WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanocrystal system compared

  1. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  2. Chronotherapeutically Modulated Pulsatile System of Valsartan Nanocrystals-an In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nikhil; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2017-02-01

    The objective was to improve the dissolution of valsartan by developing valsartan nanocrystals and design a pulsed release system for the chronotherapy of hypertension. Valsartan nanocrystals were prepared by sonication-anti-solvent precipitation method and lyophilized to obtain dry powder. Nanocrystals were directly compressed to minitablets and coated to achieve pulsatile valsartan release. Pharmacokinetic profiles of optimized and commercial formulations were compared in rabbit model. The mean particle size and PDI of the optimized nanocrystal batch V4 was reported as 211 nm and 0.117, respectively. DSC and PXRD analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of valsartan in nanocrystals. The dissolution extent of valsartan was markedly enhanced with both nanocrystals and minitablets as compared to pure valsartan irrespective of pH of the medium. Core minitablet V4F containing 5% w/w polyplasdone XL showed quickest release of valsartan, over 90% within 15 min. Coated formulation CV4F showed two spikes in release profile after successive lag times of 235 and 390 min. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that the bioavailability of optimized formulation (72.90%) was significantly higher than the commercial Diovan tablet (30.18%). The accelerated stability studies showed no significant changes in physicochemical properties, release behavior, and bioavialability of CV4F formulation. The formulation was successfully designed to achieve enhanced bioavailability and dual pulsatile release. Bedtime dosing will more efficiently control the circadian spikes of hypertension in the morning.

  3. Drug nanocrystals for the formulation of poorly soluble drugs and its application as a potential drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Lei; Zhang Dianrui; Chen Minghui

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of poorly soluble drugs is a general intractable problem in pharmaceutical field, especially those compounds poorly soluble in both aqueous and organic media. It is difficult to resolve this problem using conventional formulation approaches, so many drugs are abandoned early in discovery. Nanocrystals, a new carrier-free colloidal drug delivery system with a particle size ranging from 100 to 1000 nm, is thought as a viable drug delivery strategy to develop the poorly soluble drugs, because of their simplicity in preparation and general applicability. In this article, the product techniques of the nanocrystals were reviewed and compared, the special features of drug nanocrystals were discussed. The researches on the application of the drug nanocrystals to various administration routes were described in detail. In addition, as introduced later, the nanocrystals could be easily scaled up, which was the prerequisite to the development of a delivery system as a market product

  4. Cellulose Nanocrystal Membranes as Excipients for Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda M. Barbosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs were obtained from flax fibers by an acid hydrolysis assisted by sonochemistry in order to reduce reaction times. The cavitation inducted during hydrolysis resulted in CNC with uniform shapes, and thus further pretreatments into the cellulose are not required. The obtained CNC exhibited a homogeneous morphology and high crystallinity, as well as typical values for surface charge. Additionally, CNC membranes were developed from CNC solution to evaluation as a drug delivery system by the incorporation of a model drug. The drug delivery studies were carried out using chlorhexidine (CHX as a drug and the antimicrobial efficiency of the CNC membrane loaded with CHX was examined against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. Aureus. The release of CHX from the CNC membranes is determined by UV-Vis. The obtaining methodology of the membranes proved to be simple, and these early studies showed a potential use in antibiotic drug delivery systems due to the release kinetics and the satisfactory antimicrobial activity.

  5. Cellulose Nanocrystals vs. Cellulose Nanofibrils: A Comparative study on Their Microstructures and Effects as Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuezhu Xu; Fei Liu; Long Jiang; J.Y. Zhu; Darrin Haagenson; Dennis P. Wiesenborn

    2013-01-01

    Both cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are nanoscale cellulose fibers that have shown reinforcing effects in polymer nanocomposites. CNCs and CNFs are different in shape, size and composition. This study systematically compared their morphologies, crystalline structure, dispersion properties in polyethylene oxide (PEO) matrix, interactions...

  6. Rapid synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanocrystals in an aqueous system

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang; Liu, Yunyang; Zeng, Gaofeng; Zhao, Lan; Lai, Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    We report here the first example of ZIF materials synthesized in aqueous solution. The synthesis was performed at room temperature and typically took several minutes compared to hours and days in non-aqueous conditions. The obtained product were ZIF-8 nanocrystals having size of ∼85 nm and showed excellent thermal, hydrothermal and solvothermal stabilities. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; John, Mathew; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.

  8. Design of a novel dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system composited of Ag{sub 2}O modified Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengyan; Liu, Hui, E-mail: liuhui@sust.edu.cn; Liu, Tingting; Qin, Yangxiao

    2017-02-15

    A novel dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system composited of Ag{sub 2}O nanocrystals modified Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets were successfully fabricated. In which, the Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets have been firstly prepared by a simple hydrothermal method, subsequently the as-prepared products were modified with Ag{sub 2}O nanocrystals through a sonochemical depositing process in order to build a novel dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system. The samples were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The photocatalytic activity toward degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) aqueous solution under stimulated solar light was investigated. The experimental results showed this new dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system possess an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity compared to that similar surface heterojunction photocatalysts composed of Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets. This novel photocatalytic system presents a high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. This study will help us to better understand the photocatalytic mechanism of semiconductor photocatalysts with exposed different facets, and provide a new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced photocatalytic materials. - Highlights: •A novel dual Z-scheme system was built by Ag{sub 2}O and facet exposed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. •The individual TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals exposed (001) and (101) facets respectively. •Ag{sub 2}O coupled with Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals through a sonochemical process. •The as-prepared sample possesses a super photocatalytic activity.

  9. A comparative guide to controlled hydrophobization of cellulose nanocrystals via surface esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane X. Peng; Huibin Chang; Satish Kumar; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2016-01-01

    Surface esterification methods of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using acid anhydrides, acid chlorides, acid catalyzed carboxylic acids, and 101-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activated carboxylic acids were evaluated with acetyl-, hexanoyl-, dodecanoyl-, oleoyl-, and methacryloyl-functionalization. Their grafting efficiency was investigated using Fouriertransform infrared...

  10. PTFE-based microreactor system for the continuous synthesis of full-visible-spectrum emitting cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal perovskite nanocrystals comprised of all inorganic cesium lead halide (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I or a mixture thereof have potential as optical gain materials due to their high luminescence efficiency. In this work, cesium lead halide nanocrystals are continuously synthesized via a microreactor system consisting of poly(tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE capillaries. The synthesized nanocrystals possess excellent optical properties, including a full width at half maximum of 19–35 nm, high fluorescence quantum yield of 47.8–90.55%, and photoluminescence emission in the range of 450–700 nm. For the same precursor concentrations, the photoluminescence emission peak generally increases with increasing reaction temperature, revealing a controllable temperature effect on the photoluminescence characteristics of the synthesized nanocrystals. For quantum dots synthesized with a Br/I ratio of 1:3, a slight blue shift was observed for reaction temperatures greater than 100 °C. This PTFE-based microreactor system provides the unique capability of continuously synthesizing high-quality perovskite nanocrystals that emit over the full visible spectrum with applications ranging from displays and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Evolvement of soft templates in surfactant/cosurfactant system for shape control of ZnSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Bo; Liu Yongjun; Li Yanjuan; Yuan Bo; Jia Mingfen; Jiang Fengzhi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soft templates were found in the shape control synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals. ► Micelle formation model in the soft templates system was proposed and proved. ► Different shapes of ZnSe nanocrystals were prepared and explained by proposed model. - Abstract: The evolution of soft templates in the synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals realized through a surfactant/cosurfactant system was investigated and a micelle formation process model was proposed. Through freeze-fracture electron microscopy, it was proven that template micelles were formed in the zinc precursors. Furthermore, it was found that a long stirring period was essential for achieving the lowest energy state of the soft templates which were used for synthesizing monodisperse ZnSe quantum dots.

  12. Evolvement of soft templates in surfactant/cosurfactant system for shape control of ZnSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Bo [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Liu Yongjun [Advanced Analysis and Measurement Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Li Yanjuan [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yuan Bo [Advanced Analysis and Measurement Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Jia Mingfen [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Jiang Fengzhi, E-mail: fengzhij@ynu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry for Natural Resource, Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Advanced Analysis and Measurement Center, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soft templates were found in the shape control synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Micelle formation model in the soft templates system was proposed and proved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different shapes of ZnSe nanocrystals were prepared and explained by proposed model. - Abstract: The evolution of soft templates in the synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals realized through a surfactant/cosurfactant system was investigated and a micelle formation process model was proposed. Through freeze-fracture electron microscopy, it was proven that template micelles were formed in the zinc precursors. Furthermore, it was found that a long stirring period was essential for achieving the lowest energy state of the soft templates which were used for synthesizing monodisperse ZnSe quantum dots.

  13. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  14. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon [Pinole, CA; Schlamp, Michael C [Plainsboro, NJ; Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  15. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  16. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  17. Photoemission studies of semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.S.; Roth, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have been the focus of much attention in the last ten years due predominantly to their size dependent optical properties. Namely, the band gap of nanocrystals exhibits a shift to higher energy with decreasing size due to quantum confinement effects. Research in this field has employed primarily optical techniques to study nanocrystals, and in this respect this system has been investigated extensively. In addition, one is able to synthesize monodisperse, crystalline particles of CdS, CdSe, Si, InP, InAs, as well as CdS/HgS/CdS and CdSe/CdS composites. However, optical spectroscopies have proven ambiguous in determining the degree to which electronic excitations are interior or surface admixtures or giving a complete picture of the density of states. Photoemission is a useful technique for understanding the electronic structure of nanocrystals and the effects of quantum confinement, chemical environments of the nanocrystals, and surface coverages. Of particular interest to the authors is the surface composition and structure of these particles, for they have found that much of the behavior of nanocrystals is governed by their surface. Previously, the authors had performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on CdSe nanocrystals. XPS has proven to be a powerful tool in that it allows one to determine the composition of the nanocrystal surface

  18. The fabrication and analysis of a PbS nanocrystal:C{sub 60} bilayer hybrid photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, D M N M [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States); Hatton, R A [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lutz, T [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Curry, R J; Silva, S R P [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ndissa@umich.edu

    2009-06-17

    A near-infrared sensitive hybrid photovoltaic system between PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs) and C{sub 60} is demonstrated. Up to 0.44% power conversion efficiency is obtained under AM1.5G with a short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 5 mA cm{sup -2} when the PbS-NC layer is treated in anhydrous methanol. The observed J{sub sc} is found be approximately one-third of the maximum expected from this hybrid configuration, indicating the potential for further optimization. Crucial for device operation, a smooth film of nanocrystals is seen to form on the hole transporting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layer deposited on the transparent electrode, facilitated through an ionic interaction between nanocrystal capping ligands and the PEDOT:PSS. The formation of the open circuit voltage in this system is seen to be influenced by an interfacial dipole formed at the hole-extracting electrode, providing insights for further optimization.

  19. Biosynthesis of fluorescent CdS nanocrystals with semiconductor properties: Comparison of microbial and plant production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shalabi, Zahwa; Doran, Pauline M

    2016-04-10

    This study investigated fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and hairy roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as in vitro production vehicles for biological synthesis of CdS quantum dots. Cd added during the mid-growth phase of the cultures was detoxified within the biomass into inorganic sulphide-containing complexes with the quantum confinement properties of semiconductor nanocrystals. Significant differences were found between the two host systems in terms of nanoparticle production kinetics, yield and quality. The much slower growth rate of hairy roots compared with yeast is a disadvantage for commercial scaled-up production. Nanoparticle extraction from the biomass was less effective for the roots: 19% of the Cd present in the hairy roots was recovered after extraction compared with 34% for the yeast. The overall yield of CdS quantum dots was also lower for the roots: relative to the amount of Cd taken up into the biomass, 8.5% was recovered in yeast gel filtration fractions exhibiting quantum dot properties whereas the result for hairy roots was only 0.99%. Yeast-produced CdS crystallites were somewhat smaller with diameters of approximately 2-6 nm compared with those of 4-10nm obtained from the roots. The average ratio of inorganic sulphide to Cd for the purified and size-fractionated particles was 0.44 for the yeast and 1.6 for the hairy roots. Despite the limitations associated with hairy roots in terms of culture kinetics and product yield, this system produced CdS nanoparticles with enhanced photostability and 3.7-13-fold higher fluorescence quantum efficiency compared with those generated by yeast. This work demonstrates that the choice of cellular host can have a significant effect on nanoparticle functional properties as well as on the bioprocessing aspects of biological quantum dot synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rigid Biopolymer Nanocrystal Systems for Controlling Multicomponent Nanoparticle Assembly and Orientation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-10-31

    We have discovered techniques to synthesize well-defined DN conjugated nanostructures that are stable in a wide variety of conditions needed for DNA mediated assembly. Starting from this, we have shown that DNA can be used to control the assembly and integration of semiconductor nanocrystals into thin film devices that show photovoltaic effects.

  1. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  2. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobate–zirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Masanori; Dozono, Hayato

    2013-01-01

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln 3 NbO 7 , Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO 2 ) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln 3 NbO 7 and 50 mol% ZrO 2 , were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 °C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y 3−x Eu x NbO 7 –4ZrO 2 that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu 3+7 F 0 → 5 L 6 , and 7 F 0 → 5 D 2 excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transitions of Eu 3+ , respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 °C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln 3 NbO 7 , Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO 2 ) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln 3 NbO 7 and 50 mol% ZrO 2 ) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y 3−x Eu x NbO 7 and 50 mol% ZrO 2 was directly formed. • The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 °C. • The Y 3 NbO 7 showed an UV-blue and broad-band emission under excitation at 240 nm. • The emission is originated from the niobate octahedral group [NbO 6 ] 7− . • The nanocrystals showed orange and

  3. Uncovering the intrinsic size dependence of hydriding phase transformations in nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Rizia; Hedges, Lester O; Pint, Cary L; Javey, Ali; Whitelam, Stephen; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2013-10-01

    A quantitative understanding of nanocrystal phase transformations would enable more efficient energy conversion and catalysis, but has been hindered by difficulties in directly monitoring well-characterized nanoscale systems in reactive environments. We present a new in situ luminescence-based probe enabling direct quantification of nanocrystal phase transformations, applied here to the hydriding transformation of palladium nanocrystals. Our approach reveals the intrinsic kinetics and thermodynamics of nanocrystal phase transformations, eliminating complications of substrate strain, ligand effects and external signal transducers. Clear size-dependent trends emerge in nanocrystals long accepted to be bulk-like in behaviour. Statistical mechanical simulations show these trends to be a consequence of nanoconfinement of a thermally driven, first-order phase transition: near the phase boundary, critical nuclei of the new phase are comparable in size to the nanocrystal itself. Transformation rates are then unavoidably governed by nanocrystal dimensions. Our results provide a general framework for understanding how nanoconfinement fundamentally impacts broad classes of thermally driven solid-state phase transformations relevant to hydrogen storage, catalysis, batteries and fuel cells.

  4. A comparative study on fluorescence quenching of CdTe nanocrystals with a serial of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baslak, Canan, E-mail: cananbaslak@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Kus, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmutkus1@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Cengeloglu, Yunus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Ersoz, Mustafa [Advanced Technology Research and Application Center, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, 42075 Konya (Turkey)

    2014-09-15

    We report sensing different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with colloidal CdTe nanocrystals. The effect of molecular structure on quenching rate for 2-hyroxy-1-naphthaldehyde (2H–1N), 9,10-phenanthraquinone (PQ), 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde (9-AC) and quinoline (Q) is presented. The quenching rate constants are observed to be strongly dependent on the molecular structure. PQ, consisting of two carbonyl groups, shows the highest rate constant while Q shows the worst one. Both static and dynamic quenching are simultaneously observed for PQ and 2H–1N. Therefore extended Stern–Volmer equations are used to calculate rate constants. Results showed that dynamic quenching is a dominant process. The rate constants for PQ, 2H–1N, 9-AC and Q are calculated to be 64.84, 10.73, 10.66 and 1.85 respectively. - Highlights: • We report the fluorescence quenching of colloidal CdTe nanocrystals with different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. • The quenching rate constants are observed to be strongly dependent on the molecular structure. • Static and dynamic quenching are simultaneously observed. • The best quenching was observed for 9,10-phenanthraquinone.

  5. Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ayaskanta

    impurities (or doping) allows further control over the electrical and optical properties of nanocrystals. However, while impurity doping in bulk semiconductors is now routine, doping of nanocrystals remains challenging. In particular, evidence for electronic doping, in which additional electrical carriers are introduced into the nanocrystals, has been very limited. Here, we adopt a new approach to electronic doping of nanocrystals. We utilize a partial cation exchange to introduce silver impurities into cadmium selenide (CdSe) and lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystals. Results indicate that the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals show a significant increase in fluorescence intensity, as compared to pure CdSe nanocrystals. We also observe a switching from n- to p-type doping in the silver-doped CdSe nanocrystals with increased silver amounts. Moreover, the silver-doping results in a change in the conductance of both PbSe and CdSe nanocrystals and the magnitude of this change depends on the amount of silver incorporated into the nanocrystals. In the bulk, silver chalcogenides (Ag2E, E=S, Se, and Te) possess a wide array of intriguing properties, including superionic conductivity. In addition, they undergo a reversible temperature-dependent phase transition which induces significant changes in their electronic and ionic properties. While most of these properties have been examined extensively in bulk, very few studies have been conducted at the nanoscale. We have recently developed a versatile synthesis that yields colloidal silver chalcogenide nanocrystals. Here, we study the size dependence of their phase-transition temperatures. We utilize differential scanning calorimetry and in-situ X-ray diffraction analyses to observe the phase transition in nanocrystal assemblies. We observe a significant deviation from the bulk alpha (low-temperature) to beta (high-temperature) phase-transition temperature when we reduce their size to a few nanometers. Hence, these nanocrystals provide great

  6. Comparing Economic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    1984-01-01

    Defines the predominate classifications of economic systems: traditional, command, market, capitalism, socialism, and communism. Considers property rights, role of government, economic freedom, incentives, market structure, economic goals and means of achieving those goals for each classification. Identifies 26 print and audio-visual sources for…

  7. Phase- and size-controllable synthesis of hexagonal upconversion rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals through an oleic acid/ionic liquid two-phase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meng; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Chunlei; Ma, Jiebing; He, Rong; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-05-07

    Herein, we introduce a facile, user- and environmentally friendly (n-octanol-induced) oleic acid (OA)/ionic liquid (IL) two-phase system for the phase- and size-controllable synthesis of water-soluble hexagonal rare earth (RE = La, Gd, and Y) fluoride nanocrystals with uniform morphologies (mainly spheres and elongated particles) and small sizes (size are discussed in detail. More importantly, the mechanism of the (n-octanol-induced) OA/IL two-phase system, the formation of the RE fluoride nanocrystals, and the distinctive size- and morphology-controlling capacity of the system are presented. BmimPF(6) is versatile in term of crystal-phase manipulation, size and shape maintenance, and providing water solubility in a one-step reaction. The luminescent properties of Er(3+)-, Ho(3+)-, and Tm(3+)-doped LaF(3), NaGdF(4), and NaYF(4) nanocrystals were also studied. It is worth noting that the as-prepared products can be directly dispersed in water due to the hydrophilic property of Bmim(+) (cationic part of the IL) as a capping agent. This advantageous feature has made the IL-capped products favorable in facile surface modifications, such as the classic Stober method. Finally, the cytotoxicity evaluation of NaYF(4):Yb,Er nanocrystals before and after silica coating was conducted for further biological applications. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  9. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  10. On the formation of Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals by a novel system through microwave assisted combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinpur, Arman, E-mail: arman_hoseinpur@metaleng.iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaly, Maisam [Nanotechnology Department, School of New Technologies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bafghi, Mohammad Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki, Jalil Vahdati [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775-1111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This research is devoted to microwave assisted combustion synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles. The ternary system of MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C was used as a novel approach for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C in which the zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} was responsible for the combustion to take place. Results showed that the formation of Mo{sub 2}C was assisted by the zincothermic reaction, although further microwave heating up to 6 min was necessary to complete the reaction. The effects of the microwave heating and mechanical activation on the reaction progress were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction was used to examine the synthesis progress. Final products (Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO) were successfully separated from each other and the synthesized carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing the formation of Mo{sub 2}C hexagonal nanocrystals during combustion process. - Highlights: • Hexagonal β-Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. • MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C powder mixture was selected as the initial mixture for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C. • 30 min of mechanical activation was necessary for the carbide formation to be completed. • The zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} by Zn was responsible for the combustion. • The final products included of Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO in which ZnO was removed by acid leaching.

  11. Elucidating the in vivo fate of nanocrystals using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model: a case study with the anticancer agent SNX-2112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong D

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Dong,1* Xiao Wang,1* Huailing Wang,1 Xingwang Zhang,2 Yifei Wang,1 Baojian Wu2 1Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: SNX-2112 is a promising anticancer agent but has poor solubility in both water and oil. In the study reported here, we aimed to develop a nanocrystal formulation for SNX-2112 and to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the prepared nanocrystals. Methods: Nanocrystals of SNX-2112 were prepared using the wet-media milling technique and characterized by particle size, differential scanning calorimetry, drug release, etc. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was undertaken to evaluate the drug’s disposition in rats following administration of drug cosolvent or nanocrystals. Results: The optimized SNX-2112 nanocrystals (with poloxamer 188 as the stabilizer were 203 nm in size with a zeta potential of -11.6 mV. In addition, the nanocrystals showed a comparable release profile to the control (drug cosolvent. Further, the rat PBPK model incorporating the parameters of particulate uptake (into the liver and spleen and of in vivo drug release was well fitted to the experimental data following administration of the drug nanocrystals. The results reveal that the nanocrystals rapidly released drug molecules in vivo, accounting for their cosolvent-like pharmacokinetic behaviors. Due to particulate uptake, drug accumulation in the liver and spleen was significant at the initial time points (within 1 hour. Conclusion: The nanocrystals should be a good choice for the systemic delivery of the poorly soluble drug SNX-2112. Also, our study contributes to an improved understanding of the in vivo fate of nanocrystals. Keywords: intravenous delivery, PBPK, tissue distribution, poloxamer 188

  12. Memory characteristics of an MOS capacitor structure with double-layer semiconductor and metal heterogeneous nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Henan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Hui Chun

    2009-01-01

    An MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacitor structure with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals consisting of semiconductor and metal embedded in a gate oxide for nonvolatile memory applications has been fabricated and characterized. By combining vacuum electron-beam co-evaporated Si nanocrystals and self-assembled Ni nanocrystals in a SiO 2 matrix, an MOS capacitor with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals can have larger charge storage capacity and improved retention characteristics compared to one with single-layer nanocrystals. The upper metal nanocrystals as an additional charge trap layer enable the direct tunneling mechanism to enhance the flat voltage shift and prolong the retention time. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.

    2006-12-01

    We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)

  14. Comparative study of the luminescence of structures with Ge nanocrystals formed by dry and wet oxidation of SiGe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RodrIguez, A; Ortiz, M I; Sangrador, J; RodrIguez, T; Avella, M; Prieto, A C; Torres, A; Jimenez, J; Kling, A; Ballesteros, C

    2007-01-01

    The luminescence emission of structures containing Ge nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric matrix obtained by dry and wet oxidation of polycrystalline SiGe layers has been studied as a function of the oxidation time and initial SiGe layer thickness. A clear relationship between the intensity of the luminescence, the structure of the sample, the formation of Ge nanocrystals and the oxidation process parameters that allows us to select the appropriate process conditions to get the most efficient emission has been established. The evolution of the composition and thickness of the growing oxides and the remaining SiGe layer during the oxidation processes has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. For dry oxidation, the luminescence appears suddenly, regardless of the initial SiGe layer thickness, when all the Si of the SiGe has been oxidized and the remaining layer of the segregated Ge starts to be oxidized forming Ge nanocrystals. Luminescence is observed as long as Ge nanocrystals are present. For wet oxidation, the luminescence appears from the first stages of the oxidation, and is related to the formation of Ge-rich nanoclusters trapped in the mixed (Si and Ge) growing oxide. A sharp increase of the luminescence intensity for long oxidation times is also observed, due to the formation of Ge nanocrystals by the oxidation of the layer of segregated Ge. For both processes the luminescence is quenched when the oxidation time is long enough to cause the full oxidation of the Ge nanocrystals. The intensity of the luminescence in the dry oxidized samples is about ten times higher than in the wet oxidized ones for equal initial thickness of the SiGe layer

  15. Applying analytical ultracentrifugation to nanocrystal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Jennifer A; Krueger, Karl M; Mayo, J T; Yavuz, Cafer T; Redden, Jacina J; Colvin, Vicki L, E-mail: colvin@rice.ed [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-60, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-09-02

    While applied frequently in physical biochemistry to the study of protein complexes, the quantitative use of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for nanocrystal analysis is relatively rare. Its application in nanoscience is potentially very powerful as it provides a measure of nanocrystal density, size and structure directly in the solution phase. Towards that end, this paper examines the best practices for applying data collection and analysis methods for AUC, geared towards the study of biomolecules, to the unique problems of nanoparticle analysis. Using uniform nanocrystals of cadmium selenide, we compared several schemes for analyzing raw sedimentation data. Comparable values of the mean sedimentation coefficients (s-value) were found using several popular analytical approaches; however, the distribution in sample s-values is best captured using the van Holde-Weischt algorithm. Measured s-values could be reproducibly collected if sample temperature and concentration were controlled; under these circumstances, the variability for average sedimentation values was typically 5%. The full shape of the distribution in s-values, however, is not easily subjected to quantitative interpretation. Moreover, the selection of the appropriate sedimentation speed is crucial for AUC of nanocrystals as the density of inorganic nanocrystals is much larger than that of solvents. Quantitative analysis of sedimentation properties will allow for better agreement between experimental and theoretical models of nanocrystal solution behavior, as well as providing deeper insight into the hydrodynamic size and solution properties of nanomaterials.

  16. Effects of ultrasonic irradiation on crystallization and structural properties of EMT-type zeolite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Eng-Poh, E-mail: epng@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Awala, Hussein [Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie, CNRS-ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Ghoy, Jia-Pei [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Vicente, Aurélie [Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie, CNRS-ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Ling, Tau Chuan [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ng, Yun Hau [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Mintova, Svetlana [Laboratoire Catalyse & Spectrochimie, CNRS-ENSICAEN, Université de Caen (France); Adam, Farook, E-mail: farook@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of EMT zeolite nanocrystals from rice husk ash biomass (RHA) under continuous ultrasonic irradiation is reported. The aging, nucleation and crystallization stages of EMT zeolite in the system were monitored at ambient temperature, and compared with the conventional hydrothermal method. It was found that ultrasonic wave induced rapid crystal growth of the nanosized EMT zeolite. Complete crystallization of EMT nanocrystals was achieved within 24 h which was much faster than conventional hydrothermal synthesis (36 h). Furthermore, XRD and TEM analyses revealed that more nuclei were formed during the nucleation stage, allowing the preparation of smaller zeolite nanocrystals with high crystallinity. The results also showed that sonocrystallization produced EMT zeolite with high yield (ca. 80%). The ultrasound-prepared EMT nanocrystals were also found to have high porosity and high hydrophilicity, making the material promising for water sorption applications including vapor sensing, heat pump and adsorption technologies. - Highlights: • Nanosized EMT zeolites are formed from rice husk ash under ultrasonic irradiation. • The effects of ultrasonic waves in nanosized EMT zeolite synthesis are studied. • Ultrasound induces rapid crystal growth and produces high zeolite yield. • Smaller zeolite nanocrystals with high crystallinity and large defect sites are obtained. • Improved surface hydrophilicity of crystals is beneficial for water sorption applications.

  17. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  18. Simultaneous control of nanocrystal size and nanocrystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    applications such as a photo-sensor [11]. Thus, it is desirable to have, not only a control on the size of the nanocrystals, but also an independent tunability of the ... 1-thioglycerol) in 25 ml methanol under inert atmosphere. 10 ml of 0.2 M sodium sulfide solution is then added to the reaction mixture dropwise and the reaction.

  19. Ni foam-immobilized MIL-101(Cr) nanocrystals toward system integration for hydrogen storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ren, Jianwei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal–organic framework (MOF) materials are only obtained as loose powders with low packing density and thermal conductivity. To enable the developed MOF powdered materials to be utilized in a hydrogen storage system, in this study, MIL-101...

  20. Synthesis and preservation of graphene-supported uranium dioxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hanyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wang, Haitao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, 911 Boston Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 251 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C. [Nuclear Chemistry & Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Na, Chongzheng, E-mail: chongzheng.na@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, 911 Boston Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Graphene-supported uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) nanocrystals are potentially important fuel materials. Here, we investigate the possibility of synthesizing graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals in polar ethylene glycol compounds by the polyol reduction of uranyl acetylacetone under boiling reflux, thereby enabling the use of an inexpensive graphene precursor graphene oxide into a one-pot process. We show that triethylene glycol is the most suitable solvent with an appropriate reduction potential for producing nanometer-sized UO{sub 2} crystals compared to monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol. Graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized with triethylene glycol show evidence of heteroepitaxy, which can be beneficial for facilitating heat transfer in nuclear fuel particles. Furthermore, we show that graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by polyol reduction can be readily stored in alcohols, impeding oxidation from the prevalent oxygen in air. Together, these methods provide a facile approach for preparing and storing graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals for further investigation and development under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • UO{sub 2} nanocrystals are synthesized using polyol reduction method. • Triethylene glycol is the best reducing agent for nano-sized UO{sub 2} crystals. • UO{sub 2} nanocrystals grow on graphene through heteroepitaxy. • Graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be stored in alcohols to prevent oxidation.

  1. Increased electronic coupling in silicon nanocrystal networks doped with F4-TCNQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alexandra; Oberg, Sven; Rayson, Mark J; Briddon, Patrick R

    2013-02-01

    The modification of the electronic structure of silicon nanocrystals using an organic dopant, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), is investigated using first-principles calculations. It is shown that physisorbed F4-TCNQ molecules have the effect of oxidizing the nanocrystal, attracting the charge density towards the F4-TCNQ-nanocrystal interface, and decreasing the excitation energy of the system. In periodic F4-TCNQ/nanocrystal superlattices, F4-TCNQ is suggested to enhance exciton separation, and in the presence of free holes, to serve as a bridge for electron/hole transfer between adjacent nanocrystals.

  2. A New In Vivo Model System to Assess the Toxicity of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Tino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging area of nanotechnology, a key issue is related to the potential impacts of the novel nanomaterials on the environment and human health, so that this technology can be used with minimal risk. Specifically designed to combine on a single structure multipurpose tags and properties, smart nanomaterials need a comprehensive characterization of both chemicophysical properties and adequate toxicological evaluation, which is a challenging endeavour; the in vitro toxicity assays that are often employed for nanotoxicity assessments do not accurately predict in vivo response. To overcome these limitations and to evaluate toxicity characteristics of cadmium telluride quantum dots in relation to surface coatings, we have employed the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris as a model system. We assessed in vivo acute and sublethal toxicity by scoring for alteration of morphological traits, population growth rates, and influence on the regenerative capabilities providing new investigation clues for nanotoxicology purposes.

  3. Nanocrystals Technology for Pharmaceutical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongyao; Lian, Yumei; Kamal, Zul; Ma, Xin; Chen, Jianjun; Zhou, Xinbo; Su, Jing; Qiu, Mingfeng

    2018-05-17

    Nanocrystals technology is a promising method for improving the dissolution rate and enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In recent years, it has been developing rapidly and applied to drug research and engineering. Nanocrystal drugs can be formulated into various dosage forms. This review mainly focused on the nanocrystals technology and its application in pharmaceutical science. Firstly, different preparation methods of nanocrystal technology and the characterization of nanocrystal drugs are briefly described. Secondly, the application of nanocrystals technology in pharmaceutical science is mainly discussed followed by the introduction of sustained release formulations. Then, the scaling up process, marketed nanocrystal drug products and regulatory aspects about nanodrugs are summarized. Finally, the specific challenges and opportunities of nanocrystals technology for pharmaceutical science are summarized and discussed. This review will provide a comprehensive guide for scientists and engineers in the field of pharmaceutical science and biochemical engineering. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. A double-blind randomized-controlled trial comparing the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice containing carbonate/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Giovanna; Procaccini, Maurizio; Manzoli, Lamberto; Giuliodori, Francesca; Lorenzini, Alessandro; Putignano, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    Several dentifrices have shown to be effective in reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH), but more effective products are needed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice based on zinc-carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA) nanocrystals. Using a double-blind, randomized design, the new dentifrice was compared with potassium nitrate/fluoride dentifrice (active control). The participant's DH was evaluated at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks using airblast (primary outcome), tactile, cold water and subjective tests (secondary outcomes). The final sample consisted of 70 subjects with baseline DH; 36 received the new dentifrice and 34 the control one. Both dentifrices were largely effective; the percentage of score reduction from baseline to 8 weeks was greater than 28% for all tests (and greater than 55% for the cold water test) in both groups. As compared with controls, experimental subjects had a significantly greater improvement in the airblast test score (mean percentage of reduction of 46.0%versus 29.4% in controls) and the subjective test score (47.5%versus 28.1%, respectively), with both differences already being significant after 4 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant difference between groups for either the tactile or cold water tests at any time point and with any outcome. This study documented that the new dentifrice containing zinc-CHA nanocrystals significantly reduced dentinal hypersensitivity after 4 and 8 weeks, supporting its utility in clinical practice.

  5. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  6. Nanocrystal synthesis and thin film formation for earth abundant photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathaniel J.

    Providing access to on-demand energy at the global scale is a grand challenge of our time. The fabrication of solar cells from nanocrystal inks comprising earth abundant elements represents a scalable and sustainable photovoltaic technology with the potential to meet the global demand for electricity. Solar cells with Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorber layers are of particular interest due to the high absorption coefficient of CZTSSe, its band gap in the ideal range for efficient photovoltaic power conversion, and the relative abundance of its constituent elements in the earth's crust. Despite the promise of this material system, CZTSSe solar cell efficiencies reported throughout literature have failed to exceed 12.6%, principally due to the low open-circuit voltage (VOC) achieved in these devices compared to the absorber band gap. The work presented herein primarily aims to address the low VOC problem. First, the fundamental cause for such low VOC's is investigated. Interparticle compositional inhomogeneities identified in the synthesized CZTS nanocrystals and their effect on the absorber layer formation and device performance are characterized. Real-time energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) elucidates the role of these inhomogeneities in the mechanism by which a film of CZTS nanocrystals converts into a dense absorber layer comprising micron-sized CZTSSe grains upon annealing in a selenium atmosphere (selenization). Additionally, a direct correlation between the nanocrystal inhomogeneities and the VOC in completed devices is observed. Detailed characterization of CZTSSe solar cells identifies electrical potential fluctuations in the CZTSSe absorber - due to spatial composition variations not unlike those observed in the nanocrystals - as a primary V OC inhibitor. Additional causes for low VOC's in CZTSSe solar cells proposed in the literature involve recombination at the interface between the CZTSSe absorber and: (1) the n-type, CdS buffer layer, or (2) the

  7. Comparing the luminescence processes of YVO{sub 4}:Eu and core-shell YVO{sub 4}@YF{sub 3} nanocrystals with bulk-YVO{sub 4}:Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmane, L., E-mail: liana.shirmane@gmail.com [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga iela, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); Feldmann, C. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstrasse 15, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pankratov, V., E-mail: vladimirs.pankratovs@oulu.fi [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga iela, LV-1063 Riga (Latvia); MAX IV Laboratory, Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Research Center of Molecular Materials, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2017-01-01

    Comparative analysis of bulk, non-coated and core-shelled nanocrystalline YVO{sub 4}:Eu was performed by means of time-resolved luminescence and VUV excitation luminescence spectroscopy techniques. Nanocrystalline YVO{sub 4}:Eu samples – both as-prepared and YF{sub 3} core-shelled – have been synthesized by means of a microwave-assisted synthesis in ionic liquids, which allows to obtain 10–12 nm nanoparticles with high crystallinity. The results show noticeable differences between bulk and nanocrystalline YVO{sub 4}:Eu in photoluminescence experimental data, which explains by influence of the nanocrystal surface. A YF{sub 3} core-shell layer around YVO{sub 4}:Eu nanoparticles partially recovers the intensity of the Eu{sup 3+} emission. It is demonstrated that the Eu{sup 3+} luminescence recovery is achieved at the expense of the suppression of the intrinsic emission but not due to the passivation of surface loss centers in core-shelled nanocrystals. It is also shown that surface loss processes are the reason of the degradation of energy transfer efficiency from the host lattice to Eu{sup 3+} under high-energy excitations in vacuum ultraviolet spectral range.

  8. X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy of the structure, reactivity, and electronic structure of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, Kimberly Sue [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are a system which has been the focus of interest due to their size dependent properties and their possible use in technological applications. Many chemical and physical properties vary systematically with the size of the nanocrystal and thus their study enables the investigation of scaling laws. Due to the increasing surface to volume ratio as size is decreased, the surfaces of nanocrystals are expected to have a large influence on their electronic, thermodynamic, and chemical behavior. In spite of their importance, nanocrystal surfaces are still relatively uncharacterized in terms of their structure, electronic properties, bonding, and reactivity. Investigation of nanocrystal surfaces is currently limited by what techniques to use, and which methods are suitable for nanocrystals is still being determined. This work presents experiments using x-ray and electronic spectroscopies to explore the structure, reactivity, and electronic properties of semiconductor (CdSe, InAs) nanocrystals and how they vary with size. Specifically, x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) in conjunction with multiple scattering simulations affords information about the structural disorder present at the surface of the nanocrystal. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) probe the electronic structure in terms of hole screening, and also give information about band lineups when the nanocrystal is placed in electric contact with a substrate. XPS of the core levels of the nanocrystal as a function of photo-oxidation time yields kinetic data on the oxidation reaction occurring at the surface of the nanocrystal.

  9. Biocompatibility of bio based calcium carbonate nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance ...

  10. Selective detection of Fe2+ by combination of CePO4:Tb3+ nanocrystal-H2O2 hybrid system with synchronous fluorescence scan technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongqi; Ren, Jicun

    2012-04-21

    A new method for quenching kinetic discrimination of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+), and sensitive detection of trace amount of Fe(2+) was developed by using synchronous fluorescence scan technique. The principle of this assay is based on the quenching kinetic discrimination of Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) in CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrytals-H(2)O(2) hybrid system and the Fenton reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2). Stable, water-soluble and well-dispersible CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrystals were synthesized in aqueous solutions, and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS). We found that both Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) could quench the synchronous fluorescence of CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrytals-H(2)O(2) system, but their quenching kinetics velocities were quite different. In the presence of Fe(3+), the synchronous fluorescent intensity was unchanged after only one minute, but in the presence of Fe(2+), the synchronous fluorescent intensity decreased slowly until 28 min later. The Fenton reaction between Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) resulted in hydroxyl radicals which effectively quenched the synchronous fluorescence of the CePO(4):Tb(3+) nanocrystals due to the oxidation of Ce(3+) into Ce(4+) by hydroxyl radicals. Under optimum conditions, the linear range for Fe(2+) is 3 nM-2 μM, and the limit of detection is 2.0 nM. The method was used to analyze water samples.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-11-05

    method was used for the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles as a model system. Relatively monodisperse gold nanoparticles were produced. The size and shape of gold nanoparticles can be controlled by the gold precursor and surfactant concentration in the ‘ink.’ This approach can be extended to the synthesis of other nanocrystals and is thus a truly impactful process for the low-cost synthesis of materials and devices incorporating nanocrystals.

  12. Surface and Core Electronic Structure of Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A. Nama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method within the framework of large unit cell formalism is used to simulate silicon nanocrystals between 216 and 1000 atoms (1.6–2.65 nm in diameter that include Bravais and primitive cell multiples. The investigated properties include core and oxidized surface properties. Results revealed that electronic properties converge to some limit as the size of the nanocrystal increases. Increasing the size of the core of a nanocrystal resulted in an increase of the energy gap, valence band width, and cohesive energy. The lattice constant of the core and oxidized surface parts shows a decreasing trend as the nanocrystal increases in a size that converges to 5.28 Ǻ in a good agreement with the experiment. Surface and core convergence to the same lattice constant reflects good adherence of oxide layer at the surface. The core density of states shows highly degenerate states that split at the oxygenated (001-(1×1 surface due to symmetry breaking. The nanocrystal surface shows smaller gap and higher valence and conduction bands when compared to the core part, due to oxygen surface atoms and reduced structural symmetry. The smaller surface energy gap shows that energy gap of the nanocrystal is controlled by the surface part. Unlike the core part, the surface part shows a descending energy gap that proves its obedience to quantum confinement effects. Nanocrystal geometry proved to have some influence on all electronic properties including the energy gap.

  13. Self organized formation of Ge nanocrystals in multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Zschintzsch-Dias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to create a process which allows the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals for use in photovoltic applications. The multilayer systems used here provide a reliable method to control the Ge nanocrystal size after phase separation. In this thesis, the deposition of GeOx/SiO2 and Ge:SiOx~ 2/SiO2 multilayers via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and the self-ordered Ge nanocrystal formation within the GeOx and Ge:SiOx~ 2 sublayers during subsequent annealing is investigated...

  14. Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furukawa, Keiko; Serizawa, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2009-06-02

    Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals and surface-modified substrates were investigated by measuring adsorption behavior and adhesion strength with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a contact-mode atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The goal was to develop better control of HAp-nanocrystal coatings on biomedical materials. HAp nanocrystals with rodlike or spherical morphology were prepared by a wet chemical process followed by calcination at 800 degrees C with an antisintering agent to prevent the formation of sintered polycrystals. The substrate surface was modified by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, or graft polymerization with a functional monomer. QCM measurement showed that the rodlike HAp nanocrystals adsorbed preferentially onto anionic COOH-modified substrates compared to cationic NH2- or hydrophobic CH3-modified substrates. On the other hand, the spherical nanocrystals adsorbed onto NH2- and COOH-modified substrates, which indicates that the surface properties of the HAp nanocrystals determined their adsorption behavior. The adhesion strength, which was estimated from the force required to move the nanocrystal in contact-mode AFM, on a COOH-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was almost 9 times larger than that on a COOH-modified substrate prepared by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, indicating that the long-chain polymer grafted on the substrate mitigated the surface roughness mismatch between the nanocrystal and the substrate. The adhesion strength of the nanocrystal bonded covalently by the coupling reaction to a Si(OCH3)-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was approximately 1.5 times larger than that when adsorbed on the COOH-grafted substrate.

  15. Characterization and evaluation in vivo of baicalin-nanocrystals prepared by an ultrasonic-homogenization-fluid bed drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Ying, Jin; Jin, Han; Shi-Xiao, Jin; Qing-Yuan, Lv; Jin-Xia, Bai; Chen, Hong-Ge; Rui-Sheng, Li; Wei, Wu; Hai-Long, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    To improve the absorption and bioavailability of baicalin using a nanocrystal (or nanosuspension) drug delivery system. A tandem, ultrasonic-homogenization-fluid bed drying technology was applied to prepare baicalin-nanocrystal dried powders, and the physicochemical properties of baicalin-nanocrystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, physical stability, and solubility experiments. Furthermore, in situ intestine single-pass perfusion experiments and pharmacokinetics in rats were performed to make a comparison between the microcrystals of baicalin and pure baicalin in their absorption properties and bioavailability in vivo. The mean particle size of baicalin-nanocrystals was 236 nm, with a polydispersity index of 0.173, and a zeta potential value of -34.8 mV, which provided a guarantee for the stability of the reconstituted nanosuspension. X-Ray diffraction results indicated that the crystallinity of baicalin was decreased through the ultrasonic-homogenization process. Physical stability experiments showed that the prepared baicalin-nanocrystals were sufficiently stable. It was shown that the solubility of baicalin in the form of nanocrystals, at 495 μg·mL(-1), was much higher than the baicalin-microcrystals and the physical mixture (135 and 86.4 μg·mL(-1), respectively). In situ intestine perfusion experiments demonstrated a clear advantage in the dissolution and absorption characteristics for baicalin-nanocrystals compared to the other formulations. In addition, after oral administration to rats, the particle size decrease from the micron to nanometer range exhibited much higher in vivo bioavailability (with the AUC(0-t) value of 206.96 ± 21.23 and 127.95 ± 14.41 mg·L(-1)·h(-1), respectively). The nanocrystal drug delivery system using an ultrasonic-homogenization-fluid bed drying process is able to improve the absorption and in vivo bioavailability of baicalin, compared with pure

  16. Synthesis of silicon nanocrystals in silane plasmas for nanoelectronics and large area electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, P; Nguyen-Tran, Th; Djeridane, Y; Abramov, A; Johnson, E; Patriarche, G

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of silicon nanocrystals in standard radio-frequency glow discharge systems is studied with respect to two main objectives: (i) the production of devices based on quantum size effects associated with the small dimensions of silicon nanocrystals and (ii) the synthesis of polymorphous and polycrystalline silicon films in which silicon nanocrystals are the elementary building blocks. In particular we discuss results on the mechanisms of nanocrystal formation and their transport towards the substrate. We found that silicon nanocrystals can contribute to a significant fraction of deposition (50-70%) and that they can be positively charged. This has a strong influence on their deposition because positively charged nanocrystals will be accelerated towards the substrate with energy of the order of the plasma potential. However, the important parameter with respect to the deposition of charged nanocrystals is not the accelerating voltage but the energy per atom and thus a doubling of the diameter will result in a decrease in the energy per atom by a factor of 8. To leverage this geometrical advantage we propose the use of more electronegative gases, which may have a strong effect on the size and charge distribution of the nanocrystals. This is illustrated in the case of deposition from silicon tetrafluoride plasmas in which we observe low-frequency plasma fluctuations, associated with successive generations of nanocrystals. The contribution of larger nanocrystals to deposition results in a lower energy per deposited atom and thus polycrystalline films

  17. A comparative study on cellulose nanocrystals extracted from bleached cotton and flax and used for casting films with glycerol and sorbitol plasticisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Emilia; Nagy, Sebestyén

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were released from bleached cotton and flax by a sulphuric acid hydrolysis with about 40 and 34% yield, respectively. The rod-like cotton-CNC particles were slightly longer and wider and had a less pronounced aggregation ability in aqueous suspension than the flax-CNC ones. Films were cast from the CNC suspensions with sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers. The concept behind this research was to explore how the plasticisers - with similar structure but different molecular weight - and their concentrations affect the perceptible and measured properties of CNC films. Results revealed that the type of plasticiser determined the morphology and the optical and tensile properties of films. The best quality CNC film with an averaged thickness of 50μm was obtained with 20% sorbitol from cotton-CNC. It was proved that behaviour of sorbitol and glycerol plasticisers in CNC films was very similar to that reported previously for starch films. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Easy Fabrication of Highly Thermal-Stable Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Cr(NO33 Catalytic Hydrolysis System: A Feasibility Study from Macro- to Nano-Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reported on the feasibility and practicability of Cr(NO33 hydrolysis to isolate cellulose nanocrystals (CNCCr(NO33 from native cellulosic feedstock. The physicochemical properties of CNCCr(NO33 were compared with nanocellulose isolated using sulfuric acid hydrolysis (CNCH2SO4. In optimum hydrolysis conditions, 80 °C, 1.5 h, 0.8 M Cr(NO33 metal salt and solid–liquid ratio of 1:30, the CNCCr(NO33 exhibited a network-like long fibrous structure with the aspect ratio of 15.7, while the CNCH2SO4 showed rice-shape structure with an aspect ratio of 3.5. Additionally, Cr(NO33-treated CNC rendered a higher crystallinity (86.5% ± 0.3% with high yield (83.6% ± 0.6% as compared to the H2SO4-treated CNC (81.4% ± 0.1% and 54.7% ± 0.3%, respectively. Furthermore, better thermal stability of CNCCr(NO33 (344 °C compared to CNCH2SO4 (273 °C rendered a high potential for nanocomposite application. This comparable effectiveness of Cr(NO33 metal salt provides milder hydrolysis conditions for highly selective depolymerization of cellulosic fiber into value-added cellulose nanomaterial, or useful chemicals and fuels in the future.

  19. Photoresponse of hybrids made of carbon nanotubes and CdTe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebli, Bernd; Vieyra, Hugo A.; Kotthaus, Joerg P. [Department fuer Physik and Center for NanoScience (CeNS), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Geschwister-Scholl-Platz 1, 80539 Munich (Germany); Carmeli, Itai [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Hartschuh, Achim [Department fuer Chemie, Physikalische Chemie, Butenandtstr. 5-13 E, 81377 Munich (Germany); Holleitner, Alexander W. [Walter-Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    We observe that the photoresponse of single-walled carbon nanotubes can be adjusted by the absorption characteristics of colloidal CdTe nanocrystals, which are bound to the side-walls of the carbon nanotubes via molecular recognition. To this end, the hybrid systems are characterized using charge transport measurements under resonant optical excitation of the carbon nanotubes and nanocrystals, respectively. We investigate the photoresponse of both ensembles of hybrid systems and single carbon-nanotube-nanocrystal-hybrids. The data suggest a bolometrically induced increase of the current in the carbon nanotubes, which is due to photon absorption in the nanocrystals.

  20. Biomimetic synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Yi

    At the nanometer scale, the physical and chemical properties of materials heavily depend on their sizes and shapes. This fact has triggered considerable efforts in developing controllable nanomaterial synthesis. The controlled growth of colloidal nanocrystal is a kinetic process, in which high-energy facets grow faster and then vanish, leading to a nanocrystal enclosed by low-energy facets. Identifying a surfactant that can selectively bind to a particular crystal facet and thus lower its surface energy, is critical and challenging in shape controlled synthesis of nanocrystals. Biomolecules exhibiting exquisite molecular recognition properties can be exploited to precisely engineer nanostructured materials. In the first part of my thesis, we employed the phage display technique to select a specific multifunctional peptide sequence which can bind on Pd surface and mediate Pd crystal nucleation and growth, achieving size controlled synthesis of Pd nanocrystals in aqueous solution. We further demonstrated a rational biomimetic approach to the predictable synthesis of nanocrystals enclosed by a particular facet in the case of Pt. Specifically, Pt {100} and Pt {111} facet-specific peptides were identified and used to synthesize Pt nanocubes and Pt nano-tetrahedrons, respectively. The mechanistic studies of Pt {111} facet-specific peptide had led us to study the facet-selective adsorption of aromatic molecules on noble metal surfaces. The discoveries had achieved the development of design strategies to select facet-selective molecules which can synthesize nanocrystals with expected shapes in both Pt and Pd system. At last, we exploited Pt facet-specific peptides and controlled the molecular interaction to produce one- and three- dimensional nanostructures composed of anisotropic nanoparticles in synthetic conditions without supramolecular pre-organization, demonstrating the full potential of biomolecules in mediating material formation process. My research on biomimetic

  1. Magneto-optical transitions in multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Climente, J; Jaskolski, W; Aliaga, J I

    2003-01-01

    Absorption spectra of chemically synthesized uniform and multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals in a magnetic field are investigated theoretically. The nanocrystals are modelled by spherical barrier/well potentials. The electron states are calculated within the effective mass model. A four-band k centre dot p Hamiltonian, accounting for the valence subband mixing, is used to obtain the hole states. The magneto-optical transition spectrum depends strongly on the size and composition of the nanocrystals. In the case of small uniform quantum dots, only the linear Zeeman splitting of the electron and hole energy levels is observed even for very strong magnetic fields. In larger nanocrystals, the quadratic magnetic interaction turns out to be important and the transition spectrum becomes complicated. The most complicated influence of the magnetic field is found in quantum dot-quantum well systems in which the lowest electron and hole states are localized in a thin spherical layer. It is shown that transitions that ...

  2. Suretyship in Serbian and comparative legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has compared the institute of suretyship in Serbian law and other comparative legal systems, both continental and common-law. With the development of economy, these instruments of creditor's protection in the contractual relationship have gained full promotion. The analysis of the similarities and differences in the treatment of suretyship implies a relationship between the European legal systems.

  3. Nanocrystals for enhancement of oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Buraphacheep Junyaprasert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystals, a carrier-free colloidal delivery system in nano-sized range, is an interesting approach for poorly soluble drugs. Nanocrystals provide special features including enhancement of saturation solubility, dissolution velocity and adhesiveness to surface/cell membranes. Several strategies are applied for nanocrystals production including precipitation, milling, high pressure homogenization and combination methods such as NanoEdge™, SmartCrystal and Precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH technology. For oral administration, many publications reported useful advantages of nanocrystals to improve in vivo performances i.e. pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and targeted delivery which were discussed in this review. Additionally, transformation of nanocrystals to final formulations and future trends of nanocrystals were also described.

  4. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  5. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  6. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  7. Solvent-Induced Deposition of Cu-Ga-In-S Nanocrystals onto a Titanium Dioxide Surface for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek

    2015-11-25

    In this paper, copper-gallium-indium-sulfide (CGIS) nanocrystals with different Ga/In ratios, i.e., CuGaxIn5-xS8, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, were synthesized and investigated for visible-light-driven hydrogen (H2) evolution from aqueous solutions that contain sulfide/sulfite ions. The synthesized CGIS nanocrystals were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). With 1.0 wt.% Ru as a co-catalyst, the H2 evolution rate on CuGa2In3S8 (CGIS hereafter) showed the highest activity. The CGIS nanocrystals were deposited onto a TiO2 surface via a unique solvent-induced deposition method. The CGIS/TiO2 photocatalyst showed comparable activity to that obtained using bare CGIS nanocrystals when the photocatalyst amount was sufficient in the photoreactor system, suggesting that TiO2 remains intact in terms of photocatalytic activity. The quantity of CGIS nanocrystals, however, required to achieve the rate-plateau condition at saturation was much lower in the presence of TiO2. The enhanced activities at low CGIS loadings observed in the presence of TiO2 were explained by the improved dispersion of the powder suspension and optical path in the photoreactor. This TiO2 supported photocatalyst lowers the required amount of photocatalyst, which is beneficial from an economic point of view.

  8. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias; Choi, Joshua J.; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Structure/Processing Relationships of Highly Ordered Lead Salt Nanocrystal Superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Hanrath, Tobias

    2009-10-27

    We investigated the influence of processing conditions, nanocrystal/substrate interactions and solvent evaporation rate on the ordering of strongly interacting nanocrystals by synergistically combining electron microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis. Spin-cast PbSe nanocrystal films exhibited submicrometer-sized supracrystals with face-centered cubic symmetry and (001)s planes aligned parallel to the substrate. The ordering of drop-cast lead salt nanocrystal films was sensitive to the nature of the substrate and solvent evaporation dynamics. Nanocrystal films drop-cast on rough indium tin oxide substrates were polycrystalline with small grain size and low degree of orientation with respect to the substrate, whereas films drop-cast on flat Si substrates formed highly ordered face-centered cubic supracrystals with close-packed (111)s planes parallel to the substrate. The spatial coherence of nanocrystal films drop-cast in the presence of saturated solvent vapor was significantly improved compared to films drop-cast in a dry environment. Solvent vapor annealing was demonstrated as a postdeposition technique to modify the ordering of nanocrystals in the thin film. Octane vapor significantly improved the long-range order and degree of orientation of initially disordered or polycrystalline nanocrystal assemblies. Exposure to 1,2-ethanedithiol vapor caused partial displacement of surface bound oleic acid ligands and drastically degraded the degree of order in the nanocrystal assembly. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoying

    compared with other less polar solvents) in order to determine optimized conditions for self-assembly, for which relatively large (> 1 mum2) areas of superlattices could be routinely formed. Depending on appropriate selection of the radius ratio, AuCu or CaCu 5 binary superlattices of CdSe-Au nanoparticles were generated. Chapter 4. The preparation of binary nanoparticle superlattices obtained by self-assembly of two different semiconductor quantum dots is presented. Such a system is a means to include two discretized, quantum-confined, and complimentary semiconductor units in close proximity, which might exhibit interesting charge transport properties for applications such as solar cells. From a range of possible structures predicted, we observe an exclusive preference for the formation of Cuboctahedral AB13 (Cuboctahedral modification of NaZn13) and AB5 (isostructural with CaCu5) structures in the system of 8.1 nm CdTe and 4.4 nm CdSe nanoparticles. To understand further the principles of superlattice formation, space-filling curves for binary component hard spheres over the full range of radius ratio are constructed. In addition, the pair interaction energies due to core-core and ligand-ligand van der Waals forces are estimated. The real structures are believed to form under a major influence of entropic driving forces (following the hard-sphere space filling principle) and combined with other influence from the surface (as nanoparticle deviates from hard spheres). Chapter 5. A nanoparticle radius ratio dependent study of the formation of binary nanoparticle superlattices (BNSLs) of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots is reported. While keeping all other parameters identical in the system, the effective nanoparticle radius ratio, gammaeff, was tuned to allow the formation of five different BNSL structures, AlB 2, cub-NaZn13, ico-NaZn 13, CaCu5, and MgZn2. For each structure, gamma eff is located close to a local maximum of its space-filling factor, based on a model following the

  11. AMERICAN EDUCATION SYSTEM: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    BAS, Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce the Education System of the United States of America (USA) and to compare it with the Turkish Education System. The Education System of the United States of America was held from different factors (e.g., education structure, curriculum and instruction, principal selection, educational supervision, special education ,teacher education, finance for education, international examinations, vs.) and these factors were explained under headlines in the study...

  12. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  13. Controlled synthesis of bright and compatible lanthanide-doped upconverting nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bruce E.; Ostrowski, Alexis D.; Chan, Emory M.; Gargas, Daniel J.; Katz, Elan M.; Schuck, P. James; Milliron, Delia J.

    2017-01-31

    Certain nanocrystals possess exceptional optical properties that may make them valuable probes for biological imaging, but rendering these nanoparticles biocompatible requires that they be small enough not to perturb cellular systems. This invention describes a phosphorescent upconverting sub-10 nm nanoparticle comprising a lanthanide-doped hexagonal .beta.-phase NaYF.sub.4 nanocrystal and methods for making the same.

  14. A single molecule switch based on two Pd nanocrystals linked by a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in this single molecule system. 2. Experimental ... (b) Histogram showing size distribution of the nanocrystal in (a). (c) Micro- graph taken ... applied on one of the nanocrystals using the STM tip, a voltage drop is expected along the molecular ...

  15. Engineering Plasmonic Nanocrystal Coupling through Template-Assisted Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greybush, Nicholas J.

    The construction of materials from nanocrystal building blocks represents a powerful new paradigm for materials design. Just as nature's materials orchestrate intricate combinations of atoms from the library of the periodic table, nanocrystal "metamaterials" integrate individual nanocrystals into larger architectures with emergent collective properties. The individual nanocrystal "meta-atoms" that make up these materials are themselves each a nanoscale atomic system with tailorable size, shape, and elemental composition, enabling the creation of hierarchical materials with predesigned structure at multiple length scales. However, an improved fundamental understanding of the interactions among individual nanocrystals is needed in order to translate this structural control into enhanced functionality. The ability to form precise arrangements of nanocrystals and measure their collective properties is therefore essential for the continued development of nanocrystal metamaterials. In this dissertation, we utilize template-assisted self-assembly and spatially-resolved spectroscopy to form and characterize individual nanocrystal oligomers. At the intersection of "top-down" and "bottom-up" nanoscale patterning schemes, template-assisted self-assembly combines the design freedom of lithography with the chemical control of colloidal synthesis to achieve unique nanocrystal configurations. Here, we employ shape-selective templates to assemble new plasmonic structures, including heterodimers of Au nanorods and upconversion phosphors, a series of hexagonally-packed Au nanocrystal oligomers, and triangular formations of Au nanorods. Through experimental analysis and numerical simulation, we elucidate the means through which inter-nanocrystal coupling imparts collective optical properties to the plasmonic assemblies. Our self-assembly and measurement strategy offers a versatile platform for exploring optical interactions in a wide range of material systems and application areas.

  16. Comparative risk assessment of total energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, B.

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses a methodology for total impact assessment of energy systems, ideally evaluating all the impacts that a given energy system has on the society in which it is imbedded or into which its introduction is being considered. Impacts from the entire energy conversion chain ('fuel cycle' if the system is fuel-based), including energy storage, transport and transmission, as well as the institutions formed in order to manage the system, should be compared on the basis of the energy service provided. A number of impacts are considered, broadly classified as impacts on satisfaction of biological needs, on health, on environment, on social relations and on the structure of society. Further considerations include impacts related to cost and resilience, and, last but not least, impacts on global relations. The paper discusses a number of published energy studies in the light of the comparative impact assessment methodology outlined above. (author)

  17. Spontaneous emission enhancement of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhili; Waks, Edo

    Halide perovskite semiconductors have emerged as prominent photovoltaic materials since their high conversion efficiency and promising light emitting materials in optoelectronics. In particular, easy-to-fabricated colloidal perovskite nanocrystals based on CsPbX3 quantum dots has been intensively investigated recently. Their luminescent wavelength could be tuned precisely by their chemical composition and size of growth. This opens new applications including light-emitting diodes, optical amplifiers and lasing since their promising performance as emitters. However, this potentially high-efficient emitter and gain material has not been fully investigated and realized in integrated photonic structures. Here we demonstrate Purcell enhancement effect of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals by coupling to an optimized photonic crystal nanobeam cavity as a first crucial step towards realization of integrated on-chip coherent light source with low energy consumption. We show clearly highly-enhanced photoluminescent spectrum and an averaged Purcell enhancement factor of 2.9 is achieved when they are coupled to nanobeam photonic crystal cavities compared to the ones on unpatterned surface in our lifetime measurement. Our success in enhancement of emission from CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals paves the way towards the realization of efficient light sources for integrated optoelectronic devices with low energy consumption.

  18. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    The impact of nanotechnology on our society is getting larger every year. Electronics are becoming smaller and more powerful, the "Internet of Things" is all around us, and data generation is increasing exponentially. None of this would have been possible without the developments in nanotechnology. Crystalline semiconductor nanoparticles (nanocrystals) are one of the latest developments in the field of nanotechnology. This thesis addresses three important challenges for the transition of silicon nanocrystals from the lab bench to the marketplace: A better understanding of the nanocrystal synthesis was obtained, the electronic properties of the nanocrystals were characterized and tuned, and novel silicon nanocrystal inks were formed and applied using simple coating technologies. Plasma synthesis of nanocrystals has numerous advantages over traditional solution-based synthesis methods. While the formation of nanoparticles in low pressure nonthermal plasmas is well known, the heating mechanism leading to their crystallization is poorly understood. A combination of comprehensive plasma characterization with a nanoparticle heating model presented here reveals the underlying plasma physics leading to crystallization. The model predicts that the nanoparticles reach temperatures as high as 900 K in the plasma as a result of heating reactions on the nanoparticle surface. These temperatures are well above the gas temperature and sufficient for complete nanoparticle crystallization. Moving the field of plasma nanoparticle synthesis to atmospheric pressures is important for lowering its cost and making the process attractive for industrial applications. The heating and charging model for silicon nanoparticles was adapted in Chapter 3 to study plasmas maintained over a wide range of pressures (10 -- 105 Pa). The model considers three collisionality regimes and determines the dominant contribution of each regime under various plasma conditions. Strong nanoparticle cooling at

  19. Structural, optical and electrical properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SixC1−x/SiC multilayer systems for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Vidrier, J.; Hernández, S.; Samà, J.; Canino, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Bellettato, M.; Shukla, R.; Schnabel, M.; Löper, P.; López-Conesa, L.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Janz, S.; Garrido, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the structural, optical and electrical properties of Si x C 1−x /SiC multilayers with different Si excess. ► Multilayer structure is destroyed after annealing at 1100 °C. ► Energy filtered TEM confirmed the Si NC formation. ► Sample thickness values from optical simulations are in agreement with TEM observations. ► The crystallization degree of the NCs was evaluated by Raman scattering and R and T techniques. ► The system conductivity depends on the NC size. ► The presence of a defective oxycarbide layer on top did not allow for obtaining useful electrical information. -- Abstract: In this work we present a structural, optical and electrical characterization of Si x C 1−x /SiC multilayer systems with different silicon content. After the deposition process, an annealing treatment was carried out in order to induce the silicon nanocrystals formation. By means of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) we observed the structural morphology of the multilayers and the presence of crystallized silicon nanoprecipitates for samples annealed up to 1100 °C. We discuss the suitability of optical techniques such as Raman scattering and reflectance and transmittance (R and T) for the evaluation of the crystalline fraction of our samples at different silicon excess ranges. In addition, the combination of R and T measurements with simulation has proved to be a useful instrument to confirm the structural properties observed by EFTEM. Finally, we explore the origin of the extremely high current density revealed by electrical measurements, probably due to the presence of an undesired defective SiC y O z ternary compound layer, already supported by the structural and optical results. Nevertheless, the variation of the electrical measurements with the silicon amount indicates a small but significant contribution from the multilayers

  20. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  1. Optimizing colloidal nanocrystals for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytnyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature colloidal nanocrystals are presented as promising materials for multiple applications, in areas covering optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, catalysis, and bio-medicine. On the marked are, however, only a very limited number of examples found, indeed implementing colloidal nanocrystals. Thus the scope of this thesis was to modify nanocrystals and to tune their properties to fulfill specific demands. While some modifications could be achieved by post synthetic treatments, one key problem of colloidal nanocrystals, hampering there widespread application is the toxicity of their constituents. To develop nanocrystals from non-toxic materials has been a major goal of this thesis as well. Roughly, the results in this thesis could be subdivided into three parts: (i) the development of ion exchange methods to tailor the properties of metallic and metal-oxide based nanocrystal heterostructures, (ii), the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals from non-toxic materials, and (iii) the characterization of the nanocrystals by measurements of their morphology, chemical composition, magnetic-, optical-, and electronic properties. In detail, the thesis is subdivided into an introductory chapter, 4 chapters reporting on scientific results, a chapter reporting the used methods, and the conclusions. The 4 chapters devoted to the scientific results correspond to manuscripts, which are either currently in preparation, or have been published in highly ranked scientific journals such as NanoLetters (chapter 2), ACS Nano (chapter 4), or JACS (chapter 5). Thus, these chapters provide also an extra introduction and conclusion section, as well as separate reference lists. Chapter 2 describes a cation exchange process which is used to tune and improve the magnetic properties of different iron-oxide based colloidal nanocrystal-heterostructures. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature, magnetic remanence, and coercivity is tuned by replacing Fe2+ by Co2

  2. Hot-injection synthesis of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with tunable magnetic properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Deqian; Qiu, Yulong; Chen, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yuanzhi@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang, Qinfu; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Dong-Liang, E-mail: dlpeng@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Genome, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, College of Materials (China)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals containing ferromagnetic Ni and semiconductor ZnO have been prepared via a hot-injection route. The Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals have a flower-like morphology that consists of Ni inner cores and ZnO petal shells. In spite of their large lattice mismatch, ZnO nanocrystals can still grow on faceted Ni nanocrystals to form stable interfaces. The composition of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals is readily controlled, and the average size of Ni core is tunable from 25 to 50 nm. Room temperature ferromagnetic properties are observed in these hybrid nanocrystals, and tunable magnetic properties also can be achieved by varying the size of Ni core. The as-prepared Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance under ultraviolet light illumination as compared to pure ZnO nanocrystals. Furthermore, the superior reusability of hybrid nanocrystals for photocatalytic application is achieved by virtue of their magnetic properties. The facile and efficient seed-mediate strategy is particularly attractive to construct hybrid magnetic-semiconducting heterostructures. The as-obtained Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals offer great potential for various applications due to their combined magnetic and semiconducting properties and low-cost earth-abundant availability.

  3. Origin of low quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of InP/ZnS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirazi, Roza, E-mail: rozas@fotonik.dtu.dk [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersted Plads 343, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Kovacs, Andras [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Peter Grunberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Julich, 52425 Julich (Germany); Dan Corell, Dennis [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Riso, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Gritti, Claudia [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersted Plads 343, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Michael Petersen, Paul [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Riso, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Kardynal, Beata [Department of Photonics Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersted Plads 343, 2800 Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); PGI-9, Forschungszentrum Julich, JARA FIT, 52425 Julich (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we study the origin of a strong wavelength dependence of the quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals. We find that while the average size of the nanocrystals increased by 50%, resulting in longer emission wavelength, the quantum efficiency drops more than one order of magnitude compared to the quantum efficiency of the small nanocrystals. By correlating this result with the time-resolved photoluminescence we find that the reduced photoluminescence efficiency is caused by a fast growing fraction of non-emissive nanocrystals while the quality of the nanocrystals that emit light is similar for all samples. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the polycrystalline nature of many of the large nanocrystals, pointing to the grain boundaries as one possible site for the photoluminescence quenching defects. -- Highlights: • We investigate drop of quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals emitting at longer wavelengths. • We correlate quantum efficiency measurements with time-resolved carrier dynamics. • We find that only a small fraction of larger nanocrystals is optically active.

  4. Origin of low quantum efficiency of photoluminescence of InP/ZnS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Roza; Kovacs, Andras; Dan Corell, Dennis; Gritti, Claudia; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Michael Petersen, Paul; Kardynal, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study the origin of a strong wavelength dependence of the quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals. We find that while the average size of the nanocrystals increased by 50%, resulting in longer emission wavelength, the quantum efficiency drops more than one order of magnitude compared to the quantum efficiency of the small nanocrystals. By correlating this result with the time-resolved photoluminescence we find that the reduced photoluminescence efficiency is caused by a fast growing fraction of non-emissive nanocrystals while the quality of the nanocrystals that emit light is similar for all samples. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the polycrystalline nature of many of the large nanocrystals, pointing to the grain boundaries as one possible site for the photoluminescence quenching defects. -- Highlights: • We investigate drop of quantum efficiency of InP/ZnS nanocrystals emitting at longer wavelengths. • We correlate quantum efficiency measurements with time-resolved carrier dynamics. • We find that only a small fraction of larger nanocrystals is optically active

  5. Inorganic nanocrystals as contrast agents in MRI:synthesis, coating and introducing multifunctionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic nanocrystals have myriad applications in medicine, which includes their use as drug or gene delivery complexes, therapeutic hyperthermia agents, in diagnostic systems and as contrast agents in a wide range of medical imaging techniques. For MRI, nanocrystals can produce contrast themselves, of which iron oxides have been most extensively explored, or be given a coating that generates MR contrast, for example gold nanoparticles coated with gadolinium chelates. These MR-active nanocrystals can be used in imaging of the vasculature, liver and other organs, as well as molecular imaging, cell tracking and theranostics. Due to these exciting applications, synthesizing and rendering these nanocrystals water-soluble and biocompatible is therefore highly desirable. We will discuss aqueous phase and organic phase methods for synthesizing inorganic nanocrystals such as gold, iron oxides and quantum dots. The pros and cons of the various methods will be highlighted. We explore various methods for making nanocrystals biocompatible, i.e. directly synthesizing nanocrystals coated with biocompatible coatings, ligand substitution, amphiphile coating and embedding in carrier matrices that can be made biocompatible. Various examples will be highlighted and their applications explained. These examples signify that synthesizing biocompatible nanocrystals with controlled properties has been achieved by numerous research groups and can be applied for a wide range of applications. Therefore we expect to see reports of preclinical applications of ever more complex MRI-active nanoparticles and their wider exploitation, as well as in novel clinical settings. PMID:23303729

  6. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontturi, E.J.; Johansson, L.S.; Kontturi, K.S.; Ahonen, P.; Thune, P.C.; Laine, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images,

  7. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Gouder, Thomas; Courtois, Eglantine; Kubel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nano-crystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nano-crystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nano-crystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nano-dots (ca. 4 nm) and nano-rods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised. (authors)

  8. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  9. Biosynthesis of micro- and nanocrystals of Pb (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) sulfides in four Candida species: a comparative study of in vivo and in vitro approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Lucio-Hernández, Daniela; Martínez-Ángeles, Isabel; Demitri, Nicola; Polentarutti, Maurizio; Rosales-Hoz, María J; Moreno, Abel

    2017-03-01

    Nature produces biominerals (biogenic minerals) that are synthesized as complex structures, in terms of their physicochemical properties. These biominerals are composed of minerals and biological macromolecules. They are produced by living organisms and are usually formed through a combination of chemical, biochemical and biophysical processes. Microorganisms like Candida in the presence of heavy metals can biomineralize those metals to form microcrystals (MCs) and nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, MCs and NCs of PbS, HgS or HgCl 2 as well as CdS are synthesized both in vitro (gels) and in vivo by four Candida species. Our in vivo results show that, in the presence of Pb 2+ , Candida cells are able to replicate and form extracellular PbS MCs, whereas in the presence of Hg 2+ and Cd 2+ , they did synthesize intercellular MCs from HgS or HgCl 2 and CdS NCs respectively. The MCs and NCs biologically obtained in Candida were compared with those PbS, HgS and CdS crystals synthetically obtained in vitro through the gel method (grown either in agarose or in sodium metasilicate hydrogels). This is, to our knowledge, the first time that the biosynthesis of the various MCs and NCs (presented in several species of Candida) has been reported. This biosynthesis is differentially regulated in each of these pathogens, which allows them to adapt and survive in different physiological and environmental habitats. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.; Luria, Justin; Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Bartnik, Adam C.; Sun, Liangfeng; Lim, Yee-Fun; Marohn, John A.; Wise, Frank W.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Photogenerated Exciton Dissociation in Highly Coupled Lead Salt Nanocrystal Assemblies

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2010-05-12

    Internanocrystal coupling induced excitons dissociation in lead salt nanocrystal assemblies is investigated. By combining transient photoluminescence spectroscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and time-resolved electric force microscopy, we show that excitons can dissociate, without the aid of an external bias or chemical potential gradient, via tunneling through a potential barrier when the coupling energy is comparable to the exciton binding energy. Our results have important implications for the design of nanocrystal-based optoelectronic devices. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Memory characteristics of silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals as a charge trapping layer of nonvolatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Yang, Hyundeok; Chang, Man; Baek, Sungkweon; Hwang, Hyunsang; Jeon, Sanghun; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Chungwoo

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals formed by low-energy silicon plasma immersion ion implantation has been investigated as a charge trapping layer of a polycrystalline silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon-type nonvolatile memory device. Compared with the control sample without silicon nanocrystals, silicon nitride with silicon nanocrystals provides excellent memory characteristics, such as larger width of capacitance-voltage hysteresis, higher program/erase speed, and lower charge loss rate at elevated temperature. These improved memory characteristics are derived by incorporation of silicon nanocrystals into the charge trapping layer as additional accessible charge traps with a deeper effective trap energy level

  13. Construction QA/QC systems: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Shepard, S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis which compares the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) systems adopted in the highway, nuclear power plant, and U.S. Navy construction areas with the traditional quality control approach used in building construction is presented. Full participation and support by the owner as well as the contractor and AE firm are required if a QA/QC system is to succeed. Process quality control, acceptance testing and quality assurance responsibilities must be clearly defined in the contract documents. The owner must audit these responsibilities. A contractor quality control plan, indicating the tasks which will be performed and the fact that QA/QC personnel are independent of project time/cost pressures should be submitted for approval. The architect must develop realistic specifications which consider the natural variability of material. Acceptance criteria based on the random sampling technique should be used. 27 refs

  14. Coulomb gap triptych in a periodic array of metal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Skinner, Brian; Shklovskii, B I

    2012-09-21

    The Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states (DOS) is a universal consequence of electron-electron interaction in disordered systems with localized electron states. Here we show that in arrays of monodisperse metallic nanocrystals, there is not one but three identical adjacent Coulomb gaps, which together form a structure that we call a "Coulomb gap triptych." We calculate the DOS and the conductivity in two- and three-dimensional arrays using a computer simulation. Unlike in the conventional Coulomb glass models, in nanocrystal arrays the DOS has a fixed width in the limit of large disorder. The Coulomb gap triptych can be studied via tunneling experiments.

  15. MEGACELL: A nanocrystal model construction software for HRTEM multislice simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel G.; Righetto, Ricardo D.; Montoro, Luciano A.; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    Image simulation has an invaluable importance for the accurate analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) results, especially due to its non-linear image formation mechanism. Because the as-obtained images cannot be interpreted in a straightforward fashion, the retrieval of both qualitative and quantitative information from HRTEM micrographs requires an iterative process including the simulation of a nanocrystal model and its comparison with experimental images. However most of the available image simulation software requires atom-by-atom coordinates as input for the calculations, which can be prohibitive for large finite crystals and/or low-symmetry systems and zone axis orientations. This paper presents an open source citation-ware tool named MEGACELL, which was developed to assist on the construction of nanocrystals models. It allows the user to build nanocrystals with virtually any convex polyhedral geometry and to retrieve its atomic positions either as a plain text file or as an output compatible with EMS (Electron Microscopy Software) input protocol. In addition to the description of this tool features, some construction examples and its application for scientific studies are presented. These studies show MEGACELL as a handy tool, which allows an easier construction of complex nanocrystal models and improves the quantitative information extraction from HRTEM images. -- Highlights: → A software to support the HRTEM image simulation of nanocrystals in actual size. → MEGACELL allows the construction of complex nanocrystals models for multislice image simulation. → Some examples of improved nanocrystalline system characterization are presented, including the analysis of 3D morphology and growth behavior.

  16. Exciton Recombination in Formamidinium Lead Triiodide : Nanocrystals versus Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Hong-Hua; Protesescu, Loredana; Balazs, Daniel M.; Adjokatse, Sampson; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    The optical properties of the newly developed near-infrared emitting formamidinium lead triiodide (FAPbI(3)) nanocrystals (NCs) and their polycrystalline thin film counterpart are comparatively investigated by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence. The excitonic emission is

  17. The relationship between cellulose nanocrystal dispersion and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizheng Cao; Pablo Zavattieri; Jeffrey Youngblood; Robert Moon; Jason Weiss

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the agglomeration of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and uses ultrasonication to disperse CNCs in cement pastes in an attempt to improve strength. Rheological measurements show that when the concentration of CNCs exceeds 1.35% by volume in deionized water, agglomerates start to develop. This experimental finding is comparable to the value obtained from...

  18. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  19. Novel silica stabilization method for the analysis of fine nanocrystals using coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteforte, Marianne; Estandarte, Ana K.; Chen, Bo; Harder, Ross; Huang, Michael H.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-06-23

    High-energy X-ray Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a well established synchrotron-based technique used to quantitatively reconstruct the three-dimensional morphology and strain distribution in nanocrystals. The BCDI technique has become a powerful analytical tool for quantitative investigations of nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanorods and more recently biological systems. BCDI has however typically failed for fine nanocrystals in sub-100?nm size regimes ? a size routinely achievable by chemical synthesis ? despite the spatial resolution of the BCDI technique being 20?30?nm. The limitations of this technique arise from the movement of nanocrystals under illumination by the highly coherent beam, which prevents full diffraction data sets from being acquired. A solution is provided here to overcome this problem and extend the size limit of the BCDI technique, through the design of a novel stabilization method by embedding the fine nanocrystals into a silica matrix. Chemically synthesized FePt nanocrystals of maximum dimension 20?nm and AuPd nanocrystals in the size range 60?65?nm were investigated with BCDI measurement at beamline 34-ID-C of the APS, Argonne National Laboratory. Novel experimental methodologies to elucidate the presence of strain in fine nanocrystals are a necessary pre-requisite in order to better understand strain profiles in engineered nanocrystals for novel device development.

  20. Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane X. Peng; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable, sustainable, and abundant nanomaterial widely used as reinforcing fillers in the field of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, two-part epoxy systems with CNC-enhanced hardeners were fabricated. Three types of hardeners, Jeffamine D400 (JD400), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and (±)-trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane (DACH), were...

  1. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  2. Blue-green luminescent CdZnSeS nanocrystals synthesized with activated alkyl thiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xing; Liu Zuli; Du Guihuan; Li Yuebin; Ma Ming; Yao Kailun

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with blue-green luminescence are potentially useful in various applications, but the preparation has not been easy compared to regular semiconductor nanocrystals with emission in the orange-red range. In this research alloyed CdZnSeS nanocrystals with luminescence covering the wavelength range from 430 to 560 nm are obtained by a one-step method with the assistance of alkyl thiol compound 1-dodecanethiol, which serves both as the sulfur source and surface ligand. The luminescence of CdZnSeS nanocrystals can be tuned from blue to green by altering the Cd:Zn molar ratio. Besides, the amount of 1-dodecanethiol in the reaction mixture can influence the emission wavelength by restricting the growth of nanocrystals. The dual control of both particle composition and size has enabled the tuning of luminescence to cover the blue-green spectral window. This research presents a convenient method to synthesize nanocrystals with tunable blue-green emission; these materials can be useful in advanced technologies such as photovoltaics, lighting and display. - Highlights: → Obtained blue-green luminescent nanocrystals by a one-step process. → Alkyl thiol used as a sulfur source and a surface stabilizer to control particle size. → Luminescence color of NCs could be easily tuned by changing their composition and particle size simultaneously.

  3. Facile fabrication and electrochemical behaviors of Mn:ZnS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Ruishi; Li, Yuanli; Liu, Haifeng; Guo, Baogang

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate the rational design and synthesis of Mn:ZnS nanocrystals with adjustable doping concentrations utilizing a facile, cost effective, and environmentally benign chemical protocol. These nanostructures were investigated as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Compared with pristine ZnS nanocrystals, the Mn:ZnS nanocrystals exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performances in terms of specific capacity and cycling performance. The Mn:ZnS nanocrystal sample with doping concentration of 1 at% displays second discharge capacity of 789.9 mA h g"−"1 at a current density of 24 mA g"−"1, about 2.39 times higher than that of the pure ZnS nanocrystal. Furthermore, the Mn:ZnS nanocrystal electrodes represent much better capacity retention than that of the undoped one. The greatly improved electrochemical performances of the Mn:ZnS nanocrystal samples could be attributed to the following factors. The large specific surface area can significantly enhance structural integrity by acting as mechanical buffer, effectively alleviating the volume changes generated during the lithiation/delithiation process. The incorporation of Mn into the lattice of ZnS improves charge transfer kinetics and results in a faster Li"+ diffusion rate during the charge–discharge process. It is of great significance to incorporate guest metal ions into nanostructured materials to display especial electrochemical characteristics triggering an effective approach to improve the electrochemical properties.

  4. Formic acid-assisted synthesis of palladium nanocrystals and their electrocatalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinchao; Wang, Yiqian; Guo, Peizhi; Li, Qun; Ding, Ruixue; Wang, Baoyan; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Jingquan; Zhao, X S

    2014-01-14

    Palladium (Pd) nanocrystals have been synthesized by using formic acid as the reducing agent at room temperature. When the concentration of formic acid was increased continuously, the size of Pd nanocrystals first decreased to a minimum and then increased slightly again. The products have been investigated by a series of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis absorption, and electrochemical measurements. The formation of Pd nanocrystals is proposed to be closely related to the dynamical imbalance of the growth and dissolution rate of Pd nanocrystals associated with the adsorption of formate ions onto the surface of the intermediates. It is found that small Pd nanocrystals showed blue-shifted adsorption peaks compared with large ones. Pd nanocrystals with the smallest size display the highest electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of formic acid and ethanol on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric data. It is suggested that both the electrochemical active surface area and the small size effect are the key roles in determining the electrocatalytic performances of Pd nanocrystals. A "dissolution-deposition-aggregation" process is proposed to explain the variation of the electrocatalytic activity during the electrocatalysis according to the HRTEM characterization.

  5. Synthesis of colloidal metal nanocrystals in droplet reactors: the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yi; Tong, Limin; Xia, Younan

    2014-07-09

    Droplet reactors have received considerable attention in recent years as an alternative route to the synthesis and potentially high-volume production of colloidal metal nanocrystals. Interfacial adsorption will immediately become an important issue to address when one seeks to translate a nanocrystal synthesis from batch reactors to droplet reactors due to the involvement of higher surface-to-volume ratios for the droplets and the fact that nanocrystals tend to be concentrated at the water-oil interface. Here we report a systematic study to compare the pros and cons of interfacial adsorption of metal nanocrystals during their synthesis in droplet reactors. On the one hand, interfacial adsorption can be used to generate nanocrystals with asymmetric shapes or structures, including one-sixth-truncated Ag octahedra and Au-Ag nanocups. On the other hand, interfacial adsorption has to be mitigated to obtain nanocrystals with uniform sizes and controlled shapes. We confirmed that Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant, could effectively alleviate interfacial adsorption while imposing no impact on the capping agent typically needed for a shape-controlled synthesis. With the introduction of a proper surfactant, droplet reactors offer an attractive platform for the continuous production of colloidal metal nanocrystals.

  6. Facile fabrication and electrochemical behaviors of Mn:ZnS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Ruishi [Analytical and Testing Center, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Li, Yuanli, E-mail: yuanlyl@foxmail.com [Department of Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China); Liu, Haifeng; Guo, Baogang [Analytical and Testing Center, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang, 621010 (China)

    2016-07-05

    Here, we demonstrate the rational design and synthesis of Mn:ZnS nanocrystals with adjustable doping concentrations utilizing a facile, cost effective, and environmentally benign chemical protocol. These nanostructures were investigated as electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Compared with pristine ZnS nanocrystals, the Mn:ZnS nanocrystals exhibit significantly improved electrochemical performances in terms of specific capacity and cycling performance. The Mn:ZnS nanocrystal sample with doping concentration of 1 at% displays second discharge capacity of 789.9 mA h g{sup −1} at a current density of 24 mA g{sup −1}, about 2.39 times higher than that of the pure ZnS nanocrystal. Furthermore, the Mn:ZnS nanocrystal electrodes represent much better capacity retention than that of the undoped one. The greatly improved electrochemical performances of the Mn:ZnS nanocrystal samples could be attributed to the following factors. The large specific surface area can significantly enhance structural integrity by acting as mechanical buffer, effectively alleviating the volume changes generated during the lithiation/delithiation process. The incorporation of Mn into the lattice of ZnS improves charge transfer kinetics and results in a faster Li{sup +} diffusion rate during the charge–discharge process. It is of great significance to incorporate guest metal ions into nanostructured materials to display especial electrochemical characteristics triggering an effective approach to improve the electrochemical properties.

  7. Doping effect in Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongke; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Yicheng; Chen, Kunji

    2018-06-01

    Intentional doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue since it can control the conduction type and ability as well as modify the optical and electronic properties. To realize effective doping is the basis for developing semiconductor devices. However, by reducing the size of a semiconductor, like Si, to the nanometer scale, the doping effects become complicated due to the coupling between the quantum confinement effect and the surfaces and/or interfaces effect. In particular, by introducing phosphorus or boron impurities as dopants into material containing Si nanocrystals with a dot size of less than 10 nm, it exhibits different behaviors and influences on the physical properties from its bulk counterpart. Understanding the doping effects in Si nanocrystals is currently a challenge in order to further improve the performance of the next generation of nano-electronic and photonic devices. In this review, we present an overview of the latest theoretical studies and experimental results on dopant distributions and their effects on the electronic and optical properties of Si nanocrystals. In particular, the advanced characterization techniques on dopant distribution, the carrier transport process as well as the linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped Si nanocrystals, are systematically summarized.

  8. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  9. Unravelling the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals, the role of acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roo, Jonathan; Van den Broeck, Freya; De Keukeleere, Katrien; Martins, José C; Van Driessche, Isabel; Hens, Zeger

    2014-07-09

    We synthesized HfO2 nanocrystals from HfCl4 using a surfactant-free solvothermal process in benzyl alcohol and found that the resulting nanocrystals could be transferred to nonpolar media using a mixture of carboxylic acids and amines. Using solution (1)H NMR, FTIR, and elemental analysis, we studied the details of the transfer reaction and the surface chemistry of the resulting sterically stabilized nanocrystals. As-synthesized nanocrystals are charge-stabilized by protons, with chloride acting as the counterion. Treatment with only carboxylic acids does not lead to any binding of ligands to the HfO2 surface. On the other hand, we find that the addition of amines provides the basic environment in which carboxylic acids can dissociate and replace chloride. This results in stable, aggregate-free dispersions of HfO2 nanocrystals, sterically stabilized by carboxylate ligands. Moreover, titrations with deuterated carboxylic acid show that the charge on the carboxylate ligands is balanced by coadsorbed protons. Hence, opposite from the X-type/nonstoichiometric nanocrystals picture prevailing in literature, one should look at HfO2/carboxylate nanocrystals as systems where carboxylic acids are dissociatively adsorbed to bind to the nanocrystals. Similar results were obtained with ZrO2 NCs. Since proton accommodation on the surface is most likely due to the high Brønsted basicity of oxygen, our model could be a more general picture for the surface chemistry of metal oxide nanocrystals with important consequences on the chemistry of ligand exchange reactions.

  10. Extraction and characterisation of cellulose nanocrystals from pineapple peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Madureira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential of pineapple peel as a source of cellulose nanocrystals was evaluated. Peels skin from fresh-cut fruit was used as raw material. These residues were purified to remove pigments, lipids and hemicellulose, and a bleaching process for delignification was carried out for 4-6 h. All resulting products were characterised for their lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose and ash contents using standard techniques. Dry matter at the end was low (ca. 50% compared with the raw material (ca. 90%. The process applied resulted in ca. 20% (m/m of purified cellulose (ca. 80% purity, with ineligible levels of lignin and hemicellulose present, especially when using 6h of bleaching. The purified cellulose was subject to acid hydrolysis for nanocrystal extraction with two testing times, 30 and 60 minutes. These cellulose nanocrystals had small sizes (< 1000 nm, with high variability and negative zeta potential values. The time of extraction did not affect the nanocrystals’ chemical and physical properties. The use of 6 h of bleaching treatment during purification was shown to be more effective than 4 h. Pineapple peel was demonstrated to be a good source of cellulose for the production of cellulose nanocrystals.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and up/down-conversion luminescence of barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Li-Ping; Zhang, Qiang; Yan, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Lanthanide ions doped bare earth rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized by hydrothermal technology and characterized. The down/up-conversion luminescence of them are discussed. - Highlights: • Mixed hydrothermal system H 2 O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is used for synthesis. • Barium rare earth fluoride nanocrystals are synthesized comprehensively. • Luminescence for down-conversion and up-conversion are obtained for these systems. - Abstract: Mixed hydrothermal system H 2 O–OA (EDA)–O-A(LO-A) is developed to synthesize barium rare earth fluorides nanocrystals (OA = oleylamine, EDA = ethylenediamine, O-A = oleic acid and LO-A = linoleic acid). They are presented as BaREF 5 (RE = Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Y, Tm, Lu) and Ba 2 REF 7 (RE = La, Sm, Ho, Er, Yb). The influence of reaction parameters (rare earth species, hydrothermal system and temperature) is checked on the phase and shape evolution of the fluoride nanocrystals. It is found that reaction time and temperature of these nanocrystals using EDA (180 °C, 6 h) is lower than those of them using OA (220 °C, 10 h). The photoluminescence properties of these fluorides activated by some rare earth ions (Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Tb 3+ ) are studied, and especially up-conversion luminescence of the four fluoride nanocrystal systems (Ba 2 LaF 7 :Yb, Tm(Er), Ba 2 REF 7 :Yb, Tm(Er) (RE = Gd, Y, Lu)) is observed

  12. The hydrodynamic size of polymer stabilized nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Karl M; Al-Somali, Ali M; Mejia, Michelle; Colvin, Vicki L [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-60 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    For many emerging applications, nanocrystals are surface functionalized with polymers to control self-assembly, prevent aggregation, and promote incorporation into polymer matrices and biological systems. The hydrodynamic diameter of these nanoparticle-polymer complexes is a critical factor for many applications, and predicting this size is complicated by the fact that the structure of the grafted polymer at a nanocrystalline interface is not generally established. In this work we evaluate using size-exclusion chromatography the overall hydrodynamic diameter of nanocrystals (Au, CdSe, d<5 nm) surface coated with polystyrene of varying molecular weight. The polymer is tethered to the nanoparticles via a terminal thiol to provide strong attachment. Our data show that at full coverage the polymer assumes a brush conformation and is 44% longer than the unbound polymer in solution. The brush conformation is confirmed by comparison with models used to describe polymer brushes at flat interfaces. From this work, we suggest an empirical formula which predicts the hydrodynamic diameter of polymer coated nanoparticles based on the size of the nanoparticle core and the size of the randomly coiled unbound polymer in solution.

  13. Pension system in a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora Angjele

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the reform of the pension system in Europe and Albania.The social security system in Albania has evolved. The system's initial format was comprehensive, covering third party risks, disabilities, head of household death, short-term illness, and maternity leave, unemployment, and health costs. These benefits were financed through payroll contributions and were assessed by both the employer and the employee, but at different rates for various benefits. However, our country as well as many other transition countries has experienced an increase. Level of labor informality has led to limited income from wage contributions, while facing the burden of supporting older generations, many of whom enjoy full pension rights. Albania has managed to avoid a financial crisis in the social security system. In the current model of the pension system there are major deficiencies. The article introduces systems and reforms and reflections on the elections.

  14. Precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH) for preparation of clarithromycin nanocrystals: influencing factors on physicochemical properties and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakul, Boontida; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2013-11-30

    Nanocrystals is one of effective technologies used to improve solubility and dissolution behavior of poorly soluble drugs. Clarithromycin is classified in BCS class II having low bioavailability due to very low dissolution behavior. The main purpose of this study was to investigate an efficiency of clarithromycin nanocrystals preparation by precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH) combination method in comparison with high pressure homogenization (HPH) method. The factors influencing particle size reduction and physical stability were assessed. The results showed that the PLH technique provided an effective and rapid reduction of particle size of nanocrystals to 460 ± 10 nm with homogeneity size distribution after only the fifth cycle of homogenization, whereas the same size was attained after 30 cycles by the HPH method. The smallest nanocrystals were achieved by using the combination of poloxamer 407 (2%, w/v) and SLS (0.1%, w/v) as stabilizers. This combination could prevent the particle aggregation over 3-month storage at 4 °C. The results from SEM showed that the clarithromycin nanocrystals were in cubic-shaped similar to its initial particle morphology. The DSC thermogram and X-ray diffraction pattern of nanocrystals were not different from the original drug except for intensity of peaks which indicated the presenting of nanocrystals in the crystalline state and/or partial amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution of the clarithromycin nanocrystals was dramatically increased as compared to the coarse clarithromycin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High quality zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-oleic acid-paraffin liquid mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lan, E-mail: lwang322@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Physics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Sun Xiudong, E-mail: xdsun@hit.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Wenjing [Department of Astronautic Science and Mechanics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu Bingyi [Laboratory Center for the School of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Safe, common, and low-cost compounds were used as solvents for the non-tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in open air. In oleic acid-paraffin liquid system, CdSe nanocrystals in the less common zinc-blende (ZB, cubic) crystal structure have been obtained. The effects of adding n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to different solutions were discussed. Stable, highly homogeneous and luminescent CdSe nanocrystals were formed by adding n-hexadecylamine to Cd solution rather than to Se solution. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the nanocrystals can be readily controlled and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%.

  16. High quality zinc-blende CdSe nanocrystals synthesized in a hexadecylamine-oleic acid-paraffin liquid mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lan; Sun Xiudong; Liu Wenjing; Liu Bingyi

    2010-01-01

    Safe, common, and low-cost compounds were used as solvents for the non-tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) synthesis of high quality CdSe nanocrystals (NCs) in open air. In oleic acid-paraffin liquid system, CdSe nanocrystals in the less common zinc-blende (ZB, cubic) crystal structure have been obtained. The effects of adding n-hexadecylamine (HDA) to different solutions were discussed. Stable, highly homogeneous and luminescent CdSe nanocrystals were formed by adding n-hexadecylamine to Cd solution rather than to Se solution. Without any size sorting, the size distribution of the nanocrystals can be readily controlled and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiency (QE) of the nanocrystals was up to 20-30%.

  17. Heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous alloys on catalytic nanoparticles to produce 2D patterned nanocrystal arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, A K [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Krishna, H [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Miller, C [Center for Materials Innovation, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2007-12-05

    Templates are widely used to produce artificial nanostructures. Here, laser-assisted self-organization has been used to form one- and two-dimensional (D) nanoarrays of Cu nanocrystals. Using these nanoarrays as a template, a 2D patterned ferromagnetic nanostructure of FeCrSi nanocrystals has been produced by heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nanocrystals by partial devitrification from an amorphous Fe{sub 64.5}Cr{sub 10}Si{sub 13.5}B{sub 9}Nb{sub 3} alloy with the Cu nanoparticles acting as catalytic nucleation sites. The interaction among the ferromagnetic nanocrystals via the residual amorphous matrix can be controlled by suitable choice of the amorphous alloy composition. Although demonstrated for a ferromagnetic system, the processing method may have much wider applicability for producing artificial nanostructures of a wide variety of materials when materials-specific catalysts and amorphous alloy compositions are judiciously chosen.

  18. Heterogeneous nucleation of amorphous alloys on catalytic nanoparticles to produce 2D patterned nanocrystal arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangopadhyay, A K; Krishna, H; Favazza, C; Miller, C; Kalyanaraman, R

    2007-01-01

    Templates are widely used to produce artificial nanostructures. Here, laser-assisted self-organization has been used to form one- and two-dimensional (D) nanoarrays of Cu nanocrystals. Using these nanoarrays as a template, a 2D patterned ferromagnetic nanostructure of FeCrSi nanocrystals has been produced by heterogeneous nucleation and growth of nanocrystals by partial devitrification from an amorphous Fe 64.5 Cr 10 Si 13.5 B 9 Nb 3 alloy with the Cu nanoparticles acting as catalytic nucleation sites. The interaction among the ferromagnetic nanocrystals via the residual amorphous matrix can be controlled by suitable choice of the amorphous alloy composition. Although demonstrated for a ferromagnetic system, the processing method may have much wider applicability for producing artificial nanostructures of a wide variety of materials when materials-specific catalysts and amorphous alloy compositions are judiciously chosen

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL TERTIARY EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Higher education system occupies a special place in the policy of each nation. Regardless of geographical location, socio-economic or cultural differences, the need to improve the education offered for population by facilitating access to higher education becomes more and more important. Providing a suitable framework for the personal development of each student is expensive and involves high amounts of money. From the analyses carried out we couldn\\'t identify the substantial differences between the way it is structured and organized education system worldwide. However, we were able to identify a number of common elements that create a global University System. The need to invest in human resources through structural reforms in each country is present, and therefore a higher indention to pay greater attention to the development of the higher education system. In our work we decided to analyze education systems in countries like United States of America (USA, United Kingdom (GB, China (CHN, Germany (DE, France (FR, Russian Federation (RU, Japan (JPN average values recorded for EU-27 and last but not least Romania (RO. Although the investment in the University system is hard to quantify, it is unanimously acknowledged that a country can achieve a competitive advantage in international relations through a very well prepared and trained personnel. The countries reviewed in this paper have different policies when it comes to financial support of the University System. If Germany and France have decided to get involved directly in supporting the system by allocating the necessary funds from the State budget, another European country, the United Kingdom, decided to apply a policy diametrically opposite, similar to that existing in the USA and cover in a lesser degree the needs of universities in Government funds. Regardless of the policy adopted the results are intended to be the same: facilitating access to university education, a high quality of

  20. Formulation strategy and evaluation of nanocrystal piroxicam orally disintegrating tablets manufacturing by freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francesco; Pini, Elena; Corrias, Francesco; Perricci, Jacopo; Manconi, Maria; Fadda, Anna Maria; Sinico, Chiara

    2014-06-05

    Piroxicam (PRX) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug characterized by a poor water solubility and consequently by a low oral bioavailability. In this work, different nanocrystal orally disintegrating tablets (ODT) were prepared to enhance piroxicam dissolution rate and saturation solubility. PRX nanocrystals were prepared by means of high pressure homogenization technique using poloxamer 188 as stabilizer. Three different ODTs were prepared with the same nanosuspension using different excipients in order to study their effect on the PRX dissolution properties. PRX nanocrystal size and zeta potential were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Additional characterization of PRX nanocrystal ODT was carried out by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution study was performed in distilled water (pH 5.5) and compared with PRX coarse suspension ODT, PRX/poloxamer 188 physical mixture, bulk PRX samples and a PRX commercial ODT. All PRX nanocrystal ODT formulations showed a higher drug dissolution rate than coarse PRX ODT. PRX nanocrystal ODT prepared using gelatin or croscarmellose as excipient showed a higher PRX dissolution rate compared with the commercial formulation and ODT prepared using xanthan gum. Overall results confirmed that improved PRX dissolution rate is due to the increased surface-to-volume ratio due to the nanosized drug particle but also revealed the important role of different excipients used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative research and the business system approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    This paper has two distinct aims. First, I would like to present and discuss the nationalbusiness systems (NBS) framework ( Whitley, 1992,1992a,1996,1997). NBS frameworkconcerns how national variations in economic co-ordination and control systemsfacilitate and constrain organisational change....... The NBS is not widely known in the LatinAmerica countries, and this paper intends to shortly present it The second aim is toquestion, based on the NBS approach, some of the assumptions about the diffusion of anew universal template for organising work (Lean Production) and its agent, themultinational...

  2. Explicit all-atom modeling of realistically sized ligand-capped nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of an explicit all-atom representation of nanocrystals of experimentally relevant sizes (up to 6 nm), capped with alkyl chain ligands, in vacuum. We employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulation methods in concert with a well-tested intermolecular potential model, MM3 (molecular mechanics 3), for the studies presented here. These studies include determining the preferred conformation of an isolated single nanocrystal (NC), pairs of isolated NCs, and (presaging studies of superlattice arrays) unit cells of NC superlattices. We observe that very small NCs (3 nm) behave differently in a superlattice as compared to larger NCs (6 nm and above) due to the conformations adopted by the capping ligands on the NC surface. Short ligands adopt a uniform distribution of orientational preferences, including some that lie against the face of the nanocrystal. In contrast, longer ligands prefer to interdigitate. We also study the effect of changing ligand length and ligand coverage on the NCs on the preferred ligand configurations. Since explicit all-atom modeling constrains the maximum system size that can be studied, we discuss issues related to coarse-graining the representation of the ligands, including a comparison of two commonly used coarse-grained models. We find that care has to be exercised in the choice of coarse-grained model. The data provided by these realistically sized ligand-capped NCs, determined using explicit all-atom models, should serve as a reference standard for future models of coarse-graining ligands using united atom models, especially for self-assembly processes. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  4. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA; Yin, Yadong [Moreno Valley, CA; Erdonmez, Can Kerem [Berkeley, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  5. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from

  6. Comparative Economics Systems in the Undergraduate Curriculum: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovzik, Alexander; Johnson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors report on the status of comparative economics systems in the U.S. undergraduate economics curriculum. The treatment of comparative economics systems topics in introductory courses is examined through a survey of standard textbooks. To evaluate comparative economics systems at the advanced undergraduate level, they rely…

  7. Symmetry breaking during seeded growth of nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Xia, Younan

    2012-11-14

    Currently, most of the reported noble-metal nanocrystals are limited to a high level of symmetry, as constrained by the inherent, face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of these metals. In this paper, we report, for the first time, a facile and versatile approach (backed up by a clear mechanistic understanding) for breaking the symmetry of an fcc lattice and thus obtaining nanocrystals with highly unsymmetrical shapes. The key strategy is to induce and direct the growth of nanocrystal seeds into unsymmetrical modes by manipulating the reduction kinetics. With silver as an example, we demonstrated that the diversity of possible shapes taken by noble-metal nanocrystals could be greatly expanded by incorporating a series of new shapes drastically deviated from the fcc lattice. This work provides a new method to investigate shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystal.

  8. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  9. The Role of Shape on Electronic Structure and Charge Transport in Faceted PbSe Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.

    2014-03-25

    We have determined the effect of shape on the charge transport characteristics of nanocrystals. Our study looked at the explicit determination of the electronic properties of faceted nanocrystals that essentially probe the limit of current computational reach, i.e., nanocrystals from 1.53 to 2.1 nm in diameter. These nanocrystals, which resemble PbSe systems, are either bare or covered in short ligands. They also differ in shape, octahedral vs cube-octahedral, and in superlattice symmetry (fcc vs bcc). We have provided insights on electron and hole coupling along different facets and overall charge mobility in bcc and fcc superlattices. We have determined that the relative areas of (100) to (111) facets, and facet atom types are important factors governing the optimization of charge transport. The calculated electronic density of states shows no role of -SCH3 - ligands on states near the band gap. Electron coupling between nanocrystals is significantly higher than that of hole coupling; thiol ligands lower the ratio between electron and hole couplings. Stronger coupling exists between smaller nanocrystals. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. Grafted SiC nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    ), raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy was used to study optical properties such as optical energy gap (Eg), Urbach's energy (Eu), refractive index (n), real (ε1) and imaginary (ε2) parts of dielectric constant of PVA as well as PVA......Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) grafted SiC (PVA-g-SiC)/PVA nanocomposite was synthesized by incorporating PVA grafted silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals inside PVA matrix. In-depth structural characterization of resulting nanocomposite was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...

  11. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto; Genovese, Alessandro; Manna, Liberato; Longo, Paolo; Buha, Joka; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Lazar, Sorin; Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Prato, Mirko; Li, Hongbo; Ghosh, Sandeep; Palazon, Francisco; De Donato, Francesco; Lentijo Mozo, Sergio; Zuddas, Efisio; Falqui, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, post-synthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptors” phases represented by rod- and wire- shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2-xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other, hence the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state, and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions.

  12. Aqueous based synthesis of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals with intense blue emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheyli, Ehsan; Sahraei, Reza; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    In this work a very simple reflux route for preparation of ZnSe nanocrystals with minor modification and faster preparation over conventional ones is introduced. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the ZnSe nanocrystals have a cubic structure. The complete disappearance of the S-H band in FT-IR spectrum of N-acetyl-L-cysteine capped ZnSe nanocrystals was an indication over formation of Zn-thiol covalent bonds at the surface of the nanocrystals which results in passivation of small nanocrystals. The strong size-quantization regime was responsible of significant blue shift in absorption/emission spectra. Using the well-known calculations, band gap and Urbach energy of the ZnSe nanocrystals were measured and their average size was estimated optically to be around 4.6 nm along with the TEM image. A dark blue emission with higher relative intensity of excitonic to trap emissions (compared to conventional method), very narrow excitonic emission peak of about 16 nm and remarkable stability was obtained from the ZnSe nanocrystals.

  13. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto

    2016-01-27

    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, post-synthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptors” phases represented by rod- and wire- shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2-xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other, hence the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state, and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions.

  14. Dermal miconazole nitrate nanocrystals - formulation development, increased antifungal efficacy & skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Sung Min; Hespeler, David; Keck, Cornelia M; Müller, Rainer H

    2017-10-05

    Miconazole nitrate nanosuspension was developed to increase its antifungal activity and dermal penetration. In addition, the nanosuspension was combined with the synergistic additive chlorhexidine digluconate. The production was performed by wet bead milling and both production and formulation parameters were optimized. A stabilizer screening revealed poloxamer 407 and Tween 80 both at 0.15% as the most effective stabilizers for miconazole nanosuspensions at 1.0%. The nanocrystals were incorporated into a hydroxypropyl cellulose gel base. Short-term stability (3months) of the nanocrystal bulk population could be shown at room temperature and fridge. Besides the stable bulk nanocrystals, some longitudinal crystal growth to needle like crystals occurred. The addition of ionic compounds as the chlorhexidine digluconate often destabilizes suspensions. Surprisingly here, the addition minimized the crystal growth. An underlying mechanism is proposed. An inhibition zone assay was performed using Candida albicans (ATCC ® 10231™). When comparing the nanocrystals in suspension and in gel to μm-sized miconazole nitrate formulations and two market products, the increase in inhibition zone diameter for the nanosuspension formulations was most pronounced in the chlorhexidine digluconate free formulations. These nanocrystal formulations were closely or similarly effective as the microsuspensions and the market products containing the synergistic chlorhexidine digluconate, showing the potential of the nanosuspension formulation. Nanosuspension performance was even further increased when chlorhexidine digluconate was added. Ex-vivo skin penetration studies on porcine ears revealed distinctly less remaining miconazole nitrate on the skin surface for nanocrystals (e.g., 76-86%) compared to market products (e.g. 94%). Also, penetration was increased e.g. in skin depth of 5-10μm from <1.0/1.7% to e.g. 3.3-6.2% for nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Experimental Study on the Shape Changes of TiO2 Nanocrystals Synthesized by Microemulsion-Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanocrystals of different shape were successfully synthesized in a new microemulsion system through a solvothermal process. The TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of tetrabutyl titanate (TBT, H2O, and oleic acid (OA, which were used as solvent and surfactant at 300∘C and 240∘C in a stainless steel autoclave. The sphere, polygon, and rhombus-shaped nanocrystals have been prepared at 300∘C and the dot- and- rod shaped nanocrystals have been synthesized at 240∘C. The effect of the reaction time on the shape and size of TiO2 nanocrystals in this method was studied in the present paper. The size distribution of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared at 300∘C for different hours is also studied. In addition, an attempt to describe the mechanism of shape change of TiO2 nanocrystals was presented in this paper.

  16. Biological activity of lactoferrin-functionalized biomimetic hydroxyapatite nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocerino N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nunzia Nocerino,1 Andrea Fulgione,1 Marco Iannaccone,1 Laura Tomasetta,1 Flora Ianniello,1 Francesca Martora,1 Marco Lelli,2 Norberto Roveri,2 Federico Capuano,3 Rosanna Capparelli1 1Department of Agriculture Special Biotechnology Center Federico II, CeBIOTEC Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 2Department of Chemistry, G Ciamician, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, 3Department of Food Inspection IZS ME, Naples, Italy Abstract: The emergence of bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics is a general public health problem. Progress in developing new molecules with antimicrobial properties has been made. In this study, we evaluated the biological activity of a hybrid nanocomposite composed of synthetic biomimetic hydroxyapatite surface-functionalized by lactoferrin (LF-HA. We evaluated the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties of LF-HA and found that the composite was active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and that it modulated proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses and enhanced antioxidant properties as compared with LF alone. These results indicate the possibility of using LF-HA as an antimicrobial system and biomimetic hydroxyapatite as a candidate for innovative biomedical applications. Keywords: lactoferrin, hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, biomimetism, biological activity, drug delivery

  17. Microstructure, thermal properties and crystallinity of amadumbe starch nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukurumbira, Agnes; Mariano, Marcos; Dufresne, Alain; Mellem, John J; Amonsou, Eric O

    2017-09-01

    Amadumbe (Colocasia esculenta), commonly known as taro is a tropical tuber that produces starch-rich underground corms. In this study, the physicochemical properties of starch nanocrystals (SNC) prepared by acid hydrolysis of amadumbe starches were investigated. Two varieties of amadumbe corms were used for starch extraction. Amadumbe starches produced substantially high yield (25%) of SNC's. These nanocrystals appeared as aggregated and individual particles and possessed square-like platelet morphology with size: 50-100nm. FTIR revealed high peak intensities corresponding to OH stretch, CH stretch and H 2 O bending vibrations for SNCs compared to their native starch counterparts. Both the native starch and SNC exhibited the A-type crystalline pattern. However, amadumbe SNCs showed higher degree of crystallinity and slightly reduced melting temperatures than their native starches. Amadumbe SNCs presented similar thermal decomposition property as their native starches. Amadumbe starch nanocrystals may have potential application in biocomposite films due to their square-like platelet morphology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulations of nanocrystals under pressure: Combining electronic enthalpy and linear-scaling density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsini, Niccolò R. C., E-mail: niccolo.corsini@imperial.ac.uk; Greco, Andrea; Haynes, Peter D. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hine, Nicholas D. M. [Department of Physics and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Molteni, Carla [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-28

    We present an implementation in a linear-scaling density-functional theory code of an electronic enthalpy method, which has been found to be natural and efficient for the ab initio calculation of finite systems under hydrostatic pressure. Based on a definition of the system volume as that enclosed within an electronic density isosurface [M. Cococcioni, F. Mauri, G. Ceder, and N. Marzari, Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 145501 (2005)], it supports both geometry optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce an approach for calibrating the parameters defining the volume in the context of geometry optimizations and discuss their significance. Results in good agreement with simulations using explicit solvents are obtained, validating our approach. Size-dependent pressure-induced structural transformations and variations in the energy gap of hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals are investigated, including one comparable in size to recent experiments. A detailed analysis of the polyamorphic transformations reveals three types of amorphous structures and their persistence on depressurization is assessed.

  19. Adhesion and internalization differences of COM nanocrystals on Vero cells before and after cell damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    The adhesion and internalization between African green monkey kidney epithelial (Vero) cells (before and after oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) nanocrystals (97 ± 35 nm) were investigated so as to discuss the molecular and cellular mechanism of kidney stone formation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the Vero–COM nanocrystal adhesion; the nanocrystal-cell adhesion was evaluated by measuring the content of malonaldehyde (MDA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the expression level of cell surface osteopontin (OPN) and the change of Zeta potential. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry were used for the observation and quantitative analysis of crystal internalization. In the process of adhesion, the cell viability and the SOD activity declined, the MDA content, Zeta potential, and the OPN expression level increased. The adhesive capacity of injured Vero was obviously stronger than normal cells; in addition the injured cells promoted the aggregation of COM nanocrystals. The capacity of normal cells to internalize crystals was obviously stronger than that of injured cells. Cell injury increased adhesive sites on cell surface, thereby facilitating the aggregation of COM nanocrystals and their attachment, which results in enhanced risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. - Graphical abstract: The adhesion and internalization differences between Vero cells before and after oxidative damage and calcium oxalate monohydrate nanocrystals were comparatively studied. - Highlights: • Adhesion capacity of injured Vero cells was stronger than normal cells. • Internalization capacity of injured Vero cells was weaker than normal cells. • Injured cells promoted the aggregation of COM nanocrystals. • COM adhesion could aggravate cell injury in both normal and injured cells.

  20. Charge transport in a CoPt3 nanocrystal microwire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecher, P.; De Marzi, G.; Quinn, A.J.; Redmond, G.; Shevchenko, E.V.; Weller, H.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of single CoPt 3 nanocrystal microwires formed by magnetic field-directed growth from colloidal solutions are presented. The wires comprise disordered assemblies of discrete nanocrystals, separated from each other by protective organic ligand shells. Electrical data indicate that the activated charge transport properties of the wires are determined by the nanocrystal charging energy, governed by the size and capacitance of the individual nanocrystals. Focused ion beam-assisted deposition of Pt metal at the wire-electrode junctions is employed to optimize the wire-electrode contacts, whilst maintaining the nanocrystal-dominated transport characteristics of these one-dimensional nanocrystal structures

  1. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  2. High Temperature AL-Nanocrystal Alloy Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perepezko, J

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum-rich metallic glasses containing transition metals and rare earth elements have been found to yield finely mixed microstructures of Al nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix and exhibit...

  3. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  4. Strong blue emission from ZnO nanocrystals synthesized in acetone-based solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efafi, B.; Majles Ara, M.H.; Mousavi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by an improved sol–gel method. UV–vis, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO solution synthesized by this route indicated different properties compared to the other preparation methods. It was observed from FTIR that the sol (prepared using acetone) with the low concentration contains a noticeable amount of the Zn–O bond. The PL spectrum with a strong blue emission confirmed that these nanocrystals are good candidate for use in applications where a monochromatic emission is required. To the best of our knowledge, monochromatic emission ZnO devices have been fabricated through high technology instruments but this paper introduces a simple method for preparation of ZnO with the high intensity blue peak. The size and morphology of ZnO nanocrystals have been studied using FESEM. The nanocrystal size was estimated about 70 nm which was in good agreement with XRD data. - Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals through a novel method by the use of acetone as the solvent. • Observation of the strong blue emission peak from the ZnO prepared solution. • Reduction of green emission in the synthesized sample compared to the other methods of preparation.

  5. Strong blue emission from ZnO nanocrystals synthesized in acetone-based solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efafi, B. [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Departments of Physics, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majles Ara, M.H., E-mail: majlesara@gmail.com [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.S. [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by an improved sol–gel method. UV–vis, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO solution synthesized by this route indicated different properties compared to the other preparation methods. It was observed from FTIR that the sol (prepared using acetone) with the low concentration contains a noticeable amount of the Zn–O bond. The PL spectrum with a strong blue emission confirmed that these nanocrystals are good candidate for use in applications where a monochromatic emission is required. To the best of our knowledge, monochromatic emission ZnO devices have been fabricated through high technology instruments but this paper introduces a simple method for preparation of ZnO with the high intensity blue peak. The size and morphology of ZnO nanocrystals have been studied using FESEM. The nanocrystal size was estimated about 70 nm which was in good agreement with XRD data. - Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals through a novel method by the use of acetone as the solvent. • Observation of the strong blue emission peak from the ZnO prepared solution. • Reduction of green emission in the synthesized sample compared to the other methods of preparation.

  6. Bright trions in direct-bandgap silicon nanocrystals revealed bylow-temperature single-nanocrystal spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina; Pelant, Ivan; Valenta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, Oct (2015), e336 ISSN 2047-7538 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * single-nanocrystal spectroscopy * luminescing trions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.600, year: 2015

  7. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  8. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  9. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  10. Structural Phase Transition and Compressibility of CaF2 Nanocrystals under High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshu Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The structural phase transition and compressibility of CaF2 nanocrystals with size of 23 nm under high pressure were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurement. A pressure-induced fluorite to α-PbCl2-type phase transition starts at 9.5 GPa and completes at 20.2 GPa. The phase-transition pressure is lower than that of 8 nm CaF2 nanocrystals and closer to bulk CaF2. Upon decompression, the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type structure co-exist at the ambient pressure. The bulk modulus B0 of the 23 nm CaF2 nanocrystals for the fluorite and α-PbCl2-type phase are 103(2 and 78(2 GPa, which are both larger than those of the bulk CaF2. The CaF2 nanocrystals exhibit obviously higher incompressibility compare to bulk CaF2. Further analysis demonstrates that the defect effect in our CaF2 nanocrystals plays a dominant role in the structural stability.

  11. Size limit on the phosphorous doped silicon nanocrystals for dopant activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: pengyuan.yang@surrey.ac.uk [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R.M. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); Crowe, I.F.; Papachristodoulou, N.; Halsall, M.P. [Photon Science Institute, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hylton, N.P. [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hulko, O.; Knights, A.P. [Department of Engineering Physics and the Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton L8S 4L7, Ontario (Canada); Shah, M.; Kenyon, A.J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-15

    We studied the photoluminescence spectra of silicon nanocrystals doped with and without phosphorus as a function of isothermal annealing time. Silicon nanocrystals were prepared by the implantation of 80 keV Si{sup +} into a 500 nm SiO{sub 2} film to an areal density of 8 × 10{sup 16} at/cm{sup 2}. Half of the samples were co-implanted with P{sup +} at 80 keV to 5 × 10{sup 15} at/cm{sup 2}. The photoluminescence of the annealed samples were photo-excited at wavelength of 405 nm. For short anneal times, when the nanocrystal size distribution has a relatively small mean diameter, formation in the presence of phosphorus yields an increase in the luminescence intensity and a blue shift in the emission peak compared with intrinsic nanocrystals. As the mean size increases with annealing time, this enhancement rapidly diminishes and the peak energy shifts to the red. Our results indicate the donor electron generation depends strongly on the nanocrystal size. We also found a critical limit above which it allows dopant activation.

  12. Magnesium ferrite nanocrystal clusters for magnetorheological fluid with enhanced sedimentation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangshuo; Ma, Yingying; Li, Meixia; Cui, Guohua; Che, Hongwei; Mu, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Tong, Yu; Dong, Xufeng

    2017-01-01

    In this study, magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) nanocrystal clusters were synthesized using an ascorbic acid-assistant solvothermal method and evaluated as a candidate for magnetorheological (MR) fluid. The morphology, microstructure and magnetic properties of the MgFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters were investigated in detail by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The MgFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters were suspended in silicone oil to prepare MR fluid and the MR properties were tested using a Physica MCR301 rheometer fitted with a magneto-rheological module. The prepared MR fluid showed typical Bingham plastic behavior, changing from a liquid-like to a solid-like structure under an external magnetic field. Compared with the conventional carbonyl iron particles, MgFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters-based MR fluid demonstrated enhanced sedimentation stability due to the reduced mismatch in density between the particles and the carrier medium. In summary, the as-prepared MgFe2O4 nanocrystal clusters are regarded as a promising candidate for MR fluid with enhanced sedimentation stability.

  13. Modified cellulose nanocrystal for vitamin C delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Berry, Richard M; Tam, Kam Chiu

    2015-04-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal grafted with chitosan oligosaccharide (CNC-CSOS) was used to encapsulate vitamin C and prepare CNCS/VC complexes using tripolyphosphte via ionic complexation. The stability of vitamin C and the antioxidant activity of the CNCS/VC complexes were elucidated. The formation of the complex was confirmed using DSC and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and TEM was used to study the morphology of the complexes. The encapsulation efficiency of vitamin C at pH 3 and 5 was 71.6% ± 6.8 and 91.0 ± 1.0, respectively. Strong exothermic peaks observed in isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) studies at pH 5 could be attributed to additional electrostatic interactions between CNC-CSOS and vitamin C at pH 5. The in vitro release of vitamin C from CNCS/VC complexes showed a sustained release of up to 20 days. The vitamin C released from CNCS/VC complex displayed higher stability compared with the control vitamin C solution, and this was also confirmed from the ITC thermograms. CNC-CSOS possessed a higher scavenging activity and faster antioxidant activity compared with its precursors, i.e., oxidized CNC and CSOS and their physical mixtures. Complexing vitamin C into CNC-CSOS particles yielded a dynamic antioxidant agent, where the vitamin C is released over time and displayed sustained antioxidant properties. Therefore, CNCS/VC can potentially be used in cosmeceutical applications as topical formulations.

  14. Comparative reading support system for lung cancer CT screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsuru; Saita, Shinsuke; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The comparative reading is performed using current and past images of the same case obtained from lung cancer CT screening. The result of this is useful for the early detection of lung cancer. Our paper describes the efficiency improvement of comparative reading using 10 mm slice thickness CT images by developing the system consists of slice registration method, pulmonary nodule registration method, and quantitative evaluation method of pulmonary nodule's degree of change. The proposed system is applied to CT images scanned for 1107 times of 85 cases with 198 pulmonary nodules and is evaluated by comparing it with the reading result of the doctors. We show the effectiveness of the system. (author)

  15. Phenomenological model of photoluminescence degradation and photoinduced defect formation in silicon nanocrystal ensembles under singlet oxygen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongalsky, Maxim B., E-mail: mgongalsky@gmail.com; Timoshenko, Victor Yu. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-28

    We propose a phenomenological model to explain photoluminescence degradation of silicon nanocrystals under singlet oxygen generation in gaseous and liquid systems. The model considers coupled rate equations, which take into account the exciton radiative recombination in silicon nanocrystals, photosensitization of singlet oxygen generation, defect formation on the surface of silicon nanocrystals as well as quenching processes for both excitons and singlet oxygen molecules. The model describes well the experimentally observed power law dependences of the photoluminescence intensity, singlet oxygen concentration, and lifetime versus photoexcitation time. The defect concentration in silicon nanocrystals increases by power law with a fractional exponent, which depends on the singlet oxygen concentration and ambient conditions. The obtained results are discussed in a view of optimization of the photosensitized singlet oxygen generation for biomedical applications.

  16. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-01-01

    -performing photovoltaic nanocrystals contain toxic elements, such as Pb, or scarce elements, such as In; thus, the production of solution-processable nanocrystals from earth-abundant materials using environmentally benign synthesis and processing methods has become a

  18. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  19. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  20. A dual-colored bio-marker made of doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y L; Zeng, X T [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Fu, S; Kwek, L C [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, 637616 (Singapore); Tok, A I Y; Boey, F C Y [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Lim, C S [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-08-27

    Bio-compatible ZnO nanocrystals doped with Co, Cu and Ni cations, surface capped with two types of aminosilanes and titania are synthesized by a soft chemical process. Due to the small particle size (2-5 nm), surface functional groups and the high photoluminescence emissions at the UV and blue-violet wavelength ranges, bio-imaging on human osteosarcoma (Mg-63) cells and histiocytic lymphoma U-937 monocyte cells showed blue emission at the nucleus and bright turquoise emission at the cytoplasm simultaneously. This is the first report on dual-color bio-images labeled by one semiconductor nanocrystal colloidal solution. Bright green emission was detected on mung bean seedlings labeled by all the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity tests showed that the aminosilanes capped nanoparticles are non-toxic. Quantum yields of the nanocrystals varied from 79% to 95%. The results showed the potential of the pure ZnO and Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals for live imaging of both human cells and plant systems.

  1. Binary PVA bio-nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Puglia, D; Luzi, F; Santulli, C; Kenny, J M; Torre, L

    2013-09-12

    PVA bio-nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and from two types of natural fibres, Phormium tenax and Flax of the Belinka variety, were produced by solvent casting in water. Morphological, thermal, mechanical and transparency properties were studied while the respective efficiency of the extraction process of CNC from the three sources was evaluated. The effect of CNC types and content on PVA properties and water absorption capacity were also evaluated. Natural fibres offered higher levels of extraction efficiency when compared with MCC hydrolysis yield. Thermal analysis proved that CNC promotes the crystallization of the PVA matrix, while improving its plastic response. It was also clarified that all PVA/CNC systems remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale, while being all saturated after the first 18-24h of water absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Fournier; Thibault Cholez; Matthieu Latapy; Isabelle Chrisment; Clémence Magnien; Olivier Festor; Ivan Daniloff

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and ...

  3. Automated microfluidic platform for systematic studies of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals: towards continuous nano-manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Robert W; Felton, Kobi C; Coley, Connor W; Abolhasani, Milad

    2017-11-21

    Colloidal organic/inorganic metal-halide perovskite nanocrystals have recently emerged as a potential low-cost replacement for the semiconductor materials in commercial photovoltaics and light emitting diodes. However, unlike III-V and IV-VI semiconductor nanocrystals, studies of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals have yet to develop a fundamental and comprehensive understanding of nucleation and growth kinetics. Here, we introduce a modular and automated microfluidic platform for the systematic studies of room-temperature synthesized cesium-lead halide perovskite nanocrystals. With abundant data collection across the entirety of four orders of magnitude reaction time span, we comprehensively characterize nanocrystal growth within a modular microfluidic reactor. The developed high-throughput screening platform features a custom-designed three-port flow cell with translational capability for in situ spectral characterization of the in-flow synthesized perovskite nanocrystals along a tubular microreactor with an adjustable length, ranging from 3 cm to 196 cm. The translational flow cell allows for sampling of twenty unique residence times at a single equilibrated flow rate. The developed technique requires an average total liquid consumption of 20 μL per spectra and as little as 2 μL at the time of sampling. It may continuously sample up to 30 000 unique spectra per day in both single and multi-phase flow formats. Using the developed plug-and-play microfluidic platform, we study the growth of cesium lead trihalide perovskite nanocrystals through in situ monitoring of their absorption and emission band-gaps at residence times ranging from 100 ms to 17 min. The automated microfluidic platform enables a systematic study of the effect of mixing enhancement on the quality of the synthesized nanocrystals through a direct comparison between single- and multi-phase flow systems at similar reaction time scales. The improved mixing characteristics of the multi-phase flow

  4. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    http://ww.bioline.org.br/ja. Comparative Studies on the Cardiovascular System in the Wistar Rat (Rattus .... norvegicus) were gotten from the animal house of the. Department of Anatomy .... Locomotion and Respiration in. Marine Air – Breathing ...

  5. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  6. Memory properties and charge effect study in Si nanocrystals by scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassani Franck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this letter, isolated Si nanocrystal has been formed by dewetting process with a thin silicon dioxide layer on top. Scanning capacitance microscopy and spectroscopy were used to study the memory properties and charge effect in the Si nanocrystal in ambient temperature. The retention time of trapped charges injected by different direct current (DC bias were evaluated and compared. By ramp process, strong hysteresis window was observed. The DC spectra curve shift direction and distance was observed differently for quantitative measurements. Holes or electrons can be separately injected into these Si-ncs and the capacitance changes caused by these trapped charges can be easily detected by scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy at the nanometer scale. This study is very useful for nanocrystal charge trap memory application.

  7. Nanocrystal conversion chemistry: A unified and materials-general strategy for the template-based synthesis of nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Yolanda; Henkes, Amanda E.; Chris Bauer, J.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of nanocrystal conversion chemistry, which involves the use of pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, has emerged as a powerful approach for designing the synthesis of complex nanocrystalline solids. The general strategy exploits established synthetic capabilities in simple nanocrystal systems and uses these nanocrystals as templates that help to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals. This article highlights key examples of 'conversion chemistry' approaches to the synthesis of nanocrystalline solids using a variety of techniques, including galvanic replacement, diffusion, oxidation, and ion exchange. The discussion is organized according to classes of solids, highlighting the diverse target systems that are accessible using similar chemical concepts: metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallic compounds, sulfides, and nitrides. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystal conversion chemistry uses pre-formed nanoparticles as templates for chemical transformation into derivative solids, helping to define the composition, crystal structure, and morphology of product nanocrystals that have more complex features than their precursor templates. This article highlights the application of this concept to diverse classes of solids, including metals, oxides, chalcogenides, phosphides, alloys, intermetallics, sulfides, and nitrides

  8. Radiative Properties of Carriers in Cdse-Cds Core-Shell Heterostructured Nanocrystals of Various Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Dong, L.; Popov, S.; Friberg, A. T.

    2013-07-01

    We report a model on core-shell heterostructured nanocrystals with CdSe as the core and CdS as the shell. The model is based on one-band Schrödinger equation. Three different geometries, nanodot, nanorod, and nanobone, are implemented. The carrier localization regimes with these structures are simulated, compared, and analyzed. Based on the electron and hole wave functions, the carrier overlap integral that has a great impact on stimulated emission is further investigated numerically by a novel approach. Furthermore, the relation between the nanocrystal size and electron-hole recombination energy is also examined.

  9. Cellulose nanocrystal: electronically conducting polymer nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of cellulose nanocrystals for the fabrication of porous nanocomposites with electronic conducting polymers for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The exceptional strength and negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals are utilised in these nanocomposites. The negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals allow their simultaneous incorporation into electropolymerised, positively charged conducting polymer ...

  10. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  11. Observation of melting in 30 angstrom diameter CdS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, A.N.; Colvin, V.L.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper temperature dependent electron diffraction studies on 30 Angstrom diameter CdS nanocrystals are described. The linear thermal expansion coefficient of the nanocrystals is 2.75 * 10 -5 Angstrom/K, and the melting point is 575 K. These data are in contrast to bulk CdS which has a melting point of 1750 K and a linear expansion coefficient of 5.5 * 10 -6 Angstrom/K. The observed depression in the melting point of these semiconductor clusters is similar to effects observed in metals and molecular crystals, indicating that the phenomenon of reduced melting point in small systems is a general one regardless of the type of material. The observation of melting point depression in these clusters also has far reaching implications for the preparation of highly crystalline clusters of CdS, as well as for the use of these nanocrystals as precursors to thin films

  12. Systematic Identification of Promoters for Methane Oxidation Catalysts Using Size- and Composition-Controlled Pd-Based Bimetallic Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Joshua J; Goodman, Emmett D; Wu, Liheng; Riscoe, Andrew R; Martins, Pedro; Tassone, Christopher J; Cargnello, Matteo

    2017-08-30

    Promoters enhance the performance of catalytic active phases by increasing rates, stability, and/or selectivity. The process of identifying promoters is in most cases empirical and relies on testing a broad range of catalysts prepared with the random deposition of active and promoter phases, typically with no fine control over their localization. This issue is particularly relevant in supported bimetallic systems, where two metals are codeposited onto high-surface area materials. We here report the use of colloidal bimetallic nanocrystals to produce catalysts where the active and promoter phases are colocalized to a fine extent. This strategy enables a systematic approach to study the promotional effects of several transition metals on palladium catalysts for methane oxidation. In order to achieve these goals, we demonstrate a single synthetic protocol to obtain uniform palladium-based bimetallic nanocrystals (PdM, M = V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, and potentially extendable to other metal combinations) with a wide variety of compositions and sizes based on high-temperature thermal decomposition of readily available precursors. Once the nanocrystals are supported onto oxide materials, thermal treatments in air cause segregation of the base metal oxide phase in close proximity to the Pd phase. We demonstrate that some metals (Fe, Co, and Sn) inhibit the sintering of the active Pd metal phase, while others (Ni and Zn) increase its intrinsic activity compared to a monometallic Pd catalyst. This procedure can be generalized to systematically investigate the promotional effects of metal and metal oxide phases for a variety of active metal-promoter combinations and catalytic reactions.

  13. Comparative analysis of thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Y.; Metchop, L.; Frantzis, A.; Phelan, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the relative performances of three different thermally activated, environmentally friendly cooling systems, e.g. a silica-gel-water adsorption system, a LiBr-H 2 O absorption system and a desiccant air system. The adsorption and absorption systems in the current study employ water as the refrigerant, while the desiccant system cools atmospheric air directly. Each of these systems can be utilized at relatively low heat source temperatures such as achieved by flat plate solar collectors, but it is unclear which of these systems is best suited to what range of heat source temperature. Our study explores answers to this question by generating quantitative results comparing their relative thermal performance, i.e. COP and refrigeration capacity, and a qualitative comparison based on the size, maturity of technology, safe operation etc. In order to provide a fair comparison between the fundamentally different systems, a UA (overall heat transfer coefficient multiplied by the heat transfer area) value of 1.0 kW deg. C -1 is considered for the heat exchanger that transfers heat from the supplied hot water. Furthermore, to compare systems of similar size, the mass of silica-gel in the adsorption and desiccant systems and the mass of LiBr-H 2 O solution in the absorption system were specified such that each system provides the same amount of refrigeration (8.0 kW) at a source temperature of 90 deg. C. It is found that the absorption and adsorption cooling systems have a higher refrigeration capacity at heat source temperatures below 90 deg. C, while the desiccant air system outperforms the others at temperatures above 90 deg. C

  14. A review of experiments comparing systems of grazing management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments comparing different systems of grazing management on natural pastures in various parts of the world are reviewed. In experiments in which various rotational systems were tested against continuous grazing, fewer than half revealed pasture improvement relative to continuous grazing. In the majority of ...

  15. Comparative Education: The Social Construction of the Modern World System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Meyer, John W.

    This paper is a critical assessment of the theory and evidence on three general issues in comparative education. It assesses the factors affecting the origins and expansion of national educational systems; the factors influencing the organizational structure and ideologies of systems of mass schooling and higher education; and the effects of…

  16. A feasibility study of unconventional planar ligand spacers in chalcogenide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Binit; Clancy, Paulette

    2016-05-18

    The solar cell efficiency of chalcogenide nanocrystals (quantum dots) has been limited in the past by the insulation between neighboring quantum dots caused by intervening, often long-chain, aliphatic ligands. We have conducted a computationally based feasibility study to investigate the use of ultra-thin, planar, charge-conducting ligands as an alternative to traditional long passive ligands. Not only might these radically unconventional ligands decrease the mean distance between adjacent quantum dots, but, since they are charge-conducting, they have the potential to actively enhance charge migration. Our ab initio studies compare the binding energies, electronic energy gaps, and absorption characteristics for both conventional and unconventional ligands, such as phthalocyanines, porphyrins and coronene. This comparison identified these unconventional ligands with the exception of titanyl phthalocyanine, that bind to themselves more strongly than to the surface of the quantum dot, which is likely to be less desirable for enhancing charge transport. The distribution of finite energy levels of the bound system is sensitive to the ligand's binding site and the levels correspond to delocalized states. We also observed a trap state localized on a single Pb atom when a sulfur-containing phenyldithiocarbamate (PTC) ligand is attached to a slightly off-stoichiometric dot in a manner that the sulfur of the ligand completes stoichiometry of the bound system. Hence, this is indicative of the source of trap state when thio-based ligands are bound to chalcogenide nanocrystals. We also predict that titanyl phthalocyanine in a mix with chalcogenide dots of diameter ∼1.5 Å can form a donor-acceptor system.

  17. Social Security System in India: An International Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Rupak Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Surajit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines selected components of social security system in India and compares them with their OECD counterparts. Historically, the Indian policy makers have viewed the pension system as a welfare measure and therefore, it lacks in financial professionalism, diversification, and in the belief that pension funds can also be treated as an asset. The Indian system is biased towards the organized formal sector as workers in this sector are benefitted with the provisions under various lab...

  18. Pt Single Atoms Embedded in the Surface of Ni Nanocrystals as Highly Active Catalysts for Selective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuhan; Geng, Zhigang; Zhao, Songtao; Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Xu; Zheng, Xusheng; Zhu, Junfa; Li, Zhenyu; Si, Rui; Zeng, Jie

    2018-06-13

    Single-atom catalysts exhibit high selectivity in hydrogenation due to their isolated active sites, which ensure uniform adsorption configurations of substrate molecules. Compared with the achievement in catalytic selectivity, there is still a long way to go in exploiting the catalytic activity of single-atom catalysts. Herein, we developed highly active and selective catalysts in selective hydrogenation by embedding Pt single atoms in the surface of Ni nanocrystals (denoted as Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals). During the hydrogenation of 3-nitrostyrene, the TOF numbers based on surface Pt atoms of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals reached ∼1800 h -1 under 3 atm of H 2 at 40 °C, much higher than that of Pt single atoms supported on active carbon, TiO 2 , SiO 2 , and ZSM-5. Mechanistic studies reveal that the remarkable activity of Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals derived from sufficient hydrogen supply because of spontaneous dissociation of H 2 on both Pt and Ni atoms as well as facile diffusion of H atoms on Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals. Moreover, the ensemble composed of the Pt single atom and nearby Ni atoms in Pt 1 /Ni nanocrystals leads to the adsorption configuration of 3-nitrostyrene favorable for the activation of nitro groups, accounting for the high selectivity for 3-vinylaniline.

  19. Large-scale, rapid synthesis and application in surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of sub-micrometer polyhedral gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shaojun; Wang Yuling; Wang Erkang

    2007-01-01

    Macromolecule-protected sub-micrometer polyhedral gold nanocrystals have been facilely prepared by heating an aqueous solution containing poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) and HAuCl 4 without adding other reducing agents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the obtained polyhedral gold nanocrystals. It is found that the 10:1 molar ratio of PVP to gold is a key factor for obtaining quasi-monodisperse polyhedral gold nanocrystals. Furthermore, the application of polyhedral gold nanocrystals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was investigated by using 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) as a probe molecule. The results indicated that the sub-micrometer polyhedral gold nanocrystals modified on the ITO substrate exhibited higher SERS activity compared to the traditional gold nanoparticle modified film. The enhancement factor (EF) on polyhedral gold nanocrystals was about six times larger than that obtained on aggregated gold nanoparticles (∼25 nm)

  20. Preparation and nonlinear optical properties of indium nanocrystals in sodium borosilicate glass by the sol–gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Zhao, Haijun; Chen, Zhaoping; Liang, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Wenguang; Chen, Guoxin

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel methods. And the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal system have formed uniformly in the glass, and the average diameter of indium nanocrystals is about 30 nm. The third-order optical nonlinear refractive index γ, absorption coefficient β, and susceptibility χ (3) of the glass are determined to be −4.77 × 10 −16 m 2 /W, 2.67 × 10 −9 m/W, and 2.81 × 10 −10 esu, respectively. Highlights: ► Indium nanocrystals embedded in glass matrix have been prepared by sol–gel route. ► The crystal structure and composition are investigated by XRD and XPS. ► Size and distribution of indium nanocrystals is determined by TEM. ► The third-order optical nonlinearity is investigated by using Z-scan technique. -- Abstract: The sodium borosilicate glass doped with indium nanocrystals have been successfully prepared by sol–gel route. The thermal stability behavior of the stiff gel is investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal (DTA) analysis. The crystal structure of the glass is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Particle composition is determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Size and distribution of the nanocrystals are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Results show that the indium nanocrystals in tetragonal crystal structure have formed in glass, and the average diameter is about 30 nm. Further, the glass is measured by Z-scan technique to investigate the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties. The third-order NLO coefficient χ (3) of the glass is determined to be 2.81 × 10 −10 esu. The glass with large third-order NLO coefficient is promising materials for applications in optical devices.

  1. Comparative effectiveness of the SNaP™ Wound Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, David W; Sheehan, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Diabetic lower extremity wounds cause substantial burden to healthcare systems, costing tens of thousands of dollars per episode. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) devices have been shown to be cost-effective at treating these wounds, but the traditional devices use bulky electrical pumps that require a durable medical equipment rental-based procurement process. The Spiracur SNaP™ Wound Care System is an ultraportable NPWT system that does not use an electric pump and is fully disposable. It has superior healing compared to standard of care with modern dressings and comparable healing to traditional NPWT devices while giving patients greater mobility and giving clinicians a simpler procurement process. We used a mathematical model to analyse the costs of the SNaP™ system and compare them to standard of care and electrically powered NPWT devices. When compared to standard of care, the SNaP™ system saves over $9000 per wound treated and more than doubles the number of patients healed. The SNaP system has similar healing time to powered NPWT devices, but saves $2300 in Medicare payments or $2800 for private payers per wound treated. Our analysis shows that the SNaP™ system could save substantial treatment costs in addition to allowing patients greater freedom and mobility. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  2. Raman Spectroscopy of SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass doped with Nd{sup 3+} and CdS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serqueira, E.O.; Dantas, N.O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG 38400-902 (Brazil); Anjos, V. [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Bell, M.J.V., E-mail: mjvbell@yahoo.com.br [Grupo de Espectroscopia de Materiais, Departamento de Física, ICE – UFJF, Campus Universitário, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The formation of CdS nanocrystals in the glassy host is shown by Raman measurements. • Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass. • Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals. -- Abstract: We report the Raman spectroscopic characterization of a SNAB glass system doped with neodymium and CdS nanocrystals and fabricated by the fusion process. Raman spectra revealed CdS nanocrystals in the glass host and bands associated with Si–O vibrational modes with five structural configurations, boroxol modes of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al–O and Cd–S vibrational modes. Additionally, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} modifies the growth of CdS nanocrystals in the SNAB glass and Nd{sup 3+} ions are not incorporated inside the semiconductor nanocrystals.

  3. Cellulose nanocrystals as templates for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide mediated synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their novel use in PLA films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcinkaya, E E; Puglia, D; Fortunati, E; Bertoglio, F; Bruni, G; Visai, L; Kenny, J M

    2017-02-10

    In the present paper, we reported how cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from microcrystalline cellulose have the capacity to assist in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles chains. A cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), was used as modifier for CNC surface. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on CNC, and nanoparticle density and size were optimized by varying concentrations of nitrate and reducing agents, and the reduction time. The experimental conditions were optimized for the synthesis and the resulting Ag grafted CNC (Ag-g-CNC) were characterized by means of TGA, SEM, FTIR and XRD, and then introduced in PLA matrix. PLA nanocomposite containing silver grafted cellulose nanocrystals (PLA/0.5Ag-g-1CNC) was characterized by optical and thermal analyses and the obtained data were compared with results from PLA nanocomposites containing 1% wt. of CNC (PLA/1CNC), 0.5% wt. of silver nanoparticles (PLA/0.5Ag) and hybrid system containing CNC and silver in the same amount (PLA/1CNC/0.5Ag). The results demonstrated that grafting of silver nanoparticles on CNC positively affected the thermal degradation process and cold crystallization processes of PLA matrix. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the different systems was studied at various incubation times and temperatures, showing the best performance for PLA/1CNC/0.5Ag based nanocomposite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Model for efficient visible emission from Si nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M. E-mail: mlopez@el.ub.es; Garrido, B.; Bonafos, C.; Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Claverie, A

    2001-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) emission of Si nanocrystals ion beam synthesized in SiO{sub 2} is studied in this work as a function of annealing time and initial Si atomic excess (super-saturation). The optical properties of this system have been correlated with the characteristics of the nanocrystal population. The Si nanocrystals show a wide and very intense PL red/infrared emission. This emission peaks at about 1.7 eV for the low super-saturation range between 1% and 10% and shifts to the infrared for higher super-saturation (20% and 30%). Remarkably, there is a linear increase of PL intensity versus super-saturation in the low range. Moreover, the annealing kinetic studies show a typical behavior of PL intensity with annealing time, with a fast transitory increase that bends over to reach asymptotic saturation. The PL intensity saturation is satisfactorily explained by the Ostwald ripening stage of the nanocrystal population while the transient stage is a consequence of both nanocrystal growth and nanocrystal surface passivation mechanisms acting together. Indeed, electron spin resonance measurements demonstrate that the concentration of P{sub b} centers (Si dangling bonds) at the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface correlates inversely with PL intensity during most of the transient stage.

  5. Comparing Different Fault Identification Algorithms in Distributed Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaabi, Salim

    A power system is a huge complex system that delivers the electrical power from the generation units to the consumers. As the demand for electrical power increases, distributed power generation was introduced to the power system. Faults may occur in the power system at any time in different locations. These faults cause a huge damage to the system as they might lead to full failure of the power system. Using distributed generation in the power system made it even harder to identify the location of the faults in the system. The main objective of this work is to test the different fault location identification algorithms while tested on a power system with the different amount of power injected using distributed generators. As faults may lead the system to full failure, this is an important area for research. In this thesis different fault location identification algorithms have been tested and compared while the different amount of power is injected from distributed generators. The algorithms were tested on IEEE 34 node test feeder using MATLAB and the results were compared to find when these algorithms might fail and the reliability of these methods.

  6. A comparative study of two different clear aligner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercoli, Federica; Tepedino, Michele; Parziale, Vincenzo; Luzi, Cesare

    2014-05-02

    This study aims to compare the 'Nuvola®' system with 'Fantasmino®' system, examine their material properties, and define the indications for use of the aligners. Two groups of patients were selected and were respectively treated with Nuvola® aligner and Fantasmino® system. The goal of treatment has been achieved with the two systems. The two types of aligners have shown differences during the treatment. Fantasmino® system has elastic properties of high performance, but its size does not encourage compliance throughout the day. Nuvola® system determines good tooth movement and its size facilitates the patient's collaboration. In both aligner systems, difficulties were found in the correction of torque information and rotations.

  7. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to  nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials.  Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale  materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientati...

  8. The structure and morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadavanich, Andreas V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Organically capped nanocrystals were found to have faceted shapes consistent with Wulff polyhedra after the effects of capping ligands on surface energies were taken into account. The basic shape thus derived for wurtzite (WZ) structure CdSe nanocrystals capped by tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) was a truncated hexagonal prism, elongated alone the <001> axis with (100) and (002) facets. This structure has C{sub 3v} point group symmetry. The main defect in this structure is a stacking fault (a single layer of zinc blende type stacking), which does not significantly affect the shape (does not alter the point group).

  9. Strained interface defects in silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Benjamin G.; Stradins, Paul [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hiller, Daniel; Zacharias, Margit [IMTEK - Faculty of Engineering, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg (Germany); Luo, Jun-Wei; Beard, Matthew C. [Chemical and Materials Science, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Semonin, Octavi E. [Chemical and Materials Science, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-07

    The surface of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an oxide matrix can contain numerous interface defects. These defects strongly affect the nanocrystals' photoluminescence efficiency and optical absorption. Dangling-bond defects are nearly eliminated by H{sub 2} passivation, thus decreasing absorption below the quantum-confined bandgap and enhancing PL efficiency by an order of magnitude. However, there remain numerous other defects seen in absorption by photothermal deflection spectroscopy; these defects cause non-radiative recombination that limits the PL efficiency to <15%. Using atomistic pseudopotential simulations, we attribute these defects to two specific types of distorted bonds: Si-Si and bridging Si-O-Si bonds between two Si atoms at the nanocrystal surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Developing New Nanoprobes from Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots havegarnered the spotlight as an important new class of biological labelingtool. Withoptical properties superior to conventional organicfluorophores from many aspects, such as high photostability andmultiplexing capability, quantum dots have been applied in a variety ofadvanced imaging applications. This dissertation research goes along withlarge amount of research efforts in this field, while focusing on thedesign and development of new nanoprobes from semiconductor nanocrystalsthat are aimed for useful imaging or sensing applications not possiblewith quantum dots alone. Specifically speaking, two strategies have beenapplied. In one, we have taken advantage of the increasing capability ofmanipulating the shape of semiconductor nanocrystals by developingsemiconductor quantum rods as fluorescent biological labels. In theother, we have assembled quantum dots and gold nanocrystals into discretenanostructures using DNA. The background information and synthesis,surface manipulation, property characterization and applications of thesenew nanoprobes in a few biological experiments are detailed in thedissertation.

  11. Photocatalytic properties of zinc sulfide nanocrystals biofabricated by metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Xiang; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Peng-Cheng; Lei, Yu-Bin; Xu, Hui; Du, Dao-Lin; Sun, Jian-Fan; Feng, Yu-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • S. oneidensis MR-1 biofabricated ZnS nanocrystals using artificial wastewater. • ZnS nanocrystals were 5 nm in diameter and aggregated extracellularly. • ZnS had good catalytic activity in the degradation of RHB under UV irradiation. • Photogenerated holes mainly contributed to the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: Accumulation and utilization of heavy metals from wastewater by biological treatment system has aroused great interest. In the present study, a metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was used to explore the biofabrication of ZnS nanocrystals from the artificial wastewater. The biogenic H 2 S produced via the reduction of thiosulfate precipitated the Zn(II) as sulfide extracellularly. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) confirmed the precipitates as ZnS nanocrystals. The biogenic ZnS nanocrystals appeared spherical in shape with an average diameter of 5 nm and mainly aggregated in the medium and cell surface of S. oneidensis MR-1. UV–vis DRS spectra showed ZnS nanoparticles appeared a strong absorption below 360 nm. Thus, the photocatalytic activity of ZnS was evaluated by the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV irradiation. The biogenic ZnS nanocrystals showed a high level of photodegradation efficiency to RhB coupled with a significant blue-shift of maximum adsorption peak. A detailed analysis indicated the photogenerated holes, rather than hydroxyl radicals, contributed to the photocatalytic decolorization of RhB. This approach of coupling biosynthesis of nanoparticles with heavy metal removal may offer a potential avenue for efficient bioremediation of heavy metal wastewater

  12. Photocatalytic properties of zinc sulfide nanocrystals biofabricated by metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiang [School of The Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Ma, Xiao-Bo [School of The Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yuan, Hang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Technical Biology & Agriculture Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Peng-Cheng; Lei, Yu-Bin; Xu, Hui [School of The Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Du, Dao-Lin, E-mail: ddl@ujs.edu.cn [School of The Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Sun, Jian-Fan [School of The Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Feng, Yu-Jie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • S. oneidensis MR-1 biofabricated ZnS nanocrystals using artificial wastewater. • ZnS nanocrystals were 5 nm in diameter and aggregated extracellularly. • ZnS had good catalytic activity in the degradation of RHB under UV irradiation. • Photogenerated holes mainly contributed to the degradation of RhB. - Abstract: Accumulation and utilization of heavy metals from wastewater by biological treatment system has aroused great interest. In the present study, a metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was used to explore the biofabrication of ZnS nanocrystals from the artificial wastewater. The biogenic H{sub 2}S produced via the reduction of thiosulfate precipitated the Zn(II) as sulfide extracellularly. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) confirmed the precipitates as ZnS nanocrystals. The biogenic ZnS nanocrystals appeared spherical in shape with an average diameter of 5 nm and mainly aggregated in the medium and cell surface of S. oneidensis MR-1. UV–vis DRS spectra showed ZnS nanoparticles appeared a strong absorption below 360 nm. Thus, the photocatalytic activity of ZnS was evaluated by the photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under UV irradiation. The biogenic ZnS nanocrystals showed a high level of photodegradation efficiency to RhB coupled with a significant blue-shift of maximum adsorption peak. A detailed analysis indicated the photogenerated holes, rather than hydroxyl radicals, contributed to the photocatalytic decolorization of RhB. This approach of coupling biosynthesis of nanoparticles with heavy metal removal may offer a potential avenue for efficient bioremediation of heavy metal wastewater.

  13. Electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of wurtzite Cu–Ga–S nanocrystals and their Zn substitution

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek

    2015-03-23

    Stoichiometric and gallium-rich wurtzite Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals were synthesized via a facile solution-based hot injection method using 1-dodecanethiol as a sulfur source. The use of 1-dodecanethiol was found to be essential not only as a sulfur source but also as a structure-directing reagent to form a metastable wurtzite structure. In addition, the substitution of zinc in the wurtzite gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S nanocrystals was also investigated. The obtained nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Electronic structures of pristine and the Zn-substituted Cu-Ga-S system were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated bandgaps accurately reflect the measured ones. The allowed electronic transitions occur upon the photon absorption from the (Cu + S) band towards the (Ga + S) one. The Zn substitution was found not to contribute to the band edge structure and hence altered the bandgaps only slightly, the direct transition nature remaining unchanged with the Zn substitution. The photocatalytic activities of H2 evolution from an aqueous Na2S/Na2SO3 solution under visible-light illumination on the synthesized nanocrystals were investigated. While the stoichiometric CuGaS2 exhibited negligible activity, the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals displayed reasonable activity. The optimum Zn substitution in the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals enhanced the H2 evolution rate, achieving an apparent quantum efficiency of >6% at 400 nm. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Development of multilateral comparative evaluation method for fuel cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Ikushima, Takeshi; Nomura, Yasushi; Nakajima, Kiyoshi.

    1998-03-01

    In the near future, Japanese nuclear fuel cycle system will be promoted by national nuclear energy policy, and it''s options i.e. once through, thermal cycle and fast breeder cycle must be selected by multilateral comparative evaluation method from various aspects of safety, society, economy, and e.t.c. Therefore such a problem can be recognized as a social problem of decision making and applied for AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) that can multilaterally and comparatively evaluate the problem. On comparative evaluation, much information are needed for decision making, therefore two kinds of databases having these information have been constructed. And then, the multilateral comparative evaluation method consisting of two kinds of databases and AHP for optimum selection of fuel cycle system option have been developed. (author)

  15. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Paul J M; Oostenbrink, Jan B; Zuurbier, Joost J; Schaepkens, Frans J M

    2007-05-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the total number of improper Medicare payments for the Prospective Payment system for acute inpatient care (both short term and long term) amounted to US$ 4.8 billion (5.2%). By comparing the casemix systems in the US, Australian and Dutch healthcare systems, this article illustrates why certain casemix systems are more open to the risk of upcoding than other systems. This study identifies various market, control and casemix characteristics determining the weaknesses of a casemix reimbursement system to upcoding. It can be concluded that fewer opportunities for upcoding occur in casemix systems that do not allow for-profit ownership and in which the coder's salary does not depend on the outcome of the classification process. In addition, casemix systems in which the first point in time of registration is at the beginning of the care process and in which there are a limited number of occasions to alter the registration are less vulnerable to the risk of upcoding. Finally, the risk of upcoding is smaller in casemix systems that use classification criteria that are medically meaningful and aligned with clinical practice. Comparing the US, Australian and Dutch systems the following conclusions can be drawn. Given the combined occurrences of for-profit hospitals and the use of the secondary diagnosis criterion to classify DRGs, the US casemix system tends to be more open to upcoding than the Australian system. The strength of the Dutch system is related to the detailed classification scheme, using medically meaningful classification criteria. Nevertheless, the detailed classification scheme also causes a weakness, because of its increased complexity compared with the US and

  16. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  17. Luminescence in colloidal Mn2+-doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulac, Remi; Archer, Paul I.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystal doping chemistries have substantially broadened the variety of photophysical properties that can be observed in colloidal Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals. A brief overview is provided, focusing on Mn 2+ -doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals prepared by direct chemical synthesis and capped with coordinating surface ligands. These Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation. A brief outlook on future research directions is provided. - Graphical abstract: Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation

  18. Comparative Analysis of Resonant Converters for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuchev Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paperwork presents a comparative analysis of multiphase resonant converters for applications in energy storage systems. Models of the examined converters are developed in the software environments of MATLAB and LTspice. Results from the simulation examination of the converters during charging of supercapacitors and rechargeable batteries are presented. These results are compared to results obtained from experimental examination of the converters via a laboratory stand. For the purposes of the experimental examination, a control system is developed on the base of a virtual instrument in LabVIEW. The advantages and disadvantages of the different converters are discussed.

  19. A Comparative Study of Distribution System Parameter Estimation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yannan; Williams, Tess L.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2016-07-17

    In this paper, we compare two parameter estimation methods for distribution systems: residual sensitivity analysis and state-vector augmentation with a Kalman filter. These two methods were originally proposed for transmission systems, and are still the most commonly used methods for parameter estimation. Distribution systems have much lower measurement redundancy than transmission systems. Therefore, estimating parameters is much more difficult. To increase the robustness of parameter estimation, the two methods are applied with combined measurement snapshots (measurement sets taken at different points in time), so that the redundancy for computing the parameter values is increased. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The results of this paper show that state-vector augmentation is a better approach for parameter estimation in distribution systems. Simulation studies are done on a modified version of IEEE 13-Node Test Feeder with varying levels of measurement noise and non-zero error in the other system model parameters.

  20. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  1. British and Italian electric power systems: Comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolli, A.

    1992-01-01

    This study compares the new electricity system in England, Wales and Scotland, after the 1989 Electricity Act, and the Italian electricity system (as modified by the January, 9, 1991, Law No. 9 and by the December 5, 1991, Decree No. 386 made law (No. 35) on January, 29, 1992). The study focuses on legal aspects and socio-economic factors influencing planning and organizing by the national electric power industries in their efforts to maintain supply and demand equilibrium

  2. Comparative analysis of nuclear reactor control system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are vital to the safe operation of nuclear reactors. Their seismic design requirements are some of the most important criteria governing reactor system design evaluation. Consequently, the seismic analysis for nuclear reactors is directed to include not only the mechanical and structural seismic capabilities of a reactor, but the control system functional requirements as well. In the study described an alternate conceptual design of a safety rod system was compared with a prototypic system design to assess their relative functional reliabilities under design seismic conditions. The comparative methods utilized standard success tree and decision tree techniques to determine the relative figures of merit. The study showed: (1) The methodology utilized can provide both qualitative and quantitative bases for design decisions regarding seismic functional capabilities of two systems under comparison, (2) the process emphasizes the visibility of particular design features that are subject to common mode failure while under seismic loading, and (3) minimal improvement was shown to be available in overall system seismic performance of an independent conceptual design, however, it also showed the system would be subject to a new set of operational uncertainties which would have to be resolved by extensive development programs

  3. Studies on II-VI and III-V semiconductor nanostructures. Introduction of the core/shell/shell structure and development of CdSe nanocrystals in an automatized procedure; Untersuchungen an II-VI und III-V Halbleiternanostrukturen. Einfuehrung der Core/shell/shell-Struktur und Darstellung von CdSe-Nanokristallen in einem automatisierten Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, I.

    2005-11-15

    The work in this dissertation is focused on the development and characterization of fluorescent II-VI and III-V-Nanomaterials. Highly luminescent and photostable Nanocrystals with narrow size distributions were prepared. It was shown that nearly monodisperse CdSe-Nanocrystals could be prepared from Cd(Ac){sub 2} and TOPSe in a mixture of TOPO/TOP/HDA/TDPA. Nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS-Core/shell-Nanocrystals have been prepared in a one-pot-synthesis by injection of H{sub 2}S-Gas into a freshly prepared crude solution of CdSe. The passivation of the CdSe-core with an inorganic shell of CdS resulted in the drastic improvement of the photoluminescence-efficiency of the colloidal solution. Reproducible room-temperature quantum yields reached up to a value of 85%. Photostability investigations have proved the enhanced stability of CdSe/CdS-Nanocrystals compared to CdSe-Nanocrystals under illumination with UV-Light. A novel type of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystal structure has been developed, consisting of a CdSe core and two anorganic shells. Highly fluorescent and nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS/ZnS- and CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS-Core/shell/shell-nanocrystals have been prepared via organometallic- and acetate-precursors. The Core/she ll/shell particles reached reproducible room-temperature quantum yields up to 85%. Photostability investigations among CdSe-core, CdSe/CdS-Core/shell- and CdSe/CdS/ZnS- Core/shell/-shell-nanocrystals under illumination with UV-light have proved the highest photostability of the Core/shell/shell-particles. The photostabilities of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS-and CdSe/ZnS-nanocrystals were compared under illumination with intense laser-beam in air. Another part of this work focused on the development of an automated synthesis procedure of CdSe-nanocrystals by constructing and implementing a flow-reactor system. The size and structure of prepared nanocrystals depended considerably on the Cd:Se-precursorratio and the flow-rate. The preparation of CdSe using Cd(Ac)2

  4. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-01-01

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  5. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  6. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of

  7. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems : China and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards

  8. A Methodology to Efficiently Compare Operating System Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kouwe, E.; Giuffrida, C.; Ghitulete, R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of advances in software engineering, operating systems (OSes) are still plagued by crashes due to software faults, calling for techniques to improve OS stability when faults occur. Evaluating such techniques requires a way to compare the stability of different OSes that is both

  9. Comparative study of the primary healthcare systems in China and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community health centres (CHCs) are an important component of the health system in Mali and China. Despite patient support and commitment from the authorities, the management and the quality of care of these structures need to be improved. This research aimed to compare the management style of the ...

  10. Risk assessment of released cellulose nanocrystals – mimicking inhalatory exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endes, C; Vanhecke, D; Petri-Fink, A; Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Clift, M J D; Müller, S; Foster, E J; Weder, C; Schmid, O

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit advantageous chemical and mechanical properties that render them attractive for a wide range of applications. During the life-cycle of CNC containing materials the nanocrystals could be released and become airborne, posing a potential inhalatory exposure risk towards humans. Absent reliable and dose-controlled models that mimic this exposure in situ is a central issue in gaining an insight into the CNC-lung interaction. Here, an Air Liquid Interface Cell Exposure system (ALICE), previously designed for studies of spherical nanoparticles, was used for the first time to establish a realistic physiological exposure test method for inhaled fiber shaped nano-objects; in this case, CNCs isolated from cotton. Applying a microscopy based approach the spatially homogenous deposition of CNCs was demonstrated as a prerequisite of the functioning of the ALICE. Furthermore, reliability and controllability of the system to nebulise high aspect ratio nanomaterials (HARN, e.g. CNCs) was shown. This opens the potential to thoroughly investigate the inhalatory risk of CNCs in vitro using a realistic exposure system.

  11. Chemically tailoring the dopant emission in manganese-doped CsPbCl{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das Adhikari, Samrat; Dutta, Sumit K.; Dutta, Anirban; Guria, Amit K.; Pradhan, Narayan [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India)

    2017-07-17

    Doping in perovskite nanocrystals adopts different mechanistic approach in comparison to widely established doping in chalcogenide quantum dots. The fast formation of perovskites makes the dopant insertions more competitive and challenging. Introducing alkylamine hydrochloride (RNH{sub 3}Cl) as a promoting reagent, precise controlled doping of Mn{sup II} in CsPbCl{sub 3} perovskite nanocrystals is reported. Simply, by changing the amount of RNH{sub 3}Cl, the Mn incorporation and subsequent tuning in the excitonic as well as Mn d-d emission intensities are tailored. Investigations suggested that RNH{sub 3}Cl acted as the chlorinating source, controlled the size, and also helps in increasing the number of particles. This provided more opportunity for Mn ions to take part in reaction and occupied the appropriate lattice positions. Carrying out several reactions with varying reaction parameters, the doping conditions are optimized and the role of the promoting reagent for both doped and undoped systems are compared. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Controlling the formation of rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meili; Sun, Guoying; Yin, Pingping; Ruan, Changping; Ai, Kelong

    2013-11-13

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) has attracted much attention for energy storage application because of its high Faradaic activity and stable crystal structure, which make it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. However, the low electronic conductivity and small lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of V2O5 limit its practical applications. To overcome these limitations, a facile and efficient method is here demonstrated for the fabrication of V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors. With this method, the reduction of graphene oxide can be achieved in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly solvent, without the addition of any other toxic reducing agent. Importantly, this solvent can control the formation of the uniform rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on the surface of rGO. Compared to pure V2O5 microspheres, the V2O5/rGO nanocomposites exhibited a higher specific capacitance of 537 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in neutral aqueous electrolytes, a higher energy density of 74.58 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 500 W kg(-1), and better stability even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Their excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of rGO and rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals. Such impressive results may promote new opportunities for these electrode materials in high-energy-density storage systems.

  13. Comparative Analysis on Two Accounting Systems of Rural Economic Originations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to normalize the financial account of two kinds of economic organizations,the comparative analysis is conducted on the Accounting System of Village Collective Economic Organization and Accounting System of Farmers’ Cooperatives(Trial) issued by the Ministry of Finance.The comparison points out that application and accounting principles of the two kinds of accounting systems are different.The differences and similarities of the five accounting elements are analyzed including property,liabilities,rights of owners,costs and profits and losses,as well as the reasons of the differences and similarities.Results show that both of the two accounting systems reflect the principles of simplification and clarification.The village collective accounting system works in rural village committee,which acts the administrative duties,the features of concerted benefits of it is showed.While the accounting system of farmers’ cooperatives is based on the village collective accounting system and combines the norms of accounting system of enterprises,so the system represents the demands of collaboration and profit-making.

  14. A comparative life cycle assessment of marine power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling-Chin, Janie; Roskilly, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Correlation among resources, emissions, key components and processes was attained. • Environmental benefits of innovative power systems were verified. • New-build system showed a great advantage over retrofit and conventional systems. • Relative contribution of significant components remained or became more profound. • Influence of fuel consumption quantity over the estimates varied with impact types. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in advanced marine power systems, knowledge gaps existed as it was uncertain which configuration would be more environmentally friendly. Using a conventional system as a reference, the comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) study aimed to compare and verify the environmental benefits of advanced marine power systems i.e. retrofit and new-build systems which incorporated emerging technologies. To estimate the environmental impact attributable to each system, a bottom-up integrated system approach was applied, i.e. LCA models were developed for individual components using GaBi, optimised operational profiles and input data standardised from various sources. The LCA models were assessed using CML2001, ILCD and Eco-Indicator99 methodologies. The estimates for the advanced systems were compared to those of the reference system. The inventory analysis results showed that both retrofit and new-build systems consumed less fuels (8.28% and 29.7% respectively) and released less emissions (5.2–16.6% and 29.7–55.5% respectively) during operation whilst more resources were consumed during manufacture, dismantling and the end of life. For 14 impact categories relevant to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone creation and PM/respiratory inorganic health issues, reduction in LCIA results was achieved by retrofit (2.7–6.6%) and new-build systems (35.7–50.7%). The LCIA results of the retrofit system increased in ecotoxicity (1–8%), resource depletion (1–2%) and fossil fuel depletion

  15. Rapid synthesis of triangular CdS nanocrystals without any trap emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulose, Aby Cheruvathoor; Veeranarayanan, Srivani; Yoshida, Yasuhiko; Maekawa, Toru; Sakthi Kumar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystals (NCs) with anisotropic dimensions display polarized emission compared to nano dots. Triangular prisms are good candidates for polarized optical properties and monodisperse triangular NCs are ideal for developing building blocks for novel three-dimensional superlattices due to its anisotropic dimension. Among triangular nanocrystals, CdS nanocrystals are less discussed for the past one decade of research due to the difficulty in its processing method. Though well studied very few methods for developing CdS triangular nanocrystals have been reported, and most are having drawbacks either due to the time consuming process or the products are combination of triangular as well as many other shaped NC or with trap emissions due to defects which are comparable to band emissions limits its applications in full scale. Here, we are presenting a novel method to develop 7 nm CdS triangular NCs that can solve the above mentioned problems, which would augment the usage of CdS triangular crystals for many applications, based on its anisotropic properties.

  16. Structural Characterization of Bimetallic Nanocrystal Electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, David A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Late transition metal nanocrystals find applications in heterogeneous catalysis such as plasmon-enhanced catalysis and as electrode materials for fuel cells, a zero-emission and sustainable energy technology. Their commercial viability for automotive transportation has steadily increased in recent years, almost exclusively due to the discovery of more efficient bimetallic nanocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. Despite improvements to catalyst design, achieving high activity while maintaining durability is essential to further enhance their performance for this and other important applications in catalysis. Electronic effects arising from the generation of metal-metal interfaces, from plasmonic metals, and from lattice distortions, can vastly improve sorption properties at catalytic surfaces, while increasing durability.[1] Multimetallic lattice-strained nanoparticles are thus an interesting opportunity for fundamental research.[2,3] A colloidal synthesis approach is demonstrated to produce AuPd alloy and Pd@Au core-shell nanoicosahedra as catalysts for electro-oxidations. The nanoparticles are characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (ac-STEM) and large solid angle energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) on an FEI Talos 4-detector STEM/EDS system. Figure 1 shows bright-field (BF) and high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) ac-STEM images of the alloy and core-shell nanoicosahedra together with EDS line-scans and elemental maps. These structures are unique in that the presence of twin boundaries, alloying, and core-shell morphology could create highly strained surfaces and interfaces. The shell thickness of the core-shell structures observed in HAADF-STEM images is tuned by adjusting the ratio between metal precursors (Figure 2a-f) to produce shells ranging from a few to several monolayers. Specific activity was measured in ethanol electro-oxidation to examine the effect of shell thickness on

  17. Red-luminescence band: A tool for the quality assessment of germanium and silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraj, I.; Favre, L.; David, T.; Abbarchi, M.; Liu, K.; Claude, J. B.; Ronda, A.; Naffouti, M.; Saidi, F.; Hassen, F.; Maaref, H.; Aqua, J. N.; Berbezier, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the photoluminescence (PL) emission of Silicon and Germanium nanocrystals (NCs) of different sizes embedded in two different matrices. Formation of the NCs is achieved via solid-state dewetting during annealing in a molecular beam epitaxy ultra-high vacuum system of ultrathin amorphous Si and Ge layers deposited at room temperature on SiO2. During the dewetting process, the bi-dimensional amorphous layers transform into small pseudo-spherical islands whose mean size can be tuned directly with the deposited thickness. The nanocrystals are capped either ex situ by silicon dioxide or in situ by amorphous Silicon. The surface-state dependent emission (typically in the range 1.74 eV-1.79 eV) exhibited higher relative PL quantum yields compared to the emission originating from the band gap transition. This red-PL emission comes from the radiative transitions between a Si band and an interface level. It is mainly ascribed to the NCs and environment features deduced from morphological and structural analyses. Power dependent analysis of the photoluminescence intensity under continuous excitation reveals a conventional power law with an exponent close to 1, in agreement with the type II nature of the emission. We show that Ge-NCs exhibit much lower quantum efficiency than Si-NCs due to non-radiative interface states. Low quantum efficiency is also obtained when NCs have been exposed to air before capping, even if the exposure time is very short. Our results indicate that a reduction of the non-radiative surface states is a key strategy step in producing small NCs with increased PL emission for a variety of applications. The red-PL band is then an effective tool for the quality assessment of NCs based structures.

  18. Comparing 2 Whiplash Grading Systems to Predict Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Arthur C; Bagherian, Alireza; Mickelsen, Patrick K; Wagner, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Two whiplash severity grading systems have been developed: Quebec Task Force on Whiplash-Associated Disorders (QTF-WAD) and the Croft grading system. The majority of clinical studies to date have used the modified grading system published by the QTF-WAD in 1995 and have demonstrated some ability to predict outcome. But most studies include only injuries of lower severity (grades 1 and 2), preventing a broader interpretation. The purpose of this study was assess the ability of these grading systems to predict clinical outcome within the context of a broader injury spectrum. This study evaluated both grading systems for their ability to predict the bivalent outcome, recovery, within a sample of 118 whiplash patients who were part of a previous case-control designed study. Of these, 36% (controls) had recovered, and 64% (cases) had not recovered. The discrete bivariate distribution between recovery status and whiplash grade was analyzed using the 2-tailed cross-tabulation statistics. Applying the criteria of the original 1993 Croft grading system, the subset comprised 1 grade 1 injury, 32 grade 2 injuries, 53 grade 3 injuries, and 32 grade 4 injuries. Applying the criteria of the modified (QTF-WAD) grading system, there were 1 grade 1 injury, 89 grade 2 injuries, and 28 grade 3 injuries. Both whiplash grading systems correlated negatively with recovery; that is, higher severity grades predicted a lower probability of recovery, and statistically significant correlations were observed in both, but the Croft grading system substantially outperformed the QTF-WAD system on this measure. The Croft grading system for whiplash injury severity showed a better predictive measure for recovery status from whiplash injuries as compared with the QTF-WAD grading system.

  19. Syntheses of optically efficient (La{sub 1-x-y}Ce{sub x}Tb{sub y})F{sub 3} nanocrystals via a hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); You Yumin; Ludescher, Richard D. [Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Ju Yiguang, E-mail: yju@princeton.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Optically efficient cerium and terbium doped lanthanide fluoride (La{sub 1-x-y}Ce{sub x}Tb{sub y})F{sub 3} nanocrystals with different doping concentrations have been synthesized by a hydrothermal route in the presence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA). The results showed that the formation of nanocrystals with different morphologies depends on terbium ion Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration, but independent of cerium ion Ce{sup 3+} doping concentration. With increase in Tb{sup 3+} doping concentration, the morphologies of nanocrystals evolved from a spherical shape to a plated-like one. In addition, both the photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) and the fluorescence lifetime of nanocrystals increased with the increase in Ce{sup 3+} doping concentration in cerium and terbium co-doped system. The PL QY reached up to 55%, and the lifetime up to 7.3 ms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, photoluminescence (PL) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies were employed to characterize the properties of nanocrystals. The growth mechanism of nanocrystals with different morphologies and optical properties of nanocrystals with different doping concentrations were investigated.

  20. A comparative analysis of national food recall systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food recall and withdrawal is a fundamental tool for risk management and different countries stated the mandatory application of a system for food; the present work is an analysis of different systems applied in different countries. The main objective of analysed systems is the consumer’s health protection through an audit system and the application of system to rapidly recall/withdraw food on the part of producers. The comparative analysis of different national systems [i.e. European Union (EU, Australia, Canada, US and China] shows differences both of the terminological and legal aspects; the words recall and withdrawal have different meaning in EU legislation than in other counties’ legislations; from a legal point of view, two main recall/withdrawal systems could be identified: a mandatory one (EU and China and a voluntary one (USA, Canada and Australia; all the investigated systems have a co-operative approach between authority and food business operator, but different functions on their respective roles could be identified.

  1. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Berends, A.C.; de Mello-Donega, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as

  2. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang

    2014-01-01

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm −1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  3. Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya R. Lahiji; Xin Xu; Ronald Reifenberger; Arvind Raman; Alan Rudie; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are gaining interest as a “green” nanomaterial with superior mechanical and chemical properties for high-performance nanocomposite materials; however, there is a lack of accurate material property characterization of individual CNCs. Here, a detailed study of the topography, elastic and adhesive properties of individual wood-derived CNCs...

  4. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of CZTS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumasiya, Ajay; Shah, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising thin film absorber material for low cost solar cell applications. CZTS nanoparticle ink synthesized using solvothermal route is an attractive option to deposit absorber layer using screen printing or spin coating method in CZTS thin film solar cell. In this study we have synthesized CZTS nanocrystals using solvothermal method from aqueous solution of Copper nitrate [Cu(NO3)2], Zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2], tin chloride [SnCl4] and thiourea with varying concentration of Cu(NO3)2 (viz 0.82 mmol,1.4 mmol, 1.7 mmol) keeping concentrations of rest of solutions constant. As synthesized CZTS nanocrystals are characterized using Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) to verify stoichiometry of elements. Analysis of EDAX data suggests that CZTS nanocrystals having Copper nitrate [Cu (NO3)2] concentration of 1.4 m mole is near stoichiometric. X-ray diffraction analysis study of CZTS nanocrystals having Copper nitrate [Cu (NO3)2] concentration of 1.4 m mole reveals the preferred orientation of the grains in (112), (220) and (312) direction confirming Kesterite structure of CZTS.

  5. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  6. Biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals -PVA nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rohani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals-poly vinyl alcohol nanocomposites were investigated. Nanocomposite films with different filler loading levels (3, 6, 9 and 12% by wt were developed by solvent casting method. The effect of cellulose nanocrystals on the biodegradation behaviors of nanocomposite films was studied. Water absorption and water solubility tests were performed by immersing specimens into distilled water. The characteristic parameter of diffusion coefficient and maximum moisture content were determined from the obtained water absorption curves. The water absorption behavior of the nanocomposites was found to follow a Fickian behavior. The maximum water absorption and diffusion coefficients were decreased by increasing the cellulose nanocrystals contents, however the water solubility decrease. The biodegradability of the films was investigated by immersing specimens into cellulase enzymatic solution as well as by burial in soil. The results showed that adding cellulose nanocrystals increase the weight loss of specimens in enzymatic solution but decrease it in soil media. The limited biodegradability of specimens in soil media attributed to development of strong interactions with solid substrates that inhibit the accessibility of functional groups. Specimens with the low degree of hydrolysis underwent extensive biodegradation in both enzymatic and soil media, whilst specimens with the high degree of hydrolysis showed recalcitrance to biodegradation under those conditions.

  7. Mechanistic Study of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To gain better insight into the formation of iron oxide nanocrystals from the solution phase thermal decomposition of iron (III) oleate complex, different reaction conditions including time, heating ramp, as well as concentrations of iron oleate precursor and oleic acid ligand were systematically varied and the resulting ...

  8. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  9. Public transportation systems: Comparative analysis of quality of service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, L.; Florio, L. (Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Facolta' di Ingegneria, Dipt. di Idraulica, Trasporti e Strade)

    The evaluation, choice and design of public transportation systems for urban areas requires, in addition to consolidated use parameters, other dimensions essential to supply-demand qualiflcative realignment, e.g.: 'door-to-door time' which allows system differentiation in terms of commercial velocity, frequency and length of route; technical productivity expressed as 'transport power' and 'specific transport power'; and 'system/service quality'. By the means of surveys, these factors can be incorporated into suitable mathematical models representing, in a complete and reliable way, all the functions which a given system actually delivers and those functions which it is expected to deliver by its users. This paper illustrates the application of these concepts in a comparative analysis of different public transportation options - light rail rapid transit, tram and bus networks.

  10. Comparing two reliability upper bounds for multistate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fan C.

    2005-01-01

    The path-cut reliability bound due to Esary and Proschan [J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 65 (1970) 329] and the minimax reliability bound due to Barlow and Proschan [Statistical Theory of Reliability and Life Testing: Probability Models, 1981] for binary systems have been generalized to multistate systems by Block and Savits [J. Appl. Probab. 19 (1982) 391]. Some comparison results concerning the two multistate lower bounds for various types of multistate systems are given by Meng [Probab. Eng. Inform. Sci. 16 (2002) 485]. In this note we compare the two multistate upper bounds and present results which generalize some previous ones obtained by Maymin [J. Stat. Plan. Inference 16 (1987) 337] for binary systems. Examples are given to illustrate our results

  11. Simultaneous phase and size control of upconversion nanocrystals through lanthanide doping

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Feng

    2010-02-25

    Doping is a widely applied technological process in materials science that involves incorporating atoms or ions of appropriate elements into host lattices to yield hybrid materials with desirable properties and functions. For nanocrystalline materials, doping is of fundamental importance in stabilizing a specific crystallographic phase, modifying electronic properties, modulating magnetism as well as tuning emission properties. Here we describe a material system in which doping influences the growth process to give simultaneous control over the crystallographic phase, size and optical emission properties of the resulting nanocrystals. We show that NaYF 4 nanocrystals can be rationally tuned in size (down to ten nanometres), phase (cubic or hexagonal) and upconversion emission colour (green to blue) through use of trivalent lanthanide dopant ions introduced at precisely defined concentrations. We use first-principles calculations to confirm that the influence of lanthanide doping on crystal phase and size arises from a strong dependence on the size and dipole polarizability of the substitutional dopant ion. Our results suggest that the doping-induced structural and size transition, demonstrated here in NaYF 4 upconversion nanocrystals, could be extended to other lanthanide-doped nanocrystal systems for applications ranging from luminescent biological labels to volumetric three-dimensional displays. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fournier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and with different anonymity levels. We monitor two eDonkey servers and the KAD network during several days and record hundreds of thousands of keyword-based queries. We detect pedophile-related queries with a previously validated tool and we propose, for the first time, a large-scale comparison of pedophile activity in two different P2P systems. We conclude that there are significantly fewer pedophile queries in KAD than in eDonkey (approximately 0.09% vs. 0.25%.

  13. Comparing three methods for participatory simulation of hospital work systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    Summative Statement: This study compared three participatory simulation methods using different simulation objects: Low resolution table-top setup using Lego figures, full scale mock-ups, and blueprints using Lego figures. It was concluded the three objects by differences in fidelity and affordance...... scenarios using the objects. Results: Full scale mock-ups significantly addressed the local space and technology/tool elements of a work system. In contrast, the table-top simulation object addressed the organizational issues of the future work system. The blueprint based simulation addressed...

  14. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of zinc molybdate nanocrystals and molybdate-doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings for Mg alloy protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Zinc molybdate (ZM) is a safer anticorrosive additive for cooling systems when compared with chromates and lead salts, due to its insolubility in aqueous media. For most molybdate pigments, their molybdate anion (MoO 4 -2 ) acts as an anionic inhibitor and its passivation capacity is comparable with chromate anion (CrO 4 -2 ). To alleviate the environmental concerns involving chromates-based industrial protective coatings, we have proposed new alternative in this work. We have synthesized ZM nanocrystals via ultrasound-assisted process and encapsulated them within an epoxy/PDMS coating towards corrosion protection. The surface morphology and mechanical properties of these ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings is exhaustively discussed to show the effect of ZM content on protective properties. The presence of ZM nanocrystals significantly contributed to the corrosion barrier performance of the coating while the amount of ZM nanocrystals needed to prepare an epoxy coating with optimum barrier performance was established. Beyond 2 wt% ZM concentration, the siloxane-structured epoxy coating network became saturated with ZM pigments. This further broadened inherent pores channels, leading to the percolation of corrosion chloride ions through the coating. SEM evidence has revealed proof of surface delamination on ZM3 coating. A model mechanism of corrosion resistance has been proposed for ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings from exhaustive surface morphological investigations and evidence. This coating matrix may have emerging applications in cooling systems as anticorrosive surface paints as well as create an avenue for environmental corrosion remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IMG: the integrated microbial genomes database and comparative analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Victor M.; Chen, I-Min A.; Palaniappan, Krishna; Chu, Ken; Szeto, Ernest; Grechkin, Yuri; Ratner, Anna; Jacob, Biju; Huang, Jinghua; Williams, Peter; Huntemann, Marcel; Anderson, Iain; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2012-01-01

    The Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) system serves as a community resource for comparative analysis of publicly available genomes in a comprehensive integrated context. IMG integrates publicly available draft and complete genomes from all three domains of life with a large number of plasmids and viruses. IMG provides tools and viewers for analyzing and reviewing the annotations of genes and genomes in a comparative context. IMG's data content and analytical capabilities have been continuously extended through regular updates since its first release in March 2005. IMG is available at http://img.jgi.doe.gov. Companion IMG systems provide support for expert review of genome annotations (IMG/ER: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/er), teaching courses and training in microbial genome analysis (IMG/EDU: http://img.jgi.doe.gov/edu) and analysis of genomes related to the Human Microbiome Project (IMG/HMP: http://www.hmpdacc-resources.org/img_hmp). PMID:22194640

  17. Assessment of comparative and non-comparative factors in alternate energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, W D; Oterson, P

    1983-01-01

    The American University Institute for Risk Analysis (AURA) has undertaken a study for the European Economic Community to critically evaluate the methodologies for comparative risk analyses and costs and benefits of alternative energy systems used to generate electricity, principally nuclear, coal, and oil. Other energy systems and related industries with major hazards are also addressed where pertinent. This is particularly true for cases where electrical energy may be an inefficient form for end use as for transportation and space heating. Here, comparison on an end use basis by the most efficient method, electrical or otherwise, is required. The starting point and basis for this evaluation has been the array of existing studies of alternative energy systems already published. These studies, including those already undertaken by the Community, are over 50 in number. The purpose of this study is not to make a comparison of alternative energy systems, but to evaluate what is and what is not useful in existing studies, as well as to provide insight on how meaningful studies can be conducted. There has been considerable criticism and discussion about the conduct and validity of several studies, particularly the Inhaber study and the critiques of Holdren et al. While much of the critiques deal with methods and approaches, substantial criticism and discussion has focused on the motivations of the investigators and how the studies were applied. This latter set of issues is hardly a technological or methodological argument.

  18. A Comprehensive Method for Comparing Mental Models of Dynamic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffernicht, Martin; Grösser, Stefan N.

    2011-01-01

    Mental models are the basis on which managers make decisions even though external decision support systems may provide help. Research has demonstrated that more comprehensive and dynamic mental models seem to be at the foundation for improved policies and decisions. Eliciting and comparing such models can systematically explicate key variables and their main underlying structures. In addition, superior dynamic mental models can be identified. This paper reviews existing studies which measure ...

  19. 98 Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    98. Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des. Deux Parlers: Le Yoruba du Nigeria et L'itsa Parle en. Republique du Benin. Ajani Akinwumi Lateef et Ayuba G. Ajibabi http://dx.doi./org/10.4314/ujah.v18i3.5. Résume. En ce début de l'époque ou la mondialisation et la coexistence des peuples dans le ...

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of SN-38 nanocrystals with different particle sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Min Chen,1,2 Wanqing Li,3 Xun Zhang,1 Ye Dong,1 Yabing Hua,1 Hui Zhang,1 Jing Gao,1 Liang Zhao,2 Ying Li,1 Aiping Zheng1 1State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2School of Pharmacy, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, 3School of Preclinical Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38 is a potent broad-spectrum antitumor drug derived from irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11. Due to its poor solubility and instability of the active lactone ring, its clinical use is significantly limited. As one of the most promising formulations for poorly water-soluble drugs, nanocrystals have attracted increasing attention. In order to solve these problems and evaluate the antitumor effect of SN-38 in vitro and in vivo, two nanocrystals with markedly different particle sizes were prepared. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the two nanocrystals. The particle sizes of SN-38 nanocrystals A (SN-38/NCs-A and SN-38 nanocrystals B (SN-38/NCs-B were 229.5±1.99 and 799.2±14.44 nm, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction analysis showed that the crystalline state of SN-38 did not change in the size reduction process. An accelerated dissolution velocity of SN-38 was achieved by nanocrystals, and release rate of SN-38/NCs-A was significantly faster than that of SN-38/NCs-B. Cellular uptake, cellular cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetics, animal antitumor efficacy, and tissue distribution were subsequently examined. As a result, enhanced intracellular accumulation in HT1080 cells and cytotoxicity on different tumor cells were observed for SN-38/NCs-A compared to that for SN-38/NCs-B and solution. Besides, compared to the SN-38 solution, SN-38/NCs-A had a higher bioavailability after intravenous injection; while the bioavailability of SN-38/NCs-B was even lower than

  1. Quality Management Systems Implementation Compared With Organizational Maturity in Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Jafari, Mehdi; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2015-07-27

    A quality management system can provide a framework for continuous improvement in order to increase the probability of customers and other stakeholders' satisfaction. The test maturity model helps organizations to assess the degree of maturity in implementing effective and sustained quality management systems; plan based on the current realities of the organization and prioritize their improvement programs. We aim to investigate and compare the level of organizational maturity in hospitals with the status of quality management systems implementation. This analytical cross sectional study was conducted among hospital administrators and quality experts working in hospitals with over 200 beds located in Tehran. In the first step, 32 hospitals were selected and then 96 employees working in the selected hospitals were studied. The data were gathered using the implementation checklist of quality management systems and the organization maturity questionnaire derived from ISO 10014. The content validity was calculated using Lawshe method and the reliability was estimated using test - retest method and calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software. According to the table, the mean score of organizational maturity among hospitals in the first stage of quality management systems implementation was equal to those in the third stage and hypothesis was rejected (p-value = 0.093). In general, there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the first and third level hospitals (in terms of implementation of quality management systems). Overall, the findings of the study show that there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the hospitals in different levels of the quality management systems implementation and in fact, the maturity of the organizations cannot be attributed to the implementation of such systems. As a result, hospitals

  2. Evolution of biofunctional semiconductor nanocrystals: a calorimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debasmita; Mondal, Somrita; Roy, Chandra Nath; Saha, Abhijit

    2013-12-14

    Semiconductor nanomaterials have found numerous applications in optoelectronic device fabrication and in platforms for drug delivery and hyperthermia cancer treatment, and in various other biomedical fields because of their high photochemical stability and size-tunable photoluminescence (PL). However, little attention has been paid to exploring the energetics of formation of these semiconductor nanoparticles. We demonstrate that formation of nanocrystals with biofunctionalization supported by widely used groups, BSA and cysteine, is an exothermic spontaneous process driven by enthalpy. The whole energetics of the reaction shows that formation of smaller particles is favored with lower synthesis temperature. Further, it is shown that the thermodynamics of nanoparticle formation is strongly influenced by the conformation of the protein matrix. We also demonstrate that protein supported formation of nanocrystals is thermodynamically more favorable compared to that involving smaller organic thiol groups. The favorable enthalpy of formation compensates unfavorable entropy, resulting in favorable Gibbs free energy. Thus, this study can open up new avenues for establishing a thermodynamic basis for the design of nanosystems with new and tunable properties.

  3. Size-dependent magnetic properties of branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchlike nickel oxide nanocrystals with narrow size distribution are obtained by a solution growth method. The size-dependent of magnetic properties of the nickel oxides were investigated. The results of magnetic characterization indicate that the NiO nanocrystals with size below 12.8 nm show very weak ferromagnetic state at room temperature due to the uncompensated spins. Both of the average blocking temperature (Tb and the irreversible temperature (Tirr increase with the increase of nanoparticle sizes, while both the remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 300 K increase with the decrease of the particle sizes. Moreover, the disappearance of two-magnon (2M band and redshift of one-phonon longitudinal (1LO and two-phonon LO in vibrational properties due to size reduction are observed. Compared to the one with the spherical morphological, it is also found that nano-structured nickel oxides with the branchlike morphology have larger remnant magnetization and the coercivity at 5 K due to their larger surface-to-volume ratio and greater degree of broken symmetry at the surface or the higher proportion of broken bonds.

  4. Release kinetics and cell viability of ibuprofen nanocrystals produced by melt-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Dias-Ferreira, J; Cabral, C; Garcia, M L; Souto, E B

    2018-06-01

    The clinical use of poorly water-soluble drugs has become a big challenge in pharmaceutical development due to the compromised bioavailability of the drugs in vivo. Nanocrystals have been proposed as a formulation strategy to improve the dissolution properties of these drugs. The benefits of using nanocrystals in drug delivery, when compared to other nanoparticles, are related to their production facilities, simple structure, and suitability for a variety of administration routes. High pressure homogenization (HPH) is the most promising production process, which can be employed at low or high temperatures. Ibuprofen nanocrystals with a mean size below 175 nm, and polydispersity below 0.18, have been produced by melt-emulsification, followed by HPH. Two nanocrystal formulations, differing on the surfactant composition, have been produced, their in vitro ibuprofen release tested in Franz diffusion cells and adjusted to several kinetic models (zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell, Korsmeyer-Peppas, Baker-Lonsdale and Weibull model). Cell viability was assessed at 3, 6 and 24 h of incubation on human epithelial colorectal cells (Caco-2) by AlamarBlue ® colorimetric assay. For both formulations, Caco-2 cells viability was dependent on the drug concentration and time of exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: yanglin_1028@163.com; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-04-15

    High-quality ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal microemulsion technique. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse ZnSe:Fe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, PSD, XPS, photoluminescence, and Raman spectrum. The results show that the as-synthesized nanocrystals are cubic zinc blende ZnSe structure with high purity and the average particle size of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystal is larger than that of ZnSe:Fe core. The growth of ZnSe shell causes a small red shift in PL spectra, and then the PL quantum yield (QY) increases from 16% before shell growth to the maximum of 37% after increasing shell thickness up to 1.2 monolayers (ML). Moreover, both transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe are shifted toward lower frequency as compared with the reported ones. -- Highlights: • ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell QDs were prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. • ZnSe shell efficiently passivates surface defects by serving as a physical barrier. • The particle size and PL properties can be turned with the growth of ZnSe shell. • The luminescence efficiency and stability of QDs could be improved in this manner.

  6. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Shanawer; Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Sadiq, Imran

    2016-11-01

    In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si29 nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RTOS AND PRIMITIVE INTERRUPT IN EMBEDDED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Purnomo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multitasking is one of the most challenging issues in the automation industry which is highly depended on the embedded system. There are two methods to perform multitasking in embedded system: RTOS and primitive interrupt. The main purpose of this research is to compare the performance of R¬TOS with primitive method while concurrently undertaking multiple tasks. The system, which is able to perform various tasks, has been built to evaluate the performance of both methods. There are four tasks introduced in the system: servo task, sensor task, LED task, and LCD task. The performance of each method is indicated by the success rate of the sensor task detection. Sensor task detection will be compared with the true value which is calculated and measured manually during observation time. Observation time was varied after several iterations and the data of the iteration are recorded for both RTOS and primitive interrupt methods. The results of the conducted experiments have shown that, RTOS is more accurate than interrupt method. However, the data variance of the primitive interrupt method is narrower than RTOS. Therefore, to choose a better method, an optimization is needed to be done and each product has its own standard.

  8. Comparative Study of Intelligent Systems for Management of GIT Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib Nevine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent Systems contribute in the management of different GIT cancer types. The paper discusses different types of intelligent systems, classified according to the medical task achieved, such as early detection, diagnosis and prognosis. It is found out that these types include rule-based and case-based expert systems, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, machine learning, in addition to data mining techniques and statistical methods. The study focuses on comparing between different techniques and tools used. The comparison results in identifying the benefits of using data mining techniques for the diagnosis task, since it is based on huge amounts of data in order to discover new patterns hence new predisposing factors. It also points out the use of expert systems in the prognosis task, since this task is mainly based on the specialist experience that should be transferred to less- experienced medical professionals. Based on the previous results, it is recommended to develop an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS that focuses on the early diagnosis of GIT cancers, since managing the disease depends mainly on proper diagnosis, and also to build an expert system that helps transferring GIT cancers management knowledge to medical doctors in different hospitals.

  9. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1 maintain pattern stability, (2 transition into new states, and (3 are governed by short- and long-term (fractal correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  10. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard E.A. van Emmerik; Scott W. Ducharme; Avelino C. Amado; Joseph Hamill

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new states, and (3) are governed by short-and long-term (fractal) correlational processes at different spatio-temporal scales. These different aspects of system dynamics are typically investigated using concepts related to variability, stability, complexity, and adaptability. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast these different concepts and demonstrate that, although related, these terms represent fundamentally different aspects of system dynamics. In particular, we argue that variability should not uniformly be equated with stability or complexity of movement. In addition, current dynamic stability measures based on nonlinear analysis methods (such as the finite maximal Lyapunov exponent) can reveal local instabilities in movement dynamics, but the degree to which these local instabilities relate to global postural and gait stability and the ability to resist external perturbations remains to be explored. Finally, systematic studies are needed to relate observed reductions in complexity with aging and disease to the adaptive capabilities of the movement system and how complexity changes as a function of different task constraints.

  11. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  12. COMPARATIVE GEOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HAND-HELD SCANNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science: DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google’s Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M. The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  13. One-pot synthesis of Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with enhanced electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals with a Pd-Pt alloy core and a conformal Pd shell of ~2-3 nm were directly synthesized through a one-pot, aqueous solution approach without any preformed Pd or Pt seeds. These Pd-Pt@Pd core-shell nanocrystals show an enhanced electrocatalytic activity for formic acid oxidation compared with commercial Pd black. This journal is © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Shape and phase control of CdS nanocrystals using cationic surfactant in noninjection synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monodispersed CdS nanocrystals with controllable shape and phase have been successfully synthesized in this study by adding cationic surfactant in noninjection synthesis system. With the increase of the amount of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC added, the shape of the CdS nanocrystals changed from spherical to multi-armed, and the phase changed from zinc-blende to wurtzite. It was found that halide ion Cl- plays a key role in the transformation, and other halide ions such as Br- can also induce similar transformation. We proposed that the strong binding between Cd2+ and halide ions reduced the reactivity of the precursors, decreased the nuclei formed in the nucleation stage, and led to the high concentration of precursor in the growth stage, resulting in the increase of size and phase transformation of CdS nanocrystals. In addition, it was found that the multi-armed CdS nanocrystals lost quantum confinement effect because of the increase of the size with the increase of the concentration of CTAC.

  15. Structure and transformation of tactoids in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Xi; Hamad, Wadood Y.; MacLachlan, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals obtained from natural sources are of great interest for many applications. In water, cellulose nanocrystals form a liquid crystalline phase whose hierarchical structure is retained in solid films after drying. Although tactoids, one of the most primitive components of liquid crystals, are thought to have a significant role in the evolution of this phase, they have evaded structural study of their internal organization. Here we report the capture of cellulose nanocrystal tactoids in a polymer matrix. This method allows us to visualize, for the first time, the arrangement of cellulose nanocrystals within individual tactoids by electron microscopy. Furthermore, we can follow the structural evolution of the liquid crystalline phase from tactoids to iridescent-layered films. Our insights into the early nucleation events of cellulose nanocrystals give important information about the growth of cholesteric liquid crystalline phases, especially for cellulose nanocrystals, and are crucial for preparing photonics-quality films.

  16. ISOS: A job evaluation system to implement comparable worth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fair pay structure is an essential element of the personnel policy of a firm. If the pay structure is perceived as arbitrary by the members of the staff, it becomes a cause of disturbance of the labor relations. Particularly, a pay structure is unfair if it discriminates against women. Job evaluation is a traditional tool used by companies to assist in the process of determining pay structures that can be also useful to detect and combat wage discrimination, since allow determining whether two jobs are of comparable worth or not. Although there are many kinds of systems, authors agree when defining point factor methods as the most appropriate and fair job evaluation systems. However, even being well defined from a technical point of view, most existing systems give discriminatory results regarding to gender. ISOS, a new job evaluation system which is described in this paper, has been designed, with the aim to define a neutral system with regard to gender, based on present jobs characteristics, existing job evaluation systems and job description questionnaires, international experts’ knowledge and a wide body of literature on gender discrimination and its relation with job evaluation. Using ISOS can contribute to detect, combat and eliminate part of the existing wage discrimination in general and, in particular, against women. ISOS includes all aspects of the work so no characteristics are omitted. The system can be applied in any company and to evaluate any job, and offers flexibility to be adapted to the specific characteristics of an organization. ISOS can also be used to detect and combat wage discrimination. Furthermore, characteristics of present jobs, such as cross-training or flexible working time, are also included so the system can be considered innovative in a very traditional field of industrial engineering.

  17. Organization of silicon nanocrystals by localized electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayari-Kanoun, Asma; Drouin, Dominique; Beauvais, Jacques; Lysenko, Vladimir; Nychyporuk, Tetyana; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    An approach to form a monolayer of organized silicon nanocrystals on a monocrystalline Si wafer is reported. Ordered arrays of nanoholes in a silicon nitride layer were obtained by combining electron beam lithography and plasma etching. Then, a short electrochemical etching current pulse led to formation of a single Si nanocrystal per each nanohole. As a result, high quality silicon nanocrystal arrays were formed with well controlled and reproducible morphologies. In future, this approach can be used to fabricate single electron devices.

  18. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  19. Enriching Silver Nanocrystals with a Second Noble Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiren; Sun, Xiaojun; Yang, Yin; Li, Jumei; Zhang, Yun; Qin, Dong

    2017-07-18

    Noble-metal nanocrystals have received considerable interests owing to their fascinating properties and promising applications in areas including plasmonics, catalysis, sensing, imaging, and medicine. As demonstrated by ample examples, the performance of nanocrystals in these and related applications can be augmented by switching from monometallic to bimetallic systems. The inclusion of a second metal can enhance the properties and greatly expand the application landscape by bringing in new capabilities. Seeded growth offers a powerful route to bimetallic nanocrystals. This approach is built upon the concept that preformed nanocrystals with uniform, well-controlled size, shape, and structure can serve as seeds to template and direct the deposition of metal atoms. Seeded growth is, however, limited by galvanic replacement when the deposited metal is less reactive than the seed. The involvement of galvanic replacement not only makes it difficult to control the outcome of seeded growth but also causes degradation to some properties. We have successfully addressed this issue by reducing the salt precursor(s) into atoms with essentially no galvanic replacement. In the absence of self-nucleation, the atoms are preferentially deposited onto the seeds to generate bimetallic nanocrystals with controlled structures. In this Account, we use Ag nanocubes as an example to demonstrate the fabrication of Ag@M and Ag@Ag-M (M = Au, Pd, or Pt) nanocubes with a core-frame or core-shell structure by controlling the deposition of M atoms. A typical synthesis involves the titration of M n+ (a precursor to M) ions into an aqueous suspension containing Ag nanocubes, ascorbic acid, and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) under ambient conditions. In one approach, aqueous sodium hydroxide is introduced to increase the initial pH of the reaction system. At pH = 11.9, ascorbic acid is dominated by ascorbate monoanion, a much stronger reductant, to suppress the galvanic replacement between M n+ and Ag. In

  20. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  1. A Process for Comparing Dynamics of Distributed Space Systems Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cures, Edwin Z.; Jackson, Albert A.; Morris, Jeffery C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes a process that was developed for comparing the primary orbital dynamics behavior between space systems distributed simulations. This process is used to characterize and understand the fundamental fidelities and compatibilities of the modeling of orbital dynamics between spacecraft simulations. This is required for high-latency distributed simulations such as NASA s Integrated Mission Simulation and must be understood when reporting results from simulation executions. This paper presents 10 principal comparison tests along with their rationale and examples of the results. The Integrated Mission Simulation (IMSim) (formerly know as the Distributed Space Exploration Simulation (DSES)) is a NASA research and development project focusing on the technologies and processes that are related to the collaborative simulation of complex space systems involved in the exploration of our solar system. Currently, the NASA centers that are actively participating in the IMSim project are the Ames Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Kennedy Space Center, the Langley Research Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. In concept, each center participating in IMSim has its own set of simulation models and environment(s). These simulation tools are used to build the various simulation products that are used for scientific investigation, engineering analysis, system design, training, planning, operations and more. Working individually, these production simulations provide important data to various NASA projects.

  2. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Colloidal Metal Nanocrystals: Thermodynamic versus Kinetic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Younan; Xia, Xiaohu; Peng, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    This Perspective provides a contemporary understanding of the shape evolution of colloidal metal nanocrystals under thermodynamically and kinetically controlled conditions. It has been extremely challenging to investigate this subject in the setting of one-pot synthesis because both the type and number of seeds involved would be changed whenever the experimental conditions are altered, making it essentially impossible to draw conclusions when comparing the outcomes of two syntheses conducted under different conditions. Because of the uncertainty about seeds, most of the mechanistic insights reported in literature for one-pot syntheses of metal nanocrystals with different shapes are either incomplete or ambiguous, and some of them might be misleading or even wrong. Recently, with the use of well-defined seeds for such syntheses, it became possible to separate growth from nucleation and therefore investigate the explicit role(s) played by a specific thermodynamic or kinetic parameter in directing the evolution of colloidal metal nanocrystals into a specific shape. Starting from single-crystal seeds enclosed by a mix of {100}, {111}, and {110} facets, for example, one can obtain colloidal nanocrystals with diversified shapes by adjusting various thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The mechanistic insights learnt from these studies can also be extended to account for the products of conventional one-pot syntheses that involve self-nucleation only. The knowledge can be further applied to many other types of seeds with twin defects or stacking faults, making it an exciting time to design and synthesize colloidal metal nanocrystals with the shapes sought for a variety of fundamental studies and technologically important applications.

  3. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niaz, Shanawer, E-mail: shanawersi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Molecular Engineering Laboratory, at the Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500 (Greece); Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N. [Molecular Engineering Laboratory, at the Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patras, GR-26500 (Greece); Gülseren, Oǧuz [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sadiq, Imran [Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Understanding surface science of oxygenated silicon nanocrystals by means of their composition, stoichiometry and spatial distribution. • Drastic change observed in binding energy, localization of frontier orbitals and HOMO-LUMO gap up to 1.48 eV. • Might be a safe alternative of size dependent bandgap tunability. - Abstract: In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si{sub 29} nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  4. [Spectroscopic Research on Slag Nanocrystal Glass Ceramics Containing Rare Earth Elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Shun-li; Li, Bao-wei; Zhang, Xue-feng; Jia, Xiao-lin; Zhao, Ming; Deng, Lei-bo

    2015-08-01

    The research group prepared the high-performance slag nanocrystal glass ceramics by utilizing the valuable elements of the wastes in the Chinese Bayan Obo which are characterized by their symbiotic or associated existence. In this paper, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are all used in the depth analysis for the composition and structure of the samples. The experiment results of ICP, XRD and SEM showed that the principal crystalline phase of the slag nanocrystal glass ceramics containing rare earth elements is diopside, its grain size ranges from 45 to 100 nm, the elements showed in the SEM scan are basically in consistent with the component analysis of ICP. Raman analysis indicated that its amorphous phase is a three-dimensional network structure composed by the structural unit of silicon-oxy tetrahedron with different non-bridging oxygen bonds. According to the further analysis, we found that the rare earth microelement has significant effect on the network structure. Compared the nanocrystal slag glass ceramic with the glass ceramics of similar ingredients, we found that generally, the Raman band wavenumber for the former is lower than the later. The composition difference between the glass ceramics and the slag nanocrystal with the similar ingredients mainly lies on the rare earth elements and other trace elements. Therefore, we think that the rare earth elements and other trace elements remains in the slag nanocrystal glass ceramics have a significant effect on the network structure of amorphous phase. The research method of this study provides an approach for the relationship among the composition, structure and performance of the glass ceramics.

  5. Dopant concentration dependent magnetism of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anitha, B.; Khadar, M. Abdul, E-mail: mabdulkhadar@rediffmail.com [University of Kerala, Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (India)

    2016-06-15

    Undoped and Cu-doped nanocrystals of TiO{sub 2} having the size range of 8–11 nm were synthesized by peroxide gel method. XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement confirmed anatase phase with a small percentage of rutile content for undoped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals while a pure anatase phase with preferential growth along [004] direction was observed for nanocrystals of Cu-doped TiO{sub 2}. Variation in the intensity ratios of the XRD peaks of the doped samples compared to that of the undoped sample offered an evidence for the substitutional incorporation of Cu ions in the TiO{sub 2} lattice. The preferential growth of the nanocrystals along the [004] direction was verified using HRTEM analysis. Cu doping extended the optical absorption edge of TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals to the visible spectral region and caused a blue shift and broadening of the E{sub g} (1) Raman active mode of anatase TiO{sub 2}. Undoped TiO{sub 2} sample showed a weak ferromagnetism superimposed on a diamagnetic background while Cu-doped TiO{sub 2} samples exhibited a weak ferromagnetism in the low-field region with a paramagnetic component in the high-field region. The magnetic moment exhibited by the doped samples is interpreted as the resultant of a weak ferromagnetic moment in the low-field region arising from the presence of defects near the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles or from the interaction of the substituted Cu ions with the oxygen vacancies, and the paramagnetic contribution from the increased Cu dopant concentration near the surface of the particles arising from self-purification mechanism.

  6. Systematic spatial and stoichiometric screening towards understanding the surface of ultrasmall oxygenated silicon nanocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niaz, Shanawer; Zdetsis, Aristides D.; Koukaras, Emmanuel N.; Gülseren, Oǧuz; Sadiq, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Understanding surface science of oxygenated silicon nanocrystals by means of their composition, stoichiometry and spatial distribution. • Drastic change observed in binding energy, localization of frontier orbitals and HOMO-LUMO gap up to 1.48 eV. • Might be a safe alternative of size dependent bandgap tunability. - Abstract: In most of the realistic ab initio and model calculations which have appeared on the emission of light from silicon nanocrystals, the role of surface oxygen has been usually ignored, underestimated or completely ruled out. We investigate theoretically, by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) possible modes of oxygen bonding in hydrogen terminated silicon quantum dots using as a representative case of the Si 29 nanocrystal. We have considered Bridge-bonded oxygen (BBO), Doubly-bonded oxygen (DBO), hydroxyl (OH) and Mix of these oxidizing agents. Due to stoichiometry, all comparisons performed are unbiased with respect to composition whereas spatial distribution of oxygen species pointed out drastic change in electronic and cohesive characteristics of nanocrytals. From an overall perspective of this study, it is shown that bridge bonded oxygenated Si nanocrystals accompanied by Mix have higher binding energies and large electronic gap compared to nanocrystals with doubly bonded oxygen atoms. In addition, it is observed that the presence of OH along with BBO, DBO and mixed configurations further lowers electronic gaps and binding energies but trends in same fashion. It is also demonstrated that within same composition, oxidizing constituent, along with their spatial distribution substantially alters binding energy, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap (up to 1.48 eV) and localization of frontier orbitals.

  7. Certification Systems of Green Schools: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Kocabas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is an approach that should not merely be limited to the design of buildings, but be a lifestyle adopted by posterity. Individuals ought to have the consciousness to protect and preserve the natural resources of future generations. After all, this is what will probably make studies on sustainability reach their targets. School buildings are critically important in achieving this goal in that they can enable future generations to be raised with an awareness of sustainability. This explains the reason why, in this study, the following leading green school certification systems and their criteria have been compared and examined: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; Collaborative for High Performance Schools; and, Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method. Five schools with these certificates were taken as examples, evaluated and compared. This study, in which descriptive survey model was employed, made it clear that the standards set for green schools serve similar purposes no matter when a green school certification system originated or which countries have adopted it. However, the following variables play an important role in the success of the green school approach: attitudes of administrators; training pattern; location of the school; materials selection; and the responsibilities of educators and learners. School buildings in Turkey should further be discussed in detail with these points in mind.

  8. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies.

  9. Comparing the health and environmental hazards of different energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Energy and environment can pose difficult challenges for policy makers and scientists. Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with quite different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Risk-assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Coal and nuclear fuel cycles are compared in respect to morbidity and mortality. Other cycles (oil, gas and renewables) are also examined. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing devices as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input-output methods. Input-output analysis allows comparisons of direct and system-wide impacts. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be explicitly recognized in the results, including uncertainty in validity of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. By use of several methods progress has been made in understanding the relative impact of energy technologies

  10. Size effect on the SHG properties of Cu-doped CdI2 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Because the optically induced second harmonic generation (SHG) is prevented by symmetry in a centrosymmetric material, one needs to form noncentrosymmetric processes in order to observe the SHG. However, one of the efficient ways to enhance the noncentrosymmetricity of a material is to dope it with an appropriate impurity and amount. We grow Cu-doped CdI 2 layered nanocrystal structures from the mixture of CdI 2 and CuI using the standard Bridgman-Stockbarger method and investigate the nano-confined effects by studying the second-order optical effect via the measurements of SHG. The second-order susceptibility for the nanocrystals is calculated and the values at liquid helium temperature range from 0.38 to 0.83 pm V -1 for the thicknesses of 10-0.8 nm respectively. The size dependence demonstrates the nano-sized quantum-confined effect with a clear increase in the SHG with decreasing the thickness of the nanocrystal or crystal temperature. Since the local electron-phonon anharmonicity is described by third-order rank tensors in disordered systems, the SHG is very similar to that one introduced for the third-order optical susceptibility. It has been confirmed by observing the large photoluminescent yield of the pure crystals. The Raman scattering spectra taken for thin nanocrystals confirm the phonon modes originating from interlayer phonons crucially responsible for the observed effects. The obtained results show that the Cu-doped CdI 2 layered nanocrystals are promising materials for applications in optoelectronic nano-devices.

  11. Size effect on the SHG properties of Cu-doped CdI{sub 2} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-12-15

    Because the optically induced second harmonic generation (SHG) is prevented by symmetry in a centrosymmetric material, one needs to form noncentrosymmetric processes in order to observe the SHG. However, one of the efficient ways to enhance the noncentrosymmetricity of a material is to dope it with an appropriate impurity and amount. We grow Cu-doped CdI{sub 2} layered nanocrystal structures from the mixture of CdI{sub 2} and CuI using the standard Bridgman-Stockbarger method and investigate the nano-confined effects by studying the second-order optical effect via the measurements of SHG. The second-order susceptibility for the nanocrystals is calculated and the values at liquid helium temperature range from 0.38 to 0.83 pm V{sup -1} for the thicknesses of 10-0.8 nm respectively. The size dependence demonstrates the nano-sized quantum-confined effect with a clear increase in the SHG with decreasing the thickness of the nanocrystal or crystal temperature. Since the local electron-phonon anharmonicity is described by third-order rank tensors in disordered systems, the SHG is very similar to that one introduced for the third-order optical susceptibility. It has been confirmed by observing the large photoluminescent yield of the pure crystals. The Raman scattering spectra taken for thin nanocrystals confirm the phonon modes originating from interlayer phonons crucially responsible for the observed effects. The obtained results show that the Cu-doped CdI{sub 2} layered nanocrystals are promising materials for applications in optoelectronic nano-devices.

  12. Cellulose nanocrystal properties and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi jonoobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nonmaterials production from different sources. Due to their abundance, their renewability, high strength and stiffness, being eco-friendly, and low weight; numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high performance applications. This work covers an introduction into the nano cellulose definition as well as used methods for isolation of nanomaterials (nanocrystals from various sources. The rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC can be isolated from sources like wood, plant fibers, agriculture and industrial bio residues, tunicates, and bacterial cellulose using acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the paper focused on characterization methods, materials properties and structure. The current review is a comprehensive literature regarding the nano cellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials to be used in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  13. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonicmaterials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially usefuloptical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct opticalscattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures thatcouple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, whichis mediated by surface plasmons, depends on their shape and arrangement.Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silvernanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using theLangmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticlespacing, density, and packing symmetry allows for tunability of theoptical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategyoffers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials forapplication in spectroscopic sensors, sub-wavelength optics, andintegrated devices that utilize field enhancement effects.

  14. Dynamics of different-sized solid-state nanocrystals as tracers for a drug-delivery system in the interstitium of a human tumor xenograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Masaaki; Higuchi, Hideo; Takeda, Motohiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Recent anticancer drugs have been made larger to pass selectively through tumor vessels and stay in the interstitium. Understanding drug movement in association with its size at the single-molecule level and estimating the time needed to reach the targeted organ is indispensable for optimizing drug delivery because single cell-targeted therapy is the ongoing paradigm. This report describes the tracking of single solid nanoparticles in tumor xenografts and the estimation of arrival time. Methods Different-sized nanoparticles measuring 20, 40, and 100 nm were injected into the tail vein of the female Balb/c nu/nu mice bearing human breast cancer on their backs. The movements of the nanoparticles were visualized through the dorsal skin-fold chamber with the high-speed confocal microscopy that we manufactured. Results An analysis of the particle trajectories revealed diffusion to be inversely related to the particle size and position in the tumor, whereas the velocity of the directed movement was related to the position. The difference in the velocity was the greatest for 40-nm particles in the perivascular to the intercellular region: difference = 5.8 nm/s. The arrival time of individual nanoparticles at tumor cells was simulated. The estimated times for the 20-, 40-, and 100-nm particles to reach the tumor cells were 158.0, 218.5, and 389.4 minutes, respectively, after extravasation. Conclusions This result suggests that the particle size can be individually designed for each goal. These data and methods are also important for understanding drug pharmacokinetics. Although this method may be subject to interference by surface molecules attached on the particles, it has the potential to elucidate the pharmacokinetics involved in constructing novel drug-delivery systems involving cell-targeted therapy. PMID:19575785

  15. Simulating changes to emergency care resources to compare system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Wolff, Catherine S; Williams, Justin; Margolis, Gregg; Carr, Brendan G

    2013-08-01

    To apply systems optimization methods to simulate and compare the most effective locations for emergency care resources as measured by access to care. This study was an optimization analysis of the locations of trauma centers (TCs), helicopter depots (HDs), and severely injured patients in need of time-critical care in select US states. Access was defined as the percentage of injured patients who could reach a level I/II TC within 45 or 60 minutes. Optimal locations were determined by a search algorithm that considered all candidate sites within a set of existing hospitals and airports in finding the best solutions that maximized access. Across a dozen states, existing access to TCs within 60 minutes ranged from 31.1% to 95.6%, with a mean of 71.5%. Access increased from 0.8% to 35.0% after optimal addition of one or two TCs. Access increased from 1.0% to 15.3% after optimal addition of one or two HDs. Relocation of TCs and HDs (optimal removal followed by optimal addition) produced similar results. Optimal changes to TCs produced greater increases in access to care than optimal changes to HDs although these results varied across states. Systems optimization methods can be used to compare the impacts of different resource configurations and their possible effects on access to care. These methods to determine optimal resource allocation can be applied to many domains, including comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and evaluation of targeting ligands surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Jeong Sun [Division of Undeclared Majors, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Doo-Soo; Sohn, Jun Youn [Department of Bioenvironmental & Chemical Engineering, Chosun College of Science & Technology, Gwangju 501-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Sook, E-mail: eicosa@cnu.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy and Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin-Seok, E-mail: c34281@gmail.com [College of Pharmacy and Institute of Drug Research and Development, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    To overcome the toxicity of excipient or blank nanoparticles for drug delivery nano-system, the surface modified paclitaxel nanocrystals (PTX-NC) have been developed. PTX-NCs were prepared by nano-precipitation method. The surface of PTX-NCs were modified by grafting with apo-transferrin (Tf) or hyaluronic acid (HA). The physical properties of PTX-NCs were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), zeta-sizer, zeta-potential, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In vitro drug release study was performed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) with or without 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24 h. Cellular uptake was studied at time intervals of 0.5, 1, and 2 h in MCF-7 cells, and cell growth inhibition study was performed for 24 h using MCF-7 cells (cancer cells), and HaCaT cells (normal cells). Three different types of PTX-NCs with a mean size of 236.0 ± 100.6 nm (PTX-NC), 302.0 ± 152.0 nm (Tf-PTX-NC) and 339 ± 180.6 nm (HA-PTX-NC) were successfully prepared. The drug release profiles showed 29.1%/6.9% (PTX (pure)), 40.7%/23.9% (PTX-NC), 50.5%/25.1% (Tf-PTX-NC) and 46.8/24.8% (HA-PTX-NC) in PBS with/without 0.5% (w/v) Tween 80 for 24 h, respectively. As per the results, the drug release of PTX-NCs showed the faster release as compared to that of PTX (pure). Surface modified PTX-NCs exhibited higher values for cell permeability than unmodified PTX-NC in the cellular uptake study. Surface modified PTX-NCs inhibited the cell growth approximately to 60% in MCF-7 cells, however effect of surface modified PTX-NCs on normal cell line was lower than the PTX-NC and PTX (pure). In conclusion, biological macromolecules (Tf or HA) surface modified PTX-NC enhanced the cellular uptake and the cell growth inhibition. - Highlights: • Surface modified PTX-NCs with HA and Tf are successfully prepared by adsorption method. • Enhanced cellular uptake of modified PTX-NCs compared to unmodified PTX-NC • Improved

  17. Carrier multiplication in silicon nanocrystals: ab initio results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important goals in the field of renewable energy is the development of original solar cell schemes employing new materials to overcome the performance limitations of traditional solar cell devices. Among such innovative materials, nanostructures have emerged as an important class of materials that can be used to realize efficient photovoltaic devices. When these systems are implemented into solar cells, new effects can be exploited to maximize the harvest of solar radiation and to minimize the loss factors. In this context, carrier multiplication seems one promising way to minimize the effects induced by thermalization loss processes thereby significantly increasing the solar cell power conversion. In this work we analyze and quantify different types of carrier multiplication decay dynamics by analyzing systems of isolated and coupled silicon nanocrystals. The effects on carrier multiplication dynamics by energy and charge transfer processes are also discussed.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Inversors for Small PV Systems Grid Connected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidrach de Cardona, M.; Ramirez, L.

    2001-01-01

    The energy produced by a grid connected photovoltaic system is a function of weather conditions, mainly available radiation and temperature, photovoltaic array efficiency and inverter characteristics. The results obtained in experimental measurements with four small grid-connected inverters are described in this work. The main goal is to know the inverter performance in real operation conditions. For this purpose a 2 kW photovoltaic system has been used. These results allow us to know both the inverter efficiency and its output power quality. The following parameters have been evaluated as a function of output inverter power: efficiency, point of maximum power tracking, intensity and voltage waveform, total harmonic distortion and harmonic values to 31 order, frequency, power factor and reactive power. Other interesting parameters like stand-by energy consumption and daily losses due to the inverter threshold have also been analyzed. The results allow us to know the inverter features as a function of its real work point. In our comparative study it is possible to observe remarkable differences between the inverters; these results show how important it is to have a unique standard for inverters to photovoltaic grid-connected systems. (Author) 10 refs

  19. Ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO Nanocrystals: Experimental and Theoretical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Debjani; Mandal, S. K.; Kadam, R. M.; Paulose, P. L.; Rajarajan, A. K.; Nath, T. K.; Das, A. K.; Dasgupta, I.; Das, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals are successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements on the same system reveal a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition temperature > 450 K with a low-temperature transition from ferromagnetic to spin-glass state due to canting of the disordered surface spins in the nanoparticle system. Local magnetic probes like EPR and Mossbauer indicate the presence of Fe in both v...

  20. A comparative study between infectious and systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindhya Sundar Das

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immune system may occur as a result of either external (mostly infection-mediated inflammation or internal factors (systemic inflammation. Distinct stimuli act on the immune cells to induce diverse pathways leading to characteristic gene expressions in these cases. Bacterial inflammation, caused primarily by its lipopolysaccharides (LPS, conceives an array of diseases including intestinal bowel disease (IBD, ulcerative colitis and sepsis. In contrast, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 or TNF-α leads to chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Castleman’s disease, etc. It is important to understand the signatures of infectious and systemic gene expression for better designing of treatment regime against inflammatory diseases. To understand the distinctive pattern of gene expression between infectious inflammation and systemic inflammation, THP-1 macrophages were treated individually with LPS (100 ng/mL, IL-6 (50 ng/mL or TNF-α (10 ng/mL and global transcriptomic analysis was performed using Agilent’s human 8x15K array. The common set of differentially expressed genes in IL-6 and TNF-α-treated cohorts were compared with LPS-treated cohorts. Our analysis revealed that 2743 and 150 genes contributed to LPS-mediated inflammation and systemic inflammation with respect to untreated samples, respectively (fold change ≥ 1.5. 868 commonly expressed genes contributed to systemic inflammation with respect to LPS-mediated inflammation. Among these commonly expressed genes, only 68 genes were observed to contribute to both types of inflammation, suggesting their importance in activation of diverse pathways in LPS-mediated and systemic inflammation. A detailed functional annotation of these genes revealed that EGR1, JUN, NF-kB, REL, STAT-1 and BCL-3 are important transcription factors (TFs for distinctive signatures between these two types of inflammation

  1. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  2. Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-09-01

    Niobium oxide nanocrystals were successfully synthesized employing the green synthesis method. Phase formation, microstructure and compositional properties of 1, 4 and 7 days incubation treated samples after calcinations at 450 °C were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence (PL), infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron microscopic characterizations. It was observed that phase formation of Nb2O5 nanocrystals was dependent upon the incubation period required to form stable metal oxides. The characteristic results clearly revealed that with increasing incubation and aging, the transformation of cubic, orthorhombic and monoclinic phases were observed. The uniform heating at room temperature (32 °C) and the ligation of niobium atoms due to higher phenolic constituents of utilized rambutan during aging processing plays a vital role in structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals. The defects over a period of incubation and the intensities of the PL spectra changing over a period of aging were related to the amount of the defects induced by the phase transition.

  3. Benzimidazole-functionalized Zr-UiO-66 nanocrystals for luminescent sensing of Fe3+ in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Yingying; Zhang, Hanzhuo; Lei, Fan; Liang, Mei; Qian, Xuefeng; Shen, Peilian; Xu, Hui; Chen, Zhihui; Gao, Junkuo; Yao, Juming

    2017-01-01

    Zr-based MOF structure UiO-66 exhibits unprecedented high thermal and chemical stability, making it to be one of the most used MOFs in various applications. Yet, the poor photoluminescent (PL) properties of UiO-66 limit its applications in luminescent sensing. Herein, a new benzimidazole-functionalized UiO-66 nanocrystal (UiO-66-BI) was successfully fabricated via microwave synthesis. UiO-66-BI displayed octahedral nanocrystal morphology with a diameter smaller than 200 nm and could disperse well in water and common organic solvents. UiO-66-BI demonstrated extended optical absorption in the visible-light region and efficiently improved PL emission compared with UiO-66 pristine. The sensing properties of UiO-66-BI nanocrystals towards different ions were studied, and the results demonstrated that UiO-66-BI showed excellent selective luminescent sensing of Fe 3+ ions in water.

  4. Benzimidazole-functionalized Zr-UiO-66 nanocrystals for luminescent sensing of Fe{sup 3+} in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yingying; Zhang, Hanzhuo; Lei, Fan; Liang, Mei; Qian, Xuefeng; Shen, Peilian [The Key laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (Zhejiang), College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Xu, Hui, E-mail: huixu@cjlu.edu.cn [Institute of Coordination Bond Metrology and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Chen, Zhihui, E-mail: huixu.chen@gmail.com [The Key laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (Zhejiang), College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Gao, Junkuo, E-mail: jkgao@zstu.edu.cn [The Key laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (Zhejiang), College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yao, Juming [The Key laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (Zhejiang), College of Materials and Textiles, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Zr-based MOF structure UiO-66 exhibits unprecedented high thermal and chemical stability, making it to be one of the most used MOFs in various applications. Yet, the poor photoluminescent (PL) properties of UiO-66 limit its applications in luminescent sensing. Herein, a new benzimidazole-functionalized UiO-66 nanocrystal (UiO-66-BI) was successfully fabricated via microwave synthesis. UiO-66-BI displayed octahedral nanocrystal morphology with a diameter smaller than 200 nm and could disperse well in water and common organic solvents. UiO-66-BI demonstrated extended optical absorption in the visible-light region and efficiently improved PL emission compared with UiO-66 pristine. The sensing properties of UiO-66-BI nanocrystals towards different ions were studied, and the results demonstrated that UiO-66-BI showed excellent selective luminescent sensing of Fe{sup 3+} ions in water.

  5. A novel one-pot room-temperature synthesis route to produce very small photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A.; Burgos-Paci, Maxi A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Putnam, Karl G.; Josefina Arellano-Jiménez, M.; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Macagno, Vicente A.; Sánchez, Cristián G.; Pérez, Manuel A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) from a reaction between tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethyl-hexadecyl-ammonium borohydride (CTABH4) in organic solvent is presented. The formation reaction occurs spontaneously at room temperature in homogeneous phase. The produced silicon nanocrystals are characterized by using their photoluminescent properties and via HRTEM. In addition, theoretical calculations of the optical absorption spectrum of silicon quantum dots in vacuum with different sizes and surface moieties were performed in order to compare with the experimental findings. The new chemical reaction is simple and can be implemented to produce silicon nanocrystal with regular laboratory materials by performing easy and safe procedures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Comparing replacement rates under private and federal retirement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patricia P

    One measure of the adequacy of retirement income is replacement rate - the percentage of pre-retirement salary that is available to a worker in retirement. This article compares salary replacement rates for private-sector employees of medium and large private establishments with those for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. Because there is no standard benefit formula to represent the variety of formulas available in the private sector, a composite defined benefit formula was developed using the characteristics of plans summarized in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Medium and Large Employer Plan Survey. The resulting "typical" private-sector defined benefit plan, with an accompanying defined contribution plan, was then compared with the two federal systems. The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is a stand-alone defined benefit plan whose participants are not covered by Social Security. Until passage of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security Act, it was the only retirement plan for most federal civilian employees. Provisions of the 1983 Amendments were designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. One provision created the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers federal employees hired after 1983. It was one of the provisions designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. FERS employees contribute to and are covered by Social Security. FERS, which is a defined benefit plan, also includes a basic benefit and a 401(k)-type plan known as the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). To compare how retirees would fare under the three different retirement systems, benefits of employees retiring at age 65 with 35 years of service were calculated using hypothetical workers with steady earnings. Workers were classified according to a percentage of the average wage in the economy: low earners (45 percent), average earners

  7. CH3 NH3 PbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals as Efficient Light-Harvesting Antenna for Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Chinnadurai; Vijayan, Anuja; Nair, Vijayakumar C

    2017-05-04

    Hybrid perovskites have created enormous research interest as a low-cost material for high-performance photovoltaic devices, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, memory devices and sensors. Perovskite materials in nanocrystal form that display intense luminescence due to the quantum confinement effect were found to be particularly suitable for most of these applications. However, the potential use of perovskite nanocrystals as a light-harvesting antenna for possible applications in artificial photosynthesis systems is not yet explored. In the present work, we study the light-harvesting antenna properties of luminescent methylammonium lead bromide (CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 )-based perovskite nanocrystals using fluorescent dyes (rhodamine B, rhodamine 101, and nile red) as energy acceptors. Our studies revealed that CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 nanocrystals are an excellent light-harvesting antenna, and efficient fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurs from the nanocrystals to fluorescent dyes. Further, the energy transfer efficiency is found to be highly dependent on the number of anchoring groups and binding ability of the dyes to the surface of the nanocrystals. These observations may have significant implications for perovskite-based light-harvesting devices and their possible use in artificial photosynthesis systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of magnetite nanocrystals obtained by microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciancalepore, Corrado; Bondioli, Federica; Manfredini, Tiziano; Gualtieri, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    An innovative preparation procedure, based on microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis, to obtain spherical magnetite nanoparticles was reported together with a detailed quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of the synthetic products. The nanoparticle growth was analyzed as a function of the synthesis time and was described in terms of crystallization degree employing the Rietveld method on the magnetic nanostructured system for the determination of the amorphous content using hematite as internal standard. Product crystallinity increases as the microwave thermal treatment is increased and reaches very high percentages for synthesis times longer than 1 h. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystals was followed by the integral breadth methods to obtain information on the crystallite size-strain distribution. The results of diffraction line profile analysis were compared with nanoparticle grain distribution estimated by dimensional analysis of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. A variation both in the average grain size and in the distribution of the coherently diffraction domains is evidenced, allowing to suppose a relationship between the two quantities. The traditional integral breadth methods have proven to be valid for a rapid assessment of the diffraction line broadening effects in the above-mentioned nanostructured systems and the basic assumption for the correct use of these methods are discussed as well. - Highlights: • Fe 3 O 4 nanocrystals were obtained by MW-assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis. • Quantitative phase analysis revealed that crystallinity up to 95% was reached. • The strategy of Rietveld refinements was discussed in details. • Dimensional analysis showed nanoparticles ranging from 4 to 8 nm. • Results of integral breadth methods were compared with microscopic analysis

  9. Quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of magnetite nanocrystals obtained by microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciancalepore, Corrado, E-mail: corrado.sciancalepore@unimore.it [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10, 41100 Modena (Italy); Bondioli, Federica [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 181/A, 43124 Parma (Italy); INSTM Consortium, Via G. Giusti 9, 51121 Firenze (Italy); Manfredini, Tiziano [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10, 41100 Modena (Italy); INSTM Consortium, Via G. Giusti 9, 51121 Firenze (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro [Department of Chemical and Geological Science, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, 41121 Modena Italy (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    An innovative preparation procedure, based on microwave assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis, to obtain spherical magnetite nanoparticles was reported together with a detailed quantitative phase analysis and microstructure characterization of the synthetic products. The nanoparticle growth was analyzed as a function of the synthesis time and was described in terms of crystallization degree employing the Rietveld method on the magnetic nanostructured system for the determination of the amorphous content using hematite as internal standard. Product crystallinity increases as the microwave thermal treatment is increased and reaches very high percentages for synthesis times longer than 1 h. Microstructural evolution of nanocrystals was followed by the integral breadth methods to obtain information on the crystallite size-strain distribution. The results of diffraction line profile analysis were compared with nanoparticle grain distribution estimated by dimensional analysis of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. A variation both in the average grain size and in the distribution of the coherently diffraction domains is evidenced, allowing to suppose a relationship between the two quantities. The traditional integral breadth methods have proven to be valid for a rapid assessment of the diffraction line broadening effects in the above-mentioned nanostructured systems and the basic assumption for the correct use of these methods are discussed as well. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were obtained by MW-assisted non-hydrolytic sol–gel synthesis. • Quantitative phase analysis revealed that crystallinity up to 95% was reached. • The strategy of Rietveld refinements was discussed in details. • Dimensional analysis showed nanoparticles ranging from 4 to 8 nm. • Results of integral breadth methods were compared with microscopic analysis.

  10. COMPAR: system to compare multigroup cross sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 AND XLACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1987-11-01

    A system, composed by the computer programs COMPAR and its interfaces, developed for comparing multigroup cross sections calculated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS, is presented. (author)

  11. COMPAR: A system for comparing multigroup cross-sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaf, J.; Chalhoub, E.S.

    1988-02-01

    A system consisting of the COMPAR computer program and its interfaces which was developed for comparing multigroup cross-sections generated by NJOY, GROUPIE, FLANGE-II, ETOG-3 and XLACS is presented. (author). 13 refs

  12. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy of single nanocrystals: mapping of tin allotropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesgaard, Søren; Ramasse, Quentin; Chevallier, Jacques; Fyhn, Mogens; Julsgaard, Brian

    2018-05-01

    Using monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), we are able to map different allotropes in Sn-nanocrystals embedded in Si. It is demonstrated that α-Sn and β-Sn, as well as an interface related plasmon, can be distinguished in embedded Sn-nanostructures. The EELS data is interpreted by standard non-negative matrix factorization followed by a manual Lorentzian decomposition. The decomposition allows for a more physical understanding of the EELS mapping without reducing the level of information. Extending the analysis from a reference system to smaller nanocrystals demonstrates that allotrope determination in nanoscale systems down below 5 nm is possible. Such local information proves the use of monochromated EELS mapping as a powerful technique to study nanoscale systems. This possibility enables investigation of small nanostructures that cannot be investigated through other means, allowing for a better understanding and thus leading to realizations that can result in nanomaterials with improved properties.

  13. Comparative Pathogenesis and Systems Biology for Biodefense Virus Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Bowick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing vaccines to biothreat agents presents a number of challenges for discovery, preclinical development, and licensure. The need for high containment to work with live agents limits the amount and types of research that can be done using complete pathogens, and small markets reduce potential returns for industry. However, a number of tools, from comparative pathogenesis of viral strains at the molecular level to novel computational approaches, are being used to understand the basis of viral attenuation and characterize protective immune responses. As the amount of basic molecular knowledge grows, we will be able to take advantage of these tools not only to rationally attenuate virus strains for candidate vaccines, but also to assess immunogenicity and safety in silico. This review discusses how a basic understanding of pathogenesis, allied with systems biology and machine learning methods, can impact biodefense vaccinology.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VAT EVOLUTION IN THE EUROPEAN ECONOMIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ANDREEA STROE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a comparative analysis of VAT in different states of the world. I made some observation on this theme because I believe that VAT is very important in carrying out transactions and the increase or decrease of this tax has a major impact upon national economies and also on the quality of life in developing countries. The papers has to pourpose to make a comparison between the American and European system of taxation with its advantages and disadvantages and, in the end to render an economic model and its statistics components. VAT is a value added tax which appeared about 50 years, initially with two purposes: one to replace certain indirect taxes, and another to reduce the budget deficit according to the faith of that time. The first country that has adopted this model was France, calling it today as value-added tax.

  15. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  16. Atomic retention and near infrared photoluminescence from PbSe nanocrystals fabricated by sequential ion implantation and electron beam annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A.; Reeves, R.J.; Kennedy, J.; Fang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals of PbSe have been fabricated in a silicon dioxide matrix by sequential low energy ion implantation followed by an electron beam annealing step. Transmission electron microscopy reveals PbSe nanocrystals with typical sizes between 3 and 10 nm in the sub-surface region. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry has been used to study the total atomic retention, as a function of implanted atoms, following annealing. Photoluminescence was observed in various samples, at 4 K, as a broad peak between 1.4 and 2.0 μm, with observation of a dependence of the peak wavelength on annealing temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed for samples with a high retention of implanted atoms, demonstrating the importance of nanocrystal density for achieving ambient temperature emission in these systems

  17. Band-Edge Exciton Fine Structure and Recombination Dynamics in InP/ZnS Colloidal Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadala, Louis; Siebers, Benjamin; Beyazit, Yasin; Tessier, Mickaël D; Dupont, Dorian; Hens, Zeger; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred

    2016-03-22

    We report on a temperature-, time-, and spectrally resolved study of the photoluminescence of type-I InP/ZnS colloidal nanocrystals with varying core size. By studying the exciton recombination dynamics we assess the exciton fine structure in these systems. In addition to the typical bright-dark doublet, the photoluminescence stems from an upper bright state in spite of its large energy splitting (∼100 meV). This striking observation results from dramatically lengthened thermalization processes among the fine structure levels and points to optical-phonon bottleneck effects in InP/ZnS nanocrystals. Furthermore, our data show that the radiative recombination of the dark exciton scales linearly with the bright-dark energy splitting for CdSe and InP nanocrystals. This finding strongly suggests a universal dangling bonds-assisted recombination of the dark exciton in colloidal nanostructures.

  18. Influence of Binders and Solvents on Stability of Ru/RuOx Nanoparticles on ITO Nanocrystals as Li-O2 Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankova, Svetoslava; Francia, Carlotta; Amici, Julia; Zeng, Juqin; Bodoardo, Silvia; Penazzi, Nerino; Collins, Gillian; Geaney, Hugh; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2017-02-08

    Fundamental research on Li-O 2 batteries remains critical, and the nature of the reactions and stability are paramount for realising the promise of the Li-O 2 system. We report that indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals with supported 1-2 nm oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst Ru/RuO x nanoparticles (NPs) demonstrate efficient OER processes, reduce the recharge overpotential of the cell significantly and maintain catalytic activity to promote a consistent cycling discharge potential in Li-O 2 cells even when the ITO support nanocrystals deteriorate from the very first cycle. The Ru/RuO x nanoparticles lower the charge overpotential compared with those for ITO and carbon-only cathodes and have the greatest effect in DMSO electrolytes with a solution-processable F-free carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder (ITO nanocrystalline materials in DMSO provide efficient Li 2 O 2 decomposition from within the cathode during cycling. We demonstrate that the ITO is actually unstable from the first cycle and is modified by chemical etching, but the Ru/RuO x NPs remain effective OER catalysts for Li 2 O 2 during cycling. The CMC binders avoid PVDF-based side-reactions and improve the cyclability. The deterioration of the ITO nanocrystals is mitigated significantly in cathodes with a CMC binder, and the cells show good cycle life. In mixed DMSO-EMITFSI [EMITFSI=1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide] ionic liquid electrolytes, the Ru/RuO x /ITO materials in Li-O 2 cells cycle very well and maintain a consistently very low charge overpotential of 0.5-0.8 V. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Efficient sensitization of Ln{sup 3+}-doped NaYF{sub 4} nanocrystals with organic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, N. [INAC, CEA, Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique (UMR E-3 CEA/UJF) (France); Raccurt, O. [CEA, Laboratoire de Chimie et de Securite des NanoMateriaux (DTNM/LITEN/DRT) (France); Imbert, D., E-mail: daniel.imbert@cea.fr; Mazzanti, M. [INAC, CEA, Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique (UMR E-3 CEA/UJF) (France)

    2013-06-15

    Ligand-capped lanthanide-doped fluoride nanocrystals have been prepared and fully characterized. Organic ligands can be used to promote efficient sensitization of lanthanide luminescence in the fluoride matrix up to a 330-fold enhancement in intensity, and to provide sizeable quantum yields of luminescence. The variation of luminescence efficiency in the capped nanocrystal series can be straightforwardly correlated to the energy of the measured ligand triplet states. The intense luminescence emission of most of the systems renders them very attractive for optical applications.

  20. A Comparative Study of Shaping Ability of four Rotary Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Jorge; Zarzosa, José Ignacio; Pallarés, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    This study compared the cutting area, instrumentation time, root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas obtained by F360(®), Mtwo(®), RaCe(®) and Hyflex(®) files with ISO size 35. 120 teeth with a single straight root and root canal were divided into 4 groups. Working length was calculated by using X-rays. The teeth were sectioned with a handpiece and a diamond disc, and the sections were observed with Nikon SMZ-2T stereoscopic microscope and an Intralux 4000-1 light source. The groups were adjusted with a preoperative analysis with AutoCAD. The teeth were reconstructed by a #10 K-File and epoxy glue. Each group was instrumented with one of the four file systems. The instrumentation time was calculated with a 1/100 second chronometer. The area of the thirds and root canal anatomy preservation were analyzed with AutoCAD 2013 and the non-instrumented areas with AutoCAD 2013 and SMZ-2T stereoscopic microscope. The statistical analysis was made with Levene's Test, ANOVA, Bonferroni Test and Pearson´s Chi-square. Equal variances were shown by Levene's Test (P > 0.05). ANOVA (P > 0.05) showed the absence of significant differences. There were significant differences in the instrumentation time (P 0.05). The 4 different rotary systems produced similar cutting area, root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas. Regarding instrumentation time, F360(®) was the fastest system statistically.

  1. A Comparative Study of Shaping Ability of four Rotary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study compared the cutting area, instrumentation time, root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas obtained by F360®, Mtwo®, RaCe® and Hyflex® files with ISO size 35. Material and Methods: 120 teeth with a single straight root and root canal were divided into 4 groups. Working length was calculated by using X-rays. The teeth were sectioned with a handpiece and a diamond disc, and the sections were observed with Nikon SMZ-2T stereoscopic microscope and an Intralux 4000-1 light source. The groups were adjusted with a preoperative analysis with AutoCAD. The teeth were reconstructed by a #10 K-File and epoxy glue. Each group was instrumented with one of the four file systems. The instrumentation time was calculated with a 1/100 second chronometer. The area of the thirds and root canal anatomy preservation were analyzed with AutoCAD 2013 and the non-instrumented areas with AutoCAD 2013 and SMZ-2T stereoscopic microscope. The statistical analysis was made with Levene’s Test, ANOVA, Bonferroni Test and Pearson´s Chi-square. Results: Equal variances were shown by Levene’s Test (P > 0.05. ANOVA (P > 0.05 showed the absence of significant differences. There were significant ifferences in the instrumentation time (P 0.05. Conclusions: The 4 different rotary systems produced similar cutting area, root canal anatomy preservation and non-instrumented areas. Regarding instrumentation time, F360® was the fastest system statistically.

  2. Extraordinary Interfacial Stitching between Single All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Leyre; Lin, Junhao; De Weerd, Chris; Poirier, Lucas; Boehme, Simon C.; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2018-01-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are extensively studied because of their outstanding optoelectronic properties. Being of a cubic shape and typically featuring a narrow size distribution, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystals are the ideal starting material for the

  3. Characterization of Ge-nanocrystal films with photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostedt, C.; Buuren, T. van; Willey, T.M.; Nelson, A.J.; Franco, N.; Moeller, T.; Terminello, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Ge 3d core-levels of germanium nanocrystal films have been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments indicate bulk-like coordinated atoms in the nanocrystals and suggest structured disorder on the nanoparticle surface. The results underline the importance of the surface on the overall electronic structure of this class of nanostructured materials

  4. Charge transfer between acenes and PbS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, D M N M [Solid State Electronics Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States); Hatton, R A [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lutz, T [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AY (United Kingdom); Curry, R J; Silva, S R P [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ndissa@umich.edu

    2009-05-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid heterojunctions have potential as the basis for future photovoltaic devices. Herein, we report the results of investigations exploring the possibility of using pentacene and tetracene as photoelectron donors in conjunction with PbS nanocrystals (PbS-NCs). Photoinduced charge transfer was probed using external quantum efficiency measurements on acene:PbS-NC hybrid photovoltaic devices in conjunction with photoluminescence studies of the corresponding bilayer films. It is shown that photoelectron transfer from pentacene to the PbS-NCs is inefficient as compared to that between tetracene and PbS-NCs. The latter case can be rationalized in terms of the energy level alignment at the heterojunction assuming a common vacuum level. However, in the case of pentacene:PbS-NC junctions an interfacial energy level shift must be considered in order to explain the observations.

  5. Modified spontaneous emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in artificial opals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Mafouana, Rodrigue R.; Linnros, Jan; Elliman, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Si nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in synthetic silica opals by means of Si-ion implantation or opal impregnation with porous-Si suspensions. In both types of sample photoluminescence (PL) is strongly Bragg-reflection attenuated (up to 75%) at the frequency of the opal stop-band in a direction perpendicular to the (1 1 1) face of the perfect hcp opal structure. Time-resolved PL shows a rich distribution of decay rates, which contains both shorter and longer decay components compared with the ordinary stretched exponential decay of Si NCs. This effect reflects changes in the spontaneous emission rate of Si NCs due to variations in the local density of states of real opal containing defects.

  6. Modified spontaneous emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in artificial opals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janda, Petr; Valenta, Jan; Rehspringer, Jean-Luc; Mafouana, Rodrigue R; Linnros, Jan; Elliman, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Si nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in synthetic silica opals by means of Si-ion implantation or opal impregnation with porous-Si suspensions. In both types of sample photoluminescence (PL) is strongly Bragg-reflection attenuated (up to 75%) at the frequency of the opal stop-band in a direction perpendicular to the (1 1 1) face of the perfect hcp opal structure. Time-resolved PL shows a rich distribution of decay rates, which contains both shorter and longer decay components compared with the ordinary stretched exponential decay of Si NCs. This effect reflects changes in the spontaneous emission rate of Si NCs due to variations in the local density of states of real opal containing defects

  7. Modified spontaneous emission of silicon nanocrystals embedded in artificial opals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janda, Petr [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Valenta, Jan [Department of Chemical Physics and Optics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Rehspringer, Jean-Luc [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, GMI et GONLO, UMR46 CNRS-ULP-ECPM, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Mafouana, Rodrigue R [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, GMI et GONLO, UMR46 CNRS-ULP-ECPM, 23, rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Linnros, Jan [Laboratory of Material and Semiconductor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 21 Kista-Stockholm (Sweden); Elliman, Robert G [Electronic Materials Engineering Department, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2007-10-07

    Si nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in synthetic silica opals by means of Si-ion implantation or opal impregnation with porous-Si suspensions. In both types of sample photoluminescence (PL) is strongly Bragg-reflection attenuated (up to 75%) at the frequency of the opal stop-band in a direction perpendicular to the (1 1 1) face of the perfect hcp opal structure. Time-resolved PL shows a rich distribution of decay rates, which contains both shorter and longer decay components compared with the ordinary stretched exponential decay of Si NCs. This effect reflects changes in the spontaneous emission rate of Si NCs due to variations in the local density of states of real opal containing defects.

  8. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs. (paper)

  9. Group IV nanocrystals with ion-exchangeable surface ligands and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2018-01-09

    Methods are described that include reacting a starting nanocrystal that includes a starting nanocrystal core and a covalently bound surface species to create an ion-exchangeable (IE) nanocrystal that includes a surface charge and a first ion-exchangeable (IE) surface ligand ionically bound to the surface charge, where the starting nanocrystal core includes a group IV element.

  10. Probing the exciton density of states in semiconductor nanocrystals using integrated photoluminescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Filonovich, S A; Vasilevskiy, M I; Rolo, A G; Gomes, M J M; Artemiev, M V; Talapin, D V; Rogach, A L

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of a comparative analysis of the absorption and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra vs. integrated photoluminescence (IPL) measured as a function of the excitation wavelength for a number of samples containing II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) produced by different techniques. The structure of the absorption and PL spectra due to excitons confined in NCs and difficulties with the correct interpretation of the transmittance and PLE results are discussed. It is shown that, compared to the conventional PLE, the IPL intensity plotted against the excitation wavelength (IPLE spectra) reproduce better the structure of the absorption spectra. Therefore, IPLE spectroscopy can be successfully used for probing the quantized electron-hole (e-h) transitions in semiconductor nanocrystals. (author)

  11. Properties of cellulose nanocrystals from oil palm trunk isolated by total chlorine free method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sulaiman, Othman

    2017-01-20

    Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk by total chlorine free method. The samples were either water pre-hydrolyzed or non-water pre-hydrolyzed, subjected to soda pulping, acidified and ozone bleached. Cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) physical, chemical, thermal properties, and crystallinity index were investigated by composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. Water pre-hydrolysis reduced lignin (process compared to non-fibrillated of non-water pre-hydrolyzed cellulose. Water pre-hydrolysis improved final CNC crystallinity (up to 75%) compared to CNC without water pre-hydrolysis crystallinity (69%). Cellulose degradation was found to occur during ozone bleaching stage but CNC showed an increase in crystallinity after acid hydrolysis. Thus, oil palm trunk CNC can be potentially applied in pharmaceutical, food, medical and nanocomposites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser-induced luminescence of multilayer structures based on polyimides and CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakov, A A; Dayneko, S V; Zakharchenko, K V; Kolesnikov, V A; Tedoradze, M G; Mochalov, K E; Oleinikov, V A

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced luminescence of multilayer structures based on the solids of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, different organic semiconductors and on the layers of organic semiconductors with embedded nanocrystals has been investigated. Drastic decrease of luminescence quantum yield is observed in the films of CdSe nanocrystals on organic semiconductors compared to those on optical glasses. The luminescence of the nanocrystals in the matrices of organic semiconductors and in multilayer structures is shown to be suppressed. The effects observed are explained by the transfer of photogenerated carriers from the nanocrystals to the molecules of organic semiconductors. The presence of the charge transfer is confirmed by a drastic increase in the conductivity (by 2 – 4 orders of magnitude) and in photovoltaic effect at the presence of CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in the structures under investigation. The prospects of using the multilayer structures for development new materials for solar cells are discussed

  13. Plasmonic doped semiconductor nanocrystals: Properties, fabrication, applications and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco; Manna, Liberato

    2017-02-01

    Degenerately doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are of recent interest to the NC community due to their tunable localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the near infrared (NIR). The high level of doping in such materials with carrier densities in the range of 1021cm-3 leads to degeneracy of the doping levels and intense plasmonic absorption in the NIR. The lower carrier density in degenerately doped semiconductor NCs compared to noble metals enables LSPR tuning over a wide spectral range, since even a minor change of the carrier density strongly affects the spectral position of the LSPR. Two classes of degenerate semiconductors are most relevant in this respect: impurity doped semiconductors, such as metal oxides, and vacancy doped semiconductors, such as copper chalcogenides. In the latter it is the density of copper vacancies that controls the carrier concentration, while in the former the introduction of impurity atoms adds carriers to the system. LSPR tuning in vacancy doped semiconductor NCs such as copper chalcogenides occurs by chemically controlling the copper vacancy density. This goes in hand with complex structural modifications of the copper chalcogenide crystal lattice. In contrast the LSPR of degenerately doped metal oxide NCs is modified by varying the doping concentration or by the choice of host and dopant atoms, but also through the addition of capacitive charge carriers to the conduction band of the metal oxide upon post-synthetic treatments, such as by electrochemical- or photodoping. The NIR LSPRs and the option of their spectral fine-tuning make accessible important new features, such as the controlled coupling of the LSPR to other physical signatures or the enhancement of optical signals in the NIR, sensing application by LSPR tracking, energy production from the NIR plasmon resonance or bio-medical applications in the biological window. In this review we highlight the recent advances in the synthesis of various different plasmonic

  14. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells; Architectures hybrides auto-assemblees a base de systemes polyconjugues et de nanocristaux de semi-conducteurs pour le photovoltaique plastique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-15

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  15. Process optimization and evaluation of novel baicalin solid nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue PF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peng-Fei Yue,1,2 Yu Li,1 Jing Wan,1 Yong Wang,1 Ming Yang,1 Wei-Feng Zhu,1 Chang-Hong Wang,2 Hai-Long Yuan31Key Lab of Modern Preparation of TCM, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, 2Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 3302 Hospital of PLA Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The objective of this study was to prepare baicalin solid nanocrystals (BCN-SNS to enhance oral bioavailability of baicalin. A Box–Behnken design approach was used for process optimization. The physicochemical properties and pharmacokinetics of the optimal BCN-SNS were investigated. Multiple linear regression analysis for process optimization revealed that the fine BCN-SNS was obtained wherein the optimal values of homogenization pressure (bar, homogenization cycles (cycles, amount of TPGS to drug (w/w, and amount of MCCS to drug (w/w were 850 bar, 25 cycles, 10%, and 10%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that no significant aggregation or crystal growth could be observed in the redispersed freeze-dried BCN-SNS. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed that BCN remained in a crystalline state. Dissolution velocity of the freeze-dried BCN-SNS powder was distinctly superior compared to those of the crude powder and physical mixture. The bioavailability of BCN in rats was increased remarkably after oral administration of BCN-SNS (P < 0.05, compared with those of BCN or the physical mixture. The SNS might be a good choice for oral administration of poorly soluble BCN, due to an improvement of the bioavailability and dissolution velocity of BCN-SNS.Keywords: baicalin, solid nanocrystals, optimization, in vivo/vitro evaluation

  16. Photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals in silica: The effect of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheylan, S.; Elliman, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of H passivation on the PL emission of Si nanocrystals produced in silica by ion-implantion and annealing is shown to depend on the implant fluence. At low fluences, where the nanocrystals are small, passivation causes an enhancement of the emission intensity that is uniform over the full spectral range and therefore appears to be independent of nanocrystal size. For higher fluences, where the average size and size distribution of the nanocrystals are larger, the enhancement occurs preferentially at longer wavelengths, giving rise to a red-shift in the emission spectra. Both the enhancement and the red-shift increase monotonically with increasing fluence. These data are shown to be consistent with a model in which the probability to contain a non-radiative defect increases with nanocrystal size

  17. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  18. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  19. Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Shahab; Gungor, Kivanc; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2013-04-01

    We report plasmonically coupled light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers that exhibit sensitivity enhancement and spectral range extension with plasmonic nanostructures embedded in their photosensitive nanocrystal platforms. The deposited plasmonic silver nanoparticles of the device increase the optical absorption of a CdTe nanocrystal monolayer incorporated in the device. Controlled separation of these metallic nanoparticles in the vicinity of semiconductor nanocrystals enables optimization of the photovoltage buildup in the proposed nanostructure platform. The enhancement factor was found to depend on the excitation wavelength. We observed broadband sensitivity improvement (across 400-650 nm), with a 2.6-fold enhancement factor around the localized plasmon resonance peak. The simulation results were found to agree well with the experimental data. Such plasmonically enhanced nanocrystal skins hold great promise for large-area UV/visible sensing applications.

  20. A review on one dimensional perovskite nanocrystals for piezoelectric applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qian Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, one-dimensional piezoelectric nanomaterials have become a research topic of interest because of their special morphology and excellent piezoelectric properties. This article presents a short review on one dimensional perovskite piezoelectric materials in different systems including Pb(Zr,TiO3, BaTiO3 and (K,NaNbO3 (KNN. We emphasize KNN as a promising lead-free piezoelectric compound with a high Curie temperature and high piezoelectric properties and describe its synthesis and characterization. In particular, details are presented for nanoscale piezoelectricity characterization of a single KNN nanocrystal by piezoresponse force microscopy. Finally, this review describes recent progress in applications based on one dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures with a focus on energy harvesting composite materials.

  1. Recyclable organic solar cells on substrates comprising cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippelen, Bernard; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Zhou, Yinhua; Moon, Robert; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    Recyclable organic solar cells are disclosed herein. Systems and methods are further disclosed for producing, improving performance, and for recycling the solar cells. In certain example embodiments, the recyclable organic solar cells disclosed herein include: a first electrode; a second electrode; a photoactive layer disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode; an interlayer comprising a Lewis basic oligomer or polymer disposed between the photoactive layer and at least a portion of the first electrode or the second electrode; and a substrate disposed adjacent to the first electrode or the second electrode. The interlayer reduces the work function associated with the first or second electrode. In certain example embodiments, the substrate comprises cellulose nanocrystals that can be recycled. In certain example embodiments, one or more of the first electrode, the photoactive layer, and the second electrode may be applied by a film transfer lamination method.

  2. Nonlinear optical effect and excited electron dynamics of semiconductor nanocrystals; Handotai nano kessh no hisenkei kogaku koka to reiki denshi dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1996-08-20

    Investigations were given on nanocrystals of CuCl and CdTe with regard to their nonlinear optical mechanism. The experiment used a femto-second pump probe spectroscope. The experiment on CuCl nanocrystals revealed the following facts: in the case where one photon is absorbed into one nanocrystal, cascade mitigation occurs to the pair of electrons and holes, and exciters; and in the case where two photons are absorbed into one nanocrystal, exciter molecules are made via the pair of electrons and holes and the exciters. Thus, it was found that the optical nonlinearity occurs when more than two photons are absorbed into one nanocrystal, and inter-exciter interactions and formation of the exciter molecules are the physical causes thereof. The experiment on CdTe nanocrystals indicated that electrons and holes produced by laser beam are distributed instantaneously between the size-quantized discrete levels, and that temperature in the electron system drops with lapse of time. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Control of Electron Transfer from Lead-Salt Nanocrystals to TiO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool

    2011-05-11

    The roles of solvent reorganization energy and electronic coupling strength on the transfer of photoexcited electrons from PbS nanocrystals to TiO 2 nanoparticles are investigated. We find that the electron transfer depends only weakly on the solvent, in contrast to the strong dependence in the nanocrystal-molecule system. This is ascribed to the larger size of the acceptor in this system, and is accounted for by Marcus theory. The electronic coupling of the PbS and TiO 2 is varied by changing the length, aliphatic and aromatic structure, and anchor groups of the linker molecules. Shorter linker molecules consistently lead to faster electron transfer. Surprisingly, linker molecules of the same length but distinct chemical structures yield similar electron transfer rates. In contrast, the electron transfer rate can vary dramatically with different anchor groups. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Z-Contrast STEM Imaging and EELS of CdSe Nanocrystals: Towards the Analysis of Individual Nanocrystal Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, M.; Kadavanich, A.V.; Kippeny, T.; Pennycook, S.J.; Rosenthal, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied Atomic Number Contract Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Z-Contrast STEM) and STEM/EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) towards the study of colloidal CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in MEH-PPV polymer films. Unlike the case of conventional phase-contrast High Resolution TEM, Z-Contrast images are direct projections of the atomic structure. Hence they can be interpreted without the need for sophisticated image simulation and the image intensity is a direct measure of the thickness of a nanocrystal. Our thickness measurements are in agreement with the predicted faceted shape of these nanocrystals. Our unique 1.3A resolution STEM has successfully resolve3d the sublattice structure of these CdSe nanocrystals. In [010] projection (the polar axis in the image plane) we can distinguish Se atom columns from Cd columns. Consequently we can study the effects of lattice polarity on the nanocrystal morphology. Furthermore, since the STEM technique does not rely on diffraction, it is superbly suited to the study of non-periodic detail, such as the surface structure of the nanocrystals. EELS measurements on individual nanocrystals indicate a significant amount (equivalet to 0.5-1 surface monolayers) of oxygen on the nanocrystals, despite processing in an inert atmosphere. Spatially resolved measurements at 7A resolution suggest a surface oxide layer. However, the uncertainty in the measurement precludes definitive assignment at this time. The source of the oxygen is under investigation as well

  5. Modeling and simulation of floating gate nanocrystal FET devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, El-Sayed A. M.

    The nonvolatile memory market has been growing very fast during the last decade, especially for mobile communication systems. The Semiconductor Industry Association International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors states that the difficult challenge for nonvolatile semiconductor memories is to achieve reliable, low power, low voltage performance and high-speed write/erase. This can be achieved by aggressive scaling of the nonvolatile memory cells. Unfortunately, scaling down of conventional nonvolatile memory will further degrade the retention time due to the charge loss between the floating gate and drain/source contacts and substrate which makes conventional nonvolatile memory unattractive. Using nanocrystals as charge storage sites reduces dramatically the charge leakage through oxide defects and drain/source contacts. Floating gate nanocrystal nonvolatile memory, FG-NCNVM, is a candidate for future memory because it is advantageous in terms of high-speed write/erase, small size, good scalability, low-voltage, low-power applications, and the capability to store multiple bits per cell. Many studies regarding FG-NCNVMs have been published. Most of them have dealt with fabrication improvements of the devices and device characterizations. Due to the promising FG-NCNVM applications in integrated circuits, there is a need for circuit a simulation model to simulate the electrical characteristics of the floating gate devices. In this thesis, a FG-NCNVM circuit simulation model has been proposed. It is based on the SPICE BSIM simulation model. This model simulates the cell behavior during normal operation. Model validation results have been presented. The SPICE model shows good agreement with experimental results. Current-voltage characteristics, transconductance and unity gain frequency (fT) have been studied showing the effect of the threshold voltage shift (DeltaVth) due to nanocrystal charge on the device characteristics. The threshold voltage shift due to

  6. Comparing decision-support systems in adopting sustainable intensification criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouda eVosough Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable intensification (SI is a multifaceted concept incorporating the ambition to increase or maintain the current level of agricultural yields while reduce negative ecological and environmental impacts. Decision-support systems (DSS that use integrated analytical methods are often used to support decision making processes in agriculture. However, DSS often consist of set of values, objectives and assumptions that may be inconsistent or in conflict with merits and objectives of SI. These potential conflicts will have consequences for adoption and up-take of agricultural research, technologies and related policies and regulations such as genetic technology in pursuit of SI. This perspective paper aimed at comparing a number of frequently used socio-economic DSS with respect to their capacity in incorporating various dimensions of SI, and discussing their application to analyzing farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR policies. The case of FAnGR policies was chosen because of its great potential in delivering merits of SI. It was concluded that flexible DSS, with great integration capacity with various natural and social sciences, are needed to provide guidance on feasibility, practicality and policy implementation for SI.

  7. Energetic and economic optimization of industrial systems compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGoff, P.; Rivero, R.; de Oliverira, S.; Schwarzer, B.

    1990-01-01

    Industrial processes can be represented as open systems where available energy (exergy) enters, utilized energy (exergy content of goods and services) exits and degraded energy (destroyed exergy) is rejected into the environment. The overall evaluation of each process can be made according to an energy accounting (in terms of exergy or of primary fossil energy) or a financial accounting (in terms of national or foreign currency). In any case, the process can be optimized by determining the best compromise between the costs of the various input fluxes. According to the needs of the decision maker one can choose the most convenient value criterion which would be to minimize: the total cost in national currency, for a project engineer working for a private company; the payments in foreign currency, for a public organization; the total energy consumption, for a hypothetical decision maker responsible for the world's non renewable fossil energy; the entropy production in order to increase the thermodynamic efficiency of the process. This paper presents and compares some examples of energetic and economic optimizations, according to various criteria. The examples given concern a heat exchanger, the drying of beet pulp and some heat transformers for upgrading industrial waste heat. Furthermore, the authors generalize the concept of pay-back time through the ratio of the invested capital cost and of the operating cost given in terms of exergy or of primary energy. Numerical values are given for an oil-fired boiler

  8. SAXS determination of the structural periodicity of thermoplastic polyurethane reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prataviera, Rogerio; Bretas, Rosario E.S.; Lucas, Alessandra de A.; Poullet, Eric; Averous, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this work, casting films were obtained from TPU reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals. The structural nano periodicity of these system was evaluated by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering, SAXS. The results indicated that the used TPU has a atypical phase separated morphology of rigid and soft segments, being observed 3 different distances them, probably due to the large polyol polyester molecule derived from colza oil used in the TPU synthesis. (author)

  9. Life cycle assessment of a commercial rainwater harvesting system compared with a municipal water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building upon previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies, we conducted an LCA of a commercial rainwater harvesting (RWH) system and compared it to a municipal water supply (MWS) system adapted to Washington, D.C. Eleven life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) indi...

  10. Formation of noble metal nanocrystals in the presence of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Justin Lockheart

    One of the most promising, yet least studied routes for producing biocompatible nanostructures involves synthesis in the presence of biomolecules. I hypothesized that globular proteins could provide a suitable framework to regulate the formation of noble metal nanocrystals. As proof of concept, I designed two novel synthesis protocols utilizing bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein to regulate the formation of gold nanocrystals. In the first case, the standard protocol for polyol reduction was modified by replacing ethylene glycol with glycerin, replacing synthetic polymers with BSA as protecting agent, and decreasing the reaction temperature. In the second case, the Brust-Schiffrin two-phase reduction was modified by replacing alkylthiols with BSA as protecting agent, which facilitated a strictly aqueous phase synthesis. Due to superior product yield and rapid reduction at room temperature, the aqueous protocol became the foundation for subsequent studies. I extended this approach to produce well-dispersed ˜2nm silver, gold, and platinum nanocrystals. Having demonstrated the feasibility of BSA-functionalized nanocrystals, some potential uses were explored. BSA-functionalized silver nanocrystals were employed in a broader study on the interaction of silver nanocrystals with HIV. BSA-functionalized gold nanocrystals were utilized for in vivo dosage of a contrast enhancing agent to bacteria. BSA-functionalized platinum nanocrystals were studied as hydrogenation catalysts. Since many intriguing uses for protein-functionalized nanocrystals involve incorporation into biosystems, I sought to enhance biocompatibility by using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. Initial experiments revealed elongated and branched nanocrystals. Such structures were not observed in previous synthesis protocols with BSA, so I hypothesized ascorbic acid was driving their formation. To test my assertion, I reduced ionic gold in an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid, thereby discovering a new method

  11. A probabilistic model of the electron transport in films of nanocrystals arranged in a cubic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, Ilka [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Scotognella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.scotognella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanocrystal (NC) films, starting from colloidal dispersion, is a very attractive topic in condensed matter physics community. NC films can be employed for transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells. For this reason the understanding of the film conductivity is of major importance. In this paper we describe a probabilistic model that allows the prediction of the conductivity of NC films, in this case of a cubic lattice of Lead Selenide or Cadmium Selenide NCs. The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. The results are compared to experimental data reported in literature. - Highlights: • Colloidal nanocrystal (NC) film conductivity is a topic of major importance. • We present a probabilistic model to predict the electron conductivity in NC films. • The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. • We found a good agreement between the model and data reported in literature.

  12. Depositing of CuS nanocrystals upon the graphene scaffold and their photocatalytic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lixin; Jiu, Hongfang; Li, Na; Sun, Yixin

    2014-06-01

    A series of copper sulfide nanocrystals/graphene nanocomposites (CuS/GR) with different weight ratios of GR were fabricated via a one-step hydrothermal approach by using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the source of sulfur and solvent. The as-prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) are employed to determine the properties of the samples. The results show that the CuS nanocrystals with an average size of 16 nm almost overspread on the GR graphene scaffold. The samples exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in degrading the methylene blue (MB) compared with pure CuS. This work shows that CuS/GR nanocomposites would be promising in dye wastewater treatment as Fenton-like reagents.

  13. Depositing of CuS nanocrystals upon the graphene scaffold and their photocatalytic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongbin; Zhang, Lixin; Jiu, Hongfang; Li, Na; Sun, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    A series of copper sulfide nanocrystals/graphene nanocomposites (CuS/GR) with different weight ratios of GR were fabricated via a one-step hydrothermal approach by using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the source of sulfur and solvent. The as-prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) are employed to determine the properties of the samples. The results show that the CuS nanocrystals with an average size of 16 nm almost overspread on the GR graphene scaffold. The samples exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in degrading the methylene blue (MB) compared with pure CuS. This work shows that CuS/GR nanocomposites would be promising in dye wastewater treatment as Fenton-like reagents.

  14. Depositing of CuS nanocrystals upon the graphene scaffold and their photocatalytic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yongbin [Chemical Engineering and Environment Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Zhang, Lixin, E-mail: edwardzlx@163.com [Chemical Engineering and Environment Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Jiu, Hongfang [College of Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Li, Na; Sun, Yixin [Chemical Engineering and Environment Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2014-06-01

    A series of copper sulfide nanocrystals/graphene nanocomposites (CuS/GR) with different weight ratios of GR were fabricated via a one-step hydrothermal approach by using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the source of sulfur and solvent. The as-prepared samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) are employed to determine the properties of the samples. The results show that the CuS nanocrystals with an average size of 16 nm almost overspread on the GR graphene scaffold. The samples exhibit excellent photocatalytic activities in degrading the methylene blue (MB) compared with pure CuS. This work shows that CuS/GR nanocomposites would be promising in dye wastewater treatment as Fenton-like reagents.

  15. Femtosecond X-ray diffraction from an aerosolized beam of protein nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awel, Salah; Kirian, Richard A; Wiedorn, Max O; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Roth, Nils; Horke, Daniel A; Oberthür, Dominik; Knoska, Juraj; Mariani, Valerio; Morgan, Andrew; Adriano, Luigi; Tolstikova, Alexandra; Xavier, P Lourdu; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Aquila, Andrew; Barty, Anton; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Hunter, Mark S; James, Daniel; Robinson, Joseph S; Weierstall, Uwe; Rode, Andrei V; Bajt, Saša; Küpper, Jochen; Chapman, Henry N

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution Bragg diffraction from aerosolized single granulovirus nanocrystals using an X-ray free-electron laser is demonstrated. The outer dimensions of the in-vacuum aerosol injector components are identical to conventional liquid-microjet nozzles used in serial diffraction experiments, which allows the injector to be utilized with standard mountings. As compared with liquid-jet injection, the X-ray scattering background is reduced by several orders of magnitude by the use of helium carrier gas rather than liquid. Such reduction is required for diffraction measurements of small macromolecular nanocrystals and single particles. High particle speeds are achieved, making the approach suitable for use at upcoming high-repetition-rate facilities.

  16. Semiconductor nanocrystals for novel optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Sik

    Inspired by the promise of enhanced spectral response, photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals have emerged as an important class of materials. Here, we report on the photosensitization of photorefractive polymeric composites at visible wavelengths through the inclusion of narrow band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals composed of PbS. Through this approach, internal diffraction efficiencies in excess of 82%, two-beam-coupling gain coefficients in excess of 211 cm-1, and response times 34 ms have been observed, representing some of the best figures-of-merit reported on this class of materials. In addition to providing efficient photosensitization, however, extensive studies of these hybrid composites have indicated that the inclusion of nanocrystals also provides an enhancement in the charge-carrier mobility and subsequent reduction in the photorefractive response time. Through this approach with PbS as charge-carrier, unprecedented response times of 399 micros were observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency and with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two- beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm-1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of the enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. Finally, water soluble InP/ZnS and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots interacted with CPP and Herceptin to apply them as a bio-maker. Both of quantum dots showed the excellent potential for use in biomedical imaging and drug delivery applications. It is anticipated that these approaches can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of these classes of materials.

  17. Silicon Nanocrystal Synthesis in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with grains smaller than 5 nm are widely recognized as a key material in optoelectronic devices, lithium battery electrodes, and bio-medical labels. Another important characteristic is that silicon is an environmentally safe material that is used in numerous silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. In this study, we explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles on a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using a very-high-frequency (144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with volume of less than 1 μl. Fundamental plasma parameters of the microplasma were characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, which respectively indicated electron density of 1015 cm-3, argon excitation temperature of 5000 K, and rotational temperature of 1500 K. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma can decompose silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated silicon vapor, followed by gas-phase nucleation via three-body collision: particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation processes. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei can be terminated in a short-residence-time reactor. Micro-Raman scattering spectra showed that as-deposited particles are mostly amorphous silicon with a small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrography confirmed individual 3-15 nm silicon nanocrystals. Although particles were not mono-dispersed, they were well separated and not coagulated.

  18. Synthesis of Silicon Nanocrystals in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with a grain size of at least less than 10 nm are widely recognized as one of the key materials in optoelectronic devices, electrodes of lithium battery, bio-medical labels. There is also important character that silicon is safe material to the environment and easily gets involved in existing silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. We explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for the efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles in a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using very high frequency (VHF = 144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with a volume of less than 1 μ-liter. Fundamental plasma parameters of VHF capacitively coupled microplasma were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, showing electron density of approximately 1015 cm-3 and rotational temperature of 1500 K, respectively. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma has a capability of decomposing silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated atomic silicon vapor, followed by gas phase nucleation via three-body collision. The particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation process. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei was able to be favorably terminated in a short-residence time reactor. Micro Raman scattering spectrum showed that as-deposited particles were mostly amorphous silicon with small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrograph confirmed individual silicon nanocrystals of 3-15 nm size. Although those particles were not mono-dispersed, they were

  19. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, S; Amino, H; Iwamoto, S; Inoue, M

    2008-01-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (S BET > 170 m 2 g -1 ) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product

  20. Flame synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson, E-mail: wmerchan-merchan@ou.edu [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Farahani, Moien Farmahini [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a single-step flame method for the synthesis of Zn oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse flame positions lead to a variation of Zn oxide nanocrystal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized crystals have polyhedral, pipet- and needle-like shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High length-to-diameter aspect-ratio crystals appear in a higher temperature flame. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth mechanism corresponds to vapor-to-solid conversion. - Abstract: Distinctive zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals were synthesized on the surface of Zn probes using a counter-flow flame medium formed by methane/acetylene and oxygen-enriched air streams. The source material, a zinc wire with a purity of {approx}99.99% and diameter of 1 mm, was introduced through a sleeve into the oxygen rich region of the flame. The position of the probe/sleeve was varied within the flame medium resulting in growth variation of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of the probe. The shape and structural parameters of the grown crystals strongly depend on the flame position. Structural variations of the synthesized crystals include single-crystalline ZnO nanorods and microprisms (ZMPs) (the ZMPs have less than a few micrometers in length and several hundred nanometers in cross section) with a large number of facets and complex axial symmetry with a nanorod protruding from their tips. The protruding rods are less than 100 nm in diameter and lengths are less than 1 {mu}m. The protruding nanorods can be elongated several times by increasing the residence time of the probe/sleeve inside the oxygen-rich flame or by varying the flame position. At different flame heights, nanorods having higher length-to-diameter aspect-ratio can be synthesized. A lattice spacing of {approx}0.26 nm was measured for the synthesized nanorods, which can be closely correlated with the (0 0 2) interplanar spacing of hexagonal ZnO (Wurtzite) cells

  1. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Lanthanide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, James Henry [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We have had considerable success on this project, particularly in the understanding of the relationship between nanostructure and magnetic properties in lanthanide nanocrystals. We also have successfully facilitated the doctoral degrees of Dr. Suseela Somarajan, in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Dr. Melissa Harrison, in the Materials Science Program. The following passages summarize the various accomplishments that were featured in 9 publications that were generated based on support from this grant. We thank the Department of Energy for their generous support of our research efforts in this area of materials science, magnetism, and electron microscopy.

  2. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, S.; Amino, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Inoue, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (SBET > 170 m2 g-1) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product.

  3. Comparative evaluation of six cytological grading systems in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Robinson′s grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson′s system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates.

  4. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in biological imaging and photovoltaics. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb3+) , and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er3+ states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increases the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14 fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared, and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong columbic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  5. Enhanced photoluminescence of Si nanocrystals-doped cellulose nanofibers by plasmonic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Zhang, Ran [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Reinhard, Björn M. [Department of Chemistry and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Perotto, Giovanni; Marelli, Benedetto; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Physics, Tufts University, 4 Colby Street, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report the development of bio-compatible cellulose nanofibers doped with light emitting silicon nanocrystals and Au nanoparticles via facile electrospinning. By performing photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy as a function of excitation wavelength, we demonstrate plasmon-enhanced PL by a factor of 2.2 with negligible non-radiative quenching due to plasmon-enhanced scattering of excitation light from Au nanoparticles to silicon nanocrystals inside the nanofibers. These findings provide an alternative approach for the development of plasmon-enhanced active systems integrated within the compact nanofiber geometry. Furthermore, bio-compatible light-emitting nanofibers prepared by a cost-effective solution-based processing are very promising platforms for biophotonic applications such as fluorescence sensing and imaging.

  6. Plasmon-enhanced energy transfer for improved upconversion of infrared radiation in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-C; Mundoor, Haridas; Ribot, Josep C; Singh, Vivek; Smalyukh, Ivan I; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-01-08

    Upconversion of infrared radiation into visible light has been investigated for applications in photovoltaics and biological imaging. However, low conversion efficiency due to small absorption cross-section for infrared light (Yb(3+)), and slow rate of energy transfer (to Er(3+) states) has prevented application of upconversion photoluminescence (UPL) for diffuse sunlight or imaging tissue samples. Here, we utilize resonant surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) waves to enhance UPL in doped-lanthanide nanocrystals. Our analysis indicates that SPP waves not only enhance the electromagnetic field, and hence weak Purcell effect, but also increase the rate of resonant energy transfer from Yb(3+) to Er(3+) ions by 6 fold. While we do observe strong metal mediated quenching (14-fold) of green fluorescence on flat metal surfaces, the nanostructured metal is resonant in the infrared and hence enhances the nanocrystal UPL. This strong Coulombic effect on energy transfer can have important implications for other fluorescent and excitonic systems too.

  7. Compare the Chinese and American Accounting Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨

    2014-01-01

    Cultureplays an important role in the development of accounting. Dif erent culture environments foster dif erent accountants, andthen dif erent accounting subcultures, which wil have dif erent influence on the choice of accounting systems. Dif erent cultures in China and the United States influenced the two countries accounting system, which lead to dif erent management system.

  8. Comparing numerical methods for the solutions of the Chen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorani, M.S.M.; Hashim, I.; Ahmad, R.; Bakar, S.A.; Ismail, E.S.; Zakaria, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to the Chen system which is a three-dimensional system of ODEs with quadratic nonlinearities. The ADM yields an analytical solution in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms. Comparisons between the decomposition solutions and the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions are made. In particular we look at the accuracy of the ADM as the Chen system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one. To highlight some computational difficulties due to a high Lyapunov exponent, a comparison with the Lorenz system is given

  9. Instantaneous ballistic velocity of suspended Brownian nanocrystals measured by upconversion nanothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Xie, Xiaoji; Debasu, Mengistie L.; Qin, Xian; Chen, Runfeng; Huang, Wei; Rocha, João; Liu, Xiaogang; Carlos, Luís D.

    2016-10-01

    Brownian motion is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature. Its conceptual implications have a profound impact in almost every field of science and even economics, from dissipative processes in thermodynamic systems, gene therapy in biomedical research, artificial motors and galaxy formation to the behaviour of stock prices. However, despite extensive experimental investigations, the basic microscopic knowledge of prototypical systems such as colloidal particles in a fluid is still far from being complete. This is particularly the case for the measurement of the particles' instantaneous velocities, elusive due to the rapid random movements on extremely short timescales. Here, we report the measurement of the instantaneous ballistic velocity of Brownian nanocrystals suspended in both aqueous and organic solvents. To achieve this, we develop a technique based on upconversion nanothermometry. We find that the population of excited electronic states in NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocrystals at thermal equilibrium can be used for temperature mapping of the nanofluid with great thermal sensitivity (1.15% K-1 at 296 K) and a high spatial resolution (<1 μm). A distinct correlation between the heat flux in the nanofluid and the temporal evolution of Er3+ emission allows us to measure the instantaneous velocity of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes.

  10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF OWN FUNDS IN THE BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesu Ramona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has as a reserch field theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the own funds, taking into account the line-up attempts of the romanian banking system to the requirements of the European Union, materialised in the Basel Agreement. The objectives of the research theme, presented in this paper, are mainly oriented towards own funds. We also proposed the following secondary objectives: presenting the concept approaches concerning own funds, emphasysing the tipology of own funds and pointing out their purpose in the banking activity; presenting and analyse the evolution of the own funds in Romania, for a period of 8 years (2004-2011. Even though the actual stage of the research in this field is advanced, in the romanian and foreign literature which dedicate a lot of theoretical and empiric studies concerning own funds. In our study we will use a theoretical and a practical research. The theoretical research describes the laws, reglementations and rules of application in the banking field in our country. In the practical part we will use as a research method the quality-comparative analyse by presenting details regarding bank back-ups. Despite the global financial crisis, the Romanian banking system can be considered as stable as a whole, with levels of capitalization, solvency and liquidity in accordance with consistent with prudential requirements. Tier 1, defined as the core of their sources of credit institutions through the permanent criteria, payment flexibility and capacity to absorb losses continued to overwhelmingly support a total equity. Appropriate quality of own funds is on their structure. The most important component frame our capital plus capital frame attached. The second component in terms is still represented by legal reserves. An important challenge for banks was to maintain a level of own funds accordance, in the conditions witch they were eroded by the current period losses. Tier 2 support rate of

  11. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    Closely packed nanocrystal systems have been investigated in this thesis with respect to charge separation by charge carrier tunneling. Clustered and layered samples have been analyzed using PL-measurements and SPV-methods. The most important findings are reviewed in the following. A short outlook is also provided for potential further aspects and application of the presented results. The main purpose of this thesis was to find and quantify electronic tunneling transfer in closely packed self-assembled nanocrystal structures presenting quantum mechanical barriers of about 1 nm width. We successfully used hybrid assemblies of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals where the expected type II alignment between CdTe and CdSe typically leads to a concentration of electrons in CdSe and holes in CdTe nanocrystals. We were able to prove the charge selectivity of the CdTe-CdSe nanocrystal interface which induces charge separation. We mainly investigated the effects related to the electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. Closely packing was achieved by two independent methods: the disordered colloidal clustering in solution and the layered assembly on dry glass substrates. Both methods lead to an inter-particle distance of about 1 nm of mainly organic material which acts as a tunneling barrier. PL-spectroscopy was applied. The PL-quenching of the CdTe nanocrystals in hybrid assemblies indicates charge separation by electron transfer from CdTe to CdSe nanocrystals. A maximum quenching rate of up to 1/100 ps was measured leading to a significant global PL-quenching of up to about 70 % for the CdTe nanocrystals. It was shown that charge separation dynamics compete with energy transfer dynamics and that charge separation typically dominates. The quantum confinement effect was used to tune the energetic offset between the CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals. We thus observe a correlation of PL-quenching and offset of the energy states for the electron transfer. The investigated PL

  12. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Emmerik, Richard E.A.; Ducharme, Scott W.; Amado, Avelino C.; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new stat...

  13. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Everton L. de; Pereirea, Fabiano V.; Mano, Valdir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  14. Mathematical model comparing of the multi-level economics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykalov, S. M.; Kryanev, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The mathematical model (scheme) of a multi-level comparison of the economic system, characterized by the system of indices, is worked out. In the mathematical model of the multi-level comparison of the economic systems, the indicators of peer review and forecasting of the economic system under consideration can be used. The model can take into account the uncertainty in the estimated values of the parameters or expert estimations. The model uses the multi-criteria approach based on the Pareto solutions.

  15. Hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells based on tetrapod-shaped CdSexTe1-x nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yi; Li Yunchao; Zhong Haizheng; Hou Jianhui; Ding Yuqin; Yang Chunhe; Li Yongfang

    2006-01-01

    A series of ternary tetrapodal nanocrystals of CdSe x Te 1-x with x = 0 (CdTe), 0.23, 0.53, 0.78, 1 (CdSe) were synthesized and used to fabricate hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells. Herein, the nanocrystals acted as electron acceptors, and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) was used as an electron donor. It was found that the open circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (J sc ) and power conversion efficiency (η) of the devices all increased with increasing Se content in the CdSe x Te 1-x nanocrystals under identical experimental conditions. The solar cell based on the blend of tetrapodal CdSe nanocrystals and MEH-PPV (9:1 w/w) showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 1.13% under AM 1.5, 80 mW cm -2 , and the maximum incident photon to converted current efficiency (IPCE) of the device reached 47% at 510 nm. The influence of nanocrystal composition on the photovoltaic properties of the hybrid solar cells was explained by the difference of the band level positions between MEH-PPV and the nanocrystals

  16. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagaya, Motohiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Chakarov, Dinko; Kasemo, Bengt; Tanaka, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i) ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM), (ii) ultraviolet light (UV), (iii) UV/APM, (iv) APM/UV and (v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors.

  17. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Tagaya, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobutaka Hanagata, Dinko Chakarov, Bengt Kasemo and Junzo Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM, (ii ultraviolet light (UV, (iii UV/APM, (iv APM/UV and (v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Possible Designs for Flexible Distribution System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jeremy; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    for achieving the most efficient utilization of these resources while meeting the forecasted load. In this paper, we present possible system design frameworks proposed for flexible distribution system operation. Critical evaluations and comparison of these models are made based on a number of key attributes...

  19. A Comparative Study of Electronic Performance Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Frank; Klein, James D.; Sullivan, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Electronic performance support systems (EPSS) deliver relevant support information to users while they are performing tasks. The present study examined the effect of different types of EPSS on user performance, attitudes, system use and time on task. Employees at a manufacturing company were asked to complete a procedural software task and…

  20. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, P.; Oostenbrink, J.; Schaepkens, F.F.J.M.; Zuurbier, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the

  1. Comparing Pascal and Modula-2 as systems programming languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Bormann, J.

    The high-level programming languages Pascal [JEN76] and Modula-2 [WIR82] are evaluatedas tools lor system programming. The construction of operating system utilities in Pascal is the focal point of the first part of the paper. Pascal is shown to be adequate for this limited class of applications, on

  2. A Comparative Study of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems in Modeling of a Nonlinear Dynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Demirtas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare the neural networks and fuzzy modeling approaches on a nonlinear system. We have taken Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current (PMBDC motor data and have generated models using both approaches. The predictive performance of both methods was compared on the data set for model configurations. The paper describes the results of these tests and discusses the effects of changing model parameters on predictive and practical performance. Modeling sensitivity was used to compare for two methods.

  3. Synthesis of transparent chloroborosilicate nanoglass-ceramics: Crystallization and growth mechanism of BaCl2 nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjana Shasmal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxyfluoride glass-ceramics are extensively being investigated for their excellent optical properties and widespread use in photonic applications. But oxychloride systems are scarcely studied although they are potential candidates for those fields. Here we report chloroborosilicate glass system SiO2–B2O3–BaO–K2O–Al2O3–BaCl2 (mol% within which BaCl2 nanocrystals have been generated by melt-quench technique followed by heat treatment. Samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and UV–vis spectroscopy, elastic constants measurement, etc. Micro- and nanostructures were analyzed by using FESEM, TEM and SAED. Formation and growth mechanism of BaCl2 nanocrystals have been demonstrated with the help of schematic representations. Size (7–47 nm and morphology of the nanocrystals were found to be controlled by temperature and heat-treatment time. Activation energy for crystallization was determined by non-isothermal method using DSC and found to be 510 kJ/mol. Chloroborosilicate glasses containing BaCl2 nanocrystals having low-phonon energy (∼350 cm−1 are promising for different photonic applications.

  4. Fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals via supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals and terpyridine-modified perylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohammad L.; Moorefield, Charles M.; Elbatal, Hany S.; Newkome, George R.; Modarelli, David A.; Romano, Natalie C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surfaces of cellulose nanocrystals were modified with terpyridine ligands. ► Fluorescent nanocrystals could be obtained via self-assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals. ► Further self-assembly of azide-functionalized terpyridine onto the fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals was possible to obtain nanocellulosic material with expected use in bioimaging. - Abstract: Due to their natural origin, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, cellulose nanocrystals are promising candidates for applications in nanomedicine. Highly fluorescent nanocellulosic material was prepared via surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals with 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine side chains followed by supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CTP) via Ru III /Ru II reduction. The prepared terpyridine-modified cellulose-Ru II -terpyridine-modified perylene (CTP-Ru II -PeryTP) fluorescent nanocrystals were characterized using cross-polarized/magic angle spin 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13 C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV–visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, further self-assembly of terpyridine units with azide functional groups onto CTP-Ru II -PeryTP was possible via repeating the Ru III /Ru II reduction protocol to prepare supramolecular fluorescent nanocrystals with azide functionality (CTP-Ru II -PeryTP-Ru II -AZTP). The prepared derivative may have potential application in bio-imaging since the terminal azide groups can be easily reacted with antigens via “Click” chemistry reaction.

  5. Tunable fluorescence emission of ternary nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S alloyed nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jian, E-mail: dhjfeng@ciac.jl.cn; Yang Xiurong, E-mail: xryang@ciac.jl.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry (China)

    2012-08-15

    Low toxic, nonstoichiometric colloidal Ag-In-S ternary quantum dots with different Ag content were synthesized by a one-pot hot-injection method based on the reaction of metal acetylacetonates with sulfur dissolved in octadecene. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the size, structure, and morphology of these samples. ICP-MS was employed to analyze the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals. The optical properties were characterized by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. Varying the fraction of cationic and capping agents, the compositions of Ag-In-S nanocrystals were precisely controlled. XRD and HRTEM results indicate the compositional homogeneity of Ag-In-S. The emission spectra across the different compositions exhibiting a single bandgap feature further confirm the formation of Ag-In-S alloy NCs, rather than phase separated Ag{sub 2}S and In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Composition-dependent tunable PL emissions have been observed. The relative PL quantum yield is up to 16 %, which exhibited substantially enhanced comparing with the stoichiometric AgInS{sub 2} semiconductor core QDs reported in previous literature. The PL decay curve of Ag-In-S has a biexponential characteristic, which indicates that the recombination of an electron and a hole is dominated by the surface defect and the recombination process associated with internal traps is reduced significantly. The large Stokes shift between the absorption peaks and their emissions should inhibit the reabsorption and Foerster energy transfer between Ag-In-S nanocrystals, which provides the alternative in the further applications where high-concentrations of nanocrystals are needed.

  6. Facile preparation and characterization of ZnCdS nanocrystals for interfacial applications in photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chenghao; Luo, Weining; Jiu, Tonggang; Li, Jiangsheng; Wang, Yao; Lu, Fushen

    2018-02-15

    Recently, ZnCdS nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted intense attention because of their specific optical properties and electrical characteristics. In this paper, a green and facile solution method is reported for the preparation of ZnCdS nanocrystals using dimethylsulfoxide as small molecular ligands. The ZnCdS nanocrystals are used as an interface modification material in the photovoltaic devices. It is found that the modification of ZnCdS on TiO 2 surface not only suppresses the recombination loss of carriers but also reduces the series resistance of TiO 2 /active layer. Consequently, both of the short circuit current (J sc ) and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cells were significantly improved. Power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.75% based on TiO 2 /ZnCdS was achieved in contrast to 6.65% of the reference devices based on pure TiO 2 film in organic solar cells. Furthermore, the PCE of perovskite solar cells based on TiO 2 /ZnCdS was observed with 8.3% enhancement compared to that of pure TiO 2 -based ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tunable d-Limonene Permeability in Starch-Based Nanocomposite Films Reinforced by Cellulose Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyuan; Li, Xiaoxi; Chen, Ling; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhu, Jie

    2018-01-31

    In order to control d-limonene permeability, cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were used to regulate starch-based film multiscale structures. The effect of sphere-like cellulose nanocrystal (CS) and rod-like cellulose nanocrystal (CR) on starch molecular interaction, short-range molecular conformation, crystalline structure, and micro-ordered aggregated region structure were systematically discussed. CNC aspect ratio and content were proved to be independent variables to control d-limonene permeability via film-structure regulation. New hydrogen bonding formation and increased hydroxypropyl starch (HPS) relative crystallinity could be the reason for the lower d-limonene permeability compared with tortuous path model approximation. More hydrogen bonding formation, higher HPS relative crystallinity and larger size of micro-ordered aggregated region in CS0.5 and CR2 could explain the lower d-limonene permeability than CS2 and CR0.5, respectively. This study provided new insight for the control of the flavor release from starch-based films, which favored its application in biodegradable food packaging and flavor encapsulation.

  8. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  9. Comparative analysis of CRISPR-Cas systems in Klebsiella genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juntao; Lv, Li; Wang, Xudong; Xiu, Zhilong; Chen, Guoqiang

    2017-04-01

    Prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas system provides adaptive immunity against invasive genetic elements. Bacteria of the genus Klebsiella are important nosocomial opportunistic pathogens. However, information of CRISPR-Cas system in Klebsiella remains largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR-Cas systems of 68 complete genomes of Klebsiella representing four species. All the elements for CRISPR-Cas system (cas genes, repeats, leader sequences, and PAMs) were characterized. Besides the typical Type I-E and I-F CRISPR-Cas systems, a new Subtype I system located in the ABC transport system-glyoxalase region was found. The conservation of the new subtype CRISPR system between different species showed new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated both with species and multilocus sequence types. Some results indicated the function of adaptive immunity: most spacers (112 of 124) matched to prophages and plasmids and no matching housekeeping genes; new spacer acquisition was observed within the same sequence type (ST) and same clonal complex; the identical spacers were observed only in the ancient position (far from the leader) between different STs and clonal complexes. Interestingly, a high ratio of self-targeting spacers (7.5%, 31 of 416) was found in CRISPR-bearing Klebsiella pneumoniae (61%, 11 of 18). In some strains, there even were multiple full matching self-targeting spacers. Some self-targeting spacers were conserved even between different STs. These results indicated that some unknown mechanisms existed to compromise the function of self-targets of CRISPR-Cas systems in K. pneumoniae. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Functional and comparative digestive system anatomy of Arctic ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Hofmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary niche, feeding type classification and seasonal strategies of Rangifer tarandus and Ovibos moschatus discussed in relation to the anatomy of their digestive system. Classification criteria for the flexible feeding type system, originally established in bovids and later adapted to cervids, are substantiated and critically discussed in the light of recent attempts to invalidate the system. Eurasian mountain reindeer, North American barren-ground caribou, Svalbard reindeer and Victoria Island caribou are seasonally adaptable, opportunistic ruminants of the intermediate feeding type but the long evolutionary sepatation of Svalbard reindeer has modified several morphological features for winter survival without lichen, resulting in better adaptation to fibrous forage. Muskoxen, despite their seasonal selectivity, are typical grass and roughage eaters with extremely long mean retention time. Detailed data on the entire digestive system from muzzle to anus on both species are still insufficient and extended studies are worthwhile for understanding their nutritional niche and feeding adaptations.

  11. Colloidal Magnetic Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Asymmetric Topologies: Seeded-Growth Synthetic Routes and Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfiello, Riccardo; Nobile, Concetta; Cozzoli, P. Davide

    2016-12-01

    Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals, free-standing crystalline nanostructures generated and processed in solution phase, represent an important class of advanced nanoscale materials owing to the flexibility with which their physical-chemical properties can be controlled through synthetic tailoring of their compositional, structural and geometric features and the versatility with which they can be integrated in technological fields as diverse as optoelectronics, energy storage/ conversion/production, catalysis and biomedicine. In recent years, building upon mechanistic knowledge acquired on the thermodynamic and kinetic processes that underlie nanocrystal evolution in liquid media, synthetic nanochemistry research has made impressive advances, opening new possibilities for the design, creation and mastering of increasingly complex “colloidal molecules”, in which nanocrystal modules of different materials are clustered together via solid-state bonding interfaces into free-standing, easily processable multifunctional nanocomposite systems. This Review will provide a glimpse into this fast-growing research field by illustrating progress achieved in the wet-chemical development of last-generation breeds of all-inorganic heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs) in asymmetric non-onionlike geometries, inorganic analogues of polyfunctional organic molecules, in which distinct nanoscale crystalline modules are interconnected in hetero-dimer, hetero-oligomer and anisotropic multidomain architectures via epitaxial heterointerfaces of limited extension. The focus will be on modular HNCs entailing at least one magnetic material component combined with semiconductors and/or metals, which hold potential for generating enhanced or unconventional magnetic properties, while offering diversified or even new chemical-physical properties and functional capabilities. The available toolkit of synthetic strategies, all based on the manipulation of seeded-growth techniques, will be described

  12. The 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference/Gordon Research Seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Todd D. [University of Rochester

    2014-11-25

    The fundamental properties of small particles and their potential for groundbreaking applications are among the most exciting areas of study in modern physics, chemistry, and materials science. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon ResearchConference and Gordon Research Seminar synthesize contributions from these inter-related fields that reflect the pivotal role of nano-particles at the interface between these disciplines. Size-dependent optical, electronic, magnetic and catalytic properties offer prospects for applications in many fields, and possible solutions for many of the grand challenges facing energy generation, consumption, delivery, and storage in the 21st century. The goal of the 2013 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures Gordon Research Conference and Gordon Research Seminar is to continue the historical interdisciplinary tradition of this series and discuss the most recent advances, basic scientific questions, and emerging applications of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. The Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC/GRS traditionally brings together the leading scientific groups that have made significant recent advances in one or more fundamental nanoscience or nanotechnology areas. Broad interests of the DOE BES and Solar Photochemistry Program addressed by this meeting include the areas of solar energy to fuels conversion, new photovoltaic systems, fundamental characterization of nanomaterials, magnetism, catalysis, and quantum physics. The vast majority of speakers and attendees will address either directly the topic of nanotechnology for photoinduced charge transfer, charge transport, and catalysis, or will have made significant contributions to related areas that will impact these fields indirectly. These topics have direct relevance to the mission of the DOE BES since it is this cutting-edge basic science that underpins our energy future.

  13. Colloidal Magnetic Heterostructured Nanocrystals with Asymmetric Topologies: Seeded-Growth Synthetic Routes and Formation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Scarfiello

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal inorganic nanocrystals, free-standing crystalline nanostructures generated and processed in solution phase, represent an important class of advanced nanoscale materials owing to the flexibility with which their physical–chemical properties can be controlled through synthetic tailoring of their compositional, structural and geometric features and the versatility with which they can be integrated in technological fields as diverse as optoelectronics, energy storage/ conversion/production, catalysis and biomedicine. In recent years, building upon mechanistic knowledge acquired on the thermodynamic and kinetic processes that underlie nanocrystal evolution in liquid media, synthetic nanochemistry research has made impressive advances, opening new possibilities for the design, creation and mastering of increasingly complex colloidal molecules, in which nanocrystal modules of different materials are clustered together via solid-state bonding interfaces into free-standing, easily processable multifunctional nanocomposite systems. This Review will provide a glimpse into this fast-growing research field by illustrating progress achieved in the wet-chemical development of last-generation breeds of all-inorganic heterostructured nanocrystals (HNCs in asymmetric non-onionlike geometries, inorganic analogues of polyfunctional organic molecules, in which distinct nanoscale crystalline modules are interconnected in hetero-dimer, hetero-oligomer and anisotropic multidomain architectures via epitaxial heterointerfaces of limited extension. The focus will be on modular HNCs entailing at least one magnetic material component combined with semiconductors and/or metals, which hold potential for generating enhanced or unconventional magnetic properties, while offering diversified or even new chemical-physical properties and functional capabilities. The available toolkit of synthetic strategies, all based on the manipulation of seeded-growth techniques

  14. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  15. Consumer response to a report card comparing healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Barbara L; Kind, Elizabeth A; Fowles, Jinnet B; Suarez, Walter G

    2002-06-01

    Report cards to date have focused on quality of care in health plans rather than within healthcare delivery systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate consumer response to the first healthcare system-level report card. Qualitative assessment of consumer response. We conducted 5 focus groups of community members to evaluate consumer response to the report card; 2 included community club members, 3 included community-dwelling retired persons. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed; comments were categorized by topic area from the script, and common themes identified. Focus group participants, in general, were unaware of the current emphasis on medical quality improvement initiatives. However, they believed that the opinion that the descriptive clinic information and patient survey data contained in the report card would be most useful mainly for choosing a healthcare system if they were dissatisfied with current medical care, if their healthcare options changed, or if they were in poor health. Personal experience was considered a more trustworthy measure of healthcare quality than were patient survey results. Trustworthiness was perceived to be higher if the report card sponsor was not affiliated with the healthcare systems being evaluated. Participants also believed care system administrators should use the data to enact positive clinic-level and physician-level changes. Healthcare consumers appreciated the attention to patient experiences and supported healthcare quality improvement initiatives. Report cards were considered important for choosing a healthcare system in certain circumstances and for guiding quality improvement efforts at all levels.

  16. Application of electron crystallography to structure characterization of ZnS nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gyu Kim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We chracterized the structure properties of two types of ZnS nanocrystals by electron crystallography. X-ray diffraction analysis for these ZnS nanocrystals was performed to determine their initial structures. Their crystallite sizes were about 5.9 nm and 8.1 nm and their crystal systems were hexagonal and cubic, respectively. Their atomic structures, however, could not be determined because of the weak diffraction intensities as well as the unexpected intensities from impurty. To overcome these problems, the structures of ZnS nanocrystals were resolved by electron crystallography using EF-EPD (energy-filtered electron powder diffraction and HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy methods. The structrues determined by Rietveld analysis are P63mc (a = 3.8452 Å, c = 18.5453 Å and F-43m (a = 5.4356 Å, respectively. Their crystallite shapes were nanorods and quasi-nanoparticles and the nanorod crystal were grown along the [001] direction. It was revealed that the phase transformation between the cubic sphalerite to the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnS nanocrytals was related to their shapes and growth mechanism. Electron cryststallogrpahy, employing EF-EPD and HRTEM methods together, has advantages for structure analysis and property chracterization of nano-sized materials.

  17. Plasmon-assisted photoluminescence enhancement of SiC nanocrystals by proximal silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, N.; Dai, D.J.; Fan, J.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We studied metal surface plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence in SiC nanocrystals. ► The integrated emission intensity can be enhanced by 17 times. ► The coupling between SiC emission and Ag plasmon oscillation induces the enhancement. ► The enhancement is tunable with varied spacing thickness of electrolytes. - Abstract: Plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence has wide application potential in many areas, whereas the underlying mechanism is still in debate. We report the photoluminescence enhancement in SiC nanocrystal–Ag nanoparticle coupled system spaced by the poly(styrene sulfonic acid) sodium salt/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polyelectrolyte bilayers. The integrated luminescence intensity can be improved by up to 17 times. Our analysis indicates that the strong coupling between the SiC nanocrystals and the surface plasmon oscillation of the silver nanoparticles is the major cause of the luminescence enhancement. These findings will help to understand the photoluminescence enhancement mechanism as well as widen the applications of the SiC nanocrystals in photonics and life sciences.

  18. Hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature: Boosting palladium nanocrystals efficiency by coupling with copper via liquid phase pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Lim, Manho; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PdCu bimetallic nanospheres fabricated by laser ablation. • Physical characterizations of synthesized PdCu nanospheres. • Assessments of catalytic performance of PdCu nanospheres for the reduction of nitrophenol. • Significant improvement of the catalytic activity in PdCu bimetallic nanocrystals. - Abstract: Ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the hydrogenation of highly toxic aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines owing to their high stability, superior activity, reusability, and unique optical and electronic properties, as compared to monometalic nanocrystals. However, the lack of facile and economically controllable strategies of producing highly pure ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanocatalysts limits their practical industrial applications. Considering the above obstacles, we present a simple and effective strategy for the formation of bimetallic (PdCu) nanocrystals by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation using a bulk Pd metal plate submerged in CuCl 2 solutions with different concentrations, in contrast to the complex and costly experimental methods used previously. The microstructural and optical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals indicate that the obtained bimetallic nanostructures are highly pure and monodispersed. Moreover, bimetallic PdCu nanostructures show a higher catalytic activity than monometallic Pd nanocrystals for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature, also exhibiting high stability for up to four recycles. The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity and stability of bimetallic nanocrystals is discussed in detail. Finally, we believe that the presented design strategy and utilization of bimetallic nanocrystals for catalytic applications enables the development of novel bimetallic nanostructures by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and their catalytic application for environmental remediation.

  19. Hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature: Boosting palladium nanocrystals efficiency by coupling with copper via liquid phase pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Lim, Manho, E-mail: mhlim@pusan.ac.kr; Kim, Tae Kyu, E-mail: tkkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • PdCu bimetallic nanospheres fabricated by laser ablation. • Physical characterizations of synthesized PdCu nanospheres. • Assessments of catalytic performance of PdCu nanospheres for the reduction of nitrophenol. • Significant improvement of the catalytic activity in PdCu bimetallic nanocrystals. - Abstract: Ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the hydrogenation of highly toxic aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines owing to their high stability, superior activity, reusability, and unique optical and electronic properties, as compared to monometalic nanocrystals. However, the lack of facile and economically controllable strategies of producing highly pure ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanocatalysts limits their practical industrial applications. Considering the above obstacles, we present a simple and effective strategy for the formation of bimetallic (PdCu) nanocrystals by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation using a bulk Pd metal plate submerged in CuCl{sub 2} solutions with different concentrations, in contrast to the complex and costly experimental methods used previously. The microstructural and optical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals indicate that the obtained bimetallic nanostructures are highly pure and monodispersed. Moreover, bimetallic PdCu nanostructures show a higher catalytic activity than monometallic Pd nanocrystals for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature, also exhibiting high stability for up to four recycles. The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity and stability of bimetallic nanocrystals is discussed in detail. Finally, we believe that the presented design strategy and utilization of bimetallic nanocrystals for catalytic applications enables the development of novel bimetallic nanostructures by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and their catalytic application for environmental remediation.

  20. Comparative advantage between traditional and smart navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeongkyu; Kim, Pan-Jun; Kim, Seunghwan

    2013-03-01

    The smart navigation system that refers to real-time traffic data is believed to be superior to traditional navigation systems. To verify this belief, we created an agent-based traffic model and examined the effect of changing market share of the traditional shortest-travel-time algorithm based navigation and the smart navigation system. We tested our model on the grid and actual metropolitan road network structures. The result reveals that the traditional navigation system have better performance than the smart one as the market share of the smart navigation system exceeds a critical value, which is contrary to conventional expectation. We suggest that the superiority inversion between agent groups is strongly related to the traffic weight function form, and is general. We also found that the relationship of market share, traffic flow density and travel time is determined by the combination of congestion avoidance behavior of the smartly navigated agents and the inefficiency of shortest-travel-time based navigated agents. Our results can be interpreted with the minority game and extended to the diverse topics of opinion dynamics. This work was supported by the Original Technology Research Program for Brain Science through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(No. 2010-0018847).

  1. Improving Power System Stability Using Transfer Function: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shahgholian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a small-signal dynamic model of a single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB power system that includes IEEE type-ST1 excitation system and PSS based on transfer fu¬n¬c¬¬tion structure is presented. The changes in the operating co¬n¬dition of a power system on dynamic performance have been exa¬m¬ined. The dynamic performance of the closed-loop system is ana¬lyzed base on its eigenvalues. The effectiveness of the par¬a¬m¬e¬t¬ers changes on dynamic stability is verified by simulation res¬u¬l¬ts. Three types of PSS have been considered for analysis: (a the derivative PSS, (b the lead-lag PSS or conventional PSS, and (c the proportional-integral-derivative PSS. The objective fu¬nc¬t¬i¬o¬n is formulated to increase the dam¬¬ping ratio of the electromechanical mode eigenvalues. Simu¬la¬tion results show that the PID-PSS performs better for less ov¬e¬r¬shoot and less settling time comp¬ared with the CPSS and DPSS un¬der different load ope¬ration and the significant system pa¬r¬am¬eter variation conditions.

  2. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aashuri, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown.

  3. Nanocrystals of a new complex perovskite dielectric Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, V.M. [Department of Physics, University College, Trivandrum 695034, Kerala (India); Jose, R., E-mail: rjose@ump.edu.my [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan (Malaysia); Anil Kumar, G.M. [Noritake Co Ltd, 300 Higashiyama, Miyoshi, Aichi 470-0293 (Japan); Yusoff, Mashitah M. [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan (Malaysia); Wariar, P.R.S. [Department of Physics, University College, Trivandrum 695034, Kerala (India)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new material, Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6}, has been synthesized as nanocrystals for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A combustion process, characterized by a one-pot procedure, was adopted to synthesize Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6} as nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystal structure and dielectric properties of the Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6} have been studied and compared with similar materials. - Abstract: Nanocrystals of a new complex perovskites ceramic oxide, barium thulium antimony oxide - Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6}, were synthesized using a single step auto-ignition combustion process. The combustion product was single phase and composed of aggregates of nanocrystals of sizes in the range 20-50 nm. Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6} crystallized in cubic perovskite structure with lattice parameter, a = 8.4101 Angstrom-Sign . The polycrystalline fluffy combustion product was sintered to high density ({approx}97%) at {approx}1450 Degree-Sign C for 4 h. Resistivity of the sintered specimen was {approx}5 M{Omega}/cm. The Ba{sub 2}TmSbO{sub 6} has dielectric constant ({epsilon} Prime ) and dielectric loss (tan {delta}) of 17 and {approx}10{sup -4} at 5 MHz; the new material would probably be developed as a low-loss dielectric material.

  4. Processing of ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusatti, M.; Speckhahn, R.; Silva, L.A.; Rosario, J.A.; Lima, R.B.; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G.; Campos, C.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we report the synthesis of high quality ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique. This synthetic strategy has been shown to have advantages over other methods of producing nanostructures in terms of low cost, efficiency, simplicity and uniformity of crystal structure. Zinc chloride solution at room temperature was mixed with sodium hydroxide solution at 50°C to produce ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ZnO nanocrystals obtained. The structure of ZnO was refined by the Rietveld Method from X-ray diffraction data. These methods showed that the product consisted of pure ZnO nanocrystals and has, predominantly, a rod-like morphology. (author)

  5. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: Simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Fereshteh, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. - Highlights: • HAP nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared by a precipitation method. • Morphologies of HAP nanocrystals were controlled by different coordination ligands. • The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was also considered

  6. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: Simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fereshteh, Zeinab [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. - Highlights: • HAP nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared by a precipitation method. • Morphologies of HAP nanocrystals were controlled by different coordination ligands. • The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was also considered.

  7. Chemically Addressable Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haizhu; Yang, Zhenyu; Wei, Mingyang; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiyan; Ye, Shuyang; Zhao, Yongbiao; Tan, Hairen; Kynaston, Emily L.; Schon, Tyler B.; Yan, Han; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Sargent, Edward H.; Seferos, Dwight S.

    2017-01-01

    Whereas organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices

  8. Pyridine-induced Dimensionality Change in Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.; Yin, Jun; Bose, Riya; Sinatra, Lutfan; Alarousu, Erkki; Yengel, Emre; AlYami, Noktan; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhang, Yuhai; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Bakr, Osman; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    of pyridine during the synthesis of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr) perovskite nanocrystals can transform three-dimensional (3D) cubes into two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that pyridine preferentially

  9. Rapid thermal synthesis of GaN nanocrystals and nanodisks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Huber, Š.; Šimek, P.; Šaněk, F.; Jankovský, O.; Gregorová, E.; Fiala, R.; Matějková, Stanislava; Mikulics, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), 1411/1-1411/7 ISSN 1388-0764 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : gallium nitride * thermal ammonolysis * nanodisks * nanocrystals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2013

  10. A single molecule switch based on two Pd nanocrystals linked

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting molecule; nanocrystals; scanning tunneling microscopy; negative differential resistance. Abstract. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on a single molecule device formed by two Pd ... Current Issue : Vol.

  11. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  12. Self-aggregation of magnetic semiconductor EuS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Controlled formation of aggregates having organized structure of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals is reported. The EuS aggregates in liquid media (methanol) were obtained by means of van der Waals interaction between EuS nanocrystals. The packing structure of the EuS aggregates is characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering measurements (SAXS). TEM image indicates the EuS nanocrystals form self-aggregated 2D orthogonal lattice structure. The diffraction peak of (111) of SAXS profile shows that the cube-shaped EuS form 3D cubic superlattice. We successfully demonstrated that the aggregates of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals formed cubic stacking structure.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Innovative Systems in the Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Nikolaevna Mikheeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was conducted with the financial support of the Program of fundamental studies of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences No. 31, «The Role of Space in the Modernization of Russia: Natural and Socio-Economic Potential» (project 7.2 «Tools of Regional Policy and the Effectiveness of Their Use» Despite the abundance of literature on innovation in the regions, there is no frame of reference about the patterns and mechanisms of formation of regional innovation systems (RIS. So it’s next to impossible to differentiate approaches to stimulation of innovations in the regions taking into account their specific characters. Therefore, the author attempts to formalize the definition of RIS and to provide not only qualitative but also quantitative evaluation of different types of regional innovation systems. This paper is trying to find a set of models of RIS development in Russian regions with specific characters. These regional peculiarities play a key role in a process of selecting methods for further RIS development, including methods of state support of innovation, which are adequate to the characteristics of the regional innovation system. The author obtained the following results: 1 presentation of various approaches to define regional innovative systems; 2 proposition of RIS structure that includes 5 blocks (creation of innovations; production and realization of innovative goods and services in the region; innovative infrastructure of the region; demand for innovations and innovative policy and 3 development of the system of statistical indicators that characterize RIS. On the basis of formal and substantive analysis of these indicators the researcher defined 6 models of regional innovative systems prevailing in the Russian circumstances

  14. Comparative study of popular objective functions for damping power system oscillations in multimachine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Naz Niamul; Hannan, M A; Shareef, Hussain; Mohamed, Azah; Salam, M A

    2014-01-01

    Power oscillation damping controller is designed in linearized model with heuristic optimization techniques. Selection of the objective function is very crucial for damping controller design by optimization algorithms. In this research, comparative analysis has been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of popular objective functions used in power system oscillation damping. Two-stage lead-lag damping controller by means of power system stabilizers is optimized using differential search algorithm for different objective functions. Linearized model simulations are performed to compare the dominant mode's performance and then the nonlinear model is continued to evaluate the damping performance over power system oscillations. All the simulations are conducted in two-area four-machine power system to bring a detailed analysis. Investigated results proved that multiobjective D-shaped function is an effective objective function in terms of moving unstable and lightly damped electromechanical modes into stable region. Thus, D-shape function ultimately improves overall system damping and concurrently enhances power system reliability.

  15. A Systems Model Comparing Australian and Chinese HRM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Paul; Tsakissiris, Jane; Guo, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the implications for learning design in HRM education in the 21st century. An open systems perspective is used to argue the importance of establishing productive relationships between academia, professional associations, regulators and industry (resource inputs) to support the creation of optimal learning environments (the…

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Broiler Production Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the cost implications of raising broilers under the battery cage and deep litter system of poultry production. The data used in the study were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of broiler farmers in Edo State from October– December, 2013. A multi-stage sampling process was used to select the 211 ...

  17. Organic versus Conventional Cropping Sustainability: A Comparative System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. Fess

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We are at a pivotal time in human history, as the agricultural sector undergoes consolidation coupled with increasing energy costs in the context of declining resource availability. Although organic systems are often thought of as more sustainable than conventional operations, the lack of concise and widely accepted means to measure sustainability makes coming to an agreement on this issue quite challenging. However, an accurate assessment of sustainability can be reached by dissecting the scientific underpinnings of opposing production practices and crop output between cropping systems. The purpose of this review is to provide an in-depth and comprehensive evaluation of modern global production practices and economics of organic cropping systems, as well as assess the sustainability of organic production practices through the clarification of information and analysis of recent research. Additionally, this review addresses areas where improvements can be made to help meet the needs of future organic producers, including organic-focused breeding programs and necessity of coming to a unified global stance on plant breeding technologies. By identifying management strategies that utilize practices with long-term environmental and resource efficiencies, a concerted global effort could guide the adoption of organic agriculture as a sustainable food production system.

  18. Comparative modeling for power generating systems with interaction phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2007-01-01

    From a conflicting viewpoint, comprehensive assessment of various national power systems can be treated as a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In reality, there are interaction phenomena among the decision elements. The main objective of this work is to propose a comprehensive framework to determinate the priority of appropriate national power sources involving various degrees of interaction among the decision elements (e.g., decision goal, decision criteria, and decision alternatives) such as inner dependence, outer dependence, and feedback effect. In the context of a generic hierarchical network (or hiernet) structure instead of one-way directional tree structure, the impact of the interaction phenomena on the grade of priority is investigated using a supermatrix technique or an analytic network process (ANP) method. Moreover, the three types of attitudes towards nuclear power system of the multiple actors are incorporated into the network structure to figure out the effect of characteristics of power systems. An illustrative example of the generic hiernet structure is demonstrated in comparison to the specific hierarchy structure without any interaction among the decision elements. The proposed framework can be applied to select the appropriate power systems, to understand the effect of its underlying decision structures, and to include risk attitudes towards a certain alternative. (author)

  19. Trust in the justice system: A comparative view across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.G.J. Van de Walle (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe justice system is not one of the most trusted institutions in the UK. While most citizens consider it fair, they also think it is out of touch in specific cases, and many consider it relatively inefficient. The UK is not alone. Many governments throughout Europe and the wider world

  20. Formation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. The aspect of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, S.

    2007-08-17

    The present work describes different techniques to control some major parameters of colloidal nanocrystals. The individual techniques rely on the manipulation of the nucleation event. The sensitive control of the nanocrystals' size and shape is discussed. Furthermore the formation of hybrid nanocrystals composed of different materials is presented. The synthesis technique for the production of the different samples involves organic solvents and surfactants and reactions at elevated temperatures. The presence of magic size clusters offers a possibility to control the size of the nanocrystals even at very small dimensions. The clusters produced comprise ca. 100 atoms. In the case of CdSe, nanocrystals of this size emit a blue fluorescence and therefore extend the routinely accessible spectrum for this material over the whole visible range. Samples fluorescing in the spectral range from green to red are produced with standard recipes. In this work a reaction scheme for magic size clusters is presented and a theoretical model to explain the particular behaviour of their growth dynamics is discussed. The samples are investigated by optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. A method to form branched nanocrystals is discussed. The branching point is analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and proves for the occurrence of a multiple twinned structure are strengthened by simulation of the observed patterns. Two different techniques to generate nanocrystals of this type are presented. The first relies on a seeded growth approach in which the nucleation of the second material is allowed only on de ned sites of the seeds. The second technique uses the tips of pre-formed nano-dumbbells as sacrificial domains. The material on the tips is replaced by gold. Hybrid materials are formed by a seeded-growth mechanism. Pre-formed nanocrystals provide the nucleation sites for the second material. (orig.)

  1. Formation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. The aspect of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, S

    2007-08-17

    The present work describes different techniques to control some major parameters of colloidal nanocrystals. The individual techniques rely on the manipulation of the nucleation event. The sensitive control of the nanocrystals' size and shape is discussed. Furthermore the formation of hybrid nanocrystals composed of different materials is presented. The synthesis technique for the production of the different samples involves organic solvents and surfactants and reactions at elevated temperatures. The presence of magic size clusters offers a possibility to control the size of the nanocrystals even at very small dimensions. The clusters produced comprise ca. 100 atoms. In the case of CdSe, nanocrystals of this size emit a blue fluorescence and therefore extend the routinely accessible spectrum for this material over the whole visible range. Samples fluorescing in the spectral range from green to red are produced with standard recipes. In this work a reaction scheme for magic size clusters is presented and a theoretical model to explain the particular behaviour of their growth dynamics is discussed. The samples are investigated by optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. A method to form branched nanocrystals is discussed. The branching point is analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and proves for the occurrence of a multiple twinned structure are strengthened by simulation of the observed patterns. Two different techniques to generate nanocrystals of this type are presented. The first relies on a seeded growth approach in which the nucleation of the second material is allowed only on de ned sites of the seeds. The second technique uses the tips of pre-formed nano-dumbbells as sacrificial domains. The material on the tips is replaced by gold. Hybrid materials are formed by a seeded-growth mechanism. Pre-formed nanocrystals provide the nucleation sites for the second material. (orig.)

  2. 'PET -Compton' system. Comparative evaluation with PET system using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called 'PET-Compton' systems and includes comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation is done on a PET-Compton system consisting of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named 'Clear-PET' and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e + ) and γ quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. (Author)

  3. Comparative Risk Analysis for Metropolitan Solid Waste Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Wang, S. F.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional solid waste management planning usually focuses on economic optimization, in which the related environmental impacts or risks are rarely considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology of how optimization concepts and techniques can be applied to structure and solve risk management problems such that the impacts of air pollution, leachate, traffic congestion, and noise increments can be regulated in the iong-term planning of metropolitan solid waste management systems. Management alternatives are sequentially evaluated by adding several environmental risk control constraints stepwise in an attempt to improve the management strategies and reduce the risk impacts in the long run. Statistics associated with those risk control mechanisms are presented as well. Siting, routing, and financial decision making in such solid waste management systems can also be achieved with respect to various resource limitations and disposal requirements.

  4. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power, reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between a HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  5. Aurally Aided Visual Search Performance Comparing Virtual Audio Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Horne; Lauritsen, David Skødt; Larsen, Jacob Junker

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D) and an...... with white dots. The results indicate that 3D audio yields faster search latencies than panning audio, especially with larger amounts of distractors. The applications of this research could fit virtual environments such as video games or virtual simulations.......Due to increased computational power reproducing binaural hearing in real-time applications, through usage of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs), is now possible. This paper addresses the differences in aurally-aided visual search performance between an HRTF enhanced audio system (3D...

  6. Business Intelligence Systems Accounting Integration in Romania. a Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Postolache (Males

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Business Intelligence (BI systems have penetrated the Romanian market, providing a real decision support by integrating and synthesizing a large variety of information available in real time, anywhere in the world, including through mobile terminals. This study examines the BI solutions promoted in Romania through Internet sites written in Romanian, in terms of how the accounting information integration is done. Our paper highlights the most used economic and financial indicators and most often selected tools by BI systems developers to assist decisions. The writing bring forward the lack of transparency of the analyzed sites towards of configuration details of economic instruments, which we consider likely to delay the managers from Romania in order to become familiar with BI solutions, and it represent a weakness of this products promotion.

  7. Comparative analytics of infusion pump data across multiple hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Ann Christine; Malloy, William X; Arthur, Karen J; Gaston, Cindy; Young, James; Fernando, Sudheera; Fernando, Ruchith

    2015-02-15

    A Web-based analytics system for conducting inhouse evaluations and cross-facility comparisons of alert data generated by smart infusion pumps is described. The Infusion Pump Informatics (IPI) project, a collaborative effort led by research scientists at Purdue University, was launched in 2009 to provide advanced analytics and tools for workflow analyses to assist hospitals in determining the significance of smart-pump alerts and reducing nuisance alerts. The IPI system allows facility-specific analyses of alert patterns and trends, as well as cross-facility comparisons of alert data uploaded by more than 55 participating institutions using different types of smart pumps. Tools accessible through the IPI portal include (1) charts displaying aggregated or breakout data on the top drugs associated with alerts, numbers of alerts per device or care area, and override-to-alert ratios, (2) investigative reports that can be used to characterize and analyze pump-programming errors in a variety of ways (e.g., by drug, by infusion type, by time of day), and (3) "drill-down" workflow analytics enabling users to evaluate alert patterns—both internally and in relation to patterns at other hospitals—in a quick and efficient stepwise fashion. The formation of the IPI analytics system to support a community of hospitals has been successful in providing sophisticated tools for member facilities to review, investigate, and efficiently analyze smart-pump alert data, not only within a member facility but also across other member facilities, to further enhance smart pump drug library design. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  9. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis and application of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based on high temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has become one of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkers in 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and later extended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well as anisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod. This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystal synthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied by characterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and products and following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on these results, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction between the precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth of nanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theory calculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursor decomposition and monomer formation pathway. Based on the proposed reaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses water as a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSe and CdS nanorods

  10. Size- and shape-dependent surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2018-05-01

    As the fundamental properties, the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals play a key role in the physical and chemical changes. However, it remains ambiguous about the quantitative influence regularities of size and shape on the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals. Thus by introducing interface variables into the Gibbs energy and combining Young-Laplace equation, relations between the surface thermodynamic properties (surface Gibbs energy, surface enthalpy, surface entropy, surface energy and surface heat capacity), respectively, and size of nanocrystals with different shapes were derived. Theoretical estimations of the orders of the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals agree with available experimental values. Calculated results of the surface thermodynamic properties of Au, Bi and Al nanocrystals suggest that when r > 10 nm, the surface thermodynamic properties linearly vary with the reciprocal of particle size, and when r < 10 nm, the effect of particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties becomes greater and deviates from linear variation. For nanocrystals with identical equivalent diameter, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the larger the surface thermodynamic properties (absolute value) are.

  11. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Making environmental assessments of biomass production systems comparable worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A; Seppelt, Ralf; Priess, Joerg A; Witing, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Global demand for agricultural and forestry products fundamentally affects regional land-use change associated with environmental impacts (EIs) such as erosion. In contrast to aggregated global metrics such as greenhouse gas (GHG) balances, local/regional EIs of different agricultural and forestry production regions need methods which enable worldwide EI comparisons. The key aspect is to control environmental heterogeneity to reveal man-made differences of EIs between production regions. Environmental heterogeneity is the variation in biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. In the present study, we used three approaches to control environmental heterogeneity: (i) environmental stratification, (ii) potential natural vegetation (PNV), and (iii) regional environmental thresholds to compare EIs of solid biomass production. We compared production regions of managed forests and plantation forests in subtropical (Satilla watershed, Southeastern US), tropical (Rufiji basin, Tanzania), and temperate (Mulde watershed, Central Germany) climates. All approaches supported the comparison of the EIs of different land-use classes between and within production regions. They also standardized the different EIs for a comparison between the EI categories. The EIs for different land-use classes within a production region decreased with increasing degree of naturalness (forest, plantation forestry, and cropland). PNV was the most reliable approach, but lacked feasibility and relevance. The PNV approach explicitly included most of the factors that drive environmental heterogeneity in contrast to the stratification and threshold approaches. The stratification approach allows consistent global application due to available data. Regional environmental thresholds only included arbitrarily selected aspects of environmental heterogeneity; they are only available for few EIs. Especially, the PNV and stratification approaches are options to compare regional EIs of biomass or crop production

  13. Comparative occupational radiation exposure between fixed and mobile imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Miller, Claire P; Moorehead, Pamela A; Kim, Ann H; Baele, Henry R; Wong, Virginia L; Jordan, David W; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular intervention exposes surgical staff to scattered radiation, which varies according to procedure and imaging equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in occupational exposure between procedures performed with fixed imaging (FI) in an endovascular suite compared with conventional mobile imaging (MI) in a standard operating room. A series of 116 endovascular cases were performed over a 4-month interval in a dedicated endovascular suite with FI and conventional operating room with MI. All cases were performed at a single institution and radiation dose was recorded using real-time dosimetry badges from Unfors RaySafe (Hopkinton, Mass). A dosimeter was mounted in each room to establish a radiation baseline. Staff dose was recorded using individual badges worn on the torso lead. Total mean air kerma (Kar; mGy, patient dose) and mean case dose (mSv, scattered radiation) were compared between rooms and across all staff positions for cases of varying complexity. Statistical analyses for all continuous variables were performed using t test and analysis of variance where appropriate. A total of 43 cases with MI and 73 cases with FI were performed by four vascular surgeons. Total mean Kar, and case dose were significantly higher with FI compared with MI. (mean ± standard error of the mean, 523 ± 49 mGy vs 98 ± 19 mGy; P < .00001; 0.77 ± 0.03 mSv vs 0.16 ± 0.08 mSv, P < .00001). Exposure for the primary surgeon and assistant was significantly higher with FI compared with MI. Mean exposure for all cases using either imaging modality, was significantly higher for the primary surgeon and assistant than for support staff (ie, nurse, radiology technologist) beyond 6 feet from the X-ray source, indicated according to one-way analysis of variance (MI: P < .00001; FI: P < .00001). Support staff exposure was negligible and did not differ between FI and MI. Room dose stratified according to case complexity (Kar) showed statistically significantly

  14. Comparing Collision Avoidance Systems of Different Type of Transportation Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan ÖZDEMİR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Different modes of transportation are often used in our daily lives. Therefore, how safe these modes are commonly researched by researchers. Many models and methods are developed to avoid collision with the development of technology. This development is aimed to improving the safety of life and property. The technological developments also aim to reduce the minimum level of the human error. Technological devices developed to prevent collision are applied in systematic way according to type of transportation mode. When comparatively examined, it is similar to each other technology used in different modes. In this respect, proposed model and methods are similar in general. These approaches are generally based on position of vehicles relative to each other and also rules have been developed taking into consideration the possibilities that may occur. Real-time sensors used to avoid collision in vehicles reduce risk of collision and provide significant achievements on behalf of avoiding collision. Besides this, it has been considered important a communication network between vehicles. As a result, the importance of the technological devices developed to ensure collision avoidance is increasing in our life. Thus, the study aims to explain and compare the methods, models and techniques used in the different transportation modes so as to avoid collision.

  15. PET-COMPTON System. Comparative evaluation with PET System using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera HernAndez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A.; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called PET-Compton systems and has included comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation was done on a PET-Compton system made-up of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named Clear-PET and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e+) and quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. By means of analytical reconstruction using SSRB (Single Slide Rebinning) method were obtained superior spatial resolution in PET-Compton system for all tested radionuclides (reaching sub-millimeter values of for 22Na source). However this analysis done by simulation have shown limited global efficiency values in PET-Compton system (in the order of 10 -5 -10 -6 %) instead of values around 5*10 -1 % that have been achieved in PET system. (author)

  16. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  17. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Making sense of nanocrystal lattice fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Qin Wentao; Moeck, Peter; Mandell, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The orientation dependence of thin-crystal lattice fringes can be gracefully quantified using fringe-visibility maps, a direct-space analog of Kikuchi maps [Nishikawa and Kikuchi, Nature (London) 121, 1019 (1928)]. As in navigation of reciprocal space with the aid of Kikuchi lines, fringe-visibility maps facilitate acquisition of crystallographic information from lattice images. In particular, these maps can help researchers to determine the three-dimensional lattice of individual nanocrystals, to 'fringe-fingerprint' collections of randomly oriented particles, and to measure local specimen thickness with only a modest tilt. Since the number of fringes in an image increases with maximum spatial-frequency squared, these strategies (with help from more precise goniometers) will be more useful as aberration correction moves resolutions into the subangstrom range

  19. Flexible and fragmentable tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, S.; Uran, C.; Bozok, B.; Gungor, K.; Kelestemur, Y.; Lesnyak, V.; Gaponik, N.; Eychmüller, A.; Demir, H. V.

    2016-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of single monolayers of colloidal water-soluble CdTe and CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) in adjacent junctions on a Kapton polymer tape. Owing to the usage of a single NC layer in each junction, noise generation was significantly reduced while keeping the resulting PNS films considerably transparent. In each junction, photogenerated excitons are dissociated at the interface of the semi-transparent Al electrode and the NC layer, with holes migrating to the contact electrode and electrons trapped in the NCs. As a result, the tandem PNSs lead to an open-circuit photovoltage buildup equal to the sum of those of the two single junctions, exhibiting a total voltage buildup of 128.4 mV at an excitation intensity of 75.8 μW cm-2 at 350 nm. Furthermore, we showed that these flexible PNSs could be bent over 3.5 mm radius of curvature and cut out in arbitrary shapes without damaging the operation of individual parts and without introducing any significant loss in the total sensitivity. These findings indicate that the NC skins are promising as building blocks to make low-cost, flexible, large-area UV/visible sensing platforms with highly efficient full-spectrum conversion.We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of

  20. Designing Selectivity in Metal-Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Characterization, and Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulos, Nicholas George

    in the CdSe core, whereas NR length had a profound effect. This work indicated that longer NRs resulted in poor exciton localization efficiencies owing to ultrafast trapping of photoexcited excitons generated in the CdS NR. The third chapter describes the synthesis of Au-tipped CdSe NRs and studies of the effects of selective metal nanoparticle deposition on the band edge energetics of these model photocatalytic systems. Previous studies had demonstrated ultrafast localization of photoexcited electrons in Au nanoparticles (AuNP) (and PtNP) deposited at the termini of CdSe and CdSe CdS NR constructs. Also, for similar systems, the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) had been studied, for which it was found that noble metal nanoparticle tips were necessary to extract photoexcited electrons from the NR constructs and drive catalytic reactions. However, in these studies, energetic trap states, generally ascribed to surface defects on the NC surface, are often cited as contributing to loss of catalytic efficiency. Through a combination of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and waveguide based spectroelectrochemistry on films of 40 nm long CdSe NRs before and after AuNP functionalization, we found that metal deposition resulted in the formation of mid-gap energy states, which were assigned as metal-semiconductor interface states. The fourth chapter transitions from NR constructs to highly absorbing CdSe CdS TP materials, for which a single zincblende (ZB) CdSe NC is used to seed the growth of four identical CdS arms. These arms act as highly efficient light absorbers, resulting in absorption cross sections an order of magnitude greater than for comparable NR systems. In the past, many studies have been published on the striking properties of TP nanocrystals, such as dual wavelength fluorescence, multiple exciton generation, and inherent self-assembly owing to their unique geometry. Nonetheless, these materials have not been exploited for photocatalysis, primarily owing

  1. Policies for Reintegrating Crop and Livestock Systems: A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael D. Garrett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reintegration of crop and livestock systems within the same land area has the potential to improve soil quality and reduce water and air pollution, while maintaining high yields and reducing risk. In this study, we characterize the degree to which federal policies in three major global food production regions that span a range of socioeconomic contexts, Brazil, New Zealand, and the United States, incentivize or disincentivize the use of integrated crop and livestock practices (ICLS. Our analysis indicates that Brazil and New Zealand have the most favorable policy environment for ICLS, while the United States provides the least favorable environment. The balance of policy incentives and disincentives across our three cases studies mirrors current patterns of ICLS usage. Brazil and New Zealand have both undergone a trend toward mixed crop livestock systems in recent years, while the United States has transitioned rapidly toward continuous crop and livestock production. If transitions to ICLS are desired, particularly in the United States, it will be necessary to change agricultural, trade, environmental, biofuels, and food safety policies that currently buffer farmers from risk, provide too few incentives for pollution reduction, and restrict the presence of animals in crop areas. It will also be necessary to invest more in research and development in all countries to identify the most profitable ICLS technologies in each region.

  2. Comparative mutagenesis of plant flavonoids in microbial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardigree, A.A.; Epler, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    The plant flavonoids quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), morin (3,5,7,2'4'-pentahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,5,7,4'tetrahydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), myricetin (3,5,7,3',4',5'-hexahydroxyflavone), myricitrin (myricetin-3-rhamnoside), hesperetin (3',5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone), quercitrin (quercetin-3-L-rhamnoside), rutin (quercetin-3-rhamnosylglucoside or quercetin-3-rutinoside), and hesperidin (hesperetin-7-rutinoside) have been assayed for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsomal activation system. Quercetin, morin, kaempferol, fisetin, myricetin, quercitrin and rutin were mutagenic in the histidine reversion system with the frameshift strain TA98. The flavonols quercetin and myricetin are mutagenic without metabolic activation, although more effective when a rat liver microsomal preparation (S-9) is included; all others require metabolic activation. Flavonoids are common constituents of higher plants, with extensive medical uses. In addition to pure compounds, we have examined crude extracts of tobacco (snuff) and extracts from commonly available nutritional supplements containing rutin. Mutagenic activity can be detected and is correlated with the flavonoid content.

  3. Global petroleum fiscal systems compared by contractor take

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum fiscal terms in most countries are tougher than in the US, but these countries have more geological potential and still may be economically attractive. The market for exploration capital and technology is super competitive and getting more sophisticated. Governments are increasingly aware of the global market for exploration acreage or rehabilitation projects. For many oil companies, an important part of the negotiations is to secure terms acceptable to the potential partner. Knowing the market and what terms are realistic depends on a region's potential and other factors. Most countries developing petroleum fiscal systems are opting for the production sharing contract (PSC). This trend began in the 1960s. Now, nearly half of the countries with petroleum potential have a system based on the PSC. However, financial results could be the same in a royalty/tax arrangement. Economics depend primarily on division of profits or what is known as government/contractor take. The paper discusses contractor take, estimating take, Indonesian split, and take implications

  4. Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Flavonoids Using an Integrative Zebrafish System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugel, Sean M; Bonventre, Josephine A; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Flavonoids are a large, structurally diverse class of bioactive naturally occurring chemicals commonly detected in breast milk, soy based infant formulas, amniotic fluid, and fetal cord blood. The potential for pervasive early life stage exposures raises concerns for perturbation of embryogenesis, though developmental toxicity and bioactivity information is limited for many flavonoids. Therefore, we evaluated a suite of 24 flavonoid and flavonoid-like chemicals using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay-an alternative model for investigating developmental toxicity of environmentally relevant chemicals. Embryos were exposed to 1-50 µM of each chemical from 6 to 120 h postfertilization (hpf), and assessed for 26 adverse developmental endpoints at 24, 72, and 120 hpf. Behavioral changes were evaluated in morphologically normal animals at 24 and 72 hpf, at 120 hpf using a larval photomotor response (LPR) assay. Gene expression was comparatively evaluated for all compounds for effects on biomarker transcripts indicative of AHR (cyp1a) and ER (cyp19a1b, esr1, lhb, vtg) pathway bioactivity. Overall, 15 of 24 flavonoids elicited adverse effects on one or more of the developmental or behavioral endpoints. Hierarchical clustering and principle component analyses compared toxicity profiles and identified 3 distinct groups of bioactive flavonoids. Despite robust induction of multiple estrogen-responsive biomarkers, co-exposure with ER and GPER antagonists did not ameliorate toxicity, suggesting ER-independence and alternative modes of action. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that development is sensitive to perturbation by bioactive flavonoids in zebrafish that are not related to traditional estrogen receptor mode of action pathways. This integrative zebrafish platform provides a useful framework for evaluating flavonoid developmental toxicity and hazard prioritization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of

  5. Gas-phase synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rajib

    Luminescent nanomaterials is a newly emerging field that provides challenges not only to fundamental research but also to innovative technology in several areas such as electronics, photonics, nanotechnology, display, lighting, biomedical engineering and environmental control. These nanomaterials come in various forms, shapes and comprises of semiconductors, metals, oxides, and inorganic and organic polymers. Most importantly, these luminescent nanomaterials can have different properties owing to their size as compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the use of plasmas in synthesis, modification, and deposition of semiconductor nanomaterials for luminescence applications. Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications in several areas. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (NCs) have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices. For the field to advance towards new and versatile applications for nanocrystal-based devices, there is a need to investigate whether these NCs can be used in flexible and stretchable devices. We show how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Synthesis of these NCs was performed in a nonthermal, low-pressure gas phase plasma reactor. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct deposition of NCs onto stretchable substrates. Additionally, in order to prevent oxidation and enhance the luminescence properties, a silicon nitride shell was grown around Si NCs. We have demonstrated surface nitridation of Si NCs in a single step process using non?thermal plasma in several schemes including a novel dual-plasma synthesis/shell growth process. These coated NCs exhibit SiNx shells with composition depending on process parameters. While measurements including

  6. Comparative ultrastructure of the root system in rhizocephalan barnacles (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, J; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2001-01-01

    . The rootlets consist of a cuticle, an epidermis and a subjacent layer of axial cells that often, but not always surround, a central lumen. The rootlets are at all times enclosed in a less than 0.5 microm thick cuticle, which is never molted. The cuticle consists of an inner homogeneous layer with a slightly...... by long septate junctions and exhibit the characteristics of a transporting epithelium. Experiments with acid phosphatase revealed activity both in the epidermis and among the microcuticular projections. The projections may therefore form a domain that is important in absorption and extracellular...... the rootlets towards the external reproductive body. In C. delagei the single, bladder-shaped rootlet lacks both the apical projections in the epidermis, the electron-dense cuticle layer, and the microcuticular projections. We review previous studies on the rhizocephalan root system and discuss functional...

  7. Comparative techniques for nuclear fuel cycle waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Voss, J.W.

    1979-09-01

    A safety assessment approach for the evaluation of predisposal waste management systems is described and applied to selected facilities in the light water reactor (LWR) once-through fuel cycle and a potential coprocessed UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel cycle. This approach includes a scoping analysis on pretreatment waste streams and a more detailed analysis on proposed waste management processes. The primary evaluation parameters used in this study include radiation exposures to the public from radionuclide releases from normal operations and potential accidents, occupational radiation exposure from normal operations, and capital and operating costs. On an overall basis, the waste management aspects of the two fuel cycles examined are quite similar. On an individual facility basis, the fuel coprocessing plant has the largest waste management impact

  8. Photoluminescence behaviors of single CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals: Adsorption effects of water molecules onto nanocrystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masaru; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Iwami, Noriya; Nishiura, Ken; Ando, Naohisa; Nishiyama, Akira; Horiuchi, Hiromi; Tani, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    We report here the distinctive modifications of photoluminescence (PL) behaviors in single CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals depending on their environments. Long-time traces of PL intensity from single nanocrystals have been obtained in both vacuum and a wet nitrogen atmosphere. While all of the nanocrystals in both environments exhibit PL blinking behaviors, i.e. on-off intermittency of PL intensity, as usual, some of the nanocrystals in the wet nitrogen atmosphere show significant increase in duration time of on-events. As for the duration time of blinking off-events, it is for the moment associated with the occasional events of carrier capturing at trap sites on or near the nanocrystal surfaces. We propose a model in which adsorbed water molecules at the trap sites on the nanocrystal surfaces transform them under light irradiation, which eventually decreases the occurrence of the trapping events due to their inactivation. It in turn increases the PL on-times. In addition to the drastic modification of the blinking profile, we also found that in the PL time traces some kinds of undulated behaviors, i.e. continuous and rather low frequency fluctuation of PL intensity, appear during each on-event in vacuum while they disappear totally in the wet nitrogen atmosphere. These results are also described on the basis of the inactivation model of the trap sites introduced above

  9. Annealing temperature and environment effects on ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: a photoluminescence and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Kantisara; Baudin, Pierre; Vu, Quang Vinh; Aad, Roy; Couteau, Christophe; Lérondel, Gilles

    2013-12-06

    We report on efficient ZnO nanocrystal (ZnO-NC) emission in the near-UV region. We show that luminescence from ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix can vary significantly as a function of the annealing temperature from 450°C to 700°C. We manage to correlate the emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films with transmission electron microscopy images in order to optimize the fabrication process. Emission can be explained using two main contributions, near-band-edge emission (UV range) and defect-related emissions (visible). Both contributions over 500°C are found to be size dependent in intensity due to a decrease of the absorption cross section. For the smallest-size nanocrystals, UV emission can only be accounted for using a blueshifted UV contribution as compared to the ZnO band gap. In order to further optimize the emission properties, we have studied different annealing atmospheres under oxygen and under argon gas. We conclude that a softer annealing temperature at 450°C but with longer annealing time under oxygen is the most preferable scenario in order to improve near-UV emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in an SiO2 matrix.

  10. Memory Effect of Metal-Oxide-Silicon Capacitors with Self-Assembly Double-Layer Au Nanocrystals Embedded in Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Huang; Hong-Yan, Gou; Qing-Qing, Sun; Shi-Jin, Ding; Wei, Zhang; Shi-Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We report the chemical self-assembly growth of Au nanocrystals on atomic-layer-deposited HfO 2 films aminosilanized by (3-Aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane aforehand for memory applications. The resulting Au nanocrystals show a density of about 4 × 10 11 cm −2 and a diameter range of 5–8nm. The metal-oxide-silicon capacitor with double-layer Au nanocrystals embedded in HfO 2 dielectric exhibits a large C – V hysteresis window of 11.9V for ±11 V gate voltage sweeps at 1 MHz, a flat-band voltage shift of 1.5 V after the electrical stress under 7 V for 1 ms, a leakage current density of 2.9 × 10 −8 A/cm −2 at 9 V and room temperature. Compared to single-layer Au nanocrystals, the double-layer Au nanocrystals increase the hysteresis window significantly, and the underlying mechanism is thus discussed

  11. Influence of TiO2 Nanocrystals Fabricating Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell on the Absorption Spectra of N719 Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puhong Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption spectra of N719 sensitizer anchored on the films prepared by TiO2 nanocrystals with different morphology and size were investigated for improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. We find that the morphology and size of TiO2 nanocrystals can affect the UV-vis and FT-IR spectra of the sensitizer anchored on their surfaces. In particular, the low-energy metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transitions (MLCT band in the visible absorption spectra of N719 is strongly affected, and locations of these MLCT bands revealed larger differences. The results indicate that there is a red shift of MLCT band in the spectra obtained by using TiO2 nanocrystals with long morphology and large size compared to that in solution. And it produced a larger red-shift on the MLCT band after TiO2 nanocrystals with small size mixed with some long nanocrystals. Accordingly, the utilization rate to visible light is increased. This is a reason why the DSC prepared by using such film as a photoelectrode has better performance than before mixing.

  12. Extrasolar Planets: Towards Comparative Planetology beyond the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. H.

    2012-09-01

    Today Scenario planet logy is a very important concept because now days the scientific research finding new and new planets and our work's range becoming too long. In the previous study shows about 10-12 years the research of planet logy now has changed . Few years ago we was talking about Sun planet, Earth planet , Moon ,Mars Jupiter & Venus etc. included but now the time has totally changed the recent studies showed that mono lakes California find the arsenic food use by micro organism that show that our study is very tiny as compare to planet long areas .We have very well known that arsenic is the toxic agent's and the toxic agent's present in the lakes and micro organism developing and life going on it's a unbelievable point for us but nature always play a magical games. In few years ago Aliens was the story no one believe the Aliens origin but now the aliens showed catch by our space craft and shuttle and every one believe that Aliens origin but at the moment's I would like to mention one point's that we have too more work required because our planet logy has a vast field. Most of the time our scientific mission shows that this planet found liquid oxygen ,this planet found hydrogen .I would like to clear that point's that all planet logy depend in to the chemical and these chemical gave the indication of the life but we are not abele to developed the adaptation according to the micro organism . Planet logy compare before study shows that Sun it's a combination of the various gases combination surrounded in a round form and now the central Sun Planets ,moons ,comets and asteroids In other word we can say that Or Sun has a wide range of the physical and Chemical properties in the after the development we can say that all chemical and physical property engaged with a certain environment and form a various contains like asteroids, moon, Comets etc. Few studies shows that other planet life affected to the out living planet .We can assure with the example the life

  13. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  14. The Role of Shape on Electronic Structure and Charge Transport in Faceted PbSe Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.; Lukose, Binit; Clancy, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    We have determined the effect of shape on the charge transport characteristics of nanocrystals. Our study looked at the explicit determination of the electronic properties of faceted nanocrystals that essentially probe the limit of current

  15. State of the art of nanocrystals technology for delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuqi; Du, Juan; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Yancai, E-mail: wangyancai1999@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    Formulation of nanocrystals is a distinctive approach which can effectively improve the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, thus enticing the development of the nanocrystals technology. The characteristics of nanocrystals resulted in an exceptional drug delivery conductance, including saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, adhesiveness, and affinity. Nanocrystals were treated as versatile pharmaceuticals that could be delivered through almost all routes of administration. In the current review, oral, pulmonary, and intravenous routes of administration were presented. Also, the targeting of drug nanocrystals, as well as issues of efficacy and safety, were also discussed. Several methods were applied for nanocrystals production including top-down production strategy (media milling, high-pressure homogenization), bottom-up production strategy (antisolvent precipitation, supercritical fluid process, and precipitation by removal of solvent), and the combination approaches. Moreover, this review also described the evaluation and characterization of the drug nanocrystals and summarized the current commercial pharmaceutical products utilizing nanocrystals technology.

  16. Fundamental aspects of nucleation and growth in the solution-phase synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Codoluto, Stephen C.; Baumgardner, William J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via the solution phase reduction of germanium(ii) iodide. We report a systematic investigation of the nanocrystal nucleation and growth as a function of synthesis conditions including the nature

  17. Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of starch nanocrystals-reinforced pea starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Qiu, Chao; Ji, Na; Sun, Cuixia; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-05

    To characterize the pea starch films reinforced with waxy maize starch nanocrystals, the mechanical, water vapor barrier and morphological properties of the composite films were investigated. The addition of starch nanocrystals increased the tensile strength of the composite films, and the value of tensile strength of the composite films was highest when starch nanocrystals content was 5% (w/w). The moisture content (%), water vapor permeability, and water-vapor transmission rate of the composite films significantly decreased as starch nanocrystals content increased. When their starch nanocrystals content was 1-5%, the starch nanocrystals dispersed homogeneously in the composite films, resulting in a relatively smooth and compact film surface and better thermal stability. However, when starch nanocrystals content was more than 7%, the starch nanocrystals began to aggregate, which resulted in the surface of the composite films developing a longitudinal fibrous structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative features of volcanoes on Solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    The bark of many cosmic bodies is in motion because of the displacement of tectonic plates on magma. Pouring molten magma through cracks in the cortex is called a volcanic eruption. There are two main types of volcanoes: basaltic, appearing where a new material of tectonic plates is formed, and andesitic, which located in the places of destruction of these plates.The third type of volcanoes is cryovolcanoes, or ice volcanoes. This type of volcano ejects matter in the form of ice volcanic melts or steam from water, ammonia, methane. After the eruption, the cryomagma at a low temperature condenses to a solid phase. Cryovolcanoes can be formed on such objects as Pluto, Ceres, Titan, Enceladus, Europe, Triton, etc. Potential sources of energy for melting ice in the production of cryovolcanoes are tidal friction and/or radioactive decay. Semi-transparent deposits of frozen materials that can create a subsurface greenhouse effect, with the possibility of accumulating the required heat with subsequent explosive eruption, are another way to start the cryovolcano action. This type of eruption is observed on Mars and Triton. The first and second types of eruptions (basaltic and andesitic) are characteristic of terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars) and for some satellites of the planets of the Solar system.

  19. Energy Transfer between Conjugated Colloidal Ga2O3 and CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals for White Light Emitting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stanish

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Developing solid state materials capable of generating homogeneous white light in an energy efficient and resource-sustainable way is central to the design of new and improved devices for various lighting applications. Most currently-used phosphors depend on strategically important rare earth elements, and rely on a multicomponent approach, which produces sub-optimal quality white light. Here, we report the design and preparation of a colloidal white-light emitting nanocrystal conjugate. This conjugate is obtained by linking colloidal Ga2O3 and II–VI nanocrystals in the solution phase with a short bifunctional organic molecule (thioglycolic acid. The two types of nanocrystals are electronically coupled by Förster resonance energy transfer owing to the short separation between Ga2O3 (energy donor and core/shell CdSe/CdS (energy acceptor nanocrystals, and the spectral overlap between the photoluminescence of the donor and the absorption of the acceptor. Using steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies, we quantified the contribution of the energy transfer to the photoluminescence spectral power distribution and the corresponding chromaticity of this nanocrystal conjugate. Quantitative understanding of this new system allows for tuning of the emission color and the design of quasi-single white light emitting inorganic phosphors without the use of rare-earth elements.

  20. Energy Transfer between Conjugated Colloidal Ga2O3 and CdSe/CdS Core/Shell Nanocrystals for White Light Emitting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Paul C.; Radovanovic, Pavle V.

    2016-01-01

    Developing solid state materials capable of generating homogeneous white light in an energy efficient and resource-sustainable way is central to the design of new and improved devices for various lighting applications. Most currently-used phosphors depend on strategically important rare earth elements, and rely on a multicomponent approach, which produces sub-optimal quality white light. Here, we report the design and preparation of a colloidal white-light emitting nanocrystal conjugate. This conjugate is obtained by linking colloidal Ga2O3 and II–VI nanocrystals in the solution phase with a short bifunctional organic molecule (thioglycolic acid). The two types of nanocrystals are electronically coupled by Förster resonance energy transfer owing to the short separation between Ga2O3 (energy donor) and core/shell CdSe/CdS (energy acceptor) nanocrystals, and the spectral overlap between the photoluminescence of the donor and the absorption of the acceptor. Using steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopies, we quantified the contribution of the energy transfer to the photoluminescence spectral power distribution and the corresponding chromaticity of this nanocrystal conjugate. Quantitative understanding of this new system allows for tuning of the emission color and the design of quasi-single white light emitting inorganic phosphors without the use of rare-earth elements. PMID:28344289

  1. Aceclofenac nanocrystals with enhanced in vitro, in vivo performance: formulation optimization, characterization, analgesic and acute toxicity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Haroon Rahim,1 Abdul Sadiq,1 Shahzeb Khan,1 Mir Azam Khan,1 Syed Muhammad Hassan Shah,2 Zahid Hussain,3 Riaz Ullah,4 Abdelaaty Abdelaziz Shahat,4,5 Khalid Ibrahim6 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, 2Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Universiti Teknologi, Mara, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Phytochemistry Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Al-Muzahmeiah Branch, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: This study was aimed to enhance the dissolution rate, oral bioavailability and analgesic potential of the aceclofenac (AC in the form of nanosuspension using cost-effective simple precipitation–ultrasonication approach. The nanocrystals were produced using the optimum conditions investigated for AC. The minimum particle size (PS and polydispersity index was found to be 112±2.01 nm and 0.165, respectively, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1%, w/w, polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (1%, w/w and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.12%, w/w. The characterization of AC was performed using zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The saturation solubility of the AC nanocrystals was substantially increased 2.6- and 4.5-fold compared to its unprocessed active pharmaceutical ingredient in stabilizer solution and unprocessed drug. Similarly, the dissolution rate of the AC nanocrystals was substantially enhanced compared to its other counterpart. The results showed that >88% of AC nanocrystals were dissolved in first 10 min compared to unprocessed AC (8.38%, microsuspension (66

  2. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrella, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M. [CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Agostiano, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosma, P., E-mail: pinalysa.cosma@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-11-30

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  3. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, A.; Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cosma, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  4. Cellulose nanocrystals with tunable surface charge for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Alam, Md Nur; Sim, Goeun; Tufenkji, Nathalie; van de Ven, Theo G. M.

    2015-10-01

    Crystalline nanoparticles of cellulose exhibit attractive properties as nanoscale carriers for bioactive molecules in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. For applications in imaging and drug delivery, surface charge is one of the most important factors affecting the performance of nanocarriers. However, current methods of preparation offer little flexibility for controlling the surface charge of cellulose nanocrystals, leading to compromised colloidal stability under physiological conditions. We report a synthesis method that results in nanocrystals with remarkably high carboxyl content (6.6 mmol g-1) and offers continuous control over surface charge without any adjustment to the reaction conditions. Six fractions of nanocrystals with various surface carboxyl contents were synthesized from a single sample of softwood pulp with carboxyl contents varying from 6.6 to 1.7 mmol g-1 and were fully characterized. The proposed method resulted in highly stable colloidal nanocrystals that did not aggregate when exposed to high salt concentrations or serum-containing media. Interactions of these fractions with four different tissue cell lines were investigated over a wide range of concentrations (50-300 μg mL-1). Darkfield hyperspectral imaging and confocal microscopy confirmed the uptake of nanocrystals by selected cell lines without any evidence of membrane damage or change in cell density; however a charge-dependent decrease in mitochondrial activity was observed for charge contents higher than 3.9 mmol g-1. A high surface carboxyl content allowed for facile conjugation of fluorophores to the nanocrystals without compromising colloidal stability. The cellular uptake of fluoresceinamine-conjugated nanocrystals exhibited a time-dose dependent relationship and increased significantly with doubling of the surface charge.Crystalline nanoparticles of cellulose exhibit attractive properties as nanoscale carriers for bioactive molecules in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. For

  5. Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse Gold Nanocrystals Using Virola oleifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaneze, Bárbara A.; Oliveira, Jairo P.; Augusto, Ingrid; Keijok, Wanderson J.; Côrrea, Andressa S.; Ferreira, Débora M.; Nunes, Otalíbio C.; Gonçalves, Rita de Cássia R.; Kitagawa, Rodrigo R.; Celante, Vinícius G.; da Silva, André Romero; Pereira, Ana Claudia H.; Endringer, Denise C.; Schuenck, Ricardo P.; Guimarães, Marco C. C.

    2016-10-01

    The development of new routes and strategies for nanotechnology applications that only employ green synthesis has inspired investigators to devise natural systems. Among these systems, the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts has been actively developed as an alternative, efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally safe method for producing nanoparticles, and this approach is also suitable for large-scale synthesis. This study reports reproducible and completely natural gold nanocrystals that were synthesized using Virola oleifera extract. V. oleifera resin is rich in epicatechin, ferulic acid, gallic acid, and flavonoids (i.e., quercetin and eriodictyol). These gold nanoparticles play three roles. First, these nanoparticles exhibit remarkable stability based on their zeta potential. Second, these nanoparticles are functionalized with flavonoids, and third, an efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly mechanism can be employed to produce green nanoparticles with organic compounds on the surface. Our model is capable of reducing the resin of V. oleifera, which creates stability and opens a new avenue for biological applications. This method does not require painstaking conditions or hazardous agents and is a rapid, efficient, and green approach for the fabrication of monodisperse gold nanoparticles.

  6. Light-induced nonthermal population of optical phonons in nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Bruno P.; Leitão, Joaquim P.; Correia, Maria R.; Soares, Maria R.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Cantarero, Andrés; Pereira, Rui N.

    2017-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy is widely used to study bulk and nanomaterials, where information is frequently obtained from spectral line positions and intensities. In this study, we monitored the Raman spectrum of ensembles of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) as a function of optical excitation intensity (optical excitation experiments). We observe that in NCs the red-shift of the Raman peak position with increasing light power density is much steeper than that recorded for the corresponding bulk material. The increase in optical excitation intensity results also in an increasingly higher temperature of the NCs as obtained with Raman thermometry through the commonly used Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratio. More significantly, the obtained dependence of the Raman peak position on temperature in optical excitation experiments is markedly different from that observed when the same NCs are excited only thermally (thermal excitation experiments). This difference is not observed for the control bulk material. The inefficient diffusion of photogenerated charges in nanoparticulate systems, due to their inherently low electrical conductivity, results in a higher steady-state density of photoexcited charges and, consequently, also in a stronger excitation of optical phonons that cannot decay quickly enough into acoustic phonons. This results in a nonthermal population of optical phonons and thus the Raman spectrum deviates from that expected for the temperature of the system. Our study has major consequences to the general application of Raman spectroscopy to nanomaterials.

  7. Protein Adsorption and Antibacterial Behavior for Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    笠原, 英充; 小形, 信男; 荻原, 隆

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous hydroxyapatite nanocrystals which have aspect ratio with more than four were synthesized by hydrothermal method. X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that the Ca/P ratio of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was maintaining start composition. The protein adsorption properties and bacteria-resistant of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were investigated. The protein adsorption properties of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were improvement after the hydrothermal treatment. Bacteria-resistant behavio...

  8. Aqueous dispersion of monodisperse magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals through phase transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, William W; Chang, Emmanuel; Sayes, Christie M; Drezek, Rebekah; Colvin, Vicki L

    2006-01-01

    A facile method was developed for completely transferring high quality monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals from organic solvents to water. The as-prepared aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanocrystals were extremely stable and could be functionalized for bioconjugation with biomolecules. These iron oxide nanocrystals showed negligible cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) and human dermal fibroblast cells. This method is general and versatile for many organic solvent-synthesized nanoparticles, including fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals

  9. The aggregation and characteristics of radiation-induced defects in lithium fluoride nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Korzhik, M. V.; Martynovich, E. F.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.

    2013-02-01

    It has been established that diffusion activation energies for anion vacancies and centres ? in lithium fluoride nanocrystals are higher than those in bulk crystals. In nanocrystals, ? centres migrating in the range of the temperature close to room temperature is not observed and these centres remain stable. The ratio of centres ? and F 2 concentrations in nanocrystals is higher than in bulk crystals. A new type of colour centres, which is absent in bulk crystals, is discovered in nanocrystals.

  10. Preparation of NiFe binary alloy nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work,an idea which applies binary alloy nanocrystal floating gate to nonvolatile memory application was introduced.The relationship between binary alloy’s work function and its composition was discussed theoretically.A nanocrystal floating gate structure with NiFe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 dielectric layers was fabricated by magnetron sputtering.The micro-structure and composition deviation of the prepared NiFe nanocrystals were also investigated by TEM and EDS.

  11. Spinel ferrite nanocrystals embedded inside ZnO: magnetic, electronic andmagneto-transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Xu, Qingyu; Kuepper, K.; Talut, G.; Marko, D.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-08-21

    In this paper we show that spinel ferrite nanocrystals (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) can be texturally embedded inside a ZnO matrix by ion implantation and post-annealing. The two kinds of ferrites show different magnetic properties, e.g. coercivity and magnetization. Anomalous Hall effect and positive magnetoresistance have been observed. Our study suggests a ferrimagnet/semiconductor hybrid system for potential applications in magneto-electronics. This hybrid system can be tuned by selecting different transition metal ions (from Mn to Zn) to obtain various magnetic and electronic properties.

  12. Controlled synthesis of novel octapod platinum nanocrystals under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Lei; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Liu, Hanfan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Under microwave irradiation, novel octapod Pt nanocrystals were synthesized by reducing H 2 PtCl 6 in TEG with PVP as a stabilizer. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center. The use of KI was crucial to the formation of novel Pt octapods. Novel Octapod Platinum Nanocrystals. - Highlights: • A novel octapod Pt nanocrystals different from the common octapod were obtained. • The use of KI was crucial to the formation of the novel Pt octapods. • Microwave was readily employed in controlled synthesis of the novel Pt octapods. - Abstract: Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of Pt nanoparticles. Novel octapod Pt nanocrystals enclosed with (1 1 1) facets were readily synthesized with H 2 PtCl 6 as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer in the presence of an appropriate amount of KI under microwave irradiation for 140 s. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity than commercial Pt black in the electro-oxidations of methanol and formic acid. The results demonstrated that the use of KI was crucial to the formation of Pt octapods. KI determined the formation of the novel octapod Pt nanocrystals by tuning up the reduction kinetics and adsorbing on the surfaces of growing Pt nanoparticles. The optimum molar ratio of H 2 PtCl 6 /KI/PVP was 1/30/45

  13. Engineering Gold Nanorod-Based Plasmonic Nanocrystals for Optical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have a unique ability to support localized surface plasmon resonances and exhibit rich and intriguing optical properties. Engineering plasmonic nanocrystals can maximize their potentials for specific applications. In this dissertation, we developed three unprecedented Au nanorod-based plasmonic nanocrystals through rational design of the crystal shape and/or composition, and successfully demonstrated their applications in light condensation, photothermal conversion, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The “Au nanorod-Au nanosphere dimer” nanocrystal was synthesized via the ligand-induced asymmetric growth of a Au nanosphere on a Au nanorod. This dimeric nanostructure features an extraordinary broadband optical absorption in the range of 400‒1400nm, and it proved to be an ideal black-body material for light condensation and an efficient solar-light harvester for photothermal conversion. The “Au nanorod (core) @ AuAg alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was built through the epitaxial growth of homogeneously alloyed AuAg shells on Au nanorods by precisely controlled synthesis. The resulting core-shell structured, bimetallic nanorods integrate the merits of the AuAg alloy with the advantages of anisotropic nanorods, exhibiting strong, stable and tunable surface plasmon resonances that are essential for SERS applications in a corrosive environment. The “high-index faceted Au nanorod (core) @ AuPd alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was produced via site-specific epitaxial growth of AuPd alloyed horns at the ends of Au nanorods. The AuPd alloyed horns are bound with high-index side facets, while the Au nanorod concentrates an intensive electric field at each end. This unique configuration unites highly active catalytic sites with strong SERS sites into a single entity and was demonstrated to be ideal for in situ monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reactions by SERS. The synthetic strategies developed here are promising towards the fabrication of

  14. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  15. Infrared Emitting and Photoconducting Colloidal Silver Chalcogenide Nanocrystal Quantum Dots from a Silylamide-Promoted Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarema, Maksym; Pichler, Stefan; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Seyrkammer, Robert; Lechner, Rainer T.; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Jarzab, Dorota; Szendrei, Krisztina; Resel, Roland; Korovyanko, Oleksandra; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Paris, Oskar; Hesser, Guenter; Heiss, Wolfgang; Hesser, Günter

    Here, we present a hot injection synthesis of colloidal Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals (Ag(2)Se, Ag(2)Te, and Ag(2)S) that resulted in exceptionally small nanocrystal sizes in the range between 2 and 4 nm. Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit band gap energies within the near-infrared spectral region,

  16. The meridian system and mechanism of acupuncture—A comparative review. Part 1: The meridian system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, acupuncture has been used to heal various diseases and physiologic malfunctions in clinical practice for more than 2500 years. Due to its efficacy, acupuncture has been recommended by the World Health Organization in 1980 as an effective alternative therapy for 43 different disorders. Over the past few decades, various theories of the meridian system and mechanisms have been proposed to explain how acupuncture might work. Most of these mechanisms, however, cannot yet explain conclusively why acupuncture is efficacious in treating so many different diseases. A plausible mechanism has been unavailable until recently. This is the first of a three-part series that aims to provide a comparative review of the aforementioned topics. Part 1 reviews the current indications for acupuncture, basic concepts of TCM, and the essence of the meridian system. To establish a mathematically rigorous framework of TCM, the chaotic wave theory of fractal continuum is proposed. This theory is then applied to characterize the essence of the meridian system. Parts 2 and 3 will review the possible mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture therapies, respectively, based on biochemical, bioelectromagnetic, chaotic wave, and neurophysiologic approaches. It is sincerely hoped that this series of review articles can promote an understanding of the meridian system and acupuncture mechanisms to help patients in a logical and passionate way.

  17. Development of surface stabilized candesartan cilexetil nanocrystals with enhanced dissolution rate, permeation rate across CaCo-2, and oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Reddy, Venkata Appa; Arora, Sumit; Patel, Kamlesh

    2016-10-01

    Candesartan cilexetil (CC), an ester prodrug of candesartan, is BCS class II drug with extremely low aqueous solubility limiting its oral bioavailability. The present research aimed to develop a nanocrystalline formulation of CC with improved saturation solubility in gastrointestinal fluids and thereby, exhibiting enhanced oral bioavailability. CC nanocrystals were prepared using a low energy antisolvent precipitation methodology. A combination of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Pluronic® F 127 (50:50 w/w) was found to be optimum for the preparation of CC nanocrystals. The particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential of optimized formulation was found to be 159 ± 8.1 nm, 0.177 ± 0.043, and -23.7 ± 1.02 mV, respectively. Optimized formulation was found to possess irregular, plate-like morphology as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and crystalline as evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). A significant increase in saturation solubility and dissolution rate of the optimized nanosuspension was observed at all the tested pH conditions. Optimized CC nanocrystals exhibited a storage stability of more than 3 months when stored under cold and room temperature conditions. In vitro Caco-2 permeability further revealed that CC nanocrystals exhibited nearly 4-fold increase in permeation rate compared to the free CC. In vivo oral bioavailability studies of optimized CC nanocrystals in murine model revealed 3.8-fold increase in the oral bioavailability and twice the C max as compared with the free CC when administered orally. In conclusion, this study has established a crystalline nanosuspension formulation of CC with improved oral bioavailability in murine model. Graphical Abstract Antisolvent precipitation methodology for the preparation of Candesartan Cilexetil nanocrystals for enhanced solubility and oral bioavailability.

  18. Isolation of thermally stable cellulose nanocrystals by phosphoric acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero Espinosa, Sandra; Kuhnt, Tobias; Foster, E Johan; Weder, Christoph

    2013-04-08

    On account of their intriguing mechanical properties, low cost, and renewable nature, high-aspect-ratio cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are an attractive component for many nanomaterials. Due to hydrogen bonding between their surface hydroxyl groups, unmodified CNCs (H-CNCs) aggregate easily and are often difficult to disperse. It is shown here that on account of ionic repulsion between charged surface groups, slightly phosphorylated CNCs (P-CNCs, average dimensions 31 ± 14 × 316 ± 127 nm, surface charge density = 10.8 ± 2.7 mmol/kg cellulose), prepared by controlled hydrolysis of cotton with phosphoric acid, are readily dispersible and form stable dispersions in polar solvents such as water, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethylformamide. Thermogravimetric analyses reveal that these P-CNCs exhibit a much higher thermal stability than partially sulfated CNCs (S-CNCs), which are frequently employed, but suffer from limited thermal stability. Nanocomposites of an ethylene oxide-epichlorohydrin copolymer and H-CNCs, S-CNCs, and P-CNCs were prepared, and their mechanical properties were studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The results show that P-CNCs offer a reinforcing capability that is comparable to that of H-CNCs or S-CNCs.

  19. Protein Adsorption and Subsequent Fibroblasts Adhesion on Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagaya, Motohiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Junzo; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2011-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique was employed for protein adsorption and subsequent fibroblast adhesion on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals. The pre-adsorption of three proteins (albumin (BSA) or fibronectin (Fn) or collagen (Col)) and subsequent adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and the adhesion of fibroblasts on the surface were in situ monitored, and evaluated with the frequency shift (Δf) and dissipation energy shift (ΔD), and the viscoelastic change as ΔD-Δf plot. The Col adsorption showed larger Δf and ΔD values compared with BSA or Fn adsorption, and the subsequent FBS adsorption depended on the pre-adsorbed proteins. The ΔD-Δf plot of the cell adhesion also showed the different behaviour on the surfaces, indicating the process affected by cell-protein interactions. The confocal laser scanning microscope images of adherent cells showed the different morphology and pseudopod on the surfaces. The cells adhered on the surfaces modified with Fn and Col had the uniaxially expanded shape with fibrous pseudopods, while those modified with BSA had round shape. The different cell-protein interaction would cause the arrangement of extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton changes at the interfaces.

  20. Photobrightening of CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masaru; Tsukamoto, Junpei; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Iwami, Noriya; Nishiura, Ken; Hagiwara, Izumi; Ando, Naohisa; Horiuchi, Hiromi; Tani, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated photobrightening effects of photoluminescence (PL) from CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals (NCs) in ambient nitrogen gas saturated with water molecules (H 2 O/N 2 ). The PL intensities from NC ensemble samples increase more than twice after 1200-s irradiation of cw light. These increases mostly recover to their previous values under continuous light irradiation when we evacuate the H 2 O/N 2 atmosphere. These results indicate that the adsorption of H 2 O molecules onto NC surfaces provides some functions as to restore almost reversibly the PL-quenching defects or trap sites on or near the NC surfaces. To elucidate the mechanism of this restoring function microscopically, we have also measured time evolution of PL intensity profiles from single NCs both in H 2 O/N 2 and in vacuum. While blinking behaviors of the PL intensity being observed in both environments, we have found significant increase of PL on-times in case of single NC observations in the H 2 O/N 2 compared with those in vacuum. As for the blinking off-times, it is for the moment associated with the occasional events of carrier captures at the trap sites on or near the NC surfaces. Thus, we propose the photo-adsorption of H 2 O molecules inactivates these trap sites and decreases the occurrence of the capturing events, which in turn increase PL on-times and eventually provide the photobrightenings

  1. Engineering of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Light Emitting Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Todescato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanocrystals are rapidly spreading into the display and lighting markets. Compared with liquid crystal and organic LED displays, nanocrystalline quantum dots (QDs provide highly saturated colors, wide color gamut, resolution, rapid response time, optical efficiency, durability and low cost. This remarkable progress has been made possible by the rapid advances in the synthesis of colloidal QDs and by the progress in understanding the intriguing new physics exhibited by these nanoparticles. In this review, we provide support to the idea that suitably engineered core/graded-shell QDs exhibit exceptionally favorable optical properties, photoluminescence and optical gain, while keeping the synthesis facile and producing QDs well suited for light emitting applications. Solid-state laser emitters can greatly profit from QDs as efficient gain materials. Progress towards fabricating low threshold, solution processed DFB lasers that are optically pumped using one- and two-photon absorption is reviewed. In the field of display technologies, the exploitation of the exceptional photoluminescence properties of QDs for LCD backlighting has already advanced to commercial levels. The next big challenge is to develop the electroluminescence properties of QD to a similar state. We present an overview of QLED devices and of the great perspectives for next generation display and lighting technologies.

  2. Morphologically different WO3 nanocrystals in photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Soumya Kanti; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kong, Ki-jeong; So, Won-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Different morphologies of WO 3 nanocrystals such as nanorods and nanoplates have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions using ammonium metatungstate as the precursor in presence of different organic acids such as citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid in the reaction medium. Detailed characterization of the crystal structure, particle morphology, and optical band gap of the synthesized powders have been done by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and solid-state UV–visible spectroscopy study. The as-synthesized materials are WO 3 hydrates with orthorhombic phase which transform to the hexagonal WO 3 through dehydration upon heating at 350 °C. The resultant products are crystalline with nanoscale dimensions. Finally, the photoactivity of the synthesized materials annealed at 500 °C has been compared employing in photoelectrochemical water oxidation under the illumination of AM 1.5G simulated solar light (100 mWcm −2 ). The photocurrent measurements upon irradiation of light exhibit obvious photocatalytic activity with a photocurrent of about 0.77, 0.61, and 0.65 mAcm −2 for the WO 3 film derived with the oxalic acid, tartaric, and citric acid assisting agents, respectively, at 1.8 V versus Ag/AgCl electrode.

  3. Protein Adsorption and Subsequent Fibroblasts Adhesion on Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagaya, Motohiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Yoshioka, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Junzo [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka, E-mail: tagaya.m.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique was employed for protein adsorption and subsequent fibroblast adhesion on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals. The pre-adsorption of three proteins (albumin (BSA) or fibronectin (Fn) or collagen (Col)) and subsequent adsorption of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and the adhesion of fibroblasts on the surface were in situ monitored, and evaluated with the frequency shift ({Delta}f) and dissipation energy shift ({Delta}D), and the viscoelastic change as {Delta}D-{Delta}f plot. The Col adsorption showed larger {Delta}f and {Delta}D values compared with BSA or Fn adsorption, and the subsequent FBS adsorption depended on the pre-adsorbed proteins. The {Delta}D-{Delta}f plot of the cell adhesion also showed the different behaviour on the surfaces, indicating the process affected by cell-protein interactions. The confocal laser scanning microscope images of adherent cells showed the different morphology and pseudopod on the surfaces. The cells adhered on the surfaces modified with Fn and Col had the uniaxially expanded shape with fibrous pseudopods, while those modified with BSA had round shape. The different cell-protein interaction would cause the arrangement of extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton changes at the interfaces.

  4. Inorganic photovoltaic devices fabricated using nanocrystal spray deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foos, Edward E; Yoon, Woojun; Lumb, Matthew P; Tischler, Joseph G; Townsend, Troy K

    2013-09-25

    Soluble inorganic nanocrystals offer a potential route to the fabrication of all-inorganic devices using solution deposition techniques. Spray processing offers several advantages over the more common spin- and dip-coating procedures, including reduced material loss during fabrication, higher sample throughput, and deposition over a larger area. The primary difference observed, however, is an overall increase in the film roughness. In an attempt to quantify the impact of this morphology change on the devices, we compare the overall performance of spray-deposited versus spin-coated CdTe-based Schottky junction solar cells and model their dark current-voltage characteristics. Spray deposition of the active layer results in a power conversion efficiency of 2.3 ± 0.3% with a fill factor of 45.7 ± 3.4%, Voc of 0.39 ± 0.06 V, and Jsc of 13.3 ± 3.0 mA/cm(2) under one sun illumination.

  5. Quantum-dot light-emitting diodes utilizing CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals embedded in TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Hee; Kumar, Ch. Kiran; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Huh, Chul; Kim, Eui-Tae

    2008-11-01

    Quantum-dot (QD) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated on Si wafers by embedding core-shell CdSe /ZnS nanocrystals in TiO2 thin films via plasma-enhanced metallorganic chemical vapor deposition. The n-TiO2/QDs /p-Si LED devices show typical p-n diode current-voltage and efficient electroluminescence characteristics, which are critically affected by the removal of QD surface ligands. The TiO2/QDs /Si system we presented can offer promising Si-based optoelectronic and electronic device applications utilizing numerous nanocrystals synthesized by colloidal solution chemistry.

  6. Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode Enhanced With Emissive Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii

    This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non-radiative e......This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non...... of the hybrid diode fabrication including process techniques for GaN LED and incorporation of the nanocrystals are presented with the emphasis on the differences with standard LED processing. Results and analysis of optical and electrical characterization including photoluminescence (PL), micro-PL, time......-resolved PL and electroluminescence (EL) together with current-voltage characteristics are presented to evaluate the device performance. A clear evidence of non-radiative energy transfer was seen in the carrier dynamics of both the LED and the nanocrystals when the quantum well – nanocrystals separation...

  7. Preparation, characterization and catalytic effects of copper oxalate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Dubey, Reena; Srivastava, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prepared copper oxalate nanocrystals were characterized by FE-SEM and bright field TEM micrographs. Its catalytic activity was evaluated on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate using TG and TG-DSC techniques. Highlights: ► Preparation of nanocrystals (∼9.0 nm) of copper oxalate using Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, oxalic acid and acetone under thermal conditions. ► Method is simple and novel. ► Characterization using XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and ED pattern. ► Catalytic activity of copper oxalate nanocrystals on AP thermal decomposition using thermal techniques (TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay). ► Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP + CONs using isoconversional and model fitting kinetic approaches. - Abstract: Recent work has described the preparation and characterization of copper oxalate nanocrystals (CONs). It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). The catalytic activity of CONs on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and composite solid propellants (CSPs) has been done by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ignition delay measurements. Burning rate of CSPs was also found to be enhanced in presence of copper oxalate nanocrystals. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP with and without CONs has also been investigated. The model free (isoconversional) and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to data for isothermal TG decomposition.

  8. Stabilizing Agents for Drug Nanocrystals: Effect on Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Tuomela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanocrystals are a versatile option for drug delivery purposes, and while the number of poorly soluble drug materials is all the time increasing, more research in this area is performed. Drug nanocrystals have a simple structure—a solid drug core is surrounded by a layer of stabilizing agent. However, despite the considerably simple structure, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer for a certain drug can be challenging. Mostly, the stabilizer selection is based purely on the requirement of physical stability, e.g., maintaining the nanosized particle size as long as possible after the formation of drug nanocrystals. However, it is also worth taking into account that stabilizer can affect the bioavailability in the final formulation via interactions with cells and cell layers. In addition, formation of nanocrystals is only one process step, and for the final formulation, more excipients are often added to the composition. The role of the stabilizers in the final formulation can be more than only stabilizing the nanocrystal particle size. A good example is the stabilizer’s role as cryoprotectant during freeze drying. In this review, the stabilizing effect, role of stabilizers in final nanocrystalline formulations, challenges in reaching in vitro–in vivo correlation with nanocrystalline products, and stabilizers’ effect on higher bioavailability are discussed.

  9. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of semiconductor nanocrystals and solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph Robert [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, small biomolecules, and 13C enriched solids were studied through the relaxation in NMR spectra. Surface structure of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdS) was deduced from high resolution 1H and 13C liquid state spectra of thiophenol ligands on the nanocrystal surfaces. The surface coverage by thiophenol was found to be low, being 5.6 and 26% for nanocrystal radii of 11.8 and 19.2 Å. Internal motion is estimated to be slow with a correlation time > 10-8 s-1. The surface thiophenol ligands react to form a dithiophenol when the nanocrystals were subjected to O2 and ultraviolet. A method for measuring 14N-1H J-couplings is demonstrated on pyridine and the peptide oxytocin; selective 2D T1 and T2 experiments are presented for measuring relaxation times in crowded spectra with overlapping peaks in 1D, but relaxation effects interfere. Possibility of carbon-carbon cross relaxation in 13C enriched solids is demonstrated by experiments on zinc acetate and L-alanine.

  10. Performance Parameters and Characterizations of Nanocrystals: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi M. Chogale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor bioavailability of drugs associated with their poor solubility limits the clinical effectiveness of almost 40% of the newly discovered drug moieties. Low solubility, coupled with a high log p value, high melting point and high dose necessitates exploration of alternative formulation strategies for such drugs. One such novel approach is formulation of the drugs as “Nanocrystals”. Nanocrystals are primarily comprised of drug and surfactants/stabilizers and are manufactured by “top-down” or “bottom-up” methods. Nanocrystals aid the clinical efficacy of drugs by various means such as enhancement of bioavailability, lowering of dose requirement, and facilitating sustained release of the drug. This effect is dependent on the various characteristics of nanocrystals (particle size, saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, which have an impact on the improved performance of the nanocrystals. Various sophisticated techniques have been developed to evaluate these characteristics. This article describes in detail the various characterization techniques along with a brief review of the significance of the various parameters on the performance of nanocrystals.

  11. Colloidal nanocrystals for photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiyar, Chethana; Loiudice, Anna; Buonsanti, Raffaella

    2017-02-01

    Colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) are among the most modular and versatile nanomaterial platforms for studying emerging phenomena in different fields thanks to their superb compositional and morphological tunability. A promising, yet challenging, application involves the use of colloidal NCs as light absorbers and electrocatalysts for water splitting. In this review we discuss how the tunability of these materials is ideal to understand the complex phenomena behind storing energy in chemical bonds and to optimize performance through structural and compositional modification. First, we describe the colloidal synthesis method as a means to achieve a high degree of control over single material NCs and NC heterostructures, including examples of the role of the ligands in modulating size and shape. Next, we focus on the use of NCs as light absorbers and catalysts to drive both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), together with some of the challenges related to the use of colloidal NCs as model systems and/or technological solution in water splitting. We conclude with a broader prospective on the use of colloidal chemistry for new material discovery.

  12. Mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Alves Silvério

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH30 on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH30 nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10% were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH30, formation of a continuous network of WSH30 linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix.

  13. Mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverio, Hudson Alves; Flauzino Neto, Wilson Pires; Silva, Ingrid Souza Vieira da; Rosa, Joyce Rover; Pasquini, Daniel, E-mail: pasquini@iqufu.ufu.br, E-mail: danielpasquini2005@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Uberlandia (USU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Assuncao, Rosana Maria Nascimento de [Universidade de Uberlandia (USU), Ituiutaba, MG (brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney Jose Lima [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2014-11-15

    In this work, the effects of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from soy hulls (WSH{sub 30}) on the mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties of methylcellulose (MC) nanocomposites were evaluated. MC/WSH{sub 30} nanocomposite films with different filler levels (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) were prepared by casting. Compared to neat MC film, improvements in the mechanical and barrier properties were observed, while thermal stability was retained. The improved mechanical properties of nanocomposites prepared may be attributed to mechanical percolation of WSH{sub 30}, formation of a continuous network of WSH{sub 30} linked by hydrogen interactions and a close association between filler and matrix. (author)

  14. Observation of spin-selective tunneling in SiGe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, G; Golovach, V N; Spathis, P; Ares, N; Stoffel, M; Fournel, F; Schmidt, O G; Glazman, L I; De Franceschi, S

    2011-12-09

    Spin-selective tunneling of holes in SiGe nanocrystals contacted by normal-metal leads is reported. The spin selectivity arises from an interplay of the orbital effect of the magnetic field with the strong spin-orbit interaction present in the valence band of the semiconductor. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that spin-selective tunneling in semiconductor nanostructures can be achieved without the use of ferromagnetic contacts. The reported effect, which relies on mixing the light and heavy holes, should be observable in a broad class of quantum-dot systems formed in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band.

  15. Comparing systems for costing hospital treatments. The case of stable angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jytte; Skjoldborg, Ulla Slothuus

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates the basic properties in the systems most commonly considered for costing treatments in the Danish hospitals. The differences between the traditional charge system, the DRG system and the ABC system are analysed, and difficulties encountered in comparing these systems are discussed. A sample of patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris (SAP) at Odense University Hospital was used to compare the three systems when costing an entire treatment path, costing single hospitalisations and studying the effects of length of stay. Furthermore, it is illustrated that the main idea behind each system is reflected in how the systems over- or underestimate costs. Implications when managing the hospitals, particularly reimbursement, are discussed.

  16. Properties of Nanocrystals-formulated Aluminosilicate Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conciauro

    2015-10-01

    insulating and/or mechanical properties. The nanocrystals- modified refractories showed variations in properties, with respect to the untreated aluminosilicate reference in heat- insulating performances (thermal diffusivities were measured by the “hot disk” technique. In general, they also showed improvements in mechanical compression resist‐ ance for all of the samples at 2 wt. %. The best heat insula‐ tion was obtained with the addition of nano-aluminium hydroxide at 2 wt. %, while the highest mechanical compres‐ sion breaking resistance was found with nano-CaCO3 at 2 wt. %. These outcomes were investigated with complemen‐ tary techniques, like mercury porosimetry for porosity, and Archimedes methods to measure physical properties like the bulk and apparent densities, apparent porosities and water absorption. The results show that the nano-alumini‐ um hydroxide modified bricks were the most porous, which could explain the best heat-insulating performances. There is a less straightforward explanation for the mechanical resistance results, as they may have relations with the characteristics of the pores. Furthermore, the nanoparti‐ cles may have possible reactions with the matrix during the heat treatments.

  17. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  18. Predicting Nanocrystal Shape through Consideration of Surface-Ligand Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bealing, Clive R.

    2012-03-27

    Density functional calculations for the binding energy of oleic acid-based ligands on Pb-rich {100} and {111} facets of PbSe nanocrystals determine the surface energies as a function of ligand coverage. Oleic acid is expected to bind to the nanocrystal surface in the form of lead oleate. The Wulff construction predicts the thermodynamic equilibrium shape of the PbSe nanocrystals. The equilibrium shape is a function of the ligand surface coverage, which can be controlled by changing the concentration of oleic acid during synthesis. The different binding energy of the ligand on the {100} and {111} facets results in different equilibrium ligand coverages on the facets, and a transition in the equilibrium shape from octahedral to cubic is predicted when increasing the ligand concentration during synthesis. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 o C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 o C to 500 o C. The N 2 adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  20. Recent Developments in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Silver Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Zeng, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Moran, Christine H; Xia, Younan

    2012-01-01

    This feature article introduces our recent work on understanding the roles played by citrate and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as capping agents in seed-mediated syntheses of Ag nanocrystals with controlled shapes. We have demonstrated that citrate and PVP selectively bind to Ag(111) and Ag(100) surfaces, respectively, and thus favor the formation of Ag nanocrystals enclosed preferentially by {111} or {100} facets. In addition, we have quantified the coverage density of PVP adsorbed on the surface of Ag nanocubes. Based on the mechanistic understanding, a series of Ag nanocrystals with controlled shapes and sizes have been successfully synthesized by using different combinations of seeds and capping agents: single-crystal spherical/cubic seeds with citrate for cuboctahedrons and octahedrons or with PVP for cubes and bars; and plate-like seeds with citrate for enlarged thin plates or with PVP for thickened plates.

  1. Encapsulated Silicon Nanocrystals Formed in Silica by Ion Beam Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Han Woo; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon; Kim, Gi Dong; Hong, Wan; Ji, Young Yong

    2004-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) emission of Si nanocrystals synthesized by 400 keV Si ion implanted in SiO 2 is studied as a function of ion dose and annealing time. The formation of nanocrystals at around 600 nm from the surface was confirmed by RBS and HRTEM, and the Si nanocrystals showed a wide and very intense PL emission at 700-900 nm. The intensity of this emission showed a typical behaviour with a fast transitory increase to reach a saturation with the annealing time, however, the red shift increased continuously because of the Ostwald ripening. The oversaturation of dose derived a decrease of PL intensity because of the diminishment of quantum confinement. A strong enhancement of PL intensity by H passivation was confirmed also, and the possible mechanism is discussed

  2. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.

  3. Properties of magnetically diluted nanocrystals prepared by mechanochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, P.; Skorvanek, I.; Fabian, M.; Kovac, J.; Steinbach, F.; Feldhoff, A.; Sepelak, V.; Jiang, J.; Satka, A.; Kovac, J.

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and surface properties of magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals synthesized by solid state route in a planetary mill were studied. XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM), low-temperature N 2 sorption, nanoparticle size distribution as well as SQUID magnetometry methods have been applied. The measurements identified the aggregates of small nanocrystals, 5-10 nm in size. The homogeneity of produced particles with well developed specific surface area (15-66 m 2 g -1 ) was documented. The transition from the paramagnetic to the spin-glass-like phase has been observed below ∼40 K. The changes in the magnetic behaviour at low temperatures seem to be correlated with the formation of the new surface area as a consequence of milling. The magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals are obtained in the simple synthesis step, making the process attractive for industrial applications.

  4. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Roesgaard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si1−x−ySnxCy, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 ∘C to 900 ∘C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈1017 cm−3 and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 ∘C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed.

  5. Adsorption of vitamin E on mesoporous titania nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, C.T.; Wu, S.M. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2010-07-15

    Tri-block nonionic surfactant and titanium chloride were used as starting materials for the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystallite powders. The main objective of the present study was to examine the synthesis of mesoporous titania nanocrystals and the adsorption of vitamin E on those nanocrystals using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. When the calcination temperature was increased to 300 {sup o}C, the reflection peaks in the XRD pattern indicated the presence of an anatase phase. The crystallinity of the nanocrystallites increased from 80% to 98.6% with increasing calcination temperature from 465 {sup o}C to 500 {sup o}C. The N{sub 2} adsorption data and XRD data taken after vitamin E adsorption revealed that the vitamin E molecules were adsorbed in the mesopores of the titania nanocrystals.

  6. Broadband enhancement of infrared absorption in microbolometers using Ag nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Jerome K.; Ahn, Chi Won; Kim, Woo Choong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Hyun, Moon Seop; Kim, Hee Yeoun; Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Won-Oh

    2015-01-01

    High performance microbolometers are widely sought for thermal imaging applications. In order to increase the performance limits of microbolometers, the responsivity of the device to broadband infrared (IR) radiation needs to be improved. In this work, we report a simple, quick, and cost-effective approach to modestly enhance the broadband IR response of the device by evaporating Ag nanocrystals onto the light entrance surface of the device. When irradiated with IR light, strong fields are built up within the gaps between adjacent Ag nanocrystals. These fields resistively generate heat in the nanocrystals and underlying substrate, which is transduced into an electrical signal via a resistive sensing element in the device. Through this method, we are able to enhance the IR absorption over a broadband spectrum and improve the responsivity of the device by ∼11%

  7. Nanocrystals of [Cu3(btc)2] (HKUST-1): a combined time-resolved light scattering and scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Denise; Liu, Jianing; Huber, Klaus; Fischer, Roland A

    2009-03-07

    The formation of [Cu(3)(btc)(2)] (HKUST-1; btc = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) nanocrystals from a super-saturated mother solution at room temperature was monitored by time-resolved light scattering (TLS); the system is characterized by a rapid growth up to a size limit of 200 nm within a few minutes, and the size and shape of the crystallites were also determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  8. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism in Yb3+/Ho3+ co-doped LaF3 nanocrystals for potential bimodal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamchand, Sasidharanpillai S.; George, Sony

    2016-12-01

    Biocompatible upconversion nanoparticles with multifunctional properties can serve as potential nanoprobes for multimodal imaging. Herein, we report an upconversion nanocrystal based on lanthanum fluoride which is developed to address the imaging modalities, upconversion luminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lanthanide ions (Yb3+ and Ho3+) doped LaF3 nanocrystals (LaF3 Yb3+/Ho3+) are fabricated through a rapid microwave-assisted synthesis. The hexagonal phase LaF3 nanocrystals exhibit nearly spherical morphology with average diameter of 9.8 nm. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis estimated the doping concentration of Yb3+ and Ho3+ as 3.99 and 0.41%, respectively. The nanocrystals show upconversion luminescence when irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) photons of wavelength 980 nm. The emission spectrum consists of bands centred at 542, 645 and 658 nm. The stronger green emission at 542 nm and the weak red emissions at 645 and 658 nm are assigned to 5S2 → 5I8 and 5F5 → 5I8 transitions of Ho3+, respectively. The pump power dependence of luminescence intensity confirmed the two-photon upconversion process. The nanocrystals exhibit paramagnetism due to the presence of lanthanide ion dopant Ho3+ and the magnetization is 19.81 emu/g at room temperature. The nanocrystals exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity ( r 1) of 0.12 s-1 mM-1 and transverse relaxivity ( r 2) of 28.18 s-1 mM-1, which makes the system suitable for developing T2 MRI contrast agents based on holmium. The LaF3 Yb3+/Ho3+ nanocrystals are surface modified by PEGylation to improve biocompatibility and enhance further functionalisation. The PEGylated nanocrystals are found to be non-toxic up to 50 μg/mL for 48 h of incubation, which is confirmed by the MTT assay as well as morphological studies in HeLa cells. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism together with biocompatibility enables the adaptability of the present system as a nanoprobe for potential

  9. The upconversion luminescence and magnetism in Yb{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} co-doped LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals for potential bimodal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syamchand, Sasidharanpillai S., E-mail: syamchand.ss@gmail.com; George, Sony, E-mail: emailtosony@gmail.com [University of Kerala, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2016-12-15

    Biocompatible upconversion nanoparticles with multifunctional properties can serve as potential nanoprobes for multimodal imaging. Herein, we report an upconversion nanocrystal based on lanthanum fluoride which is developed to address the imaging modalities, upconversion luminescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Lanthanide ions (Yb{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+}) doped LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals (LaF{sub 3} Yb{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+}) are fabricated through a rapid microwave-assisted synthesis. The hexagonal phase LaF{sub 3} nanocrystals exhibit nearly spherical morphology with average diameter of 9.8 nm. The inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis estimated the doping concentration of Yb{sup 3+} and Ho{sup 3+} as 3.99 and 0.41%, respectively. The nanocrystals show upconversion luminescence when irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) photons of wavelength 980 nm. The emission spectrum consists of bands centred at 542, 645 and 658 nm. The stronger green emission at 542 nm and the weak red emissions at 645 and 658 nm are assigned to {sup 5}S{sub 2} → {sup 5}I{sub 8} and {sup 5}F{sub 5} → {sup 5}I{sub 8} transitions of Ho{sup 3+}, respectively. The pump power dependence of luminescence intensity confirmed the two-photon upconversion process. The nanocrystals exhibit paramagnetism due to the presence of lanthanide ion dopant Ho{sup 3+} and the magnetization is 19.81 emu/g at room temperature. The nanocrystals exhibit a longitudinal relaxivity (r{sub 1}) of 0.12 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1} and transverse relaxivity (r{sub 2}) of 28.18 s{sup −1} mM{sup −1}, which makes the system suitable for developing T2 MRI contrast agents based on holmium. The LaF{sub 3} Yb{sup 3+}/Ho{sup 3+} nanocrystals are surface modified by PEGylation to improve biocompatibility and enhance further functionalisation. The PEGylated nanocrystals are found to be non-toxic up to 50 μg/mL for 48 h of incubation, which is confirmed by the MTT assay as well as

  10. Microfluidic Fabrication of Hydrocortisone Nanocrystals Coated with Polymeric Stabilisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Odetade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocortisone (HC nanocrystals intended for parenteral administration of HC were produced by anti-solvent crystallisation within coaxial assemblies of pulled borosilicate glass capillaries using either co-current flow of aqueous and organic phases or counter-current flow focusing. The organic phase was composed of 7 mg/mL of HC in a 60:40 (v/v mixture of ethanol and water and the anti-solvent was milli-Q water. The microfluidic mixers were fabricated with an orifice diameter of the inner capillary ranging from 50 µm to 400 µm and operated at the aqueous to organic phase flow rate ratio ranging from 5 to 25. The size of the nanocrystals decreased with increasing aqueous to organic flow rate ratio. The counter-current flow microfluidic mixers provided smaller nanocrystals than the co-current flow devices under the same conditions and for the same geometry, due to smaller diameter of the organic phase stream in the mixing zone. The Z-average particle size of the drug nanocrystals increased from 210–280 nm to 320–400 nm after coating the nanocrystals with 0.2 wt % aqueous solution of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC in a stirred vial. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD analyses carried out on the dried nanocrystals stabilized with HPMC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS were investigated and reported. The degree of crystallinity for the processed sample was lowest for the sample stabilised with HPMC and the highest for the raw HC powder.

  11. Intracellular delivery of peptide nucleic acid and organic molecules using zeolite-L nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Alessandro; Lülf, Henning; Septiadi, Dedy; Manicardi, Alex; Corradini, Roberto; De Cola, Luisa

    2014-11-01

    The design and synthesis of smart nanomaterials can provide interesting potential applications for biomedical purposes from bioimaging to drug delivery. Manufacturing multifunctional systems in a way to carry bioactive molecules, like peptide nucleic acids able to recognize specific targets in living cells, represents an achievement towards the development of highly selective tools for both diagnosis and therapeutics. This work describes a very first example of the use of zeolite nanocrystals as multifunctional nanocarriers to deliver simultaneously PNA and organic molecules into living cells. Zeolite-L nanocrystals are functionalized by covalently attaching the PNA probes onto the surface, while the channel system is filled with fluorescent guest molecules. The cellular uptake of the PNA/Zeolite-L hybrid material is then significantly increased by coating the whole system with a thin layer of biodegradable poly-L-lysine. The delivery of DAPI as a model drug molecule, inserted into the zeolite pores, is also demonstrated to occur in the cells, proving the multifunctional ability of the system. Using this zeolite nanosystem carrying PNA probes designed to target specific RNA sequences of interest in living cells could open new possibilities for theranostic and gene therapy applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Preparation of stable Pickering emulsions with short, medium and long chain fats and starch nanocrystals and their in vitro digestion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering emulsions are receiving more attention as delivery systems in food and pharmaceuticals because they can be formulated with nontoxic food ingredients to form stable emulsions. In this study, 40-100 nm starch nanocrystals (SNCs) prepared from acid hydrolysis of waxy maize starches were used ...

  13. Passivation effects in B doped self-assembled Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puthen Veettil, B.; Wu, Lingfeng; Jia, Xuguang; Lin, Ziyun; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Terry; Johnson, Craig; Conibeer, Gavin; Perez-Würfl, Ivan; McCamey, Dane

    2014-01-01

    Doping of semiconductor nanocrystals has enabled their widespread technological application in optoelectronics and micro/nano-electronics. In this work, boron-doped self-assembled silicon nanocrystal samples have been grown and characterised using Electron Spin Resonance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The passivation effects of boron on the interface dangling bonds have been investigated. Addition of boron dopants is found to compensate the active dangling bonds at the interface, and this is confirmed by an increase in photoluminescence intensity. Further addition of dopants is found to reduce the photoluminescence intensity by decreasing the minority carrier lifetime as a result of the increased number of non-radiative processes

  14. Organic-Inorganic Composites of Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Efficient Excitonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2015-06-18

    Nanocomposites of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals integrated into conjugated polymers are the key to soft-material hybrid optoelectronics, combining advantages of both plastics and particles. Synergic combination of the favorable properties in the hybrids of colloidal nanocrystals and conjugated polymers offers enhanced performance and new functionalities in light-generation and light-harvesting applications, where controlling and mastering the excitonic interactions at the nanoscale are essential. In this Perspective, we highlight and critically consider the excitonic interactions in the organic-inorganic nanocomposites to achieve highly efficient exciton transfer through rational design of the nanocomposites. The use of strong excitonic interactions in optoelectronic devices can trigger efficiency breakthroughs in hybrid optoelectronics.

  15. Acceptors in ZnO nanocrystals: A reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhoff, W.; Hoffmann, A.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent article, Teklemichael et al. reported on the identification of an uncompensated acceptor in ZnO nanocrystals using infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the dark and under illumination. Most of their conclusions, interpretations, and suggestions turned out to be erroneous. The observed EPR signals were interpreted to originate from axial and nonaxial VZn-H defects. We show that the given interpretation of the EPR results is based on misinterpretations of EPR spectra arising from defects in nanocrystals. The explanation of the infrared absorption lines is in conflict with recent results of valence band ordering and valence band splitting.

  16. Processing of Polymer Nanocomposites Reinforced with Polysaccharide Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dufresne

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous suspensions of polysaccharide (cellulose, chitin or starch nanocrystals can be prepared by acid hydrolysis of biomass. The main problem with their practical use is related to the homogeneous dispersion of these nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. Water is the preferred processing medium. A new and interesting way for the processing of polysaccharide nanocrystals-based nanocomposites is their transformation into a co-continuous material through long chain surface chemical modification. It involves the surface chemical modification of the nanoparticles based on the use of grafting agents bearing a reactive end group and a long compatibilizing tail.

  17. Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals via ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, D.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Hansen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents for the precipit......A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents...

  18. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D'Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.

  19. Photoluminescence of hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prtljaga, Nikola; D'Amato, Elvira; Pitanti, Alessandro; Guider, Romain; Froner, Elena; Larcheri, Silvia; Scarpa, Marina; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2011-05-01

    Stable aqueous solutions of undecylenic-acid-grafted silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) were prepared. The time evolution of the photoluminescence properties of these hydrophilic silicon nanocrystals has been followed on different timescales (hours and days). On a short timescale (hours), Si-nc tend to agglomerate while the PL lineshape and intensity are stable. Agglomeration can be reduced by using suitable surfactants. On a long timescale (days), oxidation of Si-nc occurs even in the presence of surfactants. These two observations render Si-nc very useful as a labeling agent for biosensing.