WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanocrystal thin films

  1. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  2. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  3. Exciton Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide : Nanocrystals versus Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Protesescu, Loredana; Balazs, Daniel M.; Adjokatse, Sampson; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The optical properties of the newly developed near-infrared emitting formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI(3)) nanocrystals (NCs) and their polycrystalline thin film counterpart are comparatively investigated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. The excitonic emission is

  4. Pulsed Laser Annealing of Thin Films of Self-Assembled Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.; Choi, Joshua J.; Bian, Kaifu; Fitting Kourkoutis, Lena; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Thompson, Michael O.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how pulsed laser annealing can be applied to process thin films of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into interconnected nanostructures. We illustrate the relationship between incident laser fluence and changes in morphology of PbSe NC

  5. Improved electrochromical properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films by doping gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N.; Azimirad, R.; Akhavan, O.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of gold nanocrystals on the electrochromical properties of sol-gel Au doped WO 3 thin films has been studied. The Au-WO 3 thin films were dip-coated on both glass and indium tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates with various gold concentrations of 0, 3.2 and 6.4 mol%. Optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry in a range of 300-1100 nm. The optical density spectra of the films showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of Au-WO 3 films decreased with increasing the Au concentration. Crystalline structure of the doped films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, which indicated formation of gold nanocrystals in amorphous WO 3 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemical composition of the samples. XPS analysis indicated the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of stoichiometric WO 3 . The electrochromic properties of the Au-WO 3 samples were also characterized using lithium-based electrolyte. It was found that doping of Au nanocrystals in WO 3 thin films improved the coloration time of the layer. In addition, it was shown that variation of Au concentration led to color change in the colored state of the Au-WO 3 thin films.

  6. Nanocrystal synthesis and thin film formation for earth abundant photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathaniel J.

    Providing access to on-demand energy at the global scale is a grand challenge of our time. The fabrication of solar cells from nanocrystal inks comprising earth abundant elements represents a scalable and sustainable photovoltaic technology with the potential to meet the global demand for electricity. Solar cells with Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorber layers are of particular interest due to the high absorption coefficient of CZTSSe, its band gap in the ideal range for efficient photovoltaic power conversion, and the relative abundance of its constituent elements in the earth's crust. Despite the promise of this material system, CZTSSe solar cell efficiencies reported throughout literature have failed to exceed 12.6%, principally due to the low open-circuit voltage (VOC) achieved in these devices compared to the absorber band gap. The work presented herein primarily aims to address the low VOC problem. First, the fundamental cause for such low VOC's is investigated. Interparticle compositional inhomogeneities identified in the synthesized CZTS nanocrystals and their effect on the absorber layer formation and device performance are characterized. Real-time energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) elucidates the role of these inhomogeneities in the mechanism by which a film of CZTS nanocrystals converts into a dense absorber layer comprising micron-sized CZTSSe grains upon annealing in a selenium atmosphere (selenization). Additionally, a direct correlation between the nanocrystal inhomogeneities and the VOC in completed devices is observed. Detailed characterization of CZTSSe solar cells identifies electrical potential fluctuations in the CZTSSe absorber - due to spatial composition variations not unlike those observed in the nanocrystals - as a primary V OC inhibitor. Additional causes for low VOC's in CZTSSe solar cells proposed in the literature involve recombination at the interface between the CZTSSe absorber and: (1) the n-type, CdS buffer layer, or (2) the

  7. Ready fabrication of thin-film electrodes from building nanocrystals for micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Weng, Ding; Wang, Xiaolei; Cheng, Yanhua; Wang, Ge; Lu, Yunfeng

    2012-04-18

    Thin-film pseudocapacitor electrodes with ultrafast lithium storage kinetics, high capacitance and excellent cycling stability were fabricated from monodispersed TiO(2) building nanocrystals, providing a novel approach towards next-generation micro-supercapacitor applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  8. Rigid Biopolymer Nanocrystal Systems for Controlling Multicomponent Nanoparticle Assembly and Orientation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-10-31

    We have discovered techniques to synthesize well-defined DN conjugated nanostructures that are stable in a wide variety of conditions needed for DNA mediated assembly. Starting from this, we have shown that DNA can be used to control the assembly and integration of semiconductor nanocrystals into thin film devices that show photovoltaic effects.

  9. Colloidal CuInSe2 nanocrystals thin films of low surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergommeaux, Antoine de; Fiore, Angela; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Thin-film processing of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is a prerequisite for their use in (opto-)electronic devices. The commonly used spin-coating is highly materials consuming as the overwhelming amount of deposited matter is ejected from the substrate during the spinning process. Also, the well-known dip-coating and drop-casting procedures present disadvantages in terms of the surface roughness and control of the film thickness. We show that the doctor blade technique is an efficient method for preparing nanocrystal films of controlled thickness and low surface roughness. In particular, by optimizing the deposition conditions, smooth and pinhole-free films of 11 nm CuInSe 2 NCs have been obtained exhibiting a surface roughness of 13 nm root mean square (rms) for a 350 nm thick film, and less than 4 nm rms for a 75 nm thick film. (paper)

  10. Pulsed Laser Annealing of Thin Films of Self-Assembled Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgardner, William J.

    2011-09-27

    We investigated how pulsed laser annealing can be applied to process thin films of colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) into interconnected nanostructures. We illustrate the relationship between incident laser fluence and changes in morphology of PbSe NC films relative to bulk-like PbSe films. We found that laser pulse fluences in the range of 30 to 200 mJ/cm2 create a processing window of opportunity where the NC film morphology goes through interesting transformations without large-scale coalescence of the NCs. NC coalescence can be mitigated by depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon (a-Si) on the NC film. Remarkably, pulsed laser annealing of the a-Si/PbSe NC films crystallized the silicon while NC morphology and translational order of the NC film are preserved. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. Magnetoresistance and Microstructure of Magnetite Nanocrystals Dispersed in Indium−Tin Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Koichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Mitome, Masanori; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Arai, Masao; Mito, Masaki; Deguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial indium−tin oxide (ITO) thin films were fabricated on a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate by pulsed-laser deposition using magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle dispersed ITO powders as a target. Magnetoresistance of the film at a field of 1 T was 39% at 45 K, and it stayed at 3% above 225 K. The film demonstrated cooling hysteresis in the temperature dependence of direct-current magnetization. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phase-separated Fe3O4 nanocrystals with w...

  12. Guiding nanocrystal organization within mesoscale lipid thin-film templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steer, Dylan; Zhai, You; Oh, Nuri; Shim, Moonsub; Leal, Cecilia

    Recently a great deal of interest has been established in the cooperative intermolecular interactions in hard and soft meso-structured composite materials. Much of this research has focused on the effects of nanoparticle incorporation into block copolymers that otherwise self-assemble into periodic mesostructures through microphase separation. Through careful selection of the polymer components the nanoparticles can be directed to also microphase separate and therefore exhibit symmetry induced by the block copolymers. Such systems are promising for enabling the organization of nanoparticle superstructures. Although this is useful in many applications such as in bottom-up assembly of opti-electronic materials, most of these applications would benefit from interplay between structure and dynamics. Much like block-copolymers, lipids can self-assembly into a variety of structures with 1D lamellar, 2D Hexagonal, and 3D cubic symmetry. However, unlike block-copolymers phase stabilization and conversion from one geometry to another happens under a minute. We will show our recent efforts into using lipid thin films to guide the assembly of nanoparticle superstructures resembling those displayed by lipid polymorphs and how they distort lipid equilibrium phase behavior. Funding from the Office of Naval Research.

  13. Colloidal CuInSe2 nanocrystals thin films of low surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Fiore, Angela; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Thin-film processing of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is a prerequisite for their use in (opto-)electronic devices. The commonly used spin-coating is highly materials consuming as the overwhelming amount of deposited matter is ejected from the substrate during the spinning process. Also, the well-known dip-coating and drop-casting procedures present disadvantages in terms of the surface roughness and control of the film thickness. We show that the doctor blade technique is an efficient method for preparing nanocrystal films of controlled thickness and low surface roughness. In particular, by optimizing the deposition conditions, smooth and pinhole-free films of 11 nm CuInSe2 NCs have been obtained exhibiting a surface roughness of 13 nm root mean square (rms) for a 350 nm thick film, and less than 4 nm rms for a 75 nm thick film. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  14. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs. (paper)

  15. Relationship between tribology and optics in thin films of mechanically oriented nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Liana; Hu, Chunhua; Paradise, Ruthanne; Zhu, Zina; Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart

    2012-07-25

    Many crystalline dyes, when rubbed unidirectionally with cotton on glass slides, can be organized as thin films of highly aligned nanocrystals. Commonly, the linear birefringence and linear dichroism of these films resemble the optical properties of single crystals, indicating precisely oriented particles. Of 186 colored compounds, 122 showed sharp extinction and 50 were distinctly linearly dichroic. Of the latter 50 compounds, 88% were more optically dense when linearly polarized light was aligned with the rubbing axis. The mechanical properties of crystals that underlie the nonstatistical correlation between tribological processes and the direction of electron oscillations in absorption bands are discussed. The features that give rise to the orientation of dye crystallites naturally extend to colorless molecular crystals.

  16. In Situ Preparation of Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal Thin Films for Improved Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Tran, Nhu L; Wu, Fan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Kerner, Ross A; Lin, YunHui L; Scholes, Gregory D; Yao, Nan; Rand, Barry P

    2017-04-25

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors are attractive candidates for optoelectronic applications, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and lasers. Perovskite nanocrystals are of particular interest, where electrons and holes can be confined spatially, promoting radiative recombination. However, nanocrystalline films based on traditional colloidal nanocrystal synthesis strategies suffer from the use of long insulating ligands, low colloidal nanocrystal concentration, and significant aggregation during film formation. Here, we demonstrate a facile method for preparing perovskite nanocrystal films in situ and that the electroluminescence of light-emitting devices can be enhanced up to 40-fold through this nanocrystal film formation strategy. Briefly, the method involves the use of bulky organoammonium halides as additives to confine crystal growth of perovskites during film formation, achieving CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals with an average crystal size of 5.4 ± 0.8 nm and 6.4 ± 1.3 nm, respectively, as confirmed through transmission electron microscopy measurements. Additive-confined perovskite nanocrystals show significantly improved photoluminescence quantum yield and decay lifetime. Finally, we demonstrate highly efficient CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 red/near-infrared LEDs and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 green LEDs based on this strategy, achieving an external quantum efficiency of 7.9% and 7.0%, respectively, which represent a 40-fold and 23-fold improvement over control devices fabricated without the additives.

  17. Brilliant molecular nanocrystals emerging from sol-gel thin films: towards a new generation of fluorescent biochips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, E; Monnier, V; Sanz-Menez, N; Ibanez, A; Boury, B; Usson, Y; Pansu, R B

    2009-01-01

    To develop highly sensitive biosensors, we made directly available to biological aqueous solutions organic nanocrystals previously grown in the pores of sol-gel films. Through the controlled dissolution of the sol-gel surface, we obtained emerging nanocrystals that remained strongly anchored to the sol-gel coating for good mechanical stability of the final sensing device. We demonstrated that in the presence of a solution of DNA functionalized with a molecular probe, the nanocrystal fluorescence is strongly quenched by Foerster resonance energy transfer thus opening the way towards very sensitive fluorescent biosensors through biomolecules grafted onto fluorescent nanocrystals. Finally, this controlled dissolution, involving weak concentrated NaOH solution, is a generic process that can be used for the thinning of any kind of sol-gel layer.

  18. Flexible logic circuits composed of chalcogenide-nanocrystal-based thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Junggwon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2010-01-01

    Complementary NAND and NOR gates composed of p-channel HgTe-nanocrystal (NC) films and n-channel HgSe-NC films were constructed on back-gate patterned plastic substrates. The NAND gate was made of two HgTe-p-channel thin film transistors (TFTs) in parallel and two HgSe-n-channel TFTs in series. The NOR gate was built up with both two HgSe-n-channel TFTs in parallel and two HgTe-p-channel TFTs in series. The mobility and on/off ratio for the p-channel TFTs were estimated to be 0.9 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 10, respectively, and those for the n-channel TFTs were measured to be 1.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 10 2 , respectively. The NAND and NOR gates were operated with gains of 1.45 and 1.63 and transition widths of 7.8 and 6.2 V, respectively, at room temperature in air. In addition, the operations of the NAND and NOR logics are reproducible for up to 1000 strain cycles.

  19. Annealing effects on the photoresponse properties of CdSe nanocrystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Shiyun; Zhou Changhua; Wang Hongzhe; Shen Huaibin; Cheng Gang; Du Zuliang; Zhou, Shaomin; Li Linsong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The as-prepared CdSe nanocrystal films were treated at 500 deg. C for 3 h under continuous N 2 . → Annealing process removed the organic capping completely and eliminated oxide on the CdSe surface. → Thermal annealing resulted the increase of the crystallite sizes and necking the NCs. → The photoresponse speed of the CdSe nanocrystal films was improved. - Abstract: The photoresponse properties of the as-prepared and annealed close-packed CdSe nanocrystal (NC) films were investigated under laser illumination by Kelvin probe force microscopy. The annealing process improved the photoresponse speed of the CdSe NC films. The work function of the annealed CdSe NC films changed more rapidly than that of the non-annealed film in air at room temperature. Combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and thermogravimetric analysis, the observed phenomena can be interpreted that annealing process removed the organic capping agents completely and eliminated oxide on the CdSe surface, which formed the tunnel barrier between NCs in the CdSe NC films. Consequently, it improved the separation rate of photoelectric charges and thus provided high speed photoresponse.

  20. Processing of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystal Dispersions for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryce Arthur

    A scalable and inexpensive renewable energy source is needed to meet the expected increase in electricity demand throughout the developed and developing world in the next 15 years without contributing further to global warming through CO2 emissions. Photovoltaics may meet this need but current technologies are less than ideal requiring complex manufacturing processes and/or use of toxic, rare-earth materials. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu 2ZnSnS4, CZTS) solar cells offer a true "green" alternative based upon non-toxic and abundant elements. Solution-based processes utilizing CZTS nanocrystal dispersions followed by high temperature annealing have received significant research attention due to their compatibility with traditional roll-to-roll coating processes. In this work, CZTS nanocrystal (5-35 nm diameters) dispersions were utilized as a production pathway to form solar absorber layers. Aerosol-based coating methods (aerosol jet printing and ultrasonic spray coating) were optimized for formation of dense, crack-free CZTS nanocrystal coatings. The primary variables underlying determination of coating morphology within the aerosol-coating parameter space were investigated. It was found that the liquid content of the aerosol droplets at the time of substrate impingement play a critical role. Evaporation of the liquid from the aerosol droplets during coating was altered through changes to coating parameters as well as to the CZTS nanocrystal dispersions. In addition, factors influencing conversion of CZTS nanocrystal coatings into dense, large-grained polycrystalline films suitable for solar cell development during thermal annealing were studied. The roles nanocrystal size, carbon content, sodium uptake, and sulfur pressure were found to have pivotal roles in film microstructure evolution. The effects of these parameters on film morphology, grain growth rates, and chemical makeup were analyzed from electron microscopy images as well as compositional analysis

  1. Hybrid thin films based on bilayer heterojunction of titania nanocrystals/polypyrrole/natural dyes (Kappaphycus alvarezii) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Salmah Mohd; Salleh, Hasiah; Dagang, Ahmad Nazri; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ali, Nik Aziz Nik; Rashid, Norlaily Abdul; Kamarulzaman, Nurul Huda; Ahmad, Wan Almaz Dhafina Che Wan

    2017-09-01

    In this research, hybrid thin films which consist of a combination of organic red seaweed (RS) (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and polypyrrole (PPy) with inorganic titania nanocrystals (TiO2 NCs) materials were fabricated. These hybrid thin films were fabricated accordingly with bilayer heterojunction of ITO/TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS via electrochemical method using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The effect of number of scans (thickness) of titania on optical and electrical properties of hybrid thin films were studied. TiO2 NCs function as an electron acceptor and electronic conductor. Meanwhile, PPy acts as holes conductor and RS dye acts as a photosensitizer enhances the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. The UV absorption spectrum of TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS are characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, while the functional group of RS was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-Vis spectra showed that TiO2 NCs, PPy and RS were absorbed over a wide range of light spectrum which were 200-300 nm, 300-900 nm and 250-900 nm; respectively. The FTIR spectra of the RS showed the presence of hydroxyl group which was responsible for a good sensitizer for these hybrid solar cells. The electrical conductivity of these hybrid thin films were measured by using four point probes. The electrical conductivity of ITO/ (1)TiO2 NCs/PPy/RS thin film under the radiation of 100 Wm-2 was 0.062 Scm-1, hence this hybrid thin films can be applied in solar cell application.

  2. Nanostructured thin films of indium oxide nanocrystals confined in alumina matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouifoulen, A.; Edely, M.; Errien, N.; Kassiba, A.; Outzourhit, A.; Makowska-Janusik, M.; Gautier, N.; Lajaunie, L.; Oueriagli, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystals of indium oxide (In 2 O 3 ) with sizes below 10 nm were prepared in alumina matrixes by using a co-pulverization method. The used substrates such as borosilicate glasses or (100) silicon as well as the substrate temperatures during the deposition process were modified and their effects characterized on the structural and physical properties of alumina-In 2 O 3 films. Complementary investigation methods including X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance in the range 250-1100 nm and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the nanostructured films. The crystalline order, morphology and optical responses were monitored as function of the deposition parameters and the post-synthesis annealing. The optimal conditions were found and allow realizing suitable nanostructured films with a major crystalline order of cubic phase for the In 2 O 3 nanocrystals. The optical properties of the films were analyzed and the key parameters such as direct and indirect band gaps were evaluated as function of the synthesis conditions and the crystalline quality of the films.

  3. Size control of nanocrystals in InGaZnO4 thin films fabricated by using the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, S. J.; Cho, J. H.; Jang, Y. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We report the structural properties of InGaZnO 4 (IGZO) thin films prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structural properties of IGZO thin films were controlled by using the film thickness and thermal annealing temperature. In this study, the crystallization temperature of amorphous IGZO thin films was observed to be about 700 .deg. C. Also, we observed that the crystal size of IGZO thin films increased as the thickness and the annealing temperature were increased. In addition, we could observe that the atomic ratio of In, Ga and Zn of the IGZO thin film was slightly different from the molar ratio of a previous IGZO sol-gel solution (In:Ga:Zn = 1:1:1) post-annealed at 900 .deg. C because In and Zn are more volatile than Ga. The study of the crystallization of amorphous IGZO thin films provides an understanding of the growth mechanisms and thermal annealing effects for IGZO nanocrystals.

  4. Optical and structural characterization of oleic acid-stabilized CdTe nanocrystals for solution thin film processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Davet Gutiérrez-Lazos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of the optical and structural characterization of oleic acid-stabilized cadmium telluride nanocrystals (CdTe-NC synthesized by an organometallic route. After being cleaned, the CdTe-NC were dispersed in toluene to obtain an ink-like dispersion, which was drop-cast on glass substrate to deposit a thin film. The CdTe-NC colloidal dispersion as well as the CdTe drop-cast thin films were characterized with regard to the optical and structural properties. TEM analysis indicates that the CdTe-NC have a nearly spherical shape (3.5 nm as mean size. Electron diffraction and XRD diffraction analyses indicated the bulk-CdTe face-centered cubic structure for CdTe-NC. An additional diffraction line corresponding to the octahedral Cd3P2 was also detected as a secondary phase, which probably originates by reacting free cadmium ions with trioctylphosphine (the tellurium reducing agent. The Raman spectrum exhibits two broad bands centered at 141.6 and 162.3 cm−1, which could be associated to the TO and LO modes of cubic CdTe nanocrystals, respectively. Additional peaks located in the 222 to 324 cm−1 range, agree fairly well with the wavenumbers reported for TO modes of octahedral Cd3P2.

  5. Influence of cellulose nanocrystals concentration and ionic strength on the elaboration of cellulose nanocrystals-xyloglucan multilayered thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Abir; Moreau, Céline; Azzam, Firas; Jean, Bruno; Cousin, Fabrice; Cathala, Bernard

    2015-12-15

    The effect of the variation of CNC concentration on the growth pattern of CNC-XG films is investigated. We found that a transition in the growth slope occurs at a CNC concentration of roughly 3-4gL(-1). A close effect can be obtained by the increase of the ionic strength of the CNC suspensions, suggesting that electrostatic interactions are involved. Static light scattering investigation of CNC dispersions at increasing concentrations demonstrated that the particle-particle interactions change as the CNC concentration increases. Neutron Reflectivity (NR) was used to probe the internal structure of the films. The increase of the CNC concentration as well as the increase of the ionic strength in the CNC suspension were found to induce a densification of the adsorbed CNC layers, even though the mechanisms are not strictly identical in both cases. Small changes in these parameters provide a straightforward way of controlling the architecture of CNC-based multilayered thin films and, as a result, their functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of capping ligands on the optical properties and electronic energies of iron pyrite FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals and solid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Guangmei, E-mail: zhaiguangmei@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Solar Cell Materials and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Xie, Rongwei; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Jitao; Yang, Yongzhen; Wang, Hua; Li, Xuemin [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Xu, Bingshe [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials of Ministry of Education of the People' s Republic of China, Research Centre of Advanced Materials Science and Technology of Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China)

    2016-07-25

    In this work, the optical and electronic properties of iron pyrite FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals and solid thin films with various capping ligands were systematically investigated by UV–Vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and current density–voltage characteristic measurements. The iron pyrite nanocrystals with various ligands have an indirect band gap of around 1.05 eV and broad absorption spanning into the near-infrared region, exhibiting favorable optical properties for their photovoltaic applications. The electron affinities and ionization potentials of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals determined through cyclic voltammetry measurements show strong ligand dependence. An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained among the pyrite nanocrystals capped with the ligands employed in this work. The iron pyrite nanocrystal films capped with iodide and 1,2-ethanedithiol exhibit the largest band edge energy shift and conductivity, respectively. Our results not only provide several useful optical and electronic parameters of pyrite nanocrystals for their further use in optoelectronic devices as active layers and/or infrared optical absorption materials, but also highlight the relationship between their surface chemistry and electronic energies. - Highlights: • The energy levels of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals with various ligands were determined via electrochemical measurements. • The energy levels of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals showed strong ligand-dependence. • An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained for the pyrite nanocrystals studied in the work. • The conductivities of FeS{sub 2} nanocrystals with different ligands were obtained by current density–voltage measurements.

  7. Effect of capping ligands on the optical properties and electronic energies of iron pyrite FeS2 nanocrystals and solid thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Guangmei; Xie, Rongwei; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Jitao; Yang, Yongzhen; Wang, Hua; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the optical and electronic properties of iron pyrite FeS 2 nanocrystals and solid thin films with various capping ligands were systematically investigated by UV–Vis–NIR absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and current density–voltage characteristic measurements. The iron pyrite nanocrystals with various ligands have an indirect band gap of around 1.05 eV and broad absorption spanning into the near-infrared region, exhibiting favorable optical properties for their photovoltaic applications. The electron affinities and ionization potentials of FeS 2 nanocrystals determined through cyclic voltammetry measurements show strong ligand dependence. An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained among the pyrite nanocrystals capped with the ligands employed in this work. The iron pyrite nanocrystal films capped with iodide and 1,2-ethanedithiol exhibit the largest band edge energy shift and conductivity, respectively. Our results not only provide several useful optical and electronic parameters of pyrite nanocrystals for their further use in optoelectronic devices as active layers and/or infrared optical absorption materials, but also highlight the relationship between their surface chemistry and electronic energies. - Highlights: • The energy levels of FeS 2 nanocrystals with various ligands were determined via electrochemical measurements. • The energy levels of FeS 2 nanocrystals showed strong ligand-dependence. • An energy level shift of up to 190 meV was obtained for the pyrite nanocrystals studied in the work. • The conductivities of FeS 2 nanocrystals with different ligands were obtained by current density–voltage measurements.

  8. Reflection of circularly polarized light and the effect of particle distribution on circular dichroism in evaporation induced self-assembled cellulose nanocrystal thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hewson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation induced self-assembled (EISA thin films of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have shown great potential for displaying structural colour across the visible spectrum. They are believed primarily to reflect left handed circularly polarised (LCP light due to their natural tendency to form structures comprising left handed chirality. Accordingly the fabrication of homogenously coloured CNC thin films is challenging. Deposition of solid material towards the edge of a dried droplet, via the coffee-stain effect, is one such difficulty in achieving homogenous colour across CNC films. These effects are most easily observed in films prepared from droplets where observable reflection of visible light is localised around the edge of the dry film. We report here, the observation of both left and right hand circularly polarised (LCP/RCP light in reflection from distinct separate regions of CNC EISA thin films and we elucidate how these reflections are dependent on the distribution of CNC material within the EISA thin film. Optical models of reflection are presented which are based on structures revealed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of film cross sections. We have also employed spectroscopic characterisation techniques to evaluate the distribution of solid CNC material within a selection of CNC EISA thin films and we have correlated this distribution with polarised light spectra collected from each film. We conclude that film regions from which RCP light was reflected were associated with lower CNC concentrations and thicker film regions.

  9. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  10. Solution-Processed Inorganic Thin Film Transistors Fabricated from Butylamine-Capped Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Hien Thu; Jeong, Hyundam [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Indium-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals (IZO NCs), capped with stearic acid (SA) of different sizes, were synthesized using a hot injection method in a noncoordinating solvent 1-octadecene (ODE). The ligand exchange process was employed to modify the surface of IZO NCs by replacing the longer-chain ligand of stearic acid with the shorter-chain ligand of butylamine (BA). It should be noted that the ligand-exchange percentage was observed to be 75%. The change of particle size, morphology, and crystal structures were obtained using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction pattern results. In our study, the 5 nm and 10 nm IZO NCs capped with stearic acid (SA-IZO) were ligand-exchanged with butylamine (BA), and were then spin-coated on a thermal oxide (SiO{sub 2}) gate insulator to fabricate a thin film transistor (TFT) device. The films were then annealed at various temperatures: 350 .deg. C, 400 .deg. C, 500 .deg. C, and 600 .deg. C. All samples showed semiconducting behavior and exhibited n-channel TFT{sup -} Curing temperature dependent on mobility was observed. Interestingly, mobility decreases with the increasing size of NCs from 5 to 10 nm. Miller-Abrahams hopping formalism was employed to explain the hopping mechanism insight our IZO NC films. By focusing on the effect of size, different curing temperatures, electron coupling, tunneling rate, and inter-NC separation, we found that the decrease in electron mobility for larger NCs was due to smaller electronic coupling.

  11. Surfaces of colloidal PbSe nanocrystals probed by thin-film positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and positron-electron momentum density (PEMD studies on multilayers of PbSe nanocrystals (NCs, supported by transmission electron microscopy, show that positrons are strongly trapped at NC surfaces, where they provide insight into the surface composition and electronic structure of PbSe NCs. Our analysis indicates abundant annihilation of positrons with Se electrons at the NC surfaces and with O electrons of the oleic ligands bound to Pb ad-atoms at the NC surfaces, which demonstrates that positrons can be used as a sensitive probe to investigate the surface physics and chemistry of nanocrystals inside multilayers. Ab initio electronic structure calculations provide detailed insight in the valence and semi-core electron contributions to the positron-electron momentum density of PbSe. Both lifetime and PEMD are found to correlate with changes in the particle morphology characteristic of partial ligand removal.

  12. Effects of substrate temperature on structural and electrical properties of SiO2-matrix boron-doped silicon nanocrystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Junjun; Zeng, Yuheng; Tan, Ruiqin; Wang, Weiyan; Yang, Ye; Dai, Ning; Song, Weijie

    2013-01-01

    In this work, silicon-rich SiO 2 (SRSO) thin films were deposited at different substrate temperatures (T s ) and then annealed by rapid thermal annealing to form SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped silicon-nanocrystals (Si-NCs). The effects of T s on the micro-structure and electrical properties of the SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Results showed that the crystalline fraction and dark conductivity of the SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films both increased significantly when the T s was increased from room temperature to 373 K. When the T s was further increased from 373 K to 676 K, the crystalline fraction of 1373 K-annealed thin films decreased from 52.2% to 38.1%, and the dark conductivity reduced from 8 × 10 −3 S/cm to 5.5 × 10 −5 S/cm. The changes in micro-structure and dark conductivity of the SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films were most possibly due to the different amount of Si-O 4 bond in the as-deposited SRSO thin films. Our work indicated that there was an optimal T s , which could significantly increase the crystallization and conductivity of Si-NC thin films. Also, it was illumined that the low-resistivity SiO 2 -matrix boron-doped Si-NC thin films can be achieved under the optimal substrate temperatures, T s .

  13. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  14. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Spin Coating Speed on Mn-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Thin Film by Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Azie Azura Mohd Arif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnS:Mn nanocrystals thin film was fabricated at 300°C and 500°C via the spin coating method. Its sol-gel was spin coated for 20 s at 3000 rpm and 4000 rpm with metal tape being used to mold the shape of the thin film. A different combination of these parameters was used to investigate their influences on the fabrication of the film. Optical and structural characterizations have been performed. Optical characterization was analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrophotometer while the structural and compositional analysis of films was measured via field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. From UV-vis spectra, the wavelength of the ZnS:Mn was 250 nm and the band gap was within the range 4.43 eV–4.60 eV. In room temperature PL spectra, there were two emission peaks centered at 460 nm and 590 nm. Under higher annealing temperature and higher speed used in spin coating, an increase of 0.05 eV was observed. It was concluded that the spin coating process is able to synthesize high quality spherical ZnS:Mn nanocrystals. This conventional process can replace other high technology methods due to its synthesis cost.

  15. Semiconducting Nanocrystals in Mesostructured Thin Films for Optical and Opto-Electronic Device Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chmelka, Bradley F

    2007-01-01

    ...) nanocomposite films have been measured and controlled to modify, enhance, and understand their optical and/or semiconducting properties over a hierarchy of dimensions, from molecular to macroscopic...

  16. Diffusion limited Cu and Au nanocrystal formation in thin film SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, B.; Kluth, P.; Glover, C.J.; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental Cu and Au nanocrystals (NCs) were produced by high-energy ion-implantations into amorphous silica (SiO 2 ) and subsequent thermal annealing. By a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) we confirm both NC species to have the bulk face-centered cubic phase and estimate their average diameter. We concentrate on the investigation of the concentration and size-dependent coordination number (China) of these matrix embedded NCs utilising extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The CN is found to be suppressed compared to that of a bulk standard. The CN in Au NCs is found to be lower than that of Cu NCs in agreement with smaller average Au NC sizes. We explain this difference by the difference in diffusivity for the two atomic species in SiO 2

  17. Effects of Cu content on the photoelectrochemistry of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshmashrab, Saghar; Turnbull, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, Daniel; Nie, Yuting; Martin, Spencer; Love, David A.; Lau, Po K.; Sun, Xuhui; Ding, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two compositions of CZTS were synthesized, one yielding Cu-poor and the other Cu-stoichiometric nanocrystals (NCs). • Physical and electronic properties of both films were probed using various analytical techniques. • Films comprised of Cu-poor CZTS showed tighter packing with less defects compared to those of stoichiometric-Cu. • Photoelectrochemical measurements exhibited increased photoconversion and increased photostability of the Cu-poor films. • Intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy showed that the Cu-deficient NCs had half the recombination rate as that of stoichiometric-Cu films. - Abstract: Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared via a one-pot solvothermal method. Given that the composition affects the electronic properties of this p-type semiconductor, two compositional ratios were chosen from 10 designed and synthesized analogues, one yielding Cu-poor and the other Cu-stoichiometric CZTS. NCs in which the Cu concentration was slightly below stoichiometric yielded more uniform films with greater photovoltaic performance. The lower Cu content also lead to slightly better crystallinity within the film, as demonstrated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Chronophotoelectrochemical measurements indicated that both types of NC films displayed good stability; however, with a decrease in potential, an increase in resistance for the Cu-stoichiometric film was observed. As determined by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, the product separation rate of the photoinduced holes and electrons in the Cu-poor films were more than 3 times that of the Cu-stoichiometric, confirming that the lower Cu content led to an improved photoperformance

  18. Generation of InN nanocrystals in organic solution through laser ablation of high pressure chemical vapor deposition-grown InN thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkis, Sabri; Alevli, Mustafa; Burzhuev, Salamat; Vural, Hüseyin Avni; Okyay, Ali Kemal; Ortaç, Bülend

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal InN nanocrystals (InN-NCs) in organic solution through nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of high pressure chemical vapor deposition-grown InN thin film on GaN/sapphire template substrate. The size, the structural, the optical, and the chemical characteristics of InN-NCs demonstrate that the colloidal InN crystalline nanostructures in ethanol are synthesized with spherical shape within 5.9–25.3, 5.45–34.8, 3.24–36 nm particle-size distributions, increasing the pulse energy value. The colloidal InN-NCs solutions present strong absorption edge tailoring from NIR region to UV region.

  19. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  20. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  1. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  2. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  3. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  4. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  5. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  6. Synthesis of freestanding water-soluble indium oxide nanocrystals capped by alanine nitric acid via ligand exchange for thin film transistors and effects of ligands on the electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin-Kyu; Koh, Ye-Seul; Jeong, Hyun-Dam

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate synthesis of freestanding water-soluble indium oxide nanocrystals (In 2 O 3 NCs) by ligand exchange to β-alanine nitric acid (Ala·HNO 3 ) and its application for active channel layer in thin film transistors (TFTs), with investigation of the effect of curing temperatures on the TFT properties in terms of thermal behaviour of the ligand molecules at 150, 300, and 350 °C. After ligand exchange from long alkyl ligand (myristic acid, MA) to short Ala·HNO 3 , the mobility of NC TFTs cured at 150 °C increased by over 1 order of magnitude, from 1.3 × 10 −4 cm 2 V -1 s −1 to 4.5 × 10 −3 cm 2 V -1 s −1 , due to enhanced tunnelling rate (Γ) between adjective NCs. Higher curing temperatures such as 300 and 350 °C, inducing thermal decomposition of the organic ligands, led to further enhancement of the mobility, particularly up to 2.2 cm 2 V -1 s −1 for the In 2 O 3 NC-Ala·HNO 3 TFT cured at 350 °C. It is also found that the ligand exchange of In 2 O 3 NC in acidic condition (e.g. HNO 3 ) would be simple and effective to reduce the surface defects by surface etching, which may lead to better device performances. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Freestanding water-soluble In 2 O 3 nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by ligand exchange. • Thin film transistors (TFTs) of colloidal NCs were fabricated by spin-coating method. • Water-soluble In 2 O 3 NC TFTs showed higher mobilities due to shorter ligand length. • Surface defects of NCs were notably reduced by surface etching during ligand exchange

  7. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  8. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  9. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  10. Characterization of Ge-nanocrystal films with photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostedt, C.; Buuren, T. van; Willey, T.M.; Nelson, A.J.; Franco, N.; Moeller, T.; Terminello, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Ge 3d core-levels of germanium nanocrystal films have been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments indicate bulk-like coordinated atoms in the nanocrystals and suggest structured disorder on the nanoparticle surface. The results underline the importance of the surface on the overall electronic structure of this class of nanostructured materials

  11. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  12. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bing Qian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 oC. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at −17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at −14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 103 P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 105 s retention time.

  13. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt nanocrystals/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin, E-mail: sjding@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, School of Microelectronics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt nanocrystals/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 {sup o}C. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at −17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at −14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 10{sup 3} P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 10{sup 5} s retention time.

  14. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  15. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  16. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  17. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  18. Synthesis of freestanding water-soluble indium oxide nanocrystals capped by alanine nitric acid via ligand exchange for thin film transistors and effects of ligands on the electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin-Kyu; Koh, Ye-Seul; Jeong, Hyun-Dam, E-mail: hdjeong@chonnam.ac.kr

    2015-07-15

    We demonstrate synthesis of freestanding water-soluble indium oxide nanocrystals (In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NCs) by ligand exchange to β-alanine nitric acid (Ala·HNO{sub 3}) and its application for active channel layer in thin film transistors (TFTs), with investigation of the effect of curing temperatures on the TFT properties in terms of thermal behaviour of the ligand molecules at 150, 300, and 350 °C. After ligand exchange from long alkyl ligand (myristic acid, MA) to short Ala·HNO{sub 3}, the mobility of NC TFTs cured at 150 °C increased by over 1 order of magnitude, from 1.3 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup −1} to 4.5 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup −1}, due to enhanced tunnelling rate (Γ) between adjective NCs. Higher curing temperatures such as 300 and 350 °C, inducing thermal decomposition of the organic ligands, led to further enhancement of the mobility, particularly up to 2.2 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup −1} for the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NC-Ala·HNO{sub 3} TFT cured at 350 °C. It is also found that the ligand exchange of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NC in acidic condition (e.g. HNO{sub 3}) would be simple and effective to reduce the surface defects by surface etching, which may lead to better device performances. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Freestanding water-soluble In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized by ligand exchange. • Thin film transistors (TFTs) of colloidal NCs were fabricated by spin-coating method. • Water-soluble In{sub 2}O{sub 3} NC TFTs showed higher mobilities due to shorter ligand length. • Surface defects of NCs were notably reduced by surface etching during ligand exchange.

  19. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  20. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  1. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  2. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  3. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  4. Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of starch nanocrystals-reinforced pea starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Qiu, Chao; Ji, Na; Sun, Cuixia; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-05

    To characterize the pea starch films reinforced with waxy maize starch nanocrystals, the mechanical, water vapor barrier and morphological properties of the composite films were investigated. The addition of starch nanocrystals increased the tensile strength of the composite films, and the value of tensile strength of the composite films was highest when starch nanocrystals content was 5% (w/w). The moisture content (%), water vapor permeability, and water-vapor transmission rate of the composite films significantly decreased as starch nanocrystals content increased. When their starch nanocrystals content was 1-5%, the starch nanocrystals dispersed homogeneously in the composite films, resulting in a relatively smooth and compact film surface and better thermal stability. However, when starch nanocrystals content was more than 7%, the starch nanocrystals began to aggregate, which resulted in the surface of the composite films developing a longitudinal fibrous structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photoelectric work function studies of carbonaceous films containing Ni nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwosz, E.; Dluzewski, P.; Kutner, T.; Stacewicz, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of photoelectric work function measurements for carbonaceous films containing Ni nanocrystals. The investigated films were obtained by thermal vacuum deposition method. The structure of films was studied by electron diffraction, transmission microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Film structure depends on Ni contents in the film volume. Work function determined from photoelectric measurements for all investigated films are similar and lie in the range of 2.65-2.93 eV. The decrease of work function value with the cleaning of the film's surface with UV pulsed laser beam was observed

  6. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  7. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  8. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  9. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  10. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  11. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  12. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  13. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  14. Investigation into CdS nanocrystal growth regularities in silicate glass and in the thin films SiO{sub 2} at the initial stages of solid solution phase decomposi8tion; Issledovanie zakonomernostej rosta nanokristalov CdS v silikatnom stekle i v tonkikh plenkakh SiO{sub 2} na nachal`nykh stadiyakh fazovogo raspada tverdogo rastvora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, S A; Ekimov, A I; Kudryavtsev, I A [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.

    1994-05-01

    Regularities of CdS semiconductor hanocrystal growth in amorphous media (silicate glasses and SiO{sub 2} thin films) are investigated. Dependences of crystal mean dimension on the annealing time show that in accordance with the theory of phase decomposition the crystal growth has the successive stages of nuclei formation and diffusion growth. By means of the nuclei mean radius dependences on the annealing temperature are determined the temperatures of CdS solubility in the matrix material. Effect of the annealing atmosphere composition on the growth and optical properties of CdS nanocrystals is shown.

  15. Aqueous-Processed Inorganic Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on CdSe(x)Te(1-x) Nanocrystals: The Impact of Composition on Photovoltaic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingsen; Chen, Zhaolai; Zhao, Yue; Du, Xiaohang; Liu, Fangyuan; Jin, Gan; Dong, Fengxia; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2015-10-21

    Aqueous processed nanocrystal (NC) solar cells are attractive due to their environmental friendliness and cost effectiveness. Controlling the bandgap of absorbing layers is critical for achieving high efficiency for single and multijunction solar cells. Herein, we tune the bandgap of CdTe through the incorporation of Se via aqueous process. The photovoltaic performance of aqueous CdSexTe1-x NCs is systematically investigated, and the impacts of charge generation, transport, and injection on device performance for different compositions are deeply discussed. We discover that the performance degrades with the increasing Se content from CdTe to CdSe. This is mainly ascribed to the lower conduction band (CB) of CdSexTe1-x with higher Se content, which reduces the driving force for electron injection into TiO2. Finally, the performance is improved by mixing CdSexTe1-x NCs with conjugated polymer poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.35% is achieved based on ternary NCs. This work may provide some information to further optimize the aqueous-processed NC and hybrid solar cells.

  16. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  17. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  18. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  19. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  20. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  1. Structure and performance of dielectric films based on self-assembled nanocrystals with a high dielectric constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Limin; Liu, Shuangyi; Van Tassell, Barry J; Liu, Xiaohua; Byro, Andrew; Zhang, Henan; Leland, Eli S; Akins, Daniel L; Steingart, Daniel A; Li, Jackie; O'Brien, Stephen

    2013-10-18

    Self-assembled films built from nanoparticles with a high dielectric constant are attractive as a foundation for new dielectric media with increased efficiency and range of operation, due to the ability to exploit nanofabrication techniques and emergent electrical properties originating from the nanoscale. However, because the building block is a discrete one-dimensional unit, it becomes a challenge to capture potential enhancements in dielectric performance in two or three dimensions, frequently due to surface effects or the presence of discontinuities. This is a recurring theme in nanoparticle film technology when applied to the realm of thin film semiconductor and device electronics. We present the use of chemically synthesized (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanocrystals, and a novel deposition-polymerization technique, as a means to fabricate the dielectric layer. The effective dielectric constant of the film is tunable according to nanoparticle size, and effective film dielectric constants of up to 34 are enabled. Wide area and multilayer dielectrics of up to 8 cm(2) and 190 nF are reported, for which the building block is an 8 nm nanocrystal. We describe models for assessing dielectric performance, and distinct methods for improving the dielectric constant of a nanocrystal thin film. The approach relies on evaporatively driven assembly of perovskite nanocrystals with uniform size distributions in a tunable 7-30 nm size range, coupled with the use of low molecular weight monomer/polymer precursor chemistry that can infiltrate the porous nanocrystal thin film network post assembly. The intercrystal void space (low k dielectric volume fraction) is minimized, while simultaneously promoting intercrystal connectivity and maximizing volume fraction of the high k dielectric component. Furfuryl alcohol, which has good affinity to the surface of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 nanocrystals and miscibility with a range of solvents, is demonstrated to be ideal for the production of nanocomposites. The

  2. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  3. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  4. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavarache, Ionel; Maraloiu, Valentin Adrian; Negrila, Catalin; Prepelita, Petronela; Gruia, Ion; Iordache, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. This article reports on a significant progress given by structuring Ge nanocrystals (Ge-NCs) embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films by heating the substrate at 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency with peak value reaching 850% at -1 V and about 1000 nm. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the effort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  5. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  6. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  7. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  8. Transparent nanoscale floating gate memory using self-assembled bismuth nanocrystals in Bi(2) Mg(2/3) Nb(4/3) O(7) (BMN) pyrochlore thin films grown at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun-June; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Hong, Soon-Ku; Lee, Jeong-Yong

    2012-07-03

    Bismuth nanocrystals for a nanoscale floating gate memory device are self-assembled in Bi(2) Mg(2/3) Nb(4/3) O(7) (BMN) dielectric films grown at room temperature by radio-frequency sputtering. The TEM cross-sectional image shows the "real" structure grown on a Si (001) substrate. The image magnified from the dotted box (red color) in the the cross-sectional image clearly shows bismuth nanoparticles at the interface between the Al(2) O(3) and HfO(2) layer (right image). Nanoparticles approximately 3 nm in size are regularly distributed at the interface. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in polymeric films studied by in-situ GID and GISAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Di Luccio, Tiziana; Carbone, Dina; Masala, Silvia; Ramachandran, Karthik; Kornfield, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in thin polymeric films by in-situ Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS). The 2D GISAXS patterns indicate how the precursor structure is altered as the temperature is varied from 25°C to 300°C. At 150°C, the CdS nanocrystals start to arrange themselves in a hexagonal lattice with a lattice parameter of 27 A. The diffraction intensity from the hexagonal lattice reaches a maximum at 170"C and decreases steadily upon further heating above 220°C indicating loss of symmetry. Correspondingly, the GID scans at 170°C show strong crystalline peaks from cubic CdS nanocrystals that are about 2 nm size. The results indicate that a temperature of 170°C is sufficient to synthesize CdS nanocrystals without degradation of the polymer matrix (Topas) in thin films (about 30nm). © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  10. Synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in polymeric films studied by in-situ GID and GISAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Di Luccio, Tiziana

    2015-07-07

    In this work, we describe the synthesis of CdS nanocrystals in thin polymeric films by in-situ Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering (GISAXS). The 2D GISAXS patterns indicate how the precursor structure is altered as the temperature is varied from 25°C to 300°C. At 150°C, the CdS nanocrystals start to arrange themselves in a hexagonal lattice with a lattice parameter of 27 A. The diffraction intensity from the hexagonal lattice reaches a maximum at 170"C and decreases steadily upon further heating above 220°C indicating loss of symmetry. Correspondingly, the GID scans at 170°C show strong crystalline peaks from cubic CdS nanocrystals that are about 2 nm size. The results indicate that a temperature of 170°C is sufficient to synthesize CdS nanocrystals without degradation of the polymer matrix (Topas) in thin films (about 30nm). © 2015 Materials Research Society.

  11. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  12. Solution-processing of ultra-thin CdTe/ZnO nanocrystal solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, Brandon I.; Gengenbach, Thomas R.; Watkins, Scott E.; Mulvaney, Paul; Jasieniak, Jacek J.

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a detailed study into how modifications of the physical, chemical and optical properties of solution-processed, nanocrystalline CdTe layers influence the photovoltaic performance of sintered CdTe/ZnO nanocrystal solar cells. Such solar cells are fabricated through layer-by-layer assembly, which is enabled through an inter layer chemical and thermal treatment cycle. In this manner we are able to fabricate working solar cells with sintered CdTe layers as low as 90 nm, provided that grain size is precisely controlled. We show that the extent of grain growth achieved during the CdTe sintering process is strongly dependent on nanocrystal surface chemistry and chemical environment, with the removal of the organic capping ligands and the introduction of CdCl 2 prior to annealing leading to greatly enhanced growth. Due to the air processing involved and the nanocrystalline nature of the CdTe, the overall performance of these solar cells is shown to be strongly dependent on both annealing temperature and time, with optimal results requiring a balance between crystal growth and degradation due to oxidation. Using this simple bi-layer device structure, optimized treatment conditions result in power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.7% and peak internal quantum efficiencies in excess of 95%. - Highlights: • We study the growth of nanocrystalline CdTe thin films from colloidal nanocrystals. • We examine the CdTe growth profiles as a function of surface chemistry. • We show that nanocrystalline CdTe is susceptible to oxidation under air annealing. • We show how this oxidation influences performance in CdTe/ZnO solar cells. • We demonstrate CdTe/ZnO solar cells with an efficiency of 7.7% fabricated in air

  13. Thermal Conductivity in Nanostructured Films: From Single Cellulose Nanocrystals to Bulk Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairo A. Diaz; Zhijiang Ye; Xiawa Wu; Arden L. Moore; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini; Dylan J. Boday; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    We achieved a multiscale description of the thermal conductivity of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from single CNCs (~­0.72−5.7 W m−1 K−1) to their organized nanostructured films (~­0.22−0.53 W m−1 K−1) using...

  14. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  15. Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yimin A; Kirkland, Angus I; Schaeffel, Franziska; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Young, Neil P; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H, E-mail: Jamie.warner@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-13

    We demonstrate the use of thin BN sheets as supports for imaging nanocrystals using low voltage (80 kV) aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This provides an alternative to the previously utilized 2D crystal supports of graphene and graphene oxide. A simple chemical exfoliation method is applied to get few layer boron nitride (BN) sheets with micrometer-sized dimensions. This generic approach of using BN sheets as supports is shown by depositing Mn doped ZnSe nanocrystals directly onto the BN sheets and resolving the atomic structure from both the ZnSe nanocrystals and the BN support. Phase contrast images reveal moire patterns of interference between the beams diffracted by the nanocrystals and the BN substrate that are used to determine the relative orientation of the nanocrystals with respect to the BN sheets and interference lattice planes. Double diffraction is observed and has been analyzed.

  16. Utilizing boron nitride sheets as thin supports for high resolution imaging of nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yimin A; Kirkland, Angus I; Schaeffel, Franziska; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Young, Neil P; Briggs, G Andrew D; Warner, Jamie H

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of thin BN sheets as supports for imaging nanocrystals using low voltage (80 kV) aberration-corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy. This provides an alternative to the previously utilized 2D crystal supports of graphene and graphene oxide. A simple chemical exfoliation method is applied to get few layer boron nitride (BN) sheets with micrometer-sized dimensions. This generic approach of using BN sheets as supports is shown by depositing Mn doped ZnSe nanocrystals directly onto the BN sheets and resolving the atomic structure from both the ZnSe nanocrystals and the BN support. Phase contrast images reveal moire patterns of interference between the beams diffracted by the nanocrystals and the BN substrate that are used to determine the relative orientation of the nanocrystals with respect to the BN sheets and interference lattice planes. Double diffraction is observed and has been analyzed.

  17. Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured CsPbBr3 perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikova, A. A.; Matyushkin, L. B.; Andronov, A. A.; Sokolov, V. S.; Aleksandrova, O. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of nanostructured perovskites cesium lead halide thin films is described. The method of deposition is based on alternate immersion of the substrate in the precursor solutions or colloidal solution of nanocrystals and methyl acetate/lead nitrate solution using the device for deposition of films by SILAR and dip-coating techniques. An example of obtaining a photosensitive structure based on nanostructures of ZnO nanowires and layers of CsBbBr3 nanocrystals is also shown.

  18. Photo-sensitive Ge nanocrystal based films controlled by substrate deposition temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Stavarache, Ionel

    2017-07-21

    Lowering the temperature of crystallization by deposition of thin films on a heated substrate represents the easiest way to find new means to develop and improve new working devices based on nanocrystals embedded in thin films. The improvements are strongly related with the increasing of operation speed, substantially decreasing the energy consumption and reducing unit fabrication costs of the respective semiconductor devices. This approach avoids major problems, such as those related to diffusion or difficulties in controlling of nanocrystallites size, which appear during thermal treatments at high temperatures after deposition. It is reported here the significant progress introduced by synthesis procedure to the in-situ structuring of Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films by heating the substrate at low temperature, 400 °C during co-deposition of Ge and SiO2 by magnetron sputtering. As a proof-of-concept, a Si/Ge-NCs:SiO2 photo-sensitive structure was fabricated thereof and characterized. The structure shows superior performance on broad operation bandwidth from visible to near-infrared, as strong rectification properties in dark, significant current rise in the inversion mode when illuminated, high responsivity, high photo-detectivity of 1014 Jones, quick response and significant conversion efficiency of 850 %. This simple preparation approach brings an important contribution to the efort of structuring Ge nanocrystallites in SiO2 thin films at a lower temperature for the purpose of using these materials for devices in optoelectronics, solar cells and electronics on flexible substrates.

  19. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  20. Review of thin film superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlstrom, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in thin film superconductivity are critical to the success of many proposed applications. The authors review several of the prominent techniques currently used to produce thin films of the high temperature superconductors including electron beam co-deposition, sputtering (both multiple and composite source configurations) and laser ablation. The authors look at the relevant parameters for each and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In addition, promising work on in situ oxidation is discussed. Also addressed are efforts to find optimum substrate materials and substrate buffer layers for various applications. The current state of the art for T c , J c and H c2 is presented for the yttrium, bismuth, and thallium compounds

  1. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  2. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture with magnetron ... alloys of Ni and Fe) take an important place. NiFe alloy with a ... room temperature (∼298 K, without intentional heating) on Si(100) substrates. A base pressure of 1×10−6 mbar was achieved prior to the deposition. Three different ...

  3. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because cadmium telluride thin film, showing from top to bottom: glass, transparent conducting oxide (thin layer

  4. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriaelae, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C 60 ), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C 60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 x 10 3 Ω m and 3 x 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 x 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 x 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  5. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  6. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  7. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  8. Thermal Expansion of Self-Organized and Shear-Oriented Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairo A. Diaz; Xiawa Wu; Ashlie Martini; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon

    2013-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was characterized using novel experimental techniques complemented by molecular simulations. The characteristic birefringence exhibited by CNC films was utilized to calculate the in-plane CTE of selforganized and shear-oriented self-standing CNC films from room temperature to 100 °...

  9. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Noh, Hyunwoo; Singh, Vivek; Cha, Jennifer N.; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-02-01

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers.

  10. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Singh, Vivek [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Noh, Hyunwoo [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Cha, Jennifer N. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program and Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: pnagpal@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 3415 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, 2445 Kittredge Loop, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers.

  11. Charge transport through exciton shelves in cadmium chalcogenide quantum dot-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Singh, Vivek; Noh, Hyunwoo; Cha, Jennifer N.; Nagpal, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dot (QD), or semiconductor nanocrystal, thin films are being explored for making solution-processable devices due to their size- and shape-tunable bandgap and discrete higher energy electronic states. While DNA has been extensively used for the self-assembly of nanocrystals, it has not been investigated for the simultaneous conduction of multiple energy charges or excitons via exciton shelves (ES) formed in QD-DNA nano-bioelectronic thin films. Here, we present studies on charge conduction through exciton shelves, which are formed via chemically coupled QDs and DNA, between electronic states of the QDs and the HOMO-LUMO levels in the complementary DNA nucleobases. While several challenges need to be addressed in optimizing the formation of devices using QD-DNA thin films, a higher charge collection efficiency for hot-carriers and our detailed investigations of charge transport mechanism in these thin films highlight their potential for applications in nano-bioelectronic devices and biological transducers

  12. Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu2ZnSnSe4 and Cu2CdSnSe4 nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Ming-Hung; Fu, Yaw-Shyan; Shih, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Cheng; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Lin, Wen-Tai

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe) and Cu 2 CdSnSe 4 (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 °C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu 2 Se, and Cu 2 SnSe 3 , and Cu 2 SnSe 3 and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. - Highlights: • Hydrazine enhances the growth of pure Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 and Cu 2 CdSnSe 4 nanocrystals. • The nanocrystals can be fabricated to films by spin coating without annealing. • This solvothermal processing is promising for the fabrication of thin film devices

  13. Effects of hydrazine on the solvothermal synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals for particle-based deposition of films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ming-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan, E-mail: ysfu@mail.nutn.edu.tw [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan 700 (China); Shih, Cheng-Hung; Kuo, Chun-Cheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan 701 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The effects of hydrazine on the synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} (CZTSe) and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} (CCTSe) nanocrystals in an autoclave as a function of temperature and time were explored. On heating at 190 °C for 24-72 h, pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals could readily grow in the hydrazine-added solution, while in the hydrazine-free solution the intermediate phases such as ZnSe, Cu{sub 2}Se, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} and CdSe associated with the CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals grew, respectively. This result reveals that hydrazine can speed up the synthesis of pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals via a solvothermal process. The mechanisms for the hydrazine-enhanced growth of CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were discussed. The pure CZTSe and CCTSe nanocrystals were subsequently fabricated to the smooth films by spin coating without further annealing in selenium atmosphere. This processing may be beneficial to the fabrication of the absorber layer for solar cells and thermoelectric devices. - Highlights: • Hydrazine enhances the growth of pure Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}CdSnSe{sub 4} nanocrystals. • The nanocrystals can be fabricated to films by spin coating without annealing. • This solvothermal processing is promising for the fabrication of thin film devices.

  14. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  15. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  16. Progress in thin film techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb 3 Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb 3 Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb 3 Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.)

  17. High temperature superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correra, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on superconducting oxides is the main focus of the contributors in this volume. Several aspects of the thin film field from fundamental properties to applications are examined. Interesting results for the Bi system are also reviewed. The 132 papers, including 8 invited, report mainly on the 1-2-3 system, indicating that the Y-Ba-Cu-O and related compounds are still the most intensively studied materials in this field. The volume attests to the significant progress that has been made in this field, as well as reporting on the challenging problems that still remain to be solved. The papers are presented in five chapters, subsequently on properties, film growth and processing, substrates and multilayers, structural characterization, and applications

  18. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  19. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  20. Fabrication of multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiOxGeNy films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Green, Martin A.; Conibeer, Gavin; Cho, Eun-Chel; Huang Yidan; Perez-Wurfl, Ivan; Flynn, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Multilayered Ge nanocrystals embedded in SiO x GeN y films have been fabricated on Si substrate by a (Ge + SiO 2 )/SiO x GeN y superlattice approach, using a rf magnetron sputtering technique with a Ge + SiO 2 composite target and subsequent thermal annealing in N 2 ambient at 750 deg. C for 30 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement indicated the formation of Ge nanocrystals with an average size estimated to be 5.4 nm. Raman scattering spectra showed a peak of the Ge-Ge vibrational mode downward shifted to 299.4 cm -1 , which was caused by quantum confinement of phonons in the Ge nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ge nanocrystals were confined in (Ge + SiO 2 ) layers. This superlattice approach significantly improved both the size uniformity of Ge nanocrystals and their uniformity of spacing on the 'Z' growth direction

  1. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  2. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  3. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  4. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Field ion microscope studies on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleru, A.; Scortaru, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the progress made in the last years in FIM application to thin film structure studies and adatom properties important in the nucleation stage of thin film growth: substrate binding and mobility of individual adatoms, behaviour of adatoms clusters is presented. (author)

  6. Influence of high loading of cellulose nanocrystals in polyacrylonitrile composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Luo; Huibin Chang; Amir A. Bakhtiary Davijani; H. Clive Liu; Po-Hsiang Wang; Robert J. Moon; Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile-co-methacrylic acid (PAN-co-MAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) composite films were produced with up to 40 wt% CNC loading through the solution casting method. The rheological properties of the solution/suspensions and the structural, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the resulting films were investigated. The viscosity of the composite...

  7. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  8. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  9. BDS thin film damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Thomas, Michael D.; Griffin, Andrew J.

    2008-10-01

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  10. Polymorphous silicon thin films produced in dusty plasmas: application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chaabane, N; Kharchenko, A V; Tchakarov, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize our current understanding of the optimization of PIN solar cells produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from silane-hydrogen mixtures. To increase the deposition rate, the discharge is operated under plasma conditions close to powder formation, where silicon nanocrystals contribute to the deposition of so-called polymorphous silicon thin films. We show that the increase in deposition rate can be achieved via an accurate control of the plasma parameters. However, this also results in a highly defective interface in the solar cells due to the bombardment of the P-layer by positively charged nanocrystals during the deposition of the I-layer. We show that decreasing the ion energy by increasing the total pressure or by using silane-helium mixtures allows us to increase both the deposition rate and the solar cells efficiency, as required for cost effective thin film photovoltaics

  11. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  12. Bionanocomposite films based on plasticized PLA-PHB/cellulose nanocrystal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, M P; Fortunati, E; Dominici, F; López, J; Kenny, J M

    2015-05-05

    Optically transparent plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) based bionanocomposite films intended for food packaging were prepared by melt blending. Materials were plasticized with 15wt% of acetyl(tributyl citrate) (ATBC) to improve the material processability and to obtain flexibile films. Poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was used to increase PLA crystallinity. The thermal stability of the PLA-PHB blends was improved by the addition of 5 wt% of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) or modified cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) synthesized from microcrystalline cellulose. The combination of ATBC and cellulose nanocrystals, mainly the better dispersed CNCs, improved the interaction between PLA and PHB. Thus, an improvement on the oxygen barrier and stretchability was achieved in PLA-PHB-CNCs-ATBC which also displayed somewhat UV light blocking effect. All bionanocomposite films presented appropriate disintegration in compost suggesting their possible applications as biodegradable packaging materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Amorphous Silicon-Germanium Films with Embedded Nanocrystals for Thermal Detectors with Very High Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Calleja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have optimized the deposition conditions of amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD reactor, working at a standard frequency of 13.56 MHz. The objective was to produce films with very large Temperature Coefficient of Resistance (TCR, which is a signature of the sensitivity in thermal detectors (microbolometers. Morphological, electrical, and optical characterization were performed in the films, and we found optimal conditions for obtaining films with very high values of thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR = 7.9% K−1. Our results show that amorphous silicon-germanium films with embedded nanocrystals can be used as thermosensitive films in high performance infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs used in commercial thermal cameras.

  14. A probabilistic model of the electron transport in films of nanocrystals arranged in a cubic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, Ilka [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Scotognella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.scotognella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanocrystal (NC) films, starting from colloidal dispersion, is a very attractive topic in condensed matter physics community. NC films can be employed for transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells. For this reason the understanding of the film conductivity is of major importance. In this paper we describe a probabilistic model that allows the prediction of the conductivity of NC films, in this case of a cubic lattice of Lead Selenide or Cadmium Selenide NCs. The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. The results are compared to experimental data reported in literature. - Highlights: • Colloidal nanocrystal (NC) film conductivity is a topic of major importance. • We present a probabilistic model to predict the electron conductivity in NC films. • The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. • We found a good agreement between the model and data reported in literature.

  15. One-step synthesis of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Seishi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigates the preparation of PbSe-ZnSe composite thin films by simultaneous hot-wall deposition (HWD from multiple resources. The XRD result reveals that the solubility limit of Pb in ZnSe is quite narrow, less than 1 mol%, with obvious phase-separation in the composite thin films. A nanoscale elemental mapping of the film containing 5 mol% PbSe indicates that isolated PbSe nanocrystals are dispersed in the ZnSe matrix. The optical absorption edge of the composite thin films shifts toward the low-photon-energy region as the PbSe content increases. The use of a phase-separating PbSe-ZnSe system and HWD techniques enables simple production of the composite package.

  16. Preparation of CIGS thin films by HiPIMS or DC sputtering and various selenization processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří; Hubička, Zdeněk; Kšírová, Petra; Kment, Štěpán; Brunclíková, Michaela; Kohout, Michal; Čada, Martin; Darveau, S.A.; Exstrom, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2013), s. 314-319 ISSN 1203-8407 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12045 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CIGS * HIPIMS * selenization * nanocrystals * solar energy * sputtering * thin films Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2013 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/stn/jaots/2013/00000016/00000002/art00015

  17. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  18. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  19. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  20. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  1. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  2. Use of CdS quantum dot-functionalized cellulose nanocrystal films for anti-counterfeiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Lai, C.; Marchewka, R.; Berry, R. M.; Tam, K. C.

    2016-07-01

    Structural colors and photoluminescence have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications. We report for the first time the use of CdS quantum dot (QD)-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as building blocks to fabricate nanothin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly for anti-counterfeiting applications. Both negatively- and positively-charged CNC/QD nanohybrids with a high colloidal stability and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared. The controllable LBL coating process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The rigid structure of CNCs leads to nanoporous structured films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates with high transmittance (above 70%) over the entire range of visible light and also resulted in increased hydrophilicity (contact angles of ~40 degrees). Nanothin films on PET substrates showed good flexibility and enhanced stability in both water and ethanol. The modified PET films with structural colors from thin-film interference and photoluminescence from QDs can be used in anti-counterfeiting applications.Structural colors and photoluminescence have been widely used for anti-counterfeiting and security applications. We report for the first time the use of CdS quantum dot (QD)-functionalized cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as building blocks to fabricate nanothin films via layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly for anti-counterfeiting applications. Both negatively- and positively-charged CNC/QD nanohybrids with a high colloidal stability and a narrow particle size distribution were prepared. The controllable LBL coating process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry. The rigid structure of CNCs leads to nanoporous structured films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates with high transmittance (above 70%) over the entire range of visible light and also resulted in increased hydrophilicity (contact angles of ~40 degrees). Nanothin films

  3. Processing and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals/Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Sullivan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA films. The films are fabricated via melt compounding and melt fiber spinning followed by compression molding. Film fracture morphology, thermal properties, crystallization behavior, thermo-mechanical behavior, and mechanical behavior were determined as a function of CNC content using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and tensile testing. Film crystallinity increases with increasing CNC content indicating CNC act as nucleating agents, promoting crystallization. Furthermore, the addition of CNC increased the film storage modulus and slightly broadened the glass transition region.

  4. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  5. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  6. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  7. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  8. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  9. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  10. The radiation response of mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzini, Ayelén M.; Alurralde, Martin A. [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Giménez, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial - CMNB, Av. General Paz 5445, 1650 San Martín, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: vluca@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Av. General Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-12-15

    The next generation of nuclear systems will require materials capable of withstanding hostile chemical, physical and radiation environments over long time-frames. Aside from its chemical and physical stability, crystalline zirconia is one of the most radiation tolerant materials known. Here we report the first ever study of the radiation response of nanocrystalline and mesoporous zirconia and Ce{sup 3+}-stabilized nanocrystalline zirconia (Ce{sub 0.1}Zr{sub 0.9}O{sub 2}) thin films supported on silicon wafers. Zirconia films prepared using the block copolymer Brij-58 as the template had a thickness of around 60–80 nm. In the absence of a stabilizing trivalent cation they consisted of monoclinic and tetragonal zirconia nanocrystals with diameters in the range 8–10 nm. Films stabilized with Ce{sup 3+} contained only the tetragonal phase. The thin films were irradiated with iodine ions of energies of 70 MeV and 132 keV at low fluences (10{sup 13} - 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}) corresponding to doses of 0.002 and 1.73 dpa respectively, and at 180 keV and high fluences (2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) corresponding to 82.4 dpa. The influence of heavy ion irradiation on the nanocrystalline structure was monitored through Rietveld analysis of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) patterns recorded at angles close to the critical angle to ensure minimum contribution to the diffraction pattern from the substrate. Irradiation of the mesoporous nanocrystalline zirconia thin films with 70 MeV iodine ions, for which electronic energy loss is dominant, resulted in slight changes in phase composition and virtually no change in crystallographic parameters as determined by Rietveld analysis. Iodine ion bombardment in the nuclear energy loss regime (132–180 keV) at low fluences did not provoke significant changes in phase composition or crystallographic parameters. However, at 180 keV and high fluences the monoclinic phase was totally eliminated from the GIXRD

  11. Concentration dependent carriers dynamics in CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals film with transient grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinghui; Wang, Yanting; Dev Verma, Sachin; Tan, Mingrui; Liu, Qinghui; Yuan, Qilin; Sui, Ning; Kang, Zhihui; Zhou, Qiang; Zhang, Han-Zhuang

    2017-05-01

    The concentration dependence of the carrier dynamics is a key parameter to describe the photo-physical properties of semiconductor films. Here, we investigate the carrier dynamics in the CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal film by employing the transient grating (TG) technique with continuous bias light. The concentration of initial carriers is determined by the average number of photons per nanocrystals induced by pump light (⟨N⟩). The multi-body interaction would appear and accelerate the TG dynamics with ⟨N⟩. When ⟨N⟩ is more than 3.0, the TG dynamics slightly changes, which implies that the Auger recombination would be the highest order multi-body interaction in carrier recombination dynamics. The concentration of non-equilibrium carriers in the film is controlled by the average number of photons per nanocrystals excited by continuous bias light (⟨nne⟩). Increasing ⟨nne⟩ would improve the trapping-detrapping process by filling the trapping state, which would accelerate the carrier diffusion and add the complexity of the mono-molecular recombination mechanism. The results should be useful to further understand the mechanism of carrier dynamics in the CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystal film and of great importance for the operation of the corresponding optoelectronic devices.

  12. Composite Films Formed by Cellulose nanocrystals and Latex Nanoparticles: Optical, Structural, and Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, Brandon McRae

    This thesis describes the preparation of iridescent, birefringent, composite films composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), latex nanoparticles (NPs) and a NP crosslinker; hexanediamine (HDA). First, aqueous suspensions were prepared with varying quantities of CNCs, NPs and HDA before equilibrating for one week. The cholesteric (Ch) phase was then cast and dried into a film. The optical, structural and mechanical properties of the film was analyzed. Second, films with identical compositions of CNCs, NPs, and HDA were fabricated in three different ways to yield films of different morphology, (i) fast drying of an isotropic suspension, yielding an isotropic film, (ii) slow drying of an isotropic suspension, yielding a partially Ch films, (iii) slow drying of an equilibrated suspension, yielding a highly Ch film. The optical and mechanical properties of the films was analyzed.

  13. The Antifungal Activity of Functionalized Chitin Nanocrystals in Poly (Lactid Acid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier M. Salaberria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As, in the market, poly (lactic acid (PLA is the most used polymer as an alternative to conventional plastics, and as functionalized chitin nanocrystals (CHNC can provide structural and bioactive properties, their combination sounds promising in the preparation of functional nanocomposite films for sustainable packaging. Chitin nanocrystals were successfully modified via acylation using anhydride acetic and dodecanoyl chloride acid to improve their compatibility with the matrix, PLA. The nanocomposite films were prepared by extrusion/compression approach using different concentrations of both sets of functionalized CHNC. This investigation brings forward that both sets of modified CHNC act as functional agents, i.e., they slightly improved the hydrophobic character of the PLA nanocomposite films, and, very importantly, they also enhanced their antifungal activity. Nonetheless, the nanocomposite films prepared with the CHNC modified with dodecanoyl chloride acid presented the best properties.

  14. Structural and biocompatible characterization of TiC/a:C nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balázsi, K.; Vandrovcová, M.; Bačáková, L.; Balázsi, Cs.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, sputtered TiC/amorphous C thin films have been developed in order to be applied as potential barrier coating for interfering of Ti ions from pure Ti or Ti alloy implants. Our experiments were based on magnetron sputtering method, because the vacuum deposition provides great flexibility for manipulating material chemistry and structure, leading to films and coatings with special properties. The films have been deposited on silicon (001) substrates with 300 nm thick oxidized silicon sublayer at 200 °C deposition temperature as model substrate. Transmission electron microscopy has been used for structural investigations. Thin films consisted of ∼ 20 nm TiC columnar crystals embedded by 5 nm thin amorphous carbon matrix. MG63 osteoblast cells have been applied for in vitro study of TiC nanocomposites. The cell culture tests give strong evidence of thin films biocompatibility. Highlights: ► The main goal of this work is the relatively easy preparation of nanocomposite TiC thin films by dc magnetron sputtering. ► TEM and HREM were applied for structural characterization of columnar TiC nanocrystals and amorphous carbon matrix. ► The biocompatibility of films was showed by MG63 human osteoblast like cells during 1, 3 and 7 days seeding

  15. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  16. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  17. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  18. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  19. Templated Solid-State Dewetting of Thin Silicon Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Delobbe, Anne; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Thin film dewetting can be efficiently exploited for the implementation of functionalized surfaces over very large scales. Although the formation of sub-micrometer sized crystals via solid-state dewetting represents a viable method for the fabrication of quantum dots and optical meta-surfaces, there are several limitations related to the intrinsic features of dewetting in a crystalline medium. Disordered spatial organization, size, and shape fluctuations are relevant issues not properly addressed so far. This study reports on the deterministic nucleation and precise positioning of Si- and SiGe-based nanocrystals by templated solid-state dewetting of thin silicon films. The dewetting dynamics is guided by pattern size and shape taking full control over number, size, shape, and relative position of the particles (islands dimensions and relative distances are in the hundreds nm range and fluctuate ≈11% for the volumes and ≈5% for the positioning). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO{sub 2} layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M. [CEMES-CNRS and Université de Toulouse, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F. [IBS, Rue G Imbert Prolongée, ZI Peynier-Rousset, 13790 Peynier (France); Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E. [NCSRD, Terma Patriarchou Gregoriou, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A. [ICube, 23 Rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-12-16

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO{sub 2} films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories.

  1. Controlled fabrication of Si nanocrystal delta-layers in thin SiO2 layers by plasma immersion ion implantation for nonvolatile memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonafos, C.; Ben-Assayag, G.; Groenen, J.; Carrada, M.; Spiegel, Y.; Torregrosa, F.; Normand, P.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetanakis, E.; Sahu, B. S.; Slaoui, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) is a promising alternative to beam line implantation to produce a single layer of nanocrystals (NCs) in the gate insulator of metal-oxide semiconductor devices. We report herein the fabrication of two-dimensional Si-NCs arrays in thin SiO 2 films using PIII and rapid thermal annealing. The effect of plasma and implantation conditions on the structural properties of the NC layers is examined by transmission electron microscopy. A fine tuning of the NCs characteristics is possible by optimizing the oxide thickness, implantation energy, and dose. Electrical characterization revealed that the PIII-produced-Si NC structures are appealing for nonvolatile memories

  2. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  3. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  4. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  5. Formation of nanocrystals embedded in a silicon nitride film at a low temperature ({<=}200 deg. C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan [Department of Nano Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Wan-Shick [Department of Nano Science and Technology, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: wshong@uos.ac.kr

    2008-12-15

    Silicon-rich silicon nitride films with embedded silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) were fabricated successfully on plastic substrates at a low temperature by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. A mixture of SiH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2} was used as a source gas. Formation of the silicon nanocrystals was analyzed by photoluminescence spectra and was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The formation of Si NCs required an H{sub 2}/SiH{sub 4} mixture ratio that was higher than four.

  6. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  7. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  8. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... of the device. At the same time, metal films of different thicknesses are needed for different applications and, since these films are polycrystalline, their internal properties and surface roughness can greatly vary from one thickness to another. In this work, we study, using atomic force microscopy...

  9. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  10. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  11. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  12. Effect of Deposition Time on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of Cupric Oxide Thin Films Synthesized via Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw Chong Siang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deposition time on the physicochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of cupric oxide (CuO thin films synthesized via electrodeposition method. Firstly, the electrodeposition of amorphous CuO films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO working electrodes with varying deposition time between 5 and 30 min was carried out, followed by annealing treatment at 500 °C. Resultant nanocrystalline CuO thin films were characterised using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, photocurrent density, and photoluminescence measurements. Through FE-SEM analysis, it was observed that the surface of thin films was composed of irregular-sized CuO nanocrystals. A smaller CuO nanocrystals size will lead to a higher photoactivity due to the increase in overall catalytic surface area. In addition, the smaller CuO nanocrystals size will prolongs the electron-hole recombination rate due to the increase in copious amount of surface defects. From this study, it was revealed that the relationship between deposition time and CuO film thickness was non-linear. This could be due to the detachment of CuO thin films from the FTO surface at an increasing amount of CuO mass being deposited. It was observed that the amount of light absorbed by CuO thin films increased with film thickness until a certain extent whereby, any further increase in the film thickness will result in a reduction of light photon penetration. Therefore, the CuO nanocrystals size and film thickness have to be compromised in order to yield a higher catalytic surface area and a lower rate of surface charge recombination. Finally, it was found that the deposition time of 15 min resulted in an average CuO nanocrystals size of 73.7 nm, optimum film thickness of 0.73 μm, and corresponding photocurrent density of 0.23 mA/cm2 at the potential bias of - 0.3 V (versus Ag/AgCl. The PL spectra for the deposition time of 15 min has the lowest

  13. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  14. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  15. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  16. Thermal oxidation of Ni films for p-type thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jie; Wang, Xinghui; Zhang, Qing; Li, Jingqi; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    p-Type nanocrystal NiO-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated by simply oxidizing thin Ni films at temperatures as low as 400 °C. The highest field-effect mobility in a linear region and the current on-off ratio are found to be 5.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.2 × 103, respectively. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and electrical performances of the TFTs with "top contact" and "bottom contact" channels suggest that the upper parts of the Ni films are clearly oxidized. In contrast, the lower parts in contact with the gate dielectric are partially oxidized to form a quasi-discontinuous Ni layer, which does not fully shield the gate electric field, but still conduct the source and drain current. This simple method for producing p-type TFTs may be promising for the next-generation oxide-based electronic applications. © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  17. Formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films from metal sulfide and selenide precursor nanocrystals by gas-phase selenization, an in-situ XRD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capon, B., E-mail: boris.capon@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dierick, R. [Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hens, Z. [Physics and Chemistry of Nanostructures, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S3, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Center for Nano and Biophotonics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Detavernier, C. [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2016-08-01

    In this work phase pure CuInSe{sub 2} thin flms were obtained by selenization of ternary CuInSe{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals and mixtures of binary nanocrystals such as CuS, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. The temperature of the selenium source was kept at 400 °C during selenization. Monitoring the process using in-situ x-ray diffraction, the effect of selenization on the phase formation and grain growth in the precursor film was investigated. Whereas CuInSe{sub 2} and CuInS{sub 2} nanocrystals exhibit little grain growth, we found that mixtures of binary nanocrystals can show significant sintering depending on the reaction conditions. For the mixture of CuS and In{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanocrystals, the crystallinity and the morphology of the obtained fims strongly depends on the Cu/In ratio, with a Cu excess strongly promoting grain growth. With mixtures of Cu{sub 2}Se and In{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystals the selenium partial pressure plays a crucial role. Selenium evaporation from the mixed compounds results in CuInSe{sub 2} films composed of relatively small crystallites. Higher selenium partial pressures however resulted in improved sintering. Incomplete propagation of the selenization reaction through the layer was observed though, only leading to a well sintered CuInSe{sub 2} top layer above a fine grained bottom layer. - Highlights: • Different types of colloidal nanocrystals were used as precursors to obtain CuInSe{sub 2} films by gas-phase selenization. • In-situ XRD was used to study the effect of selenization on the phase formation and grain growth in the precursor films. • For a mixture of binary metal sulfides the crystallinity and the morphology strongly depend on the Cu/In ratio. • Higher selenium partial pressures result in improved sintering for a mixture of binary metal selenides.

  18. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  19. Magnetic characterisation of longitudinal thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dova, P.

    1998-09-01

    Magnetic characterisation techniques, as applied to longitudinal thin film media, have been investigated. These included the study of the differentials of the remanence curves, the delta-M plot and the examination of the critical volumes. Several thin film structures, which are currently used or are being considered for future media applications, have been examined using these techniques. Most of the films were Co-alloys with the exception of a set of Barium ferrite films. Both monolayer and multilayer structures were studied. It was found that the study of activation volumes provides a better insight into the reversal mechanisms of magnetic media, especially in the case of complex structures such as multilayer films and films with bicrystal microstructure. Furthermore, an evaluation study of different methods of determining critical volumes showed that the method using time dependence measurements and the micromagnetic approach is the most appropriate. The magnetic characteristics of the thin film media under investigation were correlated with their microstructure and, where possible, with their noise performance. Magnetic force microscopy was also used for acquiring quasi-domain images in the ac-demagnetised state. It was found that in all Co-alloy films the dominant intergranular coupling is magnetising in nature, the level of which is governed by the Cr content in the magnetic layer. In the case of laminated media it was found that when non-magnetic spacers are used, the nature of the interlayer coupling depends on the spacer thickness. In double layer structures with no spacer, the top layer replicates the crystallographic texture of the bottom layer, and the overall film properties are a combination of the two layers. In bicrystal films the coupling is determined by the Cr segregation in the grain boundaries. Furthermore, the presence of stacking faults in bicrystal films deteriorates their thermal stability, but can be prevented by improving the epitaxial

  20. Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Zhang, Pengwei; Tian, Xinlong; Cheng, Guo; Xie, Yinghao; Zhang, Huangchu; Zeng, Xiangfu; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •F and Sn co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. •The effects of different F doping concentrations were investigated. •The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. •The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. •The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Highly transparent and conducting fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) co-doped ZnO (FTZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol–gel processing. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with various F doping concentrations. SEM images showed that the hexagonal ZnO crystals were well-arranged on the glass substrates and the HRTEM images indicated that the individual nanocrystals are highly oriented and exhibited a perfect lattice structure. Owing to its high carrier concentration and mobility, as well as good crystal quality, a minimum resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm was obtained from the FTZO thin film with 3% F doping, and the average optical transmittance in the entire visible wavelength region was higher than 90%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the substitution of Zn 2+ by Sn ions and Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) observed for pure and FTZO thin films suggested the films exhibit a good crystallinity with a very low defect concentration

  1. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  2. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  3. Thin films for the manipulation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegari, Angela; Sytchkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of light is typically accomplished by a series of optical surfaces on which the incident beam is reflected, or through which the beam is transmitted. Thin film coatings help to modify the behavior of such surfaces for obtaining the desired result: antireflection coatings to reduce reflection losses, high-reflectance mirrors, filters to divide or combine beams of different wavelengths, and many other types. The amount of light that is transmitted or reflected depends on the optical parameters of the materials and on interference phenomena in thin-film structures. Dedicated software is available to design the proper coating for each requirement. There are several applications of optical thin films, many of them are useful in the everyday life, many others are dedicated to scientific purposes, as will be described in this paper [it

  4. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  5. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  6. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  7. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  8. Bond length contraction in Au nanocrystals formed by ion implantation into thin SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, P.; Johannessen, B.; Giraud, V.; Cheung, A.; Glover, C.J.; Azevedo, G. de M; Foran, G.J.; Ridgway, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Au nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by ion implantation into thin SiO 2 and annealing were investigated by means of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A bond length contraction was observed and can be explained by surface tension effects in a simple liquid-drop model. Such results are consistent with previous reports on nonembedded NCs implying a negligible influence of the SiO 2 matrix. Cumulant analysis of the EXAFS data suggests surface reconstruction or relaxation involving a further shortened bond length. A deviation from the octahedral closed shell structure is apparent for NCs of size 25 A

  9. Transparent ‘solution’ of ultrathin magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals for flexible and transparent nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Sun, Qian; Chen, Bo; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Jian-Feng; Wu, Xi; Zou, Hai-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Transparent solutions of nanocrystals exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the synthesis of transparent nanocrystal solutions of magnesium hydroxide (MH) with wide applications is yet to be realized. Here, we report a facile two-step process, which includes a direct reactive precipitation in alcohol phase instead of aqueous phase combined with a successive surface modification, to prepare transparent alcohol solutions containing lamellar MH nanocrystals with an average size of 52 nm and an ultrathin thickness of 1–2 nm, which is the thinnest MH nanoplatelet reported in the literatures. Further, highly flexible and transparent nanocomposite films are fabricated with a solution mixing method by adding the transparent MH nanocrystal solutions into PVB solution. Considering the simplicity of the fabrication process, high transparency and good flexibility, this MH/polymer nanocomposite film is promising for flame-resistant applications in plastic electronics and optical devices with high transparency, such as flexible displays, optical filters, and flexible solar cells. (paper)

  10. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  11. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent ν=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed

  12. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  13. Novel chemical analysis for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50A- and 125A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (θ t ) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK α line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when θ t = 0deg-3deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis. (author)

  14. Thermoelectric Properties of Nanograined Si-Ge-Au Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Shunsuke; Ekino, Satoshi; Inukai, Manabu; Omprakash, Muthusamy; Adachi, Masahiro; Kiyama, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Takeuchi, Tsunehiro

    2018-06-01

    Conditions to achieve extremely large Seebeck coefficient and extremely small thermal conductivity in Si-Ge-Au thin films formed of nanosized grains precipitated in amorphous matrix have been investigated. We employed molecular beam deposition to prepare Si1- x Ge x Au y thin films on sapphire substrate. The deposited films were annealed under nitrogen gas atmosphere at 300°C to 500°C for 15 min to 30 min. Nanocrystals dispersed in amorphous matrix were clearly observed by transmission electron microscopy. We did not observe anomalously large Seebeck coefficient, but very low thermal conductivity of nearly 1.0 W K-1 m-1 was found at around 0.2 Si-Ge bulk material for which dimensionless figure of merit of ZT ≈ 1 was reported at high temperature.

  15. Visible photoenhanced current-voltage characteristics of Au : TiO2 nanocomposite thin films as photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N; Amiri, M; Moshfegh, A Z

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of annealing temperature and concentration of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrochemical properties of sol-gel deposited Au : TiO 2 nanocomposite thin films is studied. Various gold concentrations have been added to the TiO 2 thin films and their properties are compared. All the deposited samples are annealed at different temperatures. The optical density spectra of the films show the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of the Au : TiO 2 films decreases with increasing Au concentration. The crystalline structure of the nanocomposite films is studied by x-ray diffractometry indicating the formation of gold nanocrystals in the anatase TiO 2 nanocrystalline thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the presence of gold in the metallic state and the formation of TiO 2 are stoichiometric. The photoelectrochemical properties of the Au : TiO 2 samples are characterized using a compartment cell containing H 2 SO 4 and KOH as cathodic and anodic electrolytes, respectively. It is found that the addition of Au nanoparticles in TiO 2 films enhances the photoresponse of the layer and the addition of gold nanocrystals with an optimum value of 5 mol% resulted in the highest photoelectrochemical activity. Moreover, the photoresponse of the samples is also enhanced with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  16. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  17. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  18. Mechanical integrity of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical considerations starting with the initial film deposition including questions of adhesion and grading the interface are reviewed. Growth stresses, limiting thickness, stress relief, control aging, and creep are described

  19. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  20. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses ≤5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature T PEB ≥ 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low T PEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced T PEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application

  1. Thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, B.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y. [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poirier, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br

    2008-01-30

    Vitreous samples containing high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% M) have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), perfilometry, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), M-Lines and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In this work, experimental parameters were established to obtain stable thin films showing a chemical composition close to the glass precursor composition and with a high concentration of WO{sub 3}. These amorphous thin films of about 4 {mu}m in thickness exhibit a deep blue coloration but they can be bleached by thermal treatment near the glass transition temperature. Such bleached films show several guided modes in the visible region and have a high refractive index. Controlled crystallization was realized and thus it was possible to obtain WO{sub 3} microcrystals in the amorphous phase.

  2. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S; Ridge, Claron J.; Rö tzer, Marian David; Zwaschka, Gregor; Braun, Thomas; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Schweinberger, Florian Frank; Gü nther, Sebastian; Heiz, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly

  3. Optical characterization of niobium pentoxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Nb 2 O 5 were obtained by sol-gel method using ultrasonic irradiation and deposited by dip-coating technique. After calcination at temperatures superior than 500 deg C these films (300 nm thick) were characterized by cyclic voltametry and cronoamperometry. The memory measurements, color efficiency, optical density as a function of wave number and applied potential were effectuated to determine their electrochromic properties. The study of electrochromic properties of these films shows that the insertion process of lithium is reversible and changes their coloration from transparent (T=80%) to dark blue (T=20%). (author)

  4. Electrical resistivity of ferrimagnetic magnetite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Yogi, A.; Kaurav, N.; Gupta, R.P.; Phase, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have grown Fe 3 O 4 (III) epitaxial film on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition, with thickness of 130 nm. X-ray diffraction studies of magnetite show the spinel cubic structure of film with preferential (III) orientation. The electrical resistivity measurement demonstrates that the properties of thin film of magnetite are basically similar to those of bulk magnetite and clearly shows semiconductor-insulator transition at Verwey transition temperature (≅140 K). We have found higher Verwey transition temperature when compared with earlier reports on similar type of system. Possible causes for increase in transition temperature are discussed. (author)

  5. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  6. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  7. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    unsatisfactory. To detect the electroopic effects of thin films deposited on opaque substrates a waveguide refractometry of category 3 was reported. An advantage...of the waveguide refractometry is its capability of resolving the change in ordinary index from the change in the extraordinary index. Some successes

  8. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  9. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...

  10. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  11. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  12. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A/...

  13. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance

  14. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  15. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  16. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s -1 and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.)

  17. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  18. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Chiara; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Blossey, Ralf; Becker, Juergen; Gruen, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes

  19. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  20. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate Sch. of Eng.

    1998-09-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s{sup -1} and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.) 12 refs.

  1. Preservation and release dose of helium implanted in nanocrystal titanium film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Xinggui; Luo Shunzhong; Peng Shuming; Zheng Sixiao; Liu Zhongyang; Wang Peilu; Liao Xiaodong; Liu Ning

    2003-01-01

    Helium concentration profile, preservation dose and release rate from a nanocrystal titanium film implanted with helium at an energy of 100 keV and dose of 2.2 x 10 18 cm -2 are measured by proton Rutherford backscattering technique in a range from room temperature to 400 degree C. The implanted helium may be stably preserved up to the 68 percent after keeping a long time of 210 d in the nanocrystal titanium film at the room temperature environment, and the He-Ti atomic ratio reaches to 52.6%. When the temperature of specimen increases to 100 degree C, the helium concentration can be preserved to 89.6% of the keeping helium dose at room temperature and He-Ti atomic ratio reaches 44%. Even if the specimen temperature up to 400 degree C, the helium concentration still can be preserved to 32.6% of the keeping helium dose at room temperature and the He-Ti atomic ratio is 17.1%. Possible mechanism of helium effectively preserved in the nanocrystal titanium film is discussed based on the energy stability viewpoint

  2. Tunable d-Limonene Permeability in Starch-Based Nanocomposite Films Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhu, Jie

    2018-01-31

    In order to control d-limonene permeability, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to regulate starch-based film multiscale structures. The effect of sphere-like cellulose nanocrystal (CS) and rod-like cellulose nanocrystal (CR) on starch molecular interaction, short-range molecular conformation, crystalline structure, and micro-ordered aggregated region structure were systematically discussed. CNC aspect ratio and content were proved to be independent variables to control d-limonene permeability via film-structure regulation. New hydrogen bonding formation and increased hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) relative crystallinity could be the reason for the lower d-limonene permeability compared with tortuous path model approximation. More hydrogen bonding formation, higher HPS relative crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered aggregated region in CS0.5 and CR2 could explain the lower d-limonene permeability than CS2 and CR0.5, respectively. This study provided new insight for the control of the flavor release from starch-based films, which favored its application in biodegradable food packaging and flavor encapsulation.

  3. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  4. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  5. Probing surface states in PbS nanocrystal films using pentacene field effect transistors: controlling carrier concentration and charge transport in pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoungnam; Whitham, Kevin; Bian, Kaifu; Lim, Yee-Fun; Hanrath, Tobias

    2014-12-21

    We used a bilayer field effect transistor (FET) consisting of a thin PbS nanocrystals (NCs) film interfaced with vacuum-deposited pentacene to probe trap states in NCs. We interpret the observed threshold voltage shift in context of charge carrier trapping by PbS NCs and relate the magnitude of the threshold voltage shift to the number of trapped carriers. We explored a series of NC surface ligands to modify the interface between PbS NCs and pentacene and demonstrate the impact of interface chemistry on charge carrier density and the FET mobility in a pentacene FET.

  6. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  7. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  8. Room-temperature synthesis and characterization of porous CeO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Dewei; Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    CeO{sub 2} thin films with hexagonal-shaped pores were successfully prepared by a facile electrodeposition at room temperature combined with an etching process. By using electrodeposited ZnO nanorods as a soft template, the morphology, and microstructure of the CeO{sub 2} could be controlled. TEM observation indicated that as-prepared CeO{sub 2} film is composed of nanocrystals with average size of several nanometers, while XPS analysis showed the coexistence of Ce{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 4+} in the film. The photoluminescence properties of CeO{sub 2} films were measured, which showed much higher sensitivity compared to bare substrate. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Room-temperature synthesis and characterization of porous CeO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Dewei; Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    CeO 2 thin films with hexagonal-shaped pores were successfully prepared by a facile electrodeposition at room temperature combined with an etching process. By using electrodeposited ZnO nanorods as a soft template, the morphology, and microstructure of the CeO 2 could be controlled. TEM observation indicated that as-prepared CeO 2 film is composed of nanocrystals with average size of several nanometers, while XPS analysis showed the coexistence of Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ in the film. The photoluminescence properties of CeO 2 films were measured, which showed much higher sensitivity compared to bare substrate. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Efficient solution route to transparent ZnO semiconductor films using colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suehiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanocrystals (NCs were synthesized by heating Zn (II acetylacetonate in oleic acid/oleylamine in the presence of 1,2-hexadecanediol at 220 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements revealed the formation of monodispersed ZnO NCs of ca. 7 nm. ZnO NC assembled films were fabricated on a glass substrate by deposition with the colloidal ZnO NCs dispersed in toluene. The film composed of the NCs showed good optical transparency in the visible to near-infrared region. A device coupling the ZnO NC film with a p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS NC film exhibited an obvious diode-like current–voltage behavior. The results suggest that the transparent ZnO film has a potentiality to be used for an n-type window layer in some optoelectronic applications.

  11. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, T; Wulfhekel, W; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A

    2014-01-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu 3 Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations. (paper)

  12. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, T; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A; Wulfhekel, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu3Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations.

  13. Function and application of ultra thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasabe, Hiroyuki

    1988-02-01

    A film 10-100mm thick which is strong dynamically to some extent and has possibility to manifest fuctions of high degree different from the nature extrapolated from the normal thin film is called an ultra thin film. As an example of its concrete application, there is an electro-luminescence element which is made by laminating 5 layers of LB films of poly-L-phenylalanine on a n-GaP and has vapor-deposited gold electrodes. When voltage of 5V is imposed to it, light emission of 565nm can be observed and the emission efficiency of 2% is obtained. Besides, it has an excellent stability through the lapse of time. There is also a junction element and the ion concentration injected into macromolecule films of this element has a Gaussian distribution from the surface towards the direction of depth. Accordingly, the most active domain in terms of semiconductor as the result of doping is the location in the neighborhood of the peak. Furthermore, a photo memory is also proposed. It is applied to the artificial hemoglobine which is made of LB films, suggesting the feasibility of creating the artificial protein capable of functioning in the conditions in which the natural protein is unable to function. (5 figs, 1 tab, 7 refs)

  14. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  15. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  16. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  17. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  18. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  19. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  20. A novel synthesis method for large area metallic amorphous/nanocrystal films by the glow-discharge plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiang; Xu Zhong; Tao Jie; Liu Zili; Chen Zheyuan; Zhu Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    Two large-area metallic amorphous/nanocrystal films were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy and pure iron substrates by the double glow-discharge plasma technique. The formation mechanism of the novel amorphous films did not follow the established empirical rules for large glass-forming ability. The amorphous films were composed of binary alloys with a difference in the atomic diameter of alloying constituents of less than 12%, and an amorphous film of pure iron was successfully obtained

  1. Elastic properties of thin poly(vinyl alcohol)–cellulose nanocrystal membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakzad, A; Yassar, R S; Simonsen, J

    2012-01-01

    In spite of extensive studies on the preparation and characterization of nanocomposite materials, the correlation of their properties at the nanoscale with those in bulk is a relatively unexplored area. This is of great importance, especially for materials with potential biomedical applications, where surface properties are as important in determining their applicability as bulk characteristics. In this study, the nanomechanical characteristics of thin poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)–poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)–cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) membranes were studied using the nanoindentation module in an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the properties were compared with the macro-scale properties obtained by tensile tests. In general, the elastic properties measured by nanoindentation followed the same trend as macro-scale tensile tests except for the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample. In comparison to the macro-scale elastic properties, the measured elastic moduli with AFM were higher. Macro-scale tensile test results indicated that, in the presence of PAA, incorporation of CNCs up to 20 wt% improved the elastic modulus of PVOH, but when no PAA was added, increasing the CNC content above 10 wt% resulted in their agglomeration and degradation in mechanical properties of PVOH. The discrepancy between macro-scale tensile tests and nanoindentation in the PVOH 85-PAA 0-CNC 15 sample was correlated to the high degree of inhomogeneity of CNC dispersion in the matrix. It was found that the composites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals had smaller indentation imprints and the pile-up effect increased with the increase of cellulose nanocrystal content. (paper)

  2. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Perumal, Alagarsamy

    2016-01-01

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)] 2 /FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T A =200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at T A ≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at T A =300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), T A and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (H C ) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of H C (T), i.e., a broad minimum in H C (T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the H C (T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (T C ) with T A (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of T C with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest T C with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and nature of interfaces. - Highlights: • Preparation and

  3. Synthesis And Characterization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanoparticles And Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ankur

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS) is emerging as an alternative material to the present thin film solar cell technologies such as Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CdTe. All the elements in CZTS are abundant, environmentally benign, and inexpensive. In addition, CZTS has a band gap of ˜1.5 eV, the ideal value for converting the maximum amount of energy from the solar spectrum into electricity. CZTS has a high absorption coefficient (>104 cm-1 in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum) and only a few micron thick layer of CZTS can absorb all the photons with energies above its band gap. CZT(S,Se) solar cells have already reached power conversion efficiencies >10%. One of the ways to improve upon the CZTS power conversion efficiency is by using CZTS quantum dots as the photoactive material, which can potentially achieve efficiencies greater than the present thin film technologies at a fraction of the cost. However, two requirements for quantum-dot solar cells have yet to be demonstrated. First, no report has shown quantum confinement in CZTS nanocrystals. Second, the syntheses to date have not provided a range of nanocrystal sizes, which is necessary not only for fundamental studies but also for multijunction photovoltaic architectures. We resolved these two issues by demonstrating a simple synthesis of CZTS, Cu2SnS3, and alloyed (Cu2SnS3) x(ZnS)y nanocrystals with diameters ranging from 2 to 7 nm from diethyldithiocarbamate complexes. As-synthesized nanocrystals were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy to confirm their phase purity. Nanocrystals of diameter less than 5 nm were found to exhibit a shift in their optical absorption spectra towards higher energy consistent with quantum confinement and previous theoretical predictions. Thin films from CZTS nanocrystals deposited on Mo-coated quartz substrates using drop casting were found to be continuous

  4. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  5. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  6. Application-related properties of giant magnetostrictive thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.; Kim, H.J.; Na, S.M.; Suh, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate the utilization of giant magnetostrictive thin films in microdevices, application-related properties of these thin films, which include induced anisotropy, residual stress and corrosion properties, are investigated. A large induced anisotropy with an energy of 6x10 4 J/m 3 is formed in field-sputtered amorphous Sm-Fe-B thin films, resulting in a large magnetostriction anisotropy. Two components of residual stress, intrinsic compressive stress and tensile stress due to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and thin film, are identified. The variation of residual stress with fabrication parameter and annealing temperature, and its influence on mechanical bending and magnetic properties are examined. Better corrosion properties are observed in Sm-Fe thin films than in Tb-Fe. Corrosion properties of Tb-Fe thin films, however, are much improved with the introduction of nitrogen to the thin films without deteriorating magnetostrictive properties

  7. In situ annealing of hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shevon; Haluska, Michael; Narayan, Roger J.; Snyder, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Unfortunately, problems with adhesion, poor mechanical integrity, and incomplete bone ingrowth limit the use of many conventional hydroxyapatite surfaces. In this work, we have developed a novel technique to produce crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films involving pulsed laser deposition and postdeposition annealing. Hydroxyapatite films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Si (100) using pulsed laser deposition, and annealed within a high temperature X-ray diffraction system. The transformation from amorphous to crystalline hydroxyapatite was observed at 340 deg. C. Mechanical and adhesive properties were examined using nanoindentation and scratch adhesion testing, respectively. Nanohardness and Young's modulus values of 3.48 and 91.24 GPa were realized in unannealed hydroxyapatite films. Unannealed and 350 deg. C annealed hydroxyapatite films exhibited excellent adhesion to Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. We anticipate that the adhesion and biological properties of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films may be enhanced by further consideration of deposition and annealing parameters

  8. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 ) n and Al(Al 2 O 3 /AIN) n . Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Ta 2 O 5 , Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented

  9. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  10. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Franz, A.; Theska, F.; Hentschel, M.; Kups, Th.; Wang, D., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P. [Department of Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO{sub 3} is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  11. Biodegradable Composite Films based on κ-carrageenan Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystal from Kenaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Zarina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the k-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. At an optimum CNC content of 4%, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.

  12. Magnetoresistance of drop-cast film of cobalt-substituted magnetite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiki, Shigemi; Nara, Koichiro; Mitome, Masanori; Tsuya, Daiju

    2014-10-22

    An oleic acid-coated Fe2.7Co0.3O4 nanocrystal (NC) self-assembled film was fabricated via drop casting of colloidal particles onto a three-terminal electrode/MgO substrate. The film exhibited a large coercivity (1620 Oe) and bifurcation of the zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations at 300 K. At 10 K, the film exhibited both a Coulomb blockade due to single electron charging as well as a magnetoresistance of ∼-80% due to spin-dependent electron tunneling. At 300 K, the film also showed a magnetoresistance of ∼-80% due to hopping of spin-polarized electrons. Enhanced magnetic coupling between adjacent NCs and the large coercivity resulted in a large spin-polarized current flow even at 300 K.

  13. Electromagnetic properties of thin film lead superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, K.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of critical film magnetic field H/sub cf/ on temperature, thickness, and surface texture of lead superconducting films was investigated, as well as the relationship between the applied magnetic field and the applied current at the critical field. Temperature and thickness dependence data were consistent with the predictions of London, of Ginzburg, and of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schreiffer. The values of H/sub cf/ of lead films deposited on a rough surface were consistently lower than for those on a smooth surface and so were not in agreement with any currently accepted theory. The degree of lowering of H/sub cf/ by a rough surface was greater in thin films than in thick films. The expected dependence of penetration depth lambda on thickness d was not observed, and the range of lambda was somewhat greater than expected. The range of coherence length was greater than predicted. The prediction for temperature dependence of critical current by Glover and Coffey was found to involve some oversimplification, and a suggested correction is supported by the data. For applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the applied current and parallel to the film surface, the relationship between the critical values of the magnetic field and the current was as predicted for lead films by Alphonse and Bergstein

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  15. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2015-05-26

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  16. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  17. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr 0.48 Ti 0.52 O 3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue

  18. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  19. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  20. Quantifying clustering in disordered carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The quantification of disorder and the effects of clustering in the sp 2 phase of amorphous carbon thin films are discussed. The sp 2 phase is described in terms of disordered nanometer-sized conductive sp 2 clusters embedded in a less conductive sp 3 matrix. Quantification of the clustering of the sp 2 phase is estimated from optical as well as from electron and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Unlike in other disordered group IV thin film semiconductors, we show that care must be exercised in attributing a meaning to the Urbach energy extracted from absorption measurements in the disordered carbon system. The influence of structural disorder, associated with sp 2 clusters of similar size, and topological disorder due to undistorted clusters of different sizes is also discussed. Extensions of this description to other systems are also presented

  1. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  2. Strain quantification in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushley, M

    2008-01-01

    Strain arising in epitaxial thin films can be beneficial in some cases but devastating in others. By altering the lattice parameters, strain may give a thin film properties hitherto unseen in the bulk material. On the other hand, heavily strained systems are prone to develop lattice defects in order to relieve the strain, which can cause device failure or, at least, a decrease in functionality. Using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it is possible to determine local strains within a material. By comparing the results from CBED and HRTEM experiments, it is possible to gain a complete view of a material, including the strain and any lattice defects present. As well as looking at how the two experimental techniques differ from each other, I will also look at how results from different image analysis algorithms compare. Strain in Si/SiGe samples and BST/SRO/MgO capacitor structures will be discussed.

  3. Method of formation of thin film component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Chikara; Kato, Kinya

    1988-04-16

    In the production process of component which is carrying thin film device, such as thin film transistor, acid treatment is applied for etching or for preventing contamination. In case of barium borsilicate glass base, the base is affected by the acid treatment resulting the decrease of transparency. To avoid the effect, deposition of SiO/sub 2/ layer on the surface of the base is usually applied. This invention relates to the protective method of barium borosilicate surface by harnessing the effect of coexisting ion in the acid treatment bath. The method is to add 0.03-5 mol/l of phosphoric acid or its salt in the bath. By the effect of coexisting ion, barium borsilicate glass surface was protected from the damage. (2 figs)

  4. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  5. Optical characterization of thin solid films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlídal, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date survey of the major optical characterization techniques for thin solid films. Emphasis is placed on practicability of the various approaches. Relevant fundamentals are briefly reviewed before demonstrating the application of these techniques to practically relevant research and development topics. The book is written by international top experts, all of whom are involved in industrial research and development projects.

  6. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Vaněček, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142 ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (ćc-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building-integrated photovoltaics(BIPV) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  7. The carbonization of thin polyaniline films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Exnerová, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 520, č. 19 (2012), s. 6088-6094 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * thin films * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2012

  8. Study of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, W.; Kozlowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper reports simultaneously on the magnetic domain structure of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films (40 nm and 100 nm thick) and their morphological structure. Such studies are in fact rare (Refs. cited in the paper). → Moreover, to our knowledge, observations of the morphological structure of these films have not yet been carried out simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). → The films of both thicknesses were found to have uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. → The magnetic microstructure of the films 40 nm thick was composed of domains running and magnetized predominantly in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane of the vapor beam. → As the film thickness was changed from 40 nm to 100 nm, the magnetic anisotropy was observed to change from the direction perpendicular to parallel with respect to the incidence plane. → Thanks to the application of TEM and AFM, complementary information on the morphological structure of the films could be obtained. → In comparison with TEM images, AFM images revealed grains larger in size and slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the incidence plane. → These experimental findings clearly show that surface diffusion plays an important role in the process of film growth. → For the films 40 nm thick, the alignment of columnar grains in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane was observed. → This correlates well with the magnetic domain structure of these films. → For the films 100 nm thick, the perpendicular alignment of columnar grains could also be found, although in fact with larger difficulty. → TEM studies showed that the films consisted mainly of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystalline structure, but no preferred crystallographic orientation of the grains could be detected for the films of both thicknesses. → For the films 100 nm thick, the alignment of

  9. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  10. Neutron reflectivity of electrodeposited thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Joshaniel F.K.; Vyas, Kunal N.; Steinke, Nina-J.; Love, David M.; Kinane, Christian J.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposited magnetic bi-layers were measured by polarised neutron reflectivity. • When growing a CoNiCu alloy from a single bath a Cu rich region is initially formed. • This Cu rich region is formed in the first layer but not subsequent ones. • Ni deposition is inhibited in thin film growth and Co deposits anomalously. • Alloy magnetism and neutron scattering length give a self-consistent model. - Abstract: We present a polarised neutron reflectivity (PNR) study of magnetic/non-magnetic (CoNiCu/Cu) thin films grown by single bath electrodeposition. We find that the composition is neither homogeneous with time, nor consistent with bulk values. Instead an initial, non-magnetic copper rich layer is formed, around 2 nm thick. This layer is formed by the deposition of the dilute, but rapidly diffusing, Cu 2+ ions near the electrode surface at the start of growth, before the region is depleted and the deposition becomes mass transport limited. After the region has been depleted, by growth etc., this layer does not form and thus may be prevented by growing a copper buffer layer immediately preceding the magnetic layer growth. As has been previously found, cobalt deposits anomalously compared to nickel, and even inhibits Ni deposition in thin films. The layer magnetisation and average neutron scattering length are fitted independently but both depend upon the alloy composition. Thus these parameters can be used to check for model self-consistency, increasing confidence in the derived composition

  11. Preventing Thin Film Dewetting via Graphene Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peigen; Bai, Peter; Omrani, Arash A; Xiao, Yihan; Meaker, Kacey L; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yan, Aiming; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Rodgers, Griffin F; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S; Kolaczkowski, Mattew A; Liu, Yi; Zettl, Alex; Xu, Ke; Crommie, Michael F; Xu, Ting

    2017-09-01

    A monolayer 2D capping layer with high Young's modulus is shown to be able to effectively suppress the dewetting of underlying thin films of small organic semiconductor molecule, polymer, and polycrystalline metal, respectively. To verify the universality of this capping layer approach, the dewetting experiments are performed for single-layer graphene transferred onto polystyrene (PS), semiconducting thienoazacoronene (EH-TAC), gold, and also MoS 2 on PS. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the exceptionally high Young's modulus and surface conformity of 2D capping layers such as graphene and MoS 2 substantially suppress surface fluctuations and thus dewetting. As long as the uncovered area is smaller than the fluctuation wavelength of the thin film in a dewetting process via spinodal decomposition, the dewetting should be suppressed. The 2D monolayer-capping approach opens up exciting new possibilities to enhance the thermal stability and expands the processing parameters for thin film materials without significantly altering their physical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  13. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  14. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Albert

    2005-03-01

    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  15. Controlling the alloy composition of PtNi nanocrystals using solid-state dewetting of bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Okkyun; Oh, Se An; Lee, Ji Yeon; Ha, Sung Soo; Kim, Jae Myung; Choi, Jung Won; Kim, Jin-Woo [Department of Physics and Photon Science & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyon Chol [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju 61542 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Do Young, E-mail: dynoh@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate that solid-state dewetting of bilayer films is an effective way for obtaining bimetallic alloy nanocrystals of controlled composition. When a Pt–Ni bilayer film were annealed near 700 °C, Pt and Ni atoms inter-diffused to form a PtNi bimetallic alloy film. Upon annealing at higher temperatures, the bilayer films transformed into <111> oriented PtNi alloy nanocrystals in small-rhombicuboctahedron shape through solid-state dewetting process. The Pt content of the nanocrystals and the alloy films, estimated by applying the Vegard's law to the relaxed lattice constant, was closely related to the thickness of each layer in the as-grown bilayer films which can be readily controlled during bilayer deposition. - Highlights: • Composition control of PtNi nanoparticles using solid state dewetting is proposed. • PtNi alloy composition was controlled by thickness ratio of Pt–Ni bilayer films. • PtNi alloy nanocrystals were obtained in small-rhombicuboctahedron shape.

  16. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  17. Infrared characterization of strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, B.G.; Pietka, A.; Mendes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium titanate thin films have been prepared at different oxygen pressures with various post-deposition annealing treatments. The films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation at room temperature on Si(0 0 1) substrates with a silica buffer layer. Infrared reflectance measurements were performed in order to determine relevant film parameters such as layer thicknesses and chemical composition. The infrared reflectance spectra were fitted by using adequate dielectric function forms for each layer. The fitting procedure provided the extraction of the dielectric functions of the strontium titanate film, the silica layer and the substrate. The as-deposited films are found to be amorphous, and their infrared spectra present peaks corresponding to modes with high damping constants. As the annealing time and temperature increases the strontium titanate layer becomes more ordered so that it can be described by its SrTiO 3 bulk mode parameters. Also, the silica layer grows along with the ordering of the strontium titanate film, due to oxidation during annealing

  18. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1−x, FeTexS1−x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate; (iii high critical current density (Jc ~ 0.5 ×106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv high upper critical field (~50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0, with a low anisotropy, γ ~ 2. These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20–50 T and low temperatures (2–10 K.

  19. Thermal decomposition of titanium deuteride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal desorption spectra of deuterium from essentially clean titanium deuteride thin films were measured by ramp heating the films in vacuum; the film thicknesses ranged from 20 to 220 nm and the ramp rates varied from 0.5 to about 3 0 C s - 1 . Each desorption spectrum consisted of a low nearly constant rate at low temperatures followed by a highly peaked rate at higher temperatures. The cleanliness and thinness of the films permitted a description of desorption rates in terms of a simple phenomenological model based on detailed balancing in which the low temperature pressure-composition characteristics of the two-phase (α-(α+#betta#)-#betta#) region of the Ti-D system were used as input data. At temperatures below 340 0 C the model predictions were in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured desorption spectra. Interpretations of the spectra in terms of 'decomposition trajectories'' are possible using this model, and this approach is also used to explain deviations of the spectra from the model at temperatures of 340 0 C and above. (Auth.)

  20. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an actual survey on the resistivity of thin metal and semiconductor films interacting with gases. We discuss the influence of the substrate material and the annealing treatment of the films, presenting our experimental data as well as theoretical models to calculate the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons in the frame-work of the scattering hypothesis. Main emphasis is laid on the comparison of gold and silver films which exhibit nearly the same lattice structure but differ in their chemical activity. In conclusion, the most important quantity for the interpretation is the surface charging z while the correlation with the optical data or the frustrated IR vibrations seems the show a more material-specific character. Z can be calculated on the basis of the density functional formalism or the self-consistent field approximation using Mulliken’s population analysis.

  1. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  2. Spontaneous nano-clustering of ZrO2 in atomic layer deposited LayZr1-yOx thin films: Part 1 - Material characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Wolters, R.A.M.; Roozeboom, F.; Besling, W.

    2008-01-01

    During atomic layer deposition (ALD) of uniform LayZr1-yOx thin films, spontaneous segregation of ZrO2 nanocrystals takes place that are embedded in an amorphous La2O3 matrix. This occurs if the Zr content in the LayZr1-yOx film is above 30% i.e. if the pulse ratio between the lanthanum precursor

  3. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  4. Controlling In–Ga–Zn–O thin films transport properties through density changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarski, Jakub, E-mail: kaczmarski@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Boll, Torben [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Fysikgränd 3, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Borysiewicz, Michał A. [Institute of Electron Technology, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Taube, Andrzej [Institute of Electron Technology, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Microelectronics & Optoelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Thuvander, Mattias; Law, Jia Yan [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Fysikgränd 3, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Kamińska, Eliana [Institute of Electron Technology, al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Stiller, Krystyna [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Fysikgränd 3, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-06-01

    In the following study we investigate the effect of the magnetron cathode current (I{sub c}) during reactive sputtering of In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) on thin-films nanostructure and transport properties. All fabricated films are amorphous, according to X-ray diffraction measurements. However, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy revealed the a-IGZO fabricated at I{sub C} = 70 mA to contain randomly-oriented nanocrystals dispersed in amorphous matrix, which disappear in films deposited at higher cathode current. These nanocrystals have the same composition as the amorphous matrix. One can observe that, while I{sub C} is increased from 70 to 150 mA, the carrier mobility improves from μ{sub Hall} = 6.9 cm{sup 2}/Vs to μ{sub Hall} = 9.1 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Additionally, the increase of I{sub C} caused a reduction of the depletion region trap states density of the Ru–Si–O/In–Ga–Zn–O Schottky barrier. This enhancement in transport properties is attributed to the greater overlapping of s-orbitals of the film-forming cations caused by increased density, evidenced by X-ray reflectivity, at a fixed chemical composition, regardless nanostructure of thin films. - Highlights: • Magnetron cathode current (I{sub C}) controls the transport properties of In–Ga–Zn–O (IGZO). • Low I{sub C} results in IGZO films with nanocrystalline inclusions in amorphous matrix. • High I{sub C} reduces the number of trap states in depletion region of Schottky contacts.

  5. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrella, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M. [CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Agostiano, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosma, P., E-mail: pinalysa.cosma@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-11-30

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  6. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, A.; Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cosma, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  7. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lattice parameter, grain size, average internal stress, microstrain, dislocation density and degree of pre- ferred orientation in the film are calculated and correlated with Ts. Keywords. ZnSe thin films; X-ray diffraction; average internal stress; microstrain; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. Thin films of ZnSe has attracted ...

  8. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  9. Self-Organized Ni Nanocrystal Embedded in BaTiO3 Epitaxial Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge FF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ni nanocrystals (NCs were embedded in BaTiO3 epitaxial films using the laser molecular beam epitaxy. The processes involving the self-organization of Ni NCs and the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 were discussed. With the in situ monitoring of reflection high-energy electron diffraction, the nanocomposite films were engineered controllably by the fine alternation of the self-organization of Ni NCs and the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3. The transmission electron microscopy and the X-ray diffraction characterization confirmed that the composite film consists of the Ni NCs layers alternating with the (001/(100-oriented epitaxial BaTiO3 separation layers.

  10. Preparation and characterization of vanadium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, O.; Plesch, G. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Roch, T. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The thermotropic VO{sub 2} films have many applications, since they exhibit semiconductor-conductor switching properties at temperature around 70 grad C. Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. Spin coater was used to depose these films on Si/SiO{sub 2} and lime glass substrates. Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reduced to metastable VO{sub 2} thin films at the temperature of 450 grad C under the pressure of 10{sup -2} Pa. These films are then converted to thermotropic VO{sub 2} at 700 grad C in argon under normal pressure. (authors)

  11. Thin film structures and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, B.M.; Johnson, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This was a two day symposium, with invited and contributed papers as well as an evening poster session. The first day concentrated on solid state reactions with invited talks by Lindsay Greer from the University of Cambridge, King Tu from IBM Yorktown Heights, and Carl Thompson from MIT. Professor Greer observed that the diffusion of Zr is 10 6 times slower than that of Ni in amorphous NiZr, confirming that Ni is the mobile species in solid state amorphization. King Tu explained the formation of metastable phases in this film diffusion couples by the concept of maximum rate of free energy change. Carl Thompson discussed the formation of amorphous phases in metal silicon systems, and discussed a two stage nucleation and growth process. The contributed papers also generated discussion on topics such as phase segregation, amorphous silicide formation, room temperature oxidation of silicon, and nucleation during ion beam irradiation. There was a lively poster session on Monday evening with papers on a wide variety of topics covering the general area of thin film science. The second day had sessions Epitaxy and Multilayer Structure I and II, with the morning focussing on epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth of thin films. Robin Farrow of IBM Almaden led off with an invited talk where he reported on some remarkable success he and his co-workers have had in growing single crystal epitaxial thin films and superlattices of silver, iron, cobalt and platinum on GaAs. This was followed by several talks on epitaxial growth and characterization. The afternoon focused on interfaces and structure of multilayered materials. A session on possible stress origins of the supermodulus effect was highlighted by lively interaction from the audience. Most of the papers presented at the symposium are presented in this book

  12. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Physical properties of lanthanum monosulfide thin films grown on (100) silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahay, M.; Garre, K.; Wu, X.; Poitras, D.; Lockwood, D. J.; Fairchild, S.

    2006-06-01

    Thin films of lanthanum monosulfide (LaS) have been deposited on Si (100) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The films are golden yellow in appearance with a mirrorlike surface morphology and a sheet resistance around 0.1 Ω/□, as measured using a four-probe measurement technique. The thin films are characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The root-mean-square variation of (1 μm thick) film surface roughness measured over a 1 μm2 area by AFM was found to be 1.74 nm. XRD analysis of fairly thick films (micrometer size) reveals the growth of the cubic rocksalt structure with a lattice constant of 5.863(7) A˚, which is close to the bulk LaS value. HRTEM images reveal that the films are comprised of nanocrystals separated by regions of amorphous material. Two beam bright field TEM images show that there is a strain contrast in the Si substrate right under the interface with the LaS film and penetrating into the Si substrate. This suggests that there is an initial epitaxial-like growth of the LaS film on the Si substrate that introduces a strain as a result of the 8% lattice mismatch between the film and substrate. Ellipsometry measurements of the LaS films are well characterized by a Drude-Lorentz model from which an electron concentration of about 2.52×1022 cm-3 and a mobility around 8.5 cm2/V s are derived. Typical crystalline LaS features were evident in Raman spectra of the films, but the spectra also revealed their disordered (polycrystalline) nature.

  15. Hygroscopic Swelling Determination of Cellulose Nanocrystal (CNC) Films by Polarized Light Microscopy Digital Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shikha; Diaz, Jairo A; Ghanbari, Siavash; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2017-05-08

    The coefficient of hygroscopic swelling (CHS) of self-organized and shear-oriented cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was determined by capturing hygroscopic strains produced as result of isothermal water vapor intake in equilibrium. Contrast enhanced microscopy digital image correlation enabled the characterization of dimensional changes induced by the hygroscopic swelling of the films. The distinct microstructure and birefringence of CNC films served in exploring the in-plane hygroscopic swelling at relative humidity values ranging from 0% to 97%. Water vapor intake in CNC films was measured using dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) at constant temperature. The obtained experimental moisture sorption and kinetic profiles were analyzed by fitting with Guggenheim, Anderson, and deBoer (GAB) and Parallel Exponential Kinetics (PEK) models, respectively. Self-organized CNC films showed isotropic swelling, CHS ∼0.040 %strain/%C. By contrast, shear-oriented CNC films exhibited an anisotropic swelling, resulting in CHS ∼0.02 and ∼0.30 %strain/%C, parallel and perpendicular to CNC alignment, respectively. Finite element analysis (FEA) further predicted moisture diffusion as the predominant mechanism for swelling of CNC films.

  16. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  17. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Vu Van; Phuong, Duong Dai; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks

  18. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Vu Van [Vietnam Education Publishing House, 81 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phuong, Duong Dai [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoa, Nguyen Thi [University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2015-05-29

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks.

  19. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  20. Solution processed pentacene thin films and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chunlan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang Fujia; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Haoli

    2007-01-01

    The paper reported the solution process of pentacene thin films from organic solvent O-dichlorobenzene. The pentacene thin films obtained from different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the pentacene solution was successfully obtained at a minimum temperature of 40 deg. C. The optimum temperature of forming pentacene thin films was 100 deg. C

  1. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2008-02-15

    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  2. Tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, R E; Munsee, C L; Park, C-H; Hong, D; Wager, J F; Keszler, D A

    2004-01-01

    A SnO 2 transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT) is demonstrated. The SnO 2 channel layer is deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then rapid thermal annealed in O 2 at 600 deg. C. The TTFT is highly transparent, and enhancement-mode behaviour is achieved by employing a very thin channel layer (10-20 nm). Maximum field-effect mobilities of 0.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 2.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained for enhancement- and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transparent nature and the large drain current on-to-off ratio of 10 5 associated with the enhancement-mode behaviour of these devices may prove useful for novel gas-sensor applications

  3. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José ; Burriel, Mó nica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation

  4. Switching, storage, and erasure effects in a superconducting thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Thin niobium films can be switched from a superconducting to a resistive state permanently by application of a short electrical pulse. Application of a short pulse of opposite polarity returns the film to the superconducting state

  5. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Gas sensitivity; ZnO; sputtering; XRD patterns; structure; thin films. 1. Introduction. Because zinc ... voltage and absorption properties of those fabricated films have been ... tations are useful in many physical applications. The in- plane (Hegde ...

  6. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  7. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  8. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  9. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  10. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  11. Tension Tests of Copper Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Jo; Kim, Chung Youb [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Tension tests for copper thin films with thickness of 12 μm were performed by using a digital image correlation method based on consecutive digital images. When calculating deformation using digital image correlation, a large deformation causes errors in the calculated result. In this study, the calculation procedure was improved to reduce the error, so that the full field deformation and the strain of the specimen could be accurately and directly measured on its surface. From the calculated result, it can be seen that the strain distribution is not uniform and its variation is severe, unlike the distribution in a common bulk specimen. This might result from the surface roughness introduced in the films during the fabrication process by electro-deposition.

  12. Seebeck effect of some thin film carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beensh-Marchwicka, G.; Prociow, E.

    2002-01-01

    Several materials have been investigated for high-temperature thin film thermocouple applications. These include silicon carbide with boron (Si-C-B), ternary composition based on Si-C-Mn, fourfold composition based on Si-C-Zr-B and tantalum carbide (TaC). All materials were deposited on quartz or glass substrates using the pulse sputter deposition technique. Electrical conduction and thermoelectric power were measured for various compositions at 300-550 K. It has been found, that the efficiency of thermoelectric power of films containing Si-C base composition was varied from 0.0015-0.034 μW/cmK 2 . However for TaC the value about 0.093 μW/cmK 2 was obtained. (author)

  13. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  14. Studies of tantalum nitride thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Backscattering of 2-MeV He ions was used to correlate the electrical properties of sputtered TaN/sub x/ thin-film resistors with their N content. The properties measured were sheet resistance, differential Seebeck potential (DSP), thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR), and stability. Resistivity and DSP are linearly dependent on N content for N/Ta ratios of 0.25 to 0.55. TCR decreases sharply below N/Ta = 0.35 and is relatively constant from 0.35 to 0.55. Stability is independent of N content. (DLC)

  15. Electronic transport in mixed-phase hydrogenated amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienkes, Lee Raymond

    Interest in mixed-phase silicon thin film materials, composed of an amorphous semiconductor matrix in which nanocrystalline inclusions are embedded, stems in part from potential technological applications, including photovoltaic and thin film transistor technologies. Conventional mixed-phase silicon films are produced in a single plasma reactor, where the conditions of the plasma must be precisely tuned, limiting the ability to adjust the film and nanoparticle parameters independently. The films presented in this thesis are deposited using a novel dual-plasma co-deposition approach in which the nanoparticles are produced separately in an upstream reactor and then injected into a secondary reactor where an amorphous silicon film is being grown. The degree of crystallinity and grain sizes of the films are evaluated using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. I describe detailed electronic measurements which reveal three distinct conduction mechanisms in n-type doped mixed-phase amorphous/nanocrystalline silicon thin films over a range of nanocrystallite concentrations and temperatures, covering the transition from fully amorphous to ~30% nanocrystalline. As the temperature is varied from 470 to 10 K, we observe activated conduction, multiphonon hopping (MPH) and Mott variable range hopping (VRH) as the nanocrystal content is increased. The transition from MPH to Mott-VRH hopping around 100K is ascribed to the freeze out of the phonon modes. A conduction model involving the parallel contributions of these three distinct conduction mechanisms is shown to describe both the conductivity and the reduced activation energy data to a high accuracy. Additional support is provided by measurements of thermal equilibration effects and noise spectroscopy, both done above room temperature (>300 K). This thesis provides a clear link between measurement and theory in these complex materials.

  16. Tuning Nanocrystal Surface Depletion by Controlling Dopant Distribution as a Route Toward Enhanced Film Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Corey M.; Robinson, Zachary L.; Agrawal, Ankit; Gibbs, Stephen L.; Greenberg, Benjamin L.; Lounis, Sebastien D.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron conduction through bare metal oxide nanocrystal (NC) films is hindered by surface depletion regions resulting from the presence of surface states. We control the radial dopant distribution in tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) NCs as a means to manipulate the NC depletion width. We find in films of ITO NCs of equal overall dopant concentration that those with dopant-enriched surfaces show decreased depletion width and increased conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity data shows electron localization length increases and associated depletion width decreases monotonically with increased density of dopants near the NC surface. We calculate band profiles for NCs of differing radial dopant distributions and, in agreement with variable temperature conductivity fits, find NCs with dopant-enriched surfaces have narrower depletion widths and longer localization lengths than those with dopant-enriched cores. Following amelioration of NC surface depletion by atomic layer deposition of alumina, all films of equal overall dopant concentration have similar conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity measurements on alumina-capped films indicate all films behave as granular metals. Herein, we conclude that dopant-enriched surfaces decrease the near-surface depletion region, which directly increases the electron localization length and conductivity of NC films.

  17. Utilization of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcing material for chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Muhammad; Salaberria, Asier M; Andres, María A; Kaya, Murat; Gunyakti, Ayse; Labidi, Jalel

    2017-11-01

    Use of plastic based packaging tools is causing both health and economic problems. To overcome this situation, researchers are focusing on the use of different biomaterials such as chitosan and cellulose. The current study was conducted to check the effect of flax (Linum usitatissimum) cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-based films. CNC was incorporated in different concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 30%). CNC was isolated from flax fiber using acid hydrolysis method. Tensile strength (TS) and young modulus (YM) values increased with the increase of CNC concentration. Chitosan film with 20% CNC revealed the highest YM value as 52.35MPa. No significant improvement was recorded in water vapor permeability due to overall lower film crystallinity. All the films were observed to be transparent up to an acceptable level. SEM and AFM analysis confirmed the homogeneity of films. A gradual enhancement was recorded in the antimicrobial activity of chitosan/CNC composite films. No significant improvement revealed in the thermal stability of composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  19. Chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Vladislav Yu; Repinsky, Sergei M

    2005-01-01

    Data on the chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics based on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride and silicon dioxide and on phosphorus- and boron-containing silicate glasses are generalised. The equipment and layer deposition procedures are described. Attention is focussed on the analysis and discussion of the deposition kinetics and on the kinetic models for film growth. The film growth processes are characterised and data on the key physicochemical properties of thin-film covalent dielectric materials are given.

  20. Magnetron-sputter deposition of Fe3S4 thin films and their conversion into pyrite (FeS2) by thermal sulfurization for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongfei; Chi Dongzhi

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on the fabrication of FeS 2 (pyrite) thin films by sulfurizing Fe 3 S 4 that were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Under the selected sputtering conditions, Fe 3 S 4 nanocrystal films are obtained and the nanocrystals tend to locally cluster and closely pack into ricelike nanoparticles with an increase in film thickness. Meanwhile, the film tends to crack when the film thickness is increased over ∼1.3 μm. The film cracking can be effectively suppressed by an introduction of a 3-nm Cu intermediate layer prior to Fe 3 S 4 deposition. However, an introduction of a 3-nm Al intermediate layer tends to enhance the film cracking. By post-growth thermal sulfurization of the Fe 3 S 4 thin films in a tube-furnace, FeS 2 with high phase purity, as determined by using x ray diffraction, is obtained. Optical absorption spectroscopy was employed to characterize the resultant FeS 2 thin films, which revealed two absorption edges at 0.9 and 1.2 eV, respectively. These two absorption edges are assigned to the direct bandgap (0.9 eV) and the indirect allowed transitions (1.2 eV) of FeS 2 , respectively.

  1. Characterization of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed ruthenium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Ennaoui, E.A.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mueller, M.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1997-11-21

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique was employed to deposit ruthenium oxide thin films. The films were prepared at 190 C substrate temperature and further annealed at 350 C for 30 min in air. The films were 0.22 {mu} thick and black grey in color. The structural, compositional and optical properties of ruthenium oxide thin films are reported. Contactless transient photoconductivity measurement was carried out to calculate the decay time of excess charge carriers in ruthenium oxide thin films. (orig.) 28 refs.

  2. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöber, Laura, E-mail: laura.stoeber@tuwien.ac.at; Patocka, Florian, E-mail: florian.patocka@tuwien.ac.at; Schneider, Michael, E-mail: michael.schneider@tuwien.ac.at; Schmid, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.e366.schmid@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Konrath, Jens Peter, E-mail: jenspeter.konrath@infineon.com; Haberl, Verena, E-mail: verena.haberl@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  3. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  4. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  5. Operating method of amorphous thin film semiconductor element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koshiro; Ono, Masaharu; Hanabusa, Akira; Osawa, Michio; Arita, Takashi

    1988-05-31

    The existing technologies concerning amorphous thin film semiconductor elements are the technologies concerning the formation of either a thin film transistor or an amorphous Si solar cell on a substrate. In order to drive a thin film transistor for electronic equipment control by the output power of an amorphous Si solar cell, it has been obliged to drive the transistor weth an amorphous solar cell which was formed on a substrate different from that for the transistor. Accordingly, the space for the amorphous solar cell, which was formed on the different substrate, was additionally needed on the substrate for the thin film transistor. In order to solve the above problem, this invention proposes an operating method of an amorphous thin film semiconductor element that after forming an amorphous Si solar cell through lamination on the insulation coating film which covers the thin film transistor formed on the substrate, the thin film transistor is driven by the output power of this solar cell. The invention eliminates the above superfluous space and reduces the size of the amorphous thin film semiconductor element including the electric source. (3 figs)

  6. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Park, Youngrak; Kippelen, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperature over time periods up to 5.9 × 105 s do not vary monotonically and remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (μc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies. PMID:29340301

  7. Properties of superconducting thin-film microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    This work reports investigations upon the dependences of critical current and current phase relation on the dimensions of a superconducting thin-film microbridge. A model has been developed upon the Volkov's hyperbolic bridges and the Zaitsev's boundary conditions to calculate the spatial variation of the order parameter for given bridge dimensions. The results indicate that the rigid boundary conditions are good approximations to narrow bridges (W much less than L) only. The critical current density of the bridge has been calculated also as a function of the bridge dimensions. It is found that the critical current density of small bridges is enhanced above its mean field critical value due to the proximity effects of the banks. Very good agreement is found between the calculated enhancement of the critical current density and the experimental results. Direct measurements have been made on the current phase relation of indium bridges with width smaller than 0.6 μm. The difficulties due to the extra phase shifts from the series thin film electrodes are overcome by a specially designed double loop configuration which has an extra low effective inductance. It is found that the current phase relation of small bridges (W,L, xi, the results agree with the predictions of rigid boundary calculations as expected by our model

  8. Optical characteristics of the thin-film scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muga, L.; Burnsed, D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the thin-film detector (TFD) was made in which various light guide and scintillator film support configurations were tested for efficiency of light coupling. Masking of selected portions of the photomultiplier (PM) tube face revealed the extent to which emitted light was received at the exposed PM surfaces. By blocking off selected areas of the scintillator film surface from direct view of the PM tube faces, a measure of the light-guiding efficiency of the film and its support could be estimated. The picture that emerges is that, as the light which is initially trapped in the thin film spreads radially outward from the ion entrance/exit point, it is scattered out of the film by minute imperfections. Optimum signals were obtained by a configuration in which the thin scintillator film was supported on a thin rectangular Celluloid frame inserted within a highly polished metal cylindrical sleeve

  9. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    For the thin polycrystalline Si films fabricated with the aluminium-induced-layer-exchange (ALILE) process a good structural quality up to a layer-thickness value of 10 nm was determined. For 5 nm thick layers however after the layer exchange no closes poly-silicon film was present. In this case the substrate was covered with spherically arranged semiconductor material. Furthermore amorphous contributions in the layer could be determined. The electrical characterization of the samples at room temperature proved a high hole concentration in the range 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} up to 9.10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which is influenced by the process temperature and the layer thickness. Hereby higher hole concentrations at higher process temperatures and thinner films were observed. Furthermore above 150-200 K a thermically activated behaviour of the electrical conductivity was observed. At lower temperatures a deviation of the measured characteristic from the exponential Arrhenius behaviour was determined. For low temperatures (below 20 K) the conductivity follows the behaviour {sigma}{proportional_to}[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup 1/4}]. The hole mobility in the layers was lowered by a passivation step, which can be explained by defect states at the grain boundaries. The for these very thin layers present situation was simulated in the framework of the model of Seto, whereby both the defect states at the grain boundaries (with an area density Q{sub t}) and the defect states at the interfaces (with an area density Q{sub it}) were regarded. By this the values Q{sub t}{approx}(3-4).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and Q{sub it}{approx}(2-5).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} could be determined for these thin ALILE layers on quartz substrates. Additionally th R-ALILE process was studied, which uses the reverse precursor-layer sequence substrate/amorphous silicon/oxide/aluminium. Hereby two steps in the crystallization process of the R-ALILE process were found. First a substrate/Al-Si mixture/poly-Si layer structure

  10. Preparation and physical properties of tara gum film reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianyun; Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared from microcrystalline cellulose were blended in tara gum solution to prepare nanocomposite films. The morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the CNC and films were evaluated by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The resultant CNC was rod-shaped with diameters of around 8.6 nm. The effect of CNC content on physical and thermal properties of films was studied. The composite film tensile strength increased from 27.86 to 65.73 MPa, elastic modulus increased from 160.98 MPa to 882.49 MPa and the contact angle increased from 55.8° to 98.7° with increasing CNC content from 0 to 6 wt%. However, CNC addition increased the thermal stability slightly and CNC content above 6 wt% decreased the tensile strength by CNC aggregation in the matrix. The nanocomposite film containing 6 wt% CNC possessed the highest light transmittance, mechanical properties, and lowest oxygen permeability. CNC addition is a suitable method to modify tara gum matrix polymer properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical constants and structural properties of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.; Stebunov, Yury V.

    2017-01-01

    We report a comprehensive experimental study of optical and electrical properties of thin polycrystalline gold films in a wide range of film thicknesses (from 20 to 200 nm). Our experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations based on the measured morphology of the fabricated gold...... rules for thin-film plasmonic and nanophotonic devices....... films. We demonstrate that the dielectric function of the metal is determined by its structural morphology. Although the fabrication process can be absolutely the same for different films, the dielectric function can strongly depend on the film thickness. Our studies show that the imaginary part...

  12. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  13. Microbridge tests on gallium nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hai-You; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lu, Jun-Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Wang, Chong-Shun; Lau, Kei-May; Chen, Kevin Jing

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop further the microbridge testing method by deriving a closed formula of deflection versus load, which is applied at an arbitrary position on the microbridge beam. Testing a single beam at various positions allows us to characterize simultaneouslyYoung's modulus and residual stress of the beam. The developed method was then used to characterize the mechanical properties of GaN thin films on patterned-Si (1 1 1) substrates grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The microbridge samples were fabricated by using the microelectromechanical fabrication technique and tested with a nanoindentation system. Young's modulus and residual stress of the GaN films were determined to be 287 ± 190 GPa and 851 ± 155 MPa, respectively. In addition, alternative measurements of the residual stress, Young's modulus and hardness of the GaN films, were conducted with micro-Raman spectroscopy and the nanoindentation test, yielding the corresponding values of 847 ± 46 MPa, 269.0 ± 7.0 GPa and 17.8 ± 1.1 GPa

  14. Surface microtopography of thin silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present ne applications for the recently developed nori-contact optical inicrotopographer emphasizing the results of topographic inspections of thin silver films edges. These films were produced by sputtering of silver through different masks, using a planar magnetron source. The results show the influence ot the thickness and position of the masks on the topography of the film near its edge. Topographic information is obtained from the horizontal shift incurred by the bright spot on an horizontal surface, which is displaced vertically, when this is illuminated by an oblique collimated laser beam. The laser beam is focused onto the surface into a diffraction limited spot and is made to sweep the surface to be examined.. The horizontal position of the bright spot is continuously imaged onto a light detector array and the information about individual detectors that are activated is used to compute the corresponding horizontal shift on the reference plane. Simple trignometric calculations are used to relate the horizontal shift to the distance between the surface and a reference plane at each sampling point and thus a map of the surface topography can be built.

  15. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d' Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  16. Surfactant induced flows in thin liquid films : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinz, D.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the experimental work summarized in my thesis is the flow in thin liquid films induced by non-uniformly distributed surfactants. The flow dynamics as a consequence of the deposition of a droplet of an insoluble surfactant onto a thin liquid film covering a solid substrate where

  17. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  18. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    film climbing up on a vertical substrate against gravity shows interesting dynamics ... For the spreading of a thin film several theoretical studies have shown quantitative agree- ..... The two critical values of this param- ... Davis J M, Fischer B J and Troian S M 2003 A general approach to the linear stability of thin spreading.

  19. Plastic response of thin films due to thermal cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicola, L.; van der Giessen, E.; Needleman, A.; Ahzi, S; Cherkaoui, M; Khaleel, MA; Zbib, HM; Zikry, MA; Lamatina, B

    2004-01-01

    Discrete dislocation simulations of thin films on semi-infinite substrates under cyclic thermal loading are presented. The thin film is modelled as a two-dimensional single crystal under plane strain conditions. Dislocations of edge character can be generated from initially present sources and glide

  20. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  1. Electrical properties of epitaxially grown VOx thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rata, A.D.; Chezan, A.R; Presura, C.N.; Hibma, T

    2003-01-01

    High quality VOx thin films on MgO(100) substrates were prepared and studied from the structural and electronic point of view. Epitaxial growth was confirmed by RHEED and XRD techniques. The oxygen content of VOx thin films as a function of oxygen flux was determined using RBS. The upper and lower

  2. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  3. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  4. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  5. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-temperature transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed on polystyrene (PS, w = 234 K) – Au nanoparticle composite thin films that were annealed up to 350°C under reduced pressure conditions. The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then ...

  6. Thermal properties and stabilities of polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Kawashima, Kazuko; Inoue, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensive studies have revealed that polymer thin films showed very interesting but unusual thermal properties and stabilities. In the article we show that X-ray reflectivity and neutron reflectivity are very powerful tools to study the anomalous properties of polymer thin films. (author)

  7. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  8. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films ...

  9. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, W. M.; Skuza, J. R.; Beringer, D. B.; Li, Z.; Clavero, C.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m-1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed.

  10. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, W M; Clavero, C; Lukaszew, R A; Skuza, J R; Beringer, D B; Li, Z

    2012-01-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m −1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed. (paper)

  11. Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots via dewetting of thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouassa, Mansour, E-mail: mansour.aouassa@yahoo.fr [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Jadli, Imen [LMON, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’environnement Monastir 5019 (Tunisia); Bandyopadhyay, Anup [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kim, Sung Kyu [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Karaman, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lee, Jeong Yong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • We report the new fabrication approach for producing a self- assembled Mn dpoed Ge quantum dots (QDs) on SiO{sub 2} thin film with a Curie temperature above room temperature. These magnetic QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and have a well-defined shape and a controlled size. The investigation opens new routes for elaboration of self-assembled magnetic nanocrystals - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrate an original elaboration route for producing a Mn-doped Ge self-assembled quantum dots on SiO{sub 2} thin layer for MOS structure. These magnetic quantum dots are elaborated using dewetting phenomenon at solid state by Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperature of an amorphous Ge:Mn (Mn: 40%) nanolayer deposed at very low temperature by high-precision Solid Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy on SiO{sub 2} thin film. The size of quantum dots is controlled with nanometer scale precision by varying the nominal thickness of amorphous film initially deposed. The magnetic properties of the quantum-dots layer have been investigated by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the nanostructure of these materials. Obtained results indicate that GeMn QDs are crystalline, monodisperse and exhibit a ferromagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature (TC) above room temperature. They could be integrated into spintronic technology.

  12. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  13. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  14. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  15. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  16. Room temperature deposition of magnetite thin films on organic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Cavallini, M.; Murgia, M.; Riminucci, A.; Ruani, G.; Dediu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of magnetite films directly on thin layers of organic semiconductors by means of an electron beam ablation method. The deposition was performed at room temperature in a reactive plasma atmosphere. Thin films show ferromagnetic (FM) hysteresis loops and coercive fields of hundreds of Oersted. Micro Raman analysis indicates no presence of spurious phases. The morphology of the magnetite film is strongly influenced by the morphology of the underlayer of the organic semiconductor. These results open the way for the application of magnetite thin films in the field of organic spintronics

  17. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  18. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  19. Evaluation of residual stress in sputtered tantalum thin-film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-masha’al, Asa’ad, E-mail: asaad.al@ed.ac.uk; Bunting, Andrew; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum thin-films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering system. • Thin-film stress is observed to be strongly influenced by sputtering pressure. • Transition towards the compressive stress is ascribed to the annealing at 300 °C. • Expose thin-film to air ambient or ion bombardment lead to a noticeable change in the residual stress. - Abstract: The influence of deposition conditions on the residual stress of sputtered tantalum thin-film has been evaluated in the present study. Films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and curvature measurement method has been employed to calculate the residual stress of the films. Transitions of tantalum film stress from compressive to tensile state have been observed as the sputtering pressure increases. Also, the effect of annealing process at temperature range of 90–300 °C in oxygen ambient on the residual stress of the films has been studied. The results demonstrate that the residual stress of the films that have been deposited at lower sputtering pressure has become more compressive when annealed at 300 °C. Furthermore, the impact of exposure to atmospheric ambient on the tantalum film stress has been investigated by monitoring the variation of the residual stress of both annealed and unannealed films over time. The as-deposited films have been exposed to pure Argon energy bombardment and as result, a high compressive stress has been developed in the films.

  20. Pulsed ion-beam induced nucleation and growth of Ge nanocrystals on SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Armbrister, V. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Novikov, P. L.; Gutakovskii, A. K.; Kirienko, V. V.; Smagina, Zh. V.; Groetzschel, R.

    2007-01-01

    Pulsed low-energy (200 eV) ion-beam induced nucleation during Ge deposition on thin SiO 2 film was used to form dense homogeneous arrays of Ge nanocrystals. The ion-beam action is shown to stimulate the nucleation of Ge nanocrystals when being applied after thin Ge layer deposition. Temperature and flux variation was used to optimize the nanocrystal size and array density required for memory device. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation shows that ion impacts open an additional channel of atom displacement from a nanocrystal onto SiO 2 surface. This results both in a decrease in the average nanocrystal size and in an increase in nanocrystal density

  1. The Structure and Stability of Molybdenum Ditelluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-tellurium alloy thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation and the films were annealed in different conditions in N2 ambient. The hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride thin films with well crystallization annealed at 470°C or higher were obtained by solid state reactions. Thermal stability measurements indicate the formation of MoTe2 took place at about 350°C, and a subtle weight-loss was in the range between 30°C and 500°C. The evolution of the chemistry for Mo-Te thin films was performed to investigate the growth of the MoTe2 thin films free of any secondary phase. And the effect of other postdeposition treatments on the film characteristics was also investigated.

  2. Investigation of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Andreas [PSI, Villingen (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. RF-activated oxygen was used for the in situ oxidation of hafnium oxide thin films. Oxidation conditions were varied substantially in order to create oxygen deficiency in hafnium oxide films intentionally. The films were characterized by X-ray and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction studies show an increase in lattice parameter with increasing oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films also showed a decreasing bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency. The magnetisation studies carried out with SQUID did not show any sign of ferromagnetism in the whole oxygen deficiency range. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements also confirmed the absence of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films.

  3. In vitro behaviour of nanocrystalline silver-sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedade, A P; Vieira, M T; Martins, A; Silva, F

    2007-01-01

    Silver thin films were deposited with different preferential orientations and special attention was paid to the bioreactivity of the surfaces. The study was essentially focused on the evaluation of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and contact angle measurements. The deposited thin films were characterized before and after immersion in S-enriched simulated human plasma in order to estimate the influence of the preferential crystallographic orientation on the in vitro behaviour. Silver thin films with and without (111) preferential crystallographic orientation were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering to yield nanocrystalline coatings, high compact structures, very hydrophobic surfaces and low roughness. These properties reduce the chemisorption of reactive species onto the film surface. The in vitro tests indicate that silver thin films can be used as coatings for biomaterials applications

  4. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  5. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO x thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO x thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh 3+ and Rh n+ . We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO x thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO x thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties

  6. Pulsed laser deposition and characterisation of thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morone, A [CNR, zona industriale di Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali

    1996-09-01

    Same concepts on pulsed laser deposition of thin films will be discussed and same examples of high transition temperature (HTc) BiSrCaCuO (BISCO) and low transition temperature NbN/MgO/NbN multilayers will be presented. X-ray and others characterizations of these films will be reported and discussed. Electrical properties of superconducting thin films will be realized as a function of structural and morphological aspect.

  7. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  8. Preparation and optical characterization of DNA-riboflavin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Bjorn; Shin, Inchul; Kong, Byungjoo; Sauer, Gregor; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of DNA biopolymer thin film are fabricated by a drop casting process on glass and silicon substrates, as well as freestanding. The refractive index is measured by elliposmetry and in bulk DNA film the refractive index is shown to be increased in the 600 to 900 nm DNA transparency window by doping with riboflavin. Further analysis with FT-IR, Raman, and XRD are used to determine whether binding between riboflavin and DNA occurs.

  9. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  10. Simple turbulence measurements with azopolymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillé, Regis; Pérez, Darío G; Morille, Yohann; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2013-04-01

    A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

  11. Thin film femtosecond laser damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Ristau, Detlev; Turowski, Marcus; Blaschke, Holger

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  12. PZT thin film actuated elastic fin micromotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M A; Muralt, P

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric elastic fin micromotor based on a PbZr(0.53 )Ti(0.47)O(3) thin film driving a micromachined silicon membrane was fabricated and studied. The stator was characterized by interferometry, and a laser set-up was used to measure the angular velocity and acceleration of the motor. The torque, the output power, and the efficiency of the device were extracted from these measurements. Values up to 1020 rpm and 0.94 microNm were observed for the velocity and the torque, respectively, which would be sufficient for a wristwatch application. The present version exhibited an efficiency of 0.17%, which could theoretically be increased to 4.8%

  13. Quantitative MFM on superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopfel, Henry; Vock, Silvia; Shapoval, Tetyana; Neu, Volker; Wolff, Ulrike; Haindl, Silvia; Engelmann, Jan; Schaefer, Rudolf; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Material (Germany); Inosov, Dmytro S. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative interpretation of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) data is a challenge, because the measured signal is a convolution between the magnetization of the tip and the stray field emanated by the sample. It was established theoretically that the field distribution just above the surface of the superconductor can be well approximated by the stray field of a magnetic monopole. The description of the MFM tip, however, needs a second approximation. The temperature-dependent vortex-distribution images on a NbN thin film were fitted using two different tip models. Firstly, the magnetic tip was assumed to be a monopole that leads to the simple monopole-monopole model for the tip-sample interaction force. Performing a 2D fitting of the data with this model, we extracted λ, Δ and the vortex pinning force. Secondly, a geometrical model was applied to calculate the tip-transfer-function of the MFM tip using the numerical BEM method.

  14. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L W; Crane, S P; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Gajek, M; Huijben, M; Yang, C-H; Balke, N; Ramesh, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: lwmartin@lbl.gov

    2008-10-29

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities-such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature-researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  15. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L. W.; Crane, S. P.; Chu, Y.-H.; Holcomb, M. B.; Gajek, M.; Huijben, M.; Yang, C.-H.; Balke, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities—such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature—researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  16. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L W; Crane, S P; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Gajek, M; Huijben, M; Yang, C-H; Balke, N; Ramesh, R

    2008-01-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities-such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature-researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  17. Fluctuation conductivity of thin superconductive vanadium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Sidorenko, A.S.; Fogel, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Resistive transitions into the superconductive state are studied in thin [d >T/sub c/ the experimental data on the excess conductivity of the films agree qualitatively and quantitively with Aslamazov--Larkin theory. There is no Maki--Thompson contribution to fluctuation conductivity. Near T/sub c/ the excess conductivity sigma' changes exponentially with temperature in accordance with the predictions of the theory of the critical fluctuations of the order parameter. The values of the effective charge carrier mass defined from data on sigma' for the low fluctuation and critical fluctuation regions differ markedly. This difference is within the spread of effective masses for various charge carrier groups already known for vanadium. Causes of the difference in resistive behavior for the regions T >T/sub c/ are considered

  18. The Characterization of Thin Film Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Odum, Nicole Latrice

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are able to recover their original shape through the appropriate heat or stress exposure after enduring mechanical deformation at a low temperature. Numerous alloy systems have been discovered which produce this unique feature like TiNb, AgCd, NiAl, NiTi, and CuZnAl. Since their discovery, bulk scale SMAs have undergone extensive material property investigations and are employed in real world applications. However, its thin film counterparts have been modestly investigated and applied. Researchers have introduced numerous theoretical microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices; yet, the research community's overall unfamiliarity with the thin film properties has delayed growth in this area. In addition, it has been difficult to outline efficient thin film processing techniques. In this dissertation, NiTi thin film processing and characterization techniques will be outlined and discussed. NiTi thin films---1 mum thick---were produced using sputter deposition techniques. Substrate bound thin films were deposited to analysis the surface using Scanning Electron Microscopy; the film composition was obtained using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy; the phases were identified using X-ray diffraction; and the transformation temperatures acquired using resistivity testing. Microfabrication processing and sputter deposition were employed to develop tensile membranes for membrane deflection experimentation to gain insight on the mechanical properties of the thin films. The incorporation of these findings will aid in the movement of SMA microactuation devices from theory to fruition and greatly benefit industries such as medicinal and aeronautical.

  19. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  20. Oral fast-dissolving films containing lutein nanocrystals for improved bioavailability: formulation development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Chang, Daoxiao; Zhang, Xinhui; Sui, Hong; Kong, Yindi; Zhu, Rongyue; Wang, Wenping

    2017-11-01

    Lutein is widely used as diet supplement for prevention of age-related macular degeneration. However, the application and efficacy of lutein in food and nutritional products has been hampered due to its poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the formulation of oral fast-dissolving film (OFDF) containing lutein nanocrystals for enhanced bioavailability and compliance. Lutein nanocrystals were prepared by anti-solvent precipitation method and then encapsulated into the films by solvent casting method. The formulation of OFDF was optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) as follows: HPMC 2.05% (w/v), PEG 400 1.03% (w/v), Cremophor EL 0.43% (w/v). The obtained films exhibited uniform thickness of 35.64 ± 1.64 μm and drug content of 0.230 ± 0.003 mg/cm 2 and disintegrated rapidly in 29 ± 8 s. The nanocrystal-loaded films with reconstituted particle size of 377.9 nm showed better folding endurance and faster release rate in vitro than the conventional OFDFs with raw lutein. The microscope images, thermograms, and diffractograms indicated that lutein nanocrystals were highly dispersed into the films. After administrated to SD rats, t max was decreased from 3 h for oral solution formulation to less than 0.8 h for OFDF formulations, and C max increased from 150 ng/mL for solution to 350 ng/mL for conventional OFDF or 830 ng/mL for nanocrystal OFDF. The AUC 0-24h of conventional or nanocrystal OFDF was 1.37 or 2.08-fold higher than that of the oral solution, respectively. These results suggested that drug nanocrystal-loaded OFDF can be applied as a promising approach for enhanced bioavailability of poor soluble drugs like lutein.

  1. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  2. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  3. Glass transition and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, R.; Kanaya, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishida, K.; Tsukushi, I.; Shibata, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we have found that the reported apparent negative expansivity of polymer thin films is caused by unrelaxed structure due to insufficient annealing. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated glass transition temperature T g and thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness. The glass transition temperature decreases with film thickness and is constant below about 10 nm, suggesting the surface glass transition temperature of 355 K, which is lower than that in bulk. We have also found that the thermal expansivity in the glassy state decreases with film thickness even after annealing. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant arising from chain confinement in a thin film. This idea has been confirmed in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements

  4. Glass transition and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, R. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan); Kanaya, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: kanaya@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miyazaki, T. [Nitto Denko Corporation, 1-1-2 Shimohozumi, Ibaraki, Osaka-fu 567-8680 (Japan); Nishida, K. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan); Tsukushi, I. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba-ken 275-0023 (Japan); Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-12-20

    We have studied glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we have found that the reported apparent negative expansivity of polymer thin films is caused by unrelaxed structure due to insufficient annealing. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated glass transition temperature T {sub g} and thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness. The glass transition temperature decreases with film thickness and is constant below about 10 nm, suggesting the surface glass transition temperature of 355 K, which is lower than that in bulk. We have also found that the thermal expansivity in the glassy state decreases with film thickness even after annealing. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant arising from chain confinement in a thin film. This idea has been confirmed in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements.

  5. Thin film characterization by resonantly excited internal standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fonzio, S [SINCROTRONE TRIESTE, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    This contribution describes how a standing wave excited in a thin film can be used for the characterization of the properties of the film. By means of grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry one can deduce the total film thickness. On the other hand in making use of a strong resonance effect in the electric field intensity distribution inside a thin film on a bulk substrate one can learn more about the internal structure of the film. The profile of the internal standing wave is proven by diffraction experiments. The most appropriate non-destructive technique for the subsequent thin film characterization is angularly dependent X-ray fluorescence analysis. The existence of the resonance makes it a powerful tool for the detection of impurities and of ultra-thin maker layers, for which the position can be determined with very high precision (about 1% of the total film thickness). This latter aspect will be discussed here on samples which had a thin Ti marker layer at different positions in a carbon film. Due to the resonance enhancement it was still possible to perform these experiments with a standard laboratory x-ray tube and with standard laboratory tool for marker or impurity detection in thin films.

  6. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem: Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Douglas B.

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory's CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency - 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m - there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (approximately 45 MV/m for Niobium) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art niobium based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio-frequency applications.

  7. Thin-film growth and the shadow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunasiri, R.P.U.; Bruinsma, R.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a growth model for deposition of thin amorphous films by the sputtering technique. For small values of the diffusion constant, the film develops a self-similar mountain landscape. As the diffusion constant is increased a regime is reached where growth of compact flat films is possible up to a critical height. Further deposition leads to surface roughening

  8. Inhomogeneous strain states in sputter deposited tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyan, I.C.; Shaw, T.M.; Goldsmith, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an x-ray diffraction study of dc-magnetron sputtered tungsten thin films are reported. It is shown that the phase transformation from the β to α W can cause multilayered single-phase films where the layers have very different stress states even if the films are in the 500 nm thickness range. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Strain-induced properties of epitaxial VOx thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rata, AD; Hibma, T

    We have grown VOx thin films on different substrates in order to investigate the influence of epitaxial strain on the transport properties. We found that the electric conductivity is much larger for films grown under compressive strain on SrTiO3 substrates, as compared to bulk material and VOx films

  10. Electrical Conductivity of CUXS Thin Film Deposited by Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of CuxS have successfully been deposited on glass substrates using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were then investigated for their electrical properties. The results showed that the electrical conductivities of the CuxS films with different molarities (n) of thiourea (Tu), determined using ...

  11. Photoinduced conductivity in tin dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Y.; Takubo, N.; Hiroi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet light irradiation on the conducting properties of SnO 2-x thin films grown epitaxially on TiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 single-crystal substrates are studied at room temperature. A large increase in conductivity by two to four orders of magnitude is observed with light irradiation in an inert atmosphere and remains after the light is removed. The high-conducting state reverts to the original low-conducting state by exposing it to oxygen gas. These reversible phenomena are ascribed to the desorption and adsorption of negatively charged oxygen species at the grain boundaries, which critically change the mobility of electron carriers already present inside grains by changing the potential barrier height at the grain boundary. The UV light irradiation provides us with an easy and useful route to achieve a high-conducting state even at low carrier density in transparent conducting oxides and also to draw an invisible conducting wire or a specific pattern on an insulating film.

  12. Electrodeposition of thin Pd-Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, P.; Allmendinger, T.

    1993-01-01

    Thin Pd-Ag layers were electroplated preferably on brass and on nickel substrates using a two-compartment cell separated by an anion exchange membrane. The weakly alkaline electrolyte contained glycine-glycinate as the major complexing agents. The plating experiments were usually carried out without stirring, at different potentials and temperatures and in the absence or in the presence of sodium benzaldehyde-2,4-disulphonate (BDS). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Their compositions were determined analytically by the inductively coupled plasma technique. In addition, the film porosity was tested. Electrodeposition in almost limiting current conditions for both components and without simultaneous hydrogen evolution led to deposits with compositions being in good agreement with the molar metal ratio in the electrolyte (77:23). The best results were achieved between 0 and -50 mV with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode at 0 C in the presence of BDS. These deposits were bright, had good adherence and exhibited no pores at a film thickness of 1.2 μm. At too negative potentials, the deposits became black and powdery. (orig.)

  13. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two

  14. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  15. Charge storage and tunneling mechanism of Ni nanocrystals embedded HfOx film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Li, L. T.; Qiu, X. Y.

    2016-05-01

    A nano-floating gate memory structure based on Ni nanocrystals (NCs) embedded HfOx film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Microstructure investigations reveal that self-organized Ni-NCs with diameters of 4-8 nm are well dispersed in amorphous HfOx matrix. Pt/Ni-NCs embedded HfOx/Si/Ag capacitor structures exhibit voltage-dependent capacitance-voltage hysteresis, and a maximum flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V, corresponding to a charge storage density of 6.0 × 1012 electrons/cm2, is achieved. These capacitor memory cells exhibit good endurance characteristic up to 4 × 104 cycles and excellent retention performance of 105 s, fulfilling the requirements of next generation non-volatile memory devices. Schottky tunneling is proven to be responsible for electrons tunneling in these capacitors.

  16. Charge storage and tunneling mechanism of Ni nanocrystals embedded HfO{sub x} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, H. X.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Li, L. T.; Qiu, X. Y., E-mail: qxy2001@swu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2016-05-15

    A nano-floating gate memory structure based on Ni nanocrystals (NCs) embedded HfO{sub x} film is deposited by means of radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Microstructure investigations reveal that self-organized Ni-NCs with diameters of 4-8 nm are well dispersed in amorphous HfO{sub x} matrix. Pt/Ni-NCs embedded HfO{sub x}/Si/Ag capacitor structures exhibit voltage-dependent capacitance-voltage hysteresis, and a maximum flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V, corresponding to a charge storage density of 6.0 × 10{sup 12} electrons/cm{sup 2}, is achieved. These capacitor memory cells exhibit good endurance characteristic up to 4 × 10{sup 4} cycles and excellent retention performance of 10{sup 5} s, fulfilling the requirements of next generation non-volatile memory devices. Schottky tunneling is proven to be responsible for electrons tunneling in these capacitors.

  17. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  18. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films

  19. Resistivity of thiol-modified gold thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Puerta, Jonathan; Del Campo, Valeria; Henríquez, Ricardo; Häberle, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study the effect of thiol self assembled monolayers on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films. The analysis is based on the Fuchs–Sondheimer–Lucas theory and on electrical transport measurements. We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol adsorption on gold thin films. For this purpose, we controlled the deposition and annealing temperatures of the films to change the surface topography and to diminish the effect of electron grain boundary scattering. Results show that the electrical response to the absorption of thiols strongly depends on the initial topography of the surface. - Highlights: • We study the effect of self assembled monolayers on the resistivity of thin films. • Fuchs–Sondheimer theory reproduces the resistivity increase due to thiol deposition. • We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol deposition on gold thin films. • The electrical response strongly depends on the substrate surface topography

  20. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  1. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  2. Resistivity of thiol-modified gold thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Puerta, Jonathan [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Del Campo, Valeria [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Henríquez, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.henriquez@usm.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Häberle, Patricio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile)

    2014-11-03

    In this work, we study the effect of thiol self assembled monolayers on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films. The analysis is based on the Fuchs–Sondheimer–Lucas theory and on electrical transport measurements. We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol adsorption on gold thin films. For this purpose, we controlled the deposition and annealing temperatures of the films to change the surface topography and to diminish the effect of electron grain boundary scattering. Results show that the electrical response to the absorption of thiols strongly depends on the initial topography of the surface. - Highlights: • We study the effect of self assembled monolayers on the resistivity of thin films. • Fuchs–Sondheimer theory reproduces the resistivity increase due to thiol deposition. • We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol deposition on gold thin films. • The electrical response strongly depends on the substrate surface topography.

  3. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  4. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  5. Oxidation of ruthenium thin films using atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, A.P.; Bogan, J.; Brady, A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-12-31

    In this study, the use of atomic oxygen to oxidise ruthenium thin films is assessed. Atomic layer deposited (ALD) ruthenium thin films (~ 3 nm) were exposed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and the results were compared to the impact of exposures to molecular oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal substantial oxidation of metallic ruthenium films to RuO{sub 2} at exposures as low as ~ 10{sup 2} L at 575 K when atomic oxygen was used. Higher exposures of molecular oxygen resulted in no metal oxidation highlighting the benefits of using atomic oxygen to form RuO{sub 2}. Additionally, the partial oxidation of these ruthenium films occurred at temperatures as low as 293 K (room temperature) in an atomic oxygen environment. - Highlights: • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Ru thin films • Oxidation of Ru thin films using atomic oxygen • Comparison between atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen treatments on Ru thin films • Fully oxidised RuO{sub 2} thin films formed with low exposures to atomic oxygen.

  6. Development of polylactic acid nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals derived from coffee silverskin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Soo Hyun; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    Bio-nanocomposite films based on polylactic acid (PLA) matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were developed using a twin-screw extruder. The CNCs were extracted from coffee silverskin (CS), which is a by-product of the coffee roasting process. They were extracted by alkali treatment followed by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. They were used as reinforcing agents to obtain PLA/CNC nanocomposites by addition at different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5% CNCs). Morphological, tensile, and barrier properties of the bio-nanocomposites were analyzed. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased with both 1% and 3% CNCs. The water vapor permeability decreased gradually with increasing addition of CNCs up to 3% and good oxygen barrier properties were found for all nanocomposites. These results suggest that CNCs from CS can improve the physical properties of PLA-based biopolymer film. The developed PLA/CNC bio-nanocomposite films can potentially be used for biopolymer materials with enhanced barrier and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: vvhoang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-10-31

    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  8. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  9. Fabrication and Film Qualification of Sr Modified Pb(Ca) TiO3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naw Hla Myat San; Khin Aye Thwe; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Strontium and calcium - modified lead titanate (Pb0.7 Ca0.15 Sr0.15 ) TiO3 (PCST)thin films were prepared by using spin coating technique. Phase transition of PCST was interpreted by means of Er-T characteristics. Process temperature dependence on micro-structure of PCST film was studied. Charge conduction mechanism of PCST thin film was also investigated for film qualification.

  10. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  11. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  12. Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguino, P.; Balau, F.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is widely used in particle detectors as a wavelength shifter. In this work we studied the stability of TPB thin films when immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). The thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by thermal evaporation. Morphological and chemical surface properties were monitored before and after immersion into LXe by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No appreciable changes have been detected with these two methods. Grain size and surface chemical composition were found to be identical before and after submersion into LXe. However, the film thickness, measured via optical transmission in the ultraviolet–visible wavelength regions, decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe during 20 h. These results suggest the necessity of using a protective thin film over the Tetraphenyl butadiene when used as a wavelength shifter in LXe particle detectors. - Highlights: • Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) thin films immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). • Thermally evaporated TPB thin films were immersed in LXe for 20 h. • Film morphology and chemical surface properties remained unchanged. • Surface density of the films decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe. • For using in LXe particle detectors, TPB films should be protected with a coating.

  13. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Many thin film deposition techniques involve some form of energetic particle bombardment of the growing film. The degree of bombardment greatly influences the film composition, structure and other properties. While in some techniques the degree of bombardment is secondary to the original process design, in recent years more deposition systems are being designed with the capability for controlled ion bombardment of thin films during deposition. The highest degree of control is obtained with ion beam sources which operate independently of the vapor source providing the thin film material. Other plasma techniques offer varying degrees of control of energetic particle bombardment. Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. (Auth.)

  14. Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Chan, C.-C.; Huang, H.-T.; Peng, C.-H.; Hsu, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Electrochromic MoO 3 thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The spin-coated films were initially amorphous; they were calcined, producing nanocrystalline MoO 3 thin films. The effects of annealing temperatures ranging from 100 o C to 500 o C were investigated. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and by in-situ optical transmittance techniques in 1 M LiClO 4 /propylene carbonate electrolyte. Experimental results showed that the transmittance of MoO 3 thin films heat-treated at 350 o C varied from 80% to 35% at λ = 550 nm (ΔT = ∼ 45%) and from 86% to 21% at λ ≥ 700 nm (ΔT = ∼ 65%) after coloration. Films heat-treated at 350 deg. C exhibited the best electrochromic properties in the present study

  15. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang@mae.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chow Yuk Ho Technology Centre for Innovative Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  16. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  17. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  18. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future

  19. Thin film circuits for future applications. Pt. 2. Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, G; Houska, K H; Schmidt, H J; Sprengel, H P; Wohak, K

    1976-06-01

    Investigations of thin film diffusion processes and reactions with encapsulation materials resulted in improved long term stability of evaporated NiCr resistors, SiO capacitors and NiCr/Au conductors for thin film circuits. Stable NiCr resistor networks can be formed on ceramic substrates, and SiO capacitors of good quality can be deposited on the new very smooth ceramic substrates. The knowledge of the influence of evaporation parameters make the production of SiO capacitors with definite properties and good reproducibility possible. The range of capacitance of tantalum thin film circuits can be extended by integration with evaporated SiO capacitors.

  20. XRay Study of Transfer Printed Pentacene Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y.; Solin, S. A.; Hines, D. R.; Williams, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the structural properties and transfer properties of pentacene thin films fabricated by thermal deposition and transfer printing onto SiO2 and plastic substrates, respectively. The dependence of the crystallite size on the printing time, temperature and pressure were measured. The increases of crystalline size were observed when pentacene thin films were printed under specific conditions, e.g. 120 deg. C and 600 psi and can be correlated with the improvement of the field effect mobility of pentacene thin-film transistors

  1. Optical properties of CeO 2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique onto glass substrate at a pressure of about 6 × 10-6 Torr. The thickness of CeO2 films ranges from 140–180 nm. The optical properties of cerium oxide films are studied in the wavelength range of 200–850 nm. The film is highly ...

  2. Principles of electron backscattering by solids and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, H.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters concerning the electron backscattering from thin films and solids (atomic scattering cross-section, atomic number, single/multiple scattering, film thickness of self-supporting films and of surface films on bulk substrates, scattering angular distribution, angle of incidence, diffraction effects) are described. Their influence on some important contrast mechanisms in scanning electron microscopy (thickness contrast, Z/material contrast, tilting/topography contrast, orientation contrast) is discussed. The main backscattering electron detection systems are briefly described. (orig.) [de

  3. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul 136-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwook [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongnam, E-mail: jnpark@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids.

  4. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kim, Jungwook; Park, Jongnam

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO 2 ) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids

  5. Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds

  6. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Nataraj, D., E-mail: de.natraj@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yang, Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Kiran, M.S.R.N. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, Andra Pradesh (India); Silvestre-Albero, J. [Laboratorio de Materiales Avanzados, Departmento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Alicante, Ap 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Mangalaraj, D. [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Lab, School of Physical Sciences, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  7. Effect of titanium incorporation on the structural, mechanical and biocompatible properties of DLC thin films prepared by reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathy, P. Vijai; Nataraj, D.; Chu, Paul K.; Wang, Huaiyu; Yang, Q.; Kiran, M.S.R.N.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Mangalaraj, D.

    2010-01-01

    Amorphous diamond like carbon (DLC) and titanium incorporated diamond like carbon (Ti-DLC) thin films were deposited by using reactive-biased target ion beam deposition method. The effects of Ti incorporation and target bias voltage on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited films were investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and nano-indentation. It was found that the Ti content in Ti-DLC films gets increased with increasing target bias voltage. At about 4.2 at.% of Ti, uniform sized well dispersed nanocrystals were seen in the DLC matrix. Using FFT analysis, a facility available in the TEM, it was found that the nanocrystals are in cubic TiC phase. Though at the core, the incorporated Ti atoms react with carbon to form cubic TiC; most of the surface exposed Ti atoms were found to react with the atmospheric oxygen to form weakly bonded Ti-O. The presence of TiC nanocrystals greatly modified the sp 3 /sp 2 hybridized bonding ratio and is reflected in mechanical hardness of Ti-DLC films. These films were then tested for their biocompatibility by an invitro cell culturing test. Morphological observation and the cell proliferation test have demonstrated that the human osteoblast cells well attach and proliferate on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC films, suggesting possible applications in bone related implant coatings.

  8. Ideal glass transitions in thin films: An energy landscape perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskett, Thomas M.; Ganesan, Venkat

    2003-07-01

    We introduce a mean-field model for the potential energy landscape of a thin fluid film confined between parallel substrates. The model predicts how the number of accessible basins on the energy landscape and, consequently, the film's ideal glass transition temperature depend on bulk pressure, film thickness, and the strength of the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions. The predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition temperature of thin films, suggesting the utility of landscape-based approaches for studying the behavior of confined fluids.

  9. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H.; Baehtz, C.; Leitenberger, W.; Bruns, M.; Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  10. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  11. Microwave Josephson generation in thin film superconducting bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubankov, V.N.; Koshelets, V.P.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Thin-film bridges have some advantage over other types of superconducting weak links: good definition of electromagnetic parameters and of weak region geometry. Up to now Josephson properties of bridges have been investigated by using indirect methods (the effect of magnetic field on the critical current I 0 , the bridge behavior in a microwave field, etc.). Direct experimental observation of Josephson radiation from autonomous thin film bridges is reported. Microwave radiation in tin bridges of 'variable' thickness has been investigated where the thickness of the film forming the bridge is far less than the thickness of the bank films. (Auth.)

  12. Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Song Peng; Cui Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide substrates and glass slides by spin coating method at room temperature. The wettability of GO thin films before and after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was characterized with water contact angles, which increased from 27.3° to 57.6° after 3 h of irradiation, indicating a photo-induced hydrophobic surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements of GO films before and after UV irradiation were taken to study the mechanism of photoinduced hydrophobic surface of GO thin films. It is demonstrated that the photoinduced hydrophobic surface is ascribed to the elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO molecules. This work provides a simple strategy to control the wettability properties of GO thin films by UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films has been demonstrated. ► Elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide achieved by UV irradiation. ► We provide novel strategy to control surface wettability of GO thin films by UV irradiation.

  13. Tools to synthesize the learning of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Sluesarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase differences required to match the conditions for constructive and destructive interference, in the reflected and transmitted light in four types of thin films. We consider thin films with varied sequences in the refractive index, which we identify as barriers, wells and stairs (up and down). Also, we use the conservation of energy in order to understand the complementary colour fringes observed in the reflected and transmitted light through thin films. We analyse systematically the phase changes by introducing a phase table and we synthesize the results in a circular diagram matching 16 physical situations of interference and their corresponding conditions on the film thickness. The phase table and the circular diagram are a pair of tools easily assimilated by students, and useful to organize, analyse and activate the knowledge about thin films.

  14. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  15. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, E; Cheynis, F; Leroy, F; Mueller, P [Centre Interdisciplinaire de Nanoscience de Marseille (CINaM) CNRS UPR 3118, Aix-Marseille Universite, 13288 Marseille (France); Pierre-Louis, O, E-mail: muller@cinam.univ-mrs.fr [LPMCN, Universite Lyon 1, 43 Bd du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbane (France)

    2011-04-15

    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO{sub 2} substrates. During annealing (T>700 deg. C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO{sub 2} is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  16. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, E.; Cheynis, F.; Leroy, F.; Müller, P.; Pierre-Louis, O.

    2011-04-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO2 substrates. During annealing (T>700 °C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO2 is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  17. Dynamics of solid thin-film dewetting in the silicon-on-insulator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bussmann, E; Cheynis, F; Leroy, F; Mueller, P; Pierre-Louis, O

    2011-01-01

    Using low-energy electron microscopy movies, we have measured the dewetting dynamics of single-crystal Si(001) thin films on SiO 2 substrates. During annealing (T>700 deg. C), voids open in the Si, exposing the oxide. The voids grow, evolving Si fingers that subsequently break apart into self-organized three-dimensional (3D) Si nanocrystals. A kinetic Monte Carlo model incorporating surface and interfacial free energies reproduces all the salient features of the morphological evolution. The dewetting dynamics is described using an analytic surface-diffusion-based model. We demonstrate quantitatively that Si dewetting from SiO 2 is mediated by surface-diffusion driven by surface free-energy minimization.

  18. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jen-Hwa [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2016-11-15

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)]{sub 2}/FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T{sub A}=200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at T{sub A}≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at T{sub A}=300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), T{sub A} and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (H{sub C}) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of H{sub C}(T), i.e., a broad minimum in H{sub C}(T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the H{sub C}(T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (T{sub C}) with T{sub A} (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of T{sub C} with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest T{sub C} with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and

  19. Thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique for magnesium thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbag, M.Z., E-mail: zbalbag@ogu.edu.t [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Education Faculty, Primary Education, Meselik Campus, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ozkan, M.; Ekem, N. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Musa, G. [Ovidius University, Physics Department, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, magnesium thin films were deposited on glass substrate by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique for the first time. We present a different technique for deposition of high-quality magnesium thin films. By means of this technique, the production of films is achieved by condensing the plasma of anode material generated using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) under high vacuum conditions onto the surface to be coated. The crystal orientation and morphology of the deposited films were investigated by using XRD, EDX, SEM and AFM. The aim of this study is to search the use of TVA technique to coat magnesium thin films and to determine some of the physical properties of the films generated. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the scientific studies which search the thin films of magnesium or the compounds containing magnesium. In future, this study will be preliminary work to entirely produce magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) superconductor thin film with the TVA technique.

  20. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    materials which is very interesting for certain applications. Finally the boron atoms were used to form a Lewis acidic nanocrystal surface chemistry allowing for the creation of ligand-less silicon nanocrystal solutions. This represents an immense step towards an abundant, non-toxic alternative to Pb and Cd-based nanocrystal technologies. The lack of long ligand chains enables the production of dense films with excellent electrical conductivity. This was demonstrated by forming uniform nanocrystal thin-films using simple and inexpensive spray coating techniques.

  1. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  2. Flexible and low-voltage integrated circuits constructed from high-performance nanocrystal transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David K; Lai, Yuming; Diroll, Benjamin T; Murray, Christopher B; Kagan, Cherie R

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as a new class of solution-processable materials for low-cost, flexible, thin-film electronics. Although these colloidal inks have been shown to form single, thin-film field-effect transistors with impressive characteristics, the use of multiple high-performance nanocrystal field-effect transistors in large-area integrated circuits has not been shown. This is needed to understand and demonstrate the applicability of these discrete nanocrystal field-effect transistors for advanced electronic technologies. Here we report solution-deposited nanocrystal integrated circuits, showing nanocrystal integrated circuit inverters, amplifiers and ring oscillators, constructed from high-performance, low-voltage, low-hysteresis CdSe nanocrystal field-effect transistors with electron mobilities of up to 22 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), current modulation >10(6) and subthreshold swing of 0.28 V dec(-1). We fabricated the nanocrystal field-effect transistors and nanocrystal integrated circuits from colloidal inks on flexible plastic substrates and scaled the devices to operate at low voltages. We demonstrate that colloidal nanocrystal field-effect transistors can be used as building blocks to construct complex integrated circuits, promising a viable material for low-cost, flexible, large-area electronics.

  3. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  4. Laser-Printed Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Diemer, Peter J.; Harper, Angela F.; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Petty, Anthony J.; Anthony, John E.; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2017-01-01

    their incorporation in large-scale manufacturing processes. Here, the first ever organic thin-film transistor fabricated with an electrophotographic laser printing process using a standard office laser printer is reported. This completely solvent-free additive

  5. Preparation of Nb thin films with bulk transition temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, L H [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1984-08-01

    Thin films (1000-2000 A) of Nb were prepared with bulk transition temperatures (9.25 K) by evaporation from an electron gun. Necessary substrate temperatures, evaporation rates and H/sub 2/O pressures were determined.

  6. A Variational approach to thin film hydrodynamics of binary mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Thiele, Uwe; Qian, Tiezheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to model the dynamics of thin films of mixtures, solutions, and suspensions, a thermodynamically consistent formulation is needed such that various coexisting dissipative processes with cross couplings can be correctly described

  7. Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Theodor; Kosec, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) is a highly-flexible and inexpensive technique for the fabrication of functional oxide thin films. Featuring nearly 400 illustrations, this text covers all aspects of the technique.

  8. Mechanism of spontaneous hole formation in thin polymeric films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Román Marín, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    We show computationally that (molten) thin polymeric film containing nonequilibrium configurations originating from a solvent evaporation may develop holes spontaneously in the molten state, and that they appear delayed. Polymers above the glass transition temperature are liquids where the flow...

  9. Simple gun for vapor deposition of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A simple evaporation gun for preparing organic thin films was fabricated using commercially available parts of an electron gun for a TV Braun tube. The device permits sample heating to be easily controlled because of the small heat capacity

  10. Multiferroic iron oxide thin films at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gich, M.; Fina, I.; Morelli, Alessio; Sánchez, F.; Alexe, M.; Gazquez, J.; Fontcuberta, J.; Roig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 27 (2014), s. 4645-4652 ISSN 0935-9648 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multiferroic * iron oxide * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 17.493, year: 2014

  11. Bandtail characteristics in InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.Z.; Jiang, L.F.; Yang, H.F.; Meng, F.Y.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X.

    2002-01-01

    The Urbach bandtail characteristics in InN thin films grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrates have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The bandtail parameter in InN thin films has been obtained by temperature-dependent transmission spectra, with the aid of a detailed calculation of the transmission profile. A bandtail model based on the calculation of density of occupied states and the carrier-phonon interaction has been employed to analyze the temperature-dependent bandtail characteristics. The bandtail parameter is in the range of 90-120 meV in the InN thin film. It is found that the carrier-phonon interaction in InN is weak and the structural disorder contribution (∼90 meV) dominates over the interactive terms. The high structural disorder in InN thin films may relate to the high nonradiative recombination centers

  12. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed

  13. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  14. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2016-12-15

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  15. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  16. Inverse bilayer magnetoelectric thin film sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de [Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Salzer, S.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R. [Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Electrical and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    Prior investigations on magnetoelectric (ME) thin film sensors using amorphous FeCoSiB as a magnetostrictive layer and AlN as a piezoelectric layer revealed a limit of detection (LOD) in the range of a few pT/Hz{sup 1/2} in the mechanical resonance. These sensors are comprised of a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Pt/AlN/FeCoSiB layer stack, as dictated by the temperatures required for the deposition of the layers. A low temperature deposition route of very high quality AlN allows the reversal of the deposition sequence, thus allowing the amorphous FeCoSiB to be deposited on the very smooth Si substrate. As a consequence, the LOD could be enhanced by almost an order of magnitude reaching 400 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at the mechanical resonance of the sensor. Giant ME coefficients (α{sub ME}) as high as 5 kV/cm Oe were measured. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed highly c-axis oriented growth of the AlN starting from the Pt-AlN interface with local epitaxy.

  17. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radue, C.; Dyk, E.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P MAX ) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 ∼30% and a total degradation of ∼42%. For Si-2 the initial P MAX was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of ∼10% and a total degradation of ∼17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  18. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  19. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  20. Magnetostatic excitations in thin ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'berman, P.E.; Lugovskoi, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the influence of the exchange interaction and dissipative processes in thin ferrite films on the eigenfrequency spectrum of magnetostatic standing waves and on the dispersion relation and attenuation of magnetostatic traveling waves. For the first time they obtain explicitly the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves (MSWs) in a tangential saturating magnetic field H 0 to second order (inclusive) in the exchange interaction parameter λ. The authors obtain computer solutions for this equation in the complex frequency (ω) plane (for standing waves) or wave-number (q) plane (for traveling waves). The authors show that the dispersion relation constructed from the standing-wave spectrum is different from that of the traveling waves if λ≠0, even if dissipation is neglected. The traveling waves have auxiliary branches of the dispersion relation with weak damping near the spin-wave-resonance (SWR) frequencies. Dissipation has only a relatively weak effect on the frequency spectrum of the standing waves, shifting it upward. For the traveling waves, however, dissipation leads to qualitative changes in the structure of the dispersion relation, giving rise to new branches, forbidden bands, reentrant and anomalous-dispersion regions

  1. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-06-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  2. Nanopolar reorientation in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, C.; Levy, J.; Rivkin, T. V.; Carlson, C.; Parilla, P. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of varying oxygen pressure P(O 2 ) during the growth of Ba 0.4 Sr 0.6 TiO 3 thin films is investigated using dielectric and local optical probes. A transition from in-plane to out-of-plane ferroelectricity is observed with increasing P(O 2 ). Signatures of in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity are identified using dielectric response and time-resolved confocal scanning optical microscopy (TRCSOM). At the crossover pressure between in-plane and out-of-plane polarization (P c =85 mTorr), TRCSOM measurements reveal a soft, highly dispersive out-of-plane polarization that reorients in plane under modest applied electric fields. At higher deposition pressures, the out-of-plane polarization is hardened and is less dispersive at microwave frequencies, and the dielectric tuning is suppressed. Nanopolar reorientation is believed to be responsible for the marked increase in dielectric tuning at P(O 2 )=P c

  3. Trends and new applications in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of this symposium comprise 95 communications from which 64 were selected and fall into the scope of INIS subject categories, and 1 was selected for ETDE indexing. The selected communications deal with the techniques used for thin films preparation using chemical or physical vapor deposition techniques (plasma-arc or jet spraying, cathode sputtering, reactive DC or RF magnetron sputtering, plasma-ion deposition, ion implantation, electron or ion beam spraying, ion beam assisted plasma etching, dynamic ion mixing, distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering, laser induced plasma sputtering etc..). The effects and interactions with the substrates (ion implantation, crystal growth, crystal-phase transformations, microstructures, penetration depth, changes in lattice parameters etc..) are analysed using various techniques such as grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, X-ray and angle resolved electron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, IR absorption spectroscopy, UV or visible emission spectroscopy, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectroscopy, optical ellipsometry etc.. Mechanical tests such as scratch, microhardness and wear tests are also performed on the coatings to analyse their mechanical properties. (J.S.)

  4. Lasing in liquid crystal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: palto@online.ru

    2006-09-15

    A lasing condition is formulated in matrix form for optically anisotropic thin films. Lasing behavior of liquid-crystal slabs is analyzed. In particular, it is shown that if the spatial extent of a liquid crystal slab is much larger than its thickness, then laser emission is feasible not only along the normal to the slab, but also in the entire angular sector. The generated laser light can be observed experimentally as a spot or as concentric rings on a screen. The lowest lasing threshold corresponds to in-plane sliding modes leaking into the substrate. The feedback required for lasing is provided by reflection from the interfaces, rather than edges, of the liquid-crystal slab operating as a planar Fabry-Perot cavity. For cholesteric liquid crystals, it is shown that energy loss to the sliding modes leaking into the substrates and escaping through their edges is a key factor that limits the efficiency of band-edge emission along the normal to the slab.

  5. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  6. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  7. Properties of Spray Pyrolysied Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT from cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O precursor solutions of 0.05 – 0.15 M molar concentrations (MC at a substrate temperature of 350 °C and at an air pressure of 1 bar. Effect of varying MC on the surface morphology, structural optical and electrical properties of CuO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns of the prepared films revealed the formation of CuO thin films having monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation and crystalline size ranging from 8.02 to 9.05 nm was observed. The optical transmission of the film was found to decrease with the increase of MC. The optical band gap of the thin films for 0.10 M was fond to be 1.60 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 31 and 24 ohm.cm for the films grown with MC of 0.05 and 0.10 M respectively. The change in resistivity of the films was studied with respect to the change in temperature was shown that semiconductor nature is present. This information is expected to underlie the successful development of CuO films for solar windows and other semi-conductor applications including gas sensors.

  8. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  9. Electrochemical and hydrothermal deposition of ZnO on silicon: from continuous films to nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, M.; Nenzi, P.; Chubenko, E.; Klyshko, A.; Bondarenko, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the study of the electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide from the non-aqueous solution based on dimethyl sulfoxide and zinc chloride into the porous silicon matrix. The features of the deposition process depending on the thickness of the porous silicon layer are presented. It is shown that after deposition process the porous silicon matrix is filled with zinc oxide nanocrystals with a diameter of 10–50 nm. The electrochemically deposited zinc oxide layers on top of porous silicon are shown to have a crystalline structure. It is also shown that zinc oxide crystals formed by hydrothermal method on the surface of electrochemically deposited zinc oxide film demonstrate ultra-violet luminescence. The effect of the porous silicon layer thickness on the morphology of the zinc oxide is shown. The structures obtained demonstrated two luminescence bands peaking at the 375 and 600 nm wavelengths. Possible applications of ZnO nanostructures, porous and continuous polycrystalline ZnO films such as gas sensors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and nanopiezo energy generators are considered. Aspects of integration with conventional silicon technology are also discussed.

  10. Monte Carlo modeling of transport in PbSe nanocrystal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, I., E-mail: icarbone@ucsc.edu; Carter, S. A. [University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95060 (United States); Zimanyi, G. T. [University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2013-11-21

    A Monte Carlo hopping model was developed to simulate electron and hole transport in nanocrystalline PbSe films. Transport is carried out as a series of thermally activated hopping events between neighboring sites on a cubic lattice. Each site, representing an individual nanocrystal, is assigned a size-dependent electronic structure, and the effects of particle size, charging, interparticle coupling, and energetic disorder on electron and hole mobilities were investigated. Results of simulated field-effect measurements confirm that electron mobilities and conductivities at constant carrier densities increase with particle diameter by an order of magnitude up to 5 nm and begin to decrease above 6 nm. We find that as particle size increases, fewer hops are required to traverse the same distance and that site energy disorder significantly inhibits transport in films composed of smaller nanoparticles. The dip in mobilities and conductivities at larger particle sizes can be explained by a decrease in tunneling amplitudes and by charging penalties that are incurred more frequently when carriers are confined to fewer, larger nanoparticles. Using a nearly identical set of parameter values as the electron simulations, hole mobility simulations confirm measurements that increase monotonically with particle size over two orders of magnitude.

  11. Characterization of thin films with synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Many studies about thin films by using synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 were reviewed. Structural analyses and assessment of thin films used for electronics, and also assessment of insulating films for the gate used in LSI were carried out. Film thickness, unevenness, and density of SiO 2 films in order of nanomer thickness were determined by interference fringes of x-ray reflection curves. The interface structure of (SiO 2 /Si) films was studied by x-ray crystal truncation rod scattering, and the correlation between leakage character depending on nitrogen concentration and interface structure was clarified on SiON film. The oxygen concentration in HfO films in nanometer thickness was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis, and the interface reaction for HfO 2 /SiO 2 was clearly observed by electron spectroscopy. The structure of amorphous thin films with large dielectric constant was analyzed by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum. Devices fabricated from multi-layer films showing giant magnetic resistance were developed for hard disk with a large memory. The character of giant magnetic resistance was governed by multi-layer thin film structure piled up by magnetic and nonmagnetic polycrystalline thin metals. For the multi-layer structure, the concentration distribution of constituent elements was determined to the direction of film thickness by x-ray reflection analysis and grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis. In the semiconductor laser source, Ga 1-x In x N, used for DVD, the local structure around In ions was studied by XAFS since constituent instability, especially overpopulation of In element, caused the deterioration of lifetime and light emission of the laser. The lattice constant of the light emission layer in InGaAs was measured by x-ray micro-beams. (author)

  12. Application of HTSC-thin films in microwave bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reveals unique performance capabilities of High-Temperature Superconducting Thin-Film (HTSCTFs) for possible applications in microwave bandpass filters (BPFs). Microwave filters fabricated with HTSCTFs have demonstrated lowest insertion loss, highest rejection, and sharpest skirt selectivity. Thin films of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO), Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) and Thallium Calcium Barium Copper Oxide (TCBCO) will be most attractive for filters

  13. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  14. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2017-05-10

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  15. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  16. Chapter 23. Single and Heterostructure Multiferroic Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier , Antoine

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Multiferroic oxide materials exhibiting several long range ferroic orders are of high interest because of their wide range of potential applications. The incorporation of their genuine properties in new devices, offering additional physical properties, requires often elaborating them in form of thin films. Retaining their multiferroic characteristics is very challenging. However, thin films can be structured on the nanometer scale and additional degrees of freedom, suc...

  17. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Multiferroicity in oxide thin films and heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In this work a variety of different systems of transition metal oxides ABO 3 (perovskite materials, where B stands for a transition metal and A for a rare earth element) were produced as thin films and heterostructures and analyzed for the structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties. For the epitaxial film preparation mostly pulse laser deposition (PLD) was applied. For one series high pressure oxide sputter deposition was used as well. The bulk multiferroics TbMnO 3 and DyMnO 3 , which develop their electric polarization due to a cycloidal magnetic order, have been prepared as single layers with thicknesses between 2 and 200 nm on YAlO 3 substrates using PLD and sputter deposition. The structural characterization of the surfaces and crystal structure where performed using X-ray reflectometry and diffraction, respectively. These yielded low surface roughness and good epitaxial growth. The magnetic behavior was macroscopically measured with SQUID magnetometry and microscopically with polarized neutron diffraction and resonant magnetic X-ray scattering. While all investigated samples showed antiferromagnetic order, comparable with the collinear magnetic phase of their bulk materials, only the sputter deposited samples exhibited the multiferroic low temperature cycloidal order. The investigation of the optical second harmonic generation in a TbMnO 3 sample could proof the presence of a ferroelectric order in the low temperature phase. The respective transition temperatures of the thin films have been very similar to those of the bulk materials. In contrast an increase in the rare earth ordering temperature has been observed, which reduces the Mn order slightly, an effect not known from bulk TbMnO 3 crystals. The coupling of the antiferromagnetic order in TbMnO 3 to ferromagnetic layers of LaCoO 3 was investigated in super-lattices containing 20 bilayers produced with PLD on the same substrates. The SQUID magnetometry yielded a strong influence of the

  19. Thin films as an emerging platform for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Karki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore thin films as a novel drug delivery tool. Thin films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The thin films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, all of which make it as a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action via several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The design of efficient thin films requires a comprehensive knowledge of the pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of drugs and polymers along with an appropriate selection of manufacturing processes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the critical factors affecting the formulation of thin films, including the physico-chemical properties of polymers and drugs, anatomical and physiological constraints, as well as the characterization methods and quality specifications to circumvent the difficulties associated with formulation design. It also highlights the recent trends and perspectives to develop thin film products by various companies.

  20. The optical properties of plasma polymerized polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goktas, Hilal, E-mail: hilal_goktas@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Demircioglu, Zahide; Sel, Kivanc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Gunes, Taylan [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Kaya, Ismet [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Chemistry Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    We report herein the characterizations of polyaniline thin films synthesized using double discharge plasma system. Quartz glass substrates were coated at a pressure of 80 Pa, 19.0 kV pulsed and 1.5 kV dc potential. The substrates were located at different regions in the reactor to evaluate the influence of the position on the morphological and molecular structure of the obtained thin films. The molecular structure of the thin films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible photospectrometers (UV–vis), and the morphological studies were carried out by scanning electron microscope. The FTIR and UV–vis data revealed that the molecular structures of the synthesized thin films were in the form of leuocoemeraldine and exhibited similar structures with the films produced via chemical or electrochemical methods. The optical energy band gap values of the as-grown samples ranged from 2.5 to 3.1 eV, which indicated that these materials have potential applications in semiconductor devices. The refractive index in the transparent region (from 650 to 1000 nm) steadily decreased from 1.9 to 1.4 and the extinction coefficient was found to be on order of 10{sup −4}. The synthesized thin films showed various degrees of granular morphologies depending on the location of the substrate in the reactor. - Highlights: • Polyaniline thin films were synthesized for the first time via double discharge plasma system. • The films have similar structure to that of the chemically synthesized films. • The morphology of the films could be tuned by this technique. • These materials would have potential applications at semiconductor devices.

  1. Cuprous oxide thin films prepared by thermal oxidation of copper layer. Morphological and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, Artak, E-mail: karapetyan@cinam.univ-mrs.fr [Aix Marseille Université, CINaM, 13288, Marseille (France); Institute for Physical Research of NAS of Armenia, Ashtarak-2 0203 (Armenia); Reymers, Anna [Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, H.Emin st.123, Yerevan 375051 (Armenia); Giorgio, Suzanne; Fauquet, Carole [Aix Marseille Université, CINaM, 13288, Marseille (France); Sajti, Laszlo [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Nitsche, Serge [Aix Marseille Université, CINaM, 13288, Marseille (France); Nersesyan, Manuk; Gevorgyan, Vladimir [Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University, H.Emin st.123, Yerevan 375051 (Armenia); Marine, Wladimir [Aix Marseille Université, CINaM, 13288, Marseille (France)

    2015-03-15

    Structural and optical characterization of crystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin films obtained by thermal oxidation of Cu films at two different temperatures 800 °C and 900 °C are investigated in this work. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that synthesized films consist of single Cu{sub 2}O phase without any interstitial phase and show a nano-grain structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations indicate that the Cu{sub 2}O films have a micro-scale roughness whereas High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy highlights that the nanocrystalline structure is formed by superposition of nearly spherical nanocrystals smaller than 30 nm. Photoluminescence spectra of these films exhibit at room temperature two well-resolved emission peaks at 1.34 eV due to defects energy levels and at 1.97 eV due to phonon-assisted recombination of the 1s orthoexciton in both film series. Emission characteristics depending on the laser power is deeply investigated to determine the origin of recorded emissions. Time-integrated spectra of the 1s orthoexciton emission reveals the presence of oxygen defects below the conduction band edge under non-resonant two-photon excitation using a wide range of excitations wavelengths. Optical absorption coefficients at room temperature are obtained from an accurate analysis of their transmission and reflection spectra, whereas the optical band gap energy is estimated at about 2.11 eV. Results obtained are of high relevance especially for potential applications in semiconductor devices such as solar cells, optical sources and detectors. - Highlights: • Nanostructured Cu{sub 2}O thin films were synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu films. • The PL spectra of nanostructured thin films revealed two well-resolved emission peaks. • The PL properties were investigated under a broad range of experimental conditions. • Inter-band transition in the infrared range has been associated to V{sub Cu} and V{sub O} vacancies. • Absorption

  2. Emergent Topological Phenomena in Thin Films of Pyrochlore Iridates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.

  3. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Wind, Jan; Peinemann, Klaus Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform

  4. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  5. Characterisation and optical vapour sensing properties of PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)], E-mail: inci.capan@gmail.com; Tarimci, C. [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Hassan, A.K. [Sheffield Hallam University, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, City Campus, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Tanrisever, T. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Chemistry Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on the characterisation of spin coated thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for their use in organic vapour sensing application. Thin film properties of PMMA are studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Results obtained show that homogeneous thin films with thickness in the range between 6 and 15 nm have been successfully prepared when films were spun at speeds between 1000-5000 rpm. Using SPR technique, the sensing properties of the spun films were studied on exposures to several halohydrocarbons including chloroform, dichloromethane and trichloroethylene. Data from measured kinetic response have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the studied films to the various analyte molecules in terms of normalised response (%) per unit concentration (ppm). The highest PMMA film sensitivity of 0.067 normalised response per ppm was observed for chloroform vapour, for films spun at 1000 rpm. The high film's sensitivity to chloroform vapour was ascribed mainly to its solubility parameter and molar volume values. Effect of film thickness on the vapour sensing properties is also discussed.

  6. Gold nanocrystals in high-temperature superconducting films: Creation of pinning patterns of choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzer, Christian; Michalowski, Peter; Schmidl, Frank; Seidel, Paul [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Stahl, Claudia; Treiber, Sebastian; Schuetz, Gisela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Christiani, Georg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Albrecht, Joachim [Hochschule Aalen, Beethovenstrasse 1, 73430 Aalen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Many superconducting thin film devices require a spatially resolved current carrying capability due to different boundary conditions. On the one hand, the critical current density and the pinning of flux lines respectively should be high to reduce flux noise in the antenna regions of gradiometers; on the other hand, the critical current density of the Josephson junctions itself must not be too high to ensure a proper functionality. We report that adding gold nanoparticles during the preparation process of epitaxial YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} thin films offers the possibility of creating spatially varying flux pinning properties, thus allowing to locally enhance the critical current density up to a factor of two. Magneto-optical investigations as well as transport measurements will be presented, indicating that an Au particle induced modification of the YBCO pinning properties allows the engineering of the critical current landscape on the sub-micrometre scale.

  7. Temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into fractal architectures and thermoelectric power properties in Au/Ge bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanbao; Wang Jian; Jiao Zheng [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C.M.; Lai, Joseph K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Zhiwen, E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ge fractal architectures were achieved by temperature-induced assembly. > The appearance of fractal architectures influences the thermoelectric power. > But it has little effect on the resistivity. > The values of the superlocalization exponent were within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29. > It was higher than expected for two-dimension fractal system. - Abstract: Fractal architectures of semiconductor nanocrystals were successfully achieved by temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals in gold/germanium (Au/Ge) bilayer films. New assessment strategies of fractal architectures are of fundamental importance in the development of micro/nano-devices. Temperature-dependent properties including resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) of Au/Ge bilayer films with self-similar fractal patterns were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of Au film plays an important role in the characteristics of Au/Ge bilayer films after annealing and the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompany by fractal formation of Ge nanocrystals via temperature-induced assembly. The appearance of fractal architectures has significantly influence on the TEP but little effect on the resistivity of the annealed bilayer film. By analysis of the data, we found that the values of superlocalization exponent are within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29, which are higher than expected for two-dimension fractal systems. The results provided possible evidence for the superlocalization on fractal architectures in Au/Ge bilayer films. The TEP measurements are considered a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system.

  8. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated. Keywords. Polar crystal; uniaxial orientational order; thin film; second harmonic gen- eration; silver ... able content of metal nanoparticles would be of considerable value from an appli- ... polar chain and perpendicular to it [10].

  9. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  10. Preparation of self-supporting thin metal target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuying; Ge Suxian; Yin Jianhua; Yin Xu; Jin Genming

    1989-01-01

    The preparation method and equipment for thin metal self-supporting target without oil contamination are described. The influence of target films contaminated by oil vapor on accuracy of nuclear-physics experimental data are also discussed. The analytical results on carbon content in the prepared films of three elements show that the equipment is very effective for eliminating contamination

  11. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible

  12. Determination of magnetic properties of multilayer metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birlikseven, C.

    2000-01-01

    In recent year, Giant Magnetoresistance Effect has been attracting an increasingly high interest. High sensitivity magnetic field detectors and high sensitivity read heads of magnetic media can be named as important applications of these films. In this work, magnetic and electrical properties of single layer and thin films were investigated. Multilayer thin films were supplied by Prof. Dr. A. Riza Koeymen from Texas University. Multilayer magnetic thin films are used especially for magnetic reading and magnetic writing. storing of large amount of information into small areas become possible with this technology. Single layer films were prepared using the electron beam evaporation technique. For the exact determination of film thicknesses, a careful calibration of the thicknesses was made. Magnetic properties of the multilayer films were studied using the magnetization, magnetoresistance measurements and ferromagnetic resonance technique. Besides, by fitting the experimental results to the theoretical models, effective magnetization and angles between the ferromagnetic layers were calculated. The correspondence between magnetization and magnetoresistance was evaluated. To see the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance in the magnetoresistance measurements, a new experimental set-up was build and measurements were taken in this set-up. A series of soft permalloy thin films were made, and temperature dependent resistivity, magnetoresistance, anisotropic magnetoresistance and magnetization measurements were taken

  13. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Hillier, J.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can

  14. Nonlinear dielectric response in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lente, M. H.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrical permittivity dependence on electric external bias field was investigated in PZT thin films. The results revealed the existence of two mechanisms contributing to the electrical permittivity. The first one was related to the domain reorientation, which was responsible for a strong no linear dielectric behavior, acting only during the poling process. The second mechanism was associated with the domain wall vibrations, which presented a reasonable linear electrical behavior with the applied bias field, contributing always to the permittivity independently of the poling state of the sample. The results also indicated that the gradual reduction of the permittivity with the increase of the bias field strength may be related to the gradual bending of the domain walls. It is believed that the domain wall bending induces a hardening and/or a thinning of the walls, thus reducing the electrical permittivity. A reinterpretation of the model proposed in the literature to explain the dielectric characteristics of ferroelectric materials at high electric field regime is proposed.

    Se ha estudiado la dependencia de la permitividad eléctrica con un campo bias externo en láminas delgadas de PZT. Los resultados revelaron la existencia de dos mecanismos que contribuyen a la permitividad eléctrica. El primero está relacionado con la reorientación de dominios, actúa sólo durante el proceso de polarización y es responsable de un comportamiento dieléctrico fuertemente no lineal. El segundo mecanismo se asocia a las vibraciones de las paredes de dominio, presentando un comportamiento eléctrico razonablemente lineal con el campo bias aplicado, contribuyendo siempre a la permitividad independientemente del estado de polarización de la muestra. Los resultados indicaron también que la reducción gradual de la permitividad con el aumento de la fuerza del campo bias podría estar relacionada con el “bending” gradual de las paredes de dominio

  15. Properties of MoO3 thin film polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, E.M.; Carcia, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film polymorphs of molybdenum trioxide have been synthesized by RF sputtering. Films deposited on thermally floating substrates are polycrystalline and exhibit preferred orientation. Depending upon the oxygen partial pressure maintained during sputtering, the films can be made to crystallize in either the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic α MoO 3 form (unique 2D-layered structure) or the metastable monoclinic β MoO 3 phase (3D ReO 3 -related structure). Metastable β films can be converted thermally to the α phase and the transformation appears topotactic. Films deposited on the cooled substrates are amorphous. A correlation between the particular phase formed and adatom mobility is noted

  16. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric characterization of PZT thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo E.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work ferroelectric thin films of PZT were prepared by the oxide precursor method, deposited on Pt/Si substrate. Films of 0.5 mm average thickness were obtained. Electrical and ferroelectric characterization were carried out in these films. The measured value of the dielectric constant for films was 455. Ferroelectricity was confirmed by Capacitance-Voltage (C-V characteristics and P-E hysteresis loops. Remanent polarization for films presented value around 5.0 µC/cm2 and a coercive field of 88.8 kV/cm.

  17. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  18. Thermoanalytical study of the decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloussifi, H.; Farjas, J.; Roura, P.; Ricart, S.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Dammak, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the use of the thermal analysis techniques to study yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films decomposition. In situ analysis was done by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and evolved gas analysis. Solid residues at different stages and the final product have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate thin films results in the formation of yttria and presents the same succession of intermediates than powder's decomposition, however, yttria and all intermediates but YF 3 appear at significantly lower temperatures. We also observe a dependence on the water partial pressure that was not observed in the decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate powders. Finally, a dependence on the substrate chemical composition is discerned. - Highlights: • Thermal decomposition of yttrium trifluoroacetate films. • Very different behavior of films with respect to powders. • Decomposition is enhanced in films. • Application of thermal analysis to chemical solution deposition synthesis of films

  19. Structural and optical properties of SiC-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozetine, I.; Keffous, A.; Kaci, S.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the deposition of thin films of a SiC-SiO2nanocomposite deposited on silicon substrates. The deposition is carried out by a co-sputtering RF magnetron 13.56 MHz, using two targets a polycristallin 6H-SiC and sprigs of SiO2. In order to study the influence of the deposition time on the morphology, the structural and optical properties of the thin films produced, two series of samples were prepared, namely a series A with a 30 min deposition time and a series B of one hour duration. The samples were investigated using different characterization techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (DRX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and photoluminescence. The results obtained, reveal an optical gap varies between 1.4 and 2.4 eV depending on the thickness of the film; thus depending on the deposition time. The SIMS profile recorded the presence of oxygen (16O) on the surface, which the signal beneath the silicon signal (28Si) and carbon (12C) signals, which confirms that the oxide (SiO2) is the first material deposited at the interface film - substrate with an a-OSiC structure. The photoluminescence (PL) measurement exhibits two peaks, centred at 390 nm due to the oxide and at 416 nm due probably to the nanocrystals of SiC crystals, note that when the deposition time increases, the intensity of the PL drops drastically, result in agreement with dense and smooth film.

  20. Conductance Thin Film Model of Flexible Organic Thin Film Device using COMSOL Multiphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carradero-Santiago, Carolyn; Vedrine-Pauléus, Josee

    We developed a virtual model to analyze the electrical conductivity of multilayered thin films placed above a graphene conducting and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. The organic layers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) as a hole conducting layer, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT), as a p-type, phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and as n-type, with aluminum as a top conductor. COMSOL Multiphysics was the software we used to develop the virtual model to analyze potential variations and conductivity through the thin-film layers. COMSOL Multiphysics software allows simulation and modeling of physical phenomena represented by differential equations such as heat transfer, fluid flow, electromagnetism, and structural mechanics. In this work, using the AC/DC, electric currents module we defined the geometry of the model and properties for each of the six layers: PET/graphene/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT/PCBM/aluminum. We analyzed the model with varying thicknesses of graphene and active layers (P3HT/PCBM). This simulation allowed us to analyze the electrical conductivity, and visualize the model with varying voltage potential, or bias across the plates, useful for applications in solar cell devices.