislav; Hubík, Pavel; Klimša, Ladislav; Olejníček, Jiří; Remeš, Zdeněk; Jirka, Ivan; Janíček, P.; Bedel-Pereira, E.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Mistrík, J.; Mortet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 11 (2015), s. 2418-2423 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk LO1409 Grant - others:FUNBIO(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21568 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : diamond * electrical conductivity * nanocrystalline materials * optical emission spectroscopy * plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition * SiC Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2015

  12. Effects of LiF on microwave dielectric properties of 0.25Ca0.8Sr0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    could compensate the evaporation of Li during the sintering process. It was found that the bulk density and dielectric constant (εr) gradually decreased, the quality factor (Qf) greatly increased and the temperature coeffi- cient of resonant frequency (τf) shifted to a near-zero value with the increase in LiF addition. Obviously, ex ...

  13. Electrical and Structural Properties Study of Layered Dielectric and Magnetic Composites and Blends Structures for RF and Microwave Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    ANTENNAS, José Silva de Almeida Programa de Pós Graduação em Fisica da UFC (2011) 2-Study of thermal and structural stability of Ca (Nb12Y12...SYNTHESIS of CERAMIC MATERIALS with NEAR-ZERO τf Marcelo Antonio Santos da Silva, Programa de Pós Graduação em Quimica (2012) 4- STUDY OF DIELECTRIC

  14. A new method of dielectric characterization in the microwave range for high-k ferroelectric thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Nadaud, Kevin; Gundel, Hartmut,; Borderon, Caroline; Gillard, Raphaël; Fourn, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose a new method of dielectric characterization of high-k thin films based on the measurement of coplanar capacitor inserts between two coplanar waveguide transmission lines. The measurement geometry is deposed on the thin film which is elaborate on an insulating substrate. The thin film permittivity is extracted with the help of a mathematical model describing the capacitance between two conductor plates deposed on a 2-layers substrate. A simple c...

  15. PRODUCTION, DIELECTRIC PROPERTY AND MICROWAVE ABSORPTION PROPERTY OF SiC(Fe SOLID SOLUTION POWDER BY SOL-GEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIAOLEI SU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SiC(Fe solid solution powders were synthesized by sol–gel method under different reaction time, using methyltriethoxysilane as the silicon and carbon source and analytic ferric chloride as the dopant, respectively. The synthesized powders have been characterized by XRD, SEM and Raman spectra. Results show that the lattice constant decreases with increasing reaction time. The electric permittivities of SiC samples were determined in the frequency range of 8.2 ~ 12.4 GHz. Results show that the permittivity of SiC decreases with increasing reaction time. The SiC(Fe solid solution powder with reaction time of 4 h with 2 mm thickness exhibit the best microwave absorption property in X-band range (8.2 - 12.4 GHz. The microwave absorption mechanism has been discussed.

  16. Development of accurate UWB dielectric properties dispersion at CST simulation tool for modeling microwave interactions with numerical breast phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, A.; Quboa, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a reformulation for the recently published dielectric properties dispersion models of the breast tissues is carried out to be used by CST simulation tool. The reformulation includes tabulation of the real and imaginary parts versus frequency on ultra-wideband (UWB) for these models by MATLAB programs. The tables are imported and fitted by CST simulation tool to second or first order general equations. The results have shown good agreement between the original and the imported data. The MATLAB programs written in MATLAB code are included in the appendix.

  17. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  18. Effects of BaCu(B2O5) addition on sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of Ba5Nb4O15–BaWO4 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Rui-Long; Su Hua; Tang Xiao-Li; Jing Yu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    The effects of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) (BCB) addition on the microstructure, phase formation, and microwave dielectric properties of Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramic are investigated. As a sintering aid, BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) ceramic could effectively lower the sintering temperature of Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramic from 1100 °C to 950 °C due to the liquid-phase effect. Meanwhile, BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) addition effectively improves the densification of Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramic and significantly influences the microwave dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 and BaWO 4 coexist with no crystal phase of BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) in the sintered ceramics. The Ba 5 Nb 4 O 15 −BaWO 4 ceramics with 1.0 wt% BaCu(B 2 O 5 ) sintered at 950 °C for 2 h presents good microwave dielectric properties of ε r = 19.0, high Q×f of 33802 GHz and low τ f of 2.5 ppm/°C. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Phase, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of Mg0:95Ni0:05Ti0:98Zr0:02O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manan Abdul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mg0:95Ni0:05Ti0:98Zr0:02O3 ceramics was prepared via conventional solid-state mixed-oxide route. The phase, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the sintered samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and a vector network analyzer. The microstructure comprised of circular and elongated plate-like grains. The semi quantitative analysis (EDS of the circular and elongated grains revealed the existence of Mg0:95Ni0:05T2O5 as a secondary phase along with the parent Mg0:95Ni0:05Ti0:98Zr0:02O3 phase, which was consistent with the XRD findings. In the present study, εr ~17.1, Qufo~195855 ± 2550 GHz and τf ~ -46 ppm/K was achieved for the synthesized Mg0:95Ni0:05Ti0:98Zr0:02O3 ceramics sintered at 1325 °C for 4 h.

  20. Synthesis and Microwave Dielectric Properties of A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr and Ca) Ceramics for LTCC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, E. K.; Prasad, K.; Arun, N. S.; Ratheesh, R.

    2016-06-01

    Low-temperature co-firable A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) ceramics have been prepared through the solid state ceramic route. The structural features of these ceramics have been studied using the x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The existence of the A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) ceramic phase was confirmed through laser Raman spectroscopic studies. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed a dense microstructure for the ceramics with closely packed polygonal grains. Among the samples studied, Ba16V18O61 ceramic was prepared in the ultralow sintering temperature of 620°C for 1 h, which can be co-firable with an aluminium electrode. XRD and electron dispersive spectroscopy analyses showed that the samples under study have excellent compatibility with metal electrodes. The microwave dielectric properties measured using a vector network analyzer revealed that A16V18O61 (A = Ba, Sr, Ca) ceramics have excellent unloaded quality factors.

  1. High dielectric permittivity in the microwave region of SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) added La2O3, PbO and Bi2O3, obtained by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, M. J. S.; Silva, P. M. O.; Theophilo, K. R. B.; Sancho, E. O.; Paula, P. V. L.; Silva, M. A. S.; Honorato, S. B.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the microwave dielectric properties and a structural study of SrBi2Nb2O9 (SBN) added La2O3, PbO or Bi2O3 obtained by a solid state procedure. High-energy mechanical milling was used to reduce the particle size, which allows for a better shaping of the green body and an increased reactivity. The mechanical milling activation process produced a reduced sintering temperature in the material, decreasing the loss of the volatile elements and controlling the growth of the grain that is produced when a high temperature is required to obtain dense ceramics. The incorporation of La3+, or Pb2+, or Bi3+ of different amounts (0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 wt%) was used to improve the densification without changing the crystal structure, since with a low doping content these ions can occupy the A site of the perovskite blocks; they can also occupy the Bi3+ sites in Bi2O3 layers. A single orthorhombic phase was formed after calcination at 800 °C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation, infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been carried out in order to investigate the effects of doping on SBN. The dielectric permittivity (ɛ‧r) and loss in the microwave region (2-4 GHz) of SBN ceramics with additions of Bi2O3, La2O3 and PbO were studied. Higher values of permittivity (ɛr‧ = 154.6) have been obtained for the SBN added La (15 wt%) a lower loss (tg δ = 0.01531) was also achieved in the SBN added La (15 wt%) sample with PVA and TEOS, respectively. The samples that showed the highest dielectric permittivities were all lanthanum doped, all with values of permittivity above 90. A comparative study associated with different types of binders was completed (with glycerin, PVA and TEOS). This procedure allowed us to obtain phases at lower temperatures than usually appear in the literature. The microwave dielectric properties (permittivity and loss) in the region 2-4 GHz, were studied for all samples. The structural and microwave dielectric properties of SBN show a

  2. Structural and electrical study of calcium phosphate obtained by a microwave radiation assisted procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.C. [I3N Group and Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro (Portugal); Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (LOCEM), Physics Department, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pici, Postal Code 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza-Ceara (Brazil); Graca, M.P.F. [I3N Group and Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro (Portugal); Sombra, A.S.B., E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.b [Telecommunications and Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory (LOCEM), Physics Department, Federal University of Ceara, Campus do Pici, Postal Code 6030, 60455-760, Fortaleza-Ceara (Brazil); Valente, M.A. [I3N Group and Physics Department, Aveiro University, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2009-05-01

    The hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} (OH){sub 2}-HAP) is the main mineral constituent of teeth and bones with excellent biocompatibility with hard and muscle tissues. This material exhibits several problems of handling and preparation, which can be minimized by mixing the HAP with a suitable binder. In order to improve the phase structure, morphology and the dielectric properties, nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite was prepared by a microwave assisted solid-state reaction technique from Ca(OH){sub 2} and CaHPO{sub 4} powders. After milling the mixture was submitted to microwave radiation in a domestic microwave oven (f=2.45 GHz-1 kW) during 15 and 30 min at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg. C. The samples were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy), FT-IR spectroscopy. The dielectric properties were measured in the frequency range 1 Hz-30 MHz at several temperatures (250-350 K). The dielectric study in function of frequency, at 300 K, was made using the Modulus formalism (M*=1/epsilon*) and a distribution of relaxation times was observed.

  3. Microwave dielectric properties of (1 − x)Mg0.95Zn0.05TiO3–(x)Ca0.6La0.8/3TiO3 ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Shailendra Singh; Keshri, Sunita; Gupta, Vibha Rani

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This report presents the microwave dielectric properties of (1 − x)MZT–(x)CLT samples. ► The 0.79MZT-0.21CLT composite sample shows a nearly zero τ f ∼ −0.8 ppm/°C. ► A dielectric resonator antenna has been fabricated using 0.79MZT-0.21CLT sample. ► The probe fed DRA provides higher gain as compared to the microstrip line fed DRA. -- Abstract: In this paper the structural and microwave dielectric properties of the (1 − x)(Mg 0.95 Zn 0.05 )TiO 3 –(x)(Ca 0.6 La 0.8/3 )TiO 3 ceramic composites have been investigated with the variation of x as well as sintering temperature. The grown samples have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The Rietveld analysis of the XRD data has been carried out for structure refinement of the phases. The relative permittivity (∊ r ), quality factor (Q) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τ f of the grown samples have been thoroughly studied. Out of all samples of this series, the sample with x = 0.21 shows excellent dielectric properties with ∊ r ∼26.26, Q × f ∼ 60,738 GHz (at 6.44 GHz) and a nearly zero τ f ∼ −0.8 ppm/°C. Two types of dielectric resonator antennas with different feeding mechanisms have been fabricated using this sample to study their performance. The experimental results have been compared with the simulated results obtained using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator software

  4. Low temperature sintering and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramics with BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Dongxiang; Dou Gang [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Guo Mei, E-mail: guomei521521@163.com [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gong Shuping [Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-11-01

    Highlights: {yields} The sintering temperature of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramics with BCB was reduced to 950 deg. C. {yields} The properties were dependent on densification, grain sizes and crystalline phases. {yields} The {epsilon}{sub r} 32.56, Q x f = 20,100 GHz (f = 5.128 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = -64.87 ppm/deg. C were achieved. {yields} It represented very promising candidates as LTCC dielectric materials. - Abstract: The phases, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramics with BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) additions prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pure ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramic shows a high sintering temperature of about 1250 deg. C. However, it was found that the addition of BaCu(B{sub 2}O{sub 5}) lowered the sintering temperature of ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramics from above 1250 deg. C to 950 deg. C due to the BCB liquid-phase. The results showed that the microwave dielectric properties were strongly dependent on densification, crystalline phases and grain size. Addition of 3 wt% BCB in ZnTiNb{sub 2}O{sub 8} ceramics sintered at 950 deg. C afforded excellent dielectric properties of {epsilon}{sub r} = 32.56, Q x f = 20,100 GHz (f = 5.128 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = -64.87 ppm/deg. C. These represent very promising candidates for LTCC dielectric materials.

  5. Microwave sintering of nanophase ceramics without concomitant grain growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Sickafus, Kurt E.; Katz, Joel D.

    1993-01-01

    A method of sintering nanocrystalline material is disclosed wherein the nanocrystalline material is microwaved to heat the material to a temperature less than about 70% of the melting point of the nanocrystalline material expressed in degrees K. This method produces sintered nanocrystalline material having a density greater than about 95% of theoretical and an average grain size not more than about 3 times the average grain size of the nanocrystalline material before sintering. Rutile TiO.sub.2 as well as various other ceramics have been prepared. Grain growth of as little as 1.67 times has resulted with densities of about 90% of theoretical.

  6. Impedance and AC conductivity study of nano crystalline, fine grained multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3, synthesized by microwave sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant Kolte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, major reduction in sintering time,temperautre and significant improvement over final density of sitnered sample is reported for the microwave sintered nanocrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO ceramic. Also, different sintering time and temperatures have been used to tailor the grain size and the final density of the resulting BFO ceramics synthesized from phase pure BFO nanoparticles ( d ̄   ≈ 10   n m . Microwave sintering resulted in reducing the sintering time substantially (by 1h, and has resulted in submicron sized grains and high resistivity ∼1.8 GΩ-cm. The AC conductivity is seen to follow the Jonscher’s power law behavior, suggesting correlated barrier hopping (CBH mechanism in the sample. The role of oxygen vacancies at high temperature, due to volatility of bismuth, in dielectric and conductivity behavior is also discussed. Further, the sample displayed dielectric anomaly near magnetic transition temperature (∼180 °C indicating bearing of magnetic moments on the dielectric properties. Using Impedance Spectroscopy (IS we have established, the electrical heterogeneity of the ceramic BFO reavealing semiconducting nature of grains and insulating nature of grain boundary. This, formation of network of insulating grain boundaries and semiconducting grains could lead to formation of internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC leading to high dielectric constant in microwave sintered BFO.

  7. Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 perovskites fabricated by the micro-emulsion route for high frequency response devices fabrications

    KAUST Repository

    Azhar Khan, Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Nanocrystalline La1-xSrxCo1-yFe yO3 (x=0.00-0.60) perovskites were fabricated by a cheap economic route (i.e. micro-emulsion method) and characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TGA analysis showed ~35% weight loss. The crystallite size determined by XRD and SEM ranged from 30 to 80 nm and ~30 to 50 nm, respectively. The dielectric behavior was evaluated in the range of 1.0×106 Hz to 3.0×10 9 Hz at 298 K, the dielectric parameters resulting appreciably enhanced by co-doping with Sr and Fe. The maximum dielectric parameters (ε′=103.35, ε″=58.92 and tan δ=0.57) were observed for La0.4Sr0.6Co0.4Fe0.6O 3 at 15×106 Hz. Results suggest the potential use of these nanocrystalline perovskites in GHz-operated microwave devices. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l.

  8. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials Using Pulsed Microwave Interrogating Signals and Acoustic Wave Induced Reflections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albanese, R

    2002-01-01

    A class of inverse problems is formulated for the estimation of material dielectric parameters using reflections of pulsed microwave interrogating signals from moving acoustic interfaces in the dielectric...

  9. Microwave and infrared dielectric properties of Sr{sub 1-3x/2}Ce{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x = 0.154-0.400) incipient ferroelectrics at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Roberto L [Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, Belo Horizonte MG, 30123-970 (Brazil); Lobo, Ricardo P S M [Laboratoire Photons et Matiere (CNRS - UPR5), ESPCI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Cedex 05, Paris France (France); Subodh, Ganesanpotti; Sebastian, Mailadil T [Materials and Minerals Division, NIIST, Trivandrum-695 019 (India); Jacob, Mohan V [Electronic Material Research Lab, School of Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811 (Australia); Dias, Anderson, E-mail: bmoreira@fisica.ufmg.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Campus Morro do Cruzeiro, ICEB II, Ouro Preto-MG, 35400-000 (Brazil)

    2009-04-07

    Sr{sub 1-3x/2}Ce{sub x}TiO{sub 3} (x = 0.154-0.400) or Sr{sub 2+n}Ce{sub 2}Ti{sub 5+n}O{sub 15+3n} (n {<=} 8) ceramics were prepared by the mixed oxide route. The microwave (MW) dielectric properties of the compounds were investigated in the temperature range from 8 to 295 K. The permittivity increases for decreasing temperatures and saturates below 30 K, following Barrett's equation, demonstrating the incipient ferroelectric nature of the investigated materials. The dielectric loss tangent decreases for decreasing temperatures, reaching a minimum at about 80-120 K, and again increases with further cooling due to the rotations of TiO{sub 6} octahedra. Infrared-reflectivity data show that the dielectric response of the system is driven by the lowest-frequency polar (soft) mode, particularly at lower temperatures, where the phonons become practically uncoupled. The results help us to understand why Sr{sub 1-3x/2}Ce{sub x}TiO{sub 3} materials present more appropriate dielectric properties for MW tunable applications, compared with pure SrTiO{sub 3}.

  10. Structure and microwave dielectric characteristics of (Sr{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x})Nd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Lei; Liu, Xiao Qiang; Li, Lei; Chen, Xiang Ming, E-mail: xmchen59@zju.edu.cn

    2014-09-15

    (Sr{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x})Nd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) ceramics were synthesized by a standard solid state reaction method. Their microwave dielectric properties were investigated together with the structural evolution. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that Ruddlesden–Popper solid solutions with n = 2 were obtained for all the compositions investigated here. Ca-substitution significantly improved the densification behavior which was associated with the variation of ε{sub r}. More importantly, with increasing the content of Ca, τ{sub f} value was generally improved towards near-zero, and the significantly improved Qf value was obtained at x = 0.5. The stacking fault and distorted lattice fringe in the ceramics were confirmed by TEM observation, and these defects were deeply concerned with the microwave dielectric loss. The best combination of microwave dielectric characteristics was achieved for the composition of x = 0.5: ε{sub r} = 21.1, Qf = 68,200 GHz and τ{sub f} = −0.5 ppm/°C. - Highlights: • The formation of solid solutions with partial Ca substitution for Sr improved the sintering behavior of SrNd{sub 2}Al{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics. • Stacking fault and distorted lattice fringe were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. • The variation of Qf value was associated with the stacking fault and distorted lattice fringe.

  11. Mechanochemical Synthesis of 3d Transition-Metal-1,2,4-Triazole Complexes as Precursors for Microwave-Assisted and Thermal Conversion to Coordination Polymers with a High Influence on the Dielectric Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Franziska A; Heine, Johanna; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus

    2016-02-18

    The complexes [MCl2 (TzH)4] (M=Mn (1), Fe (2); TzH=1,2,4-1H-triazole) and [ZnCl2 (TzH)2] (3) have been obtained by mechanochemical reactions of the corresponding divalent metal chloride and 1,2,4-1H-triazole. They were successfully used as precursors for the formation of coordination polymers either by a microwave-assisted reaction or by thermal conversion. For manganese, the conversion directly yielded 1∞ [MnCl2 TzH] (4), whereas for the iron-containing precursor, 1∞ [FeCl2 TzH] (6), was formed via the intermediate coordination polymer 1∞ [FeCl(TzH)2]Cl (5). For cobalt, the isotypic polymer 1∞ [CoCl(TzH)2]Cl (7) was obtained, but exclusively by a microwave-induced reaction directly from CoCl2 . The crystal structures were resolved from single crystals and powders. The dielectric properties were determined and revealed large differences in permittivity between the precursor complexes and the rigid chain-like coordination polymers. Whereas the monomeric complexes exhibit very different dielectric behaviour, depending on the transition metal, from "low-k" to "high-k" with the permittivity ranging from 4.3 to >100 for frequencies of up to 1000 Hz, the coordination polymers and complexes with strong intermolecular interactions are all close to "low-k" materials with very low dielectric constants up to 50 °C. Therefore, the conversion procedures can be used to deliberately influence the dielectric properties from complex to polymer and for different 3d transition-metal ions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of sintering aid on microwave dielectric behaviors of Ni{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} ceramics for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Ching-Fang, E-mail: cftseng@nuu.edu.tw; Chen, Chao-Chen; Lin, Chen-Wei

    2014-10-15

    The effects of ZnO glass addition on the microwave dielectric properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 4} (NTN) ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction method have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The pure NTN ceramics have ε{sub r} of 60.6, Q × f value of 70,100 GHz, and τ{sub f} value of 76.6 ppm {sup °}C{sup −1} sintered at 1140 °C for 6 h. The results indicate that the addition of ZnO can effectively benefit the densification and further improve the dielectric constant. Moreover, the lower sintering temperature of NTN ceramics from 1140 to 930 °C is obtained by the addition of ZnO glass. However, an excess of ZnO suppresses the grain growth and decreases the Q × f value of NTN ceramics. The NTN ceramics with 2 wt% ZnO sintered at 930 °C for 6 h possess promising microwave dielectric properties: ε{sub r} of 56.3, Q × f value of 67,000 GHz, and τ{sub f} value of 78.6 ppm °C{sup −1}, which shows that the materials are suitable for low-temperature co-fired ceramics applications. - Highlights: • Microwave dielectric properties of NTN ceramics with sintering aid for LTCC applications were investigated. • ZnO-doped NTN ceramics decreased the sintering temperature to 930 °C for LTCC applications. • The ε{sub r} of 56.7, Q × f of 67,000, and τ{sub f} of +78.6 were obtained for 2 wt% ZnO-doped NTN ceramics sintered at 930 °C for 6 h. • A significant maintenance of dielectric properties was achieved by ZnO-doped NTN system sintered at 930 °C.

  13. A newly-designed magnetic/dielectric [Fe3O4/BaTiO3@MWCNT] nanocomposite system for modern electromagnetic absorption applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardarian, Pouria; Naffakh-Moosavy, Homam; Afghahi, Seyyed Salman Seyyed

    2017-11-01

    Developments in electronic industries for telecommunications and demands for decreasing electromagnetic radiation pollution result in developing researches on microwave absorption materials. The target of the present study is to design materials with high absorption properties for electromagnetic waves in the 12-18 GHz range. Thus, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were syntheses through chemical co-precipitation reinforced by ultrasonic. Then, BaTiO3 nanocrystalline powder was synthesized by the hydrothermal sol-gel method under atmospheric oxygen. Next, nano-particles of barium titanate were deposited on the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BaTiO3@CNT). It was concluded that a magnetic-dielectric nanocomposite has superior microwave absorption properties in comparison to individual magnetic or dielectric absorbers. Also, in order to obtain an optimum absorption in a wide frequency band, dielectric-CNT nanocomposites represents higher properties than magnetic-CNT composites. It is concluded that composites with more magnetic percentage showed better absorption in low frequency band (12 GHz), whereas composites with more dielectric percentage exhibited superior absorption for high frequency band (18 GHz). 80-93% absorption was obtained in the frequency range of 16.7-18 GHz by composite 40M.20F.40C (40% paraffin, 20% magnetite, 40% multi-walled carbon nanotubes). Also, composite 40M.20B.40B@C (40% paraffin, 20% barium titanate, 40% barium titanate deposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes) showed the absorption of 80-90%.

  14. A HIGH SENSITIVE MICROWAVE MEASURING DEVICE OF THE MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE NON-POLAR DIELECTRIC LIQUIDS BASED ON AN INHOMOGENEOUS STEP COAXIAL RESONATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Rudakov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Objective is to create a moisture meter for non-polar liquid dielectrics with low volumetric moisture content of more than 10‑3 %. Methodology. Moisture measuring is based on dielcometric method. It is implemented as a resonant method of determining a capacitance measuring transducer. Measuring transducer capacitive type has a working and parasitic capacitance. It was suggested the definition of moisture on four of resonance frequencies: when the measuring transducer is turned off, one by one filled with air, «dry» and investigated liquid, to determine the parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and the parasitic capacitance of the measuring transducer and humidity. Measurement frequency was increased up to microwave range to increase the sensitivity. Measuring transducer with distributed parameters representing a step heterogeneous coaxial resonator is used by. This measuring transducer has a zero stray capacitance, because the potential electrode has a galvanic connection with an external coaxial electrode. Inductive ties loop is used to neglect parasitic capacitance of the measuring generator, and to increase the quality factor of the system. Measuring moisture is reduced to measuring the two frequencies of resonance frequency and «dry» and investigated liquid. Resonant characteristics transducer in a step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator have been investigated to determine the quality factor of filled with air and transformer oil, and experiments to measure the moisture content in transformer oil have been conducted. Results. Measuring transducer of distributed type is developed and researched – it is step inhomogeneous coaxial resonator. It has a smaller geometric length and larger scatter of the first and second resonant frequencies. Expression is obtained for determination of moisture on the basis of two resonant frequencies. The formula of the two frequencies to determine the moisture is correct. Resonant

  15. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, optical dispersion and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 1. Synthesis, spectral, thermal, optical dispersion and dielectric properties of nanocrystalline dimer complex (PEPyr–diCd) thin films as novel organic semiconductor. Ahmed Farouk Al-Hossainy. Volume 39 Issue 1 February 2016 pp 209-222 ...

  16. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  17. INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL AND NON-THERMAL INTERACTIONS OF MICROWAVES WITH MATERIALS AND MICROWAVE CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner KUŞLU

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves in industry has generated interest recently as an alternative to classic thermal heating because of the drastic reduction in the processing time. In spite of the fact that there is a wide application of microwaves, the interaction mechanism between microwaves and materials has not been well understood. Nowadays, the fact that there is a debate on the alternative use of microwaves is on not the dielectric heating which is well known but microwave specific effect. In this article there are reports which show similar kinetic in both microwave and classic thermal methods at similar temperature and simple dielectric heating of materials under microwaves conditions. There are also reports which show a clear reaction rate enhancement by microwave radiation compared to the thermal method under similar reactions conditions and temperatures indicating microwave specific effect. In addition, the study on the effects of microwaves on chemical reactions and hypothesis associated with the microwave effects will discuss.

  18. Microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of Na1/2Sm1/2TiO3 filled PTFE, an environmental friendly composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fuchuan; Tang, Bin; Yuan, Ying; Fang, Zixuan; Zhang, Shuren

    2018-04-01

    A study on Na1/2Sm1/2TiO3 filled and glassfiber reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composites was described. The GF content was a fixed value of 4 wt%, and the NST content in the composite matrix changed from 26 to 66 wt%. The paper consisted of the manufactural process of the composite and the effects of filler content on the properties of the substrate, such as morphology, moisture absorption, density, dielectric properties and temperature coefficient of dielectric constant. As NST filler loading increased from 26 to 66 wt%, the dielectric constant and loss tangent experienced a continuously increase while the development in τε was opposite. X-Ray Diffraction, FTIR and XPS were used to analyze the microstructure of modified ceramic powder. It was proved that the silane coupling agent has been grafted on the NST surface successfully. At last, the NST/GF filled PTFE composites exhibited good dielectric constant (εr = 4.95), low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.00147), acceptable water absorption (0.036) and temperature coefficient of dielectric constant (τε = -164) at filler loading of 4 wt% GF and 46 wt% NST.

  19. Infrared absorption study of hydrogen incorporation in thick nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.J.; Neves, A.J.; Carmo, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    We present an infrared (IR) optical absorbance study of hydrogen incorporation in nanocrystalline diamond films. The thick nanocrystalline diamond films were synthesized by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and a high growth rate about 3.0 μm/h was achieved. The morphology, phase quality, and hydrogen incorporation were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Large amount of hydrogen bonded to nanocrystalline diamond is clearly evidenced by the huge CH stretching band in the FTIR spectrum. The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation is discussed in light of the growth mechanism of nanocrystalline diamond. This suggests the potential of nanocrystalline diamond for IR electro-optical device applications

  20. Dielectric properties of Nb2O5-doped (Ba,Sr,Ca)TiO3 thick films for microwave phase shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Gap; Lee, Sang Heon

    2004-01-01

    (Ba,Sr,Ca)TiOi 3 (BSCT) powders, prepared by using the sol-gel method, were mixed with an organic vehicle, and the BSCT thick films were fabricated on alumina substrates by using screen printing techniques. The structural and the dielectric properties were investigated for various composition ratios and Nb 2 O 5 doping contents. All the BSCT thick films, sintered at 1420 .deg. C, showed the typical X-ray diffraction patterns of a perovskite polycrystalline structure. The average grain sizes decreased with increasing amounts of Nb 2 O 5 , and the thickness of thick films deposited by using four-cycle on printing/drying was approximately 110 μm. The Curie temperature and the relative dielectric constant decreased with increasing Ca content and Nb 2 O 5 doping amount. The relative dielectric constant, dielectric loss, and tunability of the BSCT(50/40/10) thick films doped with 1.0 wt% Nb 2 O 5 were 1410, 0.65 %, and 17.29 %, respectively.

  1. Efficiency of Microwave Heating of Weakly Loaded Polymeric Nanocomposites (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    Nanotube‐Based Theranostic Agents for Microwave Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer : Enhanced Dielectric and Heating Response of Tissue...enhanced microwave absorption provides prospective biomedical applications including cancer treatment [3, 4] and also electromagnetic interference

  2. Temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of rubber wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed Firoz Kabir; Wan M. Daud; Kaida B. Khalid; Haji A.A. Sidek

    2001-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the dielectric properties of rubber wood was investigated in three anisotropic directions—longitudinal, radial, and tangential, and at different measurement frequencies. Low frequency measurements were conducted with a dielectric spectrometer, and high frequencies used microwave applied with open-ended coaxial probe sensors. Dielectric...

  3. Light emission, light detection and strain sensing with nanocrystalline graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Adnan; Pyatkov, Feliks; Alam, Asiful; Dehm, Simone; Chakravadhanula, Venkata S K; Flavel, Benjamin S; Kübel, Christian; Krupke, Ralph; Felten, Alexandre; Lemmer, Uli

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is of increasing interest for optoelectronic applications exploiting light detection, light emission and light modulation. Intrinsically, the light–matter interaction in graphene is of a broadband type. However, by integrating graphene into optical micro-cavities narrow-band light emitters and detectors have also been demonstrated. These devices benefit from the transparency, conductivity and processability of the atomically thin material. To this end, we explore in this work the feasibility of replacing graphene with nanocrystalline graphene, a material which can be grown on dielectric surfaces without catalyst by graphitization of polymeric films. We have studied the formation of nanocrystalline graphene on various substrates and under different graphitization conditions. The samples were characterized by resistance, optical transmission, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy measurements. The conducting and transparent wafer-scale material with nanometer grain size was also patterned and integrated into devices for studying light–matter interaction. The measurements show that nanocrystalline graphene can be exploited as an incandescent emitter and bolometric detector similar to crystalline graphene. Moreover the material exhibits piezoresistive behavior which makes nanocrystalline graphene interesting for transparent strain sensors. (paper)

  4. Tunable dielectric properties of ferrite-dielectric based metamaterial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Bi

    Full Text Available A ferrite-dielectric metamaterial composed of dielectric and ferrite cuboids has been investigated by experiments and simulations. By interacting with the electromagnetic wave, the Mie resonance can take place in the dielectric cuboids and the ferromagnetic precession will appear in the ferrite cuboids. The magnetic field distributions show the electric Mie resonance of the dielectric cuboids can be influenced by the ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboids when a certain magnetic field is applied. The effective permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. A good agreement between experimental and simulated results is demonstrated, which confirms that these metamaterials can be used for tunable microwave devices.

  5. Sapphire Ring Resonator For Microwave Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Sapphire dielectric ring resonator operating in "whispering-gallery" mode helps to stabilize frequency and phase of microwave oscillator. Reduces phase noise appreciably at room temperature and promises unprecedented stability of phase at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Mie-Resonance Extraordinary Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolong; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Dezhao; Xun, Shuang; Ouyang, Mengzhu; Fan, Wentao; Guo, Yunsheng; Wu, Ye; Huang, Shanguo; Bi, Ke; Lei, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Microwave bandpass filter structure has been designed and fabricated by filling the periodically metallic apertures with dielectric particles. The microwave cannot transmit through the metallic subwavelength apertures. By filling the metallic apertures with dielectric particles, a transmission passband with insertion loss 2 dB appears at the frequency of 10-12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results show that the passband is induced by the Mie resonance of the dielectric particles. In addition, the passband frequency can be tuned by the size and the permittivity of the dielectric particles. This approach is suitable to fabricate the microwave bandpass filters.

  7. Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on Mie-Resonance Extraordinary Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Pan

    Full Text Available Microwave bandpass filter structure has been designed and fabricated by filling the periodically metallic apertures with dielectric particles. The microwave cannot transmit through the metallic subwavelength apertures. By filling the metallic apertures with dielectric particles, a transmission passband with insertion loss 2 dB appears at the frequency of 10-12 GHz. Both simulated and experimental results show that the passband is induced by the Mie resonance of the dielectric particles. In addition, the passband frequency can be tuned by the size and the permittivity of the dielectric particles. This approach is suitable to fabricate the microwave bandpass filters.

  8. DIELECTRICALLY-LOADED WAVEGUIDE AS A MICROWAVE UNDULATOR FOR HIGH BRILLANCE X-RAYS AT 45 – 90 KeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustom, R. L.; Waldschmidt, G.; Nassiri, A.

    2017-06-01

    The HEM12 mode in a cylindrical, dielectrically-loaded waveguide provides E and H fields on the central axis that are significantly higher than the fields on the conducting walls. This structure, operating near the cutoff frequency of the HEM12 mode, spans a frequency range where the wavelength and phase velocity vary significantly. This property can be exploited to generate undulator action with short periods for the generation of high brightness xrays. The frequency range of interest would be from 18 to 34.5-GHz. The goal would be to generate x-rays on the fundamental mode over a range of 45 to 90-keV.The tunability would be achieved by changing the source frequency while maintaining a constant on-axis equivalent undulator field strength of 0.5-T.

  9. Crystal structures and microwave dielectric properties of Zn,W co-substituted BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Cailan [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yue Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou Yuanyuan; Li Longtu [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Zn,W co-substituted BaTiO{sub 3} perovskite ceramics with compositions of Ba[Ti{sub 1-x}(Zn{sub 1/2}W{sub 1/2}){sub x}]O{sub 3} (x=0.40-1.00) were synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method and studied by X-ray diffraction and dielectric measurements. Their structures transferred from cubic (x=0.40) with space group Pm3{sup Macron }m to hexagonal (x=0.55-0.60) with P6{sub 3}/mmc, and then to cubic double pervoskite (x=1.00) with Fm3{sup Macron }m. The refinement results of sample (x=0.60) revealed that the negative and positive charge centers are not consistent with each other in the face-sharing oxygen octahedra. Compared with the cubic perovskites, the hexagonal ones had the increased quality factor (Q Multiplication-Sign f), the decreased dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}), and especially the near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency ({tau}{sub f}), whose absolute values were less than 5 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The relationships between structures and properties were discussed. - Graphical abstract: The departure of the negative and positive charge centers in the face-sharing oxygen octahedra of hexagonal unit cell. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase transition from simple cubic to hexagonal and then to cubic double pervoskite occurred. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refinement results prove that spontaneous dipoles present in face-sharing oxygen octahedra. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal perovskites had higher Q Multiplication-Sign f, nearer-zero {tau}{sub f}, and lower {epsilon}{sub r} than the cubic ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer On the presence of the hexagonal perovskite, |{tau}{sub f}| was less than 5 ppm/ Degree-Sign C.

  10. Dielectric Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Final Report  29 May 2015 Dielectric Metamaterials SRI Project P21340 ONR Contract N00014-12-1-0722 Prepared by: Srini Krishnamurthy...2 2. Theory of Metamaterials ....................................................................................................... 2 2.1...accurately assess the impact of various forms of disorder on metamaterials (MMs) (both dielectric and metal inclusions); and (5) identify designs

  11. Magnetism in nanocrystalline gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuboltsev, Vladimir; Savin, Alexander; Pirojenko, Alexandre; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2013-08-27

    While bulk gold is well known to be diamagnetic, there is a growing body of convincing experimental and theoretical work indicating that nanostructured gold can be imparted with unconventional magnetic properties. Bridging the current gap in experimental study of magnetism in bare gold nanomaterials, we report here on magnetism in gold nanocrystalline films produced by cluster deposition in the aggregate form that can be considered as a crossover state between a nanocluster and a continuous film. We demonstrate ferromagnetic-like hysteretic magnetization with temperature dependence indicative of spin-glass-like behavior and find this to be consistent with theoretical predictions, available in the literature, based on first-principles calculations.

  12. A Study on Dielectric Properties of Cadmium Sulfide-Zinc Sulfide Core-Shell Nanocomposites for Application as Nanoelectronic Filter Component in the Microwave Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jutika; Datta, Pranayee

    2018-03-01

    Complex permittivities of cadmium sulfide (CdS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and of cadmium sulfide-zinc sulfide (CdS/ZnS) core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix (PVA) were measured in liquid phase using a VectorNetwork Analyzer in the frequency range of 500 MHz-10 GHz. These nanocomposites are modeled as an embedded capacitor, and their electric field distribution and polarization have been studied using COMSOL Multiphysics software. By varying the thickness of the shell and the number of inclusions, the capacitance values were estimated. It was observed that CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix show capacitive behavior. There is a strong influence of the dielectric properties in the capacitive behavior of the embedded nanocapacitor. The capping matrix, position and filling factors of nanoinclusions all affect the capacitive behavior of the tested nanocomposites. Application of the CdS, ZnS and CdS/ZnS core-shell nanocomposite as the passive low-pass filter circuit has also been investigated. From the present study, it has been found that CdS/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in PVA matrix are potential structures for application as nanoelectronic filter components in different areas of communication.

  13. Anisotropy of Wood in the Microwave Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziherl, Sasa; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Cepic, Mojca

    2010-01-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of…

  14. Microwave processing of radioactive materials-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T.L.; Berry, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers that reviews the major past and present applications of microwave energy for processing radioactive materials, with particular emphasis on processing radioactive wastes. Microwave heating occurs through the internal friction produced inside a dielectric material when its molecules vibrate in response to an oscillating microwave field. For this presentation, we shall focus on the two FCC-approved microwave frequencies for industrial, scientific, and medical use, 915 and 2450 MHz. Also, because of space limitations, we shall postpone addressing plasma processing of hazardous wastes using microwave energy until a later date. 13 refs., 4 figs

  15. Aspects of microwave-heating uniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Makowitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Interest has been shown in the field of nuclear reactor safety in the use of microwave heating to simulate the nuclear heat source. The objective of the investigation reported here was to evaluate the usefulness of microwave dielectric heating as a simulator of the nuclear heat source in experiments which simulate the process of boiling of molten mixtures of nuclear fuel and steel. This paper summarizes the results of studies of several aspects of energy deposition in dielectric liquid samples which are exposed to microwave radiation

  16. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2009-06-23

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  17. Dielectric studies of binary mixtures of -propyl alcohol and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric constant (') and dielectric loss (") of -propyl alcohol (PA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and their binary mixtures, for different mole fractions of ethylenediamine have been experimentally measured at 11.15 GHz microwave frequency. Values of density (), viscosity () and square refractive index ( n D 2 ) of binary ...

  18. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  19. Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1030.10 - Microwave Ovens Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting ...

  20. A comparison between leaf dielectric properties of stressed and unstressed tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Emmerik, T.H.M.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.; Judge, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf dielectric properties influence microwave scattering from a vegetation canopy. The dielectric properties of leaves are primarily a function of leaf water content. Understanding the effect of water stress on leaf dielectric properties will give insight in how plant dynamics change as a result of

  1. [Application of microwave irradiation technology to the field of pharmaceutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Bing; Shi, Nian-Qiu; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Xing-Lin

    2014-03-01

    Microwaves can be directly transformed into heat inside materials because of their ability of penetrating into any substance. The degree that materials are heated depends on their dielectric properties. Materials with high dielectric loss are more easily to reach a resonant state by microwaves field, then microwaves can be absorbed efficiently. Microwave irradiation technique with the unique heating mechanisms could induce drug-polymer interaction and change the properties of dissolution. Many benefits such as improving product quality, increasing energy efficiency and reducing times can be obtained by microwaves. This paper summarized characteristics of the microwave irradiation technique, new preparation techniques and formulation process in pharmaceutical industry by microwave irradiation technology. The microwave technology provides a new clue for heating and drying in the field of pharmaceutics.

  2. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  3. Characterisation of interfaces in nanocrystalline palladium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Characterisation of interfaces in nanocrystalline palladium. 49. Interface structures in nanocrystalline materials have been the subject of research from the very beginning. The first indication that the structure of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline materials was different was from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of Zhu et al ...

  4. Multipactor experiment on a dielectric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rex Beach, III

    2001-12-01

    Multipactor is an electron multiplication process, or electron avalanche, that occurs on metallic and dielectric surfaces in the presence of rf microwave fields. Just as a rock avalanche only needs one rock to cause a larger slide of destruction, one electron under multipactor conditions can cause a tremendous amount of damage to electrical components. Multipactor is a nuisance that can cause excessive noise in communication satellites and radar, and damage to vacuum windows in particle accelerators. Single-surface multipactor on dielectrics is responsible for poor transmission properties of vacuum windows and can eventually lead to vacuum window failure. The repercussions of multipactor affect a wide range of people. For example, a civilian placing a call on a cell phone, or a captain dependent on radar for his ship's safety could both be affected by multipactor. In order to combat this expensive annoyance, a unique experiment to investigate single-surface multipactor on a dielectric surface was developed and tested. The motivation of this thesis is to introduce a novel experiment for multipactor that is designed to verify theoretical calculations and explore the physics behind the phenomenon. The compact apparatus consists of a small brass microwave cavity in a high vacuum system. Most single-surface multipactor experiments consist of a large resonant ring wave guide with a MW power supply. This experiment is the first to utilize a high Q resonant cavity and kW-level power supply to create multipactor on a dielectric surface. The small brass resonant cavity has an inner length of 9.154 cm with an inner diameter of 9.045 cm. A pulsed, variable frequency microwave source at ˜2.4 GHz, 2 kW peak excites the TE111 mode with a strong electric field parallel to a dielectric plate (˜0.2 cm thickness) that is inserted at the mid-plane of the cavity. The microwave pulses from the power supply are monitored by calibrated microwave diodes. These calibrated diodes along

  5. Dynamic dielectric properties of a wood liquefaction system using polyethylene glycol and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Bo Cai; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction has shown potential for rapid thermal processing of lignocellulosic biomass. The efficiency of microwave heating depends largely on the dielectric properties of the materials being heated. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between microwave energy and the reaction system during the liquefaction of a...

  6. Sputtered tungsten-based ternary and quaternary layers for nanocrystalline diamond deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walock, Michael J; Rahil, Issam; Zou, Yujiao; Imhoff, Luc; Catledge, Shane A; Nouveau, Corinne; Stanishevsky, Andrei V

    2012-06-01

    Many of today's demanding applications require thin-film coatings with high hardness, toughness, and thermal stability. In many cases, coating thickness in the range 2-20 microm and low surface roughness are required. Diamond films meet many of the stated requirements, but their crystalline nature leads to a high surface roughness. Nanocrystalline diamond offers a smoother surface, but significant surface modification of the substrate is necessary for successful nanocrystalline diamond deposition and adhesion. A hybrid hard and tough material may be required for either the desired applications, or as a basis for nanocrystalline diamond film growth. One possibility is a composite system based on carbides or nitrides. Many binary carbides and nitrides offer one or more mentioned properties. By combining these binary compounds in a ternary or quaternary nanocrystalline system, we can tailor the material for a desired combination of properties. Here, we describe the results on the structural and mechanical properties of the coating systems composed of tungsten-chromium-carbide and/or nitride. These WC-Cr-(N) coatings are deposited using magnetron sputtering. The growth of adherent nanocrystalline diamond films by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition has been demonstrated on these coatings. The WC-Cr-(N) and WC-Cr-(N)-NCD coatings are characterized with atomic force microscopy and SEM, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation.

  7. Review on Microwave-Matter Interaction Fundamentals and Efficient Microwave-Associated Heating Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Wenlong; Yue, Qinyan

    2016-01-01

    Microwave heating is rapidly emerging as an effective and efficient tool in various technological and scientific fields. A comprehensive understanding of the fundamentals of microwave–matter interactions is the precondition for better utilization of microwave technology. However, microwave heating is usually only known as dielectric heating, and the contribution of the magnetic field component of microwaves is often ignored, which, in fact, contributes greatly to microwave heating of some aqueous electrolyte solutions, magnetic dielectric materials and certain conductive powder materials, etc. This paper focuses on this point and presents a careful review of microwave heating mechanisms in a comprehensive manner. Moreover, in addition to the acknowledged conventional microwave heating mechanisms, the special interaction mechanisms between microwave and metal-based materials are attracting increasing interest for a variety of metallurgical, plasma and discharge applications, and therefore are reviewed particularly regarding the aspects of the reflection, heating and discharge effects. Finally, several distinct strategies to improve microwave energy utilization efficiencies are proposed and discussed with the aim of tackling the energy-efficiency-related issues arising from the application of microwave heating. This work can present a strategic guideline for the developed understanding and utilization of the microwave heating technology. PMID:28773355

  8. Microwave imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pastorino, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the most relevant theoretical and algorithmic aspects of modern microwave imaging approaches Microwave imaging-a technique used in sensing a given scene by means of interrogating microwaves-has recently proven its usefulness in providing excellent diagnostic capabilities in several areas, including civil and industrial engineering, nondestructive testing and evaluation, geophysical prospecting, and biomedical engineering. Microwave Imaging offers comprehensive descriptions of the most important techniques so far proposed for short-range microwave imaging-in

  9. n-Type phosphorus-doped nanocrystalline diamond: electrochemical and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Zivcova, Z. Vlckova; Frank, O.; Drijkoningen, Sien; Haenen, Ken; Mortet, Vincent; Kavan, L.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical characterization of n-type phosphorus-doped nanocrystalline diamond (P-NCD) is carried out. The P-NCD films are grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and doped with phosphorus at a concentration of 10 000 ppm in the gas phase. Micro-Raman spectroscopy determines the film quality (presence of graphitic or amorphous phases). All electrochemical measurements are performed in aqueous 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte solution....

  10. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  11. Structural and microwave dielectric properties of the (1−x) Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4}−x Ca{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} thermally stable ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, F.F. [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, 541004 (China); Chen, G.H., E-mail: cgh1682002@163.com [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, 541004 (China); Li, X.Q. [School of Information and Communication, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, 541004 (China); Yang, Y.; Feng, Q.; Yang, T.; Yuan, C.L. [Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin, 541004 (China); Li, M. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-01

    The ceramic system of (1−x) Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4}−x Ca{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} prepared by solid reaction route has been found to possess excellent dielectric properties. Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4} was combined with Ca{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} to obtain a two-phase ceramic system and to achieve a thermally stable material. As x value varied from 0.1 to 0.4, the temperature coefficient of resonate frequency values (τ{sub f}) ranged from +119.1 ppm/°C to −30.7  ppm/°C. At x = 0.2, the 0.8 Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4}–0.2 Ca{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} ceramic sintered at 1075 °C for 4 h exhibited outstanding microwave dielectric properties with a relative dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) ∼21.7, a quality factor (Q × f) value ∼49,276 GHz (at 6.1 GHz), and a τ{sub f} ∼5.2 ppm/°C, which represented a promising candidate for microwave dielectric applications. Moreover, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were included in our work to help identify and analyze the phase assemblage and the microstructure of the sintered ceramics. - Highlights: • (1−x) Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4}−x Ca{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were prepared by mixed oxide route. • The τ{sub f} of Li{sub 3}NbO{sub 4} was modified to near 0 ppm/°C by incorporating Ca{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3}. • The excellent dielectric properties of ε{sub r} = 21.7, Q × f = 49,276 GHz were achieved. • The optimized sintering temperature of the ceramics was 1075 °C.

  12. Dielectric relaxation behaviour of Sr2SbMnO6 ceramics fabricated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dielectric relaxation behaviour of Sr2SbMnO6 ceramics fabricated from nanocrystalline powders prepared by molten salt synthesis. ANTARA BARAL, K R S PREETHI MEHER and K B R VARMA. ∗. Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. MS received 7 July 2010; revised 26 August ...

  13. Nanocrystalline magnetic alloys and ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafine particles of both ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems show superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. Coercivity ( H c ) and maximum energy product ( B H ) max of the magnetic particles can be changed by controlling their sizes. The present paper reviews all these aspects in the case of nanocrystalline ...

  14. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Ferrites are also used in camouflaging military aircrafts and missiles against radar detection (Meshram et al 2002). Among the spinel type ferrites, nickel ... agglomeration of the particles. The precipitate formed was separated and washed several times in distilled water to free it from ions and other impurities. Finally it was.

  15. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu Ji1 2 Li Dihui1 2 Zhang Xiaohui1 2 Jiang Jingshan1 2 A T Altyntsev3 2 B I Lubyshev3 2. Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 8701, Beijing 100 080, China. China–Russia Joint Research Center on Space Weather; Institute of Solar Terrestrial Physics, Siberia Branch ...

  16. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    when Neil Armstrong set his foot on the lunar surface at 02:56:15 UT on 21st July 1969. From then on, a great number of scientists from differ- ent disciplines were involved in the study of lunar material collected by former Soviet Union robots and Apollo astronauts. With the completion of the first round of lunar exploration by ...

  17. Microwave dielectric properties of nanostructured nickel ferrite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    GHz region and chlorine gas sensors (Gotic et al 1998;. Gopal Reddy et al 1999). Among the ferrites, the ... (10 ml, 0⋅5 molar) and nickel nitrate (10 ml, 0⋅5 molar) were added slowly to a mixture of NaOH (10 ml, .... duced the surface to volume ratio increases and the num- ber of iron ions in B sites increases. This results in ...

  18. Study on the Microwave Permittivity of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolai; Zhao, Donglin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we studied the microwave permittivity of the complex of the single-walled carbon nanotube and paraffin in 2-18GHz. In the range, the dielectric loss of single-walled carbon nanotube is higher, and the real part and the imaginary part of the dielectric constant decrease with the increase of frequency, and the dielectric constant…

  19. Characterizations of biodegradable epoxy-coated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film for flexible microwave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyi Mi; Chien-Hao Liu; Tzu-Husan Chang; Jung-Hun Seo; Huilong Zhang; Sang June Cho; Nader Behdad; Zhenqiang Ma; Chunhua Yao; Zhiyong Cai; Shaoqin Gong

    2016-01-01

    Wood pulp cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film is a novel recyclable and biodegradable material. We investigated the microwave dielectric properties of the epoxy coated-CNF thin film for potential broad applications in flexible high speed electronics. The characterizations of dielectric properties were carried out in a frequency range of 1–10 GHz. The dielectric...

  20. Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for Enhanced Microwave Imaging and Thermal Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Sahakian, J. H. Booske, and S. C. Hagness, “Toward carbon-nanotube-based theranostic agents for microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer ... theranostic agents for microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer : Enhanced dielectric and heating response of tissue-mimicking materials...NO. 8, AUGUST 2010 1831 Toward Carbon-Nanotube-Based Theranostic Agents for Microwave Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer : Enhanced Dielectric

  1. Preparation and microwave dielectric properties of Li{sub 3}(Mg{sub 0.92}Zn{sub 0.08}){sub 2}NbO{sub 6}–Ba{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} composite ceramics for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianwen; Zuo, Ruzhong, E-mail: piezolab@hfut.edu.cn; Zhang, Chen

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Microwave properties of ϵ{sub r} ∼ 16.3, Q × f ∼ 50,084 GHz and τ{sub f} ∼ 1.5 ppm/°C are achieved. • The τ{sub f} value of the LMZN ceramic can be adjusted to near zero by adding BV. • The LMZN–BV composite ceramic can be well sintered at a relatively low temperature. • The composite ceramic has a good chemical compatibility with Ag electrode. - Abstract: In this work, the (1 − x)Li{sub 3}(Mg{sub 0.92}Zn{sub 0.08}){sub 2}NbO{sub 6}–xBa{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} (x = 0.1–0.35) ceramics were prepared via a conventional solid state reaction route. The phase composition, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a scanning electron microscope and a network analyzer. The XRD results indicated that the Li{sub 3}(Mg{sub 0.92}Zn{sub 0.08}){sub 2}NbO{sub 6} and Ba{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} phases could well coexist without forming any secondary phases. The dielectric constant (ϵ{sub r}) and quality factor (Q × f) values of the Li{sub 3}(Mg{sub 0.92}Zn{sub 0.08}){sub 2}NbO{sub 6} ceramic decreased with the addition of Ba{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase, however its temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ{sub f}) value was improved significantly. Excellent microwave dielectric properties of ϵ{sub r} ∼ 16.3, Q × f ∼ 50,084 GHz (at 8.64 GHz) and τ{sub f} ∼ 1.5 ppm/°C were achieved for the x = 0.3 sample when sintered at 950 °C for 4 h. The chemical compatibility with Ag electrode indicated that the 0.7Li{sub 3}(Mg{sub 0.92}Zn{sub 0.08}){sub 2}NbO{sub 6}–0.3Ba{sub 3}(VO{sub 4}){sub 2} composite ceramic would be a promising material for the low temperature cofired ceramic applications.

  2. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microwave Irradiation. Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. This article highlights with examples, the usefulness of microwaves for carrying out a'variety of organic transfor- mations. Introduction and Background. The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens prompted a number of ...

  3. Processing of Nanocrystalline Nitrides and Oxide Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ying, Jackie

    1998-01-01

    We have recently begun to investigate the chemical composition, specifically oxygen contamination, and sintering behavior of the nanocrystalline aluminum nitride synthesized in the forced flow reactor...

  4. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  6. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  7. Nanocrystalline silicon in biological studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fučíková, A.; Valenta, J.; Pelant, Ivan; Kůsová, Kateřina; Březina, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 1093-1096 ISSN 1862-6351 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120804; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nanocrystalline * silicon * biocompatibility * quantum dot * fluorescence label Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  8. Structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Taking a cubic unit cell or a regular polyhedron unit cell of nanocrystalline material, the volume fraction of each ... The present article reviews the present states of understanding in these aspects of nanocrystalline materials. ..... Calculations based on the equation of state show 37% reduction in tetragonal shear modulus of ...

  9. Structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, study of the thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials against significant grain growth is both scientific and technological interest. A sharp increase in grain size (to micron levels) during consolidation of nanocrystalline powders to obtain fully dense materials may consequently result in the loss of some unique ...

  10. Sintering characteristic and microwave dielectric properties of 0.45Ca0.6Nd0.267TiO3-0.55Li0.5Nd0.5TiO3 ceramics with La2O3-B2O3-ZnO additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yawei; Zhang, Shuren; Li, Enzhu; Niu, Na; Yang, Hongcheng

    2018-02-01

    The La2O3-B2O3-ZnO (LBZ) glass was proved to be an effective sintering aid of the 0.45Ca0.6Nd0.26TiO3-0.55Li0.5Nd0.5TiO3 (CNT-LNT) ceramics. The influence of LBZ glass on the phase composition, low temperature sintering process, microstructure, activation energy, and dielectric properties of CNT-LNT ceramics was investigated in detail. The LBZ glass induced an obvious decrease of the CNT-LNT ceramics sintering temperature from 1350 to 1000 °C due to the liquid phase formation, which reduced the activation energy ( E a) of the CNT-LNT ceramics. In addition, the near zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τƒ) value was obtained by adding moderate quantity of LBZ glass. CNT-LNT + 5 wt% LBZ (CNT-LNT + 5L) ceramics sintered at 1000°C/4 h displayed good microwave dielectric properties of: ɛ r = 101.7, Q × f = 1560 GHz ( f = 3.25 GHz) and τ ƒ = 2.3 ppm °C-1.

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of barium titanate nanoparticles for multi layered ceramic capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Sundararajan; Shanmugavel, Balasivanandha Prabu

    2011-01-01

    Barium titanate is a common ferroelectric electro-ceramic material having high dielectric constant, with photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. In this research work, nano-scale barium titanate powders were synthesized by microwave assisted mechano-chemical route. Suitable precursors were ball milled for 20 hours. TGA studies were performed to study the thermal stability of the powders. The powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDX Analysis. Microwave and Conventional heating were performed at 1000 degrees C. The overall heating schedule was reduced by 8 hours in microwave heating thereby reducing the energy and time requirement. The nano-scale, impurity-free and defect-free microstructure was clearly evident from the SEM micrograph and EDX patterns. LCR meter was used to measure the dielectric constant and dielectric loss values at various frequencies. Microwave heated powders showed superior dielectric constant value with low dielectric loss which is highly essential for the fabrication of Multi Layered Ceramic Capacitors.

  12. Temperature dependence of microwave and THz dielectric response in Srn.sub.+1./sub.TinO.sub.3./sub.n.sub.+1./sub. (n=1-4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noujni, Dmitri; Kamba, Stanislav; Pashkin, Alexej; Bovtun, Viktor; Petzelt, Jan; Axlesson, A. K.; McN Alford, N.; Wise, P. L.; Reaney, I. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, - (2004), s. 199-203 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : Ruddlesden. Popper * MW dielectric properties * infrared and THz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2004

  13. Peculiar Bi-ion dynamics in Na.sub.1/2./sub.Bi.sub.1/2./sub.TiO.sub.3./sub. from terahertz and microwave dielectric spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petzelt, Jan; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Pasciak, Marek; Kamba, Stanislav; Dittmer, R.; Svirskas, Š.; Banys, J.; Rödel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 953-965 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : sodium bismuth titanate * terahertz spectroscopy * broadband dielectric spectroscopy * phase-transition dynamics * Bi-ion dynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  14. Microwave dispersion of some polar liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poley, J.P.

    1955-01-01

    The chief purpose of the present investigation is the measurement and analysis of the microwave dispersion of some polar liquids. An outline of the problem and a historical survey of experimental work on the dielectric behaviour of polar liquids are given in Chapter I. A number of theoretical

  15. (Ln = Ce, Pr and Nd) microwave ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A number of samples with improved microwave dielectric properties were obtained on all the systems suitable for practical applications. Keywords. .... and then sintered at optimized temperatures in a con- trolled heating schedule. .... Bijumon P V and Sebastian M T 2005 Mater. Sci. Eng. B123 31. Choi J H, Kim J H, Lee B T, ...

  16. Tunable microwave metamaterials based on ordinary water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei V.; Jacobsen, Rasmus Elkjær; Arslanagic, Samel

    All-dielectric metamaterials are the growing trend in optics and electromagnetics. They require materials with high permittivity, for example silicon in photonics. Aiming the microwaves range we present here water as a unique substance for employing in metamaterials design. Dependence of water...

  17. (Ln = Ce, Pr and Nd) microwave ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    125–128. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Influence of lead oxide addition on LnTiTaO6 (Ln = Ce, Pr and Nd) ... A number of samples with improved microwave dielectric properties were obtained on all the systems suitable for practical ... circuits due to their compactness, thermal stability, low cost of production, high efficiency ...

  18. Microwave properties of vanadium borate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The maximum loss was found to be at 15V2O5 mol%. The peak was observed in loss with tempera- ture. Keywords. Semiconducting glass; V2O5–B2O3; microwave properties. 1. Introduction. Ceramics and glasses possessing high relative dielectric constant, ε′ (~ 20 ~ 90), high quality factor, Q (> 3000–. 35000 at 3 GHz), ...

  19. Microwave undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1986-03-01

    The theory of a microwave undulator utilizing a plane rectangular waveguide operating in the TE/sub 10n/ mode and other higher order modes is presented. Based on this, a possible undulator configuration is analyzed, leading to the conclusion that the microwave undulator represents a viable option for undulator wavelength down to about 1 cm where peak voltage and available microwave power considerations limit effectiveness. 4 refs., 4 figs

  20. Understanding the microwave annealing of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaochao Fu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Though microwave annealing appears to be very appealing due to its unique features, lacking an in-depth understanding and accurate model hinder its application in semiconductor processing. In this paper, the physics-based model and accurate calculation for the microwave annealing of silicon are presented. Both thermal effects, including ohmic conduction loss and dielectric polarization loss, and non-thermal effects are thoroughly analyzed. We designed unique experiments to verify the mechanism and extract relevant parameters. We also explicitly illustrate the dynamic interaction processes of the microwave annealing of silicon. This work provides an in-depth understanding that can expedite the application of microwave annealing in semiconductor processing and open the door to implementing microwave annealing for future research and applications.

  1. Microwave Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Makes ultra-high-resolution field measurements. The Microwave Microscope (MWM) has been used in support of several NRL experimental programs involving sea...

  2. Microwave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldner, H.W.; Cusson, R.Y.; Johnson, R.M.

    1985-02-08

    A microwave detector is provided for measuring the envelope shape of a microwave pulse comprised of high-frequency oscillations. A biased ferrite produces a magnetization field flux that links a B-dot loop. The magnetic field of the microwave pulse participates in the formation of the magnetization field flux. High-frequency insensitive means are provided for measuring electric voltage or current induced in the B-dot loop. The recorded output of the detector is proportional to the time derivative of the square of the envelope shape of the microwave pulse.

  3. Testing quantised inertia on emdrives with dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, M. E.

    2017-05-01

    Truncated-cone-shaped cavities with microwaves resonating within them (emdrives) move slightly towards their narrow ends, in contradiction to standard physics. This effect has been predicted by a model called quantised inertia (MiHsC) which assumes that the inertia of the microwaves is caused by Unruh radiation, more of which is allowed at the wide end. Therefore, photons going towards the wide end gain inertia, and to conserve momentum the cavity must move towards its narrow end, as observed. A previous analysis with quantised inertia predicted a controversial photon acceleration, which is shown here to be unnecessary. The previous analysis also mispredicted the thrust in those emdrives with dielectrics. It is shown here that having a dielectric at one end of the cavity is equivalent to widening the cavity at that end, and when dielectrics are considered, then quantised inertia predicts these results as well as the others, except for Shawyer's first test where the thrust is predicted to be the right size but in the wrong direction. As a further test, quantised inertia predicts that an emdrive's thrust can be enhanced by using a dielectric at the wide end.

  4. Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2017-12-01

    By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.

  5. Dynamic recovery in nanocrystalline Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z.; Van Petegem, S.; Cervellino, A.; Durst, K.; Blum, W.; Van Swygenhoven, H.

    2015-01-01

    The constant flow stress reached during uniaxial deformation of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni reflects a quasi-stationary balance between dislocation slip and grain boundary (GB) accommodation mechanisms. Stress reduction tests allow to suppress dislocation slip and bring recovery mechanisms into the foreground. When combined with in situ X-ray diffraction it can be shown that grain boundary recovery mechanisms play an important role in producing plastic strain while hardening the microstructure. This result has a significant consequence for the parameters of thermally activated glide of dislocations, such as athermal stress and activation volume, which are traditionally derived from stress/strain rate change tests

  6. Influence of the central mode and soft phonon on the microwave dielectric loss near the strain-induced ferroelectric phase transitions in Sr.sub.n+1./sub.Ti.sub.n./sub.O.sub.3n+1./sub..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goian, Veronica; Kamba, Stanislav; Orloff, N.; Birol, T.; Lee, Ch.H.; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Booth, J.C.; Bernhagen, M.; Uecker, R.; Schlom, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 17 (2014), "174105-1"-"174105-10" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13048; GA ČR GAP204/12/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : ferroelectrics * microwave properties * central mode * soft mode Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  7. Contrast-enhanced microwave detection and treatment of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang

    Contrast agents and heating agents have been proposed for microwave breast tumor imaging and treatment, respectively. The dielectric properties of the tumor are altered with contrast agents or heating agents that locally accumulate in the tumor. The resulting change in dielectric properties of the tumor has the potential to enhance the sensitivity of microwave imaging of breast tumors and increase the efficiency and selectivity of microwave thermal therapy of breast tumors. This dissertation addresses several key challenges in contrast-enhanced microwave imaging and treatment of breast tumors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been shown to enhance both the relative permittivity and effective conductivity of the host medium, and are promising as theranostic (integrated therapeutic and diagnostic) agents. Thus, our properties characterization work focuses on CNT dispersions. We performed in vitro microwave dielectric properties and heating response characterization of dispersions of CNTs treated by different functionalization methods and identified a CNT formulation that is very promising as a microwave theranostic agent. Stable dispersions of CNTs with concentrations up to 20 mg/ml are obtained with this formulation, and the enhanced microwave properties of these dispersions are extraordinary compared to the control. We also conducted in vivo dielectric properties characterization of mouse tumors with intra-tumoral injections of CNT dispersions and confirmed that the presence of CNTs increases the dielectric properties of the tumor. In parallel, we developed a contrast-enhanced microwave breast tumor imaging algorithm using sparse reconstruction methods. We demonstrated that this algorithm accurately localizes small tumors in 3D numerical breast phantoms. We also demonstrated the experimental feasibility of this method using physical breast phantoms. Lastly, we studied the sensitivity of the distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) to initial guesses and developed a

  8. Super dielectric capacitor using scaffold dielectric

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Patent A capacitor having first and second electrodes and a scaffold dielectric. The scaffold dielectric comprises an insulating material with a plurality of longitudinal channels extending across the dielectric and filled with a liquid comprising cations and anions. The plurality of longitudinal channels are substantially parallel and the liquid within the longitudinal channels generally has an ionic strength of at least 0.1. Capacitance results from the migrations of...

  9. Design of Microwave Camera for Breast Cancer Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2008-01-01

    Among the various alternative breast imaging modalities to improve breast cancer detection, microwave imaging is attractive due to the high dielectric property contrast between the cancerous and normal tissue and has received a significant interest over the last decade. This thesis presents...... the research and development of a microwave imaging system capable of reconstructing the dielectric properties of the female breast. As part of this study, a brief review of the ongoing research in the field of microwave imaging of biological tissues is given, with major focus on the breast tumor detection...... application. The current microwave imaging systems are classified on the basis of the employed measurement concepts. Within the various microwave imaging techniques under development, the active frequency domain method is found to be one of the most promising and is chosen as a basis for the development...

  10. Green and solvent-free procedure for microwave-assisted synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design and development of a heterogeneous nanocatalyst for condensation reaction of acetophenone derivatives, aromatic aldehydes, and ammonium acetate to yield 2,4,6-triarylpyridines followed by microwave irradiation is described. Nanocrystalline MgAl2O4 as a novel heterogeneous recyclable catalyst shows high ...

  11. Visualization of the microwave beam generated by a plasma relativistic microwave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I. S.; Ivanov, I. E.; Strelkov, P. S., E-mail: strelkov@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Tarakanov, V. P., E-mail: karat@msk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Ulyanov, D. K. [Russian Academy of Science, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A method based on the detection of emission of a dielectric screen with metal microinclusions in open air is applied to visualize the transverse structure of a high-power microwave beam. In contrast to other visualization techniques, the results obtained in this work provide qualitative information not only on the electric field strength, but also on the structure of electric field lines in the microwave beam cross section. The interpretation of the results obtained with this method is confirmed by numerical simulations of the structure of electric field lines in the microwave beam cross section by means of the CARAT code.

  12. Normal modes and quality factors of spherical dielectric resonators: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parameters suitable for their application in the optical and microwave frequency ranges have been used to compute the frequencies corresponding to the normal modes for the TE and TM modes. Expressions for the quality factors for realistic resonators, i.e., for a dielectric sphere with a non-zero conductivity and a metal ...

  13. Study of the dielectric parameters of aluminium ore bauxite of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple method for measuring the dielectric parameter of materials in the form of powders at microwave frequencies is suggested. Measurement of the permittivity ε ′ and ε ″ at 9.967 GHz on powder samples of the aluminum ore bauxite gives interesting results. It is found that ε ′ and ε ″ increases with packing ...

  14. Investigation of differences in dielectric properties of marinated poultry meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dielectric behavior of foods when exposed to radio-frequency and microwave electric fields is highly influenced by moisture content and the degree of water binding with constituents of the food materials. If their interaction with the interior of the food materials can be correlated with quality...

  15. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  16. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2006-01-01

    Wireless, optical, and electronic networks continue to converge, prompting heavy research into the interface between microwave electronics, ultrafast optics, and photonic technologies. New developments arrive nearly as fast as the photons under investigation, and their commercial impact depends on the ability to stay abreast of new findings, techniques, and technologies. Presenting a broad yet in-depth survey, Microwave Photonics examines the major advances that are affecting new applications in this rapidly expanding field.This book reviews important achievements made in microwave photonics o

  17. Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Matthew Albert

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis, processing and characterization of nanocrystalline aluminum nitride has been systematically studied. Non-carbon based gas nitridation was used to reduce nanocrystalline γ-alumina, having a grain size of ~80 nm. Single phase aluminum nitride powder was obtained at firing temperatures of 1200°C. Further processing of AlN powders was performed by CAPAD (Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification) to obtain dense single phase aluminum nitride. Dense bulk aluminum nitride was ob...

  18. Dielectric characterisation of soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The potential of dielectric measuring techniques for soil characterisation has not been fully explored. This is attributed to the complex and incomplete theory on dielectrics, as well as to the lack of sensors suited for practical applications.

    The theory on dielectric properties of soils is

  19. Quantitative nanometer-scale mapping of dielectric tunability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselev, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Klein, Andreas [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Gassmann, Juergen [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Jesse, Stephen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Qian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wisinger, Nina Balke [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-21

    Two scanning probe microscopy techniques—near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)—are used to characterize and image tunability in a thin (Ba,Sr)TiO3 film with nanometer scale spatial resolution. While sMIM allows direct probing of tunability by measurement of the change in the dielectric constant, in PFM, tunability can be extracted via electrostrictive response. The near-field microwave imaging and PFM provide similar information about dielectric tunability with PFM capable to deliver quantitative information on tunability with a higher spatial resolution close to 15 nm. This is the first time that information about the dielectric tunability is available on such length scales.

  20. Lunar Heat Flux Measurements Enabled by a Microwave Radiometer Aboard the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M.; Ruf, C.; Putzig, N.; Morgan, G.; Hayne, P.; Paige, D.; Nagihara, S.; Weber, R.

    2018-02-01

    We would like to present a concept to use the Deep Space Gateway as a platform for constraining the geothermal heat production, surface, and near-surface rocks, and dielectric properties of the Moon from orbit with passive microwave radiometery.

  1. Microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chi H

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics continues to see rapid growth. The integration of optical fiber and wireless networks has become a commercial reality and is becoming increasingly pervasive. Such hybrid technology will lead to many innovative applications, including backhaul solutions for mobile networks and ultrabroadband wireless networks that can provide users with very high bandwidth services. Microwave Photonics, Second Edition systematically introduces important technologies and applications in this emerging field. It also reviews recent advances in micro- and millimeter-wavelength and terahertz-freq

  2. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  3. Modulated microwave microscopy and probes used therewith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Keji; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2012-09-11

    A microwave microscope including a probe tip electrode vertically positionable over a sample and projecting downwardly from the end of a cantilever. A transmission line connecting the tip electrode to the electronic control system extends along the cantilever and is separated from a ground plane at the bottom of the cantilever by a dielectric layer. The probe tip may be vertically tapped near or at the sample surface at a low frequency and the microwave signal reflected from the tip/sample interaction is demodulated at the low frequency. Alternatively, a low-frequency electrical signal is also a non-linear electrical element associated with the probe tip to non-linearly interact with the applied microwave signal and the reflected non-linear microwave signal is detected at the low frequency. The non-linear element may be semiconductor junction formed near the apex of the probe tip or be an FET formed at the base of a semiconducting tip.

  4. Lattices of dielectric resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Trubin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This book provides the analytical theory of complex systems composed of a large number of high-Q dielectric resonators. Spherical and cylindrical dielectric resonators with inferior and also whispering gallery oscillations allocated in various lattices are considered. A new approach to S-matrix parameter calculations based on perturbation theory of Maxwell equations, developed for a number of high-Q dielectric bodies, is introduced. All physical relationships are obtained in analytical form and are suitable for further computations. Essential attention is given to a new unified formalism of the description of scattering processes. The general scattering task for coupled eigen oscillations of the whole system of dielectric resonators is described. The equations for the  expansion coefficients are explained in an applicable way. The temporal Green functions for the dielectric resonator are presented. The scattering process of short pulses in dielectric filter structures, dielectric antennas  and lattices of d...

  5. Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we designed a metamaterial absorber performed in microwave frequency band. This absorber is composed of E-shaped dielectrics which are arranged along different directions. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. Within about 1 GHz frequency band, more than 86% absorption efficiency was observed for this metamaterial absorber. This absorber is polarization insensitive and is stable for incident angles. It is figured out that the polarization insensitive absorption is caused by the nearly located varied resonant modes which are excited by the E-shaped all-dielectric resonators with the same size but in the different direction. The E-shaped dielectric absorber contains intensive resonant points. Our research work paves a way for designing all-dielectric absorber.

  6. Dielectric properties of BaMg1∕3Nb2∕3O3 doped Ba0.45Sr0.55Tio3 thin films for tunable microwave applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu Alema

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ba(Mg1∕3Nb2∕3O3 (BMN doped and undoped Ba0.45Sr0.55TiO3 (BST thin films were deposited via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Al2O3 substrates. The surface morphology and chemical state analyses of the films have shown that the BMN doped BST film has a smoother surface with reduced oxygen vacancy, resulting in an improved insulating properties of the BST film. Dielectric tunability, loss, and leakage current (LC of the undoped and BMN doped BST thin films were studied. The BMN dopant has remarkably reduced the dielectric loss (∼38% with no significant effect on the tunability of the BST film, leading to an increase in figure of merit (FOM. This is attributed to the opposing behavior of large Mg2+ whose detrimental effect on tunability is partially compensated by small Nb5+ as the two substitute Ti4+ in the BST. The coupling between MgTi″ and VO•• charged defects suppresses the dielectric loss in the film by cutting electrons from hopping between Ti ions. The LC of the films was investigated in the temperature range of 300–450K. A reduced LC measured for the BMN doped BST film was correlated to the formation of defect dipoles from MgTi″, VO•• and NbTi• charged defects. The carrier transport properties of the films were analyzed in light of Schottky thermionic emission (SE and Poole–Frenkel (PF emission mechanisms. The result indicated that while the carrier transport mechanism in the undoped film is interface limited (SE, the conduction in the BMN doped film was dominated by bulk processes (PF. The change of the conduction mechanism from SE to PF as a result of BMN doping is attributed to the presence of uncoupled NbTi• sitting as a positive trap center at the shallow donor level of the BST.

  7. Microwave-enhanced chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, R.

    1990-06-19

    A process is disclosed for the disposal of toxic wastes including chlorinated hydrocarbons, comprising, establishing a bed of non-metallic particulates having a high dielectric loss factor. Intimate contact of the particulates and the toxic wastes at a temperature in excess of about 400 C in the presence of microwave radiation for a time sufficient breaks the hydrocarbon chlorine bonds. Detoxification values in excess of 80 are provided and further detoxification of the bed is followed by additional disposal of toxic wastes. 1 figure.

  8. RF and microwave diagnostics of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, J.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of RF and microwave investigations carried out at laboratory plasma is presented. Both the immersive and non-immersive RF probes of various types are discussed, the major emphasis being laid on the work carried out in extending the scope of the immersive impedance probe and non-immersive coil probe. The standard microwave methods for plasma diagnosis are mentioned. The role of relatively new diagnostic tool, viz., a dielectric-rod waveguide, is described, and the technique of measuring the admittance of such a waveguide (or an antenna) enveloped in plasma is discussed. (K.B.)

  9. Nanoscale microwave microscopy using shielded cantilever probes

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Keji

    2011-04-21

    Quantitative dielectric and conductivity mapping in the nanoscale is highly desirable for many research disciplines, but difficult to achieve through conventional transport or established microscopy techniques. Taking advantage of the micro-fabrication technology, we have developed cantilever-based near-field microwave probes with shielded structures. Sensitive microwave electronics and finite-element analysis modeling are also utilized for quantitative electrical imaging. The system is fully compatible with atomic force microscope platforms for convenient operation and easy integration of other modes and functions. The microscope is ideal for interdisciplinary research, with demonstrated examples in nano electronics, physics, material science, and biology.

  10. Electrothermal System for Microwave Heating. Elements of Computer Aided Design of the Applicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Ovidiu Gabriel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within this study was elaborated a program made with Matlab software to design an applicator of parallelepiped shape for dielectric materialsprocessing in microwave field. The program calculates and posts transmission modes, the value of the power density and of the electric field in the dielectric.

  11. Structural elucidation of nanocrystalline biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltsev, S.

    2008-10-23

    Bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, are the second most prevalent health problem worldwide. In Germany approximately 5 millions people are affected by arthritis. Investigating biomineralization processes and bone molecular structure is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was the primary technique used due to its advantages in characterising poorly ordered and disordered materials. Compared to all the diffraction techniques that widely applied in structural investigations, the usefulness of NMR is independent of long range molecular order. This makes NMR an outstanding technique for studies of complex/amorphous materials. Conventional NMR experiments (single pulse, spin-echo, cross polarization (CP), etc.) as well as their modifications and high-end techniques (2D HETCOR, REDOR, etc.) were used in this work. Combining the contributions from different techniques enhances the information content of the investigations and can increase the precision of the overall conclusions. Also XRD, TEM and FTIR were applied to different extent in order to get a general idea of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite crystallite structure. Results: - A new approach named 'Solid-state NMR spectroscopy using the lost I spin magnetization in polarization transfer experiments' has been developed for measuring the transferred I spin magnetization from abundant nuclei, which is normally lost when detecting the S spin magnetization. - A detailed investigation of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite core was made to prove that proton environment of the phosphates units and phosphorus environment of hydroxyl units are the same as in highly crystalline hydroxyapatite sample. - Using XRD it was found that the surface of the hydroxyapatite nanocrystals is not completely disordered, as it was suggested before, but resembles the hydroxyapatite structure with HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} (and some CO{sub 3}{sup

  12. Characterization of dielectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.

    2017-06-27

    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  13. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  14. Dielectric Transduction of NEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    We report on a four-mask process flow for creating resonant NanoElectroMechanical Systems (NEMS) based on dielectric transduction. Current transduction mechanisms for NEMS include piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity and dielectric force. While piezoelectricity gives the highest electromechanical efficiency in, NEMS using flexoelectricity and dielectric force are interesting alternatives with a larger range of possible active materials and potentially simpler fabrication. In this four-mask proc...

  15. Combustion synthesis of bulk nanocrystalline iron alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licai Fu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The controlled synthesis of large-scale nanocrystalline metals and alloys with predefined architecture is in general a big challenge, and making full use of these materials in applications still requires greatly effort. The combustion synthesis technique has been successfully extended to prepare large-scale nanocrystalline metals and alloys, especially iron alloy, such as FeC, FeNi, FeCu, FeSi, FeB, FeAl, FeSiAl, FeSiB, and the microstructure can be designed. In this issue, recent progress on the synthesis of nanocrystalline metals and alloys prepared by combustion synthesis technique are reviewed. Then, the mechanical and tribological properties of these materials with microstructure control are discussed.

  16. Rapid phase synthesis of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugavel, T., E-mail: shanmugavelnano@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Paavai Engineering College, Namakkal -637018 (India); Raj, S. Gokul [Department of Physics, Vel Tech University, Avadi, Chennai - 600 062 (India); Rajarajan, G. [Department of Physics, Mahendra Engineering College, Mallasamudram -637503 (India); Kumar, G. Ramesh [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Arni- 632317 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Synthesis of single phase nanocrystalline Cobalt Ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was achieved by single step autocombustion technique with the use of citric acid as a chelating agent in mono proportion with metal. Specimens prepared with this method showed significantly higher initial permeability's than with the conventional process. Single phase nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites were formed at very low temperature. Surface morphology identification were carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The average grain size and density at low temperature increased gradually with increasing the temperature. The single phase formation is confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Magnetization measurements were obtained at room temperature by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), which showed that the calcined samples exhibited typical magnetic behaviors. Temperature dependent magnetization results showed improved behavior for the nanocrystalline form of cobalt ferrite when compared to the bulk nature of materials synthesized by other methods.

  17. New dielectric material systems of Sr{sub x}Nd{sub 2(1}–{sub x)/3}TiO{sub 3} perovskites-like at microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jingjing [Department of Information Engineering, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeiguet@163.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Wei, Xing [Department of Information Engineering, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Yuan, Changlai [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu, Xinyu [College of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Huang, Xianpei [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Liu, Xiao [College of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Perovskite compounds, Sr{sub x}Nd{sub 2(1−x)/3}TiO{sub 3} (SNTx) with x ranging from 0.05 to 0.2, were prepared by the conventional solid–state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns illustrated that high density and single phase products were obtained for all samples, indicating that a small level of Sr addition could substantially stabilise the structure and maintain a single phase for Nd{sub 2/3}TiO{sub 3} ceramics. But there was also an orthorhombic space groups transition from Pnma to P4/mmm when x was above 0.18. In addition, the dielectric constant (ε{sub r}) of SNTx ceramics had improved from ∼85.6 to ∼112 with increasing x value due to the larger ionic polarizability of Sr{sup 2+} than that of Nd{sup 3+}. Notably, the product of dielectric Q value and resonant frequency (Q × f) of ∼295–650 at 3.07–3.32 GHz was strongly dependent on the grain size and the cation deficient in the present systems. Either increasing grain size or decreasing A-site vacancies led to an increase in the Q × f value. Besides, a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τ{sub f}) of the SNTx ceramics sintered at their optimum densification temperature gradually increases from 191.7 ppm/°C (x = 0.05) to 221.3 ppm/°C (x = 0.2), which results from the lower rattling effect and higher symmetry in BO{sub 6} octahedra of perovskite structure according to bond valence theory and tolerance factor (t). - Highlights: • A small level of Sr addition could stabilise the structure for Nd{sub 2/3}TiO{sub 3} ceramics. • The rattling effect of BO{sub 6} octahedra increases with decreasing B-site bond valence. • There was an orthorhombic space groups transition from Pnma to P4/mmm. • Homogeneous grain size and decreasing A-site vacancies led to an increase in Q × f.

  18. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  19. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    College, Dublin. The Meeting discussed dielectric relaxation behaviour arising from molecular motions of dipolar molecules in the liquid and elastomeric states (now known as soft condensed matter) with measurements spanning a frequency range from a few Hz, through power and radiofrequencies, UHF and VHF, the microwave range and into the far infra-red. As a result of its success, it was decided at the Meeting that a continuing Dielectrics Discussion Group would be established to meet not more frequently than once a year. It was appreciated at the time that the subject of 'Dielectrics' covered many sub-areas, broadly classified into those of polarization, relaxation, conduction and high-field phenomena. For the DDG, a solution was to run annual meetings on chosen themes in dielectrics research, where the theme would change from one meeting to the next. Topics addressed in the early years of the DDG included high field phenomena and impurity effects, heterogeneous systems and biomaterials, polarization and conduction and non-linear dielectrics and ferroelectrics. The number of participants at these early meetings grew from 50 to the low 100's, which reflected both the increased awareness of the Group and increased participation from researchers in Continental Europe. However, the majority of participants in this period were from the UK, which reflected the considerable activities in dielectrics research in University, Industry and Government laboratories in the UK. There followed a series of DDG Meetings until 1974, at which point, the DDG became a registered charity: The Dielectrics Society. Many of the earlier meetings were held in the attractive and convenient venues of Oxford and Cambridge colleges but, in the early 1990's, a new venue for the meetings was established at the University of Kent at Canterbury. In 2001, the next major change occurred when The Dielectrics Society was incorporated into the Institute of Physics, becoming their Dielectrics Group. From 1968 to

  20. Magnetization loss of nanocrystalline soft magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohrer, Sybille; Herzer, Giselher

    2009-01-01

    FeCuNbSiB-ribbons with optimized nanocrystalline microstructure possess a unique combination of near-zero magnetostriction, high saturation induction and low magnetization losses. Due to the absence of distinct intrinsic anisotropies, the magnetization curve can be adjusted by field-annealing to square or flat shape. It is well known that excess losses are an important loss component of soft magnets with square hysteresis loop. Yet, even cores of flat type loop can show significant excess losses. The paper reviews the loss mechanisms for excess losses in nanocrystalline soft magnets on the basis of Kerr-microscopy observation and loss theory and compares it to amorphous materials.

  1. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 3. Microwave Irradiation - Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi Sanghi. General Article Volume 5 Issue 3 March 2000 pp 77-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Growth of mirror-like ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by a facile hybrid CVD approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Man, Weidong; Lyu, Jilei; Xiao, Xiong; You, Zhiheng; Jiang, Nan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, growth of mirror-like ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films by a facile hybrid CVD approach was presented. The nucleation and deposition of UNCD films were conducted in microwave plasma CVD (MPCVD) and direct current glow discharge CVD (DC GD CVD) on silicon substrates, respectively. A very high nucleation density (about 1 × 1011 nuclei cm-2) was obtained after plasma pretreatment. Furthermore, large area mirror-like UNCD films of Φ 50 mm were synthesized by DC GD CVD. The thickness and grain size of the UNCD films are 24 μm and 7.1 nm, respectively. In addition, the deposition mechanism of the UNCD films was discussed. Development of CVD ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films and related high-precision machining products (International S&T Cooperation, No. S2015ZR1100).

  3. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    can potentially be optimized to create capacitors with unprecedented energy density. 14. SUBJECT TERMS capacitor , supercapacitor, super ... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...EDLC and far above ceramic capacitors , after [5] ............................................9 Table 3. Super Dielectric Material Capacitors from

  4. Contemporary dielectric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Saravanan, R

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with experimental results of the physical characterization of several important, dielectric materials of great current interest. The experimental tools used for the analysis of these materials include X-ray diffraction, dielectric measurements, magnetic measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer, optical measurements using a UV-Visible spectrometer etc.

  5. Dielectric Modulated FET (DMFET)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the nanogap cavity leads to change in effective gate capacitance and thus gate bias for FET. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the ...

  6. Surface properties of dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gressus, C.; Maire, P.; Duraud, J.P.; Lecayon, G.

    1988-03-01

    Importance of defects on dielectric behaviour (breakdown), mechanical behaviour (fracture, adhesion) and thermochemical behaviour of insulating materials is recalled. Then effect of a mechanical stress on breakdown voltage is studied. An experimental verification shows that fracture of Y 2 O 3 is propagated in grain boundaries enriched in oxygen vacancies for a non stoichiometric sample by local variation of dielectric constant [fr

  7. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  8. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes diamond and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  9. Electromagnetic plasma models for microwave plasma cavity reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasch, L.; Asmussen, J.

    1984-06-01

    A procedure used to design cavity applicators that efficiently produce cylindrical and disk microwave discharges is reviewed. In contrast to most microwave applicators these cavities utilize single mode excitation of the plasma. This method of excitation has the advantage of providing efficient coupling (zero reflected power) to the plasma over a wide range of discharge loading conditions while also allowing, if desired, electric feedback control of the heating process. The design procedure is generalized to any lossy dielectric. Experimental and theoretical research required to further understand microwave discharges is also discussed.

  10. VOC Recovery through Microwave Regeneration of Adsorbents: Process Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, David W; Schmidt, Philip S

    1998-12-01

    Process design studies are described for a new type of VOC recovery system which uses microwave heating to regenerate adsorbents. Microwave regeneration systems create a highly concentrated effluent from which the VOCs can be recovered by condensation at near-ambient temperatures. Important design considerations, predicated on experimental work and model development, are identified and discussed. Parametric studies are then described that identify the optimal adsorbent selection, operating cycle, recovery configuration, regeneration pressure, regeneration final coverage, and column configuration. In general, it was found that microwave regenerated adsorption systems favor the use of low dielectric loss-factor polymeric adsorbents and operation under low pressure conditions (about 5 torr absolute pressure).

  11. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.S.; Yang, X.L.; Gao, L.

    1999-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powders with a partially inverted spinel structure were synthesized by high-energy ball milling in a closed container at ambient temperature from a mixture of alpha-Fe2O3 and ZnO crystalline powders in equimolar ratio. From low-temperature and in-field Mossbauer...

  13. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecartnery, Martha; Graeve, Olivia; Patel, Maulik

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  15. Multiphase Nanocrystalline Ceramic Concept for Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecartnery, Martha [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Graeve, Olivia [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Patel, Maulik [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-25

    The goal of this research is to help develop new fuels for higher efficiency, longer lifetimes (higher burn-up) and increased accident tolerance in future nuclear reactors. Multiphase nanocrystalline ceramics will be used in the design of simulated advanced inert matrix nuclear fuel to provide for enhanced plasticity, better radiation tolerance, and improved thermal conductivity

  16. Characterisation of interfaces in nanocrystalline palladium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Alternatively, it is possible to calculate power spectrum from each of the nanocrystalline grains in images scanned or recorded online using a framestore. Peak detection algorithms can then be applied to detect peak positions corresponding to the lattice periodicity in the grain. Advantages are that the process can be made ...

  17. Phonon density of states in nanocrystalline Fe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Born–von Karman model is used to calculate phonon density of states (DOS) of nanocrystalline bcc Fe. It is found that there is an anisotropic stiffening in the interatomic force constants and hence there is shrinking in the nearest-neighbour distances in the nanophase. This leads to additional vibrational modes ...

  18. Characterization of nanocrystalline silicon germanium film and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nanocrystalline silicon-germanium films (Si/Ge) and Si/Ge nanotubes have low band gaps and high carrier mobility, thus offering appealing potential for absorbing gas molecules. Interaction between hydrogen molecules and bare as well as functionalized Si/Ge nanofilm and nanotube was investigated using Monte ...

  19. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 2. Characterization of nanocrystalline ... Structural, electrical and optical characteristics of CdTe thin films prepared by a chemical deposition method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films, ...

  20. Structural, optical and photoluminescence study of nanocrystalline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Undoped SnO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method reveal polycrystalline nature with prominent peaks along (110), (101) and (211) planes. All the films are nanocrystalline with particle size lying in the range of 3.14–8.6 nm calculated by DS formula. Orientation along plane (200) decreases continuously as molar ...

  1. All-dielectric photonic-assisted wireless receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Ali; Hsu, Rick C J; Houshmand, Bijan; Steier, William H; Jalali, Bahram

    2008-02-04

    High Power Microwave (HPM) weapons and other sources of intense microwave power pose a growing threat to modern RF receivers. To address this problem, all-dielectric photonic-assisted receivers have been proposed and demonstrated. Here, we describe a new configuration of this type with 15 dB better sensitivity over prior designs. The complete lack of metal and electronics in the front-end offers immunity against damage from intense electromagnetic radiation. In this experiment, detection of C band electromagnetic signal at 6.54 GHz with a sensitivity of -112 dBm/Hz is demonstrated.

  2. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  3. Electromagnetic and thermal history during microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.; Valente, M.A.; Monteiro, J.; Sousa, J.; Costa, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    In microwave heating, the energy is directly introduced into the material resulting in a rapid and volumetric heating process with reduced thermal gradients, when the electromagnetic field is homogeneous. From those reasons, the microwave technology has been widely used in the industry to process dielectric materials. The capacity to heat with microwave radiation is related with the dielectric properties of the materials and the electromagnetic field distribution. The knowledge of the permittivity dependence with the temperature is essential to understand the thermal distribution and to minimize the non-homogeneity of the electromagnetic field. To analyse the history of the heating process, the evolution of the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth, were simulated dynamically in a ceramic sample. The evaluation of the thermal runaway has also been made. This is the most critical phenomenon observed in the sintering of ceramic materials because it causes deformations, or even melting on certain points in the material, originating the destruction of it. In our study we show that during the heating process the hot spot's have some dynamic, and at high temperatures most of the microwave energy is absorbed at the surface of the material. We also show the existence of a time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes. - Highlights: → Electromagnetic field, the temperature and the skin depth were simulated dynamically. → The evaluation of the thermal runaway has been made. → A time-delay of the thermal response with the electromagnetic changes exists.

  4. Studies on dielectric properties of ferrocenylhydrazone coordinated polymers irradiated by γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yun; Chen Jie; Lin Zhanru

    2007-01-01

    The three ferrocenylhydrazone coordinated metal polymers were synthesized (PZM). The effect of the 60 Co γ irradiation on microwave dielectric properties and their temperature-dielectric properties were studies. It has been found that the dielectric parameters (ε', tgδ) of coordinated polymers increase along with the absorbed doses and coordinated metals in order Cu, Co, Ni, However, the dependent curves of dielectric parameters on arise-down temperature are universal. On the other hand, the small changes in chemical structure before and after irradiation were confirmed by IR differential spectrometry and SEM. It is possible to make such coordinated polymers as a multifunctional polymeric material with optical, electric and magnetic properties, which may be potentially used in microwave communication. (authors)

  5. The progress of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research at the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, on the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials. Nanocrystalline materials have been synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing. Examples of the materials include TiFe - , ZrV 2- , LaNi 5 and Mg 2 Ni-type phases. Details on the process used and the enhancement of properties due to the nanoscale structures are presented. The synthesized alloys were used as negative electrode materials for Ni-MH battery. The properties of hydrogen host materials can be modified substantially by alloying to obtain the desired storage characteristics. For example, it was found that the respective replacement of Fe in TiFe by Ni and/or by Cr, Co, Mo improved not only the discharge capacity but also the cycle life of these electrodes. The hydrogen storage properties of nanocrystalline ZrV 2 - and LaNi 5 -type powders prepared by mechanical alloying and annealing show no big difference with those of melt casting (polycrystalline) alloys. On the other hand, a partial substitution of Mg by Mn or Al in Mg 2 Ni alloy leads to an increase in discharge capacity, at room temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the nickel and graphite coating on the structure of some nanocrystalline alloys and the electrodes characteristics were investigated. In the case of Mg 2 Ni-type alloy mechanical coating with graphite effectively reduced the degradation rate of the studied electrode materials. The combination of a nanocrystalline TiFe - , ZrV 2 - and LaNi 5 -type hydride electrodes and a nickel positive electrode to form a Ni-MH battery, has been successful. (authors)

  6. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two- dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The se- lected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen ...

  7. SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION nanocopper ( o) VIA MICROWAVE - ULTRASOUND , STABILIZED WITH TYPE OLIGOMERS TEREPHTHALATE BIS -2 - hydroxyethyl ( BHET )

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Duxtan, A.; Laboratorio de Química Cuántica y Nuevos Materiales,Departamento Académico de Físicoquímica,Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; Arroyo Cuyubamba, J.; Laboratorio de Química Cuántica y Nuevos Materiales,Departamento Académico de Físicoquímica,Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; Cárcamo Cabrera, H.; Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.; López Mariluz, P.; Unidad de Servicios de Análisis Químicos,Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos,Lima,Perú.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles (O) - Cu NPs (O) - applying the method assisted polyol ( glycolysis ) microwave ( MW ) , using an organic synthetic precursor of Cu ( II ) previously synthesized and polyethylene terephthalate ( PET ), the depolymerization reaction by MW was conducted with ethylene glycol (EG) by its high dielectric constant ( 41.4 at 298K ) and dielectric loss , allowing it to be rapidly heated with microwave radiation and achiev...

  8. Rapid formation of red long afterglow phosphor Sr3Al2O6:Eu2+, Dy3+ by microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ping; Xu Mingxia; Zheng Zhentai; Sun Bo; Zhang Yanhui

    2007-01-01

    A new red long afterglow phosphor Sr 3 Al 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ nanocrystalline particles were prepared using a microwave oven operated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a power of 680 W in a weak reductive atmosphere. The phosphor nanocrystalline particles were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results reveal that the samples are composed of single Sr 3 Al 2 O 6 phase. The obtained nanocrystalline particles show small size (80-100 nm) and spherical shape. The excitation and emission spectra indicate that excitation broadband chiefly lies in visible range and the nanocrystalline particles emit strong light at 612 nm under around 473 nm excitation. The effect of Eu 2+ doping concentrations of the samples on the emission intensity is studied systematically. Furthermore, comparing with conventional heating method, the microwave method has the advantages such as short heating time and low energy consumption. However, the decay speed of the afterglow for Sr 3 Al 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ , Dy 3+ nanocrystalline particles is faster than that obtained by the conventional heating method

  9. Berreman Approach to Optical Propagation through Anisotropic Metamaterials: Application to Metallo Dielectric Stacks (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-07

    transmittance and reflectivity of the metallo-dielectric stack are derived, and examined as a function of the wavelength for arbitrary angle of incidence and... reflectivity of the metallo-dielectric stack are derived, and examined as a function of the wavelength for arbitrary angle of incidence and different metal...materials was experimentally verified in the microwave regime [6, 7]. Materials can also be classified on the basis of the sign of (the real part of)

  10. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  11. Advances in microwaves 8

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 8 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the circuit forms for microwave integrated circuits; the analysis of microstrip transmission lines; and the use of lumped elements in microwave integrated circuits. The text also describes the microwave properties of ferrimagnetic materials, as well as their interaction with electromagnetic waves propagating in bounded waveguiding structures. The integration techniques useful at high frequencies; material technology for microwave integrated circuits; specific requirements on technology for d

  12. Raman and dielectric studies of GdMnO3 bulk ceramics synthesized from nano powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantaray, S.; Mishra, D. K.; Roul, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystalline GdMnO3 (GMO) powders has been synthesized by a simple chemical route i. e. pyrophoric reaction technique and then sintered in the form of bulk pellet at 850°C for 24 hours by adopting slow step sintering schedule. It is observed that by reducing the particles size, chemical route enhances the mixing process as well as decreasing the sintering temperature to get single phase material system in compared to the polycrystalline sample prepared directly from the micron sized commercial powder. Raman spectroscopic studies confirm that the sample is in single phase without any detectable impurity. Frequency dependent dielectric properties i.e., dielectric constant (K) and dielectric loss (tanδ) of GMO ceramics sintered at 850°C for 24 hours were studied at room temperature. The sample showed high K value (˜2736) in the frequency of 100 Hz at room temperature.

  13. Conductivity and Dielectric Relaxation Properties of Annealed Cr-Substituted Ni-Ferrite Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghazzawy, E. H.

    2017-10-01

    Nanocrystalline NiCr x Fe2- x O4 spinel samples with x = 0.1 and 0.2 have been synthesized by coprecipitation method and annealed at 620°C and 1175°C for 4 h. Their electrical properties were investigated as functions of frequency in the range of 100 Hz to 100 kHz and temperature in the range of 308 K to 358 K. The dielectric constant ( ɛ^' } ) and dielectric loss factor ( {tan} δ ) appeared to decrease with increasing frequency, while the alternating-current (AC) conductivity ( σ^' } ) increased. These dielectric parameters increased with increasing temperature. On the other hand, impedance spectroscopy gave Cole-Cole plots with only one semicircular arc for all the samples, indicating that the grain-boundary contribution was dominant in the conduction mechanism.

  14. High-frequency dielectric properties of nanocomposite and ceramic titanates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinkevich, A.B.; Kuznetsov, E. A.; Perov, D.V.; Bovtun, Viktor; Kempa, Martin; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Savinov, Maxim; Samoilovich, M.I.; Klescheva, S.M.; Ryabkov, Y.I.; Tsvetkova, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2015), s. 585-592 ISSN 1536-125X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetic waveguide * opal matrix * transmission and reflection coefficients * microwave conductivity * dielectric spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.702, year: 2015

  15. Complex permittivity measurements of ferroelectric employing composite dielectric resonator technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupka, J.; Zychowicz, T.; Bovtun, Viktor; Veljko, Sergiy

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2006), s. 1883-1888 ISSN 0885-3010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010213; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0993; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : dielectric resonator * ferroelectrics * microwave measurements Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.729, year: 2006

  16. An introduction to microwave imaging for breast cancer detection

    CERN Document Server

    Conceição, Raquel Cruz; O'Halloran, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book collates past and current research on one of the most promising emerging modalities for breast cancer detection. Readers will discover how, as a standalone technology or in conjunction with another modality, microwave imaging has the potential to provide reliable, safe and comfortable breast exams at low cost. Current breast imaging modalities include X- ray, Ultrasound, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography. Each of these methods suffers from limitations, including poor sensitivity or specificity, high cost, patient discomfort, and exposure to potentially harmful ionising radiation. Microwave breast imaging is based on a contrast in the dielectric properties of breast tissue that exists at microwave frequencies. The book begins by considering the anatomy and dielectric properties of the breast, contrasting historical and recent studies. Next, radar-based breast imaging algorithms are discussed, encompassing both early-stage artefact removal, and data independent and adaptive ...

  17. Dielectric materials for electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Vega, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 is particularly concerned with physical properties, electrical ageing and modeling with topics such as the physics of charged dielectric materials, conduction mechanisms, dielectric relaxation, space charge, electric ageing and life end models and dielectric experimental characterization. Part 2 concerns some applications specific to dielectric materials: insulating oils for transformers, electrorheological fluids, electrolytic capacitors, ionic membranes, photovoltaic conversion, dielectric thermal control coatings for geostationary satellites, plastics recycling and piezoelectric poly

  18. Abrasive wear behaviour of electrodeposited nanocrystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daehyun

    The effect of grain size refinement on the abrasive wear behaviour of nanocrystalline Ni, Ni-P and Co electrodeposits and the critical materials properties that influence the abrasive wear resistance were studied using the Taber wear test. As the grain size of Ni decreased from 90 mum to 13 nm, the dominant abrasive wear mode changed from ploughing to cutting and the Taber wear resistance was considerably improved by the increases in hardness and surface elastic properties. The abrasive wear behaviour of Ni with various grain sizes can be described using the attack angle model, which takes into consideration the randomly dispersed Al2O3 abrasive particles in the Taber wheel with various sizes, shapes and orientations. Depending on the phosphorus content, the nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) alloys containing up to 6 wt.% P had nanocrystalline or mixed nanocrystalline-amorphous structures and both regular and inverse Hall-Petch behaviour were observed as a result of the microstructural changes with increasing P content/decreasing grain size. The wear resistance, like hardness, followed the Hall-Petch type behaviour, demonstrating that the smallest grain size does not necessarily provide the best wear resistance. For all Ni-P alloys, the wear resistance was improved by heat treatment due to Ni3P precipitates and, for materials with high P content, nanocrystallization of the amorphous phase. For heat-treated Ni-P alloys, however, the highest hardness did not give the best wear resistance. Despite the grain size reduction of Co from 10 mum to 17 nm, there was no significant change in the wear resistance due to the unusually high degree of plastic deformation of the nanocrystalline material. In addition to hardness and surface elastic properties which are usually considered important material properties that control the abrasive wear resistance, Taber wear ductility was introduced as a new material intrinsic property which can be applied to explain abrasive wear resistance for

  19. Synthesis and properties of nickel-doped nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqar, Moaz; Rafiq, Muhammad Asif; Mirza, Talha Ahmed; Khalid, Fazal Ahmad; Khaliq, Abdul; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh; Saleem, Murtaza

    2018-04-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite ceramics have emerged as important materials both for technological and commercial applications. However, limited work has been reported regarding the investigation of nanocrystalline Ni-doped barium hexaferrites. In this study, nanocrystalline barium hexaferrite ceramics with the composition BaFe12- x Ni x O19 (where x = 0, 0.3 and 0.5) were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and precision impedance analyzer. All the synthesized samples had single magnetoplumbite phase having space group P63/mmc showing the successful substitution of Ni in BaFe12O19 without the formation of any impurity phase. Average grain size of undoped samples was around 120 nm which increased slightly with the addition of Ni. Saturation magnetization ( M s) and remnant magnetization ( M r) increased with the addition of Ni, however, coercivity ( H c) decreased with the increase in Ni from x = 0 to x = 0.5. Real and imaginary parts of permittivity decreased with the increasing frequency and increased with Ni content. Dielectric loss and conductivity showed slight variation with the increase in Ni concentration.

  20. Ultrafast Terahertz Conductivity of Photoexcited Nanocrystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, David; MacDonald, A. Nicole; Hryciw, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described by a class......The ultrafast transient ac conductivity of nanocrystalline silicon films is investigated using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy. While epitaxial silicon on sapphire exhibits a free carrier Drude response, silicon nanocrystals embedded in glass show a response that is best described...... by a classical Drude–Smith model, suitable for disorder-driven metal–insulator transitions. In this work, we explore the time evolution of the frequency dependent complex conductivity after optical injection of carriers on a picosecond time scale. Furthermore, we show the lifetime of photoconductivity...

  1. X-ray interference by nanocrystalline domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelisio, Luca; Scardi, Paolo

    2012-11-01

    Regular arrangement of nanocrystalline domains can introduce interference effects which alter considerably the powder diffraction pattern. Role of nanocrystal alignment (local texture) and mutual positioning are different, with the latter much more effective in controlling the interference effect. While it is demonstrated that these effects are unlikely to be observed on a conventional laboratory instrument, coherence conditions available at modern synchrotron radiation beamlines might support further investigations of interference in systems made of very fine nanocrystals.

  2. Solubility of Carbon in Nanocrystalline -Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Alexander; Kieback, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for nanocrystalline interstitial alloys is presented. The equilibrium solid solubility of carbon in -iron is calculated for given grain size. Inside the strained nanograins local variation of the carbon content is predicted. Due to the nonlinear relation between strain and solubility, the averaged solubility in the grain interior increases with decreasing grain size. The majority of the global solubility enhancement is due to grain boundary enrichment however. Therefor...

  3. Nanocrystalline diamond growth on different substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulisch, W.; Popov, C.; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Gibson, P. N.; Favaro, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 515, - (2006), s. 1005-1010 ISSN 0040-6090 Grant - others:EC Framework(XE) MEIF-CT-2004-500038; NATO(XE) CBP.EAP.CLG 981519 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * growth mechanisms * nucleation mechanisms * mechanical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  4. Fabrication and characterization of boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond-coated MEMS probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanowicz, Robert; Sobaszek, Michał; Ficek, Mateusz; Kopiec, Daniel; Moczała, Magdalena; Orłowska, Karolina; Sawczak, Mirosław; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication processes of thin boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B-NCD) films on silicon-based micro- and nano-electromechanical structures have been investigated. B-NCD films were deposited using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition method. The variation in B-NCD morphology, structure and optical parameters was particularly investigated. The use of truncated cone-shaped substrate holder enabled to grow thin fully encapsulated nanocrystalline diamond film with a thickness of approx. 60 nm and RMS roughness of 17 nm. Raman spectra present the typical boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond line recorded at 1148 cm-1. Moreover, the change in mechanical parameters of silicon cantilevers over-coated with boron-doped diamond films was investigated with laser vibrometer. The increase of resonance to frequency of over-coated cantilever is attributed to the change in spring constant caused by B-NCD coating. Topography and electrical parameters of boron-doped diamond films were investigated by tapping mode AFM and electrical mode of AFM-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The crystallite-grain size was recorded at 153 and 238 nm for boron-doped film and undoped, respectively. Based on the contact potential difference data from the KPFM measurements, the work function of diamond layers was estimated. For the undoped diamond films, average CPD of 650 mV and for boron-doped layer 155 mV were achieved. Based on CPD values, the values of work functions were calculated as 4.65 and 5.15 eV for doped and undoped diamond film, respectively. Boron doping increases the carrier density and the conductivity of the material and, consequently, the Fermi level.

  5. Characterization of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Paul K.; Li Liuhe

    2006-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films possess special chemical and physical properties such as high chemical inertness, diamond-like properties, and favorable tribological proprieties. The materials usually consist of graphite and diamond microstructures and thus possess properties that lie between the two. Amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films can exist in different kinds of matrices and are usually doped with a large amount of hydrogen. Thus, carbon films can be classified as polymer-like, diamond-like, or graphite-like based on the main binding framework. In order to characterize the structure, either direct bonding characterization methods or the indirect bonding characterization methods are employed. Examples of techniques utilized to identify the chemical bonds and microstructure of amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films include optical characterization methods such as Raman spectroscopy, Ultra-violet (UV) Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy, electron spectroscopic and microscopic methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy, surface morphology characterization techniques such as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) as well as other characterization methods such as X-ray reflectivity and nuclear magnetic resonance. In this review, the structures of various types of amorphous carbon films and common characterization techniques are described

  6. Sintering and deformation of nanocrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Averback, R.S.; Hofler, H.J.; Logas, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceramics have been produced by the method of inert gas condensation of ultra-small particles and in situ consolidation. Sintering characteristics and microstructural parameter such as grain size, porosity and pore size distributions have been investigated by a variety of techniques, including: X-ray diffraction, gravimetry, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering. In pure TiO 2 , the sintering temperatures are drastically lowered compared to conventional ceramics, however, extensive grain growth occurs before full densification is achieved. High density, nanocrystalline ceramics can be prepared by pressure assisted sintering, doping and additions of second phases. High temperature microhardness and creep deformation in compression were measured and it was found that creep processes occur at lower temperatures than in ceramics with larger grain sizes. Nanocrystalline TiO 2 with densities >99% can be deformed plastically without fracture at temperatures below half the melting point. The total strains exceed 0.6 at strain rates as high as 10 -3 s -l . The stress exponent of the strain rate, n, is approximately 3 and the grain size dependence is G -q with q in the range of 1-1.5. In this paper it is concluded that the creep deformation occurs by an interface reaction controlled mechanism

  7. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized ceria powders by microwave-hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamartini Corradi, A.; Bondioli, F.; Ferrari, A.M.; Manfredini, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ceria powders (CeO 2 ) have been prepared by adding NaOH to a cerium ammonium nitrate aqueous solution under microwave-hydrothermal conditions. In particular the effect of the synthesis conditions (time, pressure and concentration of both the precursor and the precipitant agent solutions) on the physical properties of the crystals have been evaluated. Microwave-hydrothermal treatment of 5 min at 13.4 atm allows to obtain almost crystallized powders (amorphous phase 4%) as underlined by Rietveld-reference intensity ratio (RIR) results

  8. Thermal stability of lead sulfide and lead oxide nano-crystalline materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, M.; Ikram, M.; Ali, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, nano-crystalline lead sulfide (PbS) and lead oxide (PbO) were synthesized using hassle-free and cost-effective chemical route. Lead oxalate (PbC2O4) precursor was thermally decomposed to obtain the nano-crystalline PbO, while PbS nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave irradiation on a mixture of PbC2O4 precursor and sodium thiosulfate. Resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD confirmed the tetragonal structure for PbO and face-centered cubic for PbS with average crystallite sizes varying from 20 to 30 nm for both materials. From UV-Vis spectra, direct band gap energies were calculated to be 2.51 and 2.23 eV for PbO and PbS, respectively. Various decomposition stages during heat treatment of PbO and PbS, as revealed by TGA/DSC, are discussed in detail.

  9. Design and investigation of properties of nanocrystalline diamond optical planar waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Varga, Marian; Nekvindova, Pavla; Remes, Zdenek; Kromka, Alexander

    2013-04-08

    Diamond thin films have remarkable properties comparable with natural diamond. Because of these properties it is a very promising material for many various applications (sensors, heat sink, optical mirrors, chemical and radiation wear, cold cathodes, tissue engineering, etc.) In this paper we report about design, deposition and measurement of properties of optical planar waveguides fabricated from nanocrystalline diamond thin films. The nanocrystalline diamond planar waveguide was deposited by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and the structure of the deposited film was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The design of the presented planar waveguides was realized on the bases of modified dispersion equation and was schemed for 632.8 nm, 964 nm, 1 310 nm and 1 550 nm wavelengths. Waveguiding properties were examined by prism coupling technique and it was found that the diamond based planar optical element guided one fundamental mode for all measured wavelengths. Values of the refractive indices of our NCD thin film measured at various wavelengths were almost the same as those of natural diamond.

  10. Effect of chromium underlayer on the properties of nano-crystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, E.; AlFaify, S.; Yoshitake, T.; Katamune, Y.; Bowden, M.; Nandasiri, M.; Ghantasala, M.; Mancini, D. C.; Thevuthasan, S.; Kayani, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of chromium underlayer on the structure, microstructure, and composition of the nano-crystalline diamond films. Nano-crystalline diamond thin films were deposited at high temperature in microwave-induced plasma diluted with nitrogen, on single crystal silicon substrate with a thin film of chromium as an underlayer. Characterization of the film was implemented using non-Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Nanoindentation studies showed that the films deposited on chromium underlayer have higher hardness values compared to those deposited on silicon without an underlayer. Diamond and graphitic phases of the films evaluated by x-ray and optical spectroscopic analyses determined consistency between the sp2 and sp3 phases of carbon in chromium sample to that of diamond grown on silicon. Diffusion of chromium was observed using ion beam analysis which was correlated with the formation of chromium complexes by x-ray diffraction.

  11. A novel route for synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from eggshell waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva Rama Krishna, D; Siddharthan, A; Seshadri, S K; Sampath Kumar, T S

    2007-09-01

    The eggshell waste has been value engineered to a nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) by microwave processing. To highlight the advantages of eggshell as calcium precursor in the synthesis of HA (OHA), synthetic calcium hydroxide was also used to form HA (SHA) following similar procedure and were compared with a commercially available pure HA (CHA). All the HAs were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) method, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and specific surface area measurements. Nanocrystalline nature of OHA is revealed through characteristic broad peaks in XRD patterns, platelets of length 33-50 nm and width 8-14 nm in TEM micrograph and size calculations from specific surface area measurements. FT-IR spectra showed characteristic bands of HA and additionally peaks of carbonate ions. The cell parameter calculations suggest the formation of carbonated HA of B-type. The OHA exhibits superior sinterability in terms of hardness and density than both SHA and CHA may be due to larger surface area of its spherulite structure. The in vitro dissolution study shows longer stability in phosphate buffer and cell culture test using osteoblast cells establishes biocompatibility of OHA.

  12. Preparation and characterization chemistry of nano-crystalline Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Mohd, E-mail: md.hashim09@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Alimuddin [Department of Applied Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Shirsath, Sagar E. [Spin Device Technology Centre, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Kumar, Shalendra [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Ravi [Centre for Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur, HP (India); Roy, Aashis S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R.K. [National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2013-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2-x}In{sub x}O{sub 4} ferrites were synthesized by citrate-nitrate precursor auto combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties decreased due to the substitution of In{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric properties decreased with increase in frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This composition can be used for multilayer chip inductor (MLCI) applications. - Abstract: In submitted research; nanocrystalline powders having elements Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.25}Zn{sub 0.25}Fe{sub 2-x}In{sub x}O{sub 4} with varied amounts of indium (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) were grown-up by modified citrate to nitrate alchemy. The realism of single phase cubic spinel creation of the synthesized ferrite samples was studied by the DTA-TGA, XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR, VSM and dielectric measurements. SEM was applied to inspect the morphological variations and EDX was used to determine the compositional mass ratios. The studies on the dielectric constant ({epsilon} Prime ), dielectric loss ({epsilon} Double-Prime ), loss tangent (tan {delta}), ac conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}), resistive and reactive parts of the impedance analysis (Z' and Z') at room temperature were also carried out. The saturation magnetizations (Ms) were determined using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Ms. decreased with the increase In{sup 3+} doping content, as Fe{sup 3+} of 5{mu}{sub B} ions are replaced by In{sup 3+} of 0 {mu}{sub B} ions.

  13. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  14. Photoelectrochemical Characterization of Nanocrystalline ZnS :Mn^(2+) Layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, J.F.; Bakker, R.; Meijerink, A.; Kelly, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the photoelectrochemical properties of nanocrystalline ZnS electrodes doped with Mn^(2+) are presented and discussed. The observation of both anodic and cathodic photocurrent is direct evidence for the nanocrystalline nature of the system. In-situ photoluminescence

  15. Nanocrystalline silicon prepared at high growth rate using helium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. Growth and optimization of the nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films have been studied by varying the electrical power applied to the helium diluted silane plasma in RF glow discharge. Wide optical gap and conducting intrinsic nanocrystalline silicon network of controlled crystalline volume fraction and oriented.

  16. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarobol, Pylin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Argibay, Nicolas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diantonio, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  17. Photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline silicon produced by mechanical grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffo, C.M.; Lima, J.C. de; Souza, S.M.; Triches, D.M.; Grandi, T.A.; Biasi, R.S. de

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical grinding (MG) was used to produce nanocrystalline silicon and its thermal and transport properties were investigated by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental results suggest that in as-milled nanocrystalline silicon for 10 h the heat transfer through the crystalline and interfacial components is similar, and after annealed at 470 o C the heat transfer is controlled by crystalline component.

  18. Effect of lithium-based glass addition on the microwave dielectric properties of Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}]O{sub 3-{delta}} ceramics for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Sumesh [Materials and Minerals Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Industrial Estate, Thiruvananthapuram 695019, Kerala (India); Sebastian, Mailadil Thomas [Materials and Minerals Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Industrial Estate, Thiruvananthapuram 695019, Kerala (India)], E-mail: mailadils@yahoo.com

    2009-04-03

    The Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}]O{sub 3-{delta}} (x = 0.2 and 0.25) (CLNT) ceramics with lithium borosilicate (LBS) and lithium magnesium zinc borosilicate (LMZBS) glasses were prepared by conventional solid state ceramic route. The effect of glass addition on the densification, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the CLNT ceramics was investigated. The addition of LBS and LMZBS glasses improved the densification and lowered the sintering temperature of CLNT ceramics from 1175 deg. C to 950 deg. C and 900 deg. C, respectively. The Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}]O{sub 3-{delta}} ceramics with 5 wt% of LBS glass sintered at 950 deg. C has {epsilon}{sub r} = 30.5, Q{sub u}f = 14,700 GHz (f = 4.6 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = -18 ppm/deg. C. Addition of 12 wt% of LMZBS glass in Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}]O{sub 3-{delta}} ceramics sintered at 900 deg. C showed {epsilon}{sub r} = 26.2, Q{sub u}f = 13,000 GHz (f = 4.8 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = -21 ppm/deg. C. The {tau}{sub f} value decreased to below 10 ppm/deg. C by increasing the titanium content in the Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}]O{sub 3-{delta}} ceramics. The Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.75}Ti{sub 0.25}]O{sub 3-{delta}} ceramics with 5 wt% of LBS and sintered at 950 deg. C/4 h has {epsilon}{sub r} = 32.8, Q{sub u}f = 11,500 GHz (f = 4.5 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = -2 ppm/deg. C. The 12 wt% LMZBS glass added Ca[(Li{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}){sub 0.75}Ti{sub 0.25}]O{sub 3-{delta}} ceramics sintered at 920 deg. C/4 h has {epsilon}{sub r} = 28.52, Q{sub u}f = 11,000 GHz (f = 4.8 GHz) and {tau}{sub f} = -3 ppm/deg. C.

  19. Dielectric relaxation studies in 5CB nematic liquid crystal at 9 GHz ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance width, shift in resonance frequency, relaxation time and activation energy of 5CB nematic liquid crystal are measured using microwave cavity technique under the influence of an external magnetic field at 9 GHz and at different temperatures. The dielectric response in liquid crystal at different temperatures and ...

  20. Dielectric relaxation studies in 5CB nematic liquid crystal at 9 GHz ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Resonance width, shift in resonance frequency, relaxation time and activation energy of. 5CB nematic liquid crystal are measured using microwave cavity technique under the influence of an external magnetic field at 9 GHz and at different temperatures. The dielectric response in liquid crystal at different ...

  1. Super Dielectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-12-22

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 10⁵ at low frequency (super dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 10⁸ in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 10⁴. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc. ), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to "short" the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass "supercapacitors" in volumetric energy density.

  2. Super Dielectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Fromille

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz, herein called super dielectric materials (SDM, can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc., filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution, herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density.

  3. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  4. Dielectric elastomer memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas G.; Xie, Sheng Q.; Calius, Emilio P.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2011-04-01

    Life shows us that the distribution of intelligence throughout flexible muscular networks is a highly successful solution to a wide range of challenges, for example: human hearts, octopi, or even starfish. Recreating this success in engineered systems requires soft actuator technologies with embedded sensing and intelligence. Dielectric Elastomer Actuator(s) (DEA) are promising due to their large stresses and strains, as well as quiet flexible multimodal operation. Recently dielectric elastomer devices were presented with built in sensor, driver, and logic capability enabled by a new concept called the Dielectric Elastomer Switch(es) (DES). DES use electrode piezoresistivity to control the charge on DEA and enable the distribution of intelligence throughout a DEA device. In this paper we advance the capabilities of DES further to form volatile memory elements. A set reset flip-flop with inverted reset line was developed based on DES and DEA. With a 3200V supply the flip-flop behaved appropriately and demonstrated the creation of dielectric elastomer memory capable of changing state in response to 1 second long set and reset pulses. This memory opens up applications such as oscillator, de-bounce, timing, and sequential logic circuits; all of which could be distributed throughout biomimetic actuator arrays. Future work will include miniaturisation to improve response speed, implementation into more complex circuits, and investigation of longer lasting and more sensitive switching materials.

  5. Theory of Dielectric Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    energy can be converted? Transactions on Mechatronics, in press. 37. Diaz- Calleja ., R., Llovera-Segovia, P., Energy diagrams and stability...stability of dielectric elastomers‖, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2008, 92: 026101. 62. Diaz- Calleja , R., Riande, E. and Sanchis, M.J., On electromechanical stability

  6. Dielectric Waveguide lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Orlovic, V.A.; Pachenko, V.; Scherbakov, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    Our recent results on planar and channel waveguide fabrication and lasers in the dielectric oxide materials Ti:sapphire and rare-earth-ion-doped potassium yttrium double tungstate (KYW) are reviewed. We have employed waveguide fabrication methods such as liquid phase epitaxy and reactive ion etching

  7. LIGHT-WEIGHT NANOCRYSTALLINE HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. G. Sankar; B. Zande; R.T. Obermyer; S. Simizu

    2005-11-21

    During Phase I of this SBIR Program, Advanced Materials Corporation has addressed two key issues concerning hydrogen storage: 1. We have conducted preliminary studies on the effect of certain catalysts in modifying the hydrogen absorption characteristics of nanocrystalline magnesium. 2. We have also conducted proof-of-concept design and construction of a prototype instrument that would rapidly screen materials for hydrogen storage employing chemical combinatorial technique in combination with a Pressure-Composition Isotherm Measurement (PCI) instrument. 3. Preliminary results obtained in this study approach are described in this report.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticles for tunable microwave metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Noginova, Natalia

    2012-09-24

    Commonly, metamaterials are electrically engineered systems with optimized spatial arrangement of subwavelength sized metal and dielectric components. We explore alternative methods based on use of magnetic inclusions, such as magnetic nanoparticles, which can allow permeability of a composite to be tuned from negative to positive at the range of magnetic resonance. To better understand effects of particle size and magnetization dynamics, we performed electron magnetic resonance study on several varieties of magnetic nanoparticles and determined potential of nanoparticle use as building blocks for tunable microwave metamaterials. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  9. Structural, morphological and dielectric studies of zirconium substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of zirconium substitution in cubic spinel nanocrystalline CoFe2O4 on the structural, morphological and dielectric properties are reported. Zirconium substituted cobalt ferrite Co1-xZrxFe2O4 (x = 0.7 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel route. The structural and morphological investigations using powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM analysis are reported. Scherrer plot, Williamson–Hall analysis and Size-strain plot method were used to calculate the crystallite size and lattice strain of the samples. High purity chemical composition of the sample was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The atoms vibration modes of as synthesized nanoparticles were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometer in the range of 4000–400 cm-1. The temperature-dependent dielectric properties of zirconium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were also carried out. Relative dielectric permittivity, loss tangent and AC conductivity were measured in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at temperatures between 323 K and 473 K. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss values of the sample decreased with increasing in the frequency of the applied signal.

  10. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  11. Dielectric Behaviour of Binary Mixture of 2-Chloroaniline with 2-Methoxyethanol and 2-Ethoxyethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh G. Nemmaniwar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Densities, viscosities, refractive indices, dielectric constant (ε' and dielectric loss (ε'' of 2-chloroaniline (2CA + 2-methoxyethanol (2ME and 2-chloroaniline (2CA + 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE for different mole fractions of 2-chloroaniline in binary mixture have been measured at single microwave frequency 10.985 GHz at 300C by Surber method using microwave X-band. The values of dielectric parameters (ε' and ε''   have been used to evaluate the molar polarization (P12 loss tangent (tanδ, viscosity (η, activation energy (Ea, excess permittivity (Δε', excess dielectric loss (Δε'', excess viscosities (Δη, excess polarization (ΔP12 and excess activation energy (ΔEa  have also been estimated. These parameters have been used to explain the formation of complexes in the system. It is found that dielectric constant (ε', dielectric loss (ε'', loss tangent (tanδ, molar polarization (P12 varies non-linearly but activation energy (Ea , viscosity (η ,density (ρ, and refractive index (n varies linearly with increasing mole fraction in binary mixture of 2-chloroaniline (2-CA + 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME and 2-chloroaniline (2-CA + 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE. Hence, solute-solvent molecular associations have been reported. 

  12. Analysis of microwave heating of materials with temperature-dependent properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayappa, K.G.; Davis, H.T.; Davis, E.A.; Gordon, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper transient temperature profiles in multilayer slabs are predicted, by simultaneously solving Maxwell's equations with the heat conduction equation, using Galerkin-finite elements. It is assumed that the medium is homogeneous and has temperature-dependent dielectric and thermal properties. The method is illustrated with applications involving the heating of food and polymers with microwaves. The temperature dependence of dielectric properties affects the heating appreciably, as is shown by comparison with a constant property model

  13. Microwave Interferometry Based On Open-ended Coaxial Technique for High Sensitivity Liquid Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bakli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified open-ended coaxial technique for microwave dielectric characterization in liquid media. A calibration model is developed to relate the measured transmission coefficient to the local properties of the sample under test. As a demonstration, the permittivity of different sodium chloride solutions is experimentally determined. Accuracies of 0.17% and 0.19% are obtained respectively for the real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity at 5.9 GHz.

  14. Structure refinement, far infrared spectroscopy, and dielectric characterization of (1-x)La(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-xLa2/3TiO3 solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak, Andrei N.; Khalyavin, Dmitry D.; Ferreira, Victor M.; Ribeiro, José L.; Vieira, Luís G.

    2006-05-01

    Dielectric properties of (1-x)La(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-xLa2/3TiO3 [(1-x)LMT-xLT] ceramics (0infrared (FIR) frequency ranges. The crystal structure sequence in (1-x)LMT-xLT reported by different authors has been analyzed and revised. FIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the lattice contribution to the dielectric response at microwave frequencies. The complex dielectric function was evaluated from the reflectivity data and extrapolated down to a gigahertz range. Compositional variations of the fundamental microwave dielectric parameters estimated by different methods are compared and discussed. The dependence of the quality factor on the composition in LMT-LT is interpreted in terms of the reduction of spatial phonon correlations originated from the increasing amount of La vacancies. This approach could account for the compositional behavior of the dielectric loss commonly observed in a number of microwave mixed systems.

  15. A Novel Microwave Tunable Band-Pass Filter Integrated Power Divider Based on Liquid Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel microwave continuous adjustable band-pass filter integrated power divider based on nematic liquid crystals (LCs. The proposed power divider uses liquid crystal (LC as the dielectric material. It can realize phase shift by changing the dielectric anisotropy, when biasing the high anisotropy nematic liquid crystal. It is mainly used in microwave frequencies. It has a large number of advantages compared to conventional filter integrated power divider, such as low loss, multifunction integration, continuous adjustable, miniaturization, low processing costs, low operating voltage, high phase shift, and convenient manufacture. Therefore, it has shown great potential for application.

  16. Novel dielectric properties of glasses prepared by quenching melts of Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, K.B.R.; Subbanna, G.N.; Ramakrishnan, T.V. (Materials Research Centre, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India) Dept. of Physics, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India)); Rao, C.N.R. (Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India))

    1989-12-01

    Glasses, prepared from the melts of Bi{sub 2}(Ca,Sr){sub n+1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+4} (n=1, 2 and 3) have been characterized by various techniques. These glasses exhibit relatively high dielectric constants, high electrical conductivity, a ferroelectric-like dielectric hysteresis loop and pyroelectric effect at 300K. They also show weak microwave absorption at 77K. (orig.).

  17. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    drug delivery, optoelectronics and magnetic devices.5–11. Therefore, new methods for the preparation of nanoparticles are frequently reported in the litera- ture. ... wave heating is well known in the food industry and of late has found a number of applications in chem- istry especially in organic chemistry.28 In a micro-.

  18. Microwave dielectric characterization of binary mixture of formamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions were prepared for 5 ml solution at room temperature assuming ideal mixing behavior, within 0.02% error limit. Using these volume per cents, the weight fraction is calculated as. XA = (VA × ρA). (VA × ρA)+(VB × ρB). ,. (1) where VA and VB are the volume and ρA and ρB are the density of liquid A and B respectively. 852.

  19. Sintering behaviour and microwave dielectric properties of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Information Engineering, Guilin University of Aerospace Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China; School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, PR China; College of Materials Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, ...

  20. Dielectric properties measurement system at cryogenic temperatures and microwave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, J.; Ibarra, A.; Margineda, J.; Zamarro, J. M.; Hernandez, A.

    1994-07-01

    A system based on the resonant cavity method has been developed to measure the permittivity and loss tangent at 12-18 GHz over the temperature range 80 K to 300 K. Changes of permittivity as low as 0.01 % in the range 1 to 30, and 3 x 10{sup 6} for loss tangent values below 10{sup 2}, can be obtained without requiring temperature stability. The thermal expansion coefficient and resistivity factor of copper have been measured between 80 K and 300 K. Permittivity of sapphire and loss tangent of alumina of 99.9 % purity in the same temperature range are presented. (Author) 23 refs.

  1. Sintering behaviour and microwave dielectric properties of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Ca0.427Nd0.182)TiO3−xSmAlO3. (0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns illustrated that solid solutions with the orthorhombic perovskite were shown to be formed in the ranges of 0.05 ≤ x ≤ 0.4. Moreover, the ...

  2. Microwave dielectric tangent losses in KDP and DKDP crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exp( iq ¡Ri),Ri denotes the Bravais lattice site of the ith bond, Ω is the proton tunneling frequency, Jij represents exchange interaction between pseudospins,. Sx i and Sz i are the components of spin-half operator, V ik is the linear pseudospin–lattice coupling constant, A k is the displacement operator, B k is the momentum ...

  3. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Very re- cently, an alcohol reduction method has been devel- oped to prepare metal nanoparticles. In this process, solution of the metal ions is refluxed at a particular ..... The most intriguing fact is the dependence of ab- sorption spectra on the nature of the solvent. In the case of silver colloids, prepared by photochemical.

  4. Characterization of YVO4:Eu3+ phosphors synthesized by microwave heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kazuyoshi; Ochiai, Ayumi; Toda, Kenji; Sato, Mineo

    2006-01-01

    YVO 4 :Eu 3+ phosphors were prepared using a domestic microwave oven operated at 2.45 GHz with 500 W. The temperature of raw materials with mixtures of Y 2 O 3 , V 2 O 5 and Eu 2 O 3 that were irradiated with the microwave increased to about 840 o C within 150 s. Subsequently, the temperature dropped sharply in spite of the continuing microwave irradiation. Measurement of the dielectric loss factor of the raw materials and products at 2.45 GHz at temperatures from 25 deg. C to 800 deg. C revealed a high absorption efficiency of microwave energy by V 2 O 5 , which provided a rapid increase in the raw material's temperature. A low dielectric loss factor observed for YVO 4 :Eu engendered a sharp temperature drop after completion of the reaction of Y 2 O 3 with V 2 O 5

  5. Ultra high vacuum broad band high power microwave window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tuong, Viet; Dylla, III, Henry Frederick

    1997-01-01

    An improved high vacuum microwave window has been developed that utilizes high density polyethylene coated on two sides with SiOx, SiNx, or a combination of the two. The resultant low dielectric and low loss tangent window creates a low outgassing, low permeation seal through which broad band, high power microwave energy may be passed. No matching device is necessary and the sealing technique is simple. The features of the window are broad band transmission, ultra-high vacuum compatibility with a simple sealing technique, low voltage standing wave ratio, high power transmission and low cost.

  6. Heat treatment effects on dielectric properties of SRFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} hexaferrite prepared by an SHS route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Nital R.; Jotania, Rajshree B., E-mail: natal_panchal@yahoo.co.in, E-mail: rbjotania@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad (India)

    2011-07-01

    The M-type Strontium Hexaferrite SRFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} particles were prepared by a Self propagating High temperature Synthesis (SHS) route. Precursors were heated under two different conditions: microwave heating for 30 minutes and sintered at 950 deg C for 4 hrs. The dielectric properties: dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sup '}), dielectric loss (tan {delta} ) and ac conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}) were measured at room temperature in the frequency range from 100 Hz to 2 MHz. The samples present a non-linear behavior for the dielectric constant at 1 kHz, 100 kHz and 2 MHz. The dielectric properties of prepared Strontium Hexaferrite samples were discussed in view of applications as a material for microwave devices, permanent magnets and high density magnetic recording media. (author)

  7. Advances in microwaves 7

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 7 covers the developments in the study of microwaves. The book discusses the effect of surface roughness on the propagation of the TEM mode, as well as the voltage breakdown of microwave antennas. The text also describes the theory and design considerations of single slotted-waveguide linear arrays and the techniques and theories that led to the achievement of wide bandwidths and ultralow noise temperatures for communication applications. The book will prove invaluable to microwave engineers.

  8. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the application of microwave heating for the melting of powdered tin. The morphology and particle size of powdered tin prepared by the centrifugal atomization method were characterized. The tin particles were uniform and spherical in shape, with 90% of the particles in the size range of 38–75 μm. The microwave absorption characteristic of the tin powder was assessed by an estimation of the dielectric properties. Microwave penetration was found to have good volumetric heating on powdered tin. Conduction losses were the main loss mechanisms for powdered tin by microwave heating at temperatures above 150 °C. A 20 kW commercial-scale microwave tin-melting unit was designed, developed, and utilized for production. This unit achieved a heating rate that was at least 10 times higher than those of conventional methods, as well as a far shorter melting duration. The results suggest that microwave heating accelerates the heating rate and shortens the melting time. Tin recovery rate was 97.79%, with a slag ratio of only 1.65% and other losses accounting for less than 0.56%. The unit energy consumption was only 0.17 (kW·h·kg–1—far lower than the energy required by conventional melting methods. Thus, the microwave melting process improved heating efficiency and reduced energy consumption.

  9. Estimating the breast surface using UWB microwave monostatic backscatter measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, David W; Shea, Jacob D; Madsen, Ernest L; Frank, Gary R; Van Veen, Barry D; Hagness, Susan C

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the location of the breast surface from scattered ultrawideband (UWB) microwave signals recorded across an antenna array. Knowing the location of the breast surface can improve imaging performance if incorporated as a priori information into recently proposed microwave imaging algorithms. These techniques transmit low-power microwaves into the breast using an antenna array, which in turn measures the scattered microwave signals for the purpose of detecting anomalies or changes in the dielectric properties of breast tissue. Our proposed surface identification algorithm consists of three procedures, the first of which estimates M points on the breast surface given M channels of measured microwave backscatter data. The second procedure applies interpolation and extrapolation to these M points to generate N > M points that are approximately uniformly distributed over the breast surface, while the third procedure uses these N points to generate a 3-D estimated breast surface. Numerical as well as experimental tests indicate that the maximum absolute error in the estimated surface generated by the algorithm is on the order of several millimeters. An error analysis conducted for a basic microwave radar imaging algorithm (least-squares narrowband beamforming) indicates that this level of error is acceptable. A key advantage of the algorithm is that it uses the same measured signals that are used for UWB microwave imaging, thereby minimizing patient scan time and avoiding the need for additional hardware.

  10. Random and uniform anisotropy in soft magnetic nanocrystalline alloys (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohrer, Sybille; Herzer, Giselher

    2010-01-01

    In amorphous and nanocrystalline transition metal based alloys with low magnetostriction, the soft magnetic properties are mainly determined by magneto-elastic and annealing-induced anisotropies which are uniform on a scale much larger than the exchange correlation length. Though, in the nanocrystalline case, there are situations where the random magneto-crystalline anisotropy of the grains becomes relevant. The present paper surveys the interplay between the random magneto-crystalline and the uniform field-induced anisotropy in nanocrystalline FeCuNbSiB soft magnets. Typical examples where the contribution of the random anisotropy becomes particularly visible in the magnetic domain structure will be reviewed.

  11. Photoinduced spin polarization and microwave technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Sergey; Poluektov, Oleg; Schoessow, Paul; Kanareykin, Alexei; Jing, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    We report here on studies of optically pumped active microwave media based on various fullerene derivatives, with an emphasis on the use of these materials in microwave electronics. We have investigated a class of optically excited paramagnetic materials that demonstrate activity in the X-band as candidate materials. We found that a particular fullerene derivative, Phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), produced the largest electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) emission signal compared to other organic compounds that have been suggested for use as microwave active materials. We also studied the effects of concentration, temperature, solvent etc. on the activity of the material. In these experiments, EPR studies using a commercial spectrometer were followed up by measurements of an RF signal reflected from a resonator loaded with the PCBM-based material. The activity was directly demonstrated through the change in the quality factor and RF coupling between the resonator and waveguide feed. At the inception of these experiments the primary interest was the development of a microwave PASER. The PASER (particle acceleration by stimulated emission of radiation [1]) is a novel acceleration concept that is based on the direct energy transfer from an active medium to a charged particle beam. While the previous work on the PASER has emphasized operations at infrared or visible wavelengths, operating in the microwave regime has significant advantages in terms of the less stringent quality requirements placed on the electron beam provided an appropriate microwave active medium can be found. This paper is focused on our investigation of the possibility of a PASER operating in the microwave frequency regime [2] using active paramagnetic materials. While a high level of gain for PCBM was demonstrated compared to other candidate materials, dielectric losses and quenching effects were found to negatively impact its performance for PASER applications. We present results on

  12. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami R.K.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  13. Microwave processing heats up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwaves are a common appliance in many households. In the United States microwave heating is the third most popular domestic heating method food foods. Microwave heating is also a commercial food processing technology that has been applied for cooking, drying, and tempering foods. It's use in ...

  14. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  15. Influence of microwave irradiation of cement mixtures on the strength of cement stone and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, M. S.; Dyakonov, M. V.; Krasnokutskiy, R. A.; Kolyaskin, A. D.; Dmitriev, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of microwave irradiation of mixtures on the strength of cement stone and concrete was studied. Created at NRNU MEPHI experimental installation for the investigation of microwave effects on imperfect dielectrics and semiconductor materials was the source of radiation. It is shown that on the twenty-eighth day after mixing, the strength of the cement stone increases by 1.2 times, and that of concrete by 2.2 times.

  16. High temperature dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate by cavity perturbation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guo [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Liu, Chenhui [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Chemistry and Environment, Yunnan Minzu University, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Zhang, Libo, E-mail: libozhang77@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Complex Nonferrous Metal Resources Clean Utilization, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Unconventional Metallurgy, Ministry of Education, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650093 (China); and others

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Cavity perturbation technique is employed to measure the dielectric properties. • Microwave absorption capability of ZnO is poor from 20 °C to 850 °C. • Dielectric properties of spent absorbent and zinc sulfate are influenced by temperature especially in high temperature stage. • Penetration depths and heating curve indicate spent adsorbent and ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} are excellent microwave absorber. • The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly by microwave-regeneration directly. - Abstract: Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent with zinc sulfate are investigated by cavity perturbation technique at 2450 MHz from 20 °C to approximately 1000 °C. Two weight loss stages are observed for spent adsorbent by thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC) analysis, and zinc sulfate is decomposed to ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO at about 750 °C and 860 °C. Microwave absorption capability of ZnSO{sub 4} increases with increasing temperature and declines after ZnO generation on account of the poor dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of spent adsorbent are dependent on apparent density and noticed an interestingly linearly relationship at room temperature. The three parameters increase gently from 20 °C to 400 °C, but a sharp increase both in real part and imaginary part are found subsequently due to the volatiles release and regeneration of carbon. And material conductivity is improved, which contributes to the π-electron conduction appearance. Relationship between penetration depth and temperature further elaborate spent adsorbent is an excellent microwave absorber and the microwave absorption capability order of zinc compounds is ZnO·2ZnSO{sub 4}, ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnO. Heating characteristics suggest that heating rate is related with dielectric properties of materials. The pore structures of spent adsorbent are improved significantly and the surface is smoother after microwave-regeneration.

  17. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  18. Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiahui; Chen, Wan, E-mail: dhtyyobdc@126.com; Lv, Bo; Wang, Zhefei

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • Novel metamaterial based on the coupling effect of a dielectric trimer is proposed. • The phenomenon of vanishing mode is explained by the zero-sum effect. • Due to the vanishing mode, the bandwidth of the dielectric trimer has been expanded to 37%. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel periodic 2D all-dielectric metamaterial based on dielectric trimer is proposed. The electromagnetic responses are explained by the corrected equations of motion using coupled mode theory (CMT). An abnormal vanishment mode phenomenon is also discovered and explained using the zero-sum effect of magnetic dipole, by which the relative bandwidth of the metamaterial has been improved significantly compared with other structures. The presented design is easy for fabrication and can be applied in microwave region by scaling the dimensions of the cubes.

  19. An investigation of the relationship between tree water potential and dielectric constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Kyle C.; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, Jobea; Oren, Ram

    1992-01-01

    An experiment that has been performed to verify the relationship between the dielectric constant of several tree species and their respective water potentials is described. The water potential, xylem flow and dielectric properties of five tree species were continuously monitored while simultaneously manipulating canopy transpiration and water status. An analysis of the data recorded during these manipulations is presented. Results of this analysis demonstrate a clear coincidence of change in dielectric constant and water status. The implication of this relationship for the utilization of remotely sensed data to study canopy water relations is explored. Preliminary backscatter modeling results demonstrate that the changes in dielectric constant that occur as a result of changes in water status are significant enough to be observable with microwave radar.

  20. arXiv Axion-photon conversion caused by dielectric interfaces: quantum field calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannisian, Ara N.; Millar, Alexander J.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2017-09-05

    Axion-photon conversion at dielectric interfaces, immersed in a near-homogeneous magnetic field, is the basis for the dielectric haloscope method to search for axion dark matter. In analogy to transition radiation, this process is possible because the photon wave function is modified by the dielectric layers ("Garibian wave function") and is no longer an eigenstate of momentum. A conventional first-order perturbative calculation of the transition probability between a quantized axion state and these distorted photon states provides the microwave production rate. It agrees with previous results based on solving the classical Maxwell equations for the combined system of axions and electromagnetic fields. We argue that in general the average photon production rate is given by our result, independently of the detailed quantum state of the axion field. Moreover, our result provides a new perspective on axion-photon conversion in dielectric haloscopes because the rate is based on an overlap integral between unpertu...

  1. Benzocyclobutene as Substrate Material for Planar Millimeter-Wave Structures: Dielectric Characterization and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Sandra; Venneri, Ignazio; di Massa, Giuseppe; Borgia, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The application of benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer as dielectric substrate material for millimeter-wave microstrip structures is investigated in this paper to face the problem of large losses due to standard dielectrics in the high microwave range. Dielectric properties of BCB are characterized from S-parameter measurements on a conductor-backed coplanar waveguide (CBCPW) using the polymer as substrate material. Excellent features, with a low loss tangent and a stable dielectric constant, are demonstrated within the measurement range from 11 GHz to 65 GHz. As a validation of BCB high frequency performances, the design and experimental characterization of a V-band array on BCB substrate is presented. Measurement results on both matching and radiation characteristics of the millimeter-wave array are discussed.

  2. Utilization of microwave energy for decontamination of oil polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordache, Daniela; Niculae, Dumitru; Francisc, Ioan Hathazi

    2010-01-01

    Soil oil (petroleum) product pollution represents a great environmental threat as it may contaminate the neighboring soils and surface and underground water. Liquid fuel contamination may occur anywhere during oil (petroleum) product transportation, storing, handling and utilization. The polluted soil recovery represents a complex process due to the wide range of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils which should be analyzed in connection with the study of the contaminated soil behavior under the microwave field action. The soil, like any other non-metallic material, can be heated through microwave energy absorption due to the dielectric losses, expressed by its dielectric complex constant. Oil polluted soil behaves differently in a microwave field depending on the nature, structure and amount of the polluting fuel. Decontamination is performed through volatilization and retrieval of organic contaminant volatile components. After decontamination only a soil fixed residue remains, which cannot penetrate the underground anymore. In carrying out the soil recovery process by means of this technology we should also consider the soil characteristics such as: the soil type, temperature, moisture.The first part of the paper presents the theoretical aspects relating to the behavior of the polluted soil samples in the microwave field, as well as their relating experimental data. The experimental data resulting from the analysis of soils with a different level of pollution point out that the degree of pollutant recovery is high, contributing to changing the initial classification of soils from the point of view of pollution. The paper graphically presents the levels of microwave generated and absorbed power in soil samples, soil temperature during experimentations, specific processing parameters in a microwave field. It also presents the constructive solution of the microwave equipment designed for the contaminated soil in situ treatment.

  3. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  4. Dielectric properties of polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.; Riad, A.S.; El-Shabasy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature dependence of dielectric properties in polyethylene was measured in the frequency range from 10 to 105 Hz. The frequency dependence of the complex impedance in the complex plane could be fitted by semicircles. The system could be represented by an equivalent circuit of a bulk resistance in series with parallel surface resistance-capacitance combination. The relaxation time, has been evaluated from experimental results. Results reveal that the temperature dependence, is a thermally activated process

  5. All-dielectric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  6. Controlling dielectrics with the electric field of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Martin; Bothschafter, Elisabeth M; Sommer, Annkatrin; Holzner, Simon; Schweinberger, Wolfgang; Fiess, Markus; Hofstetter, Michael; Kienberger, Reinhard; Apalkov, Vadym; Yakovlev, Vladislav S; Stockman, Mark I; Krausz, Ferenc

    2013-01-03

    The control of the electric and optical properties of semiconductors with microwave fields forms the basis of modern electronics, information processing and optical communications. The extension of such control to optical frequencies calls for wideband materials such as dielectrics, which require strong electric fields to alter their physical properties. Few-cycle laser pulses permit damage-free exposure of dielectrics to electric fields of several volts per ångström and significant modifications in their electronic system. Fields of such strength and temporal confinement can turn a dielectric from an insulating state to a conducting state within the optical period. However, to extend electric signal control and processing to light frequencies depends on the feasibility of reversing these effects approximately as fast as they can be induced. Here we study the underlying electron processes with sub-femtosecond solid-state spectroscopy, which reveals the feasibility of manipulating the electronic structure and electric polarizability of a dielectric reversibly with the electric field of light. We irradiate a dielectric (fused silica) with a waveform-controlled near-infrared few-cycle light field of several volts per angström and probe changes in extreme-ultraviolet absorptivity and near-infrared reflectivity on a timescale of approximately a hundred attoseconds to a few femtoseconds. The field-induced changes follow, in a highly nonlinear fashion, the turn-on and turn-off behaviour of the driving field, in agreement with the predictions of a quantum mechanical model. The ultrafast reversibility of the effects implies that the physical properties of a dielectric can be controlled with the electric field of light, offering the potential for petahertz-bandwidth signal manipulation.

  7. Dielectric lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1983-06-01

    Dielectric lattice gauge theory models are introduced. They involve variables PHI(b)epsilong that are attached to the links b = (x+esub(μ),x) of the lattice and take their values in the linear space g which consists of real linear combinations of matrices in the gauge group G. The polar decomposition PHI(b)=U(b)osub(μ)(x) specifies an ordinary lattice gauge field U(b) and a kind of dielectric field epsilonsub(ij)proportionalosub(i)osub(j)sup(*)deltasub(ij). A gauge invariant positive semidefinite kinetic term for the PHI-field is found, and it is shown how to incorporate Wilson fermions in a way which preserves Osterwalder Schrader positivity. Theories with G = SU(2) and without matter fields are studied in some detail. It is proved that confinement holds, in the sense that Wilson loop expectation values show an area law decay, if the Euclidean action has certain qualitative features which imply that PHI = 0 (i.e. dielectric field identical 0) is the unique maximum of the action. (orig.)

  8. Room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline pure tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Seal, S

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (6-8 nm) tin oxide (SnO2) thin film (100-150 nm) sensor is synthesized via sol-gel dip-coating process. The thin film is characterized using focused ion-beam microscopy (FIB) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques to determine the film thickness and the nanocrystallite size. The utilization of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film to sense a typical reducing gas such as hydrogen, at room temperature, is demonstrated in this investigation. The grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 is analyzed, which shows very low activation energy (9 kJ/mol) for the grain growth within the nanocrystallite size range of 3-20 nm. This low activation energy value is correlated, via excess oxygen-ion vacancy concentration, with the room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of the nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film sensor.

  9. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  10. Pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic boriding as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    ; pulsed plasma electrolytic boriding; corrosion; nanocrystalline. 1. Introduction. Titanium possesses low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, high stiffness and strength (Donachie 2000; Lutjer- ing and Albrecht 2004). Commercially pure ...

  11. Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rose bengal-sensitized nanocrystalline ceria photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application ... injection and transportation, wide bandgap nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors with dye adsorption surface and higher electron mobility are essential properties for photoanode in dyesensitizedsolar cells (DSSCs).

  12. Tailoring and patterning the grain size of nanocrystalline alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detor, Andrew J.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline alloys that exhibit grain boundary segregation can access thermodynamically stable or metastable states with the average grain size dictated by the alloying addition. Here we consider nanocrystalline Ni-W alloys and demonstrate that the W content controls the grain size over a very broad range: ∼2-140 nm as compared with ∼2-20 nm in previous work on strongly segregating systems. This trend is attributed to a relatively weak tendency for W segregation to the grain boundaries. Based upon this observation, we introduce a new synthesis technique allowing for precise composition control during the electrodeposition of Ni-W alloys, which, in turn, leads to precise control of the nanocrystalline grain size. This technique offers new possibilities for understanding the structure-property relationships of nanocrystalline solids, such as the breakdown of Hall-Petch strength scaling, and also opens the door to a new class of customizable materials incorporating patterned nanostructures

  13. High Temperature Stable Nanocrystalline SiGe Thermoelectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sherwin (Inventor); Matejczyk, Daniel Edward (Inventor); Determan, William (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of forming a nanocomposite thermoelectric material having microstructural stability at temperatures greater than 1000 C. The method includes creating nanocrystalline powder by cryomilling. The method is particularly useful in forming SiGe alloy powder.

  14. Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, A

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous and nanocrystalline materials are a class of their own. Their properties are quite different to those of the corresponding crystalline materials. This book gives systematic insight into their physical properties, structure, behaviour, and design for special advanced applications.

  15. Dielectric properties of glasses prepared by quenching melts of superconducting Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu-O cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, K. B. R.; Subbanna, G. N.; Ramakrishnan, T. V.; Rao, C. N. R.

    1989-07-03

    Glasses obtained from quenching melts of superconducting bismuth cuprates of the formula Bi/sub 2/(Ca,Sr)/sub /ital n/+1/Cu/sub /ital n//O/sub 2/ital n/+4/ with /ital n/=1 and 3 exhibit novel dielectric properties. They possess relatively high dielectric constants as well as high electrical conductivity. The novel dielectric properties of these cuprate glasses are likely to be of electronic origin. They exhibit a weak microwave absorption due to the presence of microcrystallites.

  16. Dielectric and thermophysical properties of different beef meat blends over a temperature range of -18 to +10°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, K W; Lyng, J G; Morgan, D J; Cronin, D A

    2008-08-01

    Dielectric and thermophysical properties of three different beef meat blends (lean, fat and 50:50 mixture) were evaluated over a range of temperatures from -18 to +10°C. In the region of thawing (-3 to -1°C), dielectric constant (ε') and dielectric loss factor (ε') values for radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) were significantly higher (Pthermal conductivity (k), specific heat (c) and thermal diffusivity (α) also showed significant changes (Pfood technologists in the context of rapid defrosting of meat products.

  17. Impedance analysis and dielectric response of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles codoped with Mn and Co ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Kashyap, Manish K.; Sabharwal, Namita; Kumar, Sarvesh; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Parmod; Asokan, K.

    2017-11-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of transition metal (TM) doping, the impedance and dielectric responses of Co and/or Mn-doped TiO2 nanocrystalline powder samples with 3% doping concentration synthesized via sol gel technique, have been analyzed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of tetragonal TiO2 anatase phase for all studied samples without any extra impurity phase peaks. The variation in the grain size measured from field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) measurements for all the samples are in accordance with the change in crystallite size as obtained from XRD. The DC resistivity for pure TiO2 nanoparticles is the highest while codoped samples exhibit low resistivity. The temperature dependent dielectric constant and dielectric loss possess step like enhancement and show the relaxation behavior. At room temperature, the dielectric function and dielectric loss decrease rapidly with increase in frequency and become almost constant at the higher frequencies. Such a decrease in dielectric loss is suitable for energy storage devices.

  18. Reversal of exchange bias in nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prados, C; Pina, E; Hernando, A; Montone, A

    2002-01-01

    The sign of the exchange bias in field cooled nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers (Co-O and Ni-O/permalloy) is reversed at temperatures approaching the antiferromagnetic (AFM) blocking temperature. A similar phenomenon is observed after magnetic training processes at similar temperatures. These effects can be explained assuming that the boundaries of nanocrystalline grains in AFM layers exhibit lower transition temperatures than grain cores

  19. Study of dielectric properties of adulterated milk concentration and freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra Murthy, V.; Sai Kiranmai, N.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    The knowledge of dielectric properties may hold a potential to develop a new technique for quality evaluation of milk. The dielectric properties of water diluted cow’s milk with milk concentration from 70 percent to 100 percent stored during 36hour storage at 22°C and 144 hour at 5°C were measured at room temperature for frequencies ranging from 10 to 4500 MHz and at low, high & at microwave frequencies using X band bench and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology, along with electrical conductivity. The raw milk had the lowest dielectric constant (ɛ‧) when the frequency was higher than about 20M.Hz, and had the highest loss (ɛ″) or decepation factor tan (δ) at each frequency. The penetration depth (dp) increased with decreasing frequency, water content and storage time, which was large enough to detect dielectric properties changes in milk samples and provide large scale RF pasteurization processes. The loss factor can be an indicator in predicting milk concentration and freshness.

  20. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  1. Solvothermal synthesis of nanocrystalline KTaO.sub.3./sub. : Effect of solvent dielectric constant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Makarova, Marina; Bykov, Pavlo; Drahokoupil, Jan; Čerňanský, Marian; Dlabáček, Zdeněk; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Trepakov, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2012), s. 1798-1773 ISSN 0025-5408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanostructures * chemical synthesis * Raman spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.913, year: 2012

  2. Thermal Conductivity in Nanocrystalline Ceria Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marat Khafizov; In-Wook Park; Aleksandr Chernatynskiy; Lingfeng He; Jianliang Lin; John J. Moore; David Swank; Thomas Lillo; Simon R. Phillpot; Anter El-Azab; David H. Hurley

    2014-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline ceria films grown by unbalanced magnetron sputtering is determined as a function of temperature using laser-based modulated thermoreflectance. The films exhibit significantly reduced conductivity compared with stoichiometric bulk CeO2. A variety of microstructure imaging techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron analysis, and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the thermal conductivity is influenced by grain boundaries, dislocations, and oxygen vacancies. The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is analyzed using an analytical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The conclusion of this study is that oxygen vacancies pose a smaller impediment to thermal transport when they segregate along grain boundaries.

  3. Reinforced plastics and aerogels by nanocrystalline cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Alfred C. W.; Lam, Edmond; Chong, Jonathan; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H. T., E-mail: john.luong@cnrc-nrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), a rigid rod-like nanoscale material, can be produced from cellulosic biomass in powder, liquid, or gel forms by acid and chemical hydrolysis. Owing to its unique and exceptional physicochemical properties, the incorporation of a small amount of NCC into plastic enhances the mechanical strength of the latter by several orders of magnitudes. Carbohydrate-based NCC poses no serious environmental concerns, providing further impetus for the development and applications of this green and renewable biomaterial to fabricate lightweight and biodegradable composites and aerogels. Surface functionalization of NCC remains the main focus of NCC research to tailor its properties for dispersion in hydrophilic or hydrophobic media. It is of uttermost importance to develop tools and protocols for imaging of NCC in a complex matrix and quantify its reinforcement effect.

  4. Nanocrystalline Steels’ Resistance to Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skołek E.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement in X37CrMoV5-1 steel with two different microstructures: a nanocrystalline carbide-free bainite and tempered martensite. The nanobainitic structure was obtained by austempering at the bainitic transformation zone. It was found, that after hydrogen charging, both kinds of microstructure exhibit increased yield strength and strong decrease in ductility. It has been however shown that the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement of X37CrMoV5-1 steel with nanobainitic structure is higher as compared to the tempered martensite. After hydrogen charging the ductility of austempered steel is slightly higher than in case of quenched and tempered (Q&T steel. This effect was interpreted as a result of phase composition formed after different heat treatments.

  5. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  6. Toughness and strength of nanocrystalline graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Ashivni; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2016-01-01

    Pristine monocrystalline graphene is claimed to be the strongest material known with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. However, graphene made with scalable fabrication techniques is polycrystalline and contains inherent nanoscale line and point defects—grain boundaries and grain-boundary triple junctions—that lead to significant statistical fluctuations in toughness and strength. These fluctuations become particularly pronounced for nanocrystalline graphene where the density of defects is high. Here we use large-scale simulation and continuum modelling to show that the statistical variation in toughness and strength can be understood with ‘weakest-link' statistics. We develop the first statistical theory of toughness in polycrystalline graphene, and elucidate the nanoscale origins of the grain-size dependence of its strength and toughness. Our results should lead to more reliable graphene device design, and provide a framework to interpret experimental results in a broad class of two-dimensional materials. PMID:26817712

  7. Influence of color on dielectric properties of marinated poultry breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, D; Trabelsi, S

    2012-08-01

    The dielectric behavior of foods when exposed to radio-frequency and microwave electric fields is highly influenced by moisture content and the degree of water binding with constituents of the food materials. The ability to correlate specific food quality characteristics with the dielectric properties can lead to the development of rapid, nondestructive techniques for such quality measurements. Water-holding capacity is a critical attribute in meat quality. Up to 50% of raw poultry meat in the United States is marinated with mixtures of water, salts, and phosphates. The objective of this study was to determine if variations in breast meat color would affect the dielectric properties of marinated poultry meat over a broad frequency range from 500 MHz to 50 GHz. Poultry meat was obtained from a local commercial plant in Georgia (USA). Color and pH measurements were taken on the breast filets. Groups of breast filets were sorted into classes of pale and normal before adding marination pickup percentages of 0, 5, 10, and 15. Breast filets were vacuum-tumbled and weighed for pickup percentages. Dielectric properties of the filets were measured with a coaxial open-ended probe on samples equilibrated to 25°C. Samples from pale meat exhibited higher dielectric properties than samples from normal meat. No differences could be observed between samples from pale and normal meat after marination of the samples. Overall, dielectric properties increased as the marination pickup increased (α=0.05). Marination pickup strongly influenced the dielectric loss factor. Differences between samples marinated at different pickup levels were more pronounced at lower frequencies for the dielectric loss factor. As frequency increased, the differences between samples decreased. Differences in dielectric constant between samples were not as consistent as those seen with the dielectric loss factor.

  8. Microwave energy attenuators on the basis of aluminum nitride with high level of microwave energy absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasnyk V. I.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental studies of aluminum nitride based composites with addition of silicon carbide and molybdenum having high microwave absorption are presented. The interconnection between high level of absorption and volume electrical resistance was observed: maximum absorption of 6.5±1,0 dB/mm corresponds to the electrical resistance of (4—5·105 Ohm·m. Level of absorption of 3.5±0,5 dB/mm is revealed for the dielectric material with electrical conductivity of 1012 Ohm·m. The patterns detected during the study allow to predict the minimum and maximum levels of absorption of microwave energy in the two-phase composites based on aluminum nitride with molybdenum or silicon carbide, based on the measured volume of electrical resistance.

  9. Complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric relaxation of heavy water along its curve of existence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabokov, O.A.; Lyubimov, Yu.A.

    1985-10-01

    The authors previously studied the complex dielectric permittivity of ordinary water at 70-200/sup 0/C. Similar measurements were performed in this work for D/sub 2/O by incomplete filling of a microwave resonator at a frequency of about 9.3 GHz. Distilled 99.8% D/sub 2/O was used. For D/sub 2/O, the value of tau/sub D/T/eta (where eta is the viscosity) increases with increasing temperature, so that at 140/sup 0/C its change goes beyond the limits of error of the measurement of tau/sub D/ and eta. The gradual increase in tau/sub D/T/eta and tau/sub D/D with temperature indicates weakening of the interaction between orientation and translation movements of the liquid D/sub 2/O molecules with increasing temperature. 11 references, 1 figure.

  10. Electromagnetic properties of nanocrystalline Al substituted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The applicability of present samples for microwave devices has been tested by the measurement of ferromagnetic resonance linewidth at Ka band. ... A is a divalent metal ion (e.g., magnesium, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and B usually iron ... water and absolute ethyl alcohol followed by drying over- night at 80. ◦. C. Then the ...

  11. Structural, electrical and magnetic behaviour of undoped and nickel doped nanocrystalline bismuth ferrite by solution combustion route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakali Sarkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BFO and Ni-doped bismuth ferrites, with perovskite structure, were synthesized by chemical route at the temperatures ranging from 500 to 600 °C in controlled atmosphere. The structural phase analysis of materials was identified by XRD and crystallite size was calculated from the half width measurement of the well defined major XRD diffraction peak. Average crystallite size was calculated by applying Scherrer’s formula and found to have values in the range from 14 to 35 nm. FESEM was used to evaluate the morphology and structural formation of nanocrystallite grains, while EDX confirmed elemental composition including the presence of dopant in the matrix. Dielectric properties and effect of electric field on polarization behaviour were studied for both undoped and Ni-doped BFO. Doping shows a clear change in ferroelectric behaviour. Antiferromagnetic nature of bulk bismuth ferrite transforms to superparamagnetic strong ferroelectric nature for both undoped and nickel doped nanocrystalline bismuth ferrite due to its close dimension of crystallite size with magnetic domains leading to break-down of frustrated spin cycloidal moment. The superparamagnetism behaviour is more pronounced for the nickel doped BFO though magnetic saturation is slightly higher for the undoped nanocrystalline bismuth ferrite.

  12. High-Q microwave resonators with a photonic crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, M.

    2001-08-01

    The localisation of electromagnetic energy at a defect in a photonic crystal is similar to a well known effect employed to construct high-Q microwave resonators: In a whispering gallery (WHG-) mode resonator the high Q-factor is achieved by localisation of the electromagnetic field energy by total reflection inside a disk made of dielectric material. The topic of this work is to demonstrate, that WHG-like modes can exist in an air defect in a photonic crystal that extends over several lattice periods; and that a high-Q microwave resonator can be made, utilizing these resonant modes. In numerical simulations, the transmission properties of a photonic crystal structure with hexagonal lattice symmetry have been investigated with a transfer-matrix-method. The eigenmodes of a defect structure in a photonic crystal have been calculated with a quasi-3d finite element integration technique. Experimental results confirm the simulated transmission properties and show the existence of modes inside the band gap, when a defect is introduced in the crystal. Resonator measurements show that a microwave resonator can be operated with those defect modes. It was found out that the main losses of the resonator were caused by bad microwave properties of the used dielectric material and by metal losses on the top and bottom resonator walls. Furthermore, it turned out that the detection of the photonic crystal defect mode was difficult because of a lack of simulation possibilities and high housing mode density in the resonator. (orig.)

  13. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  14. Optics of dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    and photonic crystal microcavity. In chapter 4 a general theory based on a Green's tensor formalism is put forward for spontaneous emission in active dielectric microstructures, and an example is given whre the method is applied to a fiber amplifier. The Green's tensor in chapter 4 is constructed a a summation...... over a biorthogonal set of electromagnetic modes. An alternative method based on a Lippmann-Schwinger type integral equation is presented in chapter 5 for the construction of the Green's tensor and calculation of emission of radiation by sources. The integral equation approach is applied to calculate...

  15. Monotron and azimuthally corrugated: application to the high power microwaves generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Pedro Jose de

    2003-01-01

    The present document reports the activity of construction and initial operation of 6.7 GHz operation for high power microwave generation, the study on cylindrical resonators with azimuthally corrugated cross section, the determination of electrical conductivity of metallic materials and development of dielectric resonators for telecommunication applications

  16. Efficient and Mild Microwave-Assisted Stepwise Functionalization of Naphthalenediimide with α-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pengo, Paolo; Pantoş, G. Dan; Otto, Sijbren; Sanders, Jeremy K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Microwave dielectric heating proved to be an efficient method for the one-pot and stepwise syntheses of symmetrical and unsymmetrical naphthalenediimide derivatives of α-amino acids. Acid-labile side chain protecting groups are stable under the reaction conditions; protection of the α-carboxylic

  17. Higher d.c. resistivity of Li–Zn–Cd ferrites prepared by microwave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ceramics; lithium ferrites; spinel structure; microwave sintering; d.c. resistivity; activation energy. 1. Introduction. Lithium ferrites are good dielectric materials with inter- esting magnetic properties like high Curie temperature, rectangularity of hysteresis loop and high saturation magnetization, thereby making them technically ...

  18. Densification and dielectric properties of SrO–Al2O3–B2O3 ceramic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The influence of SrO (0·0–5·0 wt%) on partial substitution of alpha alumina (corundum) in ceramic com- position (95 Al2O3–5B2O3) have been studied by co-precipitated process and their phase composition, microstruc- ture, microchemistry and microwave dielectric properties were studied. Phase composition ...

  19. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  20. Advances in microwaves 3

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 3 covers the advances and applications of microwave signal transmission and Gunn devices. This volume contains six chapters and begins with descriptions of ground-station antennas for space communications. The succeeding chapters deal with beam waveguides, which offer interesting possibilities for transmitting microwave energy, as well as with parallel or tubular beams from antenna apertures. A chapter discusses the electron transfer mechanism and the velocity-field characteristics, with a particular emphasis on the microwave properties of Gunn oscillators. The l

  1. The microwave market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bybokas, J.

    1989-01-01

    As superconductors move from the laboratory to the marketplace, it becomes more important for researchers and manufacturers to understand the markets for this technology. The large market for microwave systems represents a major opportunity for high-T c superconductors. Conductor losses are a primary design limitation in conventional microwave systems. The low losses of superconductors at microwave frequencies will allow component designers and system designers to improve their products in many ways. The most important market segments for microwave systems are outlined in this discussion

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystalline CdS thin films in PVA matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    The band gap of the nanocrystalline material is determined from the UV spectrograph. The absorption edge is shifted towards the lower wave length side (i.e. blue ... In recent years nanocrystalline thin films of different II–VI compound semiconductors have been widely synthesized and studied. Nanocrystalline thin films are ...

  3. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofan

    Dielectric polymers are widely used in a plurality of applications, such as electrical insulation, dielectric capacitors, and electromechanical actuators. Dielectric polymers with large strain deformations under an electric field are named dielectric elastomers (DE), because of their relative low modulus, high elongation at break, and outstanding resilience. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) are superior to traditional transducers as a muscle-like technology: large strains, high energy densities, high coupling efficiency, quiet operation, and light weight. One focus of this dissertation is on the design of DE materials with high performance and easy processing. UV radiation curing of reactive species is studied as a generic synthesis methodology to provide a platform for material scientists to customize their own DE materials. Oligomers/monomers, crosslinkers, and other additives are mixed and cured at appropriate ratios to control the stress-strain response, suppress electromechanical instability of the resulting polymers, and provide stable actuation strains larger than 100% and energy densities higher than 1 J/g. The processing is largely simplified in the new material system by removal of the prestretching step. Multilayer stack actuators with 11% linear strain are demonstrated in a procedure fully compatible with industrial production. A multifunctional DE derivative material, bistable electroactive polymer (BSEP), is invented enabling repeatable rigid-to-rigid deformation without bulky external structures. Bistable actuation allows the polymer actuator to have two distinct states that can support external load without device failure. Plasticizers are used to lower the glass transition temperature to 45 °C. Interpenetrating polymer network structure is established inside the BSEP to suppress electromechanical instability, providing a breakdown field of 194 MV/m and a stable bistable strain as large as 228% with a 97% strain fixity. The application of BSEP

  4. Crystal structure and dielectric properties of new type of wolframite LiYW{sub 2}O{sub 8} for LTCC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Seog; Lee, Jong Cheol; Cheon, Chae Il [Hoseo Unversity, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Crystal structure and microwave dielectric properties of new types of wolframite materials represented as LiYW{sub 2}O{sub 8} have been characterized using neutron diffraction analysis. The AWO{sub 4}(a = Ba, Ca) with additives of borates and lithium tungstates for attaining LTCC compositions for microwave dielectric applications. By manipulating the solid solution composition of the system (1- x)LiYW{sub 2}O{sub 8} - {sub x}BaWO{sub 4} the {tau}{sub f} could be controlled near zero values at about x = 0.5. Optimum microwave dielectric property was Qf 19,740GHz, {tau}{sub f} = +14ppm, {epsilon}r = 11.7 at x = 0.4.

  5. Nanocrystalline BaSnO3 as an Alternative Gas Sensor Material: Surface Reactivity and High Sensitivity to SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikutsa, Artem; Rumyantseva, Marina; Baranchikov, Alexander; Gaskov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline perovskite-type BaSnO3 was obtained via microwave-assisted hydrothermal route followed by annealing at variable temperature. The samples composition and microstructure were characterized. Particle size of 18–23 nm was unaffected by heat treatment at 275–700 °C. Materials DC-conduction was measured at variable temperature and oxygen concentration. Barium stannate exhibited n-type semiconductor behavior at 150–450 °C with activation energy being dependent on the materials annealing temperature. Predominant ionosorbed oxygen species types were estimated. They were shown to change from molecular to atomic species on increasing temperature. Comparative test of sensor response to various inorganic target gases was performed using nanocrystalline SnO2-based sensors as reference ones. Despite one order of magnitude smaller surface area, BaSnO3 displayed higher sensitivity to SO2 in comparison with SnO2. DRIFT spectroscopy revealed distinct interaction routes of the oxides surfaces with SO2. Barium-promoted sulfate formation favoring target molecules oxidation was found responsible for the increased BaSnO3 sensitivity to ppm-range concentrations of SO2 in air. PMID:28793573

  6. Nanocrystalline BaSnO3 as an Alternative Gas Sensor Material: Surface Reactivity and High Sensitivity to SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Marikutsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline perovskite-type BaSnO3 was obtained via microwave-assisted hydrothermal route followed by annealing at variable temperature. The samples composition and microstructure were characterized. Particle size of 18–23 nm was unaffected by heat treatment at 275–700 °C. Materials DC-conduction was measured at variable temperature and oxygen concentration. Barium stannate exhibited n-type semiconductor behavior at 150–450 °C with activation energy being dependent on the materials annealing temperature. Predominant ionosorbed oxygen species types were estimated. They were shown to change from molecular to atomic species on increasing temperature. Comparative test of sensor response to various inorganic target gases was performed using nanocrystalline SnO2-based sensors as reference ones. Despite one order of magnitude smaller surface area, BaSnO3 displayed higher sensitivity to SO2 in comparison with SnO2. DRIFT spectroscopy revealed distinct interaction routes of the oxides surfaces with SO2. Barium-promoted sulfate formation favoring target molecules oxidation was found responsible for the increased BaSnO3 sensitivity to ppm-range concentrations of SO2 in air.

  7. Nanocrystalline BaSnO₃ as an Alternative Gas Sensor Material: Surface Reactivity and High Sensitivity to SO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikutsa, Artem; Rumyantseva, Marina; Baranchikov, Alexander; Gaskov, Alexander

    2015-09-18

    Nanocrystalline perovskite-type BaSnO₃ was obtained via microwave-assisted hydrothermal route followed by annealing at variable temperature. The samples composition and microstructure were characterized. Particle size of 18-23 nm was unaffected by heat treatment at 275-700 °C. Materials DC-conduction was measured at variable temperature and oxygen concentration. Barium stannate exhibited n -type semiconductor behavior at 150-450 °C with activation energy being dependent on the materials annealing temperature. Predominant ionosorbed oxygen species types were estimated. They were shown to change from molecular to atomic species on increasing temperature. Comparative test of sensor response to various inorganic target gases was performed using nanocrystalline SnO₂-based sensors as reference ones. Despite one order of magnitude smaller surface area, BaSnO₃ displayed higher sensitivity to SO₂ in comparison with SnO₂. DRIFT spectroscopy revealed distinct interaction routes of the oxides surfaces with SO₂. Barium-promoted sulfate formation favoring target molecules oxidation was found responsible for the increased BaSnO₃ sensitivity to ppm-range concentrations of SO₂ in air.

  8. Integrated microwave photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marpaung, D.A.I.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Heideman, Rene; Leinse, Arne; Sales, S.; Capmany, J.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave photonics (MWP) is an emerging field in which radio frequency (RF) signals are generated, distributed, processed and analyzed using the strength of photonic techniques. It is a technology that enables various functionalities which are not feasible to achieve only in the microwave domain. A

  9. Microwave Enhanced Reactive Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, E.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic irradiation in form of microwaves (MW) has gathered the attention of the scientific community in recent years. MW used as an alternative energy source for chemical syntheses (microwave chemistry) can provide clear advantages over conventional heating methods in

  10. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  11. Application of a plane-stratified emission model to predict the effects of vegetation in passive microwave radiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application to vegetation canopies of a coherent model for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through a stratified medium. The resulting multi-layer vegetation model is plausibly realistic in that it recognises the dielectric permittivity of the vegetation matter, the mixing of the dielectric permittivities for vegetation and air within the canopy and, in simplified terms, the overall vertical distribution of dielectric permittivity and temperature through the canopy. Any sharp changes in the dielectric profile of the canopy resulted in interference effects manifested as oscillations in the microwave brightness temperature as a function of canopy height or look angle. However, when Gaussian broadening of the top and bottom of the canopy (reflecting the natural variability between plants was included within the model, these oscillations were eliminated. The model parameters required to specify the dielectric profile within the canopy, particularly the parameters that quantify the dielectric mixing between vegetation and air in the canopy, are not usually available in typical field experiments. Thus, the feasibility of specifying these parameters using an advanced single-criterion, multiple-parameter optimisation technique was investigated by automatically minimizing the difference between the modelled and measured brightness temperatures. The results imply that the mixing parameters can be so determined but only if other parameters that specify vegetation dry matter and water content are measured independently. The new model was then applied to investigate the sensitivity of microwave emission to specific vegetation parameters. Keywords: passive microwave, soil moisture, vegetation, SMOS, retrieval

  12. Microwave hydrology: A trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J. M.; Johnston, E. J.; Girard, M. A.; Regusters, H. A.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave hydrology, as the term in construed in this trilogy, deals with the investigation of important hydrological features on the Earth's surface as they are remotely, and passively, sensed by orbiting microwave receivers. Microwave wavelengths penetrate clouds, foliage, ground cover, and soil, in varying degrees, and reveal the occurrence of standing liquid water on and beneath the surface. The manifestation of liquid water appearing on or near the surface is reported by a microwave receiver as a signal with a low flux level, or, equivalently, a cold temperature. Actually, the surface of the liquid water reflects the low flux level from the cosmic background into the input terminals of the receiver. This trilogy describes and shows by microwave flux images: the hydrological features that sustain Lake Baykal as an extraordinary freshwater resource; manifestations of subsurface water in Iran; and the major water features of the Congo Basin, a rain forest.

  13. Microwave ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani; Thomae, Rainer W.

    2005-07-26

    A compact microwave ion source has a permanent magnet dipole field, a microwave launcher, and an extractor parallel to the source axis. The dipole field is in the form of a ring. The microwaves are launched from the middle of the dipole ring using a coaxial waveguide. Electrons are heated using ECR in the magnetic field. The ions are extracted from the side of the source from the middle of the dipole perpendicular to the source axis. The plasma density can be increased by boosting the microwave ion source by the addition of an RF antenna. Higher charge states can be achieved by increasing the microwave frequency. A xenon source with a magnetic pinch can be used to produce intense EUV radiation.

  14. Characterisation of Suspension Precipitated Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, P. K.; Swain, P. K.; Patnaik, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-known biomaterial for coating on femoral implants, filling of dental cavity and scaffold for tissue replacement. Hydroxyapatite possess limited load bearing capacity due to their brittleness. In this paper, the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders was prepared by dissolving calcium oxide in phosphoric acid, followed by addition of ammonia liquor in a beaker. The prepared solution was stirred by using magnetic stirrer operated at temperature of 80°C for an hour. This leads to the formation of hydroxyapatite precipitate. The precipitate was dried in oven for overnight at 100°C. The dried agglomerated precipitate was calcined at 800°C in conventional furnace for an hour. The influence of calcium oxide concentration and pH on the resulting precipitates was studied using BET, XRD and SEM. As result, a well-defined sub-rounded morphology of powders size of ∼41 nm was obtained with a salt concentration of 0.02 M. Finally, it can be concluded that small changes in the reaction conditions led to large changes in final size, shape and degree of aggregation of the hydroxyapatite particles.

  15. Equation of state of nanocrystalline forsterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvy, H.; Chen, J.; Drozd, V.

    2008-12-01

    Grain size and grain shape are important parameters for physical properties of minerals as well as for geophysical processes like deformation. Even though the occurrences of nanominerals in the crust and the mantle are limited their presence might have an important influence. For instance, mechanical grinding of rocks associated to earthquake can generate nanoparticles and their presence is thought to control earthquake instability. In the context of subducting slab, experiments show presence of nanoparticle of ringwoodite which plays a important role in deep earthquakes. However, the influence of nano grain size on elastic properties of minerals is poorly studied. This work presents a study of equation of state of nano-forsterite. Nanocrystalline forsterite has been synthesized using a sol-gel method. A particle size of about 50 nm has been obtained. In-situ hydrostatic high pressure and high temperature experiments have been performed at X17B2 (NSLS) using the DIA-type multianvil press. Two samples of macron size and nano size particles of forsterite have been studied simultaneously up to 10 GPa and 1300°C for comparison. The bulk modulus of both samples and its derivative with pressure and temperature will presented and the consequences for geological processes will be discussed.

  16. Thermally Stimulated Currents in Nanocrystalline Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Bruzzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough study on the distribution of defect-related active energy levels has been performed on nanocrystalline TiO2. Films have been deposited on thick-alumina printed circuit boards equipped with electrical contacts, heater and temperature sensors, to carry out a detailed thermally stimulated currents analysis on a wide temperature range (5–630 K, in view to evidence contributions from shallow to deep energy levels within the gap. Data have been processed by numerically modelling electrical transport. The model considers both free and hopping contribution to conduction, a density of states characterized by an exponential tail of localized states below the conduction band and the convolution of standard Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC emissions with gaussian distributions to take into account the variability in energy due to local perturbations in the highly disordered network. Results show that in the low temperature range, up to 200 K, hopping within the exponential band tail represents the main contribution to electrical conduction. Above room temperature, electrical conduction is dominated by free carriers contribution and by emissions from deep energy levels, with a defect density ranging within 1014–1018 cm−3, associated with physio- and chemi-sorbed water vapour, OH groups and to oxygen vacancies.

  17. Rheological properties of nanocrystalline cellulose suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Xu, Chunjiang; Huang, Jing; Wu, Defeng; Lv, Qiaolian

    2017-02-10

    Rheological behavior, including linear and nonlinear, as well as transient rheology of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) suspensions was studied in this work. Two kinds of polymer solutions, aqueous poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with flexible chain structure and aqueous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with semi-rigid chain structure, were used as the suspension media to further explore the role that the interactions among NCC and polymers played during shear flow. The results reveal that NCC has lower values of percolation threshold in the PVA solution than in the CMC one during small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) flow because the flexible PVA chain has higher adsorbed level onto NCC particles than the negatively charged semi-rigid CMC chain, which is further confirmed by the Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy tests. As a result, the NCC suspension shows a weak strain overshoot in PVA solution during large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flow, which cannot be seen on the one in CMC solution. During startup shear flow, both of these two suspensions show evident stress overshoot behavior with the strain-scaling characteristics, indicating the formation of ordered long-term structure of rod-like NCC particles with self-similarity during flow. However, NCC suspension have far stronger stress overshoot response in CMC solution relative to the one in PVA solution. A possible synergy mechanism between NCC and CMC chain is hence proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Films prepared from electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Tejado, Alvaro; Alam, Nur; Antal, Miro; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2012-05-22

    Electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) was modified in three ways: (1) the hydroxyl groups on C2 and C3 of glucose repeat units of ENCC were converted to aldehyde groups by periodate oxidation to various extents; (2) the carboxyl groups in the sodium form on ENCC were converted to the acid form by treating them with an acid-type ion-exchange resin; and (3) ENCC was cross-linked in two different ways by employing adipic dihydrazide as a cross-linker and water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylaminopropyl)] carbodiimide as a carboxyl-activating agent. Films were prepared from these modified ENCC suspensions by vacuum filtration. The effects of these three modifications on the properties of films were investigated by a variety of techniques, including UV-visible spectroscopy, a tensile test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), and contact angle (CA) studies. On the basis of the results from UV spectra, the transmittance of these films was as high as 87%, which shows them to be highly transparent. The tensile strength of these films was increased with increasing aldehyde content. From TGA and WVTR experiments, cross-linked films showed much higher thermal stability and lower water permeability. Furthermore, although the original cellulose is hydrophilic, these films also exhibited a certain hydrophobic behavior. Films treated by trichloromethylsilane become superhydrophobic. The unique characteristics of these transparent films are very promising for potential applications in flexible packaging and other high-technology products.

  19. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Stabilized Copper Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Musa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical reduction method was employed for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles stabilized by nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC using different concentrations of copper salt in aqueous solution under atmospheric air. CuSO4·5H2O salt and hydrazine were used as metal ion precursor and reducing agent, respectively. Ascorbic acid and aqueous NaOH were also used as an antioxidant and a pH moderator, respectively. The number of CuNPs increased with increasing concentration of the precursor salt. The formation of copper nanoparticles stabilized by NCC (CuNPs@NCC was investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, where the surface absorption maximum was observed at 590 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis showed that the CuNPs@NCC are of a face-centered cubic structure. Moreover, the morphology of the CuNPs@NCC was investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, which showed well-dispersed CuNPs with an average particle size less than 4 nm and the shape of CuNPs was found to be spherical. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS also confirmed the presence of CuNPs on the NCC. The results demonstrate that the stability of CuNPs decreases with an increasing concentration of the copper ions.

  20. High frequency dielectric properties of A.sub.5./sub.B.sub.4./sub.O.sub.15./sub. microwavw ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Petzelt, Jan; Buixaderas, Elena; Haubrich, D.; Vaněk, Přemysl; Kužel, Petr; Jawahar, I. N.; Sebastian, M. T.; Mohanan, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 7 (2001), s. 3900-3906 ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/1282; GA ČR GA202/98/P022; GA AV ČR IAA1010828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : new microwave dielectrics (A5B4O15) * microwave cavity technique * high frequency dielectric properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.128, year: 2001

  1. Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chan, Lisa J.; Clough, Eric C.; Stilke, Morgan A.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-12-01

    Substitution of conventional honeycomb composite sandwich structures with lighter alternatives has the potential to reduce the mass of future vehicles. Here we demonstrate nanocrystalline aluminum-manganese truss cores that achieve 2-4 times higher strength than aluminum alloy 5056 honeycombs of the same density. The scalable fabrication approach starts with additive manufacturing of polymer templates, followed by electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy, removal of the polymer, and facesheet integration. This facilitates curved and net-shaped sandwich structures, as well as co-curing of the facesheets, which eliminates the need for extra adhesive. The nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy thin-film material exhibits high strength and ductility and can be converted into a three-dimensional hollow truss structure with this approach. Ultra-lightweight sandwich structures are of interest for a range of applications in aerospace, such as fairings, wings, and flaps, as well as for the automotive and sports industries.

  2. Plasticity-induced restructuring of a nanocrystalline grain boundary network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzarino, Jason F.; Pan, Zhiliang; Rupert, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The grain boundary-mediated mechanisms that control plastic deformation of nanocrystalline metals should cause evolution of the grain boundary network, since they directly alter misorientation relationships between crystals. Unfortunately, current experimental techniques are unable to track such evolution, due to limits on both spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are used to study grain boundary restructuring in nanocrystalline Al during both monotonic tension and cyclic loading. This task is enabled by the creation of new analysis tools for atomistic datasets that allow for a complete characterization and tracking of microstructural descriptors of the grain boundary network. Quantitative measurements of grain boundary character distribution, triple junction type, grain boundary plane normal, and other interfacial network characteristics are extracted and analyzed. The results presented here show that nanocrystalline plasticity leads to an increase in special boundary fraction and disruption of two-dimensional boundary connectivity, with the most dramatic evolution occurring in the smallest grain sizes.

  3. Deposition and characterization of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Sinan; Gökmen, F. Özge; Yaman, Elif; Nebi, Murat

    2018-02-01

    ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were deposited at different deposition times by using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. Effects of deposition time on structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained thin films were characterized. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structural properties of ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films. It was found that ZnSe thin films have a cubic structure with a preferentially orientation of (111). The calculated average grain size value was about 28-30 nm. The surface morphology of these films was studied by the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The surfaces of the thin films were occurred from small stacks and nano-sized particles. The band gap values of the ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films were determined by UV-Visible absorption spectrum and the band gap values were found to be between 2.65-2.86 eV.

  4. Creep behavior of a nanocrystalline Fe-B-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, M.; Kong, Q.P.

    1997-01-01

    The research of nanocrystalline materials has attracted much attention in the world. In recent years, there have been several studies on their creep behavior. Among these, the authors have studied the tensile creep of a nanocrystalline Ni-P alloy (28 nm) at temperatures around 0.5 Tm (Tm is the melting point). The samples were prepared by the method of crystallization of amorphous ribbon. Based on the data of stress exponent and activation energy, they suggested that the creep was controlled by boundary diffusion; while the creep of the same alloy with a larger grain size (257 nm) was controlled by a different mechanism. In the present paper, the authors extend the research to the creep of a nanocrystalline Fe-B-Si alloy. The samples are also prepared by crystallization of amorphous ribbon. The samples such prepared have an advantage that the interfaces are naturally formed without artificial compaction and porosity

  5. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    conditions, 82% glucose and 63% xylose yields were achieved for switchgrass, and 87% glucose and 59% xylose yields were achieved for coastal bermudagrass following enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass. The optimum enzyme loadings were 15 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for switchgrass and 10 FPU/g and 20 CBU/g for coastal bermudagrass. Dielectric properties for dilute sodium hydroxide solutions were measured and compared to solid loss, lignin reduction and reducing sugar levels in hydrolyzates. Results indicate that the dielectric loss tangent of alkali solutions is a potential indicator of the severity of microwave-based pretreatments. Modeling of pretreatment processes can be a valuable tool in process simulations of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Chapter 4 discusses three different approaches that were used to model delignification and carbohydrate loss during microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass: statistical linear regression modeling, kinetic modeling using a time-dependent rate coefficient, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system. The dielectric loss tangent of the alkali reagent and pretreatment time were used as predictors in all models. The statistical linear regression model for delignification gave comparable root mean square error (RMSE) values for training and testing data and predictions were approximately within 1% of experimental values. The kinetic model for delignification and xylan loss gave comparable RMSE values for training and testing data sets and predictions were approximately within 2% of experimental values. The kinetic model for cellulose loss was not as effective and predictions were only within 5-7% of experimental values. The time-dependent rate coefficients of the kinetic models calculated from experimental data were consistent with the heterogeneity (or lack thereof) of individual biomass components. The Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was shown to be an effective means to model pretreatment processes and gave

  6. The nature of dielectric breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Tung, C. H.; Pey, K. L.

    2008-08-01

    Dielectric breakdown is the process of local materials transiting from insulating to conductive when the dielectric is submerged in a high external electric field environment. We show that the atomistic changes of the chemical bonding in a nanoscale breakdown path are extensive and irreversible. Oxygen atoms in dielectric SiO2 are washed out with substoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx with x <2) formation, and local energy gap lowering with intermediate bonding state of silicon atoms (Si1+, Si2+, and Si3+) in the percolation leakage path. Oxygen deficiency within the breakdown path is estimated to be as high as 50%-60%.

  7. High Gain and High Directive of Antenna Arrays Utilizing Dielectric Layer on Bismuth Titanate Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Wee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A high gain and high directive microstrip patch array antenna formed from dielectric layer stacked on bismuth titanate (BiT ceramics have been investigated, fabricated, and measured. The antennas are designed and constructed with a combination of two-, four-, and six-BiT elements in an array form application on microwave substrate. For gain and directivity enhancement, a layer of dielectric was stacked on the BiT antenna array. We measured the gain and directivity of BiT array antennas with and without the dielectric layer and found that the gain of BiT array antenna with the dielectric layer was enhanced by about 1.4 dBi of directivity and 1.3 dB of gain over the one without the dielectric layer at 2.3 GHz. The impedance bandwidth of the BiT array antenna both with and without the dielectric layer is about 500 MHz and 350 MHz, respectively, which is suitable for the application of the WiMAX 2.3 GHz system. The utilization of BiT ceramics that covers about 90% of antenna led to high radiation efficiency, and small-size antennas were produced. In order to validate the proposed design, theoretical and measured results are provided and discussed.

  8. Nanocrystalline silver dressings in wound management: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Joy; Wood, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the properties of nanocrystalline silver products (Acticoat™) and their applications and examines available evidence supporting their use in wound management. Acticoat utilizes nanotechnology to release nanocrystalline silver crystals. Acticoat releases 30 times less silver cations than silversulfadiazine cream or 0.5% silver nitrate solution but more of the silver released (by Acticoat). Silver-impregnated slow-release dressings release minute concentrations of silver which are quickly bound up by the chloride in the wound exudate. While extrapolations from in vitro and animal studies are cautious, evidence from these studies suggests Acticoat is: effective against most common strains of wound pathogens; can be used as a protective covering over skin grafts; has a broader antibiotic spectrum activity; and is toxic to keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Animal studies suggest a role for nanocrystalline silver in altering wound inflammatory events and facilitation of the early phase of wound healing. Quality human clinical trials into nanocrystalline silver are few. However, evidence suggests using Acticoat in wound management is cost effective, reduces wound infection, decreases the frequency of dressing changes and pain levels, decreases matrix metalloproteinase activity, wound exudate and bioburden levels, and promotes wound healing in chronic wounds. Although there is no in vivo evidence to suggest nanocrystalline silver is toxic to human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, there is in vitro evidence to suggest so; thus these dressings should be used cautiously over epithelializing and proliferating wounds. Future clinical research, preferably randomized controlled trials into nanocrystalline silver technology, may provide clinicians a better understanding of its applications in wound management. PMID:17722278

  9. Electric field-assisted sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien Bich

    As the main inorganic component of bone, hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca 10(PO4)6(OH)2) should be an ideal candidate in biomaterials selection. When grain sizes are in the nanometric regime, protein adsorption and cell adhesion are enhanced, while strength, hardness, and wear resistance are improved. Unfortunately, low phase stability, poor sinterability, and a tendency towards exaggerated grain coarsening challenge full densification of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by conventional sintering methods. The field-assisted sintering technique (FAST) has successfully consolidated a variety of nanocrystalline metals and ceramics in dramatically reduced times. The sintering enhancements observed during FAST can be attributed to thermal and athermal effects. The rapid heating rates (up to ˜1000ºC/min) afforded by FAST contribute a significant thermal effect. Since fast heating rates reduce powder exposure to sub-sintering temperatures, non-densifying surface diffusion is limited. The athermal effects of FAST are less well understood and can include plasma generation, dielectric breakdown, particle surface cleaning, grain boundary pinning, and space charge effects. Applying the field-assisted sintering technique to nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite yielded surprising results. Deviations from conventional densification behavior were observed, with dehydroxylation identified as the most deleterious process to densification as well as mechanical and biological performance. Since hydroxyapatite is not a stable phase at high temperatures and low water partial pressure atmospheres, desintering due to dehydroxylation-related pore formation became apparent during Stage III sintering. In fact, the degree of desintering and pore formation increased with the extent of Stage III sintering and grain growth. The atomic rearrangements taking place during grain boundary migration are believed to favor the formation of more-stable oxyapatite through hydroxyapatite dehydroxylation. This behavior was

  10. Nanocrystalline CsPbBr3 thin films: a grain boundary opto-electronic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, G.; Somma, F.; Nikl, M.

    2005-01-01

    CsPbBr3 thin films with nanocrystalline morphology were studied by using optoelectronic techniques to infer the grain boundary region in respect of the crystallite's interior performance. Co-evaporation of puri-fied powders or crushed Bridgman single crystals were used to deposit materials and compare recombina-tion mechanism and dielectric relaxation processes within them. Nanosecond photoconduction decay was observed on both materials as well as activated hopping transport. An asymmetric Debye-like peak was evaluated from impedance spectroscopy with a FWHM value, which remains constant for 1.25 +/- 0.02 deca-des, addressing the presence of a tight conductivity relaxation times distribution. The evaluated activation energy, equal to 0.72 +/- 0.05 eV, similar to that estimated by DC measurements, is well smaller then that expected for an intrinsic material with exciton absorption at 2.36 eV. A simple model based on Voigt's elements was used to model the electronic characteristics of these nanostructured materials, to discuss observed results and define the role played by grain boundaries.

  11. Structural and electrical characterization of diamond films deposited in nitrogen/oxygen containing gas mixture by linear antenna microwave CVD process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojs, Marian; Varga, Marián; Babchenko, Oleg; Ižák, Tibor; Mikolášek, M.; Marton, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 312, SEP (2014), s. 226-230 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition * nanocrystalline diamond * Raman spectroscopy * admittance spectroscopy * n-type conductive NCD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014

  12. Nanocrystalline Iron-Cobalt Alloys for High Saturation Indutance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0263 Nanocrystalline Iron- Cobalt Alloys for High saturation Indutance Conrad Williams MORGAN STATE UNIVERSITY (INC) 1700 E...YYYY) 28-02-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 March 2013 -28 February 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanocrystalline Iron- Cobalt ...driving the research at Morgan State University is “Can one achieve high magnetization (B > 1.7 T) at low fields (H < 1 mT) in iron- cobalt

  13. Production of nanocrystalline metal powders via combustion reaction synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, John G.; Weil, Kenneth Scott; Lavender, Curt A.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2017-10-31

    Nanocrystalline metal powders comprising tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium and/or niobium can be synthesized using a combustion reaction. Methods for synthesizing the nanocrystalline metal powders are characterized by forming a combustion synthesis solution by dissolving in water an oxidizer, a fuel, and a base-soluble, ammonium precursor of tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, or niobium in amounts that yield a stoichiometric burn when combusted. The combustion synthesis solution is then heated to a temperature sufficient to substantially remove water and to initiate a self-sustaining combustion reaction. The resulting powder can be subsequently reduced to metal form by heating in a reducing gas environment.

  14. Texture-dependent twin formation in nanocrystalline thin Pd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Idrissi, H.; Shi, H.; Colla, M.S.; Michotte, S.; Raskin, J.P.; Pardoen, T.; Schryvers, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Pd films were produced by electron-beam evaporation and sputter deposition. The electron-beam-evaporated films reveal randomly oriented nanograins with a relatively high density of growth twins, unexpected in view of the high stacking fault energy of Pd. In contrast, sputter-deposited films show a clear 〈1 1 1〉 crystallographic textured nanostructure without twins. These results provide insightful information to guide the generation of microstructures with enhanced strength/ductility balance in high stacking fault energy nanocrystalline metallic thin films.

  15. Improve oxidation resistance at high temperature by nanocrystalline surface layer

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Z. X.; Zhang, C.; Huang, X. F.; Liu, W. B.; Yang, Z. G.

    2015-01-01

    An interesting change of scale sequence occurred during oxidation of nanocrystalline surface layer by means of a surface mechanical attrition treatment. The three-layer oxide structure from the surface towards the matrix is Fe3O4, spinel FeCr2O4 and corundum (Fe,Cr)2O3, which is different from the typical two-layer scale consisted of an Fe3O4 outer layer and an FeCr2O4 inner layer in conventional P91 steel. The diffusivity of Cr, Fe and O is enhanced concurrently in the nanocrystalline surfac...

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite by Combustion Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Thu Aye; Su Su Hlaing; Phyu Sin Khaing Oo; Khin Lay Thwe; Nwe Ni Khin

    2011-12-01

    Among various biocompatible materials hydroxyapatite (HAP) is widely used in medical applications.As nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite is similar in composition and crystal structure of natural bone it can be used as temporary substitute materials for human bone. A simple combustion technique for synthesizing nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powder from eggshell has been carried out. The resulting powder was characterized using XRD, SEM and FESEM measurements. The particle size was calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation using XRD data. The range of size of resultant HAP powder was between 23nm-75nm. The average particle size was 34 nm.

  17. Construction, application and biosafety of silver nanocrystalline chitosan wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuangyun; Gao, Wenjuan; Gu, Hai Ying

    2008-08-01

    A novel wound dressing composed of nano-silver and chitosan was fabricated using a nanometer and self-assembly technology. Sterility and pyrogen testing assessed biosafety, and efficacy was evaluated using Sprague-Dawley rats with deep partial-thickness wounds. Silver sulfadiazine and chitosan film dressings were used as controls. At intervals wound areas were measured, wound tissues biopsied and blood samples taken. Compared with the controls, the silver nanocrystalline chitosan dressing significantly (psilver levels in blood and tissues lower than levels associated with the silver sulfadiazine dressing (psilver nanocrystalline chitosan dressing were negative. Thus this dressing should have wide application in clinical settings.

  18. Inter- and intra-agglomerate fracture in nanocrystalline nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhiwei; Knapp, J A; Follstaedt, D M; Stach, E A; Wiezorek, J M K; Mao, S X

    2008-03-14

    In situ tensile straining transmission electron microscopy tests have been carried out on nanocrystalline Ni. Grain agglomerates (GAs) were found to form very frequently and rapidly ahead of an advancing crack with sizes much larger than the initial average grain size. High-resolution electron microscopy indicated that the GAs most probably consist of nanograins separated by low-angle grain boundaries. Furthermore, both inter- and intra-GA fractures were observed. The observations suggest that these newly formed GAs may play an important role in the formation of the dimpled fracture surfaces of nanocrystalline materials.

  19. A maximum in the strength of nanocrystalline copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Jakob; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2003-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics simulations with system sizes up to 100 million atoms to simulate plastic deformation of nanocrystalline copper. By varying the grain size between 5 and 50 nanometers, we show that the flow stress and thus the strength exhibit a maximum at a grain size of 10 to 15...... nanometers. This maximum is because of a shift in the microscopic deformation mechanism from dislocation-mediated plasticity in the coarse-grained material to grain boundary sliding in the nanocrystalline region. The simulations allow us to observe the mechanisms behind the grain-size dependence...

  20. Dielectric spectroscopy study of water hyacinth collected from different media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2018-02-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) study has been shown that the water hyacinth plant is an effective tool for the removals of heavy metals (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Zn and Zr) and metal oxides (SiO2, K2O, CaO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, MnO, P2O5, SO3 and TiO2) from agriculture (media 1) and agriculture wastewaters drainage polluted with municipal wastewater (media 2). As a general description, the heavy metals and metal oxides were found at higher levels in the plant collected from media 1 than those in the plant collected from media 2. Similarly, these pollutants were found at higher levels in the plant roots than those in the plant shoots. The dielectric properties were investigated for the plant samples before (control) and after treating by microwave heating power. They were found at higher values in the control roots than those in the control shoots. Furthermore, the properties were found at relatively higher values in the control roots collected from media 1 (ε‧ = 13 at 103 Hz) than those in the control roots collected from media 2 (ε‧ = 9 at 103 Hz). The electrical conductivity of the microwave treated samples remarkably increased due to appearance of OH group through which the plant interacts with heavy metals. Accordingly, the pollutants removing ability could be enhanced upon treating the plant by microwave heating power. The plant-pollutant mixture behaves like highly conductive disordered polymers. The conductivity and dielectric properties of all plant samples are dominated by the media and concentration of pollutants.

  1. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Coopersmith, Kaitlin; Washington II, Aaron L.; Murph, Simona H.

    2016-01-01

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  2. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-07-27

    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  3. MICROWAVE STABILIZATION AND MICROWAVE-STIMULATED FIXATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; KOK, LP

    1990-01-01

    In microwave stabilization the tissue is prepared for histoprocessing through the uniformly distributed increased temperature. This procedure can be called unique: Exclusively by the uniform well-controlled temperature rise to 55-degrees-C it is possible to stabilize the tissue to the needed

  4. Dielectric relaxation in metal-coated particles: the dramatic role of nano-scale coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, I J; Bowler, N; Lymer, K P; Hussain, S

    2005-01-01

    Insulating materials filled with conducting particles permit tailoring of electrical, electromagnetic and thermal properties of the resulting composite. When the filler particles are small and metallic, a dielectric relaxation due to interfacial polarization is commonly observed at optical or smaller wavelengths. Here, experimental results are presented in which the dielectric relaxation is shifted to microwave frequencies as a result of using metal-coated dielectric particles with a nano-scale coating thickness. The results are analysed in the context of effective medium theory adapted for multi-layer particles. Such a large shift in relaxation frequency, compared with that for a similar composite with solid metal filler particles, is shown to be a function of both the coating geometry and a thin-film-related reduction in the conductivity of the metal. The observed broadening of the relaxation peak is attributed to non-uniformity of the coating thickness and a consequent distribution of coating conductivity

  5. Axion-photon conversion caused by dielectric interfaces: quantum field calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannisian, Ara N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanian Br. 2, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Kazarian, Narine [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Modeling, 375036 Yerevan (Armenia); Millar, Alexander J.; Raffelt, Georg G., E-mail: ara.ioannisyan@cern.ch, E-mail: narinkaz@gmail.com, E-mail: millar@mpp.mpg.de, E-mail: raffelt@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Axion-photon conversion at dielectric interfaces, immersed in a near-homogeneous magnetic field, is the basis for the dielectric haloscope method to search for axion dark matter. In analogy to transition radiation, this process is possible because the photon wave function is modified by the dielectric layers ('Garibian wave function') and is no longer an eigenstate of momentum. A conventional first-order perturbative calculation of the transition probability between a quantized axion state and these distorted photon states provides the microwave production rate. It agrees with previous results based on solving the classical Maxwell equations for the combined system of axions and electromagnetic fields. We argue that in general the average photon production rate is given by our result, independently of the detailed quantum state of the axion field. Moreover, our result provides a new perspective on axion-photon conversion in dielectric haloscopes because the rate is based on an overlap integral between unperturbed axion and photon wave functions, in analogy to the usual treatment of microwave-cavity haloscopes.

  6. Axion-photon conversion caused by dielectric interfaces: quantum field calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannisian, Ara N.; Kazarian, Narine; Millar, Alexander J.; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2017-09-01

    Axion-photon conversion at dielectric interfaces, immersed in a near-homogeneous magnetic field, is the basis for the dielectric haloscope method to search for axion dark matter. In analogy to transition radiation, this process is possible because the photon wave function is modified by the dielectric layers ("Garibian wave function") and is no longer an eigenstate of momentum. A conventional first-order perturbative calculation of the transition probability between a quantized axion state and these distorted photon states provides the microwave production rate. It agrees with previous results based on solving the classical Maxwell equations for the combined system of axions and electromagnetic fields. We argue that in general the average photon production rate is given by our result, independently of the detailed quantum state of the axion field. Moreover, our result provides a new perspective on axion-photon conversion in dielectric haloscopes because the rate is based on an overlap integral between unperturbed axion and photon wave functions, in analogy to the usual treatment of microwave-cavity haloscopes.

  7. Non-monotonic size dependence of the elastic modulus of nanocrystalline ZnO embedded in a nanocrystalline silver matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, Vinod; Ghosh, Shankar; Gohil, Smita; Kulkarni, Nilesh; Ayyub, Pushan [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai-400005 (India)

    2008-08-27

    We present the first high pressure Raman study of nanocrystalline ZnO with different average crystallite sizes. The problem of low Raman signals from nanometer-sized particles was overcome by forming a nanocomposite of Ag and ZnO nanoparticles. The presence of the nanodispersed Ag particles leads to a substantial surface enhancement of the Raman signal from ZnO. We find that the elastic modulus of nanocrystalline ZnO shows a non-monotonic dependence on the crystallite size and suggest that the non-monotonicity arises from an interplay between the elastic properties of the individual grains and the intergranular region.

  8. Microwaves - the hidden danger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodeur, P.

    1987-01-01

    Today, highly frequent radio waves are regarded as undangerous to man. Diseases seen at radar-technicians during the 2nd World War, however, indicated that microwaves applied in radar systems were hazardous to health. The Russian work medicine has been knowing microwave-caused hazards in industry since the beginning of the thirties. Therefore in some East-European countries there are terms of protection and severe norms of safety for the staying of persons in the radiation sphere of microwaves. (orig.) [de

  9. Advances in microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    1967-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 2 focuses on the developments in microwave solid-state devices and circuits. This volume contains six chapters that also describe the design and applications of diplexers and multiplexers. The first chapter deals with the parameters of the tunnel diode, oscillators, amplifiers and frequency converter, followed by a simple physical description and the basic operating principles of the solid state devices currently capable of generating coherent microwave power, including transistors, harmonic generators, and tunnel, avalanche transit time, and diodes. The next ch

  10. Advances in microwaves 4

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Microwaves, Volume 4 covers some innovations in the devices and applications of microwaves. This volume contains three chapters and begins with a discussion of the application of microwave phasers and time delay elements as beam steering elements in array radars. The next chapter provides first an overview of the technical aspects and different types of millimeter waveguides, followed by a survey of their application to railroads. The last chapter examines the general mode of conversion properties of nonuniform waveguides, such as waveguide tapers, using converted Maxwell's equatio

  11. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.H

    2000-10-01

    In this study, the applications of microwave energy in gold ore processing were investigated. An investigation of microwave heating characteristics indicated that the heating rate of an ore was not only related to the applied microwave field, but also to the mineralogy of the ore. Heating rate and the difference between the bulk temperature of an ore and the local temperature of high dielectric loss minerals increased with applied microwave power level, the content of high dielectric loss minerals, the particle size of the ore and the disseminated high dielectric loss minerals. The relationship between heating rate and surrounding environment is also discussed in this study. Investigations indicated that the microwave exposure could reduce the grindability of ores. For the Lihir gold ore, a decrease of 11% in the comparative grindability was obtained when it was exposed to 1500W microwave energy for 8 minutes. The decrease in grinding resistance resulted predominantly from the fractures induced by thermal stresses and differential thermal expansion of mineral phases during microwave heating. Experimental results showed that marcasite and pyrite could be decomposed into elemental sulphur and pyrrhotite-like Fe-S phases in an inert atmosphere, or oxidised into a porous hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in an air atmosphere when they were exposed to microwaves. Microwave power had a significant impact on the decomposition of pyrite and marcasite. Marcasite was more readily decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe{sub (1-x)}S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir

  12. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.H.

    2000-10-01

    In this study, the applications of microwave energy in gold ore processing were investigated. An investigation of microwave heating characteristics indicated that the heating rate of an ore was not only related to the applied microwave field, but also to the mineralogy of the ore. Heating rate and the difference between the bulk temperature of an ore and the local temperature of high dielectric loss minerals increased with applied microwave power level, the content of high dielectric loss minerals, the particle size of the ore and the disseminated high dielectric loss minerals. The relationship between heating rate and surrounding environment is also discussed in this study. Investigations indicated that the microwave exposure could reduce the grindability of ores. For the Lihir gold ore, a decrease of 11% in the comparative grindability was obtained when it was exposed to 1500W microwave energy for 8 minutes. The decrease in grinding resistance resulted predominantly from the fractures induced by thermal stresses and differential thermal expansion of mineral phases during microwave heating. Experimental results showed that marcasite and pyrite could be decomposed into elemental sulphur and pyrrhotite-like Fe-S phases in an inert atmosphere, or oxidised into a porous hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in an air atmosphere when they were exposed to microwaves. Microwave power had a significant impact on the decomposition of pyrite and marcasite. Marcasite was more readily decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe (1-x) S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir gold ore, in which

  13. Copper removal using electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Amir; Safari, Salman; Yang, Han; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2015-06-03

    Removal of heavy metal ions such as copper using an efficient and low-cost method with low ecological footprint is a critical process in wastewater treatment, which can be achieved in a liquid phase using nanoadsorbents such as inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, attention has turned toward developing sustainable and environmentally friendly nanoadsorbents to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media. Electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC), which can be prepared from wood fibers through periodate/chlorite oxidation, has been shown to have a high charge content and colloidal stability. Here, we show that ENCC scavenges copper ions by different mechanisms depending on the ion concentration. When the Cu(II) concentration is low (C0≲200 ppm), agglomerates of starlike ENCC particles appear, which are broken into individual starlike entities by shear and Brownian motion, as evidenced by photometric dispersion analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, at higher copper concentrations, the aggregate morphology changes from starlike to raftlike, which is probably due to the collapse of protruding dicarboxylic cellulose (DCC) chains and ENCC charge neutralization by copper adsorption. Such raftlike structures result from head-to-head and lateral aggregation of neutralized ENCCs as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. As opposed to starlike aggregates, the raftlike structures grow gradually and are prone to sedimentation at copper concentrations C0≳500 ppm, which eliminates a costly separation step in wastewater treatment processes. Moreover, a copper removal capacity of ∼185 mg g(-1) was achieved thanks to the highly charged DCC polyanions protruding from ENCC. These properties along with the biorenewability make ENCC a promising candidate for wastewater treatment, in which fast, facile, and low-cost removal of heavy metal ions is desired most.

  14. Ferromagnetic resonance in bulk nanocrystalline Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Madduri, P. V.; Mathew, S. P.; Kaul, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed lineshape analysis of the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra taken on pulse electrodeposited nanocrystalline (nc-) Ni sheets (with the average crystallite size, d, varying from 10 nm to 40 nm) at temperatures ranging from 113 K to 325 K yield accurate values for saturation magnetization, Ms (T), Landé splitting factor, g, anisotropy field, Hk (T) , resonance field, Hres , and FMR linewidth, ΔHpp (T) . Thermally-excited spin-wave (SW) excitations completely account for Ms (T) and the SW description of Ms (T) gives the values for the saturation magnetization and spin-wave stiffness at absolute zero of temperature, i.e., Ms (0) and D0 , for nc-Ni samples of different d that are in excellent agreement with the corresponding values deduced previously from an elaborate SW analysis of the bulk magnetization data. While Ms (0) varies with d as Ms (0) d - 3 / 2,D0 follows the power law D0 ∼d 4 / 3 . The angular variations of Hres in the 'in-plane' as well as 'out-of-plane' sample configurations, demonstrate that the main contribution to Hk (T) comes from the cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The exchange-conductivity mechanism describes the observed thermal decline of ΔHpp reasonably well but fails to explain the very large magnitude of ΔHpp at any given temperature. By comparison, the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) damping gives a much greater contribution to ΔHpp but the LLG contribution is relatively insensitive to temperature.

  15. Using microwave for processing nanostructured PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanza, A.C.; Berti, T.G.; Thomazini, D.; Gelfuso, M.V.; Eiras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The PZT ceramics have dielectric and piezoelectric properties of technological interest. The method of microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis becomes interesting since it occurs in a closed environment, the low temperature and time, compared to conventional methods. In this work, PZT powders were dissolved in acid medium, and by adjusting the pH of the solutions obtained were precipitated, subjected to hydrothermal treatment at 120 °C for intervals of 15, 30 and 60 min. The powders were characterized by differential thermal and gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results confirm the formation of PZT phase in one hour with particle size around 55 nm, showing the feasibility of the proposed method. (author)

  16. Microwave impedance imaging on semiconductor memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundhikanjana, Worasom; Lai, Keji; Yang, Yongliang; Kelly, Michael; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2011-03-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM) maps out the real and imaginary components of the tip-sample impedance, from which the local conductivity and dielectric constant distribution can be derived. The stray field contribution is minimized in our shielded cantilever design, enabling quantitative analysis of nano-materials and device structures. We demonstrate here that the MIM can spatially resolve the conductivity variation in a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) sample. With DC or low-frequency AC bias applied to the tip, contrast between n-doped and p-doped regions in the dC/dV images is observed, and p-n junctions are highlighted in the dR/dV images. The results can be directly compared with data taken by scanning capacitance microscope (SCM), which uses unshielded cantilevers and resonant electronics, and the MIM reveals more information of the local dopant concentration than SCM.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of TiO{sub 2}:Ag nanocrystalline heterostructures: Experimental and theoretical insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    André, Rafaela S. [UFSCar – Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Department of Chemistry, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zamperini, Camila A. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Química, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Mima, Ewerton G. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Escola de Odontologia de Araraquara, Departamento de Materias Odontológicos e Próteses Dentárias, 14801-903 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Longo, Valéria M., E-mail: valeria.longo@liec.ufscar.br [USP – Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Albuquerque, Anderson R. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Modelagem e Simulação Molecular, P.O. Box 477, CEP 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sertão Pernambucano, IFSetão-PE, 56400-000 Floresta, PE (Brazil); Sambrano, Júlio R. [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Grupo de Modelagem e Simulação Molecular, P.O. Box 477, CEP 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); and others

    2015-09-28

    Highlights: • Greener hydrothermal process to obtain nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} anatase with Ag nanoparticles. • Antifungal effect against planktonic cells of C. albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. • DFT calculations of anatase TiO{sub 2} and metallic Ag. • Mechanism for the formation of reactive species at surface. - Abstract: We report the synthesis and characterization of silver-decorated titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}:Ag) nanoparticles, as well as a discussion of their antimicrobial activity. This material was synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment and characterized by complementary techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration of TiO{sub 2}:Ag nanoparticles against planktonic and biofilm-forming strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Candida species (spp.) and the total biofilm mass were determined. The basis of the biological activity of TiO{sub 2}:Ag was investigated by electronic analysis of the material using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. In the proposed mechanism of action, the impregnated semiconductor donates electrons to the forbidden band gaps in the metal, generating point defects, with partially located electrons and holes at the surface, initiating a radical process involving the solvent and biological target. Our results suggest that this TiO{sub 2}:Ag nanomaterial has potential for use in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  18. Ultra-high wear resistance of ultra-nanocrystalline diamond film: Correlation with microstructure and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R.; Kumar, N.; Lin, I.-Nan

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured diamond films are having numerous unique properties including superior tribological behavior which is promising for enhancing energy efficiency and life time of the sliding devices. High wear resistance is the principal criterion for the smooth functioning of any sliding device. Such properties are achievable by tailoring the grain size and grain boundary volume fraction in nanodiamond film. Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film was attainable using optimized gas plasma condition in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) system. Crystalline phase of ultra-nanodiamond grains with matrix phase of amorphous carbon and short range ordered graphite are encapsulated in nanowire shaped morphology. Film showed ultra-high wear resistance and frictional stability in micro-tribological contact conditions. The negligible wear of film at the beginning of the tribological contact was later transformed into the wearless regime for prolonged sliding cycles. Both surface roughness and high contact stress were the main reasons of wear at the beginning of sliding cycles. However, the interface gets smoothened due to continuous sliding, finally leaded to the wearless regime.

  19. Microwave-assisted synthesis of sensitive silver substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Lixin; Wang Haibo; Wang Jian; Gong Ke; Jia Yi; Zhang Huili; Sun Mengtao

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive silver substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is synthesized under multimode microwave irradiation. The microwave-assisted synthesis of the SERS-active substrate was carried out in a modified domestic microwave oven of 2450 MHz, and the reductive reaction was conducted in a polypropylene container under microwave irradiation with a power of 100 W for 5 min. Formaldehyde was employed as both the reductant and microwave absorber in the reductive process. The effects of different heating methods (microwave dielectric and conventional) on the properties of the SERS-active substrates were investigated. Samples obtained with 5 min of microwave irradiation at a power of 100 W have more well-defined edges, corners, and sharper surface features, while the samples synthesized with 1 h of conventional heating at 40 deg. C consist primarily of spheroidal nanoparticles. The SERS peak intensity of the ∼1593 cm -1 band of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid adsorbed on silver nanoparticles synthesized with 5 min of microwave irradiation at a power of 100 W is about 30 times greater than when it is adsorbed on samples synthesized with 1 h of conventional heating at 40 deg. C. The results of quantum chemical calculations are in good agreement with our experimental data. This method is expected to be utilized for the synthesis of other metal nanostructural materials.

  20. Low temperature fabrication of barium titanate hybrid films and their dielectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Saito, Hirobumi; Kinoshita, Takafumi; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    A method for incorporating BT nano-crystalline into barium titanate (BT) films is proposed for a low temperature fabrication of high dielectric constant films. BT nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of a BT complex alkoxide in 2-methoxyethanol (ME)/ethanol cosolvent. As the ME volume fraction in the cosolvent (ME fraction) increased from 0 to 100%, the particle and crystal sizes tended to increase from 13.4 to 30.2 nm and from 15.8 to 31.4 nm, respectively, and the particle dispersion in the solution became more improved. The BT particles were mixed with BT complex alkoxide dissolved in an ME/ethanol cosolvent for preparing a precursor solution that was then spin-coated on a Pt substrate and dried at 150 o C. The dielectric constant of the spin-coated BT hybrid film increased with an increase in the volume fraction of the BT particles in the film. The dissipation factor of the hybrid film tended to decrease with an increase in the ME fraction in the precursor solution. The hybrid film fabricated at a BT fraction of 30% and an ME fraction of 25% attained a dielectric constant as high as 94.5 with a surface roughness of 14.0 nm and a dissipation factor of 0.11.

  1. Pulsed plasmas study of linear antennas microwave CVD system for nanocrystalline diamond film growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, J.; Fendrych, František; Taylor, Andrew; Novotný, Michal; Liehr, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2012), s. 863-867 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA AV ČR KAN300100801; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) LD11076 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238201 - MATCON Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition * diamond * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.713, year: 2012

  2. Molecular Mechanisms Contributing to the Growth and Physiology of an Extremophile Cultured with Dielectric Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Lin, Baochuan; Malanoski, Anthony P; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M; Cockrell-Zugell, Allison; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Cramer, Jeffrey A; Barlow, Daniel E; Boyd, Thomas J; Biffinger, Justin C

    2016-10-15

    The effect of microwave frequency electromagnetic fields on living microorganisms is an active and highly contested area of research. One of the major drawbacks to using mesophilic organisms to study microwave radiation effects is the unavoidable heating of the organism, which has limited the scale (60°C). This study identified changes in global gene expression profiles during the growth of Thermus scotoductus SA-01 at 65°C using dielectric (2.45 GHz, i.e., microwave) heating. RNA sequencing was performed on cultures at 8, 14, and 24 h after inoculation to determine the molecular mechanisms contributing to long-term cellular growth and survival under microwave heating conditions. Over the course of growth, genes associated with amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense mechanisms were upregulated; the number of repressed genes with unknown function increased; and at all time points, transposases were upregulated. Genes involved in cell wall biogenesis and elongation were also upregulated, consistent with the distinct elongated cell morphology observed after 24 h using microwave heating. Analysis of the global differential gene expression data enabled the identification of molecular processes specific to the response of T. scotoductus SA-01 to dielectric heating during growth. The residual heating of living organisms in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum has complicated the identification of radiation-only effects using microorganisms for 50 years. A majority of the previous experiments used either mature cells or short exposure times with low-energy high-frequency radiation. Using global differential gene expression data, we identified molecular processes unique to dielectric heating using Thermus scotoductus SA-01 cultured over 30 h in a commercial microwave digestor. Genes associated with amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and defense mechanisms were upregulated; the number of repressed genes with unknown

  3. Microwave photonics shines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2011-12-01

    The combination of microwave photonics and optics has advanced many applications in defence, wireless communications, imaging and network infrastructure. Rachel Won talks to Jianping Yao from the University of Ottawa in Canada about the importance of this growing field.

  4. Emitron: microwave diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, G.D.; Pettibone, J.S.; Drobot, A.T.

    1982-05-06

    The invention comprises a new class of device, driven by electron or other charged particle flow, for producing coherent microwaves by utilizing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron flow in diodes not requiring an external magnetic field. Anode and cathode surfaces are electrically charged with respect to one another by electron flow, for example caused by a Marx bank voltage source or by other charged particle flow, for example by a high energy charged particle beam. This produces an electric field which stimulates an emitted electron beam to flow in the anode-cathode region. The emitted electrons are accelerated by the electric field and coherent microwaves are produced by the three dimensional spatial and temporal interaction of the accelerated electrons with geometrically allowed microwave modes which results in the bunching of the electrons and the pumping of at least one dominant microwave mode.

  5. Low power optical limiting studies on nanocrystalline benzimidazole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 3. Low power optical limiting studies on nanocrystalline benzimidazole thin films prepared by modified liquid phase growth technique. P A Praveen S P Prabhakaran R Ramesh Babu K Sethuraman K Ramamurthi. Volume 38 Issue 3 June 2015 pp 645-651 ...

  6. Adhesion of osteoblasts on chemically patterned nanocrystalline diamonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáčová, M.; Michalíková, Lenka; Barešová, V.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav; Kmoch, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 245, č. 10 (2008), s. 2124-2127 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : cell growth * nanocrystalline diamond * surface termination Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.166, year: 2008

  7. High-pressure structural behavior of nanocrystalline Ge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.; Liu, J. F.; Yan, H.

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state and the pressure of the I-II transition have been studied for nanocrystalline Ge using synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The bulk modulus and the transition pressure increase with decreasing particle size for both Ge-I and Ge-II, but the percentage volume collapse...

  8. High temperature magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Sn0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    National School of Applied Sciences, Safi, Morocco. 5Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. MS received 17 October 2012; revised 17 December 2012. Abstract. Structural and magnetic properties of Sn0⋅95Co0⋅05O2 nanocrystalline and diluted magnetic semicon-.

  9. Bioactive nanocrystalline wollastonite synthesized by sol–gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sol–gel combustion method was employed to synthesize the nanocrystalline wollastonite by taking the raw eggshell powder as a calcium source and TEOS as a source of silicate. Glycine was used as a reductant or fuel and nitrate ions present in metal nitrate acts as an oxidizer. The phase purity of the wollastonite was ...

  10. Electrochemical passivation behaviour of nanocrystalline Fe80Si20 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Both beneficial as well as detrimental effects of the nanocrystalline coatings have been reported and the pro- perties of coating can be influenced by many factors such as grain size and its distribution, surface condition, adhe- rence to the substrate, reactivity with the medium and its pre- paration routes, etc (Szewieczek et al ...

  11. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  12. Nanocrystalline nickel as a material with high hydrogen storage capacity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Klementová, Mariana; Šerák, J.; Morťaniková, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 12 (2009), s. 1074-1076 ISSN 0167-577X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : electron microscopy * nanomaterials * nano-crystalline nickel Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2009

  13. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  14. Quartz crystal microbalance gas sensor with nanocrystalline diamond sensitive layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Marián; Laposa, A.; Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, J.; Husák, M.; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2591-2597 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : gas sensor * nanocrystalline diamond * quartz resonator * thickness shear mode Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  15. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, M.; Bulto, V.; Kliss, R.; Hahn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersions of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical deposition under oxidizing conditions process with organic surfactants, were spin coated on glass substrates. After sintering, the microstructure, surface morphology, and electro-optical properties of the transparent nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been investigated for different coating thicknesses and organic solvents

  16. Distinctive glial and neuronal interfacing on nanocrystalline diamond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Bendali

    Full Text Available Direct electrode/neuron interfacing is a key challenge to achieve high resolution of neuronal stimulation required for visual prostheses. Neuronal interfacing on biomaterials commonly requires the presence of glial cells and/or protein coating. Nanocrystalline diamond is a highly mechanically stable biomaterial with a remarkably large potential window for the electrical stimulation of tissues. Using adult retinal cell cultures from rats, we found that glial cells and retinal neurons grew equally well on glass and nanocrystalline diamond. The use of a protein coating increased cell survival, particularly for glial cells. However, bipolar neurons appeared to grow even in direct contact with bare diamond. We investigated whether the presence of glial cells contributed to this direct neuron/diamond interface, by using purified adult retinal ganglion cells to seed diamond and glass surfaces with and without protein coatings. Surprisingly, these fully differentiated spiking neurons survived better on nanocrystalline diamond without any protein coating. This greater survival was indicated by larger cell numbers and the presence of longer neurites. When a protein pattern was drawn on diamond, neurons did not grow preferentially on the coated area, by contrast to their behavior on a patterned glass. This study highlights the interesting biocompatibility properties of nanocrystalline diamond, allowing direct neuronal interfacing, whereas a protein coating was required for glial cell growth.

  17. Low power optical limiting studies on nanocrystalline benzimidazole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low power optical limiting studies on nanocrystalline benzimidazole thin films prepared by modified liquid phase growth technique. P A PRAVEEN1, S P PRABHAKARAN1, R RAMESH BABU1,∗, K SETHURAMAN2 and K RAMAMURTHI3. 1Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan ...

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystalline mixed metal fluorides in nonaqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Synthesis of nanocrystalline mixed metal fluorides in nonaqueous medium. NEETU TYAGI, EPSITA GHANTI, NIKESH GUPTA, N P LALLA. † and. RAJAMANI NAGARAJAN*. Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. †. Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, University Campus, Indore 452 ...

  19. Synthesis and Photoluminescence of Nanocrystalline ZnS:Mn^(2+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, J.F.; Wuister, S.F.; Kelly, J.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the synthesis conditions on the properties of nanocrystalline ZnS:Mn2+ is discussed. Different Mn2+ precursors and different ratios of the precursor concentrations [S2-]/[Zn2+] were used. The type of Mn2+ precursor does not have an effect on the luminescence properties in the

  20. Pulsed nanocrystalline plasma electrolytic boriding as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of frequency and duty cycle of pulsed current was investigated. It was found that pulse frequency and duty cycle affect the size and porosity of nanocrystalline borides and by controlling these effective parameters, surface modification can render the CP-Ti material extremely corrosion resistant as a biomaterial.