WorldWideScience

Sample records for nanochemistry nanomagnetism nanomedicine

  1. Nanochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    The second edition of Nanochemistry covers the main studies of nanoparticle production, reactions, and compounds, and reviews the work of leading scientists from around the world. This book is the first monograph on nanochemistry, giving perspectives on the present status and future possibilities in this rapidly advancing discipline. It provides the solid fundamentals and theory of nanoscience, and progress through topics including synthesis and stabilization of nanoparticles, cryochemistry of metal atoms and nanoparticles, chemical nanoreactors, and more. Nanoparticles are capable of transfor

  2. Iron oxide-based nanomagnets in nanomedicine: fabrication and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Meng Lin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide-based nanomagnets have attracted a great deal of attention in nanomedicine over the past decade. Down to the nanoscale, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can only be magnetized in the presence of an external magnetic field, which makes them capable of forming stable colloids in a physio-biological medium. Their superparamagnetic property, together with other intrinsic properties, such as low cytotoxicity, colloidal stability, and bioactive molecule conjugation capability, makes such nanomagnets ideal in both in-vitro and in-vivo biomedical applications. In this review, a chemical, physical, and biological synthetic approach to prepare iron oxide-based nanomagnets with different physicochemical properties was illustrated and compared. The growing interest in iron oxide-based nanomagnets with multifunctionalities was explored in cancer diagnostics and treatment, focusing on their combined roles in a magnetic resonance contrast agent, hyperthermia, and magnetic force assisted drug delivery. Iron oxides as magnetic carriers in gene therapy were reviewed with a focus on the sophisticated design and construction of magnetic vectors. Finally, the iron oxide-based nanomagnet also represents a very promising tool in particle/cell interfacing in controlling cellular functionalities, such as adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, and cell patterning, in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. Meng Meng Lin received a BSc in biotechnology at the University of Hong Kong, China in 2004 and an MSc in biomedical nanotechnology at Newcastle University, UK, in 2005. She is currently working toward her PhD at the Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, UK. She was a visiting student at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, in 2006. Her research interests include nanoparticles preparation, cell/nanomaterials interface, and cancer-oriented drug delivery. Hyung-Hwan Kim received an MSc degree in

  3. Nanochemistry of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, Gleb B

    2001-01-01

    The results of studies on the nanochemistry of metals published in recent years are generalised. Primary attention is centred on the methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their chemical reactions. The means of stabilisation of nanoparticles which involve individual metals and incorporate atoms of several metals are considered as well as their physicochemical properties. Self-assembling processes of nanoparticles are described. The prospects of using metal nanoparticles in semiconductor devices, catalysis, biology and medicine are discussed. The bibliography includes 165 references.

  4. Molecular nanomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Gatteschi, Dante; Villain, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Nanomagnetism is a rapidly expanding area of research which appears to be able to provide novel applications. Magnetic molecules are at the very bottom of the possible size of nanomagnets and they provide a unique opportunity to observe the coexistence of classical and quantum properties. The discovery in the early 90's that a cluster comprising twelve manganese ions shows hysteresis of molecular origin, and later proved evidence of quantum effects, opened a new research area whichis still flourishing through the collaboration of chemists and physicists. This book is the first attempt to cover

  5. Nanomagnetic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, David Bryan

    The exponential improvements in speed, energy efficiency, and cost that the computer industry has relied on for growth during the last 50 years are in danger of ending within the decade. These improvements all have relied on scaling the size of the silicon-based transistor that is at the heart of every modern CPU down to smaller and smaller length scales. However, as the size of the transistor reaches scales that are measured in the number of atoms that make it up, it is clear that this scaling cannot continue forever. As a result of this, there has been a great deal of research effort directed at the search for the next device that will continue to power the growth of the computer industry. However, due to the billions of dollars of investment that conventional silicon transistors have received over the years, it is unlikely that a technology will emerge that will be able to beat it outright in every performance category. More likely, different devices will possess advantages over conventional transistors for certain applications and uses. One of these emerging computing platforms is nanomagnetic logic (NML). NML-based circuits process information by manipulating the magnetization states of single-domain nanomagnets coupled to their nearest neighbors through magnetic dipole interactions. The state variable is magnetization direction and computations can take place without passing an electric current. This makes them extremely attractive as a replacement for conventional transistor-based computing architectures for certain ultra-low power applications. In most work to date, nanomagnetic logic circuits have used an external magnetic clocking field to reset the system between computations. The clocking field is then subsequently removed very slowly relative to the magnetization dynamics, guiding the nanomagnetic logic circuit adiabatically into its magnetic ground state. In this dissertation, I will discuss the dynamics behind this process and show that it is greatly

  6. Personalized nanomedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Rizzo, L.Y.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Personalized medicine aims to individualize chemotherapeutic interventions on the basis of ex vivo and in vivo information on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. By noninvasively visualizing how well image-guided nanomedicines-that is, submicrometer-sized drug delivery systems

  7. Nanomagnetism and spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinjo, Teruya

    2014-01-01

    The concise and accessible chapters of Nanomagnetism and Spintronics, Second Edition, cover the most recent research in areas of spin-current generation, spin-calorimetric effect, voltage effects on magnetic properties, spin-injection phenomena, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR). Spintronics is a cutting-edge area in the field of magnetism that studies the interplay of magnetism and transport phenomena, demonstrating how electrons not only have charge but also spin. This second edition provides the background to understand this novel physical phenomeno

  8. Single-Molecule Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jonathan R.; Sarachik, Myriam P.

    2010-04-01

    Single-molecule magnets straddle the classical and quantum mechanical worlds, displaying many fascinating phenomena. They may have important technological applications in information storage and quantum computation. We review the physical properties of two prototypical molecular nanomagnets, Mn12-acetate and Fe8: Each behaves as a rigid, spin-10 object and exhibits tunneling between up and down directions. As temperature is lowered, the spin-reversal process evolves from thermal activation to pure quantum tunneling. At low temperatures, magnetic avalanches occur in which the magnetization of an entire sample rapidly reverses. We discuss the important role that symmetry-breaking fields play in driving tunneling and in producing Berry-phase interference. Recent experimental advances indicate that quantum coherence can be maintained on timescales sufficient to allow a meaningful number of quantum computing operations to be performed. Efforts are under way to create monolayers and to address and manipulate individual molecules.

  9. Superradiance From Molecular Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic dipolar transitions in individual magnetic molecules occur with a very low probability. However, typical wavelengths of the corresponding electromagnetic radiation are in the millimeter range, that is, comparable to the crystal size. This may result in the superradiance: The coherent emission of the electromagnetic radiation by the entire crystal, with the rate increased by the total number of molecules as compared to the rate of the individual emission. Rigorous theory of the superradiant resonant magnetic relaxation will be presented, that generalizes the Landau-Zener effect for the case of a macroscopic number of magnetic molecules coupled through the electromagnetic radiation [1]. Possible evidence of coherent electromagnetic effects in crystals of molecular nanomagnets placed inside a resonant cavity will be reported [2]. (This work has been supported by the NSF grant No. DMR-9978882.) [1] E. M. Chudnovsky and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 157201 (7 Oct 2002). [2] J. Tejada, E. M. Chudnovsky, R. Amigo, and J. M. Hernandez, cond-mat/0210340 (16 Oct 2002).

  10. Nano-magnetic particles used in biomedicine: core and coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Z; Karimi, L; Shokrollahi, H

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for medical applications have been developed by many researchers. Separation, immunoassay, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging and hyperthermia are enhanced by the use of suitable magnetic nanoparticles and coating materials in the form of ferrofluids. Due to their low biocompatibility and low dispersion in water solutions, nanoparticles that are used for biomedical applications require surface treatment. Various kinds of coating materials including organic materials (polymers), inorganic metals (gold, platinum) or metal oxides (aluminum oxide, cobalt oxide) have been attracted during the last few years. Based on the recent advances and the importance of nanomedicine in human life, this paper attempts to give a brief summary on the different ferrite nano-magnetic particles and coatings used in nanomedicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Development trend of nanomedicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has had a great impact on science, technology, and society since 2000, and its applications in medicine are also progressing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this review, international trends in nanomedicine regulation are introduced, including the definition of nanomedicines and the evaluation of liposomes and iron nanoparticles.

  12. Nanomedicine: Governing uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolino, Antonella

    Nanomedicine is a promising and revolutionary field to improve medical diagnoses and therapies leading to a higher quality of life for everybody. Huge benefits are expected from nanomedicine applications such as in diagnostic and therapeutic field. However, nanomedicine poses several issues on risks to the human health. This thesis aims to defense a perspective of risk governance that sustains scientific knowledge process by developing guidelines and providing the minimum safety standards acceptable to protect the human health. Although nanomedicine is in an early stage of its discovery, some cautious measures are required to provide regulatory mechanisms able to response to the unique set of challenges associated to nanomedicine. Nanotechnology offers an unique opportunity to intensify a major interplay between different disciplines such as science and law. This multidisciplinary approach can positively contributes to find reliable regulatory choices and responsive normative tools in dealing with challenges of novel technologies.

  13. Handbook of nanomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Kewal K

    2012-01-01

    In its updated and reorganized second edition, this handbook captures the latest advances in nanomedicine applied to researching the pathomechanism of disease, refining molecular diagnostics, and aiding in the discovery, development, and delivery of drugs.

  14. Superradiance from crystals of molecular nanomagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A

    2002-10-07

    We show that crystals of molecular nanomagnets can exhibit giant magnetic relaxation due to the Dicke superradiance of electromagnetic waves. Rigorous theory is presented that combines superradiance with the Landau-Zener effect.

  15. The clinical nanomedicine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Designed to foster a stronger awareness and exploration of the subject by practicing clinicians, medical researchers and scientists, The Clinical Nanomedicine Handbook discusses the integration of nanotechnology, biology, and medicine from a clinical point of view. The book highlights relevant research and applications by specialty; it examines nanotechnology in depth, and the potential to solve medical problems. It also increases literacy in nanotechnology, and allows for more effective communication and collaboration between disciplines. Details worldwide developments in nanomedicine Provide

  16. Horizons in clinical nanomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine-the application of nanotechnology to health sciences-has the potential to address many important medical problems by exploiting the advanced physicochemical characteristics of nanostructured materials and devices. It can revolutionize conventional medicine by offering cutting-edge developments in the processes of diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases, injuries, or genetic disorders. Thus, clinical nanomedicine holds promise to preserve and improve human health.This book provides a comprehensive overview on the forefront developments of nanotechnology in various domains of

  17. Computational logic with square rings of nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arava, Hanu; Derlet, Peter M.; Vijayakumar, Jaianth; Cui, Jizhai; Bingham, Nicholas S.; Kleibert, Armin; Heyderman, Laura J.

    2018-06-01

    Nanomagnets are a promising low-power alternative to traditional computing. However, the successful implementation of nanomagnets in logic gates has been hindered so far by a lack of reliability. Here, we present a novel design with dipolar-coupled nanomagnets arranged on a square lattice to (i) support transfer of information and (ii) perform logic operations. We introduce a thermal protocol, using thermally active nanomagnets as a means to perform computation. Within this scheme, the nanomagnets are initialized by a global magnetic field and thermally relax on raising the temperature with a resistive heater. We demonstrate error-free transfer of information in chains of up to 19 square rings and we show a high level of reliability with successful gate operations of ∼94% across more than 2000 logic gates. Finally, we present a functionally complete prototype NAND/NOR logic gate that could be implemented for advanced logic operations. Here we support our experiments with simulations of the thermally averaged output and determine the optimal gate parameters. Our approach provides a new pathway to a long standing problem concerning reliability in the use of nanomagnets for computation.

  18. Image-Guided Cancer Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional nanoparticles with superior imaging properties and therapeutic effects have been extensively developed for the nanomedicine. However, tumor-intrinsic barriers and tumor heterogeneity have resulted in low in vivo therapeutic efficacy. The poor in vivo targeting efficiency in passive and active targeting of nano-therapeutics along with the toxicity of nanoparticles has been a major problem in nanomedicine. Recently, image-guided nanomedicine, which can deliver nanoparticles locally using non-invasive imaging and interventional oncology techniques, has been paid attention as a new opportunity of nanomedicine. This short review will discuss the existing challenges in nanomedicine and describe the prospects for future image-guided nanomedicine.

  19. Sweet Nanochemistry: A Fast, Reliable Alternative Synthesis of Yellow Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Using Benign Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason; Hebert, Dominique; Kelly, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a convenient and reliable laboratory experiment in nanochemistry that is flexible and adaptable to a wide range of educational settings. The rapid preparation of yellow colloidal silver nanoparticles is achieved by glucose reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of starch and sodium citrate in gently boiling water, using…

  20. Interlocked systems in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Catia; Becher, Tiago B; Megiatto, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected to provide solutions to some of modern medicine's unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine. The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and gene delivery systems.

  1. Nanomagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Skomski, R

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic nanostructures, such as dots and dot arrays, nanowires, multilayers and nanojunctions, are reviewed and compared with bulk magnets. The emphasis is on the involved physics, but some applications are also outlined, including permanent magnets, soft magnets, magnetic recording media, sensors, and structures and materials for spin electronics. The considered structural length scales range from a few interatomic distances to about one micrometre, bridging the gap between atomic-scale magnetism and the macroscopic magnetism of extended bulk and thin-film magnets. This leads to a rich variety of physical phenomena, differently affecting intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. Some specific phenomena discussed in this review are exchange-spring magnetism, random-anisotropy scaling, narrow-wall and constricted-wall phenomena, Curie temperature changes due to nanostructuring and nanoscale magnetization dynamics. (topical review)

  2. Integration of spintronic interface for nanomagnetic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lyle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental demonstration utilizing a spintronic input/output (I/O interface for arrays of closely spaced nanomagnets is presented. The free layers of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs form dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays which can be applied to different contexts including Magnetic Quantum Cellular Automata (MQCA for logic applications and self-biased devices for field sensing applications. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays demonstrate adaptability to a variety of contexts due to the ability for tuning of magnetic response. Spintronics allows individual nanomagnets to be manipulated with spin transfer torque and monitored with magnetoresistance. This facilitates measurement of the magnetic coupling which is important for (yet to be demonstrated data propagation reliability studies. In addition, the same magnetic coupling can be tuned to reduce coercivity for field sensing. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays have the potential to be thousands of times more energy efficient than CMOS technology for logic applications, and they also have the potential to form multi-axis field sensors.

  3. Diverse Applications of Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The design and use of materials in the nanoscale size range for addressing medical and health-related issues continues to receive increasing interest. Research in nanomedicine spans a multitude of areas, including drug delivery, vaccine development, antibacterial, diagnosis and imaging tools, wearable devices, implants, high-throughput screening platforms, etc. using biological, nonbiological, biomimetic, or hybrid materials. Many of these developments are starting to be translated into viable clinical products. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in nanomedicine and highlight the current challenges and upcoming opportunities for the field and translation to the clinic. PMID:28290206

  4. Fucoidans in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Lucas; Saboural, Pierre; Chauvierre, Cédric; Villemin, Jean-Noël; Letourneur, Didier; Chaubet, Frédéric

    2016-07-29

    Fucoidans are widespread cost-effective sulfated marine polysaccharides which have raised interest in the scientific community over last decades for their wide spectrum of bioactivities. Unsurprisingly, nanomedicine has grasped these compounds to develop innovative therapeutic and diagnostic nanosystems. The applications of fucoidans in nanomedicine as imaging agents, drug carriers or for their intrinsic properties are reviewed here after a short presentation of the main structural data and biological properties of fucoidans. The origin and the physicochemical specifications of fucoidans are summarized in order to discuss the strategy of fucoidan-containing nanosystems in Human health. Currently, there is a need for reproducible, well characterized fucoidan fractions to ensure significant progress.

  5. Patents and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  6. Underwater Leidenfrost nanochemistry for creation of size-tailored zinc peroxide cancer nanotherapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbahri, Mady; Abdelaziz, Ramzy; Disci-Zayed, Duygu; Homaeigohar, Shahin; Sosna, Justyna; Adam, Dieter; Kienle, Lorenz; Dankwort, Torben; Abdelaziz, Moheb

    2017-05-01

    The dynamic underwater chemistry seen in nature is inspiring for the next generation of eco-friendly nanochemistry. In this context, green synthesis of size-tailored nanoparticles in a facile and scalable manner via a dynamic process is an interesting challenge. Simulating the volcano-induced dynamic chemistry of the deep ocean, here we demonstrate the Leidenfrost dynamic chemistry occurring in an underwater overheated confined zone as a new tool for customized creation of nanoclusters of zinc peroxide. The hydrodynamic nature of the phenomenon ensures eruption of the nanoclusters towards a much colder region, giving rise to growth of monodisperse, size-tailored nanoclusters. Such nanoparticles are investigated in terms of their cytotoxicity on suspension and adherent cells to prove their applicability as cancer nanotherapeutics. Our research can pave the way for employment of the dynamic green nanochemistry in facile, scalable fabrication of size-tailored nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  7. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  8. Nanomedicine science, business, and impact

    CERN Document Server

    Hehenberger, Michael

    2015-01-01

    By covering the science, business, and societal impact of nanomedicine, this book makes a strong case for funding of basic research, for effective translation of scientific breakthroughs into clinical care of patients, and for close collaboration among all stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem. It covers the underlying science and technology of nanomedicine in detail to help understand the great promise of nanomedicine across all disease areas. Although rich and deep in content, the book attempts to introduce the topic of nanomedicine to a wide audience. Scientific jargon is avoided and adv

  9. Synthesis and optimization of chitosan nanoparticles: Potential applications in nanomedicine and biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadi, Arezou; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Talebnia, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles have become of great interest for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering and development of new therapeutic drug release systems with improved bioavailability, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. The aim of the present study was to synthesis and optimize of the chitosan nanoparticles for industrial and biomedical applications. Fe3O4 was synthesized and optimized as magnetic core nanoparticles and then chitosan covered this magnetic core. The size and morphology of the nano-magnetic chitosan was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Topography and size distribution of the nanoparticles were shown with two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanoparticles were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The chitosan nanoparticles prepared in the experiment exhibited white powder shape. The SEM micrographs of the nano-magnetic chitosan showed that they were approximately uniform spheres. The unmodified chitosan nanoparticles composed of clusters of nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm. AFM provides a three-dimensional surface profile. The TEM image showed physical aggregation of the chitosan nanoparticles. The results show that a novel chitosan nanoparticle was successfully synthesized and characterized. It seems that this nanoparticle like the other chitosan nano particles has potential applications for nanomedicine, biomedical engineering, industrial and pharmaceutical fields.

  10. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  11. New Strategies in Cancer Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Rong; Kohane, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in cancer nanomedicine, including stimulus-responsive drug delivery systems and nanoparticles responding to light for phototherapy or tumor imaging. In addition, several new strategies to improve the circulation of nanoparticles in vivo, tumor penetration, and tumor targeting are discussed. The application of nanomedicine in cancer immunology, a relatively new type of cancer therapy, is also highlighted.

  12. Public optimism towards nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Massimo; Rosato, Nicola; Gloria, Fulvia; Adanti, Sara; Corradino, Nunziella; Bergamaschi, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Previous benefit-risk perception studies and social experiences have clearly demonstrated that any emerging technology platform that ignores benefit-risk perception by citizens might jeopardize its public acceptability and further development. The aim of this survey was to investigate the Italian judgment on nanotechnology and which demographic and heuristic variables were most influential in shaping public perceptions of the benefits and risks of nanotechnology. In this regard, we investigated the role of four demographic (age, gender, education, and religion) and one heuristic (knowledge) predisposing factors. The present study shows that gender, education, and knowledge (but not age and religion) influenced the Italian perception of how nanotechnology will (positively or negatively) affect some areas of everyday life in the next twenty years. Furthermore, the picture that emerged from our study is that Italian citizens, despite minimal familiarity with nanotechnology, showed optimism towards nanotechnology applications, especially those related to health and medicine (nanomedicine). The high regard for nanomedicine was tied to the perception of risks associated with environmental and societal implications (division among social classes and increased public expenses) rather than health issues. However, more highly educated people showed greater concern for health issues but this did not decrease their strong belief about the benefits that nanotechnology would bring to medical fields. The results reported here suggest that public optimism towards nanomedicine appears to justify increased scientific effort and funding for medical applications of nanotechnology. It also obligates toxicologists, politicians, journalists, entrepreneurs, and policymakers to establish a more responsible dialog with citizens regarding the nature and implications of this emerging technology platform.

  13. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Ninan, Neethu

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the power to radically change the way cancer is diagnosed, imaged, and treated. The holistic approach to cancer involves noninvasive procedures that emphasize restoring the health of human energy fields. Presenting a wealth of information and research about the most potent cancer healing therapies, this forward-thinking book explores how nanomedicine, holistic medicine, and other cancer therapies play important roles in treatment of this disease. Topics include nanobiotechnology for antibacterial therapy and diagnosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer, antioxidants and combinatorial therapies, and optical and mechanical investigations of nanostructures for biomolecular detection.

  14. [Nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanopharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pedro Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Based on Nanotechnology methods, Nanomedicine and Nanotecnology will obtain significant advances in areas such as Diagnostic, Regenerative Medicine and pharmacological Therapeutics. With nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems,important improvement on pharmacokinetics of drugs will take place, due to increased solubility, protection against decrease in drug effects due to excessive metabolism and subsequent increase of bioavailability. Improvement on pharmacodynamic parameters will occur also due to increased drug concentration in target tissues. Also the use of Nanotechnology in the modern pharmacology will serve for a more accurate control of doses, which will decrease significantly drug toxicity.

  15. Nanomedicine highlights in atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and many different approaches have been attempted for its accurate diagnosis and treatment. The disease is induced by a low-grade inflammatory process in the vascular wall, leading through a cascade of events to the eventual formation of atheromatous plaque and arterial stenosis. Different types of cells participate in the process making more difficult to recognize the potential cellular targets within the plaques for their effective treatment. The rise of nanomedicine over the last decade has provided new types of drug delivery nanosystems that are able to be delivered to a specific diseased site of the vessel for imaging while simultaneously act as therapeutic agents. In this paper, a review of the recent advances in nanomedicine that has provided novel insights to the disease diagnosis and treatment will be given in line with different nanotechnology-based approaches to advance the cardiovascular stents. The main complications of bare metal stents such as restenosis and of drug-eluting stents which is the late stent thrombosis are analyzed to comprehend the demand for emerging therapeutic strategies based on nanotechnology.

  16. Nanomedicine highlights in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara, E-mail: vakaragk@physics.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nanomedicine Group, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Physics Department (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and many different approaches have been attempted for its accurate diagnosis and treatment. The disease is induced by a low-grade inflammatory process in the vascular wall, leading through a cascade of events to the eventual formation of atheromatous plaque and arterial stenosis. Different types of cells participate in the process making more difficult to recognize the potential cellular targets within the plaques for their effective treatment. The rise of nanomedicine over the last decade has provided new types of drug delivery nanosystems that are able to be delivered to a specific diseased site of the vessel for imaging while simultaneously act as therapeutic agents. In this paper, a review of the recent advances in nanomedicine that has provided novel insights to the disease diagnosis and treatment will be given in line with different nanotechnology-based approaches to advance the cardiovascular stents. The main complications of bare metal stents such as restenosis and of drug-eluting stents which is the late stent thrombosis are analyzed to comprehend the demand for emerging therapeutic strategies based on nanotechnology.

  17. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Understanding nanomedicine an introductory textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Rob

    2012-01-01

    "This book is a comprehensive effort to introduce the diverse field of nanomedicine to students. I know of nothing else like it on the market."-Prof. Rockford K. Draper - University of Texas at Dallas, USA"In a single book, Dr. Burgess has done an excellent job in providing the much-needed background in the numerous physical, chemical, and biological methods that are used to enable nanomedicine. This book will be a useful reference for any student in the field of nanomedicine and describes many examples where nanotechnology promises to improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of disease"-Dr. Gareth Hughes - Medical Nanotechnologies, Inc., USA.

  19. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  20. Current-induced magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Serpico, C.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Bonin, R.; D'Aquino, M.

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of the various approaches that have been proposed for the interpretation of spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics. Models of critical currents and critical fields for switching as well as for the onset of magnetization oscillations are discussed, together with methods for the construction of field-current stability diagrams. Finally, the role of thermal fluctuations is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the study of uniformly magnetized nanomagnets, which represents an essential step before moving to the numerical computation of more complex micromagnetic configurations

  1. Current-induced magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertotti, G. [INRIM-Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: g.bertotti@inrim.it; Serpico, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bonin, R. [INRIM-Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Turin (Italy); D' Aquino, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita degli Studi Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    An overview is given of the various approaches that have been proposed for the interpretation of spin-transfer-driven magnetization dynamics. Models of critical currents and critical fields for switching as well as for the onset of magnetization oscillations are discussed, together with methods for the construction of field-current stability diagrams. Finally, the role of thermal fluctuations is analyzed. Particular emphasis is given to the study of uniformly magnetized nanomagnets, which represents an essential step before moving to the numerical computation of more complex micromagnetic configurations.

  2. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  3. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  4. Nanomedicine in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambesh, Paurush; Campia, Umberto; Obiagwu, Chukwudi; Bansal, Rashika; Shetty, Vijay; Hollander, Gerald; Shani, Jacob

    Nanomedicine is one of the most promising therapeutic modalities researchers are working on. It involves development of drugs and devices that work at the nanoscale (10-9m). Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than a third of all deaths in age group >35 years. With such a huge burden of mortality, CAD is one of the diseases where nanomedicine is being employed for preventive and therapeutic interventions. Nanomedicine can effectively deliver focused drug payload at sites of local plaque formation. Non-invasive strategies include thwarting angiogenesis, intra-arterial thrombosis and local inflammation. Invasive strategies following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) include anti-restenosis and healing enhancement. However, before practical application becomes widespread, many challenges need to be dealt with. These include manufacturing at the nanoscale, direct nanomaterial cellular toxicity and visualization. Copyright © 2017 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanomedicine and the nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Colin R; Hunter, Ross J

    2012-01-01

    The nanosciences encompass a variety of technologies ranging from particles to networks and nanostructures. Nanoparticles can be suitable carriers of therapeutic agents, and nanostructures provide suitable platforms and scaffolds for sub-micro bioengineering. This book focuses on nanomedicine and nanotechnology as applied to the nervous system and the brain. It covers nanoparticle-based immunoassays, nanofiber microbrush arrays, nanoelectrodes, protein nanoassemblies, nanoparticles-assisted imaging, nanomaterials, and ion channels. Additional topics include stem cell imaging, neuronal performa

  6. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantum Effects in Molecule-Based Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Research into molecule-based-magnets has made immense strides in recent years, with the discoveries of all organic molecular magnets, room temperature 3D ordered permanent magnets, and single-molecule magnets (SMMs), the latter exhibiting a host of spectacular quantum phenomena; for a review, see ref. [1]. SMMs represent a molecular approach to nanoscale and sub-nanoscale magnetic particles. They offer all of the advantages of molecular chemistry as well as displaying the superparamagnetic properties of mesoscale magnetic particles of much larger dimensions. They also straddle the interface between classical and quantum behavior; for example, they exhibit quantum tunneling of their magnetization. I will give a general introduction to this area of research, followed by an overview of recent results obtained using high-frequency (40-800 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance techniques developed at the University of Florida. These results include: an elucidation of the role of molecular symmetry in the magnetic quantum tunneling phenomenon [2]; and the observation of quantum entanglement between pairs of nanomagnets within a supramolecular dimer [3]. 1. D. Gatteschi and R. Sessoli, Angew. Chem. 42, 268 (2003). 2. E. del Barco et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 140, 119-174 (2005). 3. S. Hill et al., Science 302, 1015 (2003).

  8. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  9. Phonon superradiance and phonon laser effect in nanomagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, E M; Garanin, D A

    2004-12-17

    We show that the theory of spin-phonon processes in paramagnetic solids must take into account the coherent generation of phonons by the magnetic centers. This effect should drastically enhance spin-phonon rates in nanoscale paramagnets and in crystals of molecular nanomagnets.

  10. Recent advances in basic and clinical nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, K John; Bawa, Raj; Wei, Chiming

    2007-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a global business enterprise. Industry and governments clearly are beginning to envision nanomedicine's enormous potential. A clear definition of nanotechnology is an issue that requires urgent attention. This problem exists because nanotechnology represents a cluster of technologies, each of which may have different characteristics and applications. Although numerous novel nanomedicine-related applications are under development or nearing commercialization, the process of converting basic research in nanomedicine into commercially viable products will be long and difficult. Although realization of the full potential of nanomedicine may be years or decades away, recent advances in nanotechnology-related drug delivery, diagnosis, and drug development are beginning to change the landscape of medicine. Site-specific targeted drug delivery and personalized medicine are just a few concepts that are on the horizon.

  11. Cancer nanomedicine: from drug delivery to imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Ho, Dean

    2013-12-18

    Nanotechnology-based chemotherapeutics and imaging agents represent a new era of "cancer nanomedicine" working to deliver versatile payloads with favorable pharmacokinetics and capitalize on molecular and cellular targeting for enhanced specificity, efficacy, and safety. Despite the versatility of many nanomedicine-based platforms, translating new drug or imaging agents to the clinic is costly and often hampered by regulatory hurdles. Therefore, translating cancer nanomedicine may largely be application-defined, where materials are adapted only toward specific indications where their properties confer unique advantages. This strategy may also realize therapies that can optimize clinical impact through combinatorial nanomedicine. In this review, we discuss how particular materials lend themselves to specific applications, the progress to date in clinical translation of nanomedicine, and promising approaches that may catalyze clinical acceptance of nano.

  12. Nanomedicine and the complement paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, S Moein; Farhangrazi, Z Shadi

    2013-05-01

    The role of complement in idiosyncratic reactions to nanopharmaceutical infusion is receiving increasing attention. We discuss this in relation to nanopharmaceutical development and the possible use of complement inhibitors to prevent related adverse reactions. We further call on initiation of genetic association studies to unravel the genetic basis of nanomedicine infusion-related adverse responses, since most of the polymorphic genes in the genome belong to the immune system. In this paper, idiosyncratic reactions based on complement activation are discussed in the context of newly available complement inhibitors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complement: Alive and Kicking Nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2009-01-01

    Administration of liposome- and polymer-based clinical nanomedicines, as well as many other proposed multifunctional nanoparticles, often triggers hypersensitivity reactions without the involvement of IgE. These anaphylactic reactions are believed to be secondary to activation of the complement...... their procoagulant activity, and has the capacity to elicit non-lytic stimulatory responses from vascular endothelial cells. Here we discuss the molecular basis of complement activation by liposomes, including poly(ethylene glycol) coated vesicles, and other related lipid-based and phospholipid-poly(ethylene glycol...

  14. Personalized Nanomedicine: A Revolution at the Nanoscale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fornaguera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary research field that results from the application of nanotechnology to medicine and has the potential to significantly improve some current treatments. Specifically, in the field of personalized medicine, it is expected to have a great impact in the near future due to its multiple advantages, namely its versatility to adapt a drug to a cohort of patients. In the present review, the properties and requirements of pharmaceutical dosage forms at the nanoscale, so-called nanomedicines, are been highlighted. An overview of the main current nanomedicines in pre-clinical and clinical development is presented, detailing the challenges to the personalization of these therapies. Next, the process of development of novel nanomedicines is described, from their design in research labs to their arrival on the market, including considerations for the design of nanomedicines adapted to the requirements of the market to achieve safe, effective, and quality products. Finally, attention is given to the point of view of the pharmaceutical industry, including regulation issues applied to the specific case of personalized medicine. The authors expect this review to be a useful overview of the current state of the art of nanomedicine research and industrial production, and the future opportunities of personalized medicine in the upcoming years. The authors encourage the development and marketing of novel personalized nanomedicines.

  15. Personalized Nanomedicine: A Revolution at the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Celma, Maria José

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary research field that results from the application of nanotechnology to medicine and has the potential to significantly improve some current treatments. Specifically, in the field of personalized medicine, it is expected to have a great impact in the near future due to its multiple advantages, namely its versatility to adapt a drug to a cohort of patients. In the present review, the properties and requirements of pharmaceutical dosage forms at the nanoscale, so-called nanomedicines, are been highlighted. An overview of the main current nanomedicines in pre-clinical and clinical development is presented, detailing the challenges to the personalization of these therapies. Next, the process of development of novel nanomedicines is described, from their design in research labs to their arrival on the market, including considerations for the design of nanomedicines adapted to the requirements of the market to achieve safe, effective, and quality products. Finally, attention is given to the point of view of the pharmaceutical industry, including regulation issues applied to the specific case of personalized medicine. The authors expect this review to be a useful overview of the current state of the art of nanomedicine research and industrial production, and the future opportunities of personalized medicine in the upcoming years. The authors encourage the development and marketing of novel personalized nanomedicines. PMID:29023366

  16. Personalized Nanomedicine: A Revolution at the Nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaguera, Cristina; García-Celma, Maria José

    2017-10-12

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary research field that results from the application of nanotechnology to medicine and has the potential to significantly improve some current treatments. Specifically, in the field of personalized medicine, it is expected to have a great impact in the near future due to its multiple advantages, namely its versatility to adapt a drug to a cohort of patients. In the present review, the properties and requirements of pharmaceutical dosage forms at the nanoscale, so-called nanomedicines, are been highlighted. An overview of the main current nanomedicines in pre-clinical and clinical development is presented, detailing the challenges to the personalization of these therapies. Next, the process of development of novel nanomedicines is described, from their design in research labs to their arrival on the market, including considerations for the design of nanomedicines adapted to the requirements of the market to achieve safe, effective, and quality products. Finally, attention is given to the point of view of the pharmaceutical industry, including regulation issues applied to the specific case of personalized medicine. The authors expect this review to be a useful overview of the current state of the art of nanomedicine research and industrial production, and the future opportunities of personalized medicine in the upcoming years. The authors encourage the development and marketing of novel personalized nanomedicines.

  17. Theranostic nanomedicine for cancer detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Fu, Peter P; Yu, Hongtao; Ray, Paresh C

    2014-03-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, "theranostic nanomedicine", for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be "the right drug for the right patient at the right moment" to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Radionanomedicine combined nuclear and nanomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book describes radionanomedicine as an integrated medicine using exogenous and endogenous This book describes radionanomedicine as an integrated approach that uses exogenous and endogenous nanomaterials for in vivo and human applications. It comprehensively explains radionanomedicine comprising nuclear and nanomedicine, demonstrating that it is more than radionanodrugs and that radionanomedicine also takes advantage of nuclear medicine using trace technology, in which miniscule amounts of materials and tracer kinetic elucidate in vivo biodistribution. It also discusses exogenous nanomaterials such as inorganic silica, iron oxide, upconversion nanoparticles and quantum dots or organic liposomes labelled with radioisotopes, and radionanomaterials used for targeted delivery and imaging for theranostic purposes. Further, it examines endogenous nanomaterials i.e. extracellular vesicles labelled with radioisotopes, known as radiolabelled extracellular vesicles, as well as positron emission tomography (PET) an...

  19. Nanomedicine: The Medicine of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nowadays nanotechnology has become a technological field with great potential since it can be applied in almost every aspect of modern life. One of the sectors where nanotechnology is expected to play a vital role is the field of medical science. The interaction of nanotechnology with medicine gave birth to a completely new scientific field called nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is a field that aims to use the nanotechnology tools and principles in order to improve human health in every possible way. Nanotechnology provides monitoring tools and technology platforms that can be used in terms of detection, diagnostic, bioanalysis and imaging. New nanoscale drug-delivery systems are constantly designed with different morphological and chemical characteristics and unique specificity against tumours, offering a less harmful approach alternative to chemo- and radiotherapies. Furthermore, nanotechnology has led to great breakthroughs in the field of tissue engineering, making the replacement of damaged tissues and organs a much feasible procedure. The thorough analysis of bio and non-bio interactions achieved by versatile nanotools is essential for the design and development of highly performed medical implants. The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanostructures with properties and functionalities that can benefit patient's physiology faster and more effectively than conventional medical procedures and protocols. The number of nanoscale therapeutical products is rapidly growing since more and more nanomedical designs are reaching the global market. However the nanotoxic impact that these designs can have on human health is an era that requires still more investigation. The development of specific guidance documents at a European level for the safety evaluation of nanotechnology products in medicine is strongly recommended and the need for further research in nanotoxicology is identified. Ethical and moral concerns also need to be

  20. Nanomedicines: addressing the scientific and regulatory gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkle, Sally; McNeil, Scott E; Mühlebach, Stefan; Bawa, Raj; Borchard, Gerrit; Barenholz, Yechezkel Chezy; Tamarkin, Lawrence; Desai, Neil

    2014-04-01

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to the discipline of medicine: the use of nanoscale materials for the diagnosis, monitoring, control, prevention, and treatment of disease. Nanomedicine holds tremendous promise to revolutionize medicine across disciplines and specialties, but this promise has yet to be fully realized. Beyond the typical complications associated with drug development, the fundamentally different and novel physical and chemical properties of some nanomaterials compared to materials on a larger scale (i.e., their bulk counterparts) can create a unique set of opportunities as well as safety concerns, which have only begun to be explored. As the research community continues to investigate nanomedicines, their efficacy, and the associated safety issues, it is critical to work to close the scientific and regulatory gaps to assure that nanomedicine drives the next generation of biomedical innovation. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Tumor-targeted nanomedicines for cancer theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Twan; Shi, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drugs have multiple drawbacks, including severe side effects and suboptimal therapeutic efficacy. Nanomedicines assist in improving the biodistribution and the target accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs, and are therefore able to enhance the balance between efficacy and toxicity. Multiple different types of nanomedicines have been evaluated over the years, including liposomes, polymer-drug conjugates and polymeric micelles, which rely on strategies such as passive targeting, active targeting and triggered release for improved tumor-directed drug delivery. Based on the notion that tumors and metastases are highly heterogeneous, it is important to integrate imaging properties in nanomedicine formulations in order to enable non-invasive and quantitative assessment of targeting efficiency. By allowing for patient pre-selection, such next generation nanotheranostics are useful for facilitating clinical translation and personalizing nanomedicine treatments. PMID:27865762

  2. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  3. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O'Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease.

  4. Dynamic separation of nanomagnet sublattices by orientation of elliptical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, Y.; Berk, C. R.; Harteneck, B. D.; Cabrini, S. D.; Schmidt, H.

    2014-04-01

    We report the separation of the magnetization dynamics of densely packed nanomagnets depending on their orientation. The arrays consist of interleaved sublattices of identical nickel elliptical disks. By controlling the orientation of the elliptic disks relative to the external field in each sublattice, we simultaneously analyzed the magnetization dynamics in each sublattice using a time-resolved magnetooptic Kerr effect (TR-MOKE) microscopy system. The Fourier spectra showed clearly separated precession modes for sublattices with different orientations. The spectra were shown to be robust against the error in applied field orientation. The sublattice response can be tuned to a single collective frequency by choosing a symmetric field orientation. We analyzed the effect of the interelement coupling with various spacing between nanomagnets and found a relatively weak dependence on dipolar interactions in good agreement with micromagnetic simulations.

  5. Nanomedicine approaches in vascular disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anirban Sen

    2011-12-01

    Nanomedicine approaches have revolutionized the treatment of cancer and vascular diseases, where the limitations of rapid nonspecific clearance, poor biodistribution and harmful side effects associated with direct systemic drug administration can be overcome by packaging the agents within sterically stabilized, long-circulating nanovehicles that can be further surface-modified with ligands to actively target cellular/molecular components of the disease. With significant advancements in genetics, proteomics, cellular and molecular biology and biomaterials engineering, the nanomedicine strategies have become progressively refined regarding the modulation of surface and bulk chemistry of the nanovehicles, control of drug release kinetics, manipulation of nanoconstruct geometry and integration of multiple functionalities on single nanoplatforms. The current review aims to capture the various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades. Analysis of the promises and limitations of these approaches will help identify and optimize vascular nanomedicine systems to enhance their efficacy and clinical translation in the future. Nanomedicine-based approaches have had a major impact on the treatment and diagnosis of malignancies and vascular diseases. This review discusses various nanomedicine approaches directed specifically toward vascular diseases during the past two decades, highlighting their advantages, limitations and offering new perspectives on future applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EDITORIAL: Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice Opposites attract: nanomagnetism in theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    Putting theory into practice in nanotechnology can be far from trivial. Magnetic artificial atoms have been an example of the gulf that can sometimes separate idea from experiment. The step from regular semiconductor artificial atoms to magnetic may not confound the imagination, but it poses no mean fabrication challenge to experimental physicists. In this issue researchers in Germany have successfully fabricated a magnetic artificial atom [1]. As the researchers point out, the systems look promising for further study of the transport properties of 0D magnetic objects. Magnetic behavior in nanoscale systems has inspired a number of technological developments, such as energetically efficient digital logic circuitry [2]. Theory dictates that less energy is dissipated in the manipulation of nanomagnet logic bits than in the manipulation of electrical charges in transistor switches. Among the challenges when putting this into practice is the issue of sequential clocking. The nanomagnets' polarizations need to be rotated through 90° from the easy to the hard axis ready to be set before propagating the logic bits from one stage to the next. Ideally this would be a localized process to allow the efficiencies of a pipe-line computer architecture. Researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University in the US showed that a small voltage applied to a multiferroic nanomagnet can cause this polarization rotation [3]. They further showed that the switching delay of this process is not impracticably long, suggesting that the process is promising for logic circuits that are very fast as well as energy efficient [4]. Researchers in Germany have demonstrated magnetic force microscopy for high resolution imaging using a carbon nanotube filled with iron [5]. A magnetic dipole moment in the iron extends from end to end of the iron nanowire in the carbon nanotube. As a result of the extreme aspect ratio of the nanowire only the pole at one end is involved in the imaging process. The

  7. The big picture on nanomedicine: the state of investigational and approved nanomedicine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Michael L; Campbell, Stephen A; Erdman, Arthur G; Haynes, Christy L; Wolf, Susan M; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine's unsolved problems, so it is no surprise that the literature contains many articles discussing the subject. However, existing reviews tend to focus on specific sectors of nanomedicine or to take a very forward-looking stance and fail to provide a complete perspective on the current landscape. This article provides a more comprehensive and contemporary inventory of nanomedicine products. A keyword search of literature, clinical trial registries, and the Web yielded 247 nanomedicine products that are approved or in various stages of clinical study. Specific information on each was gathered, so the overall field could be described based on various dimensions, including FDA classification, approval status, nanoscale size, treated condition, nanostructure, and others. In addition to documenting the many nanomedicine products already in use in humans, this study identifies several interesting trends forecasting the future of nanomedicine. In this one of a kind review, the state of nanomedicine commercialization is discussed, concentrating only on nanomedicine-based developments and products that are either in clinical trials or have already been approved for use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of switching behavior of exchange-coupled nanomagnets by transverse magnetization metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Himadri S.; Csaba, Gyorgy; Bernstein, Gary H.; Porod, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the static switching modes of nanomagnets patterned from antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled magnetic multilayers, and compare them to nanomagnets having only dipole coupling between the ferromagnetic layers. Vibrating sample magnetometry experiments, supported by micromagnetic simulations, reveal two distinct switching mechanisms between the exchange-coupled and only dipole-coupled nanomagnets. The exchange-coupled nanomagnets exhibit gradual switching of the layers, dictated by the strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling present between the layers. However, the layers of the only dipole-coupled nanomagnets show abrupt nucleation/growth type switching. A comprehensive understanding of the switching modes of such layered and patterned systems can add new insight into the reversal mechanisms of similar systems employed for spintronic and magneto-logic device applications.

  9. Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yugyung; Lee, Chi H

    As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. For instance, AR glasses still being developed by Facebook or Microsoft will serve as new platform that can provide people with the health information they are interested in or various measures through which they can interact with medical services. This review has addressed the current progress and impact of AR on PNMs and its application to the biomedical field. Special emphasis is placed on the application of AR based PNMs to the treatment strategies against senior care, drug addiction and medication adherence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Targeting the Brain with Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Felix; Cruz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we review innovative nanomedicine-based approaches for treating, preventing and diagnosing neurodegenerative diseases. We focus on nanoscale systems such as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), liposomes, micelles and other vehicles (e.g. dendrimers, nanogels, nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions) for targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to the brain. To ensure maximum selectivity for optimal therapeutic or diagnostic results, researchers must employ delivery systems that are non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. This entails: (i) use of "safe" materials, such as polymers or lipids; (ii) targeting to the brain and, specifically, to the desired active site within the brain; (iii) controlled release of the loaded agent; and (iv) use of agents that, once released into the brain, will exhibit the desired pharmacologic activity. Here, we explore the design and preclinical use of representative delivery systems that have been proposed to date. We then analyze the principal challenges that have delayed clinical application of these and other approaches. Lastly, we look at future developments in this area, addressing the needs for increased penetration of the blood brain barrier (BBB), enhanced targeting of specific brain sites, improved therapeutic efficacy and lower neurotoxicity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Development of Nanomedicines for Treatment of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    expression and provided sustained inhibition of osteoclast formation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS nanomedicine, PTOA, DMM, osteoarthritis, prodrug, glucocorticoid ...KEYWORDS: Nanomedicine, PTOA, DMM, osteoarthritis, prodrug, glucocorticoid , dexamethasone, HPMA copolymer 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: What were the

  12. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjun; Kantoff, Philip W; Wooster, Richard; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies prompted the development and application of various nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, herein referred to as cancer nanomedicine. Considerable technological success has been achieved in this field, but the main obstacles to nanomedicine becoming a new paradigm in cancer therapy stem from the complexities and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an incomplete understanding of nano-bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls required for clinical translation and commercialization. This Review highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches that capitalize on our growing understanding of tumour biology and nano-bio interactions to develop more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients.

  13. Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet in an Optically Excited Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2007-12-01

    Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei shifts the optical transition energy close to resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of the quantum dot electron. As a result the optically selected single quantum dot represents a tiny magnet with the ferromagnetic ordering of nuclear spins—the nuclear spin nanomagnet.

  14. The Use of Silk in Nanomedicine Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiasson, Raymond; Hasan, Moaraj; Al Nazer, Q.

    2016-01-01

    Biopolymers made up of silk proteins have been used in numerous drug delivery applications and represent an excellent source of natural biomaterials. In particular silk fibroin has proved valuable as a building block for nanomedicines and drug delivery implants, owing to its favorable...... biocompatibility, degradation, stabilization and controllability. In this chapter we will discuss the various sources of silk biomaterial and how this naturally occurring biopolymer has been utilized in the development of nanomedicines and implantable drug delivery systems, demonstrating how silk is a unique...

  15. Regulating nanomedicine - can the FDA handle it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2011-05-01

    There is enormous excitement and expectation surrounding the multidisciplinary field of nanomedicine - the application of nanotechnology to healthcare - which is already influencing the pharmaceutical industry. This is especially true in the design, formulation and delivery of therapeutics. Currently, nanomedicine is poised at a critical stage. However, regulatory guidance in this area is generally lacking and critically needed to provide clarity and legal certainty to manufacturers, policymakers, healthcare providers as well as public. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of nanoproducts on the market for human use but little is known of their health risks, safety data and toxicity profiles. Less is known of nanoproducts that are released into the environment and that come in contact with humans. These nanoproducts, whether they are a drug, device, biologic or combination of any of these, are creating challenges for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as regulators struggle to accumulate data and formulate testing criteria to ensure development of safe and efficacious nanoproducts (products incorporating nanoscale technologies). Evidence continues to mount that many nanoproducts inherently posses novel size-based properties and toxicity profiles. Yet, this scientific fact has been generally ignored by the FDA and the agency continues to adopt a precautionary approach to the issue in hopes of countering future potential negative public opinion. As a result, the FDA has simply maintained the status quo with regard to its regulatory policies pertaining to nanomedicine. Therefore, there are no specific laws or mechanisms in place for oversight of nanomedicine and the FDA continues to treat nanoproducts as substantially equivalent ("bioequivalent") to their bulk counterparts. So, for now nanoproducts submitted for FDA review will continue to be subjected to an uncertain regulatory pathway. Such regulatory uncertainty could negatively impact venture funding, stifle

  16. Complement propriety and conspiracy in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein

    2016-01-01

    The complement system is the first line of body's defense against intruders and it acts as a functional bridge between innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. This commentary examines the key roles of complement activation in response to nanomedicine administration, including nucleic acid...... complexes. These comprise beneficial (eg, adjuvanticity) as well as adverse effects (eg, infusion-related reactions). Pigs (and sheep) are often used as predictive models of nanomedicine-mediated infusion-related reactions in humans. The validity of these models in relation to human responses is questioned...

  17. Interview: Nanomedicine and the fight against HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, André; Swindells, Susan; Bronich, Tatiana; Gendelman, Howard E

    2014-02-01

    Ahead of the 4th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Nanomedicine, this collection of interviews brings together experts from the fields of nanomedicine and HIV/AIDS treatment. Professor André Nel gives us a general introduction and update on the nanomedicine field and how he hopes it will progress. Professor Susan Swindells describes the current challenges faced in the clinic for HIV/AIDS treatment. Professor Tatiana Bronich explains the research efforts being undertaken by the nanomedicine community for the treatment of microbial infections and HIV/AIDS specifically. Finally, Professor Howard Gendelman looks to the future and assesses the potential and challenges of nanomedicine approaches for HIV eradication.

  18. Controlling the switching field in nanomagnets by means of domain-engineered antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folven, E.; Linder, J.; Gomonay, O. V.; Scholl, A.; Doran, A.; Young, A. T.; Retterer, S. T.; Malik, V. K.; Tybell, T.; Takamura, Y.; Grepstad, J. K.

    2015-09-01

    Using soft x-ray spectromicroscopy, we investigate the magnetic domain structure in embedded nanomagnets defined in L a0.7S r0.3Mn O3 thin films and LaFe O3/L a0.7S r0.3Mn O3 bilayers. We find that shape-controlled antiferromagnetic domain states give rise to a significant reduction of the switching field of the rectangular nanomagnets. This is discussed within the framework of competition between an intrinsic spin-flop coupling and shape anisotropy. The data demonstrates that shape effects in antiferromagnets may be used to control the magnetic properties in nanomagnets.

  19. From bench to bedside: successful translational nanomedicine: highlights of the Third Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiming; Liu, Nanhai; Xu, Pingyi; Heller, Mike; Tomalia, Donald A; Haynie, Donald T; Chang, Esther H; Wang, Kuan; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Bawa, Raj; Tian, Ryan; Hanes, Justin; Pun, Suzie; Meiners, Jens-Christian; Guo, Peixuan

    2007-12-01

    The Third Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine (AANM) was held at the University of California San Diego, in San Diego, California during September 7-8, 2007. The meeting was focused on successful translational nanomedicine: from bench to bedside. There were four keynote lectures and eight scientific symposiums in this meeting. The researchers and investigators reported the results and process of current nanomedicine research and approaches to clinical applications. The meeting provided exciting information for nanomedicine clinical-related researches and strategy for further development of nanomedicine research which will be benefits to clinical practice.

  20. Designer DNA Architectures: Applications in Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Richard Chandrasekaran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA has been used as a material for the construction of nanoscale objects. These nanostructures are programmable and allow the conjugation of biomolecular guests to improve their functionality. DNA nanostructures display a wide variety of characteristics, such as cellular permeabil‐ ity, biocompatibility and stability, and responsiveness to external stimuli, making them excellent candidates for applications in nanomedicine.

  1. Noninvasive optical imaging of nanomedicine biodistribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunjachan, S.; Gremse, F.; Theek, B.; Koczera, P.; Pola, Robert; Pechar, Michal; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Storm, G.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 252-262 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanomedicine * drug targeting * biodistribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013

  2. Protein nanomedicines for cancer diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Shantikumar

    2012-01-01

    New results and applications of the work on anti-cancer therapy using nanomedicines at the Amrita Centre for Nanosciences are presented. Proteins have been selected as having good potential for clinical translation and are excellent carriers for drugs, provide good release kinetics and are also amenable for fluorescent tagging with multiple functionalities for diagnostic purposes. (author)

  3. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents.

  4. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents. PMID:29311946

  5. The influence of shape anisotropy on vortex nucleation in Pacman-like nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Tóbik, J.; Šoltýs, J.; Fedor, J.; Precner, M.; Gaži, Š.; Karapetrov, G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore magnetic properties of Permalloy Pacman-like (PL) nanomagnets in external in-plain magnetic field. PL nanomagnets represent unique magnetic systems with broken symmetry, which are perspective as non-volatile memory elements. In these nanomagnets both bits, chirality and polarity of a single vortex state, can be easily read and written by in-plane magnetic field only. In the experimental part of this work we show that namely chirality of the∼1-μm large PL nanomagnet can be red easily by magnetic force microscopy method. The easy bit reading is enabled due to coupling of the polarity magnetization vector to the magnetic charges located at the surface of the PL missing sector. Using micromagnetic simulations we show the influence of spatial anisotropy on vortex nucleation and annihilation fields in the PL nanomagnets. Angular dependence of the vortex nucleation field is analysed in detail for PL nanomagnets of different diameter, thickness, and missing-sector dimensions. Best control of the ground state can be achieved for diameters not exceeding 100 nm, thicknesses from 40 to 45 nm, and for the missing sector angles from 30 to 60°. - Highlights: ► We explore magnetization dynamics in mesoscopic magnets with broken symmetry. ► We explain how to read and write chirality and polarity into such systems. ► Angular dependence of the vortex nucleation field in the systems is analysed

  6. Mendeleev-2013. VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials. Book of abstracts. Section 1. Nanochemistry and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    VII All-Russian conference of young scientists, postgraduate students and students with international participation on chemistry and nanomaterials was conducted on the Chemistry department of Saint-Petersburg University on April, 2-5, 2013. In the conference participants from 14 countries took part. There were five sections: Nanochemistry and nanomaterials, Analytic chemistry, Inorganic chemistry, Organic chemistry, Physical chemistry. In the collection (Section 1 - Nanochemistry and nanomaterials) there are the abstracts concerning the different methods of preparation of various inorganic and organic nanomaterials, their structure and use [ru

  7. Ethical issues in nanomedicine: Tempest in a teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, Irit; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Dekel, Raz; Solbakk, Jan-Helge; Weltring, Klaus-Michael; Siegal, Gil

    2017-03-01

    Nanomedicine offers remarkable options for new therapeutic avenues. As methods in nanomedicine advance, ethical questions conjunctly arise. Nanomedicine is an exceptional niche in several aspects as it reflects risks and uncertainties not encountered in other areas of medical research or practice. Nanomedicine partially overlaps, partially interlocks and partially exceeds other medical disciplines. Some interpreters agree that advances in nanotechnology may pose varied ethical challenges, whilst others argue that these challenges are not new and that nanotechnology basically echoes recurrent bioethical dilemmas. The purpose of this article is to discuss some of the ethical issues related to nanomedicine and to reflect on the question whether nanomedicine generates ethical challenges of new and unique nature. Such a determination should have implications on regulatory processes and professional conducts and protocols in the future.

  8. Nanomedicine: Past, present and future - A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Esther H; Harford, Joe B; Eaton, Michael A W; Boisseau, Patrick M; Dube, Admire; Hayeshi, Rose; Swai, Hulda; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicine is an emerging and rapidly evolving field and includes the use of nanoparticles for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of diseases, as well as in regenerative medicine. In this mini-review, leaders in the field from around the globe provide a personal perspective on the development of nanomedicine. The focus lies on the translation from research to development and the innovation supply chain, as well as the current status of nanomedicine in industry. The role of academic professional societies and the importance of government funding are discussed. Nanomedicine to combat infectious diseases of poverty is highlighted along with other pertinent examples of recent breakthroughs in nanomedicine. Taken together, this review provides a unique and global perspective on the emerging field of nanomedicine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Evaluation of the magnetic field requirements for nanomagnetic gene transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouriki, A.; Farrow, N.; Clements, M.A.; Dobson, J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the effects of magnet distance (and by proxy, field strength) on nanomagnetic transfection efficiency. Methods non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection was evaluated using both static and oscillating magnet arrays. Results Fluorescence intensity (firefly luciferase) of transfected H292 cells showed no increase using a 96-well NdFeB magnet array when the magnets were 5 mm from the cell culture plate or nearer. At 6 mm and higher, fluorescence intensity decreased systematically. Conclusion In all cases, fluorescence intensity was higher when using an oscillating array compared to a static array. For distances closer than 5 mm, the oscillating system also outperformed Lipofectamine 2000™. PMID:22110859

  10. Evaluation of the magnetic field requirements for nanomagnetic gene transfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouriki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to examine the effects of magnet distance (and by proxy, field strength on nanomagnetic transfection efficiency. Methods: non-viral magnetic nanoparticle-based transfection was evaluated using both static and oscillating magnet arrays. Results: Fluorescence intensity (firefly luciferase of transfected H292 cells showed no increase using a 96-well NdFeB magnet array when the magnets were 5 mm from the cell culture plate or nearer. At 6 mm and higher, fluorescence intensity decreased systematically. Conclusion: In all cases, fluorescence intensity was higher when using an oscillating array compared to a static array. For distances closer than 5 mm, the oscillating system also outperformed Lipofectamine 2000™.

  11. Recent Trends in Spintronics-Based Nanomagnetic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayita; Alam, Syed M.; Bhanja, Sanjukta

    2014-09-01

    With the growing concerns of standby power in sub-100-nm CMOS technologies, alternative computing techniques and memory technologies are explored. Spin transfer torque magnetoresistive RAM (STT-MRAM) is one such nonvolatile memory relying on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) to store information. It uses spin transfer torque to write information and magnetoresistance to read information. In 2012, Everspin Technologies, Inc. commercialized the first 64Mbit Spin Torque MRAM. On the computing end, nanomagnetic logic (NML) is a promising technique with zero leakage and high data retention. In 2000, Cowburn and Welland first demonstrated its potential in logic and information propagation through magnetostatic interaction in a chain of single domain circular nanomagnetic dots of Supermalloy (Ni80Fe14Mo5X1, X is other metals). In 2006, Imre et al. demonstrated wires and majority gates followed by coplanar cross wire systems demonstration in 2010 by Pulecio et al. Since 2004 researchers have also investigated the potential of MTJs in logic. More recently with dipolar coupling between MTJs demonstrated in 2012, logic-in-memory architecture with STT-MRAM have been investigated. The architecture borrows the computing concept from NML and read and write style from MRAM. The architecture can switch its operation between logic and memory modes with clock as classifier. Further through logic partitioning between MTJ and CMOS plane, a significant performance boost has been observed in basic computing blocks within the architecture. In this work, we have explored the developments in NML, in MTJs and more recent developments in hybrid MTJ/CMOS logic-in-memory architecture and its unique logic partitioning capability.

  12. Silk nanoparticles—an emerging anticancer nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Philipp Seib

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Silk is a sustainable and ecologically friendly biopolymer with a robust clinical track record in humans for load bearing applications, in part due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Our ability to take bottom-up and top-down approaches for the generation of silk (inspired biopolymers has been critical in supporting the evolution of silk materials and formats, including silk nanoparticles for drug delivery. Silk nanoparticles are emerging as interesting contenders for drug delivery and are well placed to advance the nanomedicine field. This review covers the use of Bombyx mori and recombinant silks as an anticancer nanomedicine, highlighting the emerging trends and developments as well as critically assessing the current opportunities and challenges by providing a context specific assessment of this multidisciplinary field.

  13. Nanomedicine: Drug Delivery Systems and Nanoparticle Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Hye Won; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, Jun Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Applications of nanotechnology in the medical field have provided the fundamentals of tremendous improvement in precise diagnosis and customized therapy. Recent advances in nanomedicine have led to establish a new concept of theragnosis, which utilizes nanomedicines as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool at the same time. The development of high affinity nanoparticles with large surface area and functional groups multiplies diagnostic and therapeutic capacities. Considering the specific conditions related to the disease of individual patient, customized therapy requires the identification of disease target at the cellular and molecular level for reducing side effects and enhancing therapeutic efficiency. Well-designed nanoparticles can minimize unnecessary exposure of cytotoxic drugs and maximize targeted localization of administrated drugs. This review will focus on major pharmaceutical nanomaterials and nanoparticles as key components of designing and surface engineering for targeted theragnostic drug development

  14. Advancements in Nanomedicine for Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detappe, Alexandre; Bustoros, Mark; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Ghoroghchian, P Peter

    2018-06-01

    In the past decades, considerable progress has been made in our understanding and treatment of multiple myeloma. Several challenges remain including our abilities to longitudinally image tumor responses to treatment, to combine various therapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action but with overlapping toxicities, and to efficiently harness the power of the immune system to augment remission and/or to induce permanent cures. Nanomedicine may help to address many of these outstanding issues, affording novel diagnostic capabilities and offering disruptive technologies that promise to revolutionize treatment. Here, we review recent developments and the future of nanomedicine for multiple myeloma, highlighting new considerations in nanoparticle designs that may help to augment active targeting, to facilitate longitudinal imaging, and to improve drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanomedicine therapeutics and diagnostics are the goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew D

    2016-07-01

    Understanding and exploiting molecular mechanisms in biology is central to chemical biology. In 20 years, chemical biology research has advanced from simple mechanistic studies using isolated biological macromolecules to molecular-level and nanomolecular-level mechanistic studies involving whole organisms. This review documents the best of my personal and collaborative academic research work that has made use of a solid organic chemistry and chemical biology approach toward nanomedicine, in which my focus has been on the design, creation and use of synthetic, self-assembly lipid-based nanoparticle technologies for the functional delivery of active pharmaceutical ingredients to target cells in vivo. This research is now leading to precision therapeutics approaches (PTAs) for the treatment of diseases that may define the future of nanomedicine.

  16. [Meta-legal paradigms of nanomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Alvarez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology.

  17. Patenting Nanomedicines Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Souto, Eliana B

    2012-01-01

    "Patenting Nanomedicines: Legal Aspects, Intellectual Property and Grant Opportunities" focuses on the fundamental aspects of Patenting Nanomedicines applied in different "Drug Delivery and Targeting Systems". The promoters of new findings in this field of research are numerous and spread worldwide; therefore, managing intellectual property portfolios, and the acquisition and exploitation of new knowledge face several contingency factors. Today, the scientific community is discussing issues of economic outcomes in the field of Nanomedicines. Major concerns include questions

  18. Nanomedicine applications towards the cure of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisziewicz, Julianna; Tőke, Enikő R

    2013-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) successfully suppresses HIV replication. However, daily and lifelong treatment is necessary to manage patient illness because cART neither eradicates infected cells from reservoirs nor reconstitutes HIV-specific immunity that could kill infected cells. Toward the cure of HIV, different nanomedicine classes have been developed with the following disease-modifying properties: to eradicate the virus by activation of latently infected CD4+ T-cells and reservoirs flushing; to kill the infected cells in the reservoirs by boosting of HIV-specific T cells; and to prevent infection by the use of microbicides with improved epithelial penetration and drug half-life. Preclinical and clinical trials consistently demonstrated that DermaVir, the most advanced nanomedicine, induces long-lasting memory T-cell responses and reduces viral load in comparison with placebo. DermaVir and the nanomedicine pipelines have the potential to improve the health of HIV-infected people at lower costs, to decrease antiretroviral drug exposure, and to contribute to the cure of HIV/AIDS. Despite the leaps and bounds in the development of antiretroviral therapy, HIV remains a significant public health challenge. In this review, applications of nanomedicine- based technologies are discussed in the context of HIV treatment, including virus elimination by activation of latently infected CD4+ T-cells; infected cell elimination in the reservoirs by boosting HIV-specific T cells, and by preventing infection by the use of microbicides with improved epithelial penetration and drug half-life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanomedicine-mediated cancer stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Song; Xia, Jin-Xing; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence suggests that most tumours are heterogeneous and contain a small population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that exhibit distinctive self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation capabilities, which are believed to play a crucial role in tumour progression, drug resistance, recurrence and metastasis in multiple malignancies. Given that the existence of CSCs is a primary obstacle to cancer therapy, a tremendous amount of effort has been put into the development of anti-CSC strategies, and several potential approaches to kill therapeutically-resistant CSCs have been explored, including inhibiting ATP-binding cassette transporters, blocking essential signalling pathways involved in self-renewal and survival of CSCs, targeting CSCs surface markers and destroying the tumour microenvironment. Meanwhile, an increasing number of therapeutic agents (e.g. small molecule drugs, nucleic acids and antibodies) to selectively target CSCs have been screened or proposed in recent years. Drug delivery technology-based approaches hold great potential for tackling the limitations impeding clinical applications of CSC-specific agents, such as poor water solubility, short circulation time and inconsistent stability. Properly designed nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (or nanomedicines) offer new possibilities of penetrating CSC niches and significantly increasing therapeutic drug accumulation in CSCs, which are difficult for free drug counterparts. In addition, intelligent nanomedicine holds great promise to overcome pump-mediated multidrug resistance which is driven by ATP and to decrease detrimental effects on normal somatic stem cells. In this review, we summarise the distinctive biological processes related to CSCs to highlight strategies against inherently drug-resistant CSCs. We then focus on some representative examples that give a glimpse into state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed for CSCs elimination. A perspective on innovative therapeutic

  20. Therapeutic nanomedicine surmounts the limitations of pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiba Arome

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Science always strives to find an improved way of doing things and nanoscience is one such approach. Nanomaterials are suitable for pharmaceutical applications mostly because of their size which facilitates absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the nanoparticles. Whether labile or insoluble nanoparticles, their cytotoxic effect on malignant cells has moved the use of nanomedicine into focus. Since nanomedicine can be described as the science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing diseases towards ultimately improving human health, a lot of nanotechnology options have received approval by various regulatory agencies. Nanodrugs also have been discovered to be more precise in targeting the desired site, hence maximizing the therapeutic effects, while minimizing side-effects on the rest of the body. This unique property and more has made nanomedicine popular in therapeutic medicine employing nanotechnology in genetic therapy, drug encapsulation, enzyme manipulation and control, tissue engineering, target drug delivery, pharmacogenomics, stem cell and cloning, and even virus-based hybrids. This review highlights nanoproducts that are in development and have gained approval through one clinical trial stage or the other.

  1. Informatics and Standards for Nanomedicine Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Klaessig, Fred; Harper, Stacey L.; Fritts, Martin; Hoover, Mark D.; Gaheen, Sharon; Stokes, Todd H.; Reznik-Zellen, Rebecca; Freund, Elaine T.; Klemm, Juli D.; Paik, David S.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    There are several issues to be addressed concerning the management and effective use of information (or data), generated from nanotechnology studies in biomedical research and medicine. These data are large in volume, diverse in content, and are beset with gaps and ambiguities in the description and characterization of nanomaterials. In this work, we have reviewed three areas of nanomedicine informatics: information resources; taxonomies, controlled vocabularies, and ontologies; and information standards. Informatics methods and standards in each of these areas are critical for enabling collaboration, data sharing, unambiguous representation and interpretation of data, semantic (meaningful) search and integration of data; and for ensuring data quality, reliability, and reproducibility. In particular, we have considered four types of information standards in this review, which are standard characterization protocols, common terminology standards, minimum information standards, and standard data communication (exchange) formats. Currently, due to gaps and ambiguities in the data, it is also difficult to apply computational methods and machine learning techniques to analyze, interpret and recognize patterns in data that are high dimensional in nature, and also to relate variations in nanomaterial properties to variations in their chemical composition, synthesis, characterization protocols, etc. Progress towards resolving the issues of information management in nanomedicine using informatics methods and standards discussed in this review will be essential to the rapidly growing field of nanomedicine informatics. PMID:21721140

  2. GLP-1 nanomedicine alleviates gut inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Thaqi, Mentor; Priyamvada, Shubha; Jayawardena, Dulari; Kumar, Anoop; Gujral, Tarunmeet; Chatterjee, Ishita; Mugarza, Edurne; Saksena, Seema; Onyuksel, Hayat; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2017-02-01

    The gut hormone, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical use is limited by its short half-life. Previously, we have shown that GLP-1 as a nanomedicine (GLP-1 in sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles, GLP-1-SSM) has increased in vivo stability. The current study was aimed at testing the efficacy of this GLP-1 nanomedicine in alleviating colonic inflammation and associated diarrhea in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced mouse colitis model. Our results show that GLP-1-SSM treatment markedly alleviated the colitis phenotype by reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, increasing goblet cells and preserving intestinal epithelial architecture in colitis model. Further, GLP-1-SSM alleviated diarrhea (as assessed by luminal fluid) by increasing protein expression of intestinal chloride transporter DRA (down regulated in adenoma). Our results indicate that GLP-1 nanomedicine may act as a novel therapeutic tool in alleviating gut inflammation and associated diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Bringing nanomedicines to market: regulatory challenges, opportunities, and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhara, Ruchika; Balakrishnan, Krishna

    2006-06-01

    Scientists and entrepreneurs who contemplate developing nanomedicine products face several unique challenges in addition to many of the traditional hurdles of product development. In this review we analyze the major physicochemical, biologic and functional characteristics of several nanomedicine products on the market and explore the question of what made them unique. What made them successful? We also focus on the regulatory challenges faced by nanomedicine product developers. Based on these analyses, we propose the factors that are most likely to contribute to the success of nanomedicine products.

  4. Magnetization-induced dynamics of a Josephson junction coupled to a nanomagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Roopayan; Maiti, Moitri; Shukrinov, Yury M.; Sengupta, K.

    2017-11-01

    We study the superconducting current of a Josephson junction (JJ) coupled to an external nanomagnet driven by a time-dependent magnetic field both without and in the presence of an external ac drive. We provide an analytic, albeit perturbative, solution for the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equations governing the coupled JJ-nanomagnet system in the presence of a magnetic field with arbitrary time dependence oriented along the easy axis of the nanomagnet's magnetization and in the limit of weak dimensionless coupling ɛ0 between the JJ and the nanomagnet. We show the existence of Shapiro-type steps in the I -V characteristics of the JJ subjected to a voltage bias for a constant or periodically varying magnetic field and explore the effect of rotation of the magnetic field and the presence of an external ac drive on these steps. We support our analytic results with exact numerical solution of the LL equations. We also extend our results to dissipative nanomagnets by providing a perturbative solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations for weak dissipation. We study the fate of magnetization-induced Shapiro steps in the presence of dissipation both from our analytical results and via numerical solution of the coupled LLG equations. We discuss experiments which can test our theory.

  5. Defining Nano, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine: Why Should It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simone; Shaw, David M

    2016-10-01

    Nanotechnology, which involves manipulation of matter on a 'nano' scale, is considered to be a key enabling technology. Medical applications of nanotechnology (commonly known as nanomedicine) are expected to significantly improve disease diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and subsequently reduce health care costs. However, there is no consensus on the definition of nanotechnology or nanomedicine, and this stems from the underlying debate on defining 'nano'. This paper aims to present the diversity in the definition of nanomedicine and its impact on the translation of basic science research in nanotechnology into clinical applications. We present the insights obtained from exploratory qualitative interviews with 46 stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine from Europe and North America. The definition of nanomedicine has implications for many aspects of translational research including: fund allocation, patents, drug regulatory review processes and approvals, ethical review processes, clinical trials and public acceptance. Given the interdisciplinary nature of the field and common interest in developing effective clinical applications, it is important to have honest and transparent communication about nanomedicine, its benefits and potential harm. A clear and consistent definition of nanomedicine would significantly facilitate trust among various stakeholders including the general public while minimizing the risk of miscommunication and undue fear of nanotechnology and nanomedicine.

  6. Factors affecting toxicity and efficacy of polymeric nanomedicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Eiki

    2008-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to medicine. The purpose of this article is to review common characteristics of polymeric nanomedicines with respect to passive targeting. We consider several biodegradable polymeric nanomedicines that are between 1 and 100 nm in size, and discuss the impact of this technology on efficacy, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and targeting. The degree of toxicity of polymeric nanomedicines is strongly influenced by the biological conditions of the local environment, which influence the rate of degradation or release of polymeric nanomedicines. The dissemination of polymeric nanomedicines in vivo depends on the capillary network, which can provide differential access to normal and tumor cells. The accumulation of nanomedicines in the microlymphatics depends upon retention time in the blood and extracellular compartments, as well as the type of capillary endothelium surrounding specific tissues. Finally, the toxicity or efficacy of intact nanomedicines is also dependent upon tissue type, i.e., non-endocrine or endocrine tissue, spleen, or lymphatics, as well as tumor type

  7. Development of Individualized Anti-Metastasis Strategies by Engineering Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qianjun; Guo, Shengrong; Qian, Zhiyong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is deadly and also tough to treat as it is much more complicated than the primary tumour. Anti-metastasis approaches available so far are far from being optimal. A variety of nanomedicine formulas provide a plethora of opportunities for developing new strategies and means for tackling metastasis. It should be noted that individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines are different from common anti-cancer nanomedicines as they specifically target different populations of malignant cells. This review briefly introduces the features of the metastatic cascade, and proposes a series of nanomedicine-based anti-metastasis strategies aiming to block each metastatic step. Moreover, we also concisely introduce the advantages of several promising nanoparticle platforms and their potential for constructing state-of-the-art individualized anti-metastatic nanomedicines. PMID:26056688

  8. Nanomedicine concepts in the general medical curriculum: initiating a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin E

    2015-01-01

    Various applications of nanoscale science to the field of medicine have resulted in the ongoing development of the subfield of nanomedicine. Within the past several years, there has been a concurrent proliferation of academic journals, textbooks, and other professional literature addressing fundamental basic science research and seminal clinical developments in nanomedicine. Additionally, there is now broad consensus among medical researchers and practitioners that along with personalized medicine and regenerative medicine, nanomedicine is likely to revolutionize our definitions of what constitutes human disease and its treatment. In light of these developments, incorporation of key nanomedicine concepts into the general medical curriculum ought to be considered. Here, I offer for consideration five key nanomedicine concepts, along with suggestions regarding the manner in which they might be incorporated effectively into the general medical curriculum. Related curricular issues and implications for medical education also are presented.

  9. Curcumin Nanomedicine: A Road to Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapu, Murali M.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Conventional therapies cause widespread systemic toxicity and lead to serious side effects which prohibit their long term use. Additionally, in many circumstances tumor resistance and recurrence is commonly observed. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify suitable anticancer therapies that are highly precise with minimal side effects. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol molecule derived from the Curcuma longa plant which exhibits anticancer, chemo-preventive, chemo- and radio-sensitization properties. Curcumin’s widespread availability, safety, low cost and multiple cancer fighting functions justify its development as a drug for cancer treatment. However, various basic and clinical studies elucidate curcumin’s limited efficacy due to its low solubility, high rate of metabolism, poor bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. A growing list of nanomedicine(s) using first line therapeutic drugs have been approved or are under consideration by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to improve human health. These nanotechnology strategies may help to overcome challenges and ease the translation of curcumin from bench to clinical application. Prominent research is reviewed which shows that advanced drug delivery of curcumin (curcumin nanoformulations or curcumin nanomedicine) is able to leverage therapeutic benefits by improving bioavailability and pharmacokinetics which in turn improves binding, internalization and targeting of tumor(s). Outcomes using these novel drug delivery systems have been discussed in detail. This review also describes the tumor-specific drug delivery system(s) that can be highly effective in destroying tumors. Such new approaches are expected to lead to clinical trials and to improve cancer therapeutics. PMID:23116309

  10. Microneedles: A New Frontier in Nanomedicine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañeta, Eneko; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; Courtenay, Aaron J; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2016-05-01

    This review aims to concisely chart the development of two individual research fields, namely nanomedicines, with specific emphasis on nanoparticles (NP) and microparticles (MP), and microneedle (MN) technologies, which have, in the recent past, been exploited in combinatorial approaches for the efficient delivery of a variety of medicinal agents across the skin. This is an emerging and exciting area of pharmaceutical sciences research within the remit of transdermal drug delivery and as such will undoubtedly continue to grow with the emergence of new formulation and fabrication methodologies for particles and MN. Firstly, the fundamental aspects of skin architecture and structure are outlined, with particular reference to their influence on NP and MP penetration. Following on from this, a variety of different particles are described, as are the diverse range of MN modalities currently under development. The review concludes by highlighting some of the novel delivery systems which have been described in the literature exploiting these two approaches and directs the reader towards emerging uses for nanomedicines in combination with MN.

  11. Nanomedicine: Application Areas and Development Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consolación Melguizo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, along with related concepts such as nanomaterials, nanostructures and nanoparticles, has become a priority area for scientific research and technological development. Nanotechnology, i.e., the creation and utilization of materials and devices at nanometer scale, already has multiple applications in electronics and other fields. However, the greatest expectations are for its application in biotechnology and health, with the direct impact these could have on the quality of health in future societies. The emerging discipline of nanomedicine brings nanotechnology and medicine together in order to develop novel therapies and improve existing treatments. In nanomedicine, atoms and molecules are manipulated to produce nanostructures of the same size as biomolecules for interaction with human cells. This procedure offers a range of new solutions for diagnoses and “smart” treatments by stimulating the body’s own repair mechanisms. It will enhance the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and cardiovascular diseases. Preventive medicine may then become a reality.

  12. Nanomedicine approaches in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Andra-Sorina; Nagy-Simon, Timea; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Boca, Sanda; Astilean, Simion

    2016-09-28

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the malignancy with the highest incidence amongst children (26% of all cancer cases), being surpassed only by the cancers of the brain and of the nervous system. The most recent research on ALL is focusing on new molecular therapies, like targeting specific biological structures in key points in the cell cycle, or using selective inhibitors for transmembranary proteins involved in cell signalling, and even aiming cell surface receptors with specifically designed antibodies for active targeting. Nanomedicine approaches, especially by the use of nanoparticle-based compounds for the delivery of drugs, cancer diagnosis or therapeutics may represent new and modern ways in the near future anti-cancer therapies. This review offers an overview on the recent role of nanomedicine in the detection and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia as resulting from a thorough literature survey. A short introduction on the basics of ALL is presented followed by the description of the conventional methods used in the ALL detection and treatment. We follow our discussion by introducing some of the general nano-strategies used for cancer detection and treatment. The detailed role of organic and inorganic nanoparticles in ALL applications is further presented, with a special focus on gold nanoparticle-based nanocarriers of antileukemic drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Translational nanomedicine: status assessment and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murday, James S; Siegel, Richard W; Stein, Judith; Wright, J Fraser

    2009-09-01

    Nano-enabled technologies hold great promise for medicine and health. The rapid progress by the physical sciences/engineering communities in synthesizing nanostructures and characterizing their properties must be rapidly exploited in medicine and health toward reducing mortality rate, morbidity an illness imposes on a patient, disease prevalence, and general societal burden. A National Science Foundation-funded workshop, "Re-Engineering Basic and Clinical Research to Catalyze Translational Nanoscience," was held 16-19 March 2008 at the University of Southern California. Based on that workshop and literature review, this article briefly explores scientific, economic, and societal drivers for nanomedicine initiatives; examines the science, engineering, and medical research needs; succinctly reviews the US federal investment directly germane to medicine and health, with brief mention of the European Union (EU) effort; and presents recommendations to accelerate the translation of nano-enabled technologies from laboratory discovery into clinical practice. An excellent review paper based on the NSF funded workshop "Re-Engineering Basic and Clinical Research to Catalyze Translational Nanoscience" (16-19 March 2008) and extensive literature search, this paper briefly explores the current state and future perspectives of nanomedicine.

  14. Drug Transport Mechanism of Oral Antidiabetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Evren; Yurdasiper, Aysu

    2014-01-01

    Context: Over the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to develop nanomedicine delivery systems, especially via oral route for antidiabetic drugs. Absorption of insulin is hindered by epithelial cells of gastrointestinal tract, acidic gastric pH and digestive enzymes. Evidence Acquisition: Recent reports have identified and explained the beneficial role of several structural molecules like mucoadhesive polymers (polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, chitosan) and other copolymers for the efficient transport and release of insulin to its receptors. Results: Insulin nanomedicines based on alginate-dextran sulfate core with a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-albumin shell reduced glycaemia in a dose dependent manner. Orally available exendin-4 formulations exerted their effects in a time dependent manner. Insulin nanoparticles formed by using alginate and dextran sulfate nucleating around calcium and binding to poloxamer, stabilized by chitosan, and subsequently coated with albumin showed a threefold increase of the hypoglycemic effect in comparison to free insulin in animal models. Solid lipid nanoparticles showed an enhancement of the bioavailability of repaglinide (RG) within optimized solid lipid nanoparticle formulations when compared with RG alone. Conclusions: Nanoparticles represent multiparticulate delivery systems designed to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery and to improve bioavailability as well as stability. Nanoparticles can also offer advantages like limiting fluctuations within therapeutic range, reducing side effects, protecting drugs from degradation, decreasing dosing frequency, and improving patient compliance and convenience PMID:24696697

  15. Drug transport mechanism of oral antidiabetic nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Evren; Yurdasiper, Aysu

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, extensive efforts have been made worldwide to develop nanomedicine delivery systems, especially via oral route for antidiabetic drugs. Absorption of insulin is hindered by epithelial cells of gastrointestinal tract, acidic gastric pH and digestive enzymes. Recent reports have identified and explained the beneficial role of several structural molecules like mucoadhesive polymers (polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, chitosan) and other copolymers for the efficient transport and release of insulin to its receptors. Insulin nanomedicines based on alginate-dextran sulfate core with a chitosan-polyethylene glycol-albumin shell reduced glycaemia in a dose dependent manner. Orally available exendin-4 formulations exerted their effects in a time dependent manner. Insulin nanoparticles formed by using alginate and dextran sulfate nucleating around calcium and binding to poloxamer, stabilized by chitosan, and subsequently coated with albumin showed a threefold increase of the hypoglycemic effect in comparison to free insulin in animal models. Solid lipid nanoparticles showed an enhancement of the bioavailability of repaglinide (RG) within optimized solid lipid nanoparticle formulations when compared with RG alone. Nanoparticles represent multiparticulate delivery systems designed to obtain prolonged or controlled drug delivery and to improve bioavailability as well as stability. Nanoparticles can also offer advantages like limiting fluctuations within therapeutic range, reducing side effects, protecting drugs from degradation, decreasing dosing frequency, and improving patient compliance and convenience.

  16. Essential components of a successful doctoral program in nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van de Ven AL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anne L van de Ven,1,2 Mary H Shann,3 Srinivas Sridhar1,2 1Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, 2Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Education, Boston University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: The Nanomedicine program at Northeastern University provides a unique interdisciplinary graduate education that combines experiential research, didactic learning, networking, and outreach. Students are taught how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate basic research to the development of marketable products, negotiate ethical and social issues related to nanomedicine, and develop a strong sense of community involvement within a global perspective. Since 2006, the program has recruited 50 doctoral students from ten traditional science, technology, and engineering disciplines to participate in the 2-year specialization program. Each trainee received mentoring from two or more individuals, including faculty members outside the student’s home department and faculty members at other academic institutions, and/or clinicians. Both students and faculty members reported a significant increase in interdisciplinary scholarly activities, including publications, presentations, and funded research proposals, as a direct result of the program. Nearly 90% of students graduating with a specialization in nanomedicine have continued on to careers in the health care sector. Currently, 43% of graduates are performing research or developing products that directly involve nanomedicine. This article identifies some key elements of the Nanomedicine program, describes how they were implemented, and reports on the metrics of success.Keywords: nanomedicine, IGERT, nanotechnology, nanoscience, education, graduate training

  17. An annotated corpus with nanomedicine and pharmacokinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewinski NA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nastassja A Lewinski,1 Ivan Jimenez,1 Bridget T McInnes2 1Department of Chemical and Life Science Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, 2Department of Computer Science, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: A vast amount of data on nanomedicines is being generated and published, and natural language processing (NLP approaches can automate the extraction of unstructured text-based data. Annotated corpora are a key resource for NLP and information extraction methods which employ machine learning. Although corpora are available for pharmaceuticals, resources for nanomedicines and nanotechnology are still limited. To foster nanotechnology text mining (NanoNLP efforts, we have constructed a corpus of annotated drug product inserts taken from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Drugs@FDA online database. In this work, we present the development of the Engineered Nanomedicine Database corpus to support the evaluation of nanomedicine entity extraction. The data were manually annotated for 21 entity mentions consisting of nanomedicine physicochemical characterization, exposure, and biologic response information of 41 Food and Drug Administration-approved nanomedicines. We evaluate the reliability of the manual annotations and demonstrate the use of the corpus by evaluating two state-of-the-art named entity extraction systems, OpenNLP and Stanford NER. The annotated corpus is available open source and, based on these results, guidelines and suggestions for future development of additional nanomedicine corpora are provided. Keywords: nanotechnology, informatics, natural language processing, text mining, corpora

  18. An annotated corpus with nanomedicine and pharmacokinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Jimenez, Ivan; McInnes, Bridget T

    2017-01-01

    A vast amount of data on nanomedicines is being generated and published, and natural language processing (NLP) approaches can automate the extraction of unstructured text-based data. Annotated corpora are a key resource for NLP and information extraction methods which employ machine learning. Although corpora are available for pharmaceuticals, resources for nanomedicines and nanotechnology are still limited. To foster nanotechnology text mining (NanoNLP) efforts, we have constructed a corpus of annotated drug product inserts taken from the US Food and Drug Administration's Drugs@FDA online database. In this work, we present the development of the Engineered Nanomedicine Database corpus to support the evaluation of nanomedicine entity extraction. The data were manually annotated for 21 entity mentions consisting of nanomedicine physicochemical characterization, exposure, and biologic response information of 41 Food and Drug Administration-approved nanomedicines. We evaluate the reliability of the manual annotations and demonstrate the use of the corpus by evaluating two state-of-the-art named entity extraction systems, OpenNLP and Stanford NER. The annotated corpus is available open source and, based on these results, guidelines and suggestions for future development of additional nanomedicine corpora are provided.

  19. Nanomedicine and neurodegenerative disorders: so close yet so far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Giovanni; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Forni, Flavio; Ruozi, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    This editorial provides an overview of the main advantages of the use of nanomedicine-based approach for innovation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Besides these aspects, a critical analysis on the main causes that slow the application of nanomedicine to brain disorders is given along with the identification of possible solutions and possible interventions. Better communication between the main players of research in this field and a detailed understanding of the most critical issues to be addressed should help in defining future directions towards the improvement and, finally, the clinical application of nanomedicine to neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Ligand-targeted theranostic nanomedicines against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Virginia J; D'Angelo, Sara; Butler, Kimberly S; Theron, Christophe; Smith, Tracey L; Marchiò, Serena; Gelovani, Juri G; Sidman, Richard L; Dobroff, Andrey S; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-10-28

    Nanomedicines have significant potential for cancer treatment. Although the majority of nanomedicines currently tested in clinical trials utilize simple, biocompatible liposome-based nanocarriers, their widespread use is limited by non-specificity and low target site concentration and thus, do not provide a substantial clinical advantage over conventional, systemic chemotherapy. In the past 20years, we have identified specific receptors expressed on the surfaces of tumor endothelial and perivascular cells, tumor cells, the extracellular matrix and stromal cells using combinatorial peptide libraries displayed on bacteriophage. These studies corroborate the notion that unique receptor proteins such as IL-11Rα, GRP78, EphA5, among others, are differentially overexpressed in tumors and present opportunities to deliver tumor-specific therapeutic drugs. By using peptides that bind to tumor-specific cell-surface receptors, therapeutic agents such as apoptotic peptides, suicide genes, imaging dyes or chemotherapeutics can be precisely and systemically delivered to reduce tumor growth in vivo, without harming healthy cells. Given the clinical applicability of peptide-based therapeutics, targeted delivery of nanocarriers loaded with therapeutic cargos seems plausible. We propose a modular design of a functionalized protocell in which a tumor-targeting moiety, such as a peptide or recombinant human antibody single chain variable fragment (scFv), is conjugated to a lipid bilayer surrounding a silica-based nanocarrier core containing a protected therapeutic cargo. The functionalized protocell can be tailored to a specific cancer subtype and treatment regimen by exchanging the tumor-targeting moiety and/or therapeutic cargo or used in combination to create unique, theranostic agents. In this review, we summarize the identification of tumor-specific receptors through combinatorial phage display technology and the use of antibody display selection to identify recombinant human sc

  1. Mechanisms of relaxation and spin decoherence in nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Johan

    Relaxation in spin systems is of great interest with respect to various possible applications like quantum information processing and storage, spintronics, and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). The implementation of high frequencies and fields is crucial in the study of systems with large zero-field splitting or large interactions, as for example molecular magnets and low dimensional magnetic materials. Here we will focus on the implementation of pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (ERP) at multiple frequencies of 10, 95, 120, 240, and 336 GHz, and the relaxation and decoherence processes as a function of magnetic field and temperature. Firstly, at higher frequencies the direct single-phonon spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) is considerably enhanced, and will more often than not be the dominant relaxation mechanism at low temperatures, and can be much faster than at lower fields and frequencies. In principle the measurement of the SLR rates as a function of the frequency provides a means to map the phonon density of states. Secondly, the high electron spin polarization at high fields has a strong influence on the spin fluctuations in relatively concentrated spin systems, and the contribution of the electron-electron dipolar interactions to the coherence rate can be partially quenched at low temperatures. This not only allows the study of relatively concentrated spin systems by pulsed EPR (as for example magnetic nanoparticles and molecular magnets), it enables the separation of the contribution of the fluctuations of the electron spin system from other decoherence mechanisms. Besides choice of temperature and field, several strategies in sample design, pulse sequences, or clock transitions can be employed to extend the coherence time in nanomagnets. A review will be given of the decoherence mechanisms with an attempt at a quantitative comparison of experimental rates with theory.

  2. 2D scattering of unpolarized beams of electrons by charged nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senbeta, Teshome, E-mail: teshearada@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Mal' nev, V.N., E-mail: vnmalnev@aau.edu.et [Department of Physics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2012-07-15

    2D spin-dependent scattering of slow unpolarized beams of electrons by charged nanomagnets is analyzed in the Born approximation. The obtained scattering lengths are larger than those from the neutral nanomagnets approximately by one order. It is shown that for particular parameters of the system it is possible to polarize completely the scattered electrons in a narrow range of scattering angles. The most suitable system for realization of these effects is 2D Si electron gas with immersed nanomagnets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study 2D spin dependent electron scattering by charged nanomagnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The applicability of the Born approximation to the problem is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unpolarized incident beams used to obtain completely polarized scattered electrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study shows peculiarities of 2D spin dependent scattering enhanced by Coulomb potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result obtained can be used as one method of controlling spin currents.

  3. 2D Spin-Dependent Diffraction of Electrons From Periodical Chains of Nanomagnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Senbeta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scattering of the unpolarized beams of electrons by nanomagnets in the vicinity of some scattering angles leads to complete spin polarized electrons. This result is obtained with the help of the perturbation theory. The dipole-dipole interaction between the magnetic moment of the nanomagnet and the magnetic moment of electron is treated as perturbation. This interaction is not spherically symmetric. Rather it depends on the electron spin variables. It in turn results in spinor character of the scattering amplitudes. Due to the smallness of the magnetic interactions, the scattering length of this process is very small to be proved experimentally. To enhance the relevant scattering lengths, we considered the diffraction of unpolarized beams of electrons by linear chains of nanomagnets. By tuning the distance between the scatterers it is possible to obtain the diffraction maximum of the scattered electrons at scattering angles which corresponds to complete spin polarization of electrons. It is shown that the total differential scattering length is proportional to N2 (N is a number of scatterers. Even small number of nanomagnets in the chain helps to obtain experimentally visible enhancement of spin polarization of the scattered electrons.

  4. Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Si-Ying Wu, Seong Soo A An, John Hulme Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnamsi, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material. Keywords: imaging, green, cancer, therapy, diagnostics, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, contrast agent, biofunctionalization

  5. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  6. Combinatorial nanomedicines for colon cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, A; Maya, S; Sivaram, Amal J; Mony, U; Jayakumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Even after surgical resection and aggressive chemotherapy, 50% of colorectal carcinoma patients develop recurrent disease. Thus, the rationale of developing new therapeutic approaches to improve the current chemotherapeutic regimen would be highly recommended. There are reports on the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy in colon cancer and it has been practiced in clinics for long time. These approaches are associated with toxic side effects. Later, the drug delivery research had shown the potential of nanoencapsulation techniques and active targeting as an effective method to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy with less toxicity. This current focus article provides a brief analysis of the ongoing research in the colon cancer area using the combinatorial nanomedicines and its outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nanomedicines for the Treatment of CNS Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jessica L; Mahato, Ram I

    2017-03-01

    Targeting and delivering macromolecular therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) has been a major challenge. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the main obstacle that must be overcome to allow compounds to reach their targets in the brain. Therefore, much effort has been channelled into improving transport of therapeutics across the BBB and into the CNS including the use of nanoparticles. In this thematic issue, several reviews and original research are presented that address "Nanomedicines for CNS Diseases." The articles in this issue are concentrated on either CNS-HIV disease or CNS tumors. In regards to CNS-HIV disease, there are two reviews that discuss the role of nanoparticles for improving the delivery of HIV therapeutics to the CNS. In addition, there are two original articles focusing on therapies for CNS-HIV, one of them uses nanoparticles for delivery of siRNA specific to a key protein in autophagy to microglia, and another discusses nanoparticle delivery of a soluble mediator to suppress neuroinflammation. Furthermore, a comprehensive review about gene therapy for CNS neurological diseases is also included. Finally, this issue also includes review articles on enhanced drug targeting to CNS tumors. These articles include a review on the use of nanoparticles for CNS tumors, a review on functionalization (ligands) of nanoparticles for drug targeting to the brain tumor by overcoming BBB, and the final review discusses the use of macrophages as a delivery vehicle to CNS tumors. This thematic issue provides a wealth of knowledge on using nanomedicines for CNS diseases.

  8. Nanomedicine in cancer therapy: challenges, opportunities, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicki, Andreas; Witzigmann, Dominik; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Huwyler, Jörg

    2015-02-28

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently available therapies are inadequate and spur demand for improved technologies. Rapid growth in nanotechnology towards the development of nanomedicine products holds great promise to improve therapeutic strategies against cancer. Nanomedicine products represent an opportunity to achieve sophisticated targeting strategies and multi-functionality. They can improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of conventional therapeutics and may thus optimize the efficacy of existing anti-cancer compounds. In this review, we discuss state-of-the-art nanoparticles and targeted systems that have been investigated in clinical studies. We emphasize the challenges faced in using nanomedicine products and translating them from a preclinical level to the clinical setting. Additionally, we cover aspects of nanocarrier engineering that may open up new opportunities for nanomedicine products in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure and Biological Activity of Pathogen-like Synthetic Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R.; Somogyi, Eszter; Horkay, Ferenc; Chandran, Preethi; Douglas, Jack F.; Szebeni, János; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2011-01-01

    Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode-of-action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine is comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100–200nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical-absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence the nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. PMID:21839051

  10. Aptamer nanomedicine for cancer therapeutics: barriers and potential for translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Phua, Kyle K L; Leong, Kam W

    2015-03-24

    Aptamer nanomedicine, including therapeutic aptamers and aptamer nanocomplexes, is beginning to fulfill its potential in both clinical trials and preclinical studies. Especially in oncology, aptamer nanomedicine may perform better than conventional or antibody-based chemotherapeutics due to specificity compared to the former and stability compared to the latter. Many proof-of-concept studies on applying aptamers to drug delivery, gene therapy, and cancer imaging have shown promising efficacy and impressive safety in vivo toward translation. Yet, there remains ample room for improvement and critical barriers to be addressed. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progress in clinical trials of aptamer nanomedicine, followed by a discussion of the barriers at the design and in vivo application stages. We will then highlight recent advances and engineering strategies proposed to tackle these barriers. Aptamer cancer nanomedicine has the potential to address one of the most important healthcare issues of the society.

  11. Targeting Nanomedicine to Brain Tumors: Latest Progress and Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Root, Moniek; Lowik, Clemens; Mezzanotte, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Targeting nanomedicine to brain tumors is hampered by the heterogeneity of brain tumors and the blood brain barrier. These represent the main reasons of unsuccessful treatments. Nanomedicine based approaches hold promise for improved brain tissue distribution of drugs and delivery of combination therapies. In this review, we describe the recent advancements and latest achievements in the use of nanocarriers, virus and cell-derived nanoparticles for targeted therapy of brain tumors. We provide successful examples of nanomedicine based approaches for direct targeting of receptors expressed in brain tumor cells or modulation of pathways involved in cell survival as well as approaches for indirect targeting of cells in the tumor stroma and immunotherapies. Although the field is at its infancy, clinical trials involving nanomedicine based approaches for brain tumors are ongoing and many others will start in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Nanomedicine: tiny particles and machines give huge gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Fine, Eli J; Lin, Yanni; Cradick, Thomas J; Bao, Gang

    2014-02-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that integrates nanotechnology, biomolecular engineering, life sciences and medicine; it is expected to produce major breakthroughs in medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Nano-scale structures and devices are compatible in size with proteins and nucleic acids in living cells. Therefore, the design, characterization and application of nano-scale probes, carriers and machines may provide unprecedented opportunities for achieving a better control of biological processes, and drastic improvements in disease detection, therapy, and prevention. Recent advances in nanomedicine include the development of nanoparticle (NP)-based probes for molecular imaging, nano-carriers for drug/gene delivery, multifunctional NPs for theranostics, and molecular machines for biological and medical studies. This article provides an overview of the nanomedicine field, with an emphasis on NPs for imaging and therapy, as well as engineered nucleases for genome editing. The challenges in translating nanomedicine approaches to clinical applications are discussed.

  13. Recent progress in nanomedicine: therapeutic, diagnostic and theranostic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizzo, L.Y.; Theek, B.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of nanomedicine formulations for therapeutic and diagnostic applications has increased exponentially. Many different systems and strategies have been developed for drug targeting to pathological sites, as well as for visualizing and quantifying important (patho-)

  14. Reviewing the regulatory barriers for nanomedicine: global questions and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M; Gatof, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine will play an increasing role in prevention and treatment across the entire healthcare spectrum. However, their precise market size, economic value and areas of application remain unclear. This opacity, including the question of what constitutes nanomedicine matters, especially when considered alongside the key regulatory questions and concerns. This article begins by placing these key questions into context in relation to the current scientific state of the art, focusing particular attention on the human health and safety context. In exploring these central questions surrounding the regulation of nanomedicine, this perspective also explores existing and suggested frameworks that aim to deal with emerging technologies more generally. It then outlines priority areas for action and general conclusions specific to nanomedicine.

  15. Cancer nanomedicine: a review of recent success in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Stephanie; DeGiovanni, Peter-Joseph; Piel, Brandon; Rai, Prakash

    2017-12-11

    Cancer continues to be one of the most difficult global healthcare problems. Although there is a large library of drugs that can be used in cancer treatment, the problem is selectively killing all the cancer cells while reducing collateral toxicity to healthy cells. There are several biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer such as renal, hepatic, or immune clearance. Nanoparticles loaded with drugs can be designed to overcome these biological barriers to improve efficacy while reducing morbidity. Nanomedicine has ushered in a new era for drug delivery by improving the therapeutic indices of the active pharmaceutical ingredients engineered within nanoparticles. First generation nanomedicines have received widespread clinical approval over the past two decades, from Doxil ® (liposomal doxorubicin) in 1995 to Onivyde ® (liposomal irinotecan) in 2015. This review highlights the biological barriers to effective drug delivery in cancer, emphasizing the need for nanoparticles for improving therapeutic outcomes. A summary of different nanoparticles used for drug delivery applications in cancer are presented. The review summarizes recent successes in cancer nanomedicine in the clinic. The clinical trials of Onivyde leading to its approval in 2015 by the Food and Drug Adminstration are highlighted as a case study in the recent clinical success of nanomedicine against cancer. Next generation nanomedicines need to be better targeted to specifically destroy cancerous tissue, but face several obstacles in their clinical development, including identification of appropriate biomarkers to target, scale-up of synthesis, and reproducible characterization. These hurdles need to be overcome through multidisciplinary collaborations across academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulatory agencies in order to achieve the goal of eradicating cancer. This review discusses the current use of clinically approved nanomedicines, the investigation of nanomedicines in clinical

  16. Defining Nano, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine: Why Should It Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Satalkar Priya; Elger Bernice Simone; Shaw David M

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology which involves manipulation of matter on a 'nano' scale is considered to be a key enabling technology. Medical applications of nanotechnology (commonly known as nanomedicine) are expected to significantly improve disease diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and subsequently reduce health care costs. However there is no consensus on the definition of nanotechnology or nanomedicine and this stems from the underlying debate on defining 'nano'. This paper aims to present the diver...

  17. Cancer nanomedicines: so many papers and so few drugs!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditto, Vincent J; Szoka, Francis C

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies a timeline to nanomedicine anticancer drug approval using the business model of inventors, innovators and imitators. By evaluating the publication record of nanomedicine cancer therapeutics we identified a trend of very few publications prior to FDA approval. We first enumerated the publications related to cancer involving polymers, liposomes or monoclonal antibodies and determined the number of citations per publication as well as the number of published clinical trials among the publications. Combining these data with the development of specific nanomedicines, we are able to identify an invention phase consisting of seminal papers in basic science necessary for the development of a specific nanomedicine. The innovation phase includes the first report, the development and the clinical trials involving that nanomedicine. Finally, the imitation phase begins after approval when others ride the wave of success by using the same formulation for new drugs or using the same drug to validate other nanomedicines. We then focused our analysis on nanomedicines containing camptothecin derivatives, which are not yet approved including two polymers considered innovations and one liposomal formulation in the imitation phase. The conclusion that may be drawn from the analysis of the camptothecins is that approved drugs reformulated in polymeric and liposomal cancer nanomedicines have a more difficult time navigating through the approval process than the parent molecule. This is probably due to the fact that for most currently approved drugs, reformulating them in a nanocarrier provides a small increase in performance that large pharmaceutical companies do not consider being worth the time, effort and expense of development. It also appears that drug carriers have a more difficult path through the clinic than monoclonal antibodies. The added complexity of nanocarriers also deters their use to deliver new molecular entities. Thus, the new drug candidates that

  18. Nanomedicine concepts in the general medical curriculum: initiating a discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney AE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aldrin E Sweeney Center for Teaching & Learning, Ross University School of Medicine, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica Abstract: Various applications of nanoscale science to the field of medicine have resulted in the ongoing development of the subfield of nanomedicine. Within the past several years, there has been a concurrent proliferation of academic journals, textbooks, and other professional literature addressing fundamental basic science research and seminal clinical developments in nanomedicine. Additionally, there is now broad consensus among medical researchers and practitioners that along with personalized medicine and regenerative medicine, nanomedicine is likely to revolutionize our definitions of what constitutes human disease and its treatment. In light of these developments, incorporation of key nanomedicine concepts into the general medical curriculum ought to be considered. Here, I offer for consideration five key nanomedicine concepts, along with suggestions regarding the manner in which they might be incorporated effectively into the general medical curriculum. Related curricular issues and implications for medical education also are presented. Keywords: medical education, basic science, teaching, learning, assessment, nanoscience curriculum, nanomedicine concepts

  19. Nanomedicine applications in women's health: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Parry, Oliver; Downing, Charlotte; Aleisaei, Eisa; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    State-of-the-art applications of nanomedicine have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of a range of conditions and diseases affecting women's health. In this review, we provide a synopsis of potential applications of nanomedicine in some of the most dominant fields of women's health: mental health, sexual health, reproductive medicine, oncology, menopause-related conditions and dementia. We explore published studies arising from in vitro and in vivo experiments, and clinical trials where available, to reveal novel and highly promising therapeutic applications of nanomedicine in these fields. For the first time, we summarize the growing body of evidence relating to the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection, prevention, and treatment of significant diseases and conditions across the life course of a cisgender woman, from puberty to menopause; revealing the far-reaching and desirable theoretical impact of nanomedicine across different medical disciplines. We also present an overview of potential concerns regarding the therapeutic applications of nanomedicine and the factors currently restricting the growth of applied nanomedicine.

  20. Voltage-controlled low-energy switching of nanomagnets through Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions for magnetoelectric device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Bahniman, E-mail: bghosh@utexas.edu; Dey, Rik; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 10100 Burnet Road, Bldg. 160, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    In this article, we consider through simulation low-energy switching of nanomagnets via electrostatically gated inter-magnet Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators, for possible memory and nonvolatile logic applications. We model the possibility and dynamics of RKKY-based switching of one nanomagnet by coupling to one or more nanomagnets of set orientation. Potential applications to both memory and nonvolatile logic are illustrated. Sub-attojoule switching energies, far below conventional spin transfer torque (STT)-based memories and even below CMOS logic appear possible. Switching times on the order of a few nanoseconds, comparable to times for STT switching, are estimated for ferromagnetic nanomagnets, but the approach also appears compatible with the use of antiferromagnets which may allow for faster switching.

  1. Voltage-controlled low-energy switching of nanomagnets through Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions for magnetoelectric device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Bahniman; Dey, Rik; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we consider through simulation low-energy switching of nanomagnets via electrostatically gated inter-magnet Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions on the surface of three-dimensional topological insulators, for possible memory and nonvolatile logic applications. We model the possibility and dynamics of RKKY-based switching of one nanomagnet by coupling to one or more nanomagnets of set orientation. Potential applications to both memory and nonvolatile logic are illustrated. Sub-attojoule switching energies, far below conventional spin transfer torque (STT)-based memories and even below CMOS logic appear possible. Switching times on the order of a few nanoseconds, comparable to times for STT switching, are estimated for ferromagnetic nanomagnets, but the approach also appears compatible with the use of antiferromagnets which may allow for faster switching.

  2. Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bréchignac, Catherine; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials are a fast developing field of research and applications lie in many separate domains, such as in hi-tech (optics, electronics, biology, aeronautics), but also in consumer industries (automotive, concrete, surface treatments (including paints), cosmetics, etc.).

  3. What nanomedicine in the clinic right now really forms nanoparticles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Sonke

    2014-01-01

    Some researchers believe nanomedicine will revolutionize healthcare and medicine through transformative new therapeutic tools. Nanocarriers, utilized to transport actives to the target site, are constructed from a wide range of materials. Nanocarriers can be grouped into self-assembling (liposomes, micelles), processed (nanoparticles, emulsions), and chemically bound (dendrimers, silica-based carriers, carbon nanotubes) structures. A review of nanomedicines on the market and in clinical translation reveals that the vast majority is based on liposomes, polymeric micelles, and nanoparticles. The increasing presence of these novel nanomedicines raises the question what nanomedicines in the clinic right now really form nanoparticles, i.e., are improvements we see from nanomedicines structure-related or do they result from improved formulations? Do we even have sufficient data to address this question? The formation of nanocarriers is usually confirmed in vitro but little if any in vivo (let alone clinical) information is available. Given the large number of nanomedicines on the market and under clinical evaluation one clearly cannot expect to find a 'one size fits all' answer. Therefore, two case studies are discussed: the paclitaxel formulation Taxol® and its nanomedicine companions LEP-ETU (liposome), Genexol®-PM and NK105 (micelles), and Abraxane® (nanoparticle). Published pharmacokinetic data is utilized to find differences indicating nanocarrier delivery. The second case study involves structurally related camptothecin-polymer conjugates CRLX101 (nanoparticles) and XMT-1001 (prodrug). Structural differences are evaluated to discuss the different aggregation behavior. This opinion can only serve as first attempt to find a more general answer; clearly more data is needed from future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Recommendations for Benchmarking Preclinical Studies of Nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidczyk, Charlene M; Russell, Luisa M; Searson, Peter C

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery systems provide new opportunities to overcome the limitations associated with traditional small-molecule drug therapy for cancer and to achieve both therapeutic and diagnostic functions in the same platform. Preclinical trials are generally designed to assess therapeutic potential and not to optimize the design of the delivery platform. Consequently, progress in developing design rules for cancer nanomedicines has been slow, hindering progress in the field. Despite the large number of preclinical trials, several factors restrict comparison and benchmarking of different platforms, including variability in experimental design, reporting of results, and the lack of quantitative data. To solve this problem, we review the variables involved in the design of preclinical trials and propose a protocol for benchmarking that we recommend be included in in vivo preclinical studies of drug-delivery platforms for cancer therapy. This strategy will contribute to building the scientific knowledge base that enables development of design rules and accelerates the translation of new technologies. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Nanomedicine and epigenome. Possible health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolkova, Bozena; Dusinska, Maria; Gabelova, Alena

    2017-11-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field that combines knowledge of nanotechnology and material science with pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences, aiming to develop nanodrugs with increased efficacy and safety. Compared to conventional therapeutics, nanodrugs manifest higher stability and circulation time, reduced toxicity and improved targeted delivery. Despite the obvious benefit, the accumulation of imaging agents and nanocarriers in the body following their therapeutic or diagnostic application generates concerns about their safety for human health. Numerous toxicology studies have demonstrated that exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) might pose serious risks to humans. Epigenetic modifications, representing a non-genotoxic mechanism of toxicant-induced health effects, are becoming recognized as playing a potential causative role in the aetiology of many diseases including cancer. This review i) provides an overview of recent advances in medical applications of NMs and ii) summarizes current evidence on their possible epigenetic toxicity. To discern potential health risks of NMs, since current data are mostly based upon in vitro and animal models, a better understanding of functional relationships between NM exposure, epigenetic deregulation and phenotype is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Micellar nanomedicine of human neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmis, Antonina; Lim, Sok Bee; Desai, Esha; Jeon, Eunjung; Lee, Bao-Shiang; Rubinstein, Israel; Onyüksel, Hayat

    2011-08-01

    Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important biologics that regulates a multitude of physiological functions and could be amenable to therapeutic manipulations in certain disease states. However, rapid (within minutes) enzymatic degradation and inactivation of NPY precludes its development as a drug. Accordingly, we determined whether self-association of NPY with biocompatible and biodegradable sterically stabilized phospholipid micelles (SSM) improves its stability and bioactivity. We found that in saline NPY spontaneously aggregates; however, in the presence of SSM it self-associates with the micelles as monomers. Three NPY molecules self-associate with 1 SSM at saturation. This process stabilizes the peptide in α-helix conformation, abrogates its degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and potentiates NPY-induced inhibition of cAMP elaboration in SK-N-MC cells. Collectively, these data indicate that self-association of NPY with SSM stabilizes and protects the peptide in active monomeric conformation, thereby amplifying its bioactivity in vitro. We propose further development of NPY in SSM as a novel, long-acting nanomedicine. Human neuropeptide Y (NPY) regulates a multitude of physiological functions and could be amenable to therapeutic manipulations, which is currently limited by its short half life. Self-association of NPY with spherically stabilized micelles (SSM) protects and stabilizes the peptide in active monomeric conformation, thereby amplifying its bioactivity in vitro, enabling future therapeutic considerations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endothelial nanomedicine for the treatment of pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jacob S; Greineder, Colin; Shuvaev, Vladimir; Muzykantov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Even though pulmonary diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, exceedingly few life-prolonging therapies have been developed for these maladies. Relief may finally come from nanomedicine and targeted drug delivery. Here, we focus on four conditions for which the pulmonary endothelium plays a pivotal role: acute respiratory distress syndrome, primary graft dysfunction occurring immediately after lung transplantation, pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary embolism. For each of these diseases, we first evaluate the targeted drug delivery approaches that have been tested in animals. Then we suggest a 'need specification' for each disease: a list of criteria (e.g., macroscale delivery method, stability, etc.) that nanomedicine agents must meet in order to warrant human clinical trials and investment from industry. For the diseases profiled here, numerous nanomedicine agents have shown promise in animal models. However, to maximize the chances of creating products that reach patients, nanomedicine engineers and clinicians must work together and use each disease's need specification to guide the design of practical and effective nanomedicine agents.

  8. Essential components of a successful doctoral program in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Anne L; Shann, Mary H; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    The Nanomedicine program at Northeastern University provides a unique interdisciplinary graduate education that combines experiential research, didactic learning, networking, and outreach. Students are taught how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate basic research to the development of marketable products, negotiate ethical and social issues related to nanomedicine, and develop a strong sense of community involvement within a global perspective. Since 2006, the program has recruited 50 doctoral students from ten traditional science, technology, and engineering disciplines to participate in the 2-year specialization program. Each trainee received mentoring from two or more individuals, including faculty members outside the student's home department and faculty members at other academic institutions, and/or clinicians. Both students and faculty members reported a significant increase in interdisciplinary scholarly activities, including publications, presentations, and funded research proposals, as a direct result of the program. Nearly 90% of students graduating with a specialization in nanomedicine have continued on to careers in the health care sector. Currently, 43% of graduates are performing research or developing products that directly involve nanomedicine. This article identifies some key elements of the Nanomedicine program, describes how they were implemented, and reports on the metrics of success.

  9. Controlling the influence of elastic eigenmodes on nanomagnet dynamics through pattern geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, C.; Yahagi, Y.; Dhuey, S.; Cabrini, S.; Schmidt, H.

    2017-03-01

    The effect of the nanoscale array geometry on the interaction between optically generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and nanomagnet dynamics is investigated using Time-Resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Microscopy (TR-MOKE). It is demonstrated that altering the nanomagnet geometry from a periodic to a randomized aperiodic pattern effectively removes the magneto-elastic effect of SAWs on the magnetization dynamics. The efficiency of this method depends on the extent of any residual spatial correlations and is quantified by spatial Fourier analysis of the two structures. Randomization allows observation and extraction of intrinsic magnetic parameters such as spin wave frequencies and damping to be resolvable using all-optical methods, enabling the conclusion that the fabrication process does not affect the damping.

  10. Controlling the influence of elastic eigenmodes on nanomagnet dynamics through pattern geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, C., E-mail: crberk@soe.ucsc.edu [School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Yahagi, Y. [School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dhuey, S.; Cabrini, S. [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schmidt, H. [School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The effect of the nanoscale array geometry on the interaction between optically generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) and nanomagnet dynamics is investigated using Time-Resolved Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Microscopy (TR-MOKE). It is demonstrated that altering the nanomagnet geometry from a periodic to a randomized aperiodic pattern effectively removes the magneto-elastic effect of SAWs on the magnetization dynamics. The efficiency of this method depends on the extent of any residual spatial correlations and is quantified by spatial Fourier analysis of the two structures. Randomization allows observation and extraction of intrinsic magnetic parameters such as spin wave frequencies and damping to be resolvable using all-optical methods, enabling the conclusion that the fabrication process does not affect the damping.

  11. Nanomagnets with high shape anisotropy and strong crystalline anisotropy: perspectives on magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanella, H; Llobet, J; Esteve, J; Plaza, J A; Jaafar, M; Vázquez, M; Asenjo, A; Del Real, R P

    2011-01-01

    We report on a new approach for magnetic imaging, highly sensitive even in the presence of external, strong magnetic fields. Based on FIB-assisted fabricated high-aspect-ratio rare-earth nanomagnets, we produce groundbreaking magnetic force tips with hard magnetic character where we combine a high aspect ratio (shape anisotropy) together with strong crystalline anisotropy (rare-earth-based alloys). Rare-earth hard nanomagnets are then FIB-integrated to silicon microcantilevers as highly sharpened tips for high-field magnetic imaging applications. Force resolution and domain reversing and recovery capabilities are at least one order of magnitude better than for conventional magnetic tips. This work opens new, pioneering research fields on the surface magnetization process of nanostructures based either on relatively hard magnetic materials—used in magnetic storage media—or on materials like superparamagnetic particles, ferro/antiferromagnetic structures or paramagnetic materials.

  12. Real time visualization of dynamic magnetic fields with a nanomagnetic ferrolens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulakis, Emmanouil; Rigakis, Iraklis; Chatzakis, John; Konstantaras, Antonios; Antonidakis, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Due to advancements in nanomagnetism and latest nanomagnetic materials and devices, a new potential field has been opened up for research and applications which was not possible before. We herein propose a new research field and application for nanomagnetism for the visualization of dynamic magnetic fields in real-time. In short, Nano Magnetic Vision. A new methodology, technique and apparatus were invented and prototyped in order to demonstrate and test this new application. As an application example the visualization of the dynamic magnetic field on a transmitting antenna was chosen. Never seen before high-resolution, photos and real-time color video revealing the actual dynamic magnetic field inside a transmitting radio antenna rod has been captured for the first time. The antenna rod is fed with six hundred volts, orthogonal pulses. This unipolar signal is in the very low frequency (i.e. VLF) range. The signal combined with an extremely short electrical length of the rod, ensures the generation of a relatively strong fluctuating magnetic field, analogue to the signal transmitted, along and inside the antenna. This field is induced into a ferrolens and becomes visible in real-time within the normal human eyes frequency spectrum. The name we have given to the new observation apparatus is, SPIONs Superparamagnetic Ferrolens Microscope (SSFM), a powerful passive scientific observation tool with many other potential applications in the near future.

  13. On the discrimination between nucleation and propagation in nanomagnetic logic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemys, Grazvydas; Csaba, Gyorgy; Becherer, Markus

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present the extensive nucleation and propagation characterization of fabricated nanomagnets by applying ns-range magnetic field pulses. For that, an artificial nucleation center (ANC) is created by focused ion beam irradiation (FIB) of a 50 x 50 nm area at the side of a Co/Pt island as typically used in Nanomagnetic Logic with perpendicular anisotropy (pNML). Laser-Kerr Microscope is applied for statistical evaluation of the switching probability of the whole magnet, while the wide-field-Kerr microscopy is employed to discriminate between the nucleation process (which takes place at the irradiated ANC area) and the domain wall propagation process along the magnet. We show that the nanomagnet can be treated as a single Stoner-Wolfhart particle above 100 ns field-pulse width, as the whole magnetization is switched during the field-pulse. By contrary, for field-pulse width below 100 ns, the domain wall (DW) motion is the limiting process hindering full magnetization reversal on that time-scale. However, the nucleation still follows the Arrhenius law. The results allow precise understanding of the reversal process and highlight the need for faster DW speed in pNML materials.

  14. On the discrimination between nucleation and propagation in nanomagnetic logic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazvydas Ziemys

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the extensive nucleation and propagation characterization of fabricated nanomagnets by applying ns-range magnetic field pulses. For that, an artificial nucleation center (ANC is created by focused ion beam irradiation (FIB of a 50 x 50 nm area at the side of a Co/Pt island as typically used in Nanomagnetic Logic with perpendicular anisotropy (pNML. Laser-Kerr Microscope is applied for statistical evaluation of the switching probability of the whole magnet, while the wide-field-Kerr microscopy is employed to discriminate between the nucleation process (which takes place at the irradiated ANC area and the domain wall propagation process along the magnet. We show that the nanomagnet can be treated as a single Stoner-Wolfhart particle above 100 ns field-pulse width, as the whole magnetization is switched during the field-pulse. By contrary, for field-pulse width below 100 ns, the domain wall (DW motion is the limiting process hindering full magnetization reversal on that time-scale. However, the nucleation still follows the Arrhenius law. The results allow precise understanding of the reversal process and highlight the need for faster DW speed in pNML materials.

  15. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    , alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physico-chemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug......Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic......) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review...

  16. Nanotechnology and nanomedicine: going small means aiming big.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, Mahesh Kumar; Mutalik, Srinivas; Rajanikant, G K

    2010-06-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging branch of science for designing tools and devices of size 1 to 100 nm with specific function at the cellular, atomic and molecular levels. The concept of employing nanotechnology in biomedical research and clinical practice is best known as nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is an upcoming field that could potentially make a major impact to human health. Nanomaterials are increasingly used in diagnostics, imaging and targeted drug delivery. Nanotechnology will assist the integration of diagnostics/imaging with therapeutics and facilitates the development of personalized medicine, i.e. prescription of specific medications best suited for an individual. This review provides an integrated overview of application of nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics and drug delivery in the development of nanomedicine and ultimately personalized medicine. Finally, we identify critical gaps in our knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity and how these gaps need to be evaluated to enable nanotechnology to transit safely from bench to bedside.

  17. Emerging nanomedicine applications and manufacturing: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartain, Felicity; Greco, Francesca; Hill, Kathryn; Rannard, Steve; Owen, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    APS 6th International PharmSci Conference 2015 7-9 September 2015 East Midlands Conference Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK As part of the 6th APS International PharmSci Conference, a nanomedicine session was organised to address challenges and share experiences in this field. Topics ranged from the reporting on latest results and advances in the development of targeted therapeutics to the needs that the community faces in how to progress these exciting proof of concept results into products. Here we provide an overview of the discussion and highlight some of the initiatives that have recently been established to support the translation of nanomedicines into the clinic.

  18. Electric field control of magnetic states in isolated and dipole-coupled FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a PMN-PT substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Hasnain; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2015-10-09

    We report observation of a 'non-volatile' converse magneto-electric effect in elliptical FeGa nanomagnets delineated on a piezoelectric PMN-PT substrate. The nanomagnets are first magnetized with a magnetic field directed along their nominal major axes. Subsequent application of a strong electric field across the piezoelectric substrate generates strain in the substrate, which is partially transferred to the nanomagnets and rotates the magnetizations of some of them away from their initial orientations. The rotated magnetizations remain in their new orientations after the field is removed, resulting in 'non-volatility'. In isolated nanomagnets, the magnetization rotates by <90° upon application of the electric field, but in a dipole-coupled pair consisting of one 'hard' and one 'soft' nanomagnet, which are both initially magnetized in the same direction by the magnetic field, the soft nanomagnet's magnetization rotates by [Formula: see text] upon application of the electric field because of the dipole influence of the hard nanomagnet. This effect can be utilized for a nanomagnetic NOT logic gate.

  19. Polymeric Nanomedicine for Cancer MR Imaging and Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kessinger, Chase W.; Gao, Jinming

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional nanomedicine is emerging as a highly integrated platform that allows for molecular diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous monitoring and treatment of cancer. Advances in polymer and materials science are critical for the successful development of these multi-component nanocomposites in one particulate system with such a small size confinement (

  20. Quantum dots in nanomedicine: recent trends, advances and unresolved issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Yuri, E-mail: yvolkov@tcd.ie

    2015-12-18

    The review addresses the current state of progress in the use of ultra-small nanoparticles from the category of quantum dots (QDs), which presently embraces a widening range of nanomaterials of different nature, including “classical” semiconductor groups III-V and II-VI nanocrystals, along with more recently emerged carbon, silicon, gold and other types of nanoparticles falling into this class of nanomaterials due to their similar physical characteristics such as small size and associated quantum confinement effects. A diverse range of QDs applications in nanomedicine has been extensively summarised previously in numerous publications. Therefore, this review is not intended to provide an all-embracing survey of the well documented QDs uses, but is rather focused on the most recent emerging developments, concepts and outstanding unresolved problematic and sometimes controversial issues. Over 125 publications are overviewed and discussed here in the context of major nanomedicine domains, i.e. medical imaging, diagnostics, therapeutic applications and combination of them in multifunctional theranostic systems. - Highlights: • New types of nanomaterials have been recently added to the category of QDs with a potential in nanomedicine. • Within the main nanomedicine domains, best progress has been achieved with QDs for diagnostic tools. • Further studies are required for the theranostic QDs-based leads to reach clinical translation.

  1. Oral nanomedicine approaches for the treatment of psychiatric illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dening, Tahnee J; Rao, Shasha; Thomas, Nicky; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-02-10

    Psychiatric illnesses are a leading cause of disability and morbidity globally. However, the preferred orally dosed pharmacological treatment options available for depression, anxiety and schizophrenia are often limited by factors such as low drug aqueous solubility, food effects, high hepatic first-pass metabolism effects and short half-lives. Furthermore, the discovery and development of more effective psychotropic agents has stalled in recent times, with the majority of new drugs reaching the market offering similar efficacy, but suffering from the same oral delivery concerns. As such, the application of nanomedicine formulation approaches to currently available drugs is a viable option for optimizing oral drug delivery and maximizing treatment efficacy. This review focuses on the various delivery challenges encountered by psychotropic drugs, and the ability of nanomedicine formulation strategies to overcome these. Specifically, we critically review proof of concept in vitro and in vivo studies of nanoemulsions/microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, dendrimers, polymeric micelles, nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers and nanosuspensions, and provide new insight into the various mechanisms for improved drug performance. The advantages and limitations of current oral nanomedicine approaches for psychotropic drugs are discussed, which will provide guidance for future research directions and assist in fostering the translation of such delivery systems to the clinical setting. Accordingly, emphasis has been placed on correlating the in vitro/in vivo performance of these nanomedicine approaches with their potential clinical outcomes and benefits for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantum dots in nanomedicine: recent trends, advances and unresolved issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The review addresses the current state of progress in the use of ultra-small nanoparticles from the category of quantum dots (QDs), which presently embraces a widening range of nanomaterials of different nature, including “classical” semiconductor groups III-V and II-VI nanocrystals, along with more recently emerged carbon, silicon, gold and other types of nanoparticles falling into this class of nanomaterials due to their similar physical characteristics such as small size and associated quantum confinement effects. A diverse range of QDs applications in nanomedicine has been extensively summarised previously in numerous publications. Therefore, this review is not intended to provide an all-embracing survey of the well documented QDs uses, but is rather focused on the most recent emerging developments, concepts and outstanding unresolved problematic and sometimes controversial issues. Over 125 publications are overviewed and discussed here in the context of major nanomedicine domains, i.e. medical imaging, diagnostics, therapeutic applications and combination of them in multifunctional theranostic systems. - Highlights: • New types of nanomaterials have been recently added to the category of QDs with a potential in nanomedicine. • Within the main nanomedicine domains, best progress has been achieved with QDs for diagnostic tools. • Further studies are required for the theranostic QDs-based leads to reach clinical translation.

  3. Overcoming cellular multidrug resistance using classical nanomedicine formulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunjachan, S.; Blauz, A.; Möckel, D.; Theek, B.; Kiessling, F.; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, K.; van Bloois, L.; Storm, G.; Bartosz, G.; Rychlik, B.; Lammers, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2012), s. 421-428 ISSN 0928-0987 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cancer * nanomedicine * multidrug resistance Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.987, year: 2012

  4. Perspectives and opportunities for nanomedicine in the management of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobatto, Mark E.; Fuster, Valentin; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology for medical purposes - nanomedicine - has grown exponentially over the past few decades. This is exemplified by the US Food and Drug Administration's approval of several nanotherapies for various conditions, as well as the funding of nanomedical programmes worldwide.

  5. Experiment-based thermal micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization reversal for ns-range clocked nanomagnetic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemys, Grazvydas; Breitkreutz-v. Gamm, Stephan; Csaba, Gyorgy; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris; Becherer, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Extensive thermal micromagnetic simulations, based on experimental data and parameters, were performed to investigate the magnetization reversal in Co/Pt nanomagnets with locally reduced perpendicular anisotropy on the nanosecond range. The simulations were supported by experimental data gained on manufactured Co/Pt nanomagnets, as used in nanomagnetic logic. It is known that magnetization reversal is governed by two mechanisms. At pulse lengths longer than 100 ns, thermal activation dominates the magnetization reversal processes and follows the common accepted Arrhenius law. For pulse lengths shorter than 100 ns, the dynamic reversal dominates. With the help of thermal micro-magnetic simulations we found out that the point where the both mechanisms meet is determined by the damping constant α of the multilayer film stack. The optimization of ferromagnetic multilayer film stacks enables higher clocking rates with lower power consumption and, therefore, further improve the performance of pNML.

  6. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  7. Exploring the no-man's land between molecular nanomagnets and magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatteschi, Dante; Fittipaldi, Maria; Sangregorio, Claudio; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2012-05-14

    The comparison of the structural and magnetic properties of molecular nanomagnets (MNM) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) can be instructive to get a deeper understanding of the magnetic behavior on the intermediate scale between molecular and bulk objects. In this respect iron oxo based clusters are particularly interesting, since they provide an increasing number of molecular systems with sizes close to that of iron oxide MNP. In this Minireview we report a survey of literature data aimed at improving our understanding of the emergence of MNP properties from MNM ones. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Vortical structures for nanomagnetic memory induced by dipole-dipole interaction in monolayer disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaosen; Ciftja, Orion; Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ian, Hou

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that magnetic domains in nanodisks can be used as storage units for computer memory. Using two quantum simulation approaches, we show here that spin vortices on magnetic monolayer nanodisks, which are chirality-free, can be induced by dipole-dipole interaction (DDI) on the disk-plane. When DDI is sufficiently strong, vortical and anti-vortical multi-domain textures can be generated simultaneously. Especially, a spin vortex can be easily created and deleted through either external magnetic or electrical signals, making them ideal to be used in nanomagnetic memory and logical devices. We demonstrate these properties in our simulations.

  9. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Polymeric nanomedicine for cancer MR imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kessinger, Chase W; Gao, Jinming

    2009-06-28

    Multifunctional nanomedicine is emerging as a highly integrated platform that allows for molecular diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous monitoring and treatment of cancer. Advances in polymer and materials science are critical for the successful development of these multi-component nanocomposites in one particulate system with such a small size confinement (nanoscopic therapeutic and diagnostic systems have been translated into clinical practice. In this feature article, we will provide an up-to-date review on the development and biomedical applications of nanocomposite materials for cancer diagnosis and therapy. An overview of each functional component, i.e. polymer carriers, MR imaging agents, and therapeutic drugs, will be presented. Integration of different functional components will be illustrated in several highlighted examples to demonstrate the synergy of the multifunctional nanomedicine design.

  11. Computational nanomedicine and nanotechnology lectures with computer practicums

    CERN Document Server

    Letfullin, Renat R

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies. Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among...

  12. The impact of effective patents on future innovations in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Rita; Vereeck, Lode

    2012-03-01

    The success of nanomedicine is dependent upon an effective protection of IP rights. Unfortunately, the US nanomedicine patent system is dysfunctional because long R&D procedures as well as the patent pendency are insufficiently taken into account. This could be solved by changing the patent-protection starting point and increasing the capacity of the US PTO. The nanotechnology industry also suffers from overlapping patents. This could be avoided by improving the expertise of the PTO, using a more accurate definition of nanotechnology and devising a generally accepted nomenclature that enhances prior-art searches. To avoid disputes, inference practices and strategic patenting can be used. In the case of a dispute, parties can fall back on re-examination, cross-licensing and patent litigation. Cross-licensing agreements are recommended since they allows parties to access technology, create synergies and exclude third-party competitors. Solving the patent problems in the nanotechnology industry is a necessary step for future success.

  13. The future of nanofabrication and molecular scale devices in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, R A

    2002-01-01

    Nanotechnology is engineering and manufacturing at the molecular scale, and the application of nanotechnology to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanomedicine subsumes three mutually overlapping and progressively more powerful molecular technologies. First, nanoscale-structured materials and devices that can be fabricated today hold great promise for advanced diagnostics and biosensors, targeted drug delivery and smart drugs, and immunoisolation therapies. Second, biotechnology offers the benefits of molecular medicine via genomics, proteomics, and artificial engineered microbes. Third, in the longer term, molecular machine systems and medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, chromosome replacement and individual cell surgery in vivo, and the efficient augmentation and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is exploring the fabrication of designed nanostructures, nanoactuators and nanomotors, microscopic energy sources, and nanocomputers at the molecular scale, along with the means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  14. Biomedical photoacoustics: fundamentals, instrumentation and perspectives on nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chunpeng; Wu, Beibei; Dong, Yanyan; Song, Zhangwei; Zhao, Yaping; Ni, Xianwei; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhe

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an integrated biomedical imaging modality which combines the advantages of acoustic deep penetration and optical high sensitivity. It can provide functional and structural images with satisfactory resolution and contrast which could provide abundant pathological information for disease-oriented diagnosis. Therefore, it has found vast applications so far and become a powerful tool of precision nanomedicine. However, the investigation of PAI-based imaging nanomaterials is still in its infancy. This perspective article aims to summarize the developments in photoacoustic technologies and instrumentations in the past years, and more importantly, present a bright outlook for advanced PAI-based imaging nanomaterials as well as their emerging biomedical applications in nanomedicine. Current challenges and bottleneck issues have also been discussed and elucidated in this article to bring them to the attention of the readership.

  15. Post isolation modification of exosomes for nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joshua L

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles. They innately possess ideal structural and biocompatible nanocarrier properties. Exosome components can be engineered at the cellular level. Alternatively, when exosome source cells are unavailable for customized exosome production, exosomes derived from a variety of biological origins can be modified post isolation which is the focus of this article. Modification of exosome surface structures allows for exosome imaging and tracking in vivo. Exosome membranes can be loaded with hydrophobic therapeutics to increase drug stability and efficacy. Hydrophilic therapeutics such as RNA can be encapsulated in exosomes to improve cellular delivery. Despite advances in post isolation exosome modification strategies, many challenges to effectively harnessing their therapeutic potential remain. Future topics of exploration include: matching exosome subtypes with nanomedicine applications, optimizing exosomal nanocarrier formulation and investigating how modified exosomes interface with the immune system. Research into these areas will greatly facilitate personalized exosome-based nanomedicine endeavors.

  16. Cancer stem cells and drug resistance: the potential of nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Wei, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Properties of the small group of cancer cells called tumor-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs) involved in drug resistance, metastasis and relapse of cancers can significantly affect tumor therapy. Importantly, tumor drug resistance seems to be closely related to many intrinsic or acquired properties of CSCs, such as quiescence, specific morphology, DNA repair ability and overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, drug efflux transporters and detoxifying enzymes. The specific microenvironment (niche) and hypoxic stability provide additional protection against anticancer therapy for CSCs. Thus, CSC-focused therapy is destined to form the core of any effective anticancer strategy. Nanomedicine has great potential in the development of CSC-targeting drugs, controlled drug delivery and release, and the design of novel gene-specific drugs and diagnostic modalities. This review is focused on tumor drug resistance-related properties of CSCs and describes current nanomedicine approaches, which could form the basis of novel combination therapies for eliminating metastatic and CSCs. PMID:22471722

  17. Nanomedicine, microarrays and their applications in clinical microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Deveci

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing interest in the future medical applications of nanotechnology is leading to the emergence of a new scientific field that called as “nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine may be defined as the investigating, treating, reconstructing and controlling human biology and health at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and nanostructures. Microarray technology is a revolutionary tool for elucidating roles of genes in infectious diseases, shifting from traditional methods of research to integrated approaches. This technology has great potential to provide medical diagnosis, monitor treatment and help in the development of new tools for infectious disease prevention and/or management. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current application of microarray platforms and nanomedicine in the study of experimental microbiology and the impact of this technology in clinical settings.

  18. Non-monotonic probability of thermal reversal in thin-film biaxial nanomagnets with small energy barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to investigate the short time-scale, thermally-induced probability of magnetization reversal for an biaxial nanomagnet that is characterized with a biaxial magnetic anisotropy. For the first time, we clearly show that for a given energy barrier of the nanomagnet, the magnetization reversal probability of an biaxial nanomagnet exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on its saturation magnetization. Specifically, there are two reasons for this non-monotonic behavior in rectangular thin-film nanomagnets that have a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. First, a large perpendicular anisotropy lowers the precessional period of the magnetization making it more likely to precess across the x^=0 plane if the magnetization energy exceeds the energy barrier. Second, the thermal-field torque at a particular energy increases as the magnitude of the perpendicular anisotropy increases during the magnetization precession. This non-monotonic behavior is most noticeable when analyzing the magnetization reversals on time-scales up to several tens of ns. In light of the several proposals of spintronic devices that require data retention on time-scales up to 10’s of ns, understanding the probability of magnetization reversal on the short time-scales is important. As such, the results presented in this paper will be helpful in quantifying the reliability and noise sensitivity of spintronic devices in which thermal noise is inevitably present.

  19. Applications of Gold Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine: Recent Advances in Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia

    2017-05-22

    Nowadays, gold is used in (nano-)medicine, usually in the form of nanoparticles, due to the solid proofs given of its therapeutic effects on several diseases. Gold also plays an important role in the vaccine field as an adjuvant and a carrier, reducing toxicity, enhancing immunogenic activity, and providing stability in storage. An even brighter golden future is expected for gold applications in this area.

  20. Nanomedicine photoluminescence crystal-inspired brain sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Fangzhen; Wu, Rong

    2018-02-01

    Precision sensing needs to overcome a gap of a single atomic step height standard. In response to the cutting-edge challenge, a heterosingle molecular nanomedicine crystal was developed wherein a nanomedicine crystal height less than 1 nm was designed and selfassembled on a substrate of either a highly ordered and freshly separated graphite or a N-doped silicon with hydrogen bonding by a home-made hybrid system of interacting single bioelectron donor-acceptor and a single biophoton donor-acceptor according to orthogonal mathematical optimization scheme, and an atomic spatial resolution conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) with MHz signal processing by a special transformation of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) were employed, wherein a z axis direction UV-VIS laser interferometer and a feedback circuit were used to achieve the minimized uncertainty of a micro-regional structure height and its corresponding local differential conductance quantization (spin state) process was repeatedly measured with a highly time resolution, as well as a pulsed UV-VIS laser micro-photoluminescence (PL) spectrum with a single photon resolution was set up by traceable quantum sensing and metrology relied up a quantum electrical triangle principle. The coupling of a single bioelectron conducting, a single biophoton photoluminescence, a frequency domain temporal spin phase in nanomedicine crystal-inspired sensing methods and sensor technologies were revealed by a combination of C-AFM and PL measurement data-based mathematic analyses1-3, as depicted in Figure 1 and repeated in nanomedicine crystals with a single atomic height. It is concluded that height-current-phase uncertainty correlation pave a way to develop a brain imaging and a single atomic height standard, quantum sensing, national security, worldwide impact1-3 technology and beyond.

  1. Nanomedicine for improved efficacy of tuberculosis drugs – Pharmacokinetic importance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hayeshi, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of Tuberculosis Drugs ? Pharmacokinetic importance Emerging Researcher Symposium Dr. Rose Hayeshi 10 October 2012 Outline ? Challenges in TB treatment ? Nanomedicine as proposed solution ? Results ? Conclusions ? CSIR 2012 Slide 2... ? 1 x 106 cfu/lung 3 x 103 cfu/spleen Effects of the Nanodrug on Mycobacaterium tuberculosis replication ? Nanodrug once a week vs conventional drug daily ? Treatment with nanoencapsulated TB drugs once a week, comparable to daily treatment...

  2. Challenges of clinical translation in nanomedicine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simon; Hunziker, Patrick; Shaw, David

    2016-05-01

    Clinical translation of breakthroughs in nanotechnology and nanomedicine is expected to significantly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities for various diseases. This will not only improve human health and well-being, but is also likely to reduce health care costs in the long run. However, clinical translation is a long, arduous, resource intensive process that requires priority setting, resource mobilization, successful national and international collaboration, and effective coordination between key stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to describe various challenges faced by the stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine while planning and conducting first in human clinical trials. We draw on insights obtained from 46 in-depth qualitative interviews with key stakeholders from Europe and North America. Translational research is a crucial step in bringing basic research into clinical reality. This is particularly important in a new field like nanomedicine. Clinical translation is a long and resource intensive process with difficulties along the way. In this article, the authors looked at the challenges faced by various parties in order to help identify ways to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel peptide nanomedicine for treatment of pancreatogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatogenic diabetes (PD) is a potentially fatal disease that occurs secondary to pancreatic disorders. The current anti-diabetic therapy for PD is fraught with adverse effects that can increase morbidity. Here we investigated the efficacy of novel peptide nanomedicine: pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in sterically stabilized micelles (SSM) for management of PD. PP exhibits significant anti-diabetic efficacy but its short plasma half-life curtails its therapeutic application. To prolong and improve activity of PP in vivo, we evaluated the delivery of PP in SSM. PP-SSM administered to rats with PD, significantly improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and hepatic glycogen content compared to peptide in buffer. The studies established the importance of micellar nanocarriers in protecting enzyme-labile peptides in vivo and delivering them to target site, thereby enhancing their therapeutic efficacy. In summary, this study demonstrated that PP-SSM is a promising novel anti-diabetic nanomedicine and therefore should be further developed for management of PD. Pancreatic peptide was earlier demonstrated to address pancreatogenic diabetes, but its short half-life represented major difficulties in further development for therapeutic use. PP-SSM (pancreatic polypeptide in sterically stabilized micelles) is a promising novel anti-diabetic nanomedicine that enables prolonged half-life and increased bioactivity of PP, as shown in this novel study, paving the way toward clinical studies in the near future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Leveraging the Radiation-Resistance and Power Efficiency of Nano-Magnetic Logic to Develop More Affordable, Efficient, and Reliable Space Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — I am researching nano-magnetic logic (NML) because it has low power consumption, high density of computing and memory elements, CMOS integration capabilities, and...

  5. Exploiting the Metal-Chelating Properties of the Drug Cargo for In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Liposomal Nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmonds, Scott; Volpe, Alessia; Shmeeda, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    of a radiolabeled stealth liposomal nanomedicine containing alendronate that shows high uptake in primary tumors and metastatic organs. The versatility, efficiency, simplicity, and GMP compatibility of this method may enable submicrodosing imaging studies of liposomal nanomedicines containing chelating drugs...

  6. Molecular nanomagnets: Syntheses and characterization of high nuclearity transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foguet-Albiol, Maria D.

    2006-12-01

    High nuclearity transition metal complexes have attracted a lot of attention because of their aesthetically pleasant structures and/or their potential applications. The fusion of the world of magnetism with the exciting research in physics and chemistry led to the realization of interesting types of materials that can function as nanoscale magnetic particles. The study of the magnetism of inorganic complexes and especially the study of these molecular nanomagnets (or single-molecule magnets, SMMs) is a field that has generated intense interest in the scientific community. Interest in these molecular nanomagnets arises as part of a broader investigation of nanomagnetism (and nanotechnology), as these represent the ultimate step in device miniaturization. The primary purpose of this dissertation is the development of new synthetic methods intended for the preparation of novel single-molecule magnets (SMMs). The definition of the "bottom-up approach" is to increase the size of molecules by adding new magnetic centers; this is attractive but does not actually reflect how the chemistry takes place. Various strategies have been employed in developing the aforementioned synthetic methods which include the use of mononuclear as well as preformed clusters as starting materials; and the introduction of new alcohol based ligands as N-methyldiethanolamine (mdaH2) and triethanolamine (teaH3), since currently only a few alcohol based ligands have been used by different research groups. Many of these efforts have led to the isolation of new polynuclear Mn clusters with nuclearities ranging all the way from four to thirty-one. Additionally, a family of related Fe7 complexes has been synthesized. The transition metal cluster chemistry has also been extended to nickel-containing species. Many of these polynulear transition metal complexes function as single-molecule magnets. An additional research direction discussed herein is the study of the exchange-coupled dimer of single

  7. Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscience stands out for its interdisciplinarity. Barriers between disciplines disappear and the fields tend to converge at the very smallest scale, where basic principles and tools are universal. Novel properties are inherent to nanosized systems due to quantum effects and a reduction in dimensionality: nanoscience is likely to continue to revolutionize many areas of human activity, such as materials science, nanoelectronics, information processing, biotechnology and medicine. This textbook spans all fields of nanoscience, covering its basics and broad applications. After an introduction to the physical and chemical principles of nanoscience, coverage moves on to the adjacent fields of microscopy, nanoanalysis, synthesis, nanocrystals, nanowires, nanolayers, carbon nanostructures, bulk nanomaterials, nanomechanics, nanophotonics, nanofluidics, nanomagnetism, nanotechnology for computers, nanochemistry, nanobiology, and nanomedicine. Consequently, this broad yet unified coverage addresses research in academ...

  8. Core-cross-linked polymeric micelles: a versatile nanomedicine platform with broad applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the broad applicability of the nanomedicine platform core-cross-linked polymeric micelles (CCL-PMs) composed of thermosensitive mPEG-b-pHPMAmLacn block copolymers. In Chapter 1, a general introduction to nanomedicines is provided, with a particular focus on polymeric

  9. Optimization of the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties simultaneously to improve tumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Lanting; Mei, Heng; Lu, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2016-09-20

    Effective delivery of nanomedicines to tumor tissues depends on both the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties. Accordingly, tumor microenvironment modification or advanced design of nanomedicine was emerging to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. However, few studies have emphasized the necessity to optimize the tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine properties simultaneously to improve tumor treatment. In the present study, imatinib mesylate (IMA) was used to normalize the tumor microenvironment including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression inhibition, tumor vessel normalization, and tumor perfusion improvement as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, the effect of tumor microenvironment normalization on tumor delivery of nanomedicines with different sizes was carefully investigated. It was shown that IMA treatment significantly reduced the accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) around 110 nm but enhanced the accumulation of micelles around 23 nm by in vivo fluorescence imaging experiment. Furthermore, IMA treatment limited the distribution of NPs inside tumors but increased that of micelles with a more homogeneous pattern. Finally, the anti-tumor efficacy study displayed that IMA pretreatment could significantly increase the therapeutic effects of paclitaxel-loaded micelles. All-together, a new strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumor was provided by optimizing both nanomedicine size and the tumor microenvironment simultaneously, and it will have great potential in clinics for tumor treatment.

  10. Micromagnetic simulation of energy consumption and excited eigenmodes in elliptical nanomagnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlotti, G.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-200 nm patterned magnetic dots are key elements for the design of magnetic switches, memory cells or elementary units of nanomagnetic logic circuits. In this paper, we analyse by micromagnetic simulations the magnetization reversal, the dissipated energy and the excited spin eigenmodes in bistable magnetic switches, consisting of elliptical nanodots with 100×60 nm lateral dimensions. Two different strategies for reversal are considered and the relative results compared: (i) the irreversible switching obtained by the application of an external field along the easy axis, in the direction opposite to the initial magnetization; (ii) the precessional switching accomplished by the application of a short magnetic field pulse, oriented perpendicular to the initial magnetization direction. The obtained results are discussed in terms of deviation from the macrospin behavior, energy dissipation and characteristics of the spectrum of spin eigenmodes excited during the magnetization reversal process

  11. Molecular nanomagnets and magnetic nanoparticles: the EMR contribution to a common approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fittipaldi, M; Sorace, L; Barra, A-L; Sangregorio, C; Sessoli, R; Gatteschi, D

    2009-08-21

    The current status and future developments of the use of electron magnetic resonance (EMR) for the investigation of magnetic nano-systems is here reviewed. The aim is to stimulate efforts to provide a unified view of the properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) comprising a few hundred magnetic centres, and molecular nanomagnets which contain up to ca. one hundred magnetic centres (MNM). The size of the systems is becoming the same but the approaches to the interpretation of their properties are still different, being bottom up for the latter and top down for the former. We make the point here of the need for a common viewpoint, highlighting the status of the two fields and giving some hints for the future developments. EMR has been a powerful tool for the investigation of magnetic nano-objects and it can provide a tool of fundamental importance for the development of a unified view.

  12. A hysteresis phenomenon in NMR spectra of molecular nanomagnets Fe8: a resonant quantum tunneling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tomoaki; Ueda, Miki; Maegawa, Satoru

    2003-05-01

    A molecular nanomagnet Fe8 with a total spin S=10 in the ground state attracts much attention as a substance which exhibits the quantum tunneling of magnetization below 300 mK. We performed 1H NMR measurements for a single crystal of Fe8 in temperature range between 20 and 800 mK. The spectra below 300 mK strongly depend on the sequence of the applied field and those in the positive and negative fields are not symmetric about zero field, while they are symmetric above 300 mK. We discuss the origin of this hysteresis phenomenon, relating to the initial spin state of molecules, the resonant quantum tunneling and the nuclear spin relaxation process.

  13. A hysteresis phenomenon in NMR spectra of molecular nanomagnets Fe8: a resonant quantum tunneling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tomoaki; Ueda, Miki; Maegawa, Satoru

    2003-01-01

    A molecular nanomagnet Fe8 with a total spin S=10 in the ground state attracts much attention as a substance which exhibits the quantum tunneling of magnetization below 300 mK. We performed 1 H NMR measurements for a single crystal of Fe8 in temperature range between 20 and 800 mK. The spectra below 300 mK strongly depend on the sequence of the applied field and those in the positive and negative fields are not symmetric about zero field, while they are symmetric above 300 mK. We discuss the origin of this hysteresis phenomenon, relating to the initial spin state of molecules, the resonant quantum tunneling and the nuclear spin relaxation process

  14. Adaptation and performance of the Cartesian coordinates fast multipole method for nanomagnetic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen; Haas, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    An implementation of the fast multiple method (FMM) is performed for magnetic systems with long-ranged dipolar interactions. Expansion in spherical harmonics of the original FMM is replaced by expansion of polynomials in Cartesian coordinates, which is considerably simpler. Under open boundary conditions, an expression for multipole moments of point dipoles in a cell is derived. These make the program appropriate for nanomagnetic simulations, including magnetic nanoparticles and ferrofluids. The performance is optimized in terms of cell size and parameter set (expansion order and opening angle) and the trade off between computing time and accuracy is quantitatively studied. A rule of thumb is proposed to decide the appropriate average number of dipoles in the smallest cells, and an optimal choice of parameter set is suggested. Finally, the superiority of Cartesian coordinate FMM is demonstrated by comparison to spherical harmonics FMM and FFT.

  15. Realization of the manipulation of ultracold atoms with a reconfigurable nanomagnetic system of domain walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Adam D; Weatherill, Kevin J; Hayward, Thomas J; Fry, Paul W; Schrefl, Thomas; Gibbs, Mike R J; Adams, Charles S; Allwood, Dan A; Hughes, Ifan G

    2012-08-08

    Planar magnetic nanowires have been vital to the development of spintronic technology. They provide an unparalleled combination of magnetic reconfigurability, controllability, and scalability, which has helped to realize such applications as racetrack memory and novel logic gates. Microfabricated atom optics benefit from all of these properties, and we present the first demonstration of the amalgamation of spintronic technology with ultracold atoms. A magnetic interaction is exhibited through the reflection of a cloud of (87)Rb atoms at a temperature of 10 μK, from a 2 mm × 2 mm array of nanomagnetic domain walls. In turn, the incident atoms approach the array at heights of the order of 100 nm and are thus used to probe magnetic fields at this distance.

  16. Nanomedicines for chronic non-infectious arthritis: the clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy L

    2012-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent chronic health conditions. However, despite recent advances in medical therapeutics, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop and test new drugs for RA and OA that selectively target inflamed joints thereby mitigating damage to healthy tissues. Conceivably, biocompatible, biodegradable, disease-modifying antirheumatic nanomedicines (DMARNs) could represent a promising therapeutic approach for RA and OA. To this end, the unique physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers coupled with pathophysiological characteristics of inflamed joints amplify bioavailability and bioactivity of DMARNs and promote their selective targeting to inflamed joints. This, in turn, minimizes the amount of drug required to control articular inflammation and circumvents collateral damage to healthy tissues. Thus, nanomedicine could provide selective control both in space and time of the inflammatory process in affected joints. However, bringing safe and efficacious DMARNs for RA and OA to the marketplace is challenging because regulatory agencies have no official definition of nanotechnology, and rules and definitions for nanomedicines are still being developed. Although existing toxicology tests may be adequate for most DMARNs, as new toxicity risks and adverse health effects derived from novel nanomaterials with intended use in humans are identified, additional toxicology tests would be required. Hence, we propose that detailed pre-clinical in vivo safety assessment of promising DMARNs leads for RA and OA, including risks to the general population, must be conducted before clinical trials begin. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Omics-based nanomedicine: the future of personalized oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Peer, Dan

    2014-09-28

    The traditional "one treatment fits all" paradigm disregards the heterogeneity between cancer patients, and within a particular tumor, thus limit the success of common treatments. Moreover, current treatment lacks specificity and therefore most of the anticancer drugs induce severe adverse effects. Personalized medicine aims to individualize therapeutic interventions, based on the growing knowledge of the human multiple '-oms' (e.g. genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome), which has led to the discovery of various biomarkers that can be used to detect early stage cancers and predict tumor progression, drug response, and clinical outcome. Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to healthcare, holds great promise for revolutionizing disease management such as drug delivery, molecular imaging, reduced adverse effects and the ability to contain both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities simultaneously termed theranostics. Personalizednanomedicine has the power of combining nanomedicine with clinical and molecular biomarkers ("OMICS" data) achieving improve prognosis and disease management as well as individualized drug selection and dosage profiling to ensure maximal efficacy and safety. Tumor's heterogeneity sets a countless challenge for future personalized therapy in cancer, however the use of multi-parameter 'omic's data for specific molecular biomarkers recognition together with versatile drug delivery nanocarriers, which could target concomitantly and specifically tumor cells subpopulations, might heralds a brighter future for personalized cancer management. In this review, we present the current leading technologies available for personalized oncology. We discusses the immense potential of combining the best of these two worlds, nanomedicine and high throughput OMICS technologies to pave the way towards cancer personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nd3+ ions in nanomedicine: Perspectives and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rosal, B.; Rocha, U.; Ximendes, E. C.; Martín Rodríguez, E.; Jaque, D.; Solé, J. García

    2017-01-01

    In this work we evaluate the impact that neodymium ions can have in modern nanomedicine when they are incorporated as optically active dopants in nanocrystals. In particular, we here discuss how the particular absorption and emission properties of this ion can be conveniently exploited for important biomedical applications, such as fluorescence imaging at both in vitro and in vivo level, non-contact nanothermometry and photothermal therapy. All these features can confer neodymium-doped nanoparticles a multifunctional character and so Nd3+ is also envisaged as a paradigm ion for nanoparticle based theranostic applications.

  19. Magnetic hydroxyapatite: a promising multifunctional platform for nanomedicine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudip; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Santha Moorthy, Madhappan; Kim, Hye Hyun; Seo, Hansu; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, specific attention is paid to the development of nanostructured magnetic hydroxyapatite (MHAp) and its potential application in controlled drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and the development of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Both magnetite and hydroxyapatite materials have excellent prospects in nanomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic approaches. To date, many research articles have focused on biomedical applications of nanomaterials because of which it is very difficult to focus on any particular type of nanomaterial. This study is possibly the first effort to emphasize on the comprehensive assessment of MHAp nanostructures for biomedical applications supported with very recent experimental studies. From basic concepts to the real-life applications, the relevant characteristics of magnetic biomaterials are patented which are briefly discussed. The potential therapeutic and diagnostic ability of MHAp-nanostructured materials make them an ideal platform for future nanomedicine. We hope that this advanced review will provide a better understanding of MHAp and its important features to utilize it as a promising material for multifunctional biomedical applications. PMID:29200851

  20. Nanomedicine strategies for treatment of secondary spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White-Schenk D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Désirée White-Schenk,1,4 Riyi Shi,1–3 James F Leary1–4 1Interdisciplinary Biomedical Sciences Program, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Lynn School of Veterinary Medicine, 4Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA Abstract: Neurological injury, such as spinal cord injury, has a secondary injury associated with it. The secondary injury results from the biological cascade after the primary injury and affects previous uninjured, healthy tissue. Therefore, the mitigation of such a cascade would benefit patients suffering a primary injury and allow the body to recover more quickly. Unfortunately, the delivery of effective therapeutics is quite limited. Due to the inefficient delivery of therapeutic drugs, nanoparticles have become a major field of exploration for medical applications. Based on their material properties, they can help treat disease by delivering drugs to specific tissues, enhancing detection methods, or a mixture of both. Incorporating nanomedicine into the treatment of neuronal injury and disease would likely push nanomedicine into a new light. This review highlights the various pathological issues involved in secondary spinal cord injury, current treatment options, and the improvements that could be made using a nanomedical approach. Keywords: spinal cord injury, acrolein, drug delivery, methylprednisolone, secondary injury

  1. Emerging advances in nanomedicine with engineered gold nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Joseph A; Bardhan, Rizia

    2014-03-07

    Gold nanostructures possess unique characteristics that enable their use as contrast agents, as therapeutic entities, and as scaffolds to adhere functional molecules, therapeutic cargo, and targeting ligands. Due to their ease of synthesis, straightforward surface functionalization, and non-toxicity, gold nanostructures have emerged as powerful nanoagents for cancer detection and treatment. This comprehensive review summarizes the progress made in nanomedicine with gold nanostructures (1) as probes for various bioimaging techniques including dark-field, one-photon and two-photon fluorescence, photothermal optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic tomography, positron emission tomography, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering based imaging, (2) as therapeutic components for photothermal therapy, gene and drug delivery, and radiofrequency ablation, and (3) as a theranostic platform to simultaneously achieve both cancer detection and treatment. Distinct from other published reviews, this article also discusses the recent advances of gold nanostructures as contrast agents and therapeutic actuators for inflammatory diseases including atherosclerotic plaque and arthritis. For each of the topics discussed above, the fundamental principles and progress made in the past five years are discussed. The review concludes with a detailed future outlook discussing the challenges in using gold nanostructures, cellular trafficking, and translational considerations that are imperative for rapid clinical viability of plasmonic nanostructures, as well as the significance of emerging technologies such as Fano resonant gold nanostructures in nanomedicine.

  2. Surface modification of promising cerium oxide nanoparticles for nanomedicine applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-14

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) or nanoceria have emerged as a potential nanomedicine for the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. CNPs have a natural tendency to aggregate or agglomerate in their bare state, which leads to sedimentation in a biological environment. Since the natural biological environment is essentially aqueous, nanoparticle surface modification using suitable biocompatible hydrophilic chemical moieties is highly desirable to create effective aqueous dispersions. In this report, (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl)triethoxysilane was used as a functional, biocompatible organosilane to modify the surface of CNPs to produce promising nanoparticles which open substantial therapeutic avenues. The surface modified nanoparticles were produced in situ via an ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using complimentary characterization techniques. The interaction between the functional moiety and the nanoparticle was studied using powerful cross polarization/magic angle sample spinning solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The surface-modified nanoparticles were extremely small and demonstrated a significant improvement in aqueous dispersibility. Moreover, the existence of a strong ionic coordination between the functional moiety and the surface of the nanoparticle was realised, indicating that the surface modified nanoceria are stable and that the nanoparticles should demonstrate an enhanced circulation time in a biological environment. The surface modification approach should be promising for the production of CNPs for nanomedicine applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Nanomedicine and experimental tuberculosis: facts, flaws, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rajesh; Ahmad, Zahoor

    2011-06-01

    Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems form the crux of nanomedicine and are suitable for targeting chronic diseases such as tuberculosis. Extensive experimental data supports the possibility of intermittent chemotherapy with key first-line as well as second-line antituberculosis drugs by employing synthetic or natural carriers, chiefly polymers. Besides sustained release of drugs in plasma and organs, other potential advantages of the system include the possibility of selecting various routes of chemotherapy; reduction in drug dosage, adverse effects, and drug interactions; and targeting drug-resistant and latent bacteria. On the other hand, the choice of carrier, large-scale production, stability, and toxicity of the formulation are some of the major issues that merit immediate attention and resolution. Nevertheless, keeping in view the hurdles in new antituberculosis drug development, nanomedicine has provided a sound platform and a ray of hope for an onslaught against tuberculosis. Tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide. In this paper, the role and significance of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems are discussed for targeting tuberculosis, including strains that are drug resistant with conventional methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic hydroxyapatite: a promising multifunctional platform for nanomedicine application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sudip; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Bharathiraja, Subramaniyan; Santha Moorthy, Madhappan; Kim, Hye Hyun; Seo, Hansu; Lee, Kang Dae; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, specific attention is paid to the development of nanostructured magnetic hydroxyapatite (MHAp) and its potential application in controlled drug/gene delivery, tissue engineering, magnetic hyperthermia treatment, and the development of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Both magnetite and hydroxyapatite materials have excellent prospects in nanomedicine with multifunctional therapeutic approaches. To date, many research articles have focused on biomedical applications of nanomaterials because of which it is very difficult to focus on any particular type of nanomaterial. This study is possibly the first effort to emphasize on the comprehensive assessment of MHAp nanostructures for biomedical applications supported with very recent experimental studies. From basic concepts to the real-life applications, the relevant characteristics of magnetic biomaterials are patented which are briefly discussed. The potential therapeutic and diagnostic ability of MHAp-nanostructured materials make them an ideal platform for future nanomedicine. We hope that this advanced review will provide a better understanding of MHAp and its important features to utilize it as a promising material for multifunctional biomedical applications.

  5. DermAll nanomedicine for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaczi, Edina; Szabó, Kornélia; Francziszti, László; Csiszovszki, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Orsolya; Tőke, Enikő R; Molnár, Levente; Bitai, Tamás; Jánossy, Tamás; Bata-Csörgő, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos; Lisziewicz, Julianna

    2013-11-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) the only disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies is characterized with long treatment duration and high risk of side effects. We investigated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a novel ASIT, called DermAll, in an experimental allergic rhinitis model. We designed and characterized DermAll-OVA, a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. DermAll-OVA was administered topically with DermaPrep device to target Langerhans cells. To detect the clinical efficacy of DermAll ASIT we quantified the nasal symptoms and characterized the immunomodulatory activity of DermAll ASIT by measuring cytokine secretion after OVA-stimulation of splenocytes and antibodies from the sera. In allergic mice DermAll ASIT was as safe as Placebo, balanced the allergen-induced pathogenic TH2-polarized immune responses, and decreased the clinical symptoms by 52% [32%, 70%] compared to Placebo. These studies suggest that DermAll ASIT is safe and should significantly improve the immunopathology and symptoms of allergic diseases. A novel allergen-specific immunotherapy for IgE-mediated allergies is presented in this paper, using an experimental allergic rhinitis model and a synthetic plasmid pDNA/PEIm nanomedicine expressing ovalbumin as model allergen. Over 50% reduction of symptoms was found as the immune system's balance was favorably altered toward more TH2-polarized immune responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanomedicine for prostate cancer using nanoemulsion: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikumar, Aravindsiva; Kamalasanan, Kaladhar

    2017-08-28

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a worldwide issue, with burgeoning rise in prevalence, morbidity and mortality. Targeted drug delivery, a long sort solution in this regard using controlled release (CR) - nanocarriers, is still a challenge. There is an emerging criticism that, the challenges are due to less appreciation for the biological barriers and lack of corresponding newer technologies. Over the years, more understanding about the biological barriers has come with the progress in characterization techniques. Correspondingly, there is a change in opinion about approaches in clinical trial that; focus of the end point need to be shifted towards disease stabilization for these explorative technologies. Currently, there is a requirement to overcome these newly identified challenges to develop newer affordable therapeutics. The ongoing clinical protocol for therapy using CR-nanocarriers is intravenous injection followed by local targeting to cancer site. This is the most accepted protocol and new CR-nanocarriers are being developed to suit this protocol. In this review, recent progress in treatment of PCa using CR-nanocarriers is analyzed with respect to newly identified biological barriers and design challenges. Possibilities of exploring nanoemulsion (NE) platform for targeted drug delivery to PCa are examined. Repurposing of drugs and combination therapy using NE platform targeted to PCa can be explored for design and development of affordable nanomedicine. In 20yrs. from now there expected to be numerous affordable nanomedicine technologies available in market exploring these lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat shock proteins and cancer: How can nanomedicine be harnessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Félix; Messaoudi, Samir; Fattal, Elias; Barratt, Gillian; Vergnaud-Gauduchon, Juliette

    2017-02-28

    Heat shock protein (hsp90) is an interesting target for cancer therapy because it is involved in the folding and stabilization of numerous proteins, including many that contribute to the development of cancer. It is part of the chaperone machinery that includes other heat shock proteins (hsp70, hsp27, hsp40) and is mainly localized in the cytosol, although many analogues or isoforms can be found in mitochondrion, endoplasmic reticulum and the cell membrane. Many potential inhibitors of hsp90 have been tested for cancer therapy but their usefulness is limited by their poor solubility in water and their ability to reach the target cells and the correct intracellular compartment. Nanomedicine, the incorporation of active molecules into an appropriate delivery system, could provide a solution to these drawbacks. In this review, we explain the rationale for using nanomedicine for this sort of cancer therapy, considering the properties of the chaperone machinery and of the different hsp90 analogues. We present some results that have already been obtained and put forward some strategies for delivery of hsp90 analogues to specific organelles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Highly penetrative liposome nanomedicine generated by a biomimetic strategy for enhanced cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; Sheng, Zonghai; Hu, Dehong; Yan, Fei; Zhu, Mingting; Gao, Guanhui; Wang, Pan; Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiaobing; Zheng, Hairong

    2018-04-25

    Liposome nanomedicine has been successfully applied for cancer chemotherapy in patients. However, in general, the therapeutic efficacy is confined by its limited accumulation and penetration in solid tumors. Here, we established a biomimetic strategy for the preparation of highly penetrative liposome nanomedicine for enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy. By applying this unique type of nanomedicine, membrane proteins on the cancer cells are used as highly penetrative targeting ligands. Biomimetic liposomes are highly stable, exhibiting a superior in vitro homologous targeting ability, and a 2.25-fold deeper penetration in 3D tumor spheroids when compared to conventional liposome nanomedicine. The fluorescence/photoacoustic dual-modal imaging approach demonstrated enhanced tumor accumulation and improved tumor penetration of the biomimetic liposome in C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. Following the intravenous administration of biomimetic liposome nanomedicine, the tumor inhibition rate reached up to 93.3%, which was significantly higher when compared to that of conventional liposome nanomedicine (69.3%). Moreover, histopathological analyses demonstrated that biomimetic liposome nanomedicine has limited side effects. Therefore, these results suggested that a cancer cell membrane-based biomimetic strategy may provide a breakthrough approach for enhancing drug penetration and improving treatment efficacy, holding a great promise for further clinical studies.

  9. Recommendations for Nanomedicine Human Subjects Research Oversight: An Evolutionary Approach for an Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Leili; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey; Hall, Ralph; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Jones, Cortney; Campbell, Stephen A.; Dresser, Rebecca S.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Hoerr, Robert A.; Hogle, Linda F.; Keane, Moira A.; Khushf, George; King, Nancy M.P.; Kokkoli, Efrosini; Marchant, Gary; Maynard, Andrew D.; Philbert, Martin; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Siegel, Ronald A.; Wickline, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The nanomedicine field is fast evolving toward complex, “active,” and interactive formulations. Like many emerging technologies, nanomedicine raises questions of how human subjects research (HSR) should be conducted and the adequacy of current oversight, as well as how to integrate concerns over occupational, bystander, and environmental exposures. The history of oversight for HSR investigating emerging technologies is a patchwork quilt without systematic justification of when ordinary oversight for HSR is enough versus when added oversight is warranted. Nanomedicine HSR provides an occasion to think systematically about appropriate oversight, especially early in the evolution of a technology, when hazard and risk information may remain incomplete. This paper presents the consensus recommendations of a multidisciplinary, NIH-funded project group, to ensure a science-based and ethically informed approach to HSR issues in nanomedicine, and integrate HSR analysis with analysis of occupational, bystander, and environmental concerns. We recommend creating two bodies, an interagency Human Subjects Research in Nanomedicine (HSR/N) Working Group and a Secretary’s Advisory Committee on Nanomedicine (SAC/N). HSR/N and SAC/N should perform 3 primary functions: (1) analysis of the attributes and subsets of nanomedicine interventions that raise HSR challenges and current gaps in oversight; (2) providing advice to relevant agencies and institutional bodies on the HSR issues, as well as federal and federal-institutional coordination; and (3) gathering and analyzing information on HSR issues as they emerge in nanomedicine. HSR/N and SAC/N will create a home for HSR analysis and coordination in DHHS (the key agency for relevant HSR oversight), optimize federal and institutional approaches, and allow HSR review to evolve with greater knowledge about nanomedicine interventions and greater clarity about attributes of concern. PMID:23289677

  10. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing......, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular...... basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead....

  11. Rhenium Nanochemistry for Catalyst Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim G. Kessler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The review presents synthetic approaches to modern rhenium-based catalysts. Creation of an active center is considered as a process of obtaining a nanoparticle or a molecule, immobilized within a matrix of the substrate. Selective chemical routes to preparation of particles of rhenium alloys, rhenium oxides and the molecules of alkyltrioxorhenium, and their insertion into porous structure of zeolites, ordered mesoporous MCM matrices, anodic mesoporous alumina, and porous transition metal oxides are considered. Structure-property relationships are traced for these catalysts in relation to such processes as alkylation and isomerization, olefin metathesis, selective oxidation of olefins, methanol to formaldehyde conversion, etc.

  12. Nanomedicinal products: a survey on specific toxicity and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand W

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Walter Brand,1,* Cornelle W Noorlander,1,* Christina Giannakou,2,3 Wim H De Jong,2 Myrna W Kooi,1 Margriet VDZ Park,2 Rob J Vandebriel,2 Irene EM Bosselaers,4 Joep HG Scholl,5 Robert E Geertsma2 1Centre for Safety of Substances and Products, 2Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 3Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 4Section Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Medicines Evaluation Board (CBG-MEB, Utrecht, 5Research & Analysis Department, Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Due to their specific properties and pharmacokinetics, nanomedicinal products (NMPs may present different toxicity and side effects compared to non-nanoformulated, conventional medicines. To facilitate the safety assessment of NMPs, we aimed to gain insight into toxic effects specific for NMPs by systematically analyzing the available toxicity data on approved NMPs in the European Union. In addition, by comparing five sets of products with the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in a conventional formulation versus a nanoformulation, we aimed to identify any side effects specific for the nano aspect of NMPs. The objective was to investigate whether specific toxicity could be related to certain structural types of NMPs and whether a nanoformulation of an API altered the nature of side effects of the product in humans compared to a conventional formulation. The survey of toxicity data did not reveal nanospecific toxicity that could be related to certain types of structures of NMPs, other than those reported previously in relation to accumulation of iron nanoparticles (NPs. However, given the limited data for some of the product groups or toxicological end points in the analysis, conclusions with regard to (a lack of potential nanomedicine-specific effects need to be

  13. Quantitative self-assembly prediction yields targeted nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay, Yosi; Shah, Janki; Işık, Mehtap; Mizrachi, Aviram; Leibold, Josef; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F.; Roxbury, Daniel; Budhathoki-Uprety, Januka; Nawaly, Karla; Sugarman, James L.; Baut, Emily; Neiman, Michelle R.; Dacek, Megan; Ganesh, Kripa S.; Johnson, Darren C.; Sridharan, Ramya; Chu, Karen L.; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Lowe, Scott W.; Chodera, John D.; Heller, Daniel A.

    2018-02-01

    Development of targeted nanoparticle drug carriers often requires complex synthetic schemes involving both supramolecular self-assembly and chemical modification. These processes are generally difficult to predict, execute, and control. We describe herein a targeted drug delivery system that is accurately and quantitatively predicted to self-assemble into nanoparticles based on the molecular structures of precursor molecules, which are the drugs themselves. The drugs assemble with the aid of sulfated indocyanines into particles with ultrahigh drug loadings of up to 90%. We devised quantitative structure-nanoparticle assembly prediction (QSNAP) models to identify and validate electrotopological molecular descriptors as highly predictive indicators of nano-assembly and nanoparticle size. The resulting nanoparticles selectively targeted kinase inhibitors to caveolin-1-expressing human colon cancer and autochthonous liver cancer models to yield striking therapeutic effects while avoiding pERK inhibition in healthy skin. This finding enables the computational design of nanomedicines based on quantitative models for drug payload selection.

  14. Cancer Nanomedicine: From Targeted Delivery to Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Ho, William; Zhang, Xueqing; Bertrand, Nicolas; Farokhzad, Omid

    2015-01-01

    The advent of nanomedicine marks an unparalleled opportunity to advance the treatment of a variety of diseases, including cancer. The unique properties of nanoparticles, such as large surface-to volume ratio, small size, the ability to encapsulate a variety of drugs, and tunable surface chemistry, gives them many advantages over their bulk counterparts. This includes multivalent surface modification with targeting ligands, efficient navigation of the complex in vivo environment, increased intracellular trafficking, and sustained release of drug payload. These advantages make nanoparticles a mode of treatment potentially superior to conventional cancer therapies. This article highlights the most recent developments in cancer treatment using nanoparticles as drug-delivery vehicles, including promising opportunities in targeted and combination therapy. PMID:25656384

  15. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maojo V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Victor Maojo,1 Martin Fritts,2,3 Diana de la Iglesia,1 Raul E Cachau,4 Miguel Garcia-Remesal,1 Joyce A Mitchell,5 Casimir Kulikowski61Biomedical Informatics Group, Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain; 2SAIC-Frederick Inc, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, 3National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 4Advanced Biomedical Computing Center, National Cancer Institute, SAIC-Frederick Inc, Frederick, Maryland, 5Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Utah, 6Department of Computer Science, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Jersey, USAAbstract: Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and –omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings.Keywords: biomedical informatics, nanomedicine, nanotoxicology, ontologies

  16. Mechanisms and Barriers in Cancer Nanomedicine: Addressing Challenges, Looking for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoquy, Thomas J; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Boraschi, Diana; Chorny, Michael; Decuzzi, Paolo; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Farhangrazi, Z Shadi; Farrell, Dorothy; Gabizon, Alberto; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Godin, Biana; La-Beck, Ninh M; Ljubimova, Julia; Moghimi, S Moein; Pagliaro, Len; Park, Ji-Ho; Peer, Dan; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Serkova, Natalie J; Simberg, Dmitri

    2017-01-24

    Remarkable progress has recently been made in the synthesis and characterization of engineered nanoparticles for imaging and treatment of cancers, resulting in several promising candidates in clinical trials. Despite these advances, clinical applications of nanoparticle-based therapeutic/imaging agents remain limited by biological, immunological, and translational barriers. In order to overcome the existing status quo in drug delivery, there is a need for open and frank discussion in the nanomedicine community on what is needed to make qualitative leaps toward translation. In this Nano Focus, we present the main discussion topics and conclusions from a recent workshop: "Mechanisms and Barriers in Nanomedicine". The focus of this informal meeting was on biological, toxicological, immunological, and translational aspects of nanomedicine and approaches to move the field forward productively. We believe that these topics reflect the most important issues in cancer nanomedicine.

  17. Is the European medical products authorization regulation equipped to cope with the challenges of nanomedicines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbeck-Jung, Barbel R.; Chowdhury, Nupur; Chowdhury, Nupur

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the emerging European regulatory activities in relation to nanopharmaceuticals. The central question is whether the regulatory responses are appropriate to cope with the regulatory problems nanomedicinal development is posing. The article explores whether the medical product

  18. New technology and clinical applications of nanomedicine: highlights of the second annual meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiming; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Ghandehari, Hamid; Hanes, Justin; Stebe, Kathleen J; Mao, Hai-Quan; Haynie, Donald T; Tomalia, Donald A; Foldvari, Marianna; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy; Simeonova, Petia; Nie, Shuming; Mori, Hidezo; Gilbert, Susan P; Needham, David

    2006-12-01

    The Second Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine (AANM) was held at the National Academy of Science Building in Washington, DC, September 9-10, 2006. The program included two Nobel Prize Laureate Lectures, two Keynote Lectures, and 123 invited outstanding State-in-Art lectures presenting in 23 special concurrent symposia. In addition, there were 22 poster presentations in the meeting addressing different areas in nanomedicine research. All of the presenters at the meeting are outstanding investigators and researchers in the field. The Second Annual Meeting of the AANM was a great success. The meeting provides investigators from different world areas a forum and an opportunity for discussion. We believe that nanomedicine research will develop rapidly in the future. The AANM invites basic and clinical researchers from the world to join this exciting research.

  19. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu D

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Di Wu, Mengjie Si, Hui-Yi Xue, Ho-Lun Wong Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil® and Abraxane® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect. Keywords: nanomedicine, breast cancer, targeted delivery, drug therapy, drug resistance, tumor microenvironment 

  20. Molecular imaging in nanomedicine - A developmental tool and a clinical necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearling, Jason L J; Packard, Alan B

    2017-09-10

    The development of nanomedicines presents the potential to deliver more potent drugs targeted more specifically to the site(s) of disease than is currently achievable. While encouraging results have been achieved, including at the clinical level, significant challenges and opportunities for development remain, both in terms of further developing the technology and in understanding the underlying biology. Given the lessons learned regarding variations in nanomedicine delivery to different tumor types and between different patients with the same tumor type, this is an area of drug development that, rather than simply benefiting from a patient-specific approach, actually demands it. The only way that this distribution information can be obtained is through imaging, and this requires labeling of the nanomedicine to enable detection outside the body. In this review, we describe recent advances in the labeling of nanomedicines, how imaging studies are guiding nanomedicine development, and the role of imaging in the future development of nanomedicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous inhibition of aberrant cancer kinome using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Gupta, Neha; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2013-11-01

    Simultaneous inhibition of deregulated cancer kinome using rationally designed nanomedicine is an advanced therapeutic approach. Herein, we have developed a polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine to inhibit critically aberrant pro-survival kinases (mTOR, MAPK and STAT5) in primitive (CD34(+)/CD38(-)) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) cells. The nanomedicine consists of poly-lactide-co-glycolide core (~250 nm) loaded with mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, and albumin shell (~25 nm thick) loaded with MAPK/STAT5 inhibitor, sorafenib and the whole construct was surface conjugated with monoclonal antibody against CD33 receptor overexpressed in AML. Electron microscopy confirmed formation of core-shell nanostructure (~290 nm) and flow cytometry and confocal studies showed enhanced cellular uptake of targeted nanomedicine. Simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells, was demonstrated using immunoblotting, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays. This cell receptor plus multi-kinase targeted core-shell nanomedicine was found better specific and tolerable compared to current clinical regime of cytarabine and daunorubicin. These authors demonstrate simultaneous inhibition of critical kinases causing synergistic lethality against leukemic cells, without affecting healthy blood cells by using rationally designed polymer-protein core-shell nanomedicine, provoding an advanced method to eliminate cancer cells, with the hope of future therapeutic use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversal time of jump-noise magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets via Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Arun; Rakheja, Shaloo

    2018-06-01

    The jump-noise is a nonhomogeneous Poisson process which models thermal effects in magnetization dynamics, with special applications in low temperature escape rate phenomena. In this work, we develop improved numerical methods for Monte Carlo simulation of the jump-noise dynamics and validate the method by comparing the stationary distribution obtained empirically against the Boltzmann distribution. In accordance with the Néel-Brown theory, the jump-noise dynamics display an exponential relaxation toward equilibrium with a characteristic reversal time, which we extract for nanomagnets with uniaxial and cubic anisotropy. We relate the jump-noise dynamics to the equivalent Landau-Lifshitz dynamics up to second order correction for a general energy landscape and obtain the analogous Néel-Brown theory's solution of the reversal time. We find that the reversal time of jump-noise dynamics is characterized by Néel-Brown theory's solution at the energy saddle point for small noise. For large noise, the magnetization reversal due to jump-noise dynamics phenomenologically represents macroscopic tunneling of magnetization.

  3. From micro- to nanomagnetic dots: evolution of the eigenmode spectrum on reducing the lateral size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlotti, G; Madami, M; Gubbiotti, G; Tacchi, S; Hartmann, F; Emmerling, M; Kamp, M; Worschech, L

    2014-01-01

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and micromagnetic simulations have been exploited to investigate the spectrum of thermally excited magnetic eigenmodes in 10 nm-thick elliptical Permalloy dots, when the longer axis D is scaled down from about 1000 to 100 nm. It is shown that for D larger than about 200 nm the characteristics of the spin-wave eigenmodes are dominated by dipolar energy, while for D in the range of about 100 to 200 nm exchange energy effects cause qualitative and quantitative differences in the spin-wave spectrum. In this ‘mesoscopic’ regime, the usual classification scheme, involving one fundamental mode with large average magnetization and many other modes collected in families with specific symmetries, no longer holds. Rather, one finds the simultaneous presence of two modes with ‘fundamental’ character, i.e. with a significant and comparable value of the average dynamical magnetization: the former is at larger frequency and has its maximum amplitude at the dot's centre, while the latter occurs at lower frequency and is localized at the dot's edges. Interestingly, the maximum intensity swaps from the higher frequency mode to the lower frequency one, just when the dot size is reduced from about 200 to 100 nm. This is relevant in view of the exploitation of nanodots for the design of nanomagnetic devices with lateral dimensions in the above interval, such as memory cells, logic gates, reading heads and spin-torque oscillators. (paper)

  4. Nonlocal vibration of Y-shaped CNT conveying nano-magnetic viscous fluid under magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghorbanpour Arani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the vibration and stability analysis of a Y-shaped single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT embedded in visco-Pasternak foundation and conveying nano-magnetic viscous fluid (NMF based on nonlocal elasticity theory and Euler–Bernoulli beam model. The fluid is two-phases due to the existence of magnetic nanoparticles which its volume fraction is much little in comparison with the base fluid where the influence of 2D magnetic field is taken into account. Also, Knudsen number is used to correct the velocity profile of fluid. The Galerkin method is applied to solve the equation of motion which is obtained by employing Hamilton’s principle. The detail parametric study is conducted, focusing on the combined effects of carbon nanotube and Y-shaped junction fitted at the downstream end, fluid velocity, Knudsen number and elastic medium. The results indicate that increasing the angle between centerline of the CNT and the downstream elbows decreases stability of system.

  5. Nanomagnetic domains of chromium deposited on vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Andrew C.; Faulkner, Michael K.; Harris, Robert C.; Goddard, Alex; Abbott, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    The drive to create ever smaller magnetic memory devices has led to the development of new nanomagnetic domains on surfaces. This paper reports the development of nano-chromium magnetic domains obtained using electrodeposition on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers arrays. Attempts to achieve this using conventional aqueous solutions were unsuccessful even after thin nickel underlayers were applied. The use of a novel electrolyte, a deep eutectic solvent, made from choline chloride: chromium (III) chloride enabled highly conformal overcoatings of chromium on individual bare carbon nanotubes to be obtained. Very high aspect ratio metal microstructures could be obtained by this novel technology. Magnetic imaging of the coated nanoarrays showed there to be clear magnetic character to the coating when the thin coatings were applied but this disappeared when the deposits were thicker and more contiguous. - Highlights: ► Nanoscale chromium deposited from non-aqueous electrolyte shows magnetic behavior. ► Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes conformally coated with chromium metal. ► Ionic liquid electrolyte superior to chromic acid for plating high aspect ratio structures.

  6. Nanomagnetic domains of chromium deposited on vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Andrew C., E-mail: a.wright@glyndwr.ac.uk [Advanced Materials Research Laboratory, Materials Science Research Center, Glyndwr University, Wrexham LL11 2AW (United Kingdom); Faulkner, Michael K., E-mail: m.faulkner@manchester.ac.uk [Manchester Materials Science Centre, University of Manchester, Grosvenor Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Harris, Robert C.; Goddard, Alex; Abbott, Andrew P., E-mail: apa1@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The drive to create ever smaller magnetic memory devices has led to the development of new nanomagnetic domains on surfaces. This paper reports the development of nano-chromium magnetic domains obtained using electrodeposition on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers arrays. Attempts to achieve this using conventional aqueous solutions were unsuccessful even after thin nickel underlayers were applied. The use of a novel electrolyte, a deep eutectic solvent, made from choline chloride: chromium (III) chloride enabled highly conformal overcoatings of chromium on individual bare carbon nanotubes to be obtained. Very high aspect ratio metal microstructures could be obtained by this novel technology. Magnetic imaging of the coated nanoarrays showed there to be clear magnetic character to the coating when the thin coatings were applied but this disappeared when the deposits were thicker and more contiguous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscale chromium deposited from non-aqueous electrolyte shows magnetic behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes conformally coated with chromium metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ionic liquid electrolyte superior to chromic acid for plating high aspect ratio structures.

  7. 13C NMR and relaxation studies of the nanomagnet Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Randall M.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Moulton, William G.; Dalal, Naresh S.

    2001-08-01

    The nanomagnet [Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4].2CH3COOH.4H2O, also known as Mn12, has been synthesized with 13C labeling at the CH3 groups, and investigated by 13C NMR at fields up to 23 T. Using oriented samples, it is possible to resolve four distinct 13C peaks at room temperature, located on both sides of the unshifted Larmor frequency. These peaks were assigned to the four hyperfine-shifted, magnetically inequivalent sets of 13CH3 groups in the Mn12 lattice, based on a comparison with the crystal structure and point-dipole and spin-density calculations. These results establish that the unpaired electron spin density of the S=10 system in this cluster extends over the entire molecular framework, not just the core. These results are discussed in relationship to inelastic neutron scattering measurements. The temperature and field dependence of the 13C nuclear-spin-lattice-relaxation time T1 on the least shifted peak was measured. A single weakly field-dependent minimum at about 60 K is observed in the temperature dependence of the measured T1. The relaxation mechanism responsible for the T1 minimum is ascribed mainly to hindered rotation of the methyl group of the acetate ligand at higher temperature, and to electronic spin fluctuations at lower temperature.

  8. Quantum Interference in the Longitudinal Oscillations of the Total Spin of a Dimeric Molecular Nanomagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Christopher; Del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Shah, Sonali; Beedle, Christopher; Hendrickson, David

    2008-03-01

    The synthetic flexibility of molecular magnets allows one to systematically produce samples with desirable properties such as those with entangled spin states for implementation in quantum logic gates. Here we report direct evidence of quantum oscillations of the total spin length of a dimeric molecular nanomagnet through the observation of quantum interference associated with tunneling trajectories between states having different spin quantum numbers. As we outline, this is a consequence of the unique characteristics of a molecular Mn12 wheel which behaves as a (weak) ferromagnetic exchange-coupled molecular dimer: each half of the molecule acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), while the weak coupling between the two halves gives rise to an additional internal spin degree of freedom within the molecule, namely that its total spin may fluctuate. This extra degree of freedom accounts for several magnetization tunneling resonances that cannot be explained within the usual giant spin approximation. More importantly, the observation of quantum interference provides unambiguous evidence for the quantum mechanical superposition involving entangled states of both halves of the wheel.

  9. Speeding up nanomagnetic logic by DMI enhanced Pt/Co/Ir films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemys, Grazvydas; Ahrens, Valentin; Mendisch, Simon; Csaba, Gyorgy; Becherer, Markus

    2018-05-01

    We investigated a new type of multilayer film for Nanomagnetic Logic with perpendicular anisotropy (pNML) enhanced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The DMI effect provides an additional energy term and widens the design space for pNML film optimization. In this work we added an Ir layer between Co and Pt to our standard pNML multilayer (ML) film stack - [Co/Pt]x4. Multilayer stacks of films with and w/o Ir were sputtered and patterned to nanowires of 400 nm width by means of focused ion beam lithography (FIB). For comparability of the films they were tuned to show identical anisotropy for multilayer stacks with and w/o Ir. The field-driven domain wall (DW) velocity in the nanowires was measured by using wide-field MOKE microscopy. We found a strong impact of Ir on the DW velocity being up to 2 times higher compared to the standard [Co/Pt]x4 ML films. Moreover, the maximum velocity is reached at much lower magnetic field, which is beneficial for pNML operation. These results pave the way for pNML with higher clocking rates and at the same time allow a further reduce power consumption.

  10. From micro- to nanomagnetic dots: evolution of the eigenmode spectrum on reducing the lateral size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, G.; Gubbiotti, G.; Madami, M.; Tacchi, S.; Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.

    2014-07-01

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and micromagnetic simulations have been exploited to investigate the spectrum of thermally excited magnetic eigenmodes in 10 nm-thick elliptical Permalloy dots, when the longer axis D is scaled down from about 1000 to 100 nm. It is shown that for D larger than about 200 nm the characteristics of the spin-wave eigenmodes are dominated by dipolar energy, while for D in the range of about 100 to 200 nm exchange energy effects cause qualitative and quantitative differences in the spin-wave spectrum. In this ‘mesoscopic’ regime, the usual classification scheme, involving one fundamental mode with large average magnetization and many other modes collected in families with specific symmetries, no longer holds. Rather, one finds the simultaneous presence of two modes with ‘fundamental’ character, i.e. with a significant and comparable value of the average dynamical magnetization: the former is at larger frequency and has its maximum amplitude at the dot's centre, while the latter occurs at lower frequency and is localized at the dot's edges. Interestingly, the maximum intensity swaps from the higher frequency mode to the lower frequency one, just when the dot size is reduced from about 200 to 100 nm. This is relevant in view of the exploitation of nanodots for the design of nanomagnetic devices with lateral dimensions in the above interval, such as memory cells, logic gates, reading heads and spin-torque oscillators.

  11. Nanomagnet-based removal of lead and digoxin from living rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Inge K.; Schlegel, Andrea; Graf, Rolf; Schumacher, Christoph M.; Senn, Nico; Hasler, Melanie; Gschwind, Sabrina; Hirt, Ann-Marie; Günther, Detlef; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Stark, Wendelin J.; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2013-08-01

    In a number of clinical conditions such as intoxication, bacteraemia or autoimmune diseases the removal of the disease-causing factor from blood would be the most direct cure. However, physicochemical characteristics of the target compounds limit the applicability of classical filtration and diffusion-based processes. In this work, we present a first in vivo magnetic blood purification rodent animal model and demonstrate its ability to rapidly clear toxins from blood circulation using two model toxins with stable plasma levels (lead (Pb2+) and digoxin). Ultra-strong functionalized metal nanomagnets are employed to eliminate the toxin from whole blood in an extracorporeal circuit. In the present experimental demonstration over 40% of the toxin (i.e. lead or digoxin) was removed within the first 10 minutes and over 75% within 40 minutes. After capturing the target substance, a magnetic trap prevents the toxin-loaded nanoparticles from entering the blood circulation. Elemental analysis and magnetic hysteresis measurements confirm full particle recovery by simple magnetic separation (residual particle concentration below 1 μg mL-1 (detection limit)). We demonstrate that magnetic separation-based blood purification offers rapid blood cleaning from noxious agents, germs or other deleterious materials with relevance to a number of clinical conditions. Based on this new approach, current blood purification technologies can be extended to efficiently remove disease-causing factors, e.g. overdosed drugs, bacteria or cancer cells without being limited by filter cut-offs or column surface saturation.

  12. THE BIG PICTURE ON SMALL MEDICINE: THE STATE OF NANOMEDICINE PRODUCTS APPROVED FOR USE OR IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Michael L.; Campbell, Stephen A.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine’s unsolved problems, so it is no surprise that literature is flush with articles discussing the subject. However, existing reviews tend to focus on specific sectors of nanomedicine or take a very forward looking stance and fail to provide a complete perspective on the current landscape. This article provides a more comprehensive and contemporary inventory of nanomedicine products. A keyword search of literature, clinical trial registries, and the Web, yielded 247 nanomedicine products that are approved or in various stages of clinical study. Specific information on each was gathered, so the overall field could be described based on various dimensions, including: FDA classification, approval status, nanoscale size, treated condition, nanostructure, and others. In addition to documenting the large number of nanomedicine products already in human use, this study indentifies some interesting trends forecasting the future of nanomedicine. PMID:22684017

  13. Magnetization switching and microwave oscillations in nanomagnets driven by spin-polarized currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Magni, A.; Serpico, C.; d'Aquino, M.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Bonin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Considerable interest has been generated in recent years by the discovery that a current of spin-polarized electrons can apply appreciable torques to a nanoscale ferromagnet. This mechanism was theoretically predicted and subsequently confirmed by a number of experiments which have shown that spin transfer can indeed induce switching or microwave oscillations of the magnetization. Significant efforts have been devoted to the explanation of these results, in view of the new physics involved and of the possible applications to new types of current-controlled memory cells or microwave sources and resonators . However, the precise nature of magnetization dynamics when spin-polarized currents and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present has not yet been fully understood. The spin-transfer-driven nanomagnet is a nonlinear open system that is forced far from equilibrium by the injection of the current. Thus, the appropriate framework for the study of the problem is nonlinear dynamical system theory and bifurcation theory. In this talk, it is shown that within this framework the complexity and subtlety of spin-torque effects are fully revealed and quantified, once it is recognized that both intrinsic damping and spin transfer can be treated as perturbations of the free precessional dynamics typical of ferromagnetic resonance. Complete stability diagrams are derived for the case where spin torques and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present. Quantitative predictions are made for the critical currents and fields inducing magnetization switching; for the amplitude and frequency of magnetization self-oscillations; for the conditions leading to hysteretic transitions between self-oscillations and stationary states

  14. Preparation, characterization, and efficient transfection of cationic liposomes and nanomagnetic cationic liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samadikhah HR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hamid Reza Samadikhah1,*, Asia Majidi2,*, Maryam Nikkhah2, Saman Hosseinkhani11Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Cationic liposomes (CLs are composed of phospholipid bilayers. One of the most important applications of these particles is in drug and gene delivery. However, using CLs to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids and drugs to target organs has some problems, including low transfection efficiency in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop novel CLs containing magnetite to overcome the deficiencies. Patients and methods: CLs and magnetic cationic liposomes (MCLs were prepared using the freeze-dried empty liposome method. Luciferase-harboring vectors (pGL3 were transferred into liposomes and the transfection efficiencies were determined by luciferase assay. Firefly luciferase is one of most popular reporter genes often used to measure the efficiency of gene transfer in vivo and in vitro. Different formulations of liposomes have been used for delivery of different kinds of gene reporters. Lipoplex (liposome–plasmid DNA complexes formation was monitored by gel retardation assay. Size and charge of lipoplexes were determined using particle size analysis. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by lipoplexes (liposome-pGL3; transfection efficiency and gene expression level was evaluated by luciferase assay. Results: High transfection efficiency of plasmid by CLs and novel nanomagnetic CLs was achieved. Moreover, lipoplexes showed less cytotoxicity than polyethyleneimine and Lipofectamine™. Conclusion: Novel liposome compositions (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC]/dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide [DOAB] and DPPC/cholesterol/DOAB with high transfection efficiency can be useful in gene delivery in vitro. MCLs can also be used for targeted gene delivery, due to

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 12}-Stearate nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Shilpi [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai 600113 (India); Verma, Apoorva [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Srivastava, Avanish K. [Electron and Ion Microscopy Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Anurag, E-mail: anurag@mail.nplindia.org [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Surinder P. [Electron and Ion Microscopy Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai 600113 (India); Singh, Priti, E-mail: pritichem@gmail.com [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, National Physical Laboratory, Dr K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Chennai 600113 (India)

    2016-07-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a fatty acid ligated Mn{sub 12}, [Mn{sub 12}O{sub 12}(CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 16}CO{sub 2}){sub 11}(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}], Mn{sub 12}-Stearate (2), a molecular nanomagnet of Mn{sub 12} family that exhibits the enhanced solubility (in organic solvents) and aqueous stability. The chemical composition and morphology of Mn{sub 12}-Stearate have been established using FT-IR, UV–Vis, Raman and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy, XRD, elemental analysis, TGA and electron microscopic techniques. The powder XRD and HR-TEM of compound 2 have revealed the formation of crystalline structure. The FC and ZFC magnetization (M) as a function of temperature (T) shows a blocking temperature T{sub B} ∼ 3.0 K. At T ≤ 3 K, the presence of hysteresis and periodic steps in the measured M-H loops indicate the presence of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (QTM). In the same T region, the observed decrease of magnetic relaxation rate with a decrease in T further implies the QTM to be thermally assisted. The estimated anisotropy energy barrier is found to be ∼35 K. - Highlights: • A fatty acid ligated mixed-carboxylate SMM, Mn{sub 12}-Stearate, has been synthesized. • Powder XRD and HRTEM images show crystalline ordering in the synthesized cluster. • The cluster exhibits higher blocking temperature and periodic steps in hysteresis.

  16. Fullerenols as a New Therapeutic Approach in Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Grebowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been paid to the bioactive properties of water-soluble fullerene derivatives: fullerenols, with emphasis on their pro- and antioxidative properties. Due to their hydrophilic properties and the ability to scavenge free radicals, fullerenols may, in the future, provide a serious alternative to the currently used pharmacological methods in chemotherapy, treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, and radiobiology. Some of the most widely used drugs in chemotherapy are anthracycline antibiotics. Anthracycline therapy, in spite of its effective antitumor activity, induces systemic oxidative stress, which interferes with the effectiveness of the treatment and results in serious side effects. Fullerenols may counteract the harmful effects of anthracyclines by scavenging free radicals and thereby improve the effects of chemotherapy. Additionally, due to the hollow spherical shape, fullerenols may be used as drug carriers. Moreover, because of the existence of the currently ineffective ways for neurodegenerative diseases treatment, alternative compounds, which could prevent the negative effects of oxidative stress in the brain, are still sought. In the search of alternative methods of treatment and diagnosis, today’s science is increasingly reaching for tools in the field of nanomedicine, for example, fullerenes and their water-soluble derivatives, which is addressed in the present paper.

  17. Nanomedicine for the molecular diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juenet, Maya; Varna, Mariana; Aid-Launais, Rachida [Inserm, U1148, Cardiovascular Bio-Engineering, X. Bichat Hospital, 75018, Paris (France); Université Paris 13, Institut Galilée, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75018, Paris (France); Chauvierre, Cédric, E-mail: cedric.chauvierre@inserm.fr [Inserm, U1148, Cardiovascular Bio-Engineering, X. Bichat Hospital, 75018, Paris (France); Université Paris 13, Institut Galilée, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75018, Paris (France); Letourneur, Didier [Inserm, U1148, Cardiovascular Bio-Engineering, X. Bichat Hospital, 75018, Paris (France); Université Paris 13, Institut Galilée, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75018, Paris (France)

    2015-12-18

    Predicting acute clinical events caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture remains a clinical challenge. Anatomic mapping of the vascular tree provided by standard imaging technologies is not always sufficient for a robust diagnosis. Yet biological mechanisms leading to unstable plaques have been identified and corresponding biomarkers have been described. Nanosystems charged with contrast agents and targeted towards these specific biomarkers have been developed for several types of imaging modalities. The first systems that have reached the clinic are ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Their potential relies on their passive accumulation by predominant physiological mechanisms in rupture-prone plaques. Active targeting strategies are under development to improve their specificity and set up other types of nanoplatforms. Preclinical results show a huge potential of nanomedicine for cardiovascular diagnosis, as long as the safety of these nanosystems in the body is studied in depth. - Highlights: • Ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction are the main causes of death in the world. • Their prevalence is related to late detection of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. • Biomarkers of atherosclerosis evolution and potential ligands have been identified. • Nanosystems based on these ligands appear promising for early molecular diagnosis. • Preclinical and clinical nanosystems for common imaging modalities are described.

  18. Dextran sulfate nanoparticles as a theranostic nanomedicine for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Roun; You, Dong Gil; Um, Wooram; Choi, Ki Young; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jong-Sung; Choi, Yuri; Kwon, Seunglee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Kang, Young Mo; Park, Jae Hyung

    2017-07-01

    With the aim of developing nanoparticles for targeted delivery of methotrexate (MTX) to inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an amphiphilic polysaccharide was synthesized by conjugating 5β-cholanic acid to a dextran sulfate (DS) backbone. Due to its amphiphilic nature, the DS derivative self-assembled into spherical nanoparticles (220 nm in diameter) in aqueous conditions. The MTX was effectively loaded into the DS nanoparticles (loading efficiency: 73.0%) by a simple dialysis method. Interestingly, the DS nanoparticles were selectively taken up by activated macrophages, which are responsible for inflammation and joint destruction, via scavenger receptor class A-mediated endocytosis. When systemically administrated into mice with experimental collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), the DS nanoparticles effectively accumulated in inflamed joints (12-fold more than wild type mice (WT)), implying their high targetability to RA tissues. Moreover, the MTX-loaded DS nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved therapeutic efficacy against CIA in mice compared to free MTX alone. Overall, the data presented here indicate that DS nanoparticles are potentially useful nanomedicines for RA imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perspective: Recommendations for benchmarking pre-clinical studies of nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidczyk, Charlene M.; Russell, Luisa M.; Searson, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery systems provide new opportunities to overcome the limitations associated with traditional small molecule drug therapy for cancer, and to achieve both therapeutic and diagnostic functions in the same platform. Pre-clinical trials are generally designed to assess therapeutic potential and not to optimize the design of the delivery platform. Consequently, progress in developing design rules for cancer nanomedicines has been slow, hindering progress in the field. Despite the large number of pre-clinical trials, several factors restrict comparison and benchmarking of different platforms, including variability in experimental design, reporting of results, and the lack of quantitative data. To solve this problem, we review the variables involved in the design of pre-clinical trials and propose a protocol for benchmarking that we recommend be included in in vivo pre-clinical studies of drug delivery platforms for cancer therapy. This strategy will contribute to building the scientific knowledge base that enables development of design rules and accelerates the translation of new technologies. PMID:26249177

  20. Dendrimer-protein interactions versus dendrimer-based nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Dzmitruk, Volha; Pedziwiatr-Werbicka, Elzbieta; Ionov, Maksim; Mignani, Serge; de la Mata, F Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Dendrimers are hyperbranched polymers belonging to the huge class of nanomedical devices. Their wide application in biology and medicine requires understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of their interactions with biological systems. Summarizing, electrostatic force plays the predominant role in dendrimer-protein interactions, especially with charged dendrimers. Other kinds of interactions have been proven, such as H-bonding, van der Waals forces, and even hydrophobic interactions. These interactions depend on the characteristics of both participants: flexibility and surface charge of a dendrimer, rigidity of protein structure and the localization of charged amino acids at its surface. pH and ionic strength of solutions can significantly modulate interactions. Ligands and cofactors attached to a protein can also change dendrimer-protein interactions. Binding of dendrimers to a protein can change its secondary structure, conformation, intramolecular mobility and functional activity. However, this strongly depends on rigidity versus flexibility of a protein's structure. In addition, the potential applications of dendrimers to nanomedicine are reviwed related to dendrimer-protein interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of dextran/Se nanocomposites for nanomedicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuhua; Wang Xiufang; Xie Anjian; Huang Lachun; Zhu Jinmiao; Chen Long

    2008-01-01

    In this study, spherical Se nanoparticles were prepared by the reduction of aqueous selenious acid with ice bath through a simple, conventional, and one-step method without the aid of any surfactant, or template. The nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Zeta potential, respectively. The results show the Se nanoparticles have good particle dispersion with the average diameters of 36 nm and are amorphous (α-Se). Tablets A and B containing dextran and Se nanoparticles were synthesized with different preparation methods. Se nanoparticles studded equably in the interior and the surface of the tablets, and there are strong interactions between Se and dextran. The release of Se from tablets is investigated in the simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. It is found that the pH environment and different synthetical methods have significant influence on the release rate of Se. The release mechanism of Se nanoparticles is also discussed. The nanocomposites can be applied in controlled releasing of Se nanomedicine

  2. Nanomedicine in the development of anti-HIV microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, José; Nunes, Rute; Rodrigues, Francisca; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Prevention plays an invaluable role in the fight against HIV/AIDS. The use of microbicides is considered an interesting potential approach for topical pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV sexual transmission. The prospects of having an effective product available are expected to be fulfilled in the near future as driven by recent and forthcoming results of clinical trials. Different dosage forms and delivery strategies have been proposed and tested for multiple microbicide drug candidates presently at different stages of the development pipeline. One particularly interesting approach comprises the application of nanomedicine principles to the development of novel anti-HIV microbicides, but its implications to efficacy and safety are not yet fully understood. Nanotechnology-based systems, either presenting inherent anti-HIV activity or acting as drug nanocarriers, may significantly influence features such as drug solubility, stability of active payloads, drug release, interactions between active moieties and virus/cells, intracellular drug delivery, drug targeting, safety, antiviral activity, mucoadhesive behavior, drug distribution and tissue penetration, and pharmacokinetics. The present manuscript provides a comprehensive and holistic overview of these topics as relevant to the development of vaginal and rectal microbicides. In particular, recent advances pertaining inherently active microbicide nanosystems and microbicide drug nanocarriers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanomedicine for the molecular diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenet, Maya; Varna, Mariana; Aid-Launais, Rachida; Chauvierre, Cédric; Letourneur, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Predicting acute clinical events caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture remains a clinical challenge. Anatomic mapping of the vascular tree provided by standard imaging technologies is not always sufficient for a robust diagnosis. Yet biological mechanisms leading to unstable plaques have been identified and corresponding biomarkers have been described. Nanosystems charged with contrast agents and targeted towards these specific biomarkers have been developed for several types of imaging modalities. The first systems that have reached the clinic are ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxides for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Their potential relies on their passive accumulation by predominant physiological mechanisms in rupture-prone plaques. Active targeting strategies are under development to improve their specificity and set up other types of nanoplatforms. Preclinical results show a huge potential of nanomedicine for cardiovascular diagnosis, as long as the safety of these nanosystems in the body is studied in depth. - Highlights: • Ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction are the main causes of death in the world. • Their prevalence is related to late detection of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. • Biomarkers of atherosclerosis evolution and potential ligands have been identified. • Nanosystems based on these ligands appear promising for early molecular diagnosis. • Preclinical and clinical nanosystems for common imaging modalities are described.

  4. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maojo, Victor; Fritts, Martin; de la Iglesia, Diana; Cachau, Raul E; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Mitchell, Joyce A; Kulikowski, Casimir

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and –omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings. PMID:22866003

  5. Bypassing the EPR effect with a nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function allows better tumor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao An; Shyu, Ing Luen; Lu, Maggie; He, Chun Lin; Hsu, Yen Mei; Liang, Hsiang Fa; Liu, Chih Peng; Liu, Ren Shyan; Shen, Biing Jiun; Wei, Yau Huei; Chuang, Chi Mu

    2015-01-01

    The current enhanced permeability and retention (EPR)-based approved nanomedicines have had little impact in terms of prolongation of overall survival in patients with cancer. For example, the two Phase III trials comparing Doxil(®), the first nanomedicine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, with free doxorubicin did not find an actual translation of the EPR effect into a statistically significant increase in overall survival but did show less cardiotoxicity. In the current work, we used a two-factor factorial experimental design with intraperitoneal versus intravenous delivery and nanomedicine versus free drug as factors to test our hypothesis that regional (intraperitoneal) delivery of nanomedicine may better increase survival when compared with systemic delivery. In this study, we demonstrate that bypassing, rather than exploiting, the EPR effect via intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function demonstrates dual pharmacokinetic advantages, producing more efficient tumor control and suppressing the expression of stemness markers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis signals, and multidrug resistance in the tumor microenvironment. Metastases to vital organs (eg, lung, liver, and lymphatic system) are also better controlled by intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine than by standard systemic delivery of the corresponding free drug. Moreover, the intraperitoneal delivery of nanomedicine has the potential to replace hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy because it shows equal efficacy and lower toxicity. In terms of efficacy, exploiting the EPR effect may not be the best approach for developing a nanomedicine. Because intraperitoneal chemotherapy is a type of regional chemotherapy, the pharmaceutical industry might consider the regional delivery of nanomedicine as a valid alternative pathway to develop their nanomedicine(s) with the goal of better tumor control in the future.

  6. Magnetization Switching of a Co /Pt Multilayered Perpendicular Nanomagnet Assisted by a Microwave Field with Time-Varying Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Kanao, Taro; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2018-05-01

    Microwave-assisted magnetization switching (MAS) is attracting attention as a method for reversing nanomagnets with a high magnetic anisotropy by using a small-amplitude magnetic field. We experimentally study MAS of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by applying a microwave magnetic field with a time-varying frequency. Because the microwave field frequency can follow the nonlinear decrease of the resonance frequency, larger magnetization excitation than that in a constant-frequency microwave field is induced, which enhances the MAS effect. The switching field decreases almost linearly as the start value of the time-varying microwave field frequency increases, and it becomes smaller than the minimum switching field in a constant-frequency microwave field. To obtain this enhancement of the MAS effect, the end value of the time-varying microwave field frequency needs to be almost the same as or lower than the critical frequency for MAS in a constant-frequency microwave field. In addition, the frequency change typically needs to take 1 ns or longer to make the rate of change slow enough for the magnetization to follow the frequency change. This switching behavior is qualitatively explained by the theory based on the macrospin model.

  7. Advances in Integrative Nanomedicine for Improving Infectious Disease Treatment in Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Schwartz, Gary E; Boyer, Nancy N; Koithan, Mary; Brooks, Audrey J

    2013-04-01

    Infectious diseases present public health challenges worldwide. An emerging integrative approach to treating infectious diseases is using nanoparticle (NP) forms of traditional and alternative medicines. Advantages of nanomedicine delivery methods include better disease targeting, especially for intracellular pathogens, ability to cross membranes and enter cells, longer duration drug action, reduced side effects, and cost savings from lower doses. We searched Pubmed articles in English with keywords related to nanoparticles and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology terms were also combined with keywords for drug delivery, infectious diseases, herbs, antioxidants, homeopathy, and adaptation. NPs are very small forms of material substances, measuring 1-100 nanometers along at least one dimension. Compared with bulk forms, NPs' large ratio of surface-area-to-volume confers increased reactivity and adsorptive capacity, with unique electromagnetic, chemical, biological, and quantum properties. Nanotechnology uses natural botanical agents for green manufacturing of less toxic NPs. Nanoparticle herbs and nutriceuticals can treat infections via improved bioavailability and antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Recent studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines may contain source and/or silica nanoparticles because of their traditional manufacturing processes. Homeopathy, as a form of nanomedicine, has a promising history of treating epidemic infectious diseases, including malaria, leptospirosis and HIV/AIDS, in addition to acute upper respiratory infections. Adaptive changes in the host's complex networks underlie effects. Nanomedicine is integrative, blending modern technology with natural products to reduce toxicity and support immune function. Nanomedicine using traditional agents from alternative systems of medicine can facilitate progress in integrative public health approaches to infectious diseases.

  8. Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Applications: Innovation towards Broad-Spectrum Treatment of Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Lee, Jaywon; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-03-02

    Nanomedicine enables unique diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities to tackle problems in clinical medicine. As multifunctional agents with programmable properties, nanomedicines are poised to revolutionize treatment strategies. This promise is especially evident for infectious disease applications, for which the continual emergence, re-emergence, and evolution of pathogens has proven difficult to counter by conventional approaches. Herein, a conceptual framework is presented that envisions possible routes for the development of nanomedicines as superior broad-spectrum antiviral agents against enveloped viruses. With lipid membranes playing a critical role in the life cycle of medically important enveloped viruses including HIV, influenza, and Ebola, cellular and viral membrane interfaces are ideal elements to incorporate into broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. Examples are presented that demonstrate how nanomedicine strategies inspired by lipid membranes enable a wide range of targeting opportunities to gain control of critical stages in the virus life cycle through either direct or indirect approaches involving membrane interfaces. The capabilities can be realized by enabling new inhibitory functions or improving the function of existing drugs through nanotechnology-enabled solutions. With these exciting opportunities, due attention is also given to the clinical translation of nanomedicines for infectious disease applications, especially as pharmaceutical drug-discovery pipelines demand new routes of innovation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nanomedicine applications in the treatment of breast cancer: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Si, Mengjie; Xue, Hui-Yi; Wong, Ho-Lun

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide, but the current drug therapy is far from optimal as indicated by the high death rate of breast cancer patients. Nanomedicine is a promising alternative for breast cancer treatment. Nanomedicine products such as Doxil ® and Abraxane ® have already been extensively used for breast cancer adjuvant therapy with favorable clinical outcomes. However, these products were originally designed for generic anticancer purpose and not specifically for breast cancer treatment. With better understanding of the molecular biology of breast cancer, a number of novel promising nanotherapeutic strategies and devices have been developed in recent years. In this review, we will first give an overview of the current breast cancer treatment and the updated status of nanomedicine use in clinical setting, then discuss the latest important trends in designing breast cancer nanomedicine, including passive and active cancer cell targeting, breast cancer stem cell targeting, tumor microenvironment-based nanotherapy and combination nanotherapy of drug-resistant breast cancer. Researchers may get insight from these strategies to design and develop nanomedicine that is more tailored for breast cancer to achieve further improvements in cancer specificity, antitumorigenic effect, antimetastasis effect and drug resistance reversal effect.

  10. Nanomedicines for inflammatory arthritis : head-to-head comparison of glucocorticoid-containing polymers, micelles, and liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quan, Lingdong; Zhang, Yijia; Crielaard, Bart J; Dusad, Anand; Lele, Subodh M; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Metselaar, Josbert M; Kostková, Hana; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Kiessling, Fabian; Mikuls, Ted R; Hennink, Wim E; Storm, Gert; Lammers, Twan; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    As an emerging research direction, nanomedicine has been increasingly utilized to treat inflammatory diseases. In this head-to-head comparison study, four established nanomedicine formulations of dexamethasone, including liposomes (L-Dex), core-cross-linked micelles (M-Dex), slow releasing polymeric

  11. The melding of nanomedicine in thrombosis imaging and treatment: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara; Pappa, Foteini; Arvaniti, Despoina; Moumkas, Anestis; Konstantinou, Dimitrios; Logothetidis, Stergios

    2016-01-01

    Thromboembolic diseases constitute a plague in our century, wherein an imbalance of hemostasis leads to thrombus formation and vessels constriction reducing blood flow. Hence, the recent rise of nanomedicine gives birth to advanced diagnostic modalities and therapeutic agents for the early diagnosis and treatment of such diseases. Multimodal nanoagents for the detection of intravascular thrombi and nanovehicles for thrombus-targeted fibrinolytic therapy are few paradigms of nanomedicine approaches to overcome current diagnostic treatment roadblocks and persistent clinical needs. This review highlights the nanomedicine strategies to improve the imaging and therapy of acute thrombi by nanoparticles and nanotheranostics, the detailed imaging of thrombogenic proteins and platelets via atomic force microscopy with the knowledge basis of thrombosis pathophysiology and nanotoxicity. PMID:28031960

  12. Nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy between nucleic acids and small-molecular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Chen, Liqing; Kang, Lin; Jin, Mingji; Sun, Ping; Xin, Xin; Gao, Zhonggao; Bae, You Han

    2017-06-01

    Anticancer therapy has always been a vital challenge for the development of nanomedicine. Repeated single therapeutic agent may lead to undesirable and severe side effects, unbearable toxicity and multidrug resistance due to complex nature of tumor. Nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy can synergistically improve antitumor outcomes through multiple-target therapy, decreasing the dose of each therapeutic agent and reducing side effects. There are versatile combinational anticancer strategies such as chemotherapeutic combination, nucleic acid-based co-delivery, intrinsic sensitive and extrinsic stimulus combinational patterns. Based on these combination strategies, various nanocarriers and drug delivery systems were engineered to carry out the efficient co-delivery of combined therapeutic agents for combination anticancer therapy. This review focused on illustrating nanomedicine-based combination anticancer therapy between nucleic acids and small-molecular drugs for synergistically improving anticancer efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel self-assembled sandwich nanomedicine for NIR-responsive release of NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; He, Qianjun; Liu, Yi; Ma, Ying; Fu, Xiao; Liu, Yijing; Huang, Peng; He, Nongyue; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    A novel sandwich nanomedicine (GO-BNN6) for near-infrared (NIR) light responsive release of nitric oxide (NO) has been constructed by self-assembling of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and a NO donor BNN6 through the π-π stacking interaction. GO-BNN6 nanomedicine has an extraordinarily high drug loading capacity (1.2 mg BNN6 per mg GO), good thermal stability, and high NIR responsiveness. The NO release from GO-BNN6 can be easily triggered and effectively controlled by adjusting the switching, irradiation time and power density of NIR laser. The intracellular NIR-responsive release of NO from GO-BNN6 nanomedicine causes a remarkable anti-cancer effect. PMID:26568270

  14. Just so stories: the random acts of anti-cancer nanomedicine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Farhangrazi, Zahra Shadi

    2014-11-01

    Contrary to high expectations, the majority of clinically approved anti-cancer nanomedicine, and those under clinical trials, have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in humans. So, why these nanomedicine are not delivering their promise? Here, we discuss likely factors, and call for a paradigm shift in approach and design of future cancer nanotherapeutics based on realistic cancer models representing human disease, and better understanding of integrated pathophysiological processes, including systems immunology, that modulate human tumor functionality and growth. This critical review of the current state of translational oncology research utilizing nanomedicine-based approaches provides a comprehensive discussion of the multiple factors that are responsible for poor outcomes when translating these approaches models to the actual human disease.

  15. Regulatory challenges and approaches to characterize nanomedicines and their follow-on similars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlebach, Stefan; Borchard, Gerrit; Yildiz, Selcan

    2015-03-01

    Nanomedicines are highly complex products and are the result of difficult to control manufacturing processes. Nonbiological complex drugs and their biological counterparts can comprise nanoparticles and therefore show nanomedicine characteristics. They consist of not fully known nonhomomolecular structures, and can therefore not be characterized by physicochemical means only. Also, intended copies of nanomedicines (follow-on similars) may have clinically meaningful differences, creating the regulatory challenge of how to grant a high degree of assurance for patients' benefit and safety. As an example, the current regulatory approach for marketing authorization of intended copies of nonbiological complex drugs appears inappropriate; also, a valid strategy incorporating the complexity of such systems is undefined. To demonstrate sufficient similarity and comparability, a stepwise quality, nonclinical and clinical approach is necessary to obtain market authorization for follow-on products as therapeutic alternatives, substitution and/or interchangeable products. To fill the regulatory gap, harmonized and science-based standards are needed.

  16. Cellulose nanocrystals with tunable surface charge for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Alam, Md Nur; Sim, Goeun; Tufenkji, Nathalie; van de Ven, Theo G. M.

    2015-10-01

    Crystalline nanoparticles of cellulose exhibit attractive properties as nanoscale carriers for bioactive molecules in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. For applications in imaging and drug delivery, surface charge is one of the most important factors affecting the performance of nanocarriers. However, current methods of preparation offer little flexibility for controlling the surface charge of cellulose nanocrystals, leading to compromised colloidal stability under physiological conditions. We report a synthesis method that results in nanocrystals with remarkably high carboxyl content (6.6 mmol g-1) and offers continuous control over surface charge without any adjustment to the reaction conditions. Six fractions of nanocrystals with various surface carboxyl contents were synthesized from a single sample of softwood pulp with carboxyl contents varying from 6.6 to 1.7 mmol g-1 and were fully characterized. The proposed method resulted in highly stable colloidal nanocrystals that did not aggregate when exposed to high salt concentrations or serum-containing media. Interactions of these fractions with four different tissue cell lines were investigated over a wide range of concentrations (50-300 μg mL-1). Darkfield hyperspectral imaging and confocal microscopy confirmed the uptake of nanocrystals by selected cell lines without any evidence of membrane damage or change in cell density; however a charge-dependent decrease in mitochondrial activity was observed for charge contents higher than 3.9 mmol g-1. A high surface carboxyl content allowed for facile conjugation of fluorophores to the nanocrystals without compromising colloidal stability. The cellular uptake of fluoresceinamine-conjugated nanocrystals exhibited a time-dose dependent relationship and increased significantly with doubling of the surface charge.Crystalline nanoparticles of cellulose exhibit attractive properties as nanoscale carriers for bioactive molecules in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. For

  17. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  18. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoby Iftach

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates.

  19. Killing cancer cells by targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Hagit; Yacoby, Iftach; Benhar, Itai

    2008-01-01

    Background Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents, in addition to its anti-tumor benefits, results in indiscriminate drug distribution and severe toxicity. This shortcoming may be overcome by targeted drug-carrying platforms that ferry the drug to the tumor site while limiting exposure to non-target tissues and organs. Results We present a new form of targeted anti-cancer therapy in the form of targeted drug-carrying phage nanoparticles. Our approach is based on genetically-modified and chemically manipulated filamentous bacteriophages. The genetic manipulation endows the phages with the ability to display a host-specificity-conferring ligand. The phages are loaded with a large payload of a cytotoxic drug by chemical conjugation. In the presented examples we used anti ErbB2 and anti ERGR antibodies as targeting moieties, the drug hygromycin conjugated to the phages by a covalent amide bond, or the drug doxorubicin conjugated to genetically-engineered cathepsin-B sites on the phage coat. We show that targeting of phage nanomedicines via specific antibodies to receptors on cancer cell membranes results in endocytosis, intracellular degradation, and drug release, resulting in growth inhibition of the target cells in vitro with a potentiation factor of >1000 over the corresponding free drugs. Conclusion The results of the proof-of concept study presented here reveal important features regarding the potential of filamentous phages to serve as drug-delivery platform, on the affect of drug solubility or hydrophobicity on the target specificity of the platform and on the effect of drug release mechanism on the potency of the platform. These results define targeted drug-carrying filamentous phage nanoparticles as a unique type of antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:18387177

  20. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rebekah Watkins,1,2,* Ling Wu,1,* Chenming Zhang,3–5 Richey M Davis,3,5,6 Bin Xu1,3 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Program in Nanoscience, 3Center for Drug Discovery, 4Department of Biological Systems Engineering, 5Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science, 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. Keywords: natural products, nanomedicine, drug delivery, bioavailability, targeting, controlled release

  1. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally. Its complete eradication requires early detection and intensive drug treatment. In many cases it might also require surgery. Unfortunately, current medicine is still more focused on cancer treatment rather than elimination of its reason. The mechanism of tumor emergence and development is quite complicated, although, we are constantly advancing in this field. Nanomedicine is envisioned as the silver bullet against cancer. Thus, nanoscale systems with therapeutic and diagnostic modalities can simultaneously perform several functions: accurate detection of tumor site, precise targeting, and controlled drug release inside abnormal cells and tissues while being nontoxic to healthy ones. Moreover, surface modification of such nanoparticles allows them to be invisible to the immune system and have longer blood circulating time. The performed research in this dissertation is completely based on hybrid organicinorganic bridged silsesquioxane (also known as organosilica) nanomaterials, therefore comprising "soft" organic/bioorganic part which can imitate certain biorelevant structures and facilitates successful escape from the immune system for more efficient accumulation in cancer cells, while "hard" inorganic part serves as a rigid and stable basis for the creation of cargo nanocarriers and imaging agents. This dissertation discusses the 5 critical points of safe biodegradable nanoplatforms, delivery of large biomolecules, and cytotoxicity regarding the shape of nanoparticles. As a result novel fluorescent biodegradable oxamide-based organosilica nanoparticles were developed, light-triggered surface charge reversal for large biomolecule delivery was applied with hollow bridged silsesquioxane nanomaterials, and biocompatibility of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with different morphologies was studied. Furthermore, the current achievements and future perspectives of mesoporous silica

  2. In vivo characteristics of targeted drug-carrying filamentous bacteriophage nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaks Lilach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines are a new class of nanomedicines that combines biological and chemical components into a modular nanometric drug delivery system. The core of the system is a filamentous phage particle that is produced in the bacterial host Escherichia coli. Target specificity is provided by a targeting moiety, usually an antibody that is displayed on the tip of the phage particle. A large drug payload is chemically conjugated to the protein coat of the phage via a chemically or genetically engineered linker that provides for controlled release of the drug after the particle homed to the target cell. Recently we have shown that targeted drug-carrying phage nanomedicines can be used to eradicate pathogenic bacteria and cultured tumor cells with great potentiation over the activity of the free untargeted drug. We have also shown that poorly water soluble drugs can be efficiently conjugated to the phage coat by applying hydrophilic aminoglycosides as branched solubility-enhancing linkers. Results With an intention to move to animal experimentation of efficacy, we tested anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines for toxicity and immunogenicity and blood pharmacokinetics upon injection into mice. Here we show that anti-bacterial drug-carrying phage nanomedicines that carry the antibiotic chloramphenicol conjugated via an aminoglycoside linker are non-toxic to mice and are greatly reduced in immunogenicity in comparison to native phage particles or particles to which the drug is conjugated directly and are cleared from the blood more slowly in comparison to native phage particles. Conclusion Our results suggest that aminoglycosides may serve as branched solubility enhancing linkers for drug conjugation that also provide for a better safety profile of the targeted nanomedicine.

  3. Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine development: An industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jennifer I; Lammers, Twan; Ashford, Marianne B; Puri, Sanyogitta; Storm, Gert; Barry, Simon T

    2017-01-01

    Successfully translating anti-cancer nanomedicines from pre-clinical proof of concept to demonstration of therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient stratification and target-driven design have improved patient outcomes. We should evolve our nanomedicine development strategies to build the patient and disease into the line of sight from the outset. The success of small molecule targeted therapies has been significantly improved by employing a specific decision-making framework, such as AstraZeneca's 5R principle: right target/efficacy, right tissue/exposure, right safety, right patient, and right commercial potential. With appropriate investment and collaboration to generate a platform of evidence supporting the end clinical application, a similar framework can be established for enhancing nanomedicine translation and performance. Building informative data packages to answer these questions requires the following: (I) an improved understanding of the heterogeneity of clinical cancers and of the biological factors influencing the behaviour of nanomedicines in patient tumours; (II) a transition from formulation-driven research to disease-driven development; (III) the implementation of more relevant animal models and testing protocols; and (IV) the pre-selection of the patients most likely to respond to nanomedicine therapies. These challenges must be overcome to improve (the cost-effectiveness of) nanomedicine development and translation, and they are key to establishing superior therapies for patients. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conference Scene: nanomedicine kindles the development of the 'elixir of life'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanyog; Das, Manasmita

    2011-06-01

    For the seventh time, nanomedicine experts from around the globe congregated in SAS Nagar, Punjab, for the Fourth Winter School on Nanotechnology in Advanced Drug Delivery, organized by the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Mohali, India. The program covered almost all the scintillating areas of nanomedicine, including novel nanosystems for oral, ocular and transdermal drug delivery, nanostructured surfaces for medical applications, 'smart' nanobullets for site-specific drug and gene delivery, designer nanoparticles for therapeutic delivery, tissue engineering and nanobiocomposites, cancer nanotherapy, and novel analytical and diagnostic tools. Special emphasis was given to the commercialization of nanomedical products, including issues related to intellectual property and risk management.

  5. EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF NANOMEDICINE FOR THERAPY AND DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine which utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline, which merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering thus bridging the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, has a potential to revolutionize current medical practice. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research, which are poised to have an important impact on cardiovascular disease and treatment by improving therapy and diagnosis of such cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques. PMID:20172613

  6. Linear stability analysis of a levitated nanomagnet in a static magnetic field: Quantum spin stabilized magnetic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically study the levitation of a single magnetic domain nanosphere in an external static magnetic field. We show that, apart from the stability provided by the mechanical rotation of the nanomagnet (as in the classical Levitron), the quantum spin origin of its magnetization provides two additional mechanisms to stably levitate the system. Despite the Earnshaw theorem, such stable phases are present even in the absence of mechanical rotation. For large magnetic fields, the Larmor precession of the quantum magnetic moment stabilizes the system in full analogy with magnetic trapping of a neutral atom. For low magnetic fields, the magnetic anisotropy stabilizes the system via the Einstein-de Haas effect. These results are obtained with a linear stability analysis of a single magnetic domain rigid nanosphere with uniaxial anisotropy in a Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic field.

  7. Magnetic switching of optical reflectivity in nanomagnet/micromirror suspensions: colloid displays as a potential alternative to liquid crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenhofer, S B; Athanassiou, E K; Grass, R N; Koehler, F M; Rossier, M; Stark, W J

    2009-12-02

    Two-particle colloids containing nanomagnets and microscale mirrors can be prepared from iron oxide nanoparticles, microscale metal flakes and high-density liquids stabilizing the mirror suspension against sedimentation by matching the constituent's density. The free Brownian rotation of the micromirrors can be magnetically controlled through an anisotropic change in impulse transport arising from impacts of the magnetic nanoparticles onto the anisotropic flakes. The resulting rapid mirror orientation allows large changes in light transmission and switchable optical reflectivity. The preparation of a passive display was conceptually demonstrated through colloid confinement in a planar cavity over an array of individually addressable solenoids and resulted in 4 x 4 digit displays with a reaction time of less than 100 ms.

  8. Nanoscale zero-valent iron incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite for catalytic degradation of methylene blue in heterogeneous Fenton system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Yiming; Zhou, Ziqing; He, Haibo; Wang, Tianlin; Luo, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) incorporated with nanomagnetic diatomite (DE) composite material was prepared for catalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) in heterogeneous Fenton system. The material was constructed by two facile steps: Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were supported on DE by chemical co-precipitation method, after which nZVI was incorporated into magnetic DE by liquid-phase chemical reduction strategy. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, magnetic properties measurement and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement. The novel nZVI@Fe3O4-diatomite nanocomposites showed a distinct catalytic activity and a desirable effect for degradation of MB. MB could be completely decolorized within 8 min and the removal efficiency of total organic carbon could reach to 90% after reaction for 1 h.

  9. Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine development : An industry perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, Jennifer I.; Lammers, Twan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824577; Ashford, Marianne B.; Puri, Sanyogitta; Storm, G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073356328; Barry, Simon T.

    2017-01-01

    Successfully translating anti-cancer nanomedicines from pre-clinical proof of concept to demonstration of therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient

  10. Multifaceted applications of bile salts in pharmacy: an emphasis on nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaggar YS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yosra SR Elnaggar Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: The human body has long provided pharmaceutical science with biomaterials of interesting applications. Bile salts (BSs are biomaterials reminiscent of traditional surfactants with peculiar structure and self-assembled topologies. In the pharmaceutical field, BSs were employed on the basis of two different concepts. The first concept exploited BSs’ metabolic and homeostatic functions in disease modulation, whereas the second one utilized BSs’ potential to modify drug-delivery characteristics, which recently involved nanotechnology. This review is the first to gather major pharmaceutical applications of BSs from endogenous organotropism up to integration into nanomedicine, with a greater focus on the latter domain. Endogenous applications highlighted the role of BS in modulating hypercholesterolemia and cancer therapy in view of enterohepatic circulation. In addition, recent BS-integrated nanomedicines have been surveyed, chiefly size-tunable cholate nanoparticles, BS-lecithin mixed micelles, bilosomes, probilosomes, and surface-engineered bilosomes. A greater emphasis has been laid on nanosystems for vaccine and cancer therapy. The comparative advantages of BS-integrated nanomedicines over conventional nanocarriers have been noted. Paradoxical effects, current pitfalls, future perspectives, and opinions have also been outlined. Keywords: bile salt, nanomedicine, bilosomes, liposomes, size-tunable nanoparticles 

  11. Complement-mediated tumour growth: implications for cancer nanotechnology and nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. M.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2009-01-01

    The recent unexpected observation that complement activation helps turnout growth and progression has an important bearing on the future development of cancer nanomedicines for site-specific tumour targeting as these entities are capable of triggering complement. These issues are discussed and su...

  12. Challenges and strategies in anti-cancer nanomedicine development: An industry perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, J.I.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Ashford, M.B.; Puri, S.; Storm, Gerrit; Barry, S.T.

    2017-01-01

    Successfully translating anti-cancer nanomedicines from pre-clinical proof of concept to demonstration of therapeutic value in the clinic is challenging. Having made significant advances with drug delivery technologies, we must learn from other areas of oncology drug development, where patient

  13. Nanotechnology and glaucoma: a review of the potential implications of glaucoma nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nathaniel J; Harris, Alon; Gerber, Austin; Tobe, Leslie Abrams; Amireskandari, Annahita; Huck, Andrew; Siesky, Brent

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the evolution of nanotechnology and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications in the field of ophthalmology, particularly as it pertains to glaucoma. We reviewed literature using MEDLINE and PubMed databases with the following search terms: glaucoma, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, nanoparticles, ophthalmology and liposomes. We also reviewed pertinent references from articles found in this search. A brief history of nanotechnology and nanomedicine will be covered, followed by a discussion of the advantages and concerns of using this technology in the field of glaucoma. We will look at various studies concerning the development of nanomedicine, its potential applications in ocular drug delivery, diagnostic and imaging modalities and, surgical techniques. In particular, the challenges of assuring safety and efficacy of nanomedicine will be examined. We conclude that nanotechnology offers a novel approach to expanding diagnostic, imaging and surgical modalities in glaucoma and may contribute to the knowledge of disease pathogenesis at a molecular level. However, more research is needed to better elucidate the mechanism of cellular entry, the potential for nanoparticle cytotoxicity and the assurance of clinical efficacy.

  14. The Potential of Zebrafish as a Model Organism for Improving the Translation of Genetic Anticancer Nanomedicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gutiérrez-Lovera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the field of nanomedicine applied to cancer has revolutionized cancer treatment: several nanoformulations have already reached the market and are routinely being used in the clinical practice. In the case of genetic nanomedicines, i.e., designed to deliver gene therapies to cancer cells for therapeutic purposes, advances have been less impressive. This is because of the many barriers that limit the access of the therapeutic nucleic acids to their target site, and the lack of models that would allow for an improvement in the understanding of how nanocarriers can be tailored to overcome them. Zebrafish has important advantages as a model species for the study of anticancer therapies, and have a lot to offer regarding the rational development of efficient delivery of genetic nanomedicines, and hence increasing the chances of their successful translation. This review aims to provide an overview of the recent advances in the development of genetic anticancer nanomedicines, and of the zebrafish models that stand as promising tools to shed light on their mechanisms of action and overall potential in oncology.

  15. Passive versus active tumor targeting using RGD- and NGR-modified polymeric nanomedicines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunjachan, S.; Pola, Robert; Gremse, F.; Theek, B.; Ehling, J.; Moeckel, D.; Hermanns-Sachweh, B.; Pechar, Michal; Ulbrich, Karel; Hennink, W. E.; Storm, G.; Lederle, W.; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2014), s. 972-981 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP207/12/J030 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanomedicine * drug targeting * EPR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 13.592, year: 2014

  16. Nanomedicine and drug delivery strategies for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takedatsu, Hidetoshi; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-10-28

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are two important categories of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Because the precise mechanisms of the inflammation and immune responses in IBD have not been fully elucidated, the treatment of IBD primarily aims to inhibit the pathogenic factors of the inflammatory cascade. Inconsistencies exist regarding the response and side effects of the drugs that are currently used to treat IBD. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nanomedicine might be advantageous for the treatment of intestinal inflammation because nano-sized molecules can effectively penetrate epithelial and inflammatory cells. We reviewed nanomedicine treatments, such as the use of small interfering RNAs, antisense oligonucleotides, and anti-inflammatory molecules with delivery systems in experimental colitis models and clinical trials for IBD based on a systematic search. The efficacy and usefulness of the treatments reviewed in this manuscript have been demonstrated in experimental colitis models and clinical trials using various types of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is expected to become a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of IBD.

  17. Polymeric nanomedicines for image-guided drug delivery and tumor-targeted combination therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lammers, T.; Šubr, Vladimír; Ulbrich, Karel; Hennink, W. E.; Storm, G.; Kiessling, F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 197-212 ISSN 1748-0132 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanomedicine s * drug targeting * polymer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.750, year: 2010

  18. Taking Nanomedicine Teaching into Practice with Atomic Force Microscopy and Force Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic…

  19. Taking nanomedicine teaching into practice with atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C

    2015-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic force microscope by performing AFM scanning images of human blood cells and force spectroscopy measurements of the fibrinogen-platelet interaction. Since the beginning of this course, in 2008, the overall rating by the students was 4.7 (out of 5), meaning a good to excellent evaluation. Students were very enthusiastic and produced high-quality AFM images and force spectroscopy data. The implementation of the hands-on AFM course was a success, giving to the students the opportunity of contact with a technique that has a wide variety of applications on the nanomedicine field. In the near future, nanomedicine will have remarkable implications in medicine regarding the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of different diseases. AFM enables students to observe single molecule interactions, enabling the understanding of molecular mechanisms of different physiological and pathological processes at the nanoscale level. Therefore, the introduction of nanomedicine courses in bioscience and medical school curricula is essential. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. Nanomedicine and personalised medicine: understanding the personalisation of health care in the molecular era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noury, Mathieu; López, José

    2017-05-01

    Globally supported by public policy and investment, nanomedicine is presented as an ongoing medical revolution that will radically change the practice of health care from diagnostic to therapeutic, and everything in between. One of nanomedicine's major promises is that of personalised medicine, enabling diagnostics and therapeutics tailored to individual needs and developing a truly 'patient-friendly' medical approach. Based on qualitative interviews with nanomedicine researchers in Canada, this article explores the emerging concept of personalised medicine as it becomes entangled with nanomedical research. More precisely, drawing on insights from science studies and the sociology of expectations, it analyses researchers' perceptions of personalised medicine in the cutting edge of current nanomedicine research. Two perceptions of personalisation are identified; a molecular conception of individuality and a technical conception of personalisation. The article concludes by examining the relationship between the two conceptions and contrasts them with the normative reflex of a more expansive conception of personalised medicine. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Physics of nanoplatforms and their applications in nanomanufacturing and nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Evin

    Nanoplatforms are nanoscale structures designed as general platforms for multifunctional nanotechnology applications. Applications of nanotechnology cover broad spectrum of research fields and require true interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary studies. It also requires a fundamental understanding of physical principles in nanoscale since nanomaterials exhibit different properties and experience distinct forces compared to the materials in macroscale. In this thesis, we studied two different nanoplatforms, namely nanoporous oxide coatings and superparamagnetic nanoparticles. We analyzed their physical properties and illustrated their applications in two different fields, nanomanufacturing and nanomedicine. The first nanoplatform we studied is ordered nanoporous arrays of aluminum and titanium oxide. We investigated their fabrication as well as their applications in both nanomanufacturing and nanomedicine. We addressed the question of assembling spherical and cylindrical elements into porous holes - all in the same nanoscale. To investigate the assembly of nanoelements, one has to have an understanding of forces in nanoscale. In this length scale, the electronic and magnetic forces are the dominant forces whereas some macroscale forces like gravity has none to little effect. We demonstrated 3D directed assembly of nanobeads as well as single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) into nanoholes by means of electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis at ambient temperatures. For nanobead assembly, SEM images were sufficient to demonstrate 100% assembly of loaded nanobeads. For SWNT, the connection through assembled nanotubes were used to prove the success of the assembly. The I-V measurements clearly showed that strong Si-SWNT interconnects carrying currents on the order of 1 mA were established inside the nanoholes. This assembly technique is particularly useful for large-scale, rapid, 3D assembly of 106 SWNT over a centimeter square area under mild conditions for nanoscale

  2. A visualized investigation at the atomic scale of the antitumor effect of magnetic nanomedicine on gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaokang; Deng, Xia; Li, Xinghua; Xue, Desheng; Zhang, Haoli; Liu, Tao; Liu, Qingfang; Mellors, Nigel J; Li, Yumin; Peng, Yong

    2014-07-01

    Discovering which anticancer drugs attack which organelle(s) of cancer cells is essential and significant, not only for understanding their therapeutic and adverse effects, but also to enable the development of new-generation therapeutics. Here, we show that novel Fe3O4-carboxymethyl cellulose-5-fluorouracil (Fe3O4-CMC-5FU) nanomedicine can apparently enhance the antitumor effect on gastric cancer cells, and its mechanism of killing the SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells can be directly observed at the atomic scale. The novel nanomedicine was prepared using the traditional antitumor drug 5FU to chemically bond onto the functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4-CMC-5FU nanomedicine), and then was fed into SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The inorganic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to track the distribution and antitumor effect of the nanomedicine within individual SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. Atomic-level observation and tracking the elemental distribution inside individual cells proved that the magnetic nanomedicine killed the gastric cells mainly by attacking their mitochondria. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy derives from the localized high concentration and poor mobility of the aggregated Fe3O4-CMC-5FU nanomedicine in the cytoplasm. A brand new mechanism of Fe3O4-CMC-5FU nanomedicine killing SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells by attacking their mitochondria was discovered, which is different from the classical mechanism utilized by traditional medicine 5FU, which kills gastric cancer cells by damaging their DNA. Our work might provide a partial solution in nanomedicines or even modern anticancer medicine for the visualized investigation of their antitumor effect.

  3. Inner ear barriers to nanomedicine-augmented drug delivery and imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several challenges to inner ear drug delivery and imaging due to the existence of tight biological barriers to the target structure and the dense bone surrounding it. Advances in imaging and nanomedicine may provide knowledge for overcoming the existing limitations to both the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear diseases. Novel techniques have improved the efficacy of drug delivery and targeting to the inner ear, as well as the quality and accuracy of imaging this structure. In this review, we will describe the pathways and biological barriers of the inner ear regarding drug delivery, the beneficial applications and limitations of the imaging techniques available for inner ear research, the behavior of engineered nanomaterials in inner ear applications, and future perspectives for nanomedicine-based inner ear imaging.

  4. The perception of nanotechnology and nanomedicine: a worldwide social media study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Giovanni; Bedognetti, Davide; Sgarrella, Francesco; Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2014-07-01

    We explore at a world level the awareness of nanotechnology expressed through the most popular online social media: Facebook. We aimed at identifying future trends, the most interested countries and the public perception of ethics, funding and economic issues. We found that graphene and carbon nanotubes are the most followed nanomaterials. Our poll showed that the continents with the most interest are Asia and Africa. A total of 43% would like to have a world commission regulating nanomedicine. In addition, 43% would give priority to theranostics. Over 90% believe that nanomedicine has an economic impact. Finally, we observed that the continents of living and origin of poll contributors correlated with ethic and funding opinions. This study highlights the potential of online social media to influence scientific communities, grant committees and nanotechnology companies, spreading nanotechnology awareness in emerging countries and among new generations.

  5. Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by paediatric HIV nanotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous paediatric HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes.

  6. Nanomedicine delivery: does protein corona route to the target or off road?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolo, Daniele; Del Pino, Pablo; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Parak, Wolfgang J; Baldelli Bombelli, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine aims to find novel solutions for urgent biomedical needs. Despite this, one of the most challenging hurdles that nanomedicine faces is to successfully target therapeutic nanoparticles to cells of interest in vivo. As for any biomaterials, once in vivo, nanoparticles can interact with plasma biomolecules, forming new entities for which the name protein coronas (PCs) have been coined. The PC can influence the in vivo biological fate of a nanoparticle. Thus for guaranteeing the desired function of an engineered nanomaterial in vivo, it is crucial to dissect its PC in terms of formation and evolution within the body. In this contribution we will review the 'good' and 'bad' sides of the PC, starting from the scientific aspects to the technological applications.

  7. Nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations for cancer therapy - Strategies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui Xue; Wong, Ho Lun; Xue, Hui Yi; Eoh, June Young; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-10-28

    Nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations has shown increasing significance in cancer therapy due to its promise in providing superior therapeutic benefits to the current drug combination therapy used in clinical practice. In this article, we will examine the rationale, principles, and advantages of applying nanocarriers to improve anticancer drug combination therapy, review the use of nanocarriers for delivery of a variety of combinations of different classes of anticancer agents including small molecule drugs and biologics, and discuss the challenges and future perspectives of the nanocarrier-based combination therapy. The goal of this review is to provide better understanding of this increasingly important new paradigm of cancer treatment and key considerations for rational design of nanomedicine of synergistic drug combinations for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanomedicine: Promising Tiny Machine for the Healthcare in Future-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Moni

    2009-01-01

    One of the 21st century’s most promising technologies is nanotechnology. Nanomedicine, an offshoot of nanotechnology, refers to highly specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing disease or repairing damaged tissues, such as bone, muscle, or nerve. Nanotechnology is a collective term referring to technological developments on the nanometer scale, usually 0.1-100 nm. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, too small to be seen with a conventional laboratory microscope. It ...

  9. Nanomedicine for cancer therapy from chemotherapeutic to hyperthermia-based therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    This Brief focuses on the cancer therapy available till date, from conventional drug delivery to nanomedicine in clinical trial. In addition, it reports on future generation based nanotherapeutics and cancer theranostic agent for effective therapeutic diagnosis and treatment. Breast cancer was chosen as the model system in this review. The authors give emphasis to multiple drug resistance (MDR) and its mechanism and how to overcome it using the nanoparticle approach. .

  10. Potential prospects of nanomedicine for targeted therapeutics in inflammatory bowel diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pichai, Madharasi VA; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn’s disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied ...

  11. Prodrug and nanomedicine approaches for the delivery of the camptothecin analogue SN38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Vaskor; Rao, Shasha; Boyd, Ben J; Prestidge, Clive A

    2013-11-28

    SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy camptothecin) is a prominent and efficacious anticancer agent. It is poorly soluble in both water and pharmaceutically approved solvents; therefore, the direct formulation of SN38 in solution form is limited. Currently, the water soluble prodrug of SN38, irinotecan (CPT-11), is formulated as a low pH solution and is approved for chemotherapy. However, CPT-11, along with most other water-soluble prodrugs shows unpredictable inter-patient conversion to SN38 in vivo, instability in the physiological environment and variable dose-related toxicities. More recently, macromolecular prodrugs (i.e. EZN-2208, IMMU-130) and nanomedicine formulations (i.e. nanoemulsions, polymeric micelles, lipid nanocapsule/nanoparticle, and liposomes) of SN38 have been investigated for improved delivery to cancer cells and tissues. Specifically, these carriers can take advantage of the EPR effect to direct drug preferentially to tumour tissues, thereby substantially improving efficacy and minimising side effects. Furthermore, oral delivery has been shown to be possible in preclinical results using nanomedicine formulations (i.e. dendrimers, lipid nanocapsules, polymeric micelles). This review summarizes the recent advances for the delivery of SN38 with a focus on macromolecular prodrugs and nanomedicines. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanomedicine applied to translational oncology: A future perspective on cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Movia, Dania; Gavigan-Imedio, James D; Lysaght, Joanne; Reynolds, John; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2016-01-01

    The high global incidence of cancer is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity worldwide. By taking advantage of the properties of matter at the nanoscale, nanomedicine promises to develop innovative drugs with greater efficacy and less side effects than standard therapies. Here, we discuss both clinically available anti-cancer nanomedicines and those en route to future clinical application. The properties, therapeutic value, advantages and limitations of these nanomedicine products are highlighted, with a focus on their increased performance versus conventional molecular anticancer therapies. The main regulatory challenges toward the translation of innovative, clinically effective nanotherapeutics are discussed, with a view to improving current approaches to the clinical management of cancer. Ultimately, it becomes clear that the critical steps for clinical translation of nanotherapeutics require further interdisciplinary and international effort, where the whole stakeholder community is involved from bench to bedside. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and finding a cure remains the holy-grail for many researchers and clinicians. The advance in nanotechnology has enabled novel strategies to develop in terms of cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this concise review article, the authors described current capabilities in this field and outlined comparisons with existing drugs. The difficulties in bringing new drugs to the clinics were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Matrigel alters the pathophysiology of orthotopic human breast adenocarcinoma xenografts with implications for nanomedicine evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhendler, Adam J; Prasad, Preethy; Cai, Ping; Hui, Kelvin K W; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Rauth, Andrew M; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2013-08-01

    Matrigel, a mouse sarcoma-derived basement membrane protein mixture, is frequently used to facilitate human tumor xenograft growth in rodents. Despite its known effects on tumor growth and metastasis, its impact on tumor pathophysiology and preclinical evaluation of nanomedicines in tumor xenografts has not been reported previously. Herein bilateral MDA435 tumors were established orthotopically with (Mat+) or without (Mat-) co-injection of Matrigel. Tumor perfusion, morphology and nanoparticle retention were evaluated. As compared to Mat- tumors, Mat+tumors exhibited enhanced vascular perfusion and lymphatic flow, greater blood vessel and lymphatic growth within the tumor core, and more deformation and collapse of lymphatics in tumor-associated lymph nodes. These changes were accompanied by reduced nanoparticle retention in Mat+tumors. The results suggest that Matrigel is not a passive medium for tumor growth, but rather significantly alters long-term tumor architecture. These findings have significant implications for the evaluation of therapeutic nanomedicine in xenograft mouse models. Matrigel is utilized in facilitating human tumor xenograft growth in rodents. The authors demonstrate that Matrigel is not a passive medium for tumor growth; instead it significantly alters long-term tumor architecture, with major implications in the evaluation of therapeutic nanomedicine in xenograft mouse models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Near-IR responsive nanostructures for nanobiophotonics: emerging impacts on nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

    2016-04-01

    Nanobiophotonics is an emerging field at the intersection of nanoscience, photonics, and biotechnology. Harnessing interactions of light with nanostructures enables new types of bioimaging, sensing, and light-activated therapy which can make a major impact on nanomedicine. Low penetration through tissue limits the use of visible light in nanomedicine. Near infrared (NIR) light (~780-1100 nm) can penetrate significantly further, enabling free-space delivery into deep tissues. This review focuses on interactions of NIR light with nanostructures to produce three effects: direct photoactivation, photothermal effects, and photochemical effects. Applications of direct photoactivation include bioimaging and biosensing using NIR-emitting quantum dots, materials with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR, and upconverting nanoparticles. Two key nanomedicine applications using photothermal effects are photothermal therapy (PTT), and photoacoustic (PA) imaging. For photochemical effects, we present the latest advances in in-situ upconversion and upconverting nanostructures for NIR activation of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nanobiophotonics is a relatively new field applying light for the interactions with nanostructures, which can be used in bioimaging, sensing, and therapy. As near infrared (NIR) light (~780-1100 nm) can have better tissue penetration, its clinical potential is far greater. In this review, the authors discussed the latest research on the applications of NIR light in imaging and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Therapeutic applications of nanomedicine in autoimmune diseases: from immunosuppression to tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozloo, Marjan; Majewski, Slawomir; Foldvari, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic, destructive diseases that can cause functional disability and multiple organ failure. Despite significant advances in the range of therapeutic agents, especially biologicals, limitations of the routes of administration, requirement for frequent long-term dosing and inadequate targeting options often lead to suboptimal effects, systemic adverse reactions and patient non-compliance. Nanotechnology offers promising strategies to improve and optimize autoimmune disease treatment with the ability to overcome many of the limitations common to the current immunosuppressive and biological therapies. Here we focus on nanomedicine-based delivery strategies of biological immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of autoimmune disorders including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, scleroderma, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes. This comprehensive review details the concepts and clinical potential of novel nanomedicine approaches for inducing immunosuppression and immunological tolerance in autoimmune diseases in order to modulate aberrant and pathologic immune responses. The treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a significant challenge. The authors here provided a comprehensive review, focusing on the current status and potential of nanomedicine-based delivery strategies of immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of autoimmune disorders including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematous, scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kidney stone nano-structure - Is there an opportunity for nanomedicine development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordos, N; Giannakopoulos, S; Gkika, D A; Nolan, J W; Kalaitzis, Ch; Bandekas, D V; Kontogoulidou, C; Mitropoulos, A Ch; Touloupidis, S

    2017-06-01

    Kidney stone analysis techniques are well-established in the field of materials characterization and provide information for the chemical composition and structure of a sample. Nanomedicine, on the other hand, is a field with an increasing rate of scientific research, a big budget and increasingly developing market. The key scientific question is if there is a possibility for the development of a nanomedicine to treat kidney stones. The main calculi characterization techniques such as X-ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy can provide information about the composition of a kidney stone but not for its nanostructure. On the other hand, Small Angle X-ray Scattering and Nitrogen Porosimetry can show the nanostructural parameters of the calculi. The combination of the previously described parameters can be used for the development of nano-drugs for the treatment of urolithiasis, while no such nano-drugs exist yet. In this study, we focus on the most well-known techniques for kidney stone analysis, the urolithiasis management and the search for possible nanomedicine for the treatment of kidney stone disease. We combine the results from five different analysis techniques in order to represent a three dimensional model and we propose a hypothetical nano-drug with gold nanoparticles. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Closing the gap: accelerating the translational process in nanomedicine by proposing standardized characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ali A; Weaver, James L; Salvador-Morales, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    On the cusp of widespread permeation of nanomedicine, academia, industry, and government have invested substantial financial resources in developing new ways to better treat diseases. Materials have unique physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale compared with their bulk or small-molecule analogs. These unique properties have been greatly advantageous in providing innovative solutions for medical treatments at the bench level. However, nanomedicine research has not yet fully permeated the clinical setting because of several limitations. Among these limitations are the lack of universal standards for characterizing nanomaterials and the limited knowledge that we possess regarding the interactions between nanomaterials and biological entities such as proteins. In this review, we report on recent developments in the characterization of nanomaterials as well as the newest information about the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins in the human body. We propose a standard set of techniques for universal characterization of nanomaterials. We also address relevant regulatory issues involved in the translational process for the development of drug molecules and drug delivery systems. Adherence and refinement of a universal standard in nanomaterial characterization as well as the acquisition of a deeper understanding of nanomaterials and proteins will likely accelerate the use of nanomedicine in common practice to a great extent.

  18. Nanotheranostics ˗ Application and Further Development of Nanomedicine Strategies for Advanced Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Madaswamy S.; Leong, David Tai; Mei, Lin; Feng, Si-Shen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotheranostics is to apply and further develop nanomedicine strategies for advanced theranostics. This review summarizes the various nanocarriers developed so far in the literature for nanotheranostics, which include polymer conjugations, dendrimers, micelles, liposomes, metal and inorganic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers for sustained, controlled and targeted co-delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents for better theranostic effects with fewer side effects. The theranostic nanomedicine can achieve systemic circulation, evade host defenses and deliver the drug and diagnostic agents at the targeted site to diagnose and treat the disease at cellular and molecular level. The therapeutic and diagnostic agents are formulated in nanomedicine as a single theranostic platform, which can then be further conjugated to biological ligand for targeting. Nanotheranostics can also promote stimuli-responsive release, synergetic and combinatory therapy, siRNA co-delivery, multimodality therapies, oral delivery, delivery across the blood-brain barrier as well as escape from intracellular autophagy. The fruition of nanotheranostics will be able to provide personalized therapy with bright prognosis, which makes even the fatal diseases curable or at least treatable at the earliest stage. PMID:24723986

  19. Transferrin targeted core-shell nanomedicine for combinatorial delivery of doxorubicin and sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-11-01

    Combinatorial drug delivery is an attractive, but challenging requirement of next generation cancer nanomedicines. Here, we report a transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine formed by encapsulating two clinically used single-agent drugs, doxorubicin and sorafenib against liver cancer. Doxorubicin was loaded in poly(vinyl alcohol) nano-core and sorafenib in albumin nano-shell, both formed by a sequential freeze-thaw/coacervation method. While sorafenib from the nano-shell inhibited aberrant oncogenic signaling involved in cell proliferation, doxorubicin from the nano-core evoked DNA intercalation thereby killing >75% of cancer cells. Upon targeting using transferrin ligands, the nanoparticles showed enhanced cellular uptake and synergistic cytotoxicity in ~92% of cells, particularly in iron-deficient microenvironment. Studies using 3D spheroids of liver tumor indicated efficient penetration of targeted core-shell nanoparticles throughout the tissue causing uniform cell killing. Thus, we show that rationally designed core-shell nanoparticles can effectively combine clinically relevant single-agent drugs for exerting synergistic activity against liver cancer. Transferrin-targeted core-shell nanomedicine encapsulating doxorubicin and sorafenib was studied as a drug delivery system against hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in enhanced and synergistic therapeutic effects, paving the way towards potential future clinical applications of similar techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Antisymmetric Exchange on the Quantum Interference between States of Different Spin Length in a dimeric Molecular Nanomagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barco, Enrique

    2009-03-01

    We report direct evidence of quantum oscillations of the total spin length of a dimeric molecular nanomagnet through the observation of quantum interference associated with tunneling trajectories between states having different spin quantum numbers. As we outline, this is a consequence of the unique characteristics of a molecular Mn12 wheel which behaves as a (weak) ferromagnetic exchange-coupled molecular dimer: each half of the molecule acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), while the weak coupling between the two halves gives rise to an additional internal spin degree of freedom within the molecule, namely that its total spin may fluctuate. This extra degree of freedom accounts for several magnetization tunneling resonances that cannot be explained within the usual giant spin approximation. More importantly, the observation of quantum interference provides unambiguous evidence for the quantum mechanical superposition involving entangled states of both halves of the wheel. Magnetization results obtained in two other versions of this compound, in which the ligands have been modified, show that slight variations of the relative distance between the Mn ions determine whether the molecule behaves as a rigid magnetic unit of spin S = 7 or as two exchange-coupled halves of spin S = 7/2. We analyze the effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange interaction in a molecule with a centre of inversion symmetry and propose a formal model to account for the observed broken degeneracy that preserves the molecular inversion symmetry.

  1. Magnetization switching of a metallic nanomagnet via current-induced surface spin-polarization of an underlying topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory

  2. Soft matter assemblies as nanomedicine platforms for cancer chemotherapy: a journey from market products towards novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Eliézer; Giacomelli, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    The current review aims to outline the likely medical applications of nanotechnology and the potential of the emerging field of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can be defined as the investigation area encompassing the design of diagnostics and therapeutics at the nanoscale, including nanobots, nanobiosensors, nanoparticles and other nanodevices, for the remediation, prevention and diagnosis of a variety of illnesses. The ultimate goal of nanomedicine is to improve patient quality-of-life. Because nanomedicine includes the rational design of an enormous number of nanotechnology-based products focused on miscellaneous diseases, a variety of nanomaterials can be employed. Therefore, this review will focus on recent advances in the manufacture of soft matterbased nanomedicines specifically designed to improve diagnostics and cancer chemotherapy efficacy. It will be particularly highlighted liposomes, polymer-drug conjugates, drug-loaded block copolymer micelles and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles, emphasizing the current investigations and potential novel approaches towards overcoming the remaining challenges in the field as well as formulations that are in clinical trials and marketed products.

  3. Facile synthesis of a boronate affinity sorbent from mesoporous nanomagnetic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes composite and its application for enrichment of catecholamines in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Haibo, E-mail: hbhe2006@shu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhou, Ziqing; Dong, Chen; Wang, Xin [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yu, Qiong-wei [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Lei, Yunyi; Luo, Liqiang [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Feng, Yuqi [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-11-09

    A boronate-decorated nanomagnetic organic-inorganic hybrid material was facilely synthesized by utilizing the nanomagnetic polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) composite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS) as the base platform. A simple copolymerization occurred between 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) and the residual end vinyl groups supplied by the substrate. Here the special emphasis was placed on the octavinyl POSS, which not only acted as the building blocks for a hybrid architecture but also facilitated the process of grafting boronate groups onto the surface of POSS based nanomagnetic composite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS). The successful immobilization of affinity ligand-AAPBA on the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), field emission scanning electron microscope. A magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) for cis-diols enrichment was developed using the as-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS-AAPBA material as an affinity sorbent and three catecholamines (CAs), namely noradrenaline, epinephrine and isoprenaline, as model analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions, sensitive and simultaneous analysis of three CAs from the urine sample was achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV). The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and the limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N = 10) for the target analytes were 0.81–1.32 ng mL{sup −1} and 2.70–4.40 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. Also good recoveries (85.5–101.7%) and repeatability (RSD≤10.1%) were obtained by this method. This work not only showed a facility for the utilization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@POSS as a substrate for constructing a boronate functionalized nanomagnetic sorbent, but also demonstrated the capability of the derived material for recognition of trace amount of cis-diols biomolecules presented in complicated biological matrices

  4. Emerging concepts in dendrimer-based nanomedicine: from design principles to clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, R M; Nance, E; Kannan, S; Tomalia, D A

    2014-12-01

    Dendrimers are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles with 'onion skin-like' branched layers. Beginning with a core, these nanostructures grow in concentric layers to produce stepwise increases in size that are similar to the dimensions of many in vivo globular proteins. These branched tree-like concentric layers are referred to as 'generations'. The outer generation of each dendrimer presents a precise number of functional groups that may act as a monodispersed platform for engineering favourable nanoparticle-drug and nanoparticle-tissue interactions. These features have attracted significant attention in medicine as nanocarriers for traditional small drugs, proteins, DNA/RNA and in some instances as intrinsically active nanoscale drugs. Dendrimer-based drugs, as well as diagnostic and imaging agents, are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. First, we will provide a brief survey of recent nanomedicines that are either approved or in the clinical approval process. This will be followed by an introduction to a new 'nanoperiodic' concept which proposes nanoparticle structure control and the engineering of 'critical nanoscale design parameters' (CNDPs) as a strategy for optimizing pharmocokinetics, pharmocodynamics and site-specific targeting of disease. This paradigm has led to the emergence of CNDP-directed nanoperiodic property patterns relating nanoparticle behaviour to critical in vivo clinical translation issues such as cellular uptake, transport, elimination, biodistribution, accumulation and nanotoxicology. With a focus on dendrimers, these CNDP-directed nanoperiodic patterns are used as a strategy for designing and optimizing nanoparticles for a variety of drug delivery and imaging applications, including a recent dendrimer-based theranostic nanodevice for imaging and treating cancer. Several emerging preclinical dendrimer-based nanotherapy concepts related to inflammation, neuro-inflammatory disorders, oncology and infectious

  5. Nano-Medicine as a Newly Emerging Approach to Combat Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Muthupandian; Asmalash, Tsehaye; Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Gebreegziabiher, Dawit; Araya, Tadele; Hilekiros, Haftamu; Barabadi, Hamed; Ramanathan, Kumaresan

    2018-01-01

    Human Immuno deficiency Virus (HIV) infection has attained pandemic level due to its complexity on both the HIV infection cycle and on the targets for drug delivery. This limits medication and consequently requires prominent and promising drug delivery systems to be invented. Notably, various nanomaterial have been studied to enhance effective delivery of the antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention, diagnosis and cure. Some of these nanomaterials are liposomes, dendrimers, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs), polymeric micelles, natural and synthetic polymers. The present study aimed to review the recent progress in nanomedicine as a newly emerging approach to combat HIV. The scientific data bases reviewed carefully to find both in vitro and in vivo studies representing the role of nonomedicine to combat HIV. Impressively, nanomedicine drug delivery systems have been commendable in various models ranging from in vitro to in vivo. It gives notion about the application of nano-carrier systems for the delivery of anti-retroviral drugs which ideally should provide better distribution to surpass Blood- Brain Barrier (BBB) and other tissue or to overcome innate barriers such as mucus. Considerably, nanomaterials such as dendrimers and many other inorganic NPs such as silver, gold, iron, and zinc can be used for HIV treatment by interfering in varying stages of HIV life cycle. Furthermore, NPs could best act as adjuvants, convoys during vaccine delivery, as intra-vaginal microbicides and for the early detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen. Nanomedicine may be a proper approach in HIV/AIDS therapy by means of offering lower dosage and side effect, better patient-to-patient consistency, bioavailability, target specificity and improved sensitivity of HIV diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Nanomedicines for chronic non-infectious arthritis: The clinician’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Israel; Weinberg, Guy L.

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) are prevalent chronic health conditions. However, despite recent advances in medical therapeutics, their treatment still represents an unmet medical need because of safety and efficacy concerns with currently prescribed drugs. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to develop and test new drugs for RA and OA that selectively target inflamed joints thereby mitigating damage to healthy tissues. Conceivably, biocompatible, biodegradable, disease-modifying antirheumatic nanomedicines (DMARNs) could represent a promising therapeutic approach for RA and OA. To this end, the unique physicochemical properties of drug-loaded nanocarriers coupled with pathophysiological characteristics of inflamed joints amplify bioavailability and bioactivity of DMARNs and promote their selective targeting to inflamed joints. This, in turn, minimizes the amount of drug required to control articular inflammation and circumvents collateral damage to healthy tissues. Thus, nanomedicine could provide selective control both in space and time of the inflammatory process in affected joints. However, bringing safe and efficacious DMARNs for RA and OA to the marketplace is challenging because regulatory agencies have no official definition of nanotechnology, and rules and definitions for nanomedicines are still being developed. Although existing toxicology tests may be adequate for most DMARNs, as new toxicity risks and adverse health effects derived from novel nanomaterials with intended use in humans are identified, additional toxicology tests would be required. Hence, we propose that detailed pre-clinical in vivo safety assessment of promising DMARNs leads for RA and OA, including risks to the general population, must be conducted before clinical trials begin. PMID:22640912

  7. Nanochemistry of protein-based delivery agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Subin; Udenigwe, Chibuike; Yada, Rickey

    2016-07-01

    The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior.

  8. Nanochemistry of protein-based delivery agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subin R.C.K. Rajendran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen an increased interest in the conversion of food proteins into functional biomaterials, including their use for loading and delivery of physiologically active compounds such as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Proteins possess a competitive advantage over other platforms for the development of nanodelivery systems since they are biocompatible, amphipathic, and widely available. Proteins also have unique molecular structures and diverse functional groups that can be selectively modified to alter encapsulation and release properties. A number of physical and chemical methods have been used for preparing protein nanoformulations, each based on different underlying protein chemistry. This review focuses on the chemistry of the reorganization and/or modification of proteins into functional nanostructures for delivery, from the perspective of their preparation, functionality, stability and physiological behavior.

  9. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A summary is given of results on nanospectroscopy etc. during the previous three years, divided into the following subsections: development of methods and instrumentation for interface/boundary chemical analysis, interface and boundary structure in ceramic matrix composites, quantitative composition measurements of thin films and inclusions, theoretical calculations for electron energy loss near edge fine structure and grain boundary structure, and small probe radiation effects in ceramics. Materials studied include SiC whisker-reinforced Si3N4, SiC, Si oxides, Si, Si oxynitride, other ceramics. Methods mentioned include field emission, EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy), nanospectroscopy, electron nanoprobe, etc

  10. Nanomedicine: towards development of patient-friendly drug-delivery systems for oncological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ramya Ranganathan1,*, Shruthilaya Madanmohan1,*, Akila Kesavan1, Ganga Baskar1, Yoganathan Ramia Krishnamoorthy2, Roy Santosham3, D Ponraju4, Suresh Kumar Rayala2, Ganesh Venkatraman1 1Department of Human Genetics, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, 2Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 3Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Porur, Chennai, 4Safety Engineering Division, Nuclear and Engineering Safety Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India*Authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The focus on nanotechnology in cancer treatment and diagnosis has intensified due to the serious side effects caused by anticancer agents as a result of their cytotoxic actions on normal cells. This nonspecific action of chemotherapy has awakened a need for formulations capable of definitive targeting with enhanced tumor-killing. Nanooncology, the application of nanobiotechnology to the management of cancer, is currently the most important area of nanomedicine. Currently several nanomaterial-based drug-delivery systems are in vogue and several others are in various stages of development. Tumor-targeted drug-delivery systems are envisioned as magic bullets for cancer therapy and several groups are working globally for development of robust systems.Keywords: patient-friendly, drug-delivery systems, cancer, nanomedicine

  11. Multifunctional nanomedicine with silica: Role of silica in nanoparticles for theranostic, imaging, and drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Hableel, Ghanim; Zhao, Eric Ruike; Jokerst, Jesse V

    2018-07-01

    The idea of multifunctional nanomedicine that enters the human body to diagnose and treat disease without major surgery is a long-standing dream of nanomaterials scientists. Nanomaterials show incredible properties that are not found in bulk materials, but achieving multi-functionality on a single material remains challenging. Integrating several types of materials at the nano-scale is critical to the success of multifunctional nanomedicine device. Here, we describe the advantages of silica nanoparticles as a tool for multifunctional nano-devices. Silica nanoparticles have been intensively studied in drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, degradability, tunable morphology, and ease of modification. Moreover, silica nanoparticles can be integrated with other materials to obtain more features and achieve theranostic capabilities and multimodality for imaging applications. In this review, we will first compare the properties of silica nanoparticles with other well-known nanomaterials for bio-applications and describe typical routes to synthesize and integrate silica nanoparticles. We will then highlight theranostic and multimodal imaging application that use silica-based nanoparticles with a particular interest in real-time monitoring of therapeutic molecules. Finally, we will present the challenges and perspective on future work with silica-based nanoparticles in medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nothing New (Ethically Under the Sun: Policy & Clinical Implications of Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonald, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology research is beginning to see widespread coverage in the media and popular science literatures, but discussions of hopes and fears about nanotechnology have already become polarised into utopian and dystopian visions. More moderate discussions focus on the near-term applications of nanotechnologies, and on potential benefits and harms. However, in exploring the social and ethical implications of nanotechnology (or nanomedicine, the focus of this paper, important lessons should be learned from experiences in other fields. In particular, studies of the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI of genetics research have successfully mapped out many of the issues (and social and political responses that arise when new technologies are deployed. It is our contention that, for the most part, the ethical and social issues arising in nanomedicine are not altogether new, and thus do not require novel ethical principles or frameworks, nor a massive investment in ‘NELSI’ research. Instead, what is needed is support for the development of a culture of ethics amongst scientists and clinicians, basic scientific and medical knowledge for bioethicists, and a social competency for citizens to participate actively in debates about the implications of new technologies in general.

  13. Current status and future direction of nanomedicine: Focus on advanced biological and medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Mi; Jeong, Hwan Jeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Cyclotron Research Center, Institute for Medical Science, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Nanotechnology is the engineering and manipulation of materials and devices with sizes in the nanometer range. Colloidal gold, iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals are examples of nanoparticles, with sizes generally ranging from 1 to 20 nm. These nanotechnologies have been researched tremendously in the last decade and this has led to a new area of “nanomedicine” which is the application of nanotechnology to human health-care for diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, prediction and prevention of diseases. Recently progress has been made in overcoming some of the difficulties in the human use of nanomedicines. In the mid-1990s, Doxil was approved by the FDA, and now various nanoconstructs are on the market and in clinical trials. However, there are many obstacles in the human application of nanomaterials. For translation to clinical use, a detailed understanding is needed of the chemical and physical properties of particles and their pharmacokinetic behavior in the body, including their biodistribution, toxicity, and biocompatibility. In this review, we provide a broad introduction to nanomedicines and discuss the preclinical and clinical trials in which they have been evaluated.

  14. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  15. Nanomedicine strategies for sustained, controlled, and targeted treatment of cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Yuan; Xu, Wei-Heng; Yin, Chuan; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Qiang; Gao, Jie

    2016-10-15

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) constitute a small proportion of the cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity and tumor-initiating ability. They have been identified in a variety of tumors, including tumors of the digestive system. CSCs exhibit some unique characteristics, which are responsible for cancer metastasis and recurrence. Consequently, the development of effective therapeutic strategies against CSCs plays a key role in increasing the efficacy of cancer therapy. Several potential approaches to target CSCs of the digestive system have been explored, including targeting CSC surface markers and signaling pathways, inducing the differentiation of CSCs, altering the tumor microenvironment or niche, and inhibiting ATP-driven efflux transporters. However, conventional therapies may not successfully eradicate CSCs owing to various problems, including poor solubility, stability, rapid clearance, poor cellular uptake, and unacceptable cytotoxicity. Nanomedicine strategies, which include drug, gene, targeted, and combinational delivery, could solve these problems and significantly improve the therapeutic index. This review briefly summarizes the ongoing development of strategies and nanomedicine-based therapies against CSCs of the digestive system.

  16. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-04-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  17. NANOMEDICINE: will it offer possibilities to overcome multiple drug resistance in cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Sten; Nyström, Andreas M

    2016-03-09

    This review is written with the purpose to review the current nanomedicine literature and provide an outlook on the developments in utilizing nanoscale drug constructs in treatment of solid cancers as well as in the potential treatment of multi-drug resistant cancers. No specific design principles for this review have been utilized apart from our active choice to avoid results only based on in vitro studies. Few drugs based on nanotechnology have progressed to clinical trials, since most are based only on in vitro experiments which do not give the necessary data for the research to progress towards pre-clinical studies. The area of nanomedicine has indeed spark much attention and holds promise for improved future therapeutics in the treatment of solid cancers. However, despite much investment few targeted therapeutics have successfully progressed to early clinical trials, indicating yet again that the human body is complicated and that much more understanding of the fundamentals of receptor interactions, physics of nanomedical constructs and their circulation in the body is indeed needed. We believe that nanomedical therapeutics can allow for more efficient treatments of resistant cancers, and may well be a cornerstone for RNA based therapeutics in the future given their general need for shielding from the harsh environment in the blood stream.

  18. Large Scale Molecular Simulation of Nanoparticle-Biomolecule Interactions and their Implications in Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruhong

    Nanoscale particles have become promising materials in various biomedical applications, however, in order to stimulate and facilitate these applications, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of their biological effects and related molecular mechanism/physics as well. In this talk, I will discuss some of our recent works, mostly molecular modelling, on nanotoxicity and their implications in de novo design of nanomedicine. We show that carbon-based nanoparticles (carbon nanotubes, graphene nanosheets, and fullerenes) can interact and disrupt the structures and functions of many important proteins. The hydrophobic interactions between the carbon nanotubes and hydrophobic residues, particularly aromatic residues through the so-called π- π stacking interactions, are found to play key roles. Meanwhile, metallofullerenol Gd@C82(OH)22 is found to inhibit tumour growth and metastases with both experimental and theoretical approaches. Graphene and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets show strong destructive interactions to E. coli cell membranes (antibacterial activity) and A β amyloid fibrils (anti-AD, Alzheimer's disease, capability) with unique molecular mechanisms, while on the other hand, they also show a strong supportive role in enzyme immobilisation such as lipases through lid opening. In particular, the lid opening is assisted by lipase's sophisticated interaction with GO, which allows the adsorbed lipase to enhance its enzyme activity. The lipase enzymatic activity can be further optimized through fine tuning of the GO surface hydrophobicity. These findings might provide a better understanding of ``nanotoxicity'' at the molecular level with implications in de novo nanomedicine design.

  19. A unique highly hydrophobic anticancer prodrug self-assembled nanomedicine for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guolian; Jiang, Mengjuan; Xue, Peng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yongjun; Chen, Bo; He, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    In contrast with common thought, we generated highly hydrophobic anticancer prodrug self-assembled nanoparticles without the aid of surface active substances, based on the conjugation of docetaxel to d-α-tocopherol succinate. The reduction-sensitive prodrug was synthesized with a disulfide bond inserted into the linker and was compared with a control reduction-insensitive prodrug. The morphology and stability of self-assembled nanoparticles were investigated. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays showed that the reduction-sensitive nanoparticles had higher anticancer activity than the reduction-insensitive nanoparticles. The reduction-sensitive nanoparticles exhibited favorable in vivo antitumor activity and tolerance compared with docetaxel Tween80-containing formulation and the reduction-insensitive nanoparticles. Taken together, the unique nanomedicine demonstrated a number of advantages: (i) ease and reproducibility of preparation, (ii) high drug payload, (iii) superior stability, (iv) prolonged circulation, and (v) improved therapeutic effect. This highly reproducible molecular assembly strategy should motivate the development of new nanomedicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nanomedicine in the ROS-mediated pathophysiology: Applications and clinical advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kevin M; Ahmed, Salahuddin

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in regulating normal cell physiological functions, but when produced in excess lead to the augmented pathogenesis of various diseases. Among these, ischemia reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease and rheumatoid arthritis are particularly important. Since ROS can be counteracted by a variety of antioxidants, natural and synthetic antioxidants have been developed. However, due to the ubiquitous production of ROS in living systems, poor in vivo efficiency of these agents and lack of target specificity, the current clinical modalities to treat oxidative stress damage are limited. Advances in the developing field of nanomedicine have yielded nanoparticles that can prolong antioxidant activity, and target specificity of these agents. This article reviews recent advances in antioxidant nanoparticles and their applications to manage oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a purely physiological process in many disease conditions. However, excessive and uncontrolled production will lead to oxidative stress and further tissue damage. Advances in nanomedicine have provided many novel strategies to try to combat and counteract ROS. In this review article, the authors comprehensively highlighted the current status and future developments in using nanotechnology for providing novel therapeutic options in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current status and future direction of nanomedicine: Focus on advanced biological and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Mi; Jeong, Hwan Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the engineering and manipulation of materials and devices with sizes in the nanometer range. Colloidal gold, iron oxide nanoparticles and quantum dot semiconductor nanocrystals are examples of nanoparticles, with sizes generally ranging from 1 to 20 nm. These nanotechnologies have been researched tremendously in the last decade and this has led to a new area of “nanomedicine” which is the application of nanotechnology to human health-care for diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, prediction and prevention of diseases. Recently progress has been made in overcoming some of the difficulties in the human use of nanomedicines. In the mid-1990s, Doxil was approved by the FDA, and now various nanoconstructs are on the market and in clinical trials. However, there are many obstacles in the human application of nanomaterials. For translation to clinical use, a detailed understanding is needed of the chemical and physical properties of particles and their pharmacokinetic behavior in the body, including their biodistribution, toxicity, and biocompatibility. In this review, we provide a broad introduction to nanomedicines and discuss the preclinical and clinical trials in which they have been evaluated

  2. Biosensor-controlled gene therapy/drug delivery with nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Tarl W.; Rose, William A.; Wang, Nan; Reece, Lisa M.; Lvov, Yuri; Leary, James F.

    2005-04-01

    Nanomedicine involves cell-by-cell regenerative medicine, either repairing cells one at a time or triggering apoptotic pathways in cells that are not repairable. Multilayered nanoparticle systems are being constructed for the targeted delivery of gene therapy to single cells. Cleavable shells containing targeting, biosensing, and gene therapeutic molecules are being constructed to direct nanoparticles to desired intracellular targets. Therapeutic gene sequences are controlled by biosensor-activated control switches to provide the proper amount of gene therapy on a single cell basis. The central idea is to set up gene therapy "nanofactories" inside single living cells. Molecular biosensors linked to these genes control their expression. Gene delivery is started in response to a biosensor detected problem; gene delivery is halted when the cell response indicates that more gene therapy is not needed. Cell targeting of nanoparticles, both nanocrystals and nanocapsules, has been tested by a combination of fluorescent tracking dyes, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Intracellular targeting has been tested by confocal microscopy. Successful gene delivery has been visualized by use of GFP reporter sequences. DNA tethering techniques were used to increase the level of expression of these genes. Integrated nanomedical systems are being designed, constructed, and tested in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in small animals. While still in its infancy, nanomedicine represents a paradigm shift in thinking-from destruction of injured cells by surgery, radiation, chemotherapy to cell-by-cell repair within an organ and destruction of non-repairable cells by natural apoptosis.

  3. Bypassing the EPR effect with a nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function allows better tumor control [Corrigendum

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Shen YA, Shyu IL, Lu M, et al. Int J Nanomedicine. 2015; 10:2485–2502.The authors advise that Figure 2B on page 2490 contains the incorrect image for the EP group. The correct Figure 2B image is shown below.Read the original article

  4. Bypassing the EPR effect with a nanomedicine harboring a sustained-release function allows better tumor control [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen YA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shen YA, Shyu IL, Lu M, et al. Int J Nanomedicine. 2015; 10:2485–2502.The authors advise that Figure 2B on page 2490 contains the incorrect image for the EP group. The correct Figure 2B image is shown below.Read the original article

  5. Nanomedicines for inflammatory arthritis: head-to-head comparison of glucocorticoid-containing polymers, micelles, and liposomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Crielaard, B. J.; Dusad, A.; Lele, S. M.; Rijcken, C. J. F.; Metselaar, J. M.; Kostková, Hana; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel; Kiessling, F.; Mikuls, T. R.; Hennink, W. E.; Storm, G.; Lammers, T.; Wang, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2014), s. 458-466 ISSN 1936-0851 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0802 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanomedicine * drug targeting * inflammation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 12.881, year: 2014

  6. Nanomedicine formulations for the delivery of antiviral drugs: a promising solution for the treatment of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Civra, Andrea; Argenziano, Monica; Cavalli, Roberta

    2018-01-01

    Viral infections represent a public health problem and one of the leading causes of global mortality. Nanomedicine strategies can be considered a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of antiviral drugs, often associated with solubility and bioavailability issues. Consequently, high doses and frequent administrations are required, resulting in adverse side effects. To overcome these limitations, various nanomedicine platforms have been designed. Areas covered: This review focuses on the state of the art of organic-based nanoparticles for the delivery of approved antivirals. A brief description of the main characteristics of nanocarriers is followed by an overview of the most promising research addressing the treatment of most important viral infections. Expert opinion: The activity of antiviral drugs could be improved with nanomedicine formulations. Indeed, nanoparticles can affect the fate of the encapsulated drugs, allowing controlled release kinetics, enhanced bioavailability, modified pharmacokinetics, and reduced side effects. In addition, the physicochemical properties of nanocarriers can enable their capability to target specific sites and to interact with virus structures. In this regard, nanomedicines can be considered an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic index of antivirals. Efficacy, safety, and manufacturing issues need to be carefully assessed to bring this promising approach to the clinic.

  7. Rational Design of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Targeted Nanomedicines for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Forrest M.

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology provides a flexible platform for the development of effective therapeutic nanomaterials that can interact specifically with a target in a biological system and provoke a desired biological response. Of the nanomaterials studied, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have emerged as one of top candidates for cancer therapy due to their intrinsic superparamagnetism that enables non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biodegradability favorable for in vivo application. This dissertation is aimed at development of SPION-based nanomedicines to overcome the current limitations in cancer therapy. These limitations include non-specificity of therapy which can harm healthy tissue, the difficulty in delivering nucleic acids for gene therapy, the formation of drug resistance, and the inability to detect and treat micrometastases. First, a SPION-based non-viral gene delivery vehicle was developed through functionalization of the SPION core with a co-polymer designed to provide stable binding of DNA and low toxicity which showed excellent gene delivery in vitro and in vivo. This SPION-based non-viral gene delivery vehicle was then activated with a targeting agent to improve gene delivery throughout a xenograft tumor of brain cancer. It was found that targeting did not promote the accumulation of SPIONs at the tumor site, but rather improved the distribution of SPIONs throughout the tumor so a higher proportion of cells received treatment. Next, the high surface area of SPIONs was utilized for loading large amounts of drug which was shown to overcome the multidrug resistance acquired by many cancer cells. Drug bound to SPIONs showed significantly higher multidrug resistant cell uptake as compared to free drug which translated into improved cell kill. Also, an antibody activated SPION was developed and was shown to be able to target micrometastases in a transgenic animal model of metastatic breast cancer. These SPION-based nanomedicines

  8. Science and technology of the emerging nanomedicines in cancer therapy: A primer for physicians and pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna Pillai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine, the medical applications of devices based on nanotechnology, promises an endless range of applications from biomedical imaging to drug and gene delivery. The size range of the nanomaterials is strictly defined as 1–100 nm, although many marketed nanomedicines are in the submicron range of 100–1000 nm. The major advantages of using nanomaterials as a carrier for anticancer agents are the possibility of targeted delivery to the tumor; their physical properties such as optical and magnetic properties, which can be exploited for developing contrast agents for tumor imaging; their ability to hold thousands of molecules of a drug and deliver at the required site and also the ability to overcome solubility and stability issues. Currently, there are several nanotechnology-enabled diagnostic and therapeutic agents undergoing clinical trials and a few already approved by Food and Drug Administration. Targeted delivery of anticancer agents is achieved by exploiting a unique characteristic of the rapidly dividing tumor cells called “the enhanced permeability and retention effect.” Nanoparticles with mean diameter between 100 and 200 nm or even above 200 nm have also been reported to be taken up by tumor cells via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In addition to this passive targeting based on size, the nanoparticle surface may be modified with a variety of carefully chosen ligands that would interact with specific receptors on the surface of the tumor cells, thus imparting additional specificity for active targeting. Regional release of a drug contained in a nanoparticulate system by the application of external stimuli such as hyperthermia to a thermosensitive device is another innovative strategy for targeted delivery. Nanoparticles protect the enclosed drug from rapid elimination from the body, keep them in circulation for prolonged periods and often evade expulsion by the efflux pump mechanisms, which also leads to

  9. Novel intravaginal nanomedicine for the targeted delivery of saquinavir to CD4+ immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sidi Yang,1,2 Yufei Chen,1,2 Kaien Gu,1,2 Alicia Dash,1,2 Casey L Sayre,1 Neal M Davies,1 Emmanuel A Ho1,2 1Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory for Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an intravaginal nanomedicine for the active targeted delivery of saquinavir (SQV to CD4+ immune cells as a potential strategy to prevent or reduce HIV infection. The nanomedicine was formulated into a vaginal gel to provide ease in self-administration and to enhance retention within the vaginal tract. SQV-encapsulated nanoparticles (SQV-NPs were prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA and conjugated to antihuman anti-CD4 antibody. Antibody-conjugated SQV-NPs (Ab-SQV-NPs had an encapsulation efficiency (EE% of 74.4% ± 3.7% and an antibody conjugation efficiency (ACE% of 80.95% ± 1.10%. Over 50% of total loaded SQV was released from NPs over 3 days. NPs were rapidly taken up by Sup-T1 cells, with more than a twofold increase in the intracellular levels of SQV when delivered by Ab-SQV-NPs in comparison to controls 1 hour post-treatment. No cytotoxicity was observed when vaginal epithelial cells were treated for 24 hours with drug-free Ab-NPs (1,000 µg/mL, 1% HEC placebo gel (200 mg/mL, or 1% HEC gel loaded with drug-free Ab-NPs (5 mg NPs/g gel, 200 mg/mL of gel mixture. Overall, we described an intravaginal nanomedicine that is nontoxic and can specifically deliver SQV into CD4+ immune cells. This platform may demonstrate potential utility in its application as postexposure prophylaxis for the treatment or reduction of HIV infection, but further studies are required. Keywords: nanoparticles, saquinavir, antibody conjugation, intravaginal gel, HIV/AIDS, microbicide

  10. Recycling of silicon: from industrial waste to biocompatible nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, N. K.; Natashina, U. A.; Tamarov, K. P.; Gongalsky, M. B.; Solovyev, V. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Sivakov, V.; Osminkina, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    The formation of photoluminescent porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (NPs) is usually based on an expensive semiconductor grade wafers technology. Here, we report a low-cost method of PSi NPs synthesis from the industrial silicon waste remained after the wafer production. The proposed method is based on metal-assisted wet-chemical etching (MACE) of the silicon surface of cm-sized metallurgical grade silicon stones which leads to a nanostructuring of the surface due to an anisotropic etching, with subsequent ultrasound fracturing in water. The obtained PSi NPs exhibit bright red room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and demonstrate similar microstructure and physical characteristics in comparison with the nanoparticles synthesized from semiconductor grade Si wafers. PSi NPs prepared from metallurgical grade silicon stones, similar to silicon NPs synthesized from high purity silicon wafer, show low toxicity to biological objects that open the possibility of using such type of NPs in nanomedicine.

  11. Nanoparticles functionalized with supramolecular host-guest systems for nanomedicine and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zilong; Song, Nan; Menz, Ryan; Pingali, Bharadwaj; Yang, Ying-Wei; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic macrocyclic host compounds can interact with suitable guest molecules via noncovalent interactions to form functional supramolecular systems. With the synergistic integration of the response of molecules and the unique properties at the nanoscale, nanoparticles functionalized with the host-guest supramolecular systems have shown great potentials for a broad range of applications in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In this review article, we focus on the applications of the nanoparticles functionalized with supramolecular host-guest systems in nanomedicine and healthcare, including therapeutic delivery, imaging, sensing and removal of harmful substances. A large number of examples are included to elucidate the working mechanisms, advantages, limitations and future developments of the nanoparticle-supramolecule systems in these applications.

  12. Nanoparticles used in medical applications for the lung: hopes for nanomedicine and fears for nanotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, S.; Guadagnini, R.; Baeza-Squiban, A.; Hussain, S.; Marano, F.

    2011-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising tool for the development of innovative treatment strategies allowing to overcome obstacles encountered by classical drug delivery. This has led to the development of nanomedicine. Indeed, nano-delivery systems (NDS) may allow the controlled release of therapeutics, protection of drugs against degradation, targeted drug delivery and facilitated transport across barriers. All these advantages of NDS are particularly interesting for treatments of the lung which is a challenging organ in respect to drug delivery. However, for the development of nanomaterials aimed to transport therapeutics, there is also a need to assess the potential health hazards of these new materials, especially as a variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce toxicity related to their nanometer size leading to the new field of nanotoxicology. We will address both aspects of NDS, specifically in respect to lung treatments: their potential benefits and the possible adverse health effects of these materials.

  13. Nanoparticles used in medical applications for the lung: hopes for nanomedicine and fears for nanotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, S; Guadagnini, R; Baeza-Squiban, A; Hussain, S; Marano, F, E-mail: boland@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Laboratory of Functional and Adaptative Biology, unit of Reponses Moleculaires et Cellulaires aux Xenobiotiques (RMCX), CNRS EAC 4413, University Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CC 7073, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2011-07-06

    Nanotechnology is a promising tool for the development of innovative treatment strategies allowing to overcome obstacles encountered by classical drug delivery. This has led to the development of nanomedicine. Indeed, nano-delivery systems (NDS) may allow the controlled release of therapeutics, protection of drugs against degradation, targeted drug delivery and facilitated transport across barriers. All these advantages of NDS are particularly interesting for treatments of the lung which is a challenging organ in respect to drug delivery. However, for the development of nanomaterials aimed to transport therapeutics, there is also a need to assess the potential health hazards of these new materials, especially as a variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce toxicity related to their nanometer size leading to the new field of nanotoxicology. We will address both aspects of NDS, specifically in respect to lung treatments: their potential benefits and the possible adverse health effects of these materials.

  14. Cubosome formulations stabilized by a dansyl-conjugated block copolymer for possible nanomedicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Sergio; Falchi, Angela Maria; Meli, Valeria; Schillén, Karin; Lippolis, Vito; Monduzzi, Maura; Rosa, Antonella; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Bizzarri, Ranieri; Caltagirone, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    We present here an innovative, fluorescent, monoolein-based cubosome dispersion. Rather than embedded within the monoolein palisade, the fluorescent imaging agent, namely dansyl, was conjugated to the terminal ethylene oxide moieties of the block copolymer Pluronic F108. We discuss the physicochemical and photophysical properties of this fluorescent Pluronic and of a cubosome formulation stabilized by a mixture of dansyl-conjugated and non-conjugated Pluronic, also including an anticancer drug (quercetin). Furthermore, we performed biocompatibility tests against HeLa cells to assess internalization and cytotoxicity features of this nanoparticles aqueous dispersion. Cryo-TEM, SAXS, and DLS analysis, proved the bicontinuous cubic inner nanostructure and the morphology of this fluorescent cubosome dispersion, while photophysical measurements and biocompatibility results basically validate their potential use for theranostic nanomedicine applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Conditional internalization of PEGylated nanomedicines by PEG engagers for triple negative breast cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Cheng; Burnouf, Pierre-Alain; Chuang, Kuo-Hsiang; Chen, Bing-Mae; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Roffler, Steve R.

    2017-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks effective treatment options due to the absence of traditional therapeutic targets. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has emerged as a promising target for TNBC therapy because it is overexpressed in about 50% of TNBC patients. Here we describe a PEG engager that simultaneously binds polyethylene glycol and EGFR to deliver PEGylated nanomedicines to EGFR+ TNBC. The PEG engager displays conditional internalization by remaining on the surface of TNBC cells until contact with PEGylated nanocarriers triggers rapid engulfment of nanocargos. PEG engager enhances the anti-proliferative activity of PEG-liposomal doxorubicin to EGFR+ TNBC cells by up to 100-fold with potency dependent on EGFR expression levels. The PEG engager significantly increases retention of fluorescent PEG probes and enhances the antitumour activity of PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin in human TNBC xenografts. PEG engagers with specificity for EGFR are promising for improved treatment of EGFR+ TNBC patients.

  16. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangirian, Hossein; Lemraski, Ensieh Ghasemian; Webster, Thomas J; Rafiee-Moghaddam, Roshanak; Abdollahi, Yadollah

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed "green nanomedicine". Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms) are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow.

  17. Nanoparticles used in medical applications for the lung: hopes for nanomedicine and fears for nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, S; Guadagnini, R; Baeza-Squiban, A; Hussain, S; Marano, F

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising tool for the development of innovative treatment strategies allowing to overcome obstacles encountered by classical drug delivery. This has led to the development of nanomedicine. Indeed, nano-delivery systems (NDS) may allow the controlled release of therapeutics, protection of drugs against degradation, targeted drug delivery and facilitated transport across barriers. All these advantages of NDS are particularly interesting for treatments of the lung which is a challenging organ in respect to drug delivery. However, for the development of nanomaterials aimed to transport therapeutics, there is also a need to assess the potential health hazards of these new materials, especially as a variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce toxicity related to their nanometer size leading to the new field of nanotoxicology. We will address both aspects of NDS, specifically in respect to lung treatments: their potential benefits and the possible adverse health effects of these materials.

  18. Multimodal Nanomedicine Strategies for Targeting Cancer Cells as well as Cancer Stem Cell Signalling Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Samarasinghe, Rasika M; Kamalapuram, Sishir K; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that stem cells, a small population of cells with unique selfrenewable and tumour regenerative capacity, are aiding tumour re-growth and multidrug resistance. Conventional therapies are highly ineffective at eliminating these cells leading to relapse of disease and formation of chemoresistance tumours. Cancer and stem cells targeted therapies that utilizes nanotherapeutics to delivery anti-cancer drugs to specific sites are continuously investigated. This review focuses on recent research using nanomedicine and targeting entities to eliminate cancer cells and cancer stem cells. Current nanotherapeutics in clinical trials along with more recent publications on targeted therapies are addressed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Hard and soft nanoparticles for image-guided surgery in nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, Erica; Monaco, Ilaria; Comes Franchini, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.comesfranchini@unibo.it [University of Bologn, Department of Industrial Chemistry, “Toso Montanari” (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The use of hard and/or soft nanoparticles for therapy, collectively called nanomedicine, has great potential in the battle against cancer. Major research efforts are underway in this area leading to development of new drug delivery approaches and imaging techniques. Despite this progress, the vast majority of patients who are affected by cancer today sadly still need surgical intervention, especially in the case of solid tumors. An important perspective for researchers is therefore to provide even more powerful tools to the surgeon for pre- and post-operative approaches. In this context, image-guided surgery, in combination with nanotechnology, opens a new strategy to win this battle. In this perspective, we will analyze and discuss the recent progress with nanoparticles of both metallic and biomaterial composition, and their use to develop powerful systems to be applied in image-guided surgery.

  20. Potential prospects of nanomedicine for targeted therapeutics in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichai, Madharasi V A; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2012-06-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease are highly debilitating. There are inconsistencies in response to and side effects in the current conventional medications, failures in adequate drug delivery, and the lack of therapeutics to offer complete remission in the presently available treatments of IBD. This suggests the need to explore beyond the horizons of conventional approaches in IBD therapeutics. This review examines the arena of the evolving IBD nanomedicine, studied so far in animal and in vitro models, before comprehensive clinical testing in humans. The investigations carried out so far in IBD models have provided substantial evidence of the nanotherapeutic approach as having the potential to overcome some of the current drawbacks to conventional IBD therapy. We analyze the pros and cons of nanotechnology in IBD therapies studied in different models, aimed at different targets and mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis, in an attempt to predict its possible impact in humans.

  1. Nanomedicine-Based Neuroprotective Strategies in Patient Specific-iPSC and Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Fan Jang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, nanotechnology has attracted major interests in view of drug delivery systems and therapies against diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and many others. Nanotechnology provides the opportunity for nanoscale particles or molecules (so called “Nanomedicine” to be delivered to the targeted sites, thereby, reducing toxicity (or side effects and improving drug bioavailability. Nowadays, a great deal of nano-structured particles/vehicles has been discovered, including polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based nanoparticles, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Nanomedical utilizations have already been well developed in many different aspects, including disease treatment, diagnostic, medical devices designing, and visualization (i.e., cell trafficking. However, while quite a few successful progressions on chemotherapy using nanotechnology have been developed, the implementations of nanoparticles on stem cell research are still sparsely populated. Stem cell applications and therapies are being considered to offer an outstanding potential in the treatment for numbers of maladies. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are adult cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state. Although the exact mechanisms underlying are still unclear, iPSCs are already being considered as useful tools for drug development/screening and modeling of diseases. Recently, personalized medicines have drawn great attentions in biological and pharmaceutical studies. Generally speaking, personalized medicine is a therapeutic model that offers a customized healthcare/cure being tailored to a specific patient based on his own genetic information. Consequently, the combination of nanomedicine and iPSCs could actually be the potent arms for remedies in transplantation medicine and personalized medicine. This review will focus on current use of nanoparticles on therapeutical applications, nanomedicine

  2. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of cancer cell-specific nanomedicines targeted via phage fusion proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Gillespie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Active tumor targeting of nanomedicines has recently shown significant improvements in the therapeutic activity of currently existing drug delivery systems, such as liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil/Caelyx/Lipodox. Previously, we have shown that isolated pVIII major coat proteins of the fd tet filamentous phage vector, containing cancer cell-specific peptide fusions at their N terminus, can be used as active targeting ligands in a liposomal doxorubicin delivery system in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show a novel major coat protein isolation procedure in 2-propanol that allows spontaneous incorporation of the hydrophobic protein core into preformed liposomal doxorubicin with minimal damage or drug loss while still retaining the targeting ligand exposed for cell-specific targeting. Using a panel of 12 structurally unique ligands with specificity towards breast, lung, and/or pancreatic cancer, we showed the feasibility of pVIII major coat proteins to significantly increase the throughput of targeting ligand screening in a common nanomedicine core. Phage protein-modified Lipodox samples showed an average doxorubicin recovery of 82.8% across all samples with 100% of protein incorporation in the correct orientation (N-terminus exposed. Following cytotoxicity screening in a doxorubicin-sensitive breast cancer line (MCF-7, three major groups of ligands were identified. Ligands showing the most improved cytotoxicity included: DMPGTVLP, ANGRPSMT, VNGRAEAP, and ANDVYLD showing a 25-fold improvement (p < 0.05 in toxicity. Similarly DGQYLGSQ, ETYNQPYL, and GSSEQLYL ligands with specificity towards a doxorubicin-insensitive pancreatic cancer line (PANC-1 showed significant increases in toxicity (2-fold; p < 0.05. Thus, we demonstrated proof-of-concept that pVIII major coat proteins can be screened in significantly higher throughput to identify novel ligands displaying improved therapeutic activity in a desired cancer phenotype.

  3. Nanotoxicology and nanomedicine: making development decisions in an evolving governance environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rycroft, Taylor; Trump, Benjamin; Poinsatte-Jones, Kelsey; Linkov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    The fields of nanomedicine, risk analysis, and decision science have evolved considerably in the past decade, providing developers of nano-enabled therapies and diagnostic tools with more complete information than ever before and shifting a fundamental requisite of the nanomedical community from the need for more information about nanomaterials to the need for a streamlined method of integrating the abundance of nano-specific information into higher-certainty product design decisions. The crucial question facing nanomedicine developers that must select the optimal nanotechnology in a given situation has shifted from "how do we estimate nanomaterial risk in the absence of good risk data?" to "how can we derive a holistic characterization of the risks and benefits that a given nanomaterial may pose within a specific nanomedical application?" Many decision support frameworks have been proposed to assist with this inquiry; however, those based in multicriteria decision analysis have proven to be most adaptive in the rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine—from the early stages of the field when conditions of significant uncertainty and incomplete information dominated, to today when nanotoxicology and nano-environmental health and safety information is abundant but foundational paradigms such as chemical risk assessment, risk governance, life cycle assessment, safety-by-design, and stakeholder engagement are undergoing substantial reformation in an effort to address the needs of emerging technologies. In this paper, we reflect upon 10 years of developments in nanomedical engineering and demonstrate how the rich knowledgebase of nano-focused toxicological and risk assessment information developed over the last decade enhances the capability of multicriteria decision analysis approaches and underscores the need to continue the transition from traditional risk assessment towards risk-based decision-making and alternatives-based governance for emerging technologies.

  4. Current State of Nanomedicines in the Treatment of Topical Infectious Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kanika; Sharma, Gajanand; Singh, Bhupinder; Chhibber, Sanjay; Katare, Om Prakash

    2018-05-28

    Topical infections, involving a number of diseases such as impetigo, eczema, pustular acne, psoriasis and infected seborrheic dermatitis are one among the many challenges to health which stand out for their profound impact on human species. The treatment of topical infections has always been a difficult proposition because of the lack of efficacy of existing anti-infectives, longer period of treatment and yet incomplete recovery. The increasing emergence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa undermine the need of development of new delivery systems to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of existing topical anti-infectives. The application of nanotechnology to medicine, or nanomedicine, is rapidly becoming a major driving force behind ongoing changes in the anti-infective field because of its interaction at the sub-atomic level with the skin tissue. The latter, in the current scenario, points towards vesicular carriers like liposomes, lipidic nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles etc. as the most promising drug delivery solutions for topical infection disorders. These have exhibited immense significance owing to their uniqueness to facilitate the interactions at interfaces with the barrier membranes. The present review summarizes the emerging efforts in combating topical infections particularly using nanomedicine based delivery systems as new tools to tackle the current challenges in treating infectious diseases. Besides, compiling various research reports, this article also includes formulation considerations, mechanisms of penetration and patents reported. Despite the new emerging technologies and delivery systems, efforts are still needed in the right direction to combat this global challenge. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakou C

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Christina Giannakou,1,2 Margriet VDZ Park,1 Wim H de Jong,1 Henk van Loveren,1,2 Rob J Vandebriel,1 Robert E Geertsma1 1Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 2Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome

  6. Spin-frustrated V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets with Dzialoshinsky-Moriya exchange. 2. Spin structure, spin chirality and tunneling gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Moisey I.

    2009-01-01

    The spin chirality and spin structure of the Cu 3 and V 3 nanomagnets with the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya (DM) exchange interaction are analyzed. The correlations between the vector κ and the scalar χ chirality are obtained. The DM interaction forms the spin chirality which is equal to zero in the Heisenberg clusters. The dependences of the spin chirality on magnetic field and deformations are calculated. The cluster distortions reduce the spin chirality. The vector chirality is reduced partially and the scalar chirality vanishes in the transverse magnetic field. In the isosceles clusters, the DM exchange and distortions determine the sign and degree of the spin chirality κ. The correlations between the chirality parameters κ n and the intensities of the EPR and INS transitions are obtained. The vector chirality κ n describes the spin chirality of the Cu 3 and V 3 nanomagnets, the scalar chirality describes the pseudoorbital moment of the DM cluster. It is shown that in the consideration of the DM exchange, the spin states DM mixing and tunneling gaps at level crossing fields depend on the coordinate system of the DM model. The calculations in the DM exchange models in the right-handed and left-handed frame show opposite magnetic behavior at the level crossing field and allow to explain the opposite schemes of the tunneling gaps and levels crossing, which have been obtained in different treatments. The results of the DM model in the right-handed frame are consistent with the results of the group-theoretical analysis, whereas the results in the left-handed frame are inconsistent with that. The correlations between the spin chirality of the ground state and tunneling gaps at the level crossing field are obtained for the equilateral and isosceles nanoclusters.

  7. Field-dependent spin chirality and frustration in V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets in transverse magnetic field. 2. Spin configurations, chirality and intermediate spin magnetization in distorted trimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Moisey I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Distorted spin configurations determine field behavior of the variable chiralities. • Distortions change spin chiralities, intermediate M 12 ± and staggered magnetization. • Magnetizations, distorted vector and scalar chiralities are strongly correlated. • Distorted V 3 , Cu 3 nanomagnets possess large vector chirality in the ground state in B ⊥ . • Chiralities and distortions in EPR, INS and NMR spectra were considered. - Abstract: Correlated spin configurations, magnetizations, frustration, vector κ ¯ z and scalar χ ¯ chiralities are considered for distorted V ‾ 3 , /Cu 3 / anisotropic DM nanomagnets in transverse B x ‖X and longitudinal B‖Z fields. Different planar configurations in the ground and excited states of distorted nanomagnets in B x determine different field behavior of the vector chiralities and the degenerate frustration in these states correlated with the M ~ 12 ± (B x ) intermediate spin (IS) magnetization which describes the S 12 characteristics, χ=0. Distortion results in the reduced κ ¯ z <1 chirality in the ground distorted configuration and in the maximum κ z =±1 in the excited states with the planar 120° configurations at avoided level crossing. In B‖Z, distorted longitudinal spin-collinear configurations are characterized by the reduced degenerate frustration, out-of-plane staggered and IS M ~ 12 ± (B z ) magnetizations, and in-plane toroidal moments, correlated with the κ ¯ z , χ ¯ chiralities, χ ¯ =±|κ ¯ z |. The chiralities and IS magnetization in EPR, INS and NMR spectra are considered. The quantitative correlations describe variable spin chirality, frustration and field manipulation of chiralities in nanomagnets

  8. Naming it 'nano': Expert views on 'nano' terminology in informed consent forms of first-in-human nanomedicine trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simone; Shaw, David

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining valid informed consent (IC) can be challenging in first-in-human (FIH) trials in nanomedicine due to the complex interventions, the hype and hope concerning potential benefits, and fear of harms attributed to 'nano' particles. We describe and analyze the opinions of expert stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine regarding explicit use of 'nano' terminology in IC documents. We draw on content analysis of 46 in-depth interviews with European and North American stakeholders. We received a spectrum of responses (reluctance, ambivalence, absolute insistence) on explicit mention of 'nano' in IC forms with underlying reasons. We conclude that consistent, clear and honest communication regarding the 'nano' dimension of investigational product is critical in IC forms of FIH trials.

  9. IFPA meeting 2015 workshop report III: nanomedicine applications and exosome biology, xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy, and lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, C; Caniggia, I; Clifton, V; Göhner, C; Harris, L; Hemmings, D; Jawerbaum, A; Johnstone, E; Jones, H; Keelan, J; Lewis, R; Mitchell, M; Murthi, P; Powell, T; Saffery, R; Smith, R; Vaillancourt, C; Wadsack, C; Salomon, C

    2016-12-01

    Workshops are an important part of the IFPA annual meeting, as they allow for discussion of specialized topics. At the IFPA meeting 2015 there were twelve themed workshops, three of which are summarized in this report. These workshops were related to various aspects of placental biology but collectively covered areas of pregnancy pathologies and placental metabolism: 1) nanomedicine applications and exosome biology; 2) xenobiotics and endocrine disruptors and pregnancy; 3) lipid mediators and placental function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A nanomedicine based combination therapy based on QLPVM peptide functionalized liposomal tamoxifen and doxorubicin against Luminal A breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyou; Chen, Xianhui; Yang, Xiucong; Gao, Wei; He, Bing; Dai, Wenbing; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Xueqing; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhang, Xuan; Dai, Zhifei; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Though combination chemotherapy or antitumor nanomedicine is extensively investigated, their combining remains in infancy. Additionally, enhanced delivery of estrogen or its analogs to tumor with highly-expressed estrogen-receptor (ER) is seldom considered, despite its necessity for ER-positive breast cancer treatment. Here, nanomedicine based combination therapy using QLPVM conjugated liposomal tamoxifen (TAM) and doxorubicin (DOX) was designed and testified, where the penta-peptide was derived from Ku70 Bax-binding domain. Quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative approaches demonstrated the enhanced endocytosis and cytotoxicity of QLPVM conjugated sterically stabilized liposomes (QLPVM-SSLs) in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism studies of QLPVM excluded the possible electrostatic, hydrophobic or receptor-ligand interactions. However, as a weak cell-penetrating peptide, QLPVM significantly induced drug release from QLPVM-SSLs during their interaction with cells, which was favorable for drug internalization. These findings suggested that the nanomedicine based combination therapy using QLPVM-SSL-TAM and QLPVM-SSL-DOX might provide a rational strategy for Luminal A breast cancer. Breast cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in women worldwide. Although combined therapy using hormonal antagonist and chemotherapy is the norm nowadays, the use of these agents together in a single delivery system has not been tested. Here, the authors investigated this approach using QLPVM conjugated liposomes in in-vitro and in-vivo models. The positive findings may provide a novel direction for breast cancer treatment in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass Spectrometry Imaging in Nanomedicine: Unraveling the Potential of MSI for the Detection of Nanoparticles in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Florian P Y; Heeren, Ron M A; Potocnik, Nina Ogrinc

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) can uniquely detect thousands of compounds allowing both their identification and localization within biological tissue samples. MSI is an interdisciplinary science that crosses the borders of physics, chemistry and biology, and enables local molecular analysis at a broad range of length scales: From the subcellular level to whole body tissue sections. The spatial resolution of some mass spectrometers now allows nano-scale research, crucial for studies in nanomedicine. Recent developments in MSI have enabled the optimization and localization of drug delivery with nanoparticles within the body and in specific organs such as kidney, liver and brain. Combining MSI with nanomedicine has vast potential, specifically in the treatment of neurological disorders, where effective drug delivery has been hampered by the blood-brain barrier. This review provides an introduction to MSI and its different technologies, with the application of MSI to nanomedicine and the different possibilities that MSI offers to study molecular signals in the brain. Finally, we provide an outlook for the future and exciting potential of MSI in nanoparticle-related research. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Molecules as nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dep. di Chimica

    1998-12-01

    The design and the synthesis of molecular clusters which give rise to slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature are the focus of a great interdisciplinary interest, because they provide unique materials to test the theories of quantum tunneling of the magnetization. A short review is provided here of the best systems so far discovered, outlining the possible relevance of this new class of materials to future applications. [Italiano] La progettazione e la sintesi di cluster molecolari che danno luogo a rilassamento lento della magnetizzazione a bassa temperatura sono oggetto di un grande interesse interdisciplinare, perche` sono materiali unici per mettere alla prova le teorie sugli effetti quantistici che si possono osservare in sintesi macroscopici. In questo articolo vengono brevemente passati in rassegna i migliori sistemi fin qui scoperti e vengono date alcune indicazioni per la possibile importanza di questa nuova classe di materiali per applicazioni future.

  13. Molecules as nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Sessoli, R.

    1998-01-01

    The design and the synthesis of molecular clusters which give rise to slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature are the focus of a great interdisciplinary interest, because they provide unique materials to test the theories of quantum tunneling of the magnetization. A short review is provided here of the best systems so far discovered, outlining the possible relevance of this new class of materials to future applications [it

  14. Nanomodulation of molecular nanomagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Patrick L; Koo, Changhyun; Henderson, John J; Manning, Paul; Nakano, Motohiro; del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Hendrickson, David N

    2009-04-20

    Detailed synthetic, structural, and magnetic characterizations for a family of six [Mn(3)Zn(2)](13+) complexes are presented. These complexes have planar [Mn(3)(III)-(mu(3)-oxo)](7+) core magnetic units and have formulas represented by [cation](3)[Mn(3)Zn(2)(R-salox)(3)O(N(3))(6)X(2)], where [cation](+) = [NEt(4)](3)(+) or [AsPh(4)](3)(+); R = H or Me; and X = Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), or N(3)(-). Least-squares fits to the magnetic susceptibility data for these complexes indicate large negative values of the axial zero field splitting (ZFS) parameter D (approximately -1.1 K) and spin ground states ranging from a highly spin-mixed S approximately 1 to a reasonably isolated S = 6 (DeltaE(S = 5) = 69.2 K). The strength and magnitude of the intramolecular exchange interactions have been observed to change with the crystal packing as a result of systematic variations in the co-crystallizing cation, terminal ion, and oximate ligand. Alternating current susceptibility data were collected from 1.8-7 K at 10-997 Hz, revealing strong frequency-dependent peaks in the out-of-phase susceptibility (chi''(M)) for ferromagnetic S = 6 complexes 1, 2, and 6. Fitting of these data to the Arrhenius equation gave U(eff) = 44.0 K and tau(0) = 3.8 x 10(-8) s for [NEt(4)](3)[Mn(3)Zn(2)(salox)(3)O(N(3))(6)Cl(2)] (1), and U(eff) = 45.6 K and tau(0) = 2.1 x 10(-7) s for [NEt(4)](3)[Mn(3)Zn(2)(Me-salox)(3)O(N(3))(6)Cl(2)] (6). The enhanced relaxation behavior in complex 6 is associated with stronger ferromagnetic exchange interactions and a more isolated S = 6 ground state than in 1 and 2. Comprehensive high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) experiments were conducted on single crystals of complexes 1, 2, and 6, revealing sharp absorption peaks and allowing for the precise determination of ZFS parameters. Similar experiments on [AsPh(4)](3)[Mn(3)Zn(2)(salox)(3)O(N(3))(6)Cl(2)] (4) resulted in the observation of a broad absorption peak, consistent with the highly spin-mixed ground state. Single crystal magnetization hysteresis measurements on complexes 1 and 2 indicate SMM behavior via temperature- and sweep-rate dependent hysteresis loops and the observance of very sharp quantum tunneling resonances. Additionally, the Hamiltonian parameters derived from the magnetic data, HFEPR, and hysteresis measurements are in good agreement and highlight the relationships between superexchange, spin-orbit interactions, and the varied relaxation behavior in these complexes.

  15. The Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2007-01-01

    Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei brings the optical transition energy into resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of...

  16. Nanomagnetics with lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    scopic property such as magnetization, which is a conse- quence of the cooperative ..... cally with film thickness, and if the bulk lattice parameter of the structure that is ... superconducting quantum interference device based mag- netometer.

  17. Functional Hybrid Biomaterials based on Peptide-Polymer Conjugates for Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jessica Yo

    The focus of this dissertation is the design, synthesis and characterization of hybrid functional biomaterials based on peptide-polymer conjugates for nanomedicine. Generating synthetic materials with properties comparable to or superior than those found in nature has been a "holy grail" for the materials community. Man-made materials are still rather simplistic when compared to the chemical and structural complexity of a cell. Peptide-polymer conjugates have the potential to combine the advantages of the biological and synthetic worlds---that is they can combine the precise chemical structure and diverse functionality of biomolecules with the stability and processibility of synthetic polymers. As a new family of soft matter, they may lead to materials with novel properties that have yet to be realized with either of the components alone. In order for peptide-polymer conjugates to reach their full potential as useful materials, the structure and function of the peptide should be maintained upon polymer conjugation. The success in achieving desirable, functional assemblies relies on fundamentally understanding the interactions between each building block and delicately balancing and manipulating these interactions to achieve targeted assemblies without interfering with designed structures and functionalities. Such fundamental studies of peptide-polymer interactions were investigated as the nature of the polymer (hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic) and the site of its conjugation (end-conjugation vs. side-conjugation) were varied. The fundamental knowledge gained was then applied to the design of amphiphiles that self-assemble to form stable functional micelles. The micelles exhibited exceptional monodispersity and long-term stability, which is atypical of self-assembled systems. Thus such micelles based on amphiphilic peptide-polymer conjugates may meet many current demands in nanomedicine, in particular for drug delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer therapeutics. Lastly

  18. Nanoporous Silica-Based Protocells at Multiple Scales for Designs of Life and Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various protocell models have been constructed de novo with the bottom-up approach. Here we describe a silica-based protocell composed of a nanoporous amorphous silica core encapsulated within a lipid bilayer built by self-assembly that provides for independent definition of cell interior and the surface membrane. In this review, we will first describe the essential features of this architecture and then summarize the current development of silica-based protocells at both micro- and nanoscale with diverse functionalities. As the structure of the silica is relatively static, silica-core protocells do not have the ability to change shape, but their interior structure provides a highly crowded and, in some cases, authentic scaffold upon which biomolecular components and systems could be reconstituted. In basic research, the larger protocells based on precise silica replicas of cells could be developed into geometrically realistic bioreactor platforms to enable cellular functions like coupled biochemical reactions, while in translational research smaller protocells based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles are being developed for targeted nanomedicine. Ultimately we see two different motivations for protocell research and development: (1 to emulate life in order to understand it; and (2 to use biomimicry to engineer desired cellular interactions.

  19. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide nanomedicines for the prophylaxis or treatment of cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2017-01-01

    Unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide-containing oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), which are synthetic agonists of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), activate humoral and cellular immunity and are being developed as vaccine adjuvants to prevent or treat cancers, infectious diseases, and allergies. Free CpG ODNs have been used in many clinical trials implemented to verify their effects. However, recent research has reported that self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes demonstrate higher adjuvant effects than free CpG ODNs, owing to their improved uptake efficiency into cells expressing TLR9. Moreover, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes are able to deliver CpG ODNs and antigens (or allergens) to the same types of cells, which enables a higher degree of prophylaxis or therapeutic effect. In this review, the author describes recent trends in the research and development of CpG ODN nanomedicines containing self-assembled CpG ODNs, protein/peptide-CpG ODN conjugates, and nanomaterial-CpG ODN complexes, focusing mainly on the results of preclinical and clinical studies.

  20. Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy (FLIM) as an analytical tool in skin nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiev, Ulrike; Volz, Pierre; Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief, and for monitoring of disease progression. Topical application of drug-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of skin disorders is a promising strategy to overcome the stratum corneum, the upper layer of the skin, which represents an effective physical and biochemical barrier. The understanding of drug penetration into skin and enhanced penetration into skin facilitated by nanocarriers requires analytical tools that ideally allow to visualize the skin, its morphology, the drug carriers, drugs, their transport across the skin and possible interactions, as well as effects of the nanocarriers within the different skin layers. Here, we review some recent developments in the field of fluorescence microscopy, namely Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM)), for improved characterization of nanocarriers, their interactions and penetration into skin. In particular, FLIM allows for the discrimination of target molecules, e.g. fluorescently tagged nanocarriers, against the autofluorescent tissue background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle and its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, FLIM shows the potential to overcome several limits of intensity based microscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of polymer nanocomposites in the nanomedicine landscape: envisaging strategies to combat implant associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Poushpi; Narvi, Shahid S; Tewari, Ravi P

    2013-12-16

    This review article presents an overview of the potential biomedical application of polymer nanocomposites arising from different chemistries, compositions, and constructions. The interaction between the chosen matrix and the filler is of critical importance. The existing polymer used in the biomedical arena includes aliphatic polyesters such as polylactide (PLA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(p-dioxanone) (PPDO), poly(butylenes succinate) (PBS), poly(hydroxyalkanoate)s, and natural biopolymers such as starch, cellulose, chitin, chitosan, lignin, and proteins. The nanosized fillers utilized to fabricate the nanocomposites are inorganic, organic, and metal particles such as clays, magnetites, hydroxyapatite, nanotubes chitin whiskers, lignin, cellulose, Au, Ag, Cu, etc. These nanomaterials are taking root in a variety of diverse healthcare applications in the sector of nanomedicine including the domain of medical implants and devices. Despite sterilization and aseptic procedures the use of these biomedical devices and prosthesis to improve the patient's 'quality of life' is facing a major impediment because of bacterial colonization causing nosocomial infection, together with the multi-drug-resistant 'super-bugs' posing a serious threat to its utility. This paper discusses the current efforts and key research challenges in the development of self-sterilizing nanocomposite biomaterials for potential application in this area.

  2. Peptide-MHC-based nanomedicines for autoimmunity function as T-cell receptor microclustering devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Santiswarup; Shao, Kun; Yang, Yang; Clemente-Casares, Xavier; Solé, Patricia; Clemente, Antonio; Blanco, Jesús; Dai, Qin; Song, Fayi; Liu, Shang Wan; Yamanouchi, Jun; Umeshappa, Channakeshava Sokke; Nanjundappa, Roopa Hebbandi; Detampel, Pascal; Amrein, Matthias; Fandos, César; Tanguay, Robert; Newbigging, Susan; Serra, Pau; Khadra, Anmar; Chan, Warren C. W.; Santamaria, Pere

    2017-07-01

    We have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as ligand-multimerization platforms to activate specific cellular receptors in vivo. Nanoparticles coated with autoimmune disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) blunted autoimmune responses by triggering the differentiation and expansion of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in vivo. Here, we define the engineering principles impacting biological activity, detail a synthesis process yielding safe and stable compounds, and visualize how these nanomedicines interact with cognate T cells. We find that the triggering properties of pMHC-NPs are a function of pMHC intermolecular distance and involve the sustained assembly of large antigen receptor microclusters on murine and human cognate T cells. These compounds show no off-target toxicity in zebrafish embryos, do not cause haematological, biochemical or histological abnormalities, and are rapidly captured by phagocytes or processed by the hepatobiliary system. This work lays the groundwork for the design of ligand-based NP formulations to re-program in vivo cellular responses using nanotechnology.

  3. Graphene-like two-dimensional layered nanomaterials: applications in biosensors and nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guohai; Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Zhu, Junjie; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanotechnology provides promising opportunities for various important applications. The recent discovery of atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can offer manifold perspectives to construct versatile devices with high-performance to satisfy multiple requirements. Many studies directed at graphene have stimulated renewed interest on graphene-like 2D layered nanomaterials (GLNs). GLNs including boron nitride nanosheets, graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WS2) have attracted significant interest in numerous research fields from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering, which has led to numerous interdisciplinary advances in nano science. Benefiting from the unique physical and chemical properties (e.g. strong mechanical strength, high surface area, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization), these 2D layered nanomaterials have shown great potential in biochemistry and biomedicine. This review summarizes recent advances of GLNs in applications of biosensors and nanomedicine, including electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, bioimaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Current challenges and future perspectives in these rapidly developing areas are also outlined. It is expected that they will have great practical foundation in biomedical applications with future efforts.

  4. Structure-based engineering of an icosahedral virus for nanomedicine and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, N F; Lin, T; Lomonossoff, G P; Johnson, J E

    2009-01-01

    A quintessential tenet of nanotechnology is the self-assembly of nanometer-sized components into devices. Biological macromolecular systems such as viral particles were found to be suitable building blocks for nanotechnology for several reasons: viral capsids are extremely robust and can be produced in large quantities with ease, the particles self-assemble into monodisperse particles with a high degree of symmetry and polyvalency, they have the propensity to form arrays, and they offer programmability through genetic and chemical engineering. Here, we review the recent advances in engineering the icosahedral plant virus Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) for applications in nano-medicine and -technology. In the first part, we will discuss how the combined knowledge of the structure of CPMV at atomic resolution and the use of chimeric virus technology led to the generation of CPMV particles with short antigenic peptides for potential use as vaccine candidates. The second part focuses on the chemical addressability of CPMV. Strategies to chemically attach functional molecules at designed positions on the exterior surface of the viral particle are described. Biochemical conjugation methods led to the fabrication of electronically conducting CPMV particles and networks. In addition, functional proteins for targeted delivery to mammalian cells were successfully attached to CPMV. In the third part, we focus on the utilization of CPMV as a building block for the generation of 2D and 3D arrays. Overall, the potential applications of viral nanobuilding blocks are manifold and range from nanoelectronics to biomedical applications.

  5. Evidence-Based Clinical Use of Nanoscale Extracellular Vesicles in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Stefano; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Borras, Francesc E; Buzas, Edit; Camussi, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; Carvalho, Joana; Cordeiro da Silva, Anabela; Del Portillo, Hernando; El Andaloussi, Samir; Ficko Trček, Tanja; Furlan, Roberto; Hendrix, An; Gursel, Ihsan; Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Kaeffer, Bertrand; Kosanovic, Maja; Lekka, Marilena E; Lipps, Georg; Logozzi, Mariantonia; Marcilla, Antonio; Sammar, Marei; Llorente, Alicia; Nazarenko, Irina; Oliveira, Carla; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Rajendran, Lawrence; Raposo, Graça; Rohde, Eva; Siljander, Pia; van Niel, Guillaume; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Yáñez-Mó, María; Yliperttula, Marjo L; Zarovni, Natasa; Zavec, Apolonija Bedina; Giebel, Bernd

    2016-04-26

    Recent research has demonstrated that all body fluids assessed contain substantial amounts of vesicles that range in size from 30 to 1000 nm and that are surrounded by phospholipid membranes containing different membrane microdomains such as lipid rafts and caveolae. The most prominent representatives of these so-called extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized exosomes (70-150 nm), which are derivatives of the endosomal system, and microvesicles (100-1000 nm), which are produced by outward budding of the plasma membrane. Nanosized EVs are released by almost all cell types and mediate targeted intercellular communication under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Containing cell-type-specific signatures, EVs have been proposed as biomarkers in a variety of diseases. Furthermore, according to their physical functions, EVs of selected cell types have been used as therapeutic agents in immune therapy, vaccination trials, regenerative medicine, and drug delivery. Undoubtedly, the rapidly emerging field of basic and applied EV research will significantly influence the biomedicinal landscape in the future. In this Perspective, we, a network of European scientists from clinical, academic, and industry settings collaborating through the H2020 European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HAD), demonstrate the high potential of nanosized EVs for both diagnostic and therapeutic (i.e., theranostic) areas of nanomedicine.

  6. A strategy for actualization of active targeting nanomedicine practically functioning in a living body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Jin; Shin, Seol Hwa; Lee, Jae Hee; Ju, Eun Jin; Park, Yun-Yong; Hwang, Jung Jin; Suh, Young-Ah; Hong, Seung-Mo; Jang, Se Jin; Lee, Jung Shin; Song, Si Yeol; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung

    2017-10-01

    Designing nanocarriers with active targeting has been increasingly emphasized as for an ideal delivery mechanism of anti-cancer therapeutic agents, but the actualization has been constrained by lack of reliable strategy ultimately applicable. Here, we designed and verified a strategy to achieve active targeting nanomedicine that works in a living body, utilizing animal models bearing a patient's tumor tissue and subjected to the same treatments that would be used in the clinic. The concept for this strategy was that a novel peptide probe and its counterpart protein, which responded to a therapy, were identified, and then the inherent ability of the peptide to target the designated tumor protein was used for active targeting in vivo. An initial dose of ionizing radiation was locally delivered to the gastric cancer (GC) tumor of a patient-derived xenograft mouse model, and phage-displayed peptide library was intravenously injected. The peptides tightly bound to the tumor were recovered, and the counterpart protein was subsequently identified. Peptide-conjugated liposomal drug showed dramatically improved therapeutic efficacy and possibility of diagnostic imaging with radiation. These results strongly suggested the potential of our strategy to achieve in vivo functional active targeting and to be applied clinically for human cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanomedicine targeting the tumor microenvironment: Therapeutic strategies to inhibit angiogenesis, remodel matrix, and modulate immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Siegler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been given to the tumor microenvironment (TME, which includes cellular and structural components such as fibroblasts, immune cells, vasculature, and extracellular matrix (ECM that surround tumor sites. These components contribute to tumor growth and metastasis and are one reason why traditional chemotherapy often is insufficient to eradicate the tumor completely. Newer treatments that target aspects of the TME, such as antiangiogenic and immunostimulatory therapies, have seen limited clinical success despite promising preclinical results. This can be attributed to a number of reasons, including a lack of drug penetration deeper into the necrotic tumor core, nonspecific delivery, rapid clearance from serum, or toxic side effects at high doses. Nanoparticles offer a potential solution to all of these obstacles, and many recent studies have shown encouraging results using nanomedicine to target TME vasculature, ECM, and immune response. While few of these platforms have made it to clinical trials to date, these strategies are relatively new and may offer a way to improve the effects of anticancer therapies.

  8. Functionalization of carbon nanotubes and its application in nanomedicine: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Sadegh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the latest developments in applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in medicine. A brief history of CNTs and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, surface modification of CNTs that makes them ideal for use in medical applications is highlighted. Examples of common applications, including cell penetration, drug delivery, gene delivery and imaging, are given. At the same time, there are concerns about their possible adverse effects on human health, since there is evidence that exposure to CNTs induces toxic effects in experimental models. However, CNTs are not a single substance but a growing family of different materials possibly eliciting different biological responses. As a consequence, the hazards associated with the exposure of humans to the different forms of CNTs may be different. Understanding the structure–toxicity relationships would help towards the assessment of the risk related to these materials. Finally, toxicity of CNTs, are discussed. This review article overviews the most recent applications of CNTs in Nanomedicine, covering the period from 1991 to early 2015.

  9. Smart Materials Meet Multifunctional Biomedical Devices: Current and Prospective Implications for Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Graziana Genchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing advances in the fabrication and in monitoring approaches of nanotechnology devices, novel materials are being synthesized and tested for the interaction with biological environments. Among them, smart materials in particular provide versatile and dynamically tunable platforms for the investigation and manipulation of several biological activities with very low invasiveness in hardly accessible anatomical districts. In the following, we will briefly recall recent examples of nanotechnology-based materials that can be remotely activated and controlled through different sources of energy, such as electromagnetic fields or ultrasounds, for their relevance to both basic science investigations and translational nanomedicine. Moreover, we will introduce some examples of hybrid materials showing mutually beneficial components for the development of multifunctional devices, able to simultaneously perform duties like imaging, tissue targeting, drug delivery, and redox state control. Finally, we will highlight challenging perspectives for the development of theranostic agents (merging diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities, underlining open questions for these smart nanotechnology-based devices to be made readily available to the patients in need.

  10. Platelet microparticle-inspired clot-responsive nanomedicine for targeted fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Christa L; Li, Wei; Sun, Michael; Ravichandran, Kavya; Hickman, DaShawn; Kos, Clarissa; Kaur, Gurbani; Sen Gupta, Anirban

    2017-06-01

    Intravascular administration of plasminogen activators is a clinically important thrombolytic strategy to treat occlusive vascular conditions. A major issue with this strategy is the systemic off-target drug action, which affects hemostatic capabilities and causes substantial hemorrhagic risks. This issue can be potentially resolved by designing technologies that allow thrombus-targeted delivery and site-specific action of thrombolytic drugs. To this end, leveraging a liposomal platform, we have developed platelet microparticle (PMP)-inspired nanovesicles (PMINs), that can protect encapsulated thrombolytic drugs in circulation to prevent off-target uptake and action, anchor actively onto thrombus via PMP-relevant molecular mechanisms and allow drug release via thrombus-relevant enzymatic trigger. Specifically, the PMINs can anchor onto thrombus via heteromultivalent ligand-mediated binding to active platelet integrin GPIIb-IIIa and P-selectin, and release the thrombolytic payload due to vesicle destabilization triggered by clot-relevant enzyme phospholipase-A 2 . Here we report on the evaluation of clot-targeting efficacy, lipase-triggered drug release and resultant thrombolytic capability of the PMINs in vitro, and subsequently demonstrate that intravenous delivery of thrombolytic-loaded PMINs can render targeted fibrinolysis without affecting systemic hemostasis, in vivo, in a carotid artery thrombosis model in mice. Our studies establish significant promise of the PMIN technology for safe and site-targeted nanomedicine therapies in the vascular compartment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Spin Chirality of Cu3 and V3 Nanomagnets. 1. Rotation Behavior of Vector Chirality, Scalar Chirality, and Magnetization in the Rotating Magnetic Field, Magnetochiral Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Moisey I

    2016-05-02

    The rotation behavior of the vector chirality κ, scalar chirality χ, and magnetization M in the rotating magnetic field H1 is considered for the V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets, in which the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya coupling is active. The polar rotation of the field H1 of the given strength H1 results in the energy spectrum characterized by different vector and scalar chiralities in the ground and excited states. The magnetochiral correlations between the vector and scalar chiralities, energy, and magnetization in the rotating field were considered. Under the uniform polar rotation of the field H1, the ground-state chirality vector κI performs sawtooth oscillations and the magnetization vector MI performs the sawtooth oscillating rotation that is accompanied by the correlated transformation of the scalar chirality χI. This demonstrates the magnetochiral effect of the joint rotation behavior and simultaneous frustrations of the spin chiralities and magnetization in the rotating field, which are governed by the correlation between the chiralities and magnetization.

  12. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets for the spectrophotometric determination of Fingolomid in biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, Zhila; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Beheshti, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (SPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the separation and determination of Fingolimod (FLM) in water, urine and plasma samples prior to spectrophotometeric determination. Due to the high surface area of these new sorbents and the excellent adsorption capacity after surface modification by SDS, satisfactory extraction recoveries can be produced. The main factors affecting the adsolubilization of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent amounts, ionic strength, extraction time and desorption conditions were studied and optimized. Under the selected conditions, FLM has been quantitatively extracted. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery measurements on spiked samples, and good recoveries of 96%, 95% and 88% were observed for water, urine and plasma respectively. Proper linear behaviors over the investigated concentration ranges of 2-26, 2-17 and 2-13 mg/L with good coefficients of determination, 0.998, 0.997 and 0.995 were achieved for water, urine and plasma samples, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a mixed hemimicelles SPE method based on magnetic separation and nanoparticles has been used as a simple and sensitive method for monitoring of FLM in water and biological samples.

  13. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  14. Nanomedicine-emerging or re-emerging ethical issues? A discussion of four ethical themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Christian; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2007-06-01

    Nanomedicine plays a prominent role among emerging technologies. The spectrum of potential applications is as broad as it is promising. It includes the use of nanoparticles and nanodevices for diagnostics, targeted drug delivery in the human body, the production of new therapeutic materials as well as nanorobots or nanoprotheses. Funding agencies are investing large sums in the development of this area, among them the European Commission, which has launched a large network for life-sciences related nanotechnology. At the same time government agencies as well as the private sector are putting forward reports of working groups that have looked into the promises and risks of these developments. This paper will begin with an introduction to the central ethical themes as identified by selected reports from Europe and beyond. In a next step, it will analyse the most frequently invoked ethical concerns-risk assessment and management, the issues of human identity and enhancement, possible implications for civil liberties (e.g. nanodevices that might be used for covert surveillance), and concerns about equity and fair access. Although it seems that the main ethical issues are not unique to nanotechnologies, the conclusion will argue against shrugging them off as non-specific items that have been considered before in the context of other biomedical technologies, such as gene therapy or xenotransplantation. Rather, the paper will call on ethicists to help foster a rational, fair and participatory discourse on the different potential applications of nanotechnologies in medicine, which can form the basis for informed and responsible societal and political decisions.

  15. Global trends in nanomedicine research on triple negative breast cancer: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Ramon Handerson Gomes; Moralles, Herick Fernando; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool in the clinic to combat several difficult-to-manage diseases, such as cancer, which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs present several limitations such as undesired side effects, low specificity, resistance, and high relapse rates. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is caused by cells that lack specific receptors in their membrane, such as estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PR+) receptors, or by cells that do not express the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2+). This cancer type has poor prognosis, high relapse rates, and no targeted therapies. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the trends of nanotechnology research in TNBC and compare the contribution of research from different regions, institutions, and authors. A search of the studies published between 2012 and 2017, related to nanotechnology and TNBC, with different keyword combinations, was performed in the Scopus database. The keywords found in this search were grouped into four clusters, in which "breast cancer" was the most mentioned (1,133 times) and the word "MCF-7 cell line" is one of the latest hotspots that appeared in the year 2016. A total of 1,932 articles, which were cited 26,450 times, were identified. The USA accounted for 28.36% of the articles and 27.61% of the citations; however, none of its centers appeared in the list of 10 most productive ones in terms of publications. The journals Biomaterials and International Journal of Nanomedicine had the highest number of publications. The USA and China had the highest number of articles produced and cited; however, the highest average citation per article was from Singapore. The studies focused on the research of antineoplastic agents in animal models and cell culture, and these were the most used topics in research with nanotechnology and TNBC.

  16. Targeted Sterically Stabilized Phospholipid siRNA Nanomedicine for Hepatic and Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Khaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery, small interfering RNA (siRNA has been considered a potent tool for modulating gene expression. It has the ability to specifically target proteins via selective degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA not easily accessed by conventional drugs. Hence, RNA interference (RNAi therapeutics have great potential in the treatment of many diseases caused by faulty protein expression such as fibrosis and cancer. However, for clinical application siRNA faces a number of obstacles, such as poor in vivo stability, and off-target effects. Here we developed a unique targeted nanomedicine to tackle current siRNA delivery issues by formulating a biocompatible, biodegradable and relatively inexpensive nanocarrier of sterically stabilized phospholipid nanoparticles (SSLNPs. This nanocarrier is capable of incorporating siRNA in its core through self-association with a novel cationic lipid composed of naturally occuring phospholipids and amino acids. This overall assembly protects and delivers sufficient amounts of siRNA to knockdown over-expressed protein in target cells. The siRNA used in this study, targets connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, an important regulator of fibrosis in both hepatic and renal cells. Furthermore, asialoglycoprotein receptors are targeted by attaching the galactosamine ligand to the nanocarries which enhances the uptake of nanoparticles by hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells, the major producers of CTGF in fibrosis. On animals this innovative nanoconstruct, small interfering RNA in sterically stabilized phospholipid nanoparticles (siRNA-SSLNP, showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and accumulated mostly in hepatic and renal tissues making siRNA-SSLNP a suitable system for targeting liver and kidney fibrotic diseases.

  17. A comparison of immunotoxic effects of nanomedicinal products with regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Christina; Park, Margriet Vdz; de Jong, Wim H; van Loveren, Henk; Vandebriel, Rob J; Geertsma, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are attractive for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications because of their unique physicochemical and biological properties. A major application area of NMs is drug delivery. Many nanomedicinal products (NMPs) currently on the market or in clinical trials are most often based on liposomal products or polymer conjugates. NMPs can be designed to target specific tissues, eg, tumors. In virtually all cases, NMPs will eventually reach the immune system. It has been shown that most NMs end up in organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system, notably liver and spleen. Adverse immune effects, including allergy, hypersensitivity, and immunosuppression, have been reported after NMP administration. Interactions of NMPs with the immune system may therefore constitute important side effects. Currently, no regulatory documents are specifically dedicated to evaluate the immunotoxicity of NMs or NMPs. Their immunotoxicity assessment is performed based on existing guidelines for conventional substances or medicinal products. Due to the unique properties of NMPs when compared with conventional medicinal products, it is uncertain whether the currently prescribed set of tests provides sufficient information for an adequate evaluation of potential immunotoxicity of NMPs. The aim of this study was therefore, to compare the current regulatory immunotoxicity testing requirements with the accumulating knowledge on immunotoxic effects of NMPs in order to identify potential gaps in the safety assessment. This comparison showed that immunotoxic effects, such as complement activation-related pseudoallergy, myelosuppression, inflammasome activation, and hypersensitivity, are not readily detected by using current testing guidelines. Immunotoxicity of NMPs would be more accurately evaluated by an expanded testing strategy that is equipped to stratify applicable testing for the various types of NMPs.

  18. Telomerase as an emerging target to fight cancer--opportunities and challenges for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, C; Loretz, B; Schaefer, U F; Lehr, C M

    2010-09-01

    Telomerase as an enzyme is responsible for the renewal of the chromosomal ends, the so-called telomeres. By preventing them from shortening with each cell cycle, telomerase is able to inhibit cellular senescence and apoptosis. Telomerase activity, which is detectable in the majority of cancer cells, allows them to maintain their proliferative capacity. The thus obtained immortality of those cells again is a key to their malignancy. Based on these discoveries, it is obvious that telomerase inhibitors would represent an innovative approach to fight cancer, and a variety of such candidate molecules are currently in the pipeline. Telomerase inhibitors largely fall in two classes of compounds: small synthetic molecules and nucleotide-based biologicals. For several candidates, some proof of concept studies have been demonstrated, either on cell cultures or in animal models. But the same studies also revealed that inefficient delivery is largely limiting the translational step into the clinic. The most appealing feature of telomerase inhibitors, which distinguishes them from conventional anticancer drugs, is probably seen in their intrinsic non-toxicity to normal cells. Nevertheless, efficient delivery to the target cells, i.e. to the tumor, is still required. Here, some well-known biopharmaceutical problems such as insufficient solubility, permeability or even metabolic stability are frequently encountered. To address these challenges, there is a clear need for adequate delivery technologies, for example by using nanomedicines, that would allow to overcome their biopharmaceutical shortcomings and to warrant a sufficient bioavailability at the target side. This review first briefly explains the concept of telomerase and telomerase inhibition in cancer therapy. It secondly aims to provide an overview of the different currently known telomerase inhibitors. Finally, the biopharmaceutical limitations of these molecules are discussed as well as the possibilities to overcome

  19. Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_3 ferrite synthesized by combustion and Pechini method for use in nanomedicine: methods evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, I.L.T. de; Nascimento, A.L.C.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O3 ferrite by combustion reaction and Pechini method, and to evaluate structural characteristics and magnetic behavior for its use in nanomedicine. The synthesized ferrite was characterized by DRX, BET, TG and magnetic properties. According to the results of XRD, the Ni_0_,_5Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_3 ferrite synthesized by both methods presented nano crystallite sizes, high crystallinity, surface area, stable at high temperatures and with high saturation magnetization, being higher in the ferrite synthesized by combustion reaction. Both methods produced materials that could be used in nanomedicine

  20. Fluorescent CSC models evidence that targeted nanomedicines improve treatment sensitivity of breast and colon cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Gouveia, Luis Pleno; Sabat, Guillem Romero; de Sousa Rafael, Diana Fernandes; Fort, Núria Bergadà; Arranja, Alexandra; Fernández, Yolanda; Prieto, Rafael Miñana; Ortega, Joan Sayos; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2015-11-01

    To be able to study the efficacy of targeted nanomedicines in marginal population of highly aggressive cancer stem cells (CSC), we have developed a novel in vitro fluorescent CSC model that allows us to visualize these cells in heterogeneous population and to monitor CSC biological performance after therapy. In this model tdTomato reporter gene is driven by CSC specific (ALDH1A1) promoter and contrary to other similar models, CSC differentiation and un-differentiation processes are not restrained and longitudinal studies are feasible. We used this model for preclinical validation of poly[(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] (PLGA-co-PEG) micelles loaded with paclitaxel. Further, active targeting against CD44 and EGFR receptors was validated in breast and colon cancer cell lines. Accordingly, specific active targeting toward surface receptors enhances the performance of nanomedicines and sensitizes CSC to paclitaxel based chemotherapy. Many current cancer therapies fail because of the failure to target cancer stem cells. This surviving population soon proliferates and differentiates into more cancer cells. In this interesting article, the authors designed an in vitro cancer stem cell model to study the effects of active targeting using antibody-labeled micelles containing chemotherapeutic agent. This new model should allow future testing of various drug/carrier platforms before the clinical phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanomedicine for glaucoma: liposomes provide sustained release of latanoprost in the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan JV

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Jayaganesh V Natarajan1*, Marcus Ang2*, Anastasia Darwitan1, Sujay Chattopadhyay3, Tina T Wong2, Subbu S Venkatraman1 1Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; 3Polymer Division, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To report the development and therapeutic evaluation of a liposomal nanocarrier for sustained release of latanoprost, in the rabbit eye.Methods: We fabricated latanoprost-loaded egg-phosphatidylcholine (EggPC liposomes using the film hydration technique. The delivery vehicles were nano-sized (Z avg = 109 ± 18 nm, had a narrow poly dispersity index (PDI = 0.19 ± 0.04, and a very high loading efficiency (94% ± 5%. Based on in vitro data, we evaluated this formulation for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbit eyes. Following a single subconjunctival injection of the latanoprost loaded formulation, the eyes were clinically monitored and the IOP recorded.Results: Latanoprost-loaded EggPC liposomes demonstrated a high drug/lipid mole ratio of 0.181, remained stable for at least 6 months on storage (4°C, and at least 1 month at 25°C. A slow and sustained release of 60% of latanoprost was achieved by 14 days in the in vitro release study. The same formulation demonstrated a greater sustained IOP lowering effect compared with daily administration of topical latanoprost beyond 90 days (4.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.001. No signs of inflammation were evident in the eyes from slit-lamp examination analysis.Conclusion: The loading required for a long-term sustained delivery of latanoprost for up to 90 days in the rabbit eyes was achieved with EggPC liposomes. A single injection of latanoprost-loaded EggPC liposomes can lower the IOP for up to 90 days, with a greater IOP lowering effect than daily topical administration of latanoprost.Keywords: nanomedicine, nanoliposomes, Egg

  2. Cargo-free nano-medicine with pH-sensitivity for co-delivery of DOX conjugated prodrug with SN38 to synergistically eradicate breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Zhao, Chenyang; Cheng, Rui; Liu, Zerong; Li, Xian; Lu, Axin; Tian, Zhongmin; Yang, Zhe

    2018-06-20

    Due to their abilities of transforming into bulk cancer cells and resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are currently considered as a major obstacle for cancer treatment. Application of multiple drugs using nano-carriers is a promising approach to simultaneously eliminate non-cancer stem cells (non-CSCs) and CSCs. Herein, to employ the advantages of nano-medicine while avoiding new excipients, pH-responsive pro-drug (PEG-CH=N-DOX) was employed as the surfactant to fabricate cargo-free nano-medicine for co-delivery of DOX conjugated prodrug with SN38 to synergistically eradicate breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) and non-bCSCs. Through the intermolecular interaction between DOX and SN38, PEG-CH=N-DOX and SN38 were assembled together to form a stable nano-medicine. This nano-medicine not only dramatically enhanced drug accumulation efficiency at the tumor site, but also effectively eliminated bCSCs and non-bCSCs, which resulted in achieving a superior in vivo tumor inhibition activity. Additionally, the biosafety of this nano-medicine was systematically studied through immunohistochemistry, blood bio-chemistry assay, blood routine examination and metabolomics. The results revealed that this nano-medicine significantly reduced the adverse effects of DOX and SN38. Therefore, this simple yet efficient nano-medicine provided a promising strategy for future clinical applications.

  3. A rationally designed photo-chemo core-shell nanomedicine for inhibiting the migration of metastatic breast cancer cells followed by photodynamic killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Chandran, Parwathy; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Ramachandran, Ranjith; Gupta, Neha; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-04-01

    A multifunctional core-shell nanomedicine capable of inhibiting the migratory capacity of metastatic cancer cells followed by imparting cytotoxic stress by photodynamic action is reported. Based on in silico design, we have developed a core-shell nanomedicine comprising of ~80nm size poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nano-core encapsulating photosensitizer, m-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC), and ~20nm size albumin nano-shell encapsulating tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Dasatinib, which impair cancer migration. This system was prepared by a sequential process involving electrospray of polymer core and coacervation of protein shell. Cell studies using metastatic breast cancer cells demonstrated disruption of Src kinase involved in the cancer migration by albumin-dasatinib nano-shell and generation of photoactivated oxidative stress by mTHPC-PLGA nano-core. This unique combinatorial photo-chemo nanotherapy resulted synergistic cytotoxicity in ~99% of the motility-impaired metastatic cells. This approach of blocking cancer migration followed by photodynamic killing using rationally designed nanomedicine is a promising new strategy against cancer metastasis. A multifunctional core-shell nanomedicine capable of inhibiting metastatic cancer cell migration, in addition to inducing photodynamic effects, is described in this paper. The authors document cytotoxicity in approximately 99% of the studied metastatic breast cancer cells. Similar approaches would be a very welcome addition to the treatment protocols of advanced metastatic breast cancer and other types of neoplasms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epigenetics targeted protein-vorinostat nanomedicine inducing apoptosis in heterogeneous population of primary acute myeloid leukemia cells including refractory and relapsed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Parwathy; Kavalakatt, Anu; Malarvizhi, Giridharan Loghanathan; Vasanthakumari, Divya Rani Vikraman Nair; Retnakumari, Archana Payickattu; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Pavithran, Keechilat; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2014-05-01

    Aberrant epigenetics play a key role in the onset and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Herein we report in silico modelling based development of a novel, protein-vorinostat nanomedicine exhibiting selective and superior anti-leukemic activity against heterogeneous population of AML patient samples (n=9), including refractory and relapsed cases, and three representative cell lines expressing CD34(+)/CD38(-) stem cell phenotype (KG-1a), promyelocytic phenotype (HL-60) and FLT3-ITD mutation (MV4-11). Nano-vorinostat having ~100nm size exhibited enhanced cellular uptake rendering significantly lower IC50 in AML cell lines and patient samples, and induced enhanced HDAC inhibition, oxidative injury, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis compared to free vorinostat. Most importantly, nanomedicine showed exceptional single-agent activity against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. Collectively, this epigenetics targeted nanomedicine appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British (FAB) classes of AML. Through the use of a protein-vorinostat agent, exceptional single-agent activity was demonstrated against the clonogenic proliferative capability of bone marrow derived leukemic progenitors, while remaining non-toxic to healthy bone marrow cells. The studied epigenetics targeted nanomedicine approach is a promising therapeutic strategy against various French-American-British classes of acute myeloid leukemia. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Boreham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research.

  6. Radioactive gold nanoparticles with beta energy and auger electron cascades in nanomedicine: green nanotechnology and radiochemical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, Kattesh V.

    2016-01-01

    In our continued efforts to apply Green Nanotechnology for the development of therapeutic radioactive gold nanoparticles, we have developed a new generation of 198 Au theranostic probes. Laminin receptors are overexpressed in a large number of human tumors and the high in vivo affinity of EGCG toward Laminin receptors has allowed us to develop Laminin receptor specific radioactive gold nanoparticles to achieve tumor specificity. This lecture will provide: (a) Oncological aspects of Auger electrons through nanomedicine; (b) details on the intervention of nuclear activation analysis and various radioanalytical approaches for the production of tumor specific radioactive gold-198 nanoparticles; and (c) full in vivo investigations on therapeutic properties of EGCG-198-AuNP agent in treating prostate tumors

  7. Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Characterization of Dendritic Polymer Nanoparticles and Applications in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreham, Alexander; Brodwolf, Robert; Walker, Karolina; Haag, Rainer; Alexiev, Ulrike

    2016-12-24

    The emerging field of nanomedicine provides new approaches for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, for symptom relief and for monitoring of disease progression. One route of realizing this approach is through carefully constructed nanoparticles. Due to the small size inherent to the nanoparticles a proper characterization is not trivial. This review highlights the application of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) for the analysis of nanoparticles, covering aspects ranging from molecular properties to particle detection in tissue samples. The latter technique is particularly important as FLIM allows for distinguishing of target molecules from the autofluorescent background and, due to the environmental sensitivity of the fluorescence lifetime, also offers insights into the local environment of the nanoparticle or its interactions with other biomolecules. Thus, these techniques offer highly suitable tools in the fields of particle development, such as organic chemistry, and in the fields of particle application, such as in experimental dermatology or pharmaceutical research.

  8. Nanoengineered implant as a new platform for regenerative nanomedicine using 3D well-organized human cell spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Idoux-Gillet, Ysia; Wagner, Quentin; Eap, Sandy; Brasse, David; Schwinté, Pascale; Arruebo, Manuel; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In tissue engineering, it is still rare today to see clinically transferable strategies for tissue-engineered graft production that conclusively offer better tissue regeneration than the already existing technologies, decreased recovery times, and less risk of complications. Here a novel tissue-engineering concept is presented for the production of living bone implants combining 1) a nanofibrous and microporous implant as cell colonization matrix and 2) 3D bone cell spheroids. This combination, double 3D implants, shows clinical relevant thicknesses for the treatment of an early stage of bone lesions before the need of bone substitutes. The strategy presented here shows a complete closure of a defect in nude mice calvaria after only 31 days. As a novel strategy for bone regenerative nanomedicine, it holds great promises to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of living bone implants. PMID:28138241

  9. Tumor-associated macrophages, nanomedicine and imaging: the axis of success in the future of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Spitler, Ryan; Hutter, Gregor; Ho, Jim Q; Pauliah, Mohan; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2017-09-01

    The success of any given cancer immunotherapy relies on several key factors. In particular, success hinges on the ability to stimulate the immune system in a controlled and precise fashion, select the best treatment options and appropriate therapeutic agents, and use highly effective tools to accurately and efficiently assess the outcome of the immunotherapeutic intervention. Furthermore, a deep understanding and effective utilization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), nanomedicine and biomedical imaging must be harmonized to improve treatment efficacy. Additionally, a keen appreciation of the dynamic interplay that occurs between immune cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) is also essential. New advances toward the modulation of the immune TME have led to many novel translational research approaches focusing on the targeting of TAMs, enhanced drug and nucleic acid delivery, and the development of theranostic probes and nanoparticles for clinical trials. In this review, we discuss the key cogitations that influence TME, TAM modulations and immunotherapy in solid tumors as well as the methods and resources of tracking the tumor response. The vast array of current nanomedicine technologies can be readily modified to modulate immune function, target specific cell types, deliver therapeutic payloads and be monitored using several different imaging modalities. This allows for the development of more effective treatments, which can be specifically designed for particular types of cancer or on an individual basis. Our current capacities have allowed for greater use of theranostic probes and multimodal imaging strategies that have led to better image contrast, real-time imaging capabilities leveraging targeting moieties, tracer kinetics and enabling more detailed response profiles at the cellular and molecular levels. These novel capabilities along with new discoveries in cancer biology should drive innovation for improved biomarkers for efficient and

  10. Nanomedicine for treatment of diabetes in an aging population: state-of-the-art and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Silke; Ellis-Behnke, Rutledge; Marchetti, Piero

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes (which is strongly related to the Western diet and life-style), has developed worldwide into an epidemic disease. Nanomedicine aims to provide novel tools for diagnosis, therapy and point-of-care management of patients. Several nanotechnological approaches were developed to improve life quality for patients with insulin-dependent diabetes. They facilitate blood glucose management by non-invasive glucose measurement as well as insulin administration mainly by delivering the fragile protein as protected and targeted formulation via nasal or oral route. In the present review the oral or nasal insulin delivery by polymeric nanoparticles is discussed with focus on physiological change either related to the disease, diabetes or age-related metabolic variations influencing insulin release and bioavailability. One critical point is that new generations of targeted nanoparticle based drugs are developed and optimized for certain metabolic conditions. These conditions may change with age or disease. The influence of age-related factors such as immaturity in very young age, metabolic and physiologic changes in old age or insufficient animal models are still under-investigated not only in nanomedicine but also generally in pharmacology. Summarizing it can be noted that the bioavailability of insulin administered via routes others than subcutaneously is comparably low (max. 60%). Moreover factors like changed gut permeability as described for diabetes type 1 or other metabolic peculiarities such as insulin resistance in case of type 2 diabetes also play a role in affecting the development of novel nanoparticulated drug preparations and can be responsible for unsuccessful translation of promising animal results into human therapy. In future insulin nanoparticle development for diabetes must consider not only requirements imposed by the drug but also metabolic changes inflicted by disease or by age. Moreover new approaches are

  11. New perspectives of nanoneuroprotection, nanoneuropharmacology and nanoneurotoxicity: modulatory role of amino acid neurotransmitters, stress, trauma, and co-morbidity factors in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hari S; Sharma, Aruna

    2013-11-01

    Recent advancement in nanomedicine suggests that nanodrug delivery using nanoformulation of drugs or use of nanoparticles for neurodiagnostic and/or neurotherapeutic purposes results in superior effects than the conventional drugs or parent compounds. This indicates a bright future for nanomedicine in treating neurological diseases in clinics. However, the effects of nanoparticles per se in inducing neurotoxicology by altering amino acid neurotransmitters, if any, are still being largely ignored. The main aim of nanomedicine is to enhance the drug availability within the central nervous system (CNS) for greater therapeutic successes. However, once the drug together with nanoparticles enters into the CNS compartments, the fate of nanomaterial within the brain microenvironment is largely remained unknown. Thus, to achieve greater success in nanomedicine, our knowledge in understanding nanoneurotoxicology in detail is utmost important. In addition, how co-morbidity factors associated with neurological disease, e.g., stress, trauma, hypertension or diabetes, may influence the neurotherapeutic potentials of nanomedicine are also necessary to explore the details. Recent research in our laboratory demonstrated that engineered nanoparticles from metals or titanium nanowires used for nanodrug delivery in laboratory animals markedly influenced the CNS functions and alter amino acid neurotransmitters in healthy animals. These adverse reactions of nanoparticles within the CNS are further aggravated in animals with different co-morbidity factors viz., stress, diabetes, trauma or hypertension. This effect, however, depends on the composition and dose of the nanomaterials used. On the other hand, nanodrug delivery by TiO2 nanowires enhanced the neurotherapeutic potential of the parent compounds in CNS injuries in healthy animals and do not alter amino acids balance. However, in animals with any of the above co-morbidity factors, high dose of nanodrug delivery is needed to achieve

  12. Arjunolic acid: A promising new building block for nanochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: kgp bgopal@rediffmail.com ... Inverted vials containing the ... Compound 3 formed transparent gels in various alcohols and mixed solvents (table. 1). ... electron microscopy (SEM) after drying in vacuum. The SEM images revealed a.

  13. Danish Nanochemistry Researchers Use Nanosight NTA to Characterize Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  14. Constructive nanolithography and nanochemistry : local probe oxidation and chemical modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility to prepare and use submicrometer-sized patterns in successive functionalization reactions with quaternary ammonium salts and (functional) chlorosilanes, as well as cationic gold nanoparticles, is presented. Submicrometer-sized structures were prepared by local probe oxidation of

  15. Advances and advantages of nanomedicine in the pharmacological targeting of hyaluronan-CD44 interactions and signaling in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrisostomi; Theocharis, Achilleas D; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental evidence in cell and animal tumor models show that hyaluronan-CD44 interactions are crucial in both malignancy and resistance to cancer therapy. Because of the intimate relationship between the hyaluronan-CD44 system and tumor cell survival and growth, it is an increasingly investigated area for applications to anticancer chemotherapeutics. Interference with the hyaluronan-CD44 interaction by targeting drugs to CD44, targeting drugs to the hyaluronan matrix, or interfering with hyaluronan matrix/tumor cell-associated CD44 interactions is a viable strategy for cancer treatment. Many of these methods can decrease tumor burden in animal models but have yet to show significant clinical utility. Recent advances in nanomedicine have offered new valuable tools for cancer detection, prevention, and treatment. The enhanced permeability and retention effect has served as key rationale for using nanoparticles to treat solid tumors. However, the targeted and uniform delivery of these particles to all regions of tumors in sufficient quantities requires optimization. An ideal nanocarrier should be equipped with selective ligands that are highly or exclusively expressed on target cells and thus endow the carriers with specific targeting capabilities. In this review, we describe how the hyaluronan-CD44 system may provide such an alternative in tumors expressing specific CD44 variants. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Adrian A, E-mail: a.walsh@nanobiosols.com [Liverpool Science Park, Nano Biosols Ltd (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  17. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Adrian A.

    2017-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  18. Chemisorption of iodine-125 to gold nanoparticles allows for real-time quantitation and potential use in nanomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Adrian A

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been available for many years as a research tool in the life sciences due to their electron density and optical properties. New applications are continually being developed, particularly in nanomedicine. One drawback is the need for an easy, real-time quantitation method for gold nanoparticles so that the effects observed in in vitro cell toxicity assays and cell uptake studies can be interpreted quantitatively in terms of nanoparticle loading. One potential method of quantifying gold nanoparticles in real time is by chemisorption of iodine-125, a gamma emitter, to the nanoparticles. This paper revisits the labelling of gold nanoparticles with iodine-125, first described 30 years ago and never fully exploited since. We explore the chemical properties and usefulness in quantifying bio-functionalised gold nanoparticle binding in a quick and simple manner. The gold particles were labelled specifically and quantitatively simply by mixing the two items. The nature of the labelling is chemisorption and is robust, remaining bound over several weeks in a variety of cell culture media. Chemisorption was confirmed as potassium iodide can remove the label whereas sodium chloride and many other buffers had no effect. Particles precoated in polymers or proteins can be labelled just as efficiently allowing for post-labelling experiments in situ rather than using radioactive gold atoms in the production process. We also demonstrate that interparticle exchange of I-125 between different size particles does not appear to take place confirming the affinity of the binding.

  19. Molecular nanomagnets and related phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Song (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering

    2015-07-01

    The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research scientists at universities or in industry, graduate students Special offer for all customers who have a standing order to the print version of Structure and Bonding, we offer free access to the electronic volumes of the Series published in the current year via SpringerLink.

  20. Molecular nanomagnets and related phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song

    2015-01-01

    The series Structure and Bonding publishes critical reviews on topics of research concerned with chemical structure and bonding. The scope of the series spans the entire Periodic Table and addresses structure and bonding issues associated with all of the elements. It also focuses attention on new and developing areas of modern structural and theoretical chemistry such as nanostructures, molecular electronics, designed molecular solids, surfaces, metal clusters and supramolecular structures. Physical and spectroscopic techniques used to determine, examine and model structures fall within the purview of Structure and Bonding to the extent that the focus is on the scientific results obtained and not on specialist information concerning the techniques themselves. Issues associated with the development of bonding models and generalizations that illuminate the reactivity pathways and rates of chemical processes are also relevant. The individual volumes in the series are thematic. The goal of each volume is to give the reader, whether at a university or in industry, a comprehensive overview of an area where new insights are emerging that are of interest to a larger scientific audience. Thus each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years should be presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. A description of the physical basis of the experimental techniques that have been used to provide the primary data may also be appropriate, if it has not been covered in detail elsewhere. The coverage need not be exhaustive in data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the new principles being developed that will allow the reader, who is not a specialist in the area covered, to understand the data presented. Discussion of possible future research directions in the area is welcomed. Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Readership: research scientists at universities or in industry, graduate students Special offer for all customers who have a standing order to the print version of Structure and Bonding, we offer free access to the electronic volumes of the Series published in the current year via SpringerLink.

  1. Quantum Properties of Molecular Nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    Emilia) Italy. Prof. Stephen Hill, Florida State University and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (USA) Prof. Takeji Takui, Osaka City University...November 2016 Prof. Stephen Hill visited our laboratory in Modena PRESENTATION AT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES AND MEETINGS. M. Affronte: 2016... Stephen ; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Inigo; Timco, Grigore; Winpenny, Richard; Affronte, Marco J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6 (24), pp 5062–5066 DOI: 10.1021

  2. Design of a novel theranostic nanomedicine: synthesis and physicochemical properties of a biocompatible polyphosphazene–platinum(II conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avaji PG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prakash G Avaji,1,2,* Jung Hyun Park,1,* Hyun Jeong Lee,1 Yong Joo Jun,2 Kyung Su Park,3 Kyung Eun Lee,3 Soo-Jin Choi,4 Hwa Jeong Lee,1 Youn Soo Sohn2 1Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2C & Pharm, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Advanced Analysis Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: To develop a theranostic nanomedicine involving the antitumor-active moiety (dachPt(II (dach: trans-(±-1,2-diaminocyclohexane of oxaliplatin (OX, a new biocompatible polyphosphazene carrier polymer was designed by grafting with a methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG to increase duration of circulation in the blood and with aminoethanol (AE as a spacer group. The antitumor (dachPt moiety was conjugated to the carrier polymer using cis-aconitic acid (AA as a linker, resulting in a polymer conjugate formulated as [NP(MPEG550(AE-AAPt(dach]n, named “Polyplatin” (PP. PP was found to self-assemble into very stable polymeric nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 55.1 nm and a critical aggregation concentration of 18.5 mg/L in saline. PP could easily be labeled with a fluorescence dye such as Cy5.5 for imaging studies. The time-dependent ex vivo image studies on organ distributions and clearance of Cy-labeled PP have shown that PP accumulated in the tumor with high selectivity by the enhanced permeability and retention effect but was cleared out from all the major organs including the liver in about 4 weeks postinjection. Another time-dependent bioimaging study on distribution and clearance of PP in mouse kidney using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy has shown that PP accumulates much less in kidney and is more rapidly excreted than monomeric OX, which is in accord with the

  3. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro/in vivo evaluation of novel reduction-sensitive hybrid nano-echinus-like nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaili; Guo, Chunjing; Zou, Shaohua; Yu, Yueming; Fan, Xinxin; Wang, Bingjie; Liu, Mengna; Fang, Lei; Chen, Daquan

    2018-04-27

    To remedy the problems resulting from the usage of anti-cancer drugs in cancer chemotherapy, such as deficient drug concentration in tumour cells, low water-solubility and non-specific distribution of antitumour drugs, a kind of reduction-sensitive polymer prodrug of curcumin (Cur) containing in the nano-echinus was synthesized and designed. The nano-echinus-like nanomedicine presented synergistic effect with glycyrrhetic acid (GA) and oligomeric hyaluronic (HA) for targeting and combating HepG2 human liver cancer cell. Firstly, a kind of small molecular prodrug of Cur, dithiodipropionic acid-Cur (-SS-Cur), was chemically conjugated onto the side chain of the conjugated glycyrrhetic acid- oligomeric hyaluronic (GA-HA) to generate an amphiphilic polymeric prodrug of Cur, GA-HA-SS-Cur. The obtained GA-HA-SS-Cur prodrug and subsidiary material mPEG-DSPE could self-assemble into a sea urchin-like micelles in aqueous media and release Cur rapidly in response to glutathion (GSH). Then, Cur was loaded into the nano-echinus with a particle size of (118.1 ± 0.2 nm) and drug-loading efficiency of (8.03 ± 2.1%). The structure of GA-HA-SS-Cur was characterized by 1 H-NMR in this report. The morphology of micelles was observed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Subsequently, the reduction-sensitivity of the nano-echinus was confirmed by the changes in in-vitro drug release after different concentrations of GSH treatment. Besides, the cellular uptake behaviour and MTT assays of the nano-echinus were investigated, suggesting that the nano-echinus was of desirable safety and could be taken into HepG2 cells in a time-dependent manner. Later, anti-tumour efficacy in vivo revealed the effective inhibition of tumour growth.

  4. Nanoengineered implant as a new platform for regenerative nanomedicine using 3D well-organized human cell spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller L

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laetitia Keller,1,2,* Ysia Idoux-Gillet,1,2,* Quentin Wagner,1,2,* Sandy Eap,1,2,* David Brasse,3 Pascale Schwinté,1,2 Manuel Arruebo,4 Nadia Benkirane-Jessel1,2 1INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, “Osteoarticular and Dental Regenerative Nanomedicine” Laboratory, UMR 1109, Faculté de Médecine, FMTS, 2University of Strasbourg, Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, 3CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7178, IPHC (Hubert Curien Multidisciplinary Institute, Strasbourg, France; 4Department of Chemical Engineering, INA (Aragon Nanoscience Institute, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In tissue engineering, it is still rare today to see clinically transferable strategies for tissue-engineered graft production that conclusively offer better tissue regeneration than the already existing technologies, decreased recovery times, and less risk of complications. Here a novel tissue-engineering concept is presented for the production of living bone implants combining 1 a nanofibrous and microporous implant as cell colonization matrix and 2 3D bone cell spheroids. This combination, double 3D implants, shows clinical relevant thicknesses for the treatment of an early stage of bone lesions before the need of bone substitutes. The strategy presented here shows a complete closure of a defect in nude mice calvaria after only 31 days. As a novel strategy for bone regenerative nanomedicine, it holds great promises to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of living bone implants. Keywords: bioengineering, implants, osteoblasts, matrix mineralization, microtissues

  5. Loading cisplatin onto 6-mercaptopurine covalently modified MSNS: a nanomedicine strategy to improve the outcome of cisplatin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xiaojie Lv,1 Ming Zhao,1,2 Yuiji Wang,1 Xi Hu,1 Jianhui Wu,1 Xueyun Jiang,1 Shan Li,1 Chunying Cui,1 Shiqi Peng1 1Beijing Area Major Laboratory of Peptide and Small Molecular Drugs, Engineering Research Center of Endogenous Prophylactic of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: In the treatment of cancer patients, cisplatin (CDDP exhibits serious cardiac and renal toxicities, while classical combinations related to CDDP are unable to solve these problems and may result in worse prognosis. Alternately, this study covalently conjugated 6-mercaptopurine (6MP onto the surface of mercapto-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNS to form MSNS-6MP and loaded CDDP into the holes on the surface of MSNS-6MP to form MSNS-6MP/CDDP, a tumor-targeting nano-releasing regime for CDDP and 6MP specifically. In the S180 mouse model, the anti-tumor activity and overall survival of MSNS-6MP/CDDP (50 mg·kg-1·day-1, corresponding to 1 mg·kg-1·day-1 of 6MP and 5 mg·kg-1·day-1 of CDDP were significantly higher than those of CDDP alone (5 mg·kg-1·day-1 or CDDP (5 mg·kg-1·day-1 plus 6MP (1 mg·kg-1·day-1. The assays of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, as well as the images of myocardium and kidney histology, support that MSNS-6MP/CDDP is able to completely eliminate liver, kidney and heart toxicities induced by CDDP alone or CDDP plus 6MP. Keywords: 6-mercaptopurine, cisplatin, mesoporous silica nanoparticles, cancer therapy, nanomedicine

  6. Drug delivery to solid tumors: the predictive value of the multicellular tumor spheroid model for nanomedicine screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millard M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Marie Millard,1,2 Ilya Yakavets,1–3 Vladimir Zorin,3,4 Aigul Kulmukhamedova,1,2,5 Sophie Marchal,1,2 Lina Bezdetnaya1,2 1Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 7039, Université de Lorraine, 2Research Department, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 3Laboratory of Biophysics and Biotechnology, 4International Sakharov Environmental Institute, Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus; 5Department of Radiology, Medical Company Sunkar, Almaty, Kazakhstan Abstract: The increasing number of publications on the subject shows that nanomedicine is an attractive field for investigations aiming to considerably improve anticancer chemotherapy. Based on selective tumor targeting while sparing healthy tissue, carrier-mediated drug delivery has been expected to provide significant benefits to patients. However, despite reduced systemic toxicity, most nanodrugs approved for clinical use have been less effective than previously anticipated. The gap between experimental results and clinical outcomes demonstrates the necessity to perform comprehensive drug screening by using powerful preclinical models. In this context, in vitro three-dimensional models can provide key information on drug behavior inside the tumor tissue. The multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS model closely mimics a small avascular tumor with the presence of proliferative cells surrounding quiescent cells and a necrotic core. Oxygen, pH and nutrient gradients are similar to those of solid tumor. Furthermore, extracellular matrix (ECM components and stromal cells can be embedded in the most sophisticated spheroid design. All these elements together with the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs play a key role in drug transport, and therefore, the MCTS model is appropriate to assess the ability of NP to penetrate the tumor tissue. This review presents recent developments in MCTS models for a

  7. Gold nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions: assessment of safety and biological identity for nanomedicine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correard F

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Florian Correard,1,2 Ksenia Maximova,3 Marie-Anne Estève,1,2 Claude Villard,1 Myriam Roy,4 Ahmed Al-Kattan,3 Marc Sentis,3 Marc Gingras,4 Andrei V Kabashin,3 Diane Braguer1,2 1Aix Marseille Université, INSERM, CR02 UMR_S911, Marseille, France; 2APHM, Hôpital Timone, Marseille, France; 3Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LP3 UMR 7341, Marseille, France; 4Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CINAM, UMR 7325 Marseille, France Abstract: Due to excellent biocompatibility, chemical stability, and promising optical properties, gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs are the focus of research and applications in nanomedicine. Au-NPs prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions present an essentially novel object that is unique in avoiding any residual toxic contaminant. This paper is conceived as the next step in development of laser-ablated Au-NPs for future in vivo applications. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, uptake, and biological behavior of laser-synthesized Au-NPs prepared in water or polymer solutions in human cell lines. Our results showed that laser ablation allows the obtaining of stable and monodisperse Au-NPs in water, polyethylene glycol, and dextran solutions. The three types of Au-NPs were internalized in human cell lines, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Biocompatibility and safety of Au-NPs were demonstrated by analyzing cell survival and cell morphology. Furthermore, incubation of the three Au-NPs in serum-containing culture medium modified their physicochemical characteristics, such as the size and the charge. The composition of the protein corona adsorbed on Au-NPs was investigated by mass spectrometry. Regarding composition of complement C3 proteins and apolipoproteins, Au-NPs prepared in dextran solution appeared as a promising drug carrier. Altogether, our results revealed the safety of laser-ablated Au-NPs in human cell lines and support their use for theranostic applications. Keywords: protein

  8. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Logothetidis, Stergios

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the laboratory, scientific and clinical aspects of nanomaterials used for medical applications in the fields of regenerative medicine, dentistry and pharmacy. It gives a broad overview on the in vitro compatibility assessment of nanostructured materials implemented in the medical field by the combination of classical biological protocols and advanced non-destructive nano-precision techniques with special emphasis on the topographical, surface energy, optical and electrical properties. Materials in the physical form of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and thin films are addressed in

  9. Phosphorus dendrimers for nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-31

    From biomaterials to imaging, and from drug delivery to drugs by themselves, phosphorus-containing dendrimers offer a large palette of biological properties, depending essentially on their types of terminal functions. The most salient examples of phosphorus dendrimers used for the elaboration of bio-chips and of supports for cell cultures, for imaging biological events, and for carrying and delivering drugs or biomacromolecules are presented in this feature article. Several phosphorus dendrimers can be considered also as drugs per se (by themselves) in particular to fight against cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo. Toxicity assays are also reported.

  10. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    G?K?AY, Banu; ARDA, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will...

  11. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçay, Banu; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will not cause social and ethical outcomes. In general, the definition of nanotechnology is the reconfiguration of nanomaterials by human; there also are different definitions according to the history of nanotechnology and different point of views. First of all, in comparison to the other tehnology fields, what is the cause of excellence of nanotechnology, what human can do is to foresee the advantages and disadvantages of it, what are the roles of developed and developping countries for the progression of nanotechnology, what is the attitude of nanoethics and what is view of global politics to nanotechological research according to international regulations are all the focus of interests of this study. Last but not least, our apprehension capacity of nanotechnology, our style of adoption and evaluation of it and the way that how we locate nanotechnology in our lifes and ethical values are the other focus of interests.

  12. Nanomedicine: AFM tackles osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Thomas; Schmitz, Nicole; Haag, Jochen

    2009-03-01

    Current diagnostic tools detect cartilage degeneration only at advanced stages, but the atomic force microscope can now detect structural changes earlier, paving the way for treatment of joint diseases.

  13. Nanomedicine in diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Rozlosnik, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Biased Diffusion and Rectified Brownian Motion at the Nanoscale Driving Mobile Sensing Automata for the Early Diagnosis of Endogenous DiseasesDario Narducci and Gianfranco CerofoliniBiotechnology-Utilized Nanopore for Single-Molecule InvestigationJi Wook Shim and Li-Qun GuSelf-assembled Peptide and Protein Nanostructures in DiagnosisJaime Castillo-León, Yuri Belotti, and Winnie E. SvendsenElectrochemical Sensor Systems for MedicineV. V. Shumyantseva, E. V. Suprun, T. V. Bulko, Ya. M. Chalenko, and A. I. ArchakovCon

  14. Molecular mechanism of pancreatic tumor metastasis inhibition by Gd@C82(OH)22 and its implication for de novo design of nanomedicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. -g.; Zhou, G.; Yang, P.; Liu, Y.; Sun, B.; Huynh, T.; Meng, H.; Zhao, L.; Xing, G.; Chen, C.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, R.

    2012-09-18

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the most lethal of the solid tumors and the fourth-leading cause of cancer-related death in North America. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have long been targeted as a potential anticancer therapy because of their seminal role in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation of tumor survival and invasion. However, the inhibition specificity to MMPs and the molecular-level understanding of the inhibition mechanism remain largely unresolved. Here, we found that endohedral metallofullerenol Gd@C82(OH)22 can successfully inhibit the neoplastic activity with experiments at animal, tissue, and cellular levels. Gd@C82(OH)22 effectively blocks tumor growth in human pancreatic cancer xenografts in a nude mouse model. Enzyme activity assays also show Gd@C82(OH)22 not only suppresses the expression of MMPs but also significantly reduces their activities. We then applied large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations to illustrate the molecular mechanism by studying the Gd@C82(OH)22–MMP-9 interactions in atomic detail. Our data demonstrated that Gd@C82(OH)22 inhibits MMP-9 mainly via an exocite interaction, whereas the well-known zinc catalytic site only plays a minimal role. Steered by nonspecific electrostatic, hydrophobic, and specific hydrogen-bonding interactions, Gd@C82(OH)22 exhibits specific binding modes near the ligand-specificity loop S1', thereby inhibiting MMP-9 activity. Both the suppression of MMP expression and specific binding mode make Gd@C82(OH)22 a potentially more effective nanomedicine for pancreatic cancer than traditional medicines, which usually target the proteolytic sites directly but fail in selective inhibition. Finally, our findings provide insights for de novo design of nanomedicines for fatal diseases such as pancreatic cancer.

  15. NMR study of the molecular nanomagnet [Fe8(N3C6H15)6O2(OH)12]·[Br8·9H2O] in the high-spin magnetic ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Kumagai, K.; Lascialfari, A.; Aldrovandi, S.; Borsa, F.; Sessoli, R.; Gatteschi, D.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic molecular cluster [Fe 8 (N 3 C 6 H 15 ) 6 O 2 (OH) 12 ] 8+ [Br 8 ·9H 2 O] 8- , in short Fe8, has been investigated at low temperature by 1 H-NMR and relaxation measurements. Some measurements of 2 D-NMR in partially deuterated Fe8 clusters will also be reported. Upon decreasing temperature the NMR spectra display a very broad and structured signal which is the result of the internal local fields at the proton sites due to the local moments of the Fe(III) ions in the total S=10 magnetic ground state. The proton and deuteron NMR spectra have been analyzed and the different resonance peaks have been attributed to the different proton groups in the molecule. The simulation of the spectra by using a dipolar hyperfine field and the accepted model for the orientation of the Fe(III) local moments do not agree with the experiments even when the magnitude of the local Fe(III) moments is allowed to vary. It is concluded that a positive contact hyperfine interaction of the same order of magnitude as the dipolar interaction is present for all proton sites except the water molecules. The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate is ascribed to the fluctuations of the local Fe(III) moments, which follow rigidly the fluctuations of the total ground state magnetization of the nanomagnet. By using a simple model already utilized for the Mn12 cluster, we derive the value of the spin phonon coupling constant which determines the lifetime broadening of the different magnetic quantum number m substates of the S=10 ground state. It is shown that the lifetime broadening decreases rapidly on lowering the temperature. When the lifetime becomes longer than the reciprocal of the frequency shift of the proton lines a structure emerges in the NMR spectrum reflecting the ''frozen'' local moment configuration

  16. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-Qiong; Zheng, Chun-Hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-Hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Surface biofunctionalized CdS and ZnS quantum dot nanoconjugates for nanomedicine and oncology: to be or not to be nanotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S; de Carvalho, Sandhra M; Lobato, Zélia IP; Guedes, Maria IMC; Leite, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS), the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types), and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd2+ on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake. Unexpectedly, no decisive evidence of nanotoxicity of CdS and ZnS conjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections in BALB/c mice for 30 days, with minor localized fluorescence detected in liver tissue specimens. Therefore, these results proved that CdS nanoconjugates could pose an excessive threat for clinical applications due to unpredicted and uncorrelated in vitro and in vivo responses caused by highly toxic cadmium ions at biointerfaces. On the contrary, ZnS nanoconjugates proved that the “safe by design” concept used in this research (ie, biocompatible core–shell nanostructures) could benefit a plethora of applications in nanomedicine and oncology. PMID:27695325

  18. Promoting neuroregeneration by applying dynamic magnetic fields to a novel nanomedicine: Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-gold nanoparticles bounded with nerve growth factor (NGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Muzhaozi; Wang, Ya; Qin, Yi-Xian

    2018-04-05

    Neuroregeneration imposes a significant challenge in neuroscience for treating neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that the nerve growth factor (NGF) functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-gold (Au) nanomedicine can stimulate the neuron growth and differentiation under external magnetic fields (MFs), and dynamic MFs outperform their static counterparts. The SPIO-Au core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) (Diameter: 20.8 nm) possessed advantages such as uniform quasi-spherical shapes, narrow size distribution, excellent stabilities, and low toxicity (viability >96% for 5 days). NGF functionalization has enhanced the cellular uptake. The promotion of neuronal growth and orientation using NGF functionalized SPIO-Au NPs, driven by both the static and dynamic MFs, were revealed experimentally on PC-12 cells and theoretically on a cytoskeletal force model. More importantly, dynamic MFs via rotation performed better than the static ones, i.e., the cellular differentiation ratio increased 58%; the neurite length elongation increased 63%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combination of siRNA-directed Kras oncogene silencing and arsenic-induced apoptosis using a nanomedicine strategy for the effective treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Linjuan; Li, Jingguo; Wang, Yong; Qian, Chenchen; Chen, Yinting; Zhang, Qiubo; Wu, Wei; Lin, Zhong; Liang, Jianzhong; Shuai, Xintao; Huang, Kaihong

    2014-02-01

    The synergetic inhibitory effects on human pancreatic cancer by nanoparticle-mediated siRNA and arsenic therapy were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysine) were prepared to form siRNA-complexed polyplex and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(DL-lactide) were prepared to form arsenic-encapsulated vesicle, respectively. Down-regulation of the mutant Kras gene by siRNA caused defective abilities of proliferation, clonal formation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, as well as cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, which substantially enhanced the apoptosis-inducing effect of arsenic administration. Consequently, co-administration of the two nanomedicines encapsulating siRNA or arsenic showed ideal tumor growth inhibition both in vitro and in vivo as a result of synergistic effect of the siRNA-directed Kras oncogene silencing and arsenic-induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that the combination of mutant Kras gene silencing and arsenic therapy using nanoparticle-mediated delivery strategy is promising for pancreatic cancer treatment. Treatment of pancreatic cancer remains a major challenge. These authors demonstrate a method that combines a siRNA-based Kras silencing with arsenic delivery to pancreatic cancer cells using nanoparticles, resulting in enhanced apoptosis induction in the treated cells. © 2013.

  20. PET imaging with copper-64 as a tool for real-time in vivo investigations of the necessity for cross-linking of polymeric micelles in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Andreas I; Binderup, Tina; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Grandjean, Constance E; Rasmussen, Palle H; Kjaer, Andreas; Andresen, Thomas L

    2017-06-30

    Polymeric micelles in nanomedicine are often cross-linked to prevent disintegration in vivo. This typically requires clinically problematic chemicals or laborious procedures. In addition, cross-linking may interfere with advanced release strategies. Despite this, it is often not investigated whether cross-linking is necessary for efficient drug delivery. We used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 64 Cu to demonstrate general methodology for real-time in vivo investigations of micelle stability. Triblock copolymers with 4-methylcoumarin cores of ABC-type (PEG-PHEMA-PCMA) were functionalized in the handle region (PHEMA) with CB-TE2A chelators. Polymeric micelles were formed by dialysis and one half was core cross-linked (CL) by UV light and the other half was not (nonCL). Both CL and nonCL were radiolabeled with 64 Cu and compared in vivo in tumor-bearing mice, with free 64 Cu as control. Accumulation in relevant organs was quantified by region of interest analysis on PET images and ex vivo counting. It was observed that CL and nonCL showed limited differences in biodistribution from each other, whereas both differed markedly from control (free 64 Cu). This demonstrated that 4-methylcoumarin core micelles may form micelles that are stable in circulation even without cross-linking. The methodology presented here where individual unimers are radiolabeled is applicable to a wide range of polymeric micelle types. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Surface biofunctionalized CdS and ZnS quantum dot nanoconjugates for nanomedicine and oncology: to be or not to be nanotoxic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur AAP

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra AP Mansur,1 Herman S Mansur,1 Sandhra M de Carvalho,1–3 Zélia IP Lobato,2 Maria IMC Guedes,2 Maria F Leite3 1Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, and Innovation-CeNano2I, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, 2Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary School, 3Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil Abstract: Herein, for the first time, we demonstrated that novel biofunctionalized semiconductor nanomaterials made of Cd-containing fluorescent quantum dot nanoconjugates with the surface capped by an aminopolysaccharide are not biologically safe for clinical applications. Conversely, the ZnS-based nanoconjugates proved to be noncytotoxic, considering all the parameters investigated. The results of in vitro cytotoxicity were remarkably dependent on the chemical composition of quantum dot (CdS or ZnS, the nature of the cell (human cancerous and embryonic types, and the concentration and time period of exposure to these nanomaterials, caused by the effects of Cd2+ on the complex nanotoxicity pathways involved in cellular uptake. Unexpectedly, no decisive evidence of nanotoxicity of CdS and ZnS conjugates was observed in vivo using intravenous injections in BALB/c mice for 30 days, with minor localized fluorescence detected in liver tissue specimens. Therefore, these results proved that CdS nanoconjugates could pose an excessive threat for clinical applications due to unpredicted and uncorrelated in vitro and in vivo responses caused by highly toxic cadmium ions at biointerfaces. On the contrary, ZnS nanoconjugates proved that the “safe by design” concept used in this research (ie, biocompatible core–shell nanostructures could benefit a plethora of applications in nanomedicine and oncology. Keywords: fluorescent nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, nanotoxicity, bionanoconjugates, nanoprobes

  2. Smart blood cell and microvesicle-based Trojan horse drug delivery: Merging expertise in blood transfusion and biomedical engineering in the field of nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Wen; Goubran, Hadi; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of nanomedicine are playing increasingly important roles in human health. Various types of synthetic nanoparticles, including liposomes, micelles, and other nanotherapeutic platforms and conjugates, are being engineered to encapsulate or carry drugs for treating diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, neurodegeneration, and inflammations. Nanocarriers are designed to increase the half-life of drugs, decrease their toxicity and, ideally, target pathological sites. Developing smart carriers with the capacity to deliver drugs specifically to the microenvironment of diseased cells with minimum systemic toxicity is the goal. Blood cells, and potentially also the liposome-like micro- and nano-vesicles they generate, may be regarded as ideally suited to perform such specific targeting with minimum immunogenic risks. Blood cell membranes are "decorated" with complex physiological receptors capable of targeting and communicating with other cells and tissues and delivering their content to the surrounding pathological microenvironment. Blood cells, such as erythrocytes, have been developed as permeable carriers to release drugs to diseased tissues or act as biofactory allowing enzymatic degradation of a pathological substrate. Interestingly, attempts are also being made to improve the targeting capacity of synthetic nanoparticles by "decorating" their surface with blood cell membrane receptor-like biochemical structures. Research is needed to further explore the benefits that blood cell-derived microvesicles, as a Trojan horse delivery systems, can bring to the arsenal of therapeutic micro- and nanotechnologies. This short review focuses on the therapeutic roles that red blood cells and platelets can play as smart drug-delivery systems, and highlights the benefits that blood transfusion expertise can bring to this exciting and novel biomedical engineering field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular nanomagnets: the first 10 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatteschi, Dante E-mail: dante.gatteschi@unifi.it; Sessoli, Roberta

    2004-05-01

    We review here the main achievements reached in the field of magnetic molecules in the first 10 years of activity. After introducing the concept of magnetic molecules we report at some length on the archetypal Mn12Ac, pointing out what is understood and what is still left to do. Other systems will also be reported including Fe8 and Mn4. A section will be devoted to magnetic chains and a final section will give perspectives for future developments.

  4. Anisotropic magnetization of Fe8 molecular nanomagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Miki; Maegawa, Satoru

    2002-01-01

    The magnetization of the single crystal of a molecular magnet [(C 6 H 15 N 3 ) 6 Fe 8 O 2 (OH) 12 ] Br 7 (H 2 O) Br·8H 2 O, Fe8, has been measured in the temperature down to 1.8 K and the field up to 5 T. The molecule Fe8 consists of eight Fe 3+ ions with spins s=5/2. The magnetization at low temperatures shows large anisotropy depending on the orientation of the external magnetic field. The temperature and magnetic field dependences of the magnetization are well explained by the Hamiltonian for the isolated molecules with total spins S=10. The anisotropies of D and E are estimated to be -0.276 K and -0.035 K, respectively. (author)

  5. Molecular nanomagnets: the first 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatteschi, Dante; Sessoli, Roberta

    2004-01-01

    We review here the main achievements reached in the field of magnetic molecules in the first 10 years of activity. After introducing the concept of magnetic molecules we report at some length on the archetypal Mn12Ac, pointing out what is understood and what is still left to do. Other systems will also be reported including Fe8 and Mn4. A section will be devoted to magnetic chains and a final section will give perspectives for future developments

  6. Spin Tunneling in a Rotating Nanomagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Michael; Chudnovsky, Eugene; Lehman College Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Team

    2011-03-01

    We study spin tunneling in a magnetic nanoparticle with biaxial anisotropy that is free to rotate about its anisotropy axis. Exact instanton of the coupled equations of motion is found that connects degenerate classical energy minima. We show that mechanical freedom of the particle renormalizes magnetic anisotropy and increases the tunnel splitting. M. F. O'Keeffe and E. M. Chudnovsky, cond-mat, arXiv:1011.3134.

  7. Vortex jump behavior in coupled nanomagnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Heinonen, O.

    2014-01-01

    The spin configuration and magnetic behavior in patterned nanostructures can be controlled by manipulating the interplay between the competing energy terms. This in turn requires fundamental knowledge of the magnetic interactions at the local nanometer scale. Here, we report on the spin structure and magnetization behavior of patterned discs containing exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers with additional exchange bias to an antiferromagnetic layer. The magnetization reversal was explored by direct local visualization of the domain behavior using in-situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, from which quantitative magnetic induction maps were reconstructed. The roles of the main competing energy terms were elucidated and the reversal mechanism was identified as a coupled phenomenon of incoherent rotation in the exchange-biased layer and localized vortex nucleation and discontinuous propagation in the free layer, including an anomalous jump in the trajectory. The observations were supported by micromagnetic simulations and modeled phase shift simulations. The work presented here provides fundamental insights into opportunities for macroscopic control of the energy landscape of magnetic heterostructures for functional applications

  8. Archaeological applications of naturally occurring nanomagnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, Neil [English Heritage, Fort Cumberland, Fort Cumberland Road, Eastney, Portsmouth PO4 9LD (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within the soils and sediments forming archaeological sites can often provide a valuable record of past human activity. These records are formed through the alteration of weakly magnetic minerals to fine grained iron oxides, such as magnetite or maghaemite, that leave an almost indelible magnetic 'finger print' on the landscape. Archaeologists have exploited these magnetic records at a variety of levels from geophysical survey to reveal the location of a site, to determining how old a particular excavated feature may be through archaeomagnetic dating. More recent studies have investigated the process of magnetic enhancement through the often complex interaction of pedogenic, microbial and anthropogenic mechanisms and pathways. This research has revealed many unique magnetic signatures within archaeological sediments that may help to identify a range of significant environmental conditions, such as the effects of climate change or the deliberate use of fire. This paper aims to provide an overview of how the techniques of environmental magnetism may be applied to the analysis of archaeological remains. Both field based geophysical prospecting and the measurement of magnetic properties from samples recovered during excavation will be considered. The interpretation of the resulting magnetic measurements will also be addressed through the use of an unmixing algorithm applied to hysteresis data.

  9. Archaeological applications of naturally occurring nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, Neil

    2005-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of iron minerals within the soils and sediments forming archaeological sites can often provide a valuable record of past human activity. These records are formed through the alteration of weakly magnetic minerals to fine grained iron oxides, such as magnetite or maghaemite, that leave an almost indelible magnetic 'finger print' on the landscape. Archaeologists have exploited these magnetic records at a variety of levels from geophysical survey to reveal the location of a site, to determining how old a particular excavated feature may be through archaeomagnetic dating. More recent studies have investigated the process of magnetic enhancement through the often complex interaction of pedogenic, microbial and anthropogenic mechanisms and pathways. This research has revealed many unique magnetic signatures within archaeological sediments that may help to identify a range of significant environmental conditions, such as the effects of climate change or the deliberate use of fire. This paper aims to provide an overview of how the techniques of environmental magnetism may be applied to the analysis of archaeological remains. Both field based geophysical prospecting and the measurement of magnetic properties from samples recovered during excavation will be considered. The interpretation of the resulting magnetic measurements will also be addressed through the use of an unmixing algorithm applied to hysteresis data

  10. Ultrathin magnetic structures IV applications of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is de...

  11. Ultrathin magnetic structures III fundamentals of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Bland, JAC

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. This volume describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. Volume IV deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be ...

  12. Vortex jump behavior in coupled nanomagnetic heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.; Phatak, C., E-mail: cd@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Petford-Long, A. K. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Heinonen, O. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3112 (United States)

    2014-11-24

    The spin configuration and magnetic behavior in patterned nanostructures can be controlled by manipulating the interplay between the competing energy terms. This in turn requires fundamental knowledge of the magnetic interactions at the local nanometer scale. Here, we report on the spin structure and magnetization behavior of patterned discs containing exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers with additional exchange bias to an antiferromagnetic layer. The magnetization reversal was explored by direct local visualization of the domain behavior using in-situ Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, from which quantitative magnetic induction maps were reconstructed. The roles of the main competing energy terms were elucidated and the reversal mechanism was identified as a coupled phenomenon of incoherent rotation in the exchange-biased layer and localized vortex nucleation and discontinuous propagation in the free layer, including an anomalous jump in the trajectory. The observations were supported by micromagnetic simulations and modeled phase shift simulations. The work presented here provides fundamental insights into opportunities for macroscopic control of the energy landscape of magnetic heterostructures for functional applications.

  13. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7 th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal′s derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don′t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s. Particle size (1-2 μ reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.

  14. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe

  15. Spatial and temporal resolution in cryo-electron microscopy : a scope for nano-chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederik, P.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy has evolved in an established approach to study the structure of bio-colloids. Recent developments in instrumentation and automation, often demanded by life sciences, made cryo-EM a general tool in colloid chemistry. Recently improved instrumentation for vitrification has

  16. NanoChemistry Group at DTU uses NanoSight's NTA System for Nanoparticle Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    (Nanowerk News) NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Gold Nanoparticles in Green Nanochemistry Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    dendrimers . The NPs were found to have discrete absorption and fluorescence from the UV spectrum to near infrared. Bauer et al. (6) and McFarland et al...of TiO2 nanoparticles, and are transported to the electrode. An I - /I3 - is used as a redox couple to replenish electrons to the dye molecules

  18. Oligosaccharide nanomedicine of alginate sodium improves therapeutic results of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages for degenerative lumbar disease in osteoporosis patients by downregulating serum miR-155.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Wang, Zhengming; Zhou, Haohan; Kang, Mingyang; Dong, Rongpeng; Zhao, Jianwu

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative lumbar disease (DLD) is a significant issue for public health. Posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion with cages (PLIFC) has high-level fusion rate and realignment on DLD. However, there are some complications following the surgery. Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS) have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and may be suitable for infection therapy. MiR-155 is a biomarker associated with inflammatory and oxidative stress. AOS may promote PLIFC therapy by regulating miR-155. Pluronic nanoparticles and oligosaccharide nanomedicine of alginate sodium (ONAS) were prepared with ampicillin at size effects were lower in OG than those in PG (RR =0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.48, 0.84], P =0.001). The fusion rates were higher in OG than in PG (WMD =21.96, 95% CI [-0.24, 37.62], P =0.021). The JOA scores were higher in OG than in PG (RR =0.52, 95% CI [0.33, 0.84], P =0.007), and no significant difference was found for the visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Serum levels of miR-155, ALT, AST, and IL-1β were lower while SOD, GSH, and IL-1ra were higher in OG than in PG. MiR-155 mimic increased the levels of ALT, AST, and IL-1β and reduced the levels of SOD, GSH, and IL-1ra. In contrast, miR-155 inhibitor had reverse results. Therefore, ONAS has better improvement in complications and therapeutic effects on DLD by regulating serum miR-155.

  19. Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ferrite synthesized by combustion and Pechini method for use in nanomedicine: methods evaluation; Ferrita Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintetizada por reacao de combustao e metodo Pechini para uso na nanomedicina: avaliacao dos metodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, I.L.T. de; Nascimento, A.L.C.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: allana.layla@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesize the Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O3 ferrite by combustion reaction and Pechini method, and to evaluate structural characteristics and magnetic behavior for its use in nanomedicine. The synthesized ferrite was characterized by DRX, BET, TG and magnetic properties. According to the results of XRD, the Ni{sub 0,5}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ferrite synthesized by both methods presented nano crystallite sizes, high crystallinity, surface area, stable at high temperatures and with high saturation magnetization, being higher in the ferrite synthesized by combustion reaction. Both methods produced materials that could be used in nanomedicine.

  20. Oligosaccharide nanomedicine of alginate sodium improves therapeutic results of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with cages for degenerative lumbar disease in osteoporosis patients by downregulating serum miR-155

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yang Qu, Zhengming Wang, Haohan Zhou, Mingyang Kang, Rongpeng Dong, Jianwu Zhao Department of Orthopedics, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Degenerative lumbar disease (DLD is a significant issue for public health. Posterior lumbar intervertebral fusion with cages (PLIFC has high-level fusion rate and realignment on DLD. However, there are some complications following the surgery. Alginate oligosaccharides (AOS have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and may be suitable for infection therapy. MiR-155 is a biomarker associated with inflammatory and oxidative stress. AOS may promote PLIFC therapy by regulating miR-155. Pluronic nanoparticles and oligosaccharide nanomedicine of alginate sodium (ONAS were prepared with ampicillin at size <200 nm. Ninety-six DLD osteoporosis patients received PLIFC and were evenly assigned into ONAS group (OG, oral administration of 100 mg ONAS daily and control group (PG, 100 mg pluronic nanoparticles. Serum miR-155 level was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra were measured. Weighted mean difference (WMD, relative risk (RR, complications, surgery infection rate, fusion rate, and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scores were used to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. After 1-month therapy, infection rates and side effects were lower in OG than those in PG (RR =0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.48, 0.84], P=0.001. The fusion rates were higher in OG than in PG (WMD =21.96, 95% CI [–0.24, 37.62], P=0.021. The JOA scores were higher in OG than in PG (RR =0.52, 95% CI [0.33, 0.84], P=0.007, and no significant difference was found for the visual analog scale and Oswestry Disability Index. Serum levels of miR-155, ALT, AST, and IL-1β were lower while

  1. Electron holography for the study of nanomagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, John Meurig; Simpson, Edward T.; Kasama, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    provide important quantitative information, with nanometer-scale spatial resolution, pertaining to such materials’ magnetic properties. In this Account, with the aid of representative examples embracing solid-state chemistry, geochemistry, and bio-inorganic phenomena, we illustrate how off-axis electron...

  2. Nano-Magnets and Additive Manufacturing for Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    High power density is required for application of electric motors in hybrid electric propulsion. Potential path to achieve high power density in electric motors include advanced materials, lightweight thermal management, lightweight structural concepts, high power density power electronics, and advanced manufacturing. This presentation will focus on two key technologies for achieving high power density, advanced magnets and additive manufacturing. The maximum energy product in current magnets is reaching their theoretical limits as a result of material and process improvements. Future improvements in the maximum energy product for magnets can be achieved through development of nanocomposite magnets combining the hard magnetic phase and soft magnetic phase at the nanoscale level. The presentation will provide an overview of the current state of development for nanocomposite magnets and the future path for doubling the maximum energy product. The other part of the presentation will focus on the role of additive manufacturing in fabrication of high power density electric motors. The presentation will highlight the potential opportunities for applying additive manufacturing to fabricate electric motors.

  3. Rational design and modelling of f-block molecular nanomagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Baldoví Jachán, José Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Los imanes monomoleculares o moléculas imán, por sus siglas en inglés SMMs, han suscitado una gran atención en los últimos años debido a sus extraordinarias propiedades físicas. Los cristales de este tipo de moléculas se caracterizan por presentar relajación lenta de la magnetización a baja temperatura, así como curvas de histeresis magnética. Estas moléculas se encuentran entre las entidades con comportamiento magnético más complejas, mostrando fenómenos cuánticos tales como efecto túnel en ...

  4. Localized magnetic fields in arbitrary directions using patterned nanomagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeil, Robert P G; Schneble, Jeff; Kataoka, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Control of the local magnetic fields desirable for spintronics and quantum information technology is not well developed. Existing methods produce either moderately small local fields or one held orientation. We present designs of patterned magnetic elements that produce remanent fields of 50 mT (...

  5. Magnetization reversal processes of single nanomagnets and their energy barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krone, P.; Makarov, D.; Albrecht, M.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micromagnetic simulations were performed to investigate the influence of geometry and magnetic anisotropy constant on energy barrier and magnetization reversal mechanism of individual bits important for the bit patterned media concept in magnetic data storage. It is shown that dependency of the energy barrier on magnetic and geometric properties of bits can be described by an analytical approach in the case of quasi-coherent magnetization rotation process. However, when the bit size exceeds a critical size, for which an incoherent magnetization reversal is preferred, the analytical approach becomes invalid and no self-consistent theory is available. By systematically investigating the influence of bit size on the magnetization reversal mode, it was found that the transition from quasi-coherent to incoherent magnetization reversal mode can still be described analytically if an activation volume is considered instead of the bit volume. In this case, the nucleation volume is an important parameter determining thermal stability of the bit. If the volume of the bit is larger than twice the activation volume, the energy barrier stays nearly constant; with further increase in bit size, no gain in thermal stability can be achieved.

  6. Emergent 1/f noise in systems of oscillating nanomagnetic dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Barry Nicholas

    No one makes it this far alone, and I am no exception; here I offer my thanks and gratitude to the many individuals who have helped me make it to where I am today. First and foremost, my adviser Dan Dahlberg. Dan's committment to his students above all else shows in both his advisory style, and his being a strong advocate for his students above all others. His advisement struck the perfect balance of offering direction while still allowing me to come into my own as an independent experimentalist, and really feel that I owned the work I did in the lab, embracing Herb Broida's decree (that was posted all over the lab) to make mistakes as quickly as possible to learn as quickly as possible. He also was always willing to go to bat for students over any University issue; knowing Dan was always in my corner was a huge help many times over. The other graduate students in the Dahlberg lab{Tanner and Feng for showing me the ropes in my early days in the lab, Dan E and Bern for composing the other two- thirds of `The St. Olaf Mafia" and being both imcomparably helpful peers, and great inspirations for the scientist I aspired to be, Dave for his unquenchable enthusiasm for grad school in the face of my increasing jadedness, and for being an unbelievably quick learner and indispensible lab mate, and James and Ben for injecting yet more new life into the lab, to carry on the maximization of JP products. Abstract not available.

  7. Bringing nanomagnetism to the mesoscale with artificial amorphous structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscas, G.; Brucas, R.; Jönsson, P. E.

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for materials with emergent or improved properties, an effective route is to create artificial superstructures. Novel properties emerge from the coupling between the phases, but the strength of this coupling depends on the quality of the interfaces. Atomic control of crystalline interfaces is notoriously complicated and to elude that obstacle, we suggest here an all-amorphous design. Starting from a model amorphous iron alloy, we locally tune the magnetic behavior by creating boron-doped regions by means of ion implantation through a lithographic mask. This process preserves the amorphous environment, creating a non-topographic magnetic superstructure with smooth interfaces and no structural discontinuities. The absence of inhomogeneities acting as pinning centers for the magnetization reversal is demonstrated by the formation of magnetic vortexes for ferromagnetic disks as large as 20 µm in diameter embedded within a paramagnetic matrix. Rigid exchange coupling between two amorphous ferromagnetic phases in a microstructured sample is evidenced by an investigation involving first-order reversal curves. The sample consists of a soft matrix with embedded elements constituting a hard phase where the anisotropy originates from an elongated shape of the elements. We provide an intuitive explanation for the micrometer-range exchange coupling mechanism and discuss how to tailor the properties of all-amorphous superstructures.

  8. Magnetization behavior of nanomagnets for patterned media application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, S.; Kikuchi, N.; Kato, T.; Kitakami, O. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mitsuzuka, K.; Shimatsu, T.; Muraoka, H.; Aoi, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Lodder, J.C. [Information Storage Group, MESA, University of Twente, Enschede 7500 AE (Netherlands)], E-mail: j.c.lodder@el.utwente.nl

    2008-11-15

    Bit patterned media (BPM) which utilize each magnetic nanostructured dot as one recorded bit has attracted much interest as a promising candidate for future high-density magnetic recording. In this study, the magnetization reversal behaviors of nanostructured L1{sub 0}-FePt, Co/Pt multilayer (ML), and CoPt/Ru dots are investigated. For Co/Pt and CoPt/Ru nanodots, the bi-stable state is maintained in a very wide size range up to several hundred nm, and the magnetization reversal is dominated by the nucleation of a small reversed nucleus with the dimension of domain wall width. On the other hand, the critical size for the bi-stability of L1{sub 0}-FePt is about 60 nm, and its magnetization reversal proceeds via domain wall displacement even for such a small dot size. These reversal behaviors, depending on the magnetic materials, might be attributed to the difference in structural inhomogeneity, such as defects. In addition to the magnetic properties, the structural uniformity of the material could be crucial for the BPM application.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging by using nano-magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokrollahi, H., E-mail: Shokrollahi@sutech.ac.ir [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorramdin, A. [Electroceramics Group, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Isapour, Gh. [Department of Materials and Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Magnetism and magnetic materials play a major role in various biological applications, such as magnetic bioseparation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), hyperthermia treatment of cancer and drug delivery. Among these techniques, MRI is a powerful method not only for diagnostic radiology but also for therapeutic medicine that utilizes a magnetic field and radio waves. Recently, this technique has contributed greatly to the promotion of the human quality life. Thus, this paper presents a short review of the physical principles and recent advances of MRI, as well as providing a summary of the synthesis methods and properties of contrast agents, like different core materials and surfactants. - Highlights: • This paper studies the physics of MRI as a powerful diagnostic technique. • MRI uses the differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. • The relaxation times can be shortened by the use of a magnetic contrast agent. • The magnetic nanoparticles act as contrast agents, helping to increase the resolution. • Different synthesis methods can influence the magnetic resonance behavior.

  10. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Hong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China); Yang, Juxiang [Department of Chemistry, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an 710065 (China); Hu, Daodao, E-mail: daodaohu@snnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  11. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong; Li, Hong; Yang, Juxiang; Hu, Daodao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. ► The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. ► The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. ► The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  12. Molecular nanomagnetism in actinide-based coordination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caciuffo, R.; Colineau; Magnani, N.; Santini, G.; Amoretti, S.; Carretta, P.; Mougel, J.; Pécaut, L.; Chatelain, S.; Gambarelli, J.; Hermle, M.; Mazzanti, V.; Degeyer, A.; Tuna, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    We present very recent results obtained for a hetero-metallic U(V)-Mn(II) one-dimensional chain assembled through cation-cation interactions , and for a triangular molecule containing three U(V)O2+ (5f1) ions . The former is the first example of an actinidecontaining single-chain magnet (SCM), with a relaxation barrier of 134 K, a blocking temperature of 6 K, and an impressive coercive field Bc = 3.4 tesla at 2 K. The latter is characterized by a non-magnetic ground doublet corresponding to two oppositely twisted chiral arrangements of the U moments, and (in presence of a magnetic field orthogonal to the triangle plane) by quantum tunnelling of the noncollinear magnetization accompanied by oscillations of the anapole (toroidal) moment

  13. Intelligent nanomedicine integrating diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na (Inventor); Tan, Winny (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of controlling the activity of a biologically active compound. The method concerns an oligonucleotide-based compound, comprising a hairpin-forming oligonucleotide, an effector moiety physically associated with the oligonucleotide, where the effector moiety possesses a biological activity, and a regulating moiety physically associated with the oligonucleotide, where the regulating moiety controls the biological activity of the effector moiety by interacting with the effector moiety. The oligonucleotide can assume a hairpin configuration, where the effector and regulating moieties interact, or an open configuration, where the effector and regulating moieties fail to interact. Depending on the nature of the effector and regulating moieties, either configuration can result in the expression of the biological activity of the effector moiety.

  14. Immunomodulation of Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Qing; Li, Liwen; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have promising applications in medicine. Immune system is an important protective system to defend organisms from non-self matters. NPs interact with the immune system and modulate its function, leading to immunosuppression or immunostimulation. These modulating effects may bring benefits or danger. Compositions, sizes, and surface chemistry, and so forth, affect these immunomodulations. Here we give an overview of the relationship between the physicochemical properties of...

  15. Immunomodulation of Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have promising applications in medicine. Immune system is an important protective system to defend organisms from non-self matters. NPs interact with the immune system and modulate its function, leading to immunosuppression or immunostimulation. These modulating effects may bring benefits or danger. Compositions, sizes, and surface chemistry, and so forth, affect these immunomodulations. Here we give an overview of the relationship between the physicochemical properties of NPs, which are candidates to be applied in medicine, and their immunomodulation properties.

  16. Nanomedicine and therapy of lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Fabricio de Melo

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology has significantly increased in different fields of science, including the development of drug delivery systems. Currently, the most modern pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, nanoemulsions and polymeric nanoparticles, demonstrate extremely useful properties from the point of view of drug therapy. In this context, the development of nanocarriers for pulmonary application has been much debated by the scientific community in recent decades. Although research on the use of nanoparticles for pulmonary application are still in the initial phase, the studies conducted to date suggest that the development of drug delivery systems for systemic or local treatment of diseases that affect the respiratory system may be promising. (author)

  17. Curcumin nanoformulations: a future nanomedicine for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapu, Murali M; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2011-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural diphenolic compound derived from turmeric Curcuma longa, has proven to be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cancer cell growth, inflammation, invasion, apoptosis and cell death, revealing its anticancer potential. In this review, we focus on the design and development of nanoparticles, self-assemblies, nanogels, liposomes and complex fabrication for sustained and efficient curcumin delivery. We also discuss the anticancer applications and clinical benefits of nanocurcumin formulations. Only a few novel multifunctional and composite nanosystem strategies offer simultaneous therapy as well as imaging characteristics. We also summarize the challenges to developing curcumin delivery platforms and up-to-date solutions for improving curcumin bioavailability and anticancer potential for therapy. PMID:21959306

  18. Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-09-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

  19. Potential Applications of Light Robotics in Nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    We have recently pioneered a new generation of 3D micro-printed light robotic structures with multi-functional biophotonics capabilities. The uniqueness of this light robotic approach is that even if a micro-biologist aims at exploring e.g. cell biology at nanoscopic scales, the main support...... of each micro-robotic structure can be 3D printed to have a size and shape that allows convenient laser manipulation in full 3D – even using relatively modest numerical aperture optics. An optical robot is typically equipped with a number of 3D printed "track-balls" that allow for real-time 3D light...... manipulation with six-degrees-of-freedom. This creates a drone-like functionality where each light-driven robot can be e.g. joystick-controlled and provide the user a feeling of stretching his/her hands directly into and interacting with the biologic micro-environment. The light-guided robots can thus act...

  20. Nanomedicine: Recent developments and opportunities in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swai, HS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available DEVELOPMENTS www.csir.co.za Plasma Levels: tremendous prolonged half-life (Single Dose, 50 mg/m2) Hours After Infusion D o xoru b ic in ( ? g /m L ) 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 0 .2 2.5 25 .0 0 .1 1 .0 10.0 PLD (T?=50-80 hours) Doxorubicin (T...

  1. Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

    2006-01-01

    Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

  2. Nanomedicine for Early Disease Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Olympus, Tokyo , Japan). Briefl y, HeLa and MDA-MB231 cells were collected by trypsinization, counted, and plated in a 96-well black clear-bottom...negative specifi city control. After incubation, the particles were washed away, and MDA-MB231-luc2 cell luminescence was measured immediately after...anks 490 wileyonlinelibrary.com © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Wenude mice . The real-time gene silencing effect was investigated non

  3. Nanomedicine and therapy of lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Fabricio de Melo, E-mail: fabriciomgarcia@gmail.com [Faculdade de Medicina Nova Esperanca, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The use of nanotechnology has significantly increased in different fields of science, including the development of drug delivery systems. Currently, the most modern pharmaceutical nanocarriers, such as liposomes, micelles, nanoemulsions and polymeric nanoparticles, demonstrate extremely useful properties from the point of view of drug therapy. In this context, the development of nanocarriers for pulmonary application has been much debated by the scientific community in recent decades. Although research on the use of nanoparticles for pulmonary application are still in the initial phase, the studies conducted to date suggest that the development of drug delivery systems for systemic or local treatment of diseases that affect the respiratory system may be promising. (author)

  4. Applying nanomedicine in maladaptive inflammation and angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alaarg, Amr; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Metselaar, Josbert M.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Fayad, Zahi A.; Storm, Gert; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and angiogenesis drive the development and progression of multiple devastating diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Though these diseases have very different phenotypic consequences, they possess several common

  5. Advances in nanotheranostics II cancer theranostic nanomedicine

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book surveys recent advances in theranostics based on magnetic nanoparticles, ultrasound contrast agents, silica nanoparticles and polymeric micelles. It presents magnetic nanoparticles, which offer a robust tool for contrast enhanced MRI imaging, magnetic targeting, controlled drug delivery, molecular imaging guided gene therapy, magnetic hyperthermia, and controlling cell fate. Multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents have great potential in ultrasound molecular imaging, multimodal imaging, drug/gene delivery, and integrated diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their diversity and multifunctionality, polymeric micelles and silica-based nanocomposites are highly capable of enhancing the efficacy of multimodal imaging and synergistic cancer therapy. This comprehensive book summarizes the main advances in multifunctional nanoprobes for targeted imaging and therapy of gastric cancer, and explores the clinical translational prospects and challenges. Although more research is needed to overcome the substan...

  6. Nanomedicine Drug Delivery across Mucous Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancina, Michael George, III

    Control over the distribution of therapeutic compounds is a complex and somewhat overlooked field of pharmaceutical research. When swallowing a pill or receiving an injection, it is commonly assumed that drug will spread throughout the body in a more or less uniform concentration and find its way to wherever it is needed. In truth, drug biodistribuition is highly non-uniform and dependent on a large number of factors. The development of advanced drug delivery systems to control biodistribution can produce significant advances in clinical treatments without the need to discover new therapeutic compounds. This work focuses on a number of nanostructured materials designed to improve drug delivery by direct and efficient transfer of drugs across one of the body's external mucous membranes. Chapter 1 outlines the central concept that unites these studies: nanomaterials and cationic particles can be used to delivery therapeutic compounds across mucous membranes. Special attention is given to dendritic nanoparticles. In chapter 2, uses for dendrimers in ocular drug delivery are presented. The studies are divided into two main groups: topical and injectable formulations. Chapter 3 does not involve dendrimers but instead another cationic particle used in transmembrane drug delivery, chitosan. Next, a dendrimer based nanofiber mat was used to deliver anti-glaucoma drugs in chapter 4. A three week in vivo efficacy trial showed dendrimer nanofiber mats outperformed traditional eye drops in terms of intra-ocular pressure decrease in a normotensive rat model. Finally, we have developed a new dendrimer based anti-glaucoma drug in chapter 5. Collectively, these studies demonstrate some of the potential applications for nanotechnology to improve transmembrane drug delivery. These particles and fibers are able to readily adhere and penetrate across epithelial cell lays. Utilizing these materials to improve drug absorption through these portals has the potential to improve the clinical treatment of wide variety of diseases.

  7. Thermoplasmonics heating metal nanoparticles using light

    CERN Document Server

    Baffou, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonics is an important branch of optics concerned with the interaction of metals with light. Under appropriate illumination, metal nanoparticles can exhibit enhanced light absorption, becoming nanosources of heat that can be precisely controlled. This book provides an overview of the exciting new field of thermoplasmonics and a detailed discussion of its theoretical underpinning in nanophotonics. This topic has developed rapidly in the last decade, and is now a highly-active area of research due to countless applications in nanoengineering and nanomedicine. These important applications include photothermal cancer therapy, drug and gene delivery, nanochemistry and photothermal imaging. This timely and self-contained text is suited to all researchers and graduate students working in plasmonics, nano-optics and thermal-induced processes at the nanoscale.

  8. The NanoChemistry group at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) uses NanoSight’s NTA system for nanoparticle characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Salisbury, UK, 7th December 2011: NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  9. The NanoChemistry group at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) uses NanoSight’s NTA system for nanoparticle characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    NanoSight, leading manufacturers of unique nanoparticle characterization technology, describes how the Nano Chemistry group at DTU Copenhagen is utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis, NTA, in its research and teaching programs....

  10. Nanolithography and nanochemistry utilizing scanning probe techniques: directed self-assembly of sub-micrometer-sized structures by scanning probe lithography defined templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Sturms, J.P.E.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) monolayer was formed on Si carrier, and the template regulated by a local probe oxidation method from this was produced using a scanning probe lithography. The local probe oxidation was done by moving an AFM tip along an axle line. When the chip contacts a OTS

  11. Raman spectroscopy in nanomedicine: current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Mark E; Byrne, Hugh J

    2013-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a branch of vibration spectroscopy that is capable of probing the chemical composition of materials. Recent advances in Raman microscopy have significantly added to the range of applications, which now extend from medical diagnostics to exploring the interfaces between biological organisms and nanomaterials. In this review, Raman is introduced in a general context, highlighting some of the areas in which the technique has been successful in the past, as well as some of the potential benefits it offers over other analytical modalities. The subset of Raman techniques that specifically probe the nanoscale, namely surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, will be described and specific applications relevant to nanomedical applications will be reviewed. Progress in the use of traditional label-free Raman for investigation of nanoscale interactions will be described, and recent developments in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering will be explored, particularly its applications to biomedical and nanomedical fields.

  12. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Dipanjan [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: dipanjan@wustl.edu; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA (United States)], E-mail: scaruthers@cmrl.wustl.edu

    2009-05-15

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  13. Nanomedicine in the Netherlands - Social and economic challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, B.; van Keulen, I.; van Est, R.; Malsch, I.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology promises employment, sustainability and health. The Dutch government invests heavily in it. But how do we achieve these promises? In preparation for a parliamentary debate about nanotechnology on 21 April 2010, the Rathenau Institute initiated a working visit of MPs to one of the most

  14. Frontiers in Cancer Nanomedicine: Directing Mass Transport through Biological Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The physics of mass transport within body compartments and across biological barriers differentiates cancers from healthy tissues. Variants of nanoparticles can be manufactured in combinatorially large sets, varying only one transport-affecting design parameter at a time. Nanoparticles can also be used as building blocks for systems that perform sequences of coordinated actions, in accordance to a prescribed logic. These are referred to as Logic-Embedded Vectors “(LEV)” in the following. Nanoparticles and LEVs are ideal probes for the determination of mass transport laws in tumors, acting as imaging contrast enhancers, and can be employed for the lesion-selective delivery of therapy. Their size, shape, density and surface chemistry dominate convective transport in the blood stream, margination, cell adhesion, selective cellular uptake, as well as sub-cellular trafficking and localization. As argued here, the understanding of transport differentials in cancer, termed ‘transport oncophysics’ unveils a new promising frontier in oncology: the development of lesion-specific delivery particulates that exploit mass transport differentials to deploy treatment of greater efficacy and reduced side effects. PMID:20079548

  15. Natural product-based nanomedicine: recent advances and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Rebekah; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Chenming; Davis, Richey M; Xu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used in medicine for many years. Many top-selling pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. These plant- or microorganism-derived compounds have shown potential as therapeutic agents against cancer, microbial infection, inflammation, and other disease conditions. However, their success in clinical trials has been less impressive, partly due to the compounds’ low bioavailability. The incorporation of nanoparticles into a delivery system for natural products would be a major advance in the efforts to increase their therapeutic effects. Recently, advances have been made showing that nanoparticles can significantly increase the bioavailability of natural products both in vitro and in vivo. Nanotechnology has demonstrated its capability to manipulate particles in order to target specific areas of the body and control the release of drugs. Although there are many benefits to applying nanotechnology for better delivery of natural products, it is not without issues. Drug targeting remains a challenge and potential nanoparticle toxicity needs to be further investigated, especially if these systems are to be used to treat chronic human diseases. This review aims to summarize recent progress in several key areas relevant to natural products in nanoparticle delivery systems for biomedical applications. PMID:26451111

  16. Different biokinetics of nanomedicines linking to their toxicity; an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Mohammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the extreme rise to the knowledge of nanotechnology in pharmaceutical sciences, there are currently limited experimental works studying the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs and the biological system. Adjustment of size and surface area plays the main role in the reaction between NPs and cells leading to their increased entrance into cells through skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory system. Moreover, change in physicochemical reactivity of NPs causes them to interact with circulatory and cellular proteins differentially leading to the altered parameters of their biokinetics, including adsorption, distribution, translocation, transformation, and elimination. A direct relationship between the surface area, reactive oxygen species generating capability, and proinflammatory effects of NPs have been found in respiratory tract toxicity. Additionally, complement-mediated hypersensitivity reactions to liposomes and other lipid-based nanodrugs have been well defined. Inhalation studies of some NPs have confirmed the translocation of inhaled materials to extra pulmonary organs such as central nervous system (CNS via olfactory neurons and induction of inflammatory response. Injectable uncoated NPs have a tendency to remain on the injection site while the poly ethanol glycol (PEG-coated NPs can be notably drained from the injection site to get as far as the lymph nodes where they accumulate. This confirms the existence of channels within the extracellular matrix for NPs to move along. Furthermore, induction of DNA strand breaks and formation of micronuclei have been recorded for exposure to some NPs such as single-walled carbon nanotubes. In the recent years, most of the studies have simply outlined better efficacy of nanodrugs, but few discussed their possible toxic reactions specially if used chronically. Therefore, we emphasize that this part of the nanoscience must not be undermined and toxicologists must be sensitive to set up suitable in vivo or in vitro toxicity models. A system for collecting data about the relationships between NPs’ structure-size-efficacy-toxicity (SSET should be specified with special regard to portal of entry and target organ.

  17. Exosomes in Cancer Nanomedicine and Immunotherapy: Prospects and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syn, Nicholas L; Wang, Lingzhi; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Lim, Chwee Teck; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2017-07-01

    Exosomes (versatile, cell-derived nanovesicles naturally endowed with exquisite target-homing specificity and the ability to surmount in vivo biological barriers) hold substantial promise for developing exciting approaches in drug delivery and cancer immunotherapy. Specifically, bioengineered exosomes are being successfully deployed to deliver potent tumoricidal drugs (siRNAs and chemotherapeutic compounds) preferentially to cancer cells, while a new generation of exosome-based therapeutic cancer vaccines has produced enticing results in early-phase clinical trials. Here, we review the state-of-the-art technologies and protocols, and discuss the prospects and challenges for the clinical development of this emerging class of therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M

    2015-01-01

    In spite of recent advances in describing the health outcomes of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), it still remains unclear how exactly NPs interact with their cellular targets. Size, surface, mass, geometry, and composition may all play a beneficial role as well as causing toxicity. Concerns...... towards alternative testing strategies for hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials, highlighting the adaptation of standard methods demanded by the special physicochemical features of nanomaterials and bioavailability studies. The work has assessed a broad range of toxicity tests, cell models and NP...... types and concentrations taking into account the inherent impact of NP properties and the effects of changes in experimental conditions using well-characterized NPs. The results of the studies have been used to generate recommendations for a suitable and robust testing strategy which can be applied...

  19. Risedronate/zinc-hydroxyapatite based nanomedicine for osteoporosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khajuria, Deepak Kumar, E-mail: deepak_kumarkhajuria@yahoo.co.in [Laboratory for Integrative Multiscale Engineering Materials and Systems, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027 (India); Disha, Choudhary [Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027 (India); Vasireddi, Ramakrishna [Laboratory for Integrative Multiscale Engineering Materials and Systems, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Razdan, Rema [Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560027 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy [Laboratory for Integrative Multiscale Engineering Materials and Systems, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-06-01

    Targeting of superior osteogenic drugs to bone is an ideal approach for treatment of osteoporosis. Here, we investigated the potential of using risedronate/zinc-hydroxyapatite (ZnHA) nanoparticles based formulation in a rat model of experimental osteoporosis. Risedronate, a targeting moiety that has a strong affinity for bone, was loaded to ZnHA nanoparticles by adsorption method. Prepared risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vivo performance of the prepared risedronate/ZnHA nanoparticles was tested in an experimental model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Therapy with risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation prevented increase in serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b better than risedronate/HA or risedronate. With respect to improvement in the mechanical strength of the femoral mid-shaft and correction of increase in urine calcium and creatinine levels, the therapy with risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation was more effective than risedronate/HA or risedronate therapy. Moreover, risedronate/ZnHA drug therapy preserved the cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture better than risedronate/HA or risedronate therapy. Furthermore, risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation showed higher values of calcium/phosphorous ratio and zinc content. The results strongly implicate that risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation has a therapeutic advantage over risedronate or risedronate/HA therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Risedronate functionalized zinc-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles were prepared. • Risedronate was used as a carrier to deliver zinc-hydroxyapatite nanoparticles to bones. • Application of risedronate/ZnHA drug formulation in osteoporosis is described.

  20. RNAi nanomedicines: challenges and opportunities within the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Shiri; Peer, Dan

    2010-01-01

    RNAi, as a novel therapeutic modality, has an enormous potential to bring the era of personalized medicine one step further from notion into reality. However, delivery of RNAi effector molecules into their target tissues and cells remain extremely challenging. Major attempts have been made in recent years to develop sophisticated nanocarriers that could overcome these hurdles. This review will present the recent progress with the challenges and opportunities in this emerging field, focusing mostly on the in vivo applications with special emphasis on the strategies for RNAi delivery into immune cells. (topical review)

  1. Cancer nanomedicine: gold nanoparticle mediated combined cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Bromma, Kyle; Chithrani, B. D.

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments in nanotechnology has provided new tools for cancer therapy and diagnosis. Among other nanomaterial systems, gold nanoparticles are being used as radiation dose enhancers and anticancer drug carriers in cancer therapy. Fate of gold nanoparticles within biological tissues can be probed using techniques such as TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) due to their high electron density. We have shown for the first time that cancer drug loaded gold nanoparticles can reach the nucleus (or the brain) of cancer cells enhancing the therapeutic effect dramatically. Nucleus of the cancer cells are the most desirable target in cancer therapy. In chemotherapy, smart delivery of highly toxic anticancer drugs through packaging using nanoparticles will reduce the side effects and improve the quality and care of cancer patients. In radiation therapy, use of gold nanoparticles as radiation dose enhancer is very promising due to enhanced localized dose within the cancer tissue. Recent advancement in nanomaterial characterization techniques will facilitate mapping of nanomaterial distribution within biological specimens to correlate the radiobiological effects due to treatment. Hence, gold nanoparticle mediated combined chemoradiation would provide promising tools to achieve personalized and tailored cancer treatments in the near future.

  2. Nanomedicine Strategies to Target Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnemars-Postma, Karin A.; Storm, G; Prakash, Jai

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the influence of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on cancer progression has been better understood. Macrophages, one of the most important cell types in the TME, exist in different subtypes, each of which has a different function. While classically activated M1 macrophages are

  3. Nanomedicine strategies to target tumor-associated macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnemars-Postma, Karin; Storm, Gert; Prakash, Jai

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the influence of the tumor microenvironment (TME) on cancer progression has been better understood. Macrophages, one of the most important cell types in the TME, exist in different subtypes, each of which has a different function. While classically activated M1 macrophages are

  4. Sterically stabilized spongosomes for multidrug delivery of anticancer nanomedicines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, Y.; Angelova, A.; Angelov, Borislav; Drechsler, M.; Garamus, V. M.; Willumeit-Römer, R.; Zou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 39 (2015), s. 7734-7744 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-10527J Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : SAXS * soft matter * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.872, year: 2015

  5. Transforming nanomedicine manufacturing toward Quality by Design and microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Stefano; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bøtker, Johan Peter

    2018-01-01

    -oriented manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has undergone an unprecedented change toward process and product development interaction. In this context, Quality by Design (QbD) aims to integrate product and process development resulting in an increased number of product applications to regulatory agencies and stronger...... proprietary defense strategies of process-based products. Although QbD can be applied to essentially any production approach, microfluidic production offers particular opportunities for QbD-based manufacturing of nanopharmaceuticals. Microfluidics provides unique design flexibility, process control...... and parameter predictability, and also offers ample opportunities for modular production setups, allowing process feedback for continuously operating production and process control. The present review aims at outlining emerging opportunities in the synergistic implementation of QbD strategies and microfluidic...

  6. The Frontiers of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (SIG MED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Polin P.

    2000-01-01

    This abstract of a planned session on the future of medicine explains the use of nanotechnology in medicine to manipulate biomolecules that regulate life and death processes and to help improve health care delivery. Topics include nanodevices for drug delivery, cancer detection and cure, and repairing genes. (LRW)

  7. Nanomedicine for the prevention, treatment and imaging of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarros, Costas; Lee, Regent; Margaritis, Marios; Antoniades, Charalambos

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, with an increasing prevalence due to an aging population. The pathology underpinning CVD is atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory state involving the arterial wall. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) laden macrophages in the arterial wall and their subsequent transformation into foam cells lead to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Progression of atherosclerotic lesions may gradually lead to plaque related complications and clinically manifest as acute vascular syndromes including acute myocardial or cerebral ischemia. Nanotechnology offers emerging therapeutic strategies, which may have advantage overclassical treatments for atherosclerosis. In this review, we present the potential applications of nanotechnology toward prevention, identification and treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics.

  9. Public Value Mapping of Equity in Emerging Nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Public values failure occurs when the market and the public sector fail to provide goods and services required to achieve the core values of society such as equity (Bozeman 2007). That public policy for emerging health technologies should address intrinsic societal values such as equity is not a novel concept. However, the ways that the public…

  10. Application of Bioactive Quercetin in Oncotherapy: From Nutrition to Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Suk Nam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals as dietary constituents are being explored for their cancer preventive properties. Quercetin is a major constituent of various dietary products and recently its anti-cancer potential has been extensively explored, revealing its anti-proliferative effect on different cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin is known to have modulatory effects on cell apoptosis, migration and growth via various signaling pathways. Though, quercetin possesses great medicinal value, its applications as a therapeutic drug are limited. Problems like low oral bioavailability and poor aqueous solubility make quercetin an unreliable candidate for therapeutic purposes. Additionally, the rapid gastrointestinal digestion of quercetin is also a major barrier for its clinical translation. Hence, to overcome these disadvantages quercetin-based nanoformulations are being considered in recent times. Nanoformulations of quercetin have shown promising results in its uptake by the epithelial system as well as enhanced delivery to the target site. Herein we have tried to summarize various methods utilized for nanofabrication of quercetin formulations and for stable and sustained delivery of quercetin. We have also highlighted the various desirable measures for its use as a promising onco-therapeutic agent.

  11. Protein corona: a new approach for nanomedicine design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen VH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Van Hong Nguyen, Beom-Jin Lee Department of Pharmacy, Bioavailability Control Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: After administration of nanoparticle (NP into biological fluids, an NP–protein complex is formed, which represents the “true identity” of NP in our body. Hence, protein–NP interaction should be carefully investigated to predict and control the fate of NPs or drug-loaded NPs, including systemic circulation, biodistribution, and bioavailability. In this review, we mainly focus on the formation of protein corona and its potential applications in pharmaceutical sciences such as prediction modeling based on NP-adsorbed proteins, usage of active proteins for modifying NP to achieve toxicity reduction, circulation time enhancement, and targeting effect. Validated correlative models for NP biological responses mainly based on protein corona fingerprints of NPs are more highly accurate than the models solely set up from NP properties. Based on these models, effectiveness as well as the toxicity of NPs can be predicted without in vivo tests, while novel cell receptors could be identified from prominent proteins which play important key roles in the models. The ungoverned protein adsorption onto NPs may have generally negative effects such as rapid clearance from the bloodstream, hindrance of targeting capacity, and induction of toxicity. In contrast, controlling protein adsorption by modifying NPs with diverse functional proteins or tailoring appropriate NPs which favor selective endogenous peptides and proteins will bring promising therapeutic benefits in drug delivery and targeted cancer treatment. Keywords: protein-nanoparticle interaction, protein corona, exchange of adsorbed protein, toxicity reduction, predictive modeling, targeting drug delivery

  12. Novel redox nanomedicine improves gene expression of polyion complex vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuko Toh, Toru Yoshitomi, Yutaka Ikeda and Yukio Nagasaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy has generated worldwide attention as a new medical technology. While non-viral gene vectors are promising candidates as gene carriers, they have several issues such as toxicity and low transfection efficiency. We have hypothesized that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS affects gene expression in polyplex supported gene delivery systems. The effect of ROS on the gene expression of polyplex was evaluated using a nitroxide radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP as an ROS scavenger. When polyethyleneimine (PEI/pGL3 or PEI alone was added to the HeLa cells, ROS levels increased significantly. In contrast, when (PEI/pGL3 or PEI was added with RNP, the ROS levels were suppressed. The luciferase expression was increased by the treatment with RNP in a dose-dependent manner and the cellular uptake of pDNA was also increased. Inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ROS generation in vivo. In particular, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α caused intracellular ROS generation in HeLa cells and decreased gene expression. RNP treatment suppressed ROS production even in the presence of TNF-α and increased gene expression. This anti-inflammatory property of RNP suggests that it may be used as an effective adjuvant for non-viral gene delivery systems.

  13. Potential of improving the treatment of tuberculosis through nanomedicine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Semete, B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available allowing its attachment onto the cell (Trewyn et al., 2008). It is equally admitted that spherical particles offer maximum volume for drug incorporation. We also observed that the use of lactose in the spray dried formulation helped to decrease...: in vivo release of free drugs vs spray dried nanoparticles encapsulating RIF, INH and PZA. A. Samples with high concentration of lactose (5%w/v) and B. samples with low concentration of lactose (4%w/v). C. The multidose indicates a formulation where RIF...

  14. Transforming nanomedicine manufacturing toward Quality by Design and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Stefano; Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bøtker, Johan Peter; Malmsten, Martin; Rantanen, Jukka; Bohr, Adam

    2018-04-05

    Nanopharmaceuticals aim at translating the unique features of nano-scale materials into therapeutic products and consequently their development relies critically on the progression in manufacturing technology to allow scalable processes complying with process economy and quality assurance. The relatively high failure rate in translational nanopharmaceutical research and development, with respect to new products on the market, is at least partly due to immature bottom-up manufacturing development and resulting sub-optimal control of quality attributes in nanopharmaceuticals. Recently, quality-oriented manufacturing of pharmaceuticals has undergone an unprecedented change toward process and product development interaction. In this context, Quality by Design (QbD) aims to integrate product and process development resulting in an increased number of product applications to regulatory agencies and stronger proprietary defense strategies of process-based products. Although QbD can be applied to essentially any production approach, microfluidic production offers particular opportunities for QbD-based manufacturing of nanopharmaceuticals. Microfluidics provides unique design flexibility, process control and parameter predictability, and also offers ample opportunities for modular production setups, allowing process feedback for continuously operating production and process control. The present review aims at outlining emerging opportunities in the synergistic implementation of QbD strategies and microfluidic production in contemporary development and manufacturing of nanopharmaceuticals. In doing so, aspects of design and development, but also technology management, are reviewed, as is the strategic role of these tools for aligning nanopharmaceutical innovation, development, and advanced industrialization in the broader pharmaceutical field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Caruthers, Shelton D.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  16. A nanomagnetic study of phase transition in manganite thin films and ballistic magnetoresistance in magnetic nanocontacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seok-Hwan

    This work focuses on two largely unexplored phenomena in micromagnetics: the temperature-driven paramagnetic insulator to ferromagnetic (FM) metallic phase transition in perovskite manganite and ballistic magnetoresistance in spin-polarized nanocontacts. To investigate the phase transition, an off-the-shelf commercial scanning force microscope was redesigned for operation at temperatures from 350 K to 100 K. This adaptation is elaborated in this thesis. Using this system, both ferromagnetic and charge-ordered domain structures of (La 1-xPrx)0.67Ca0.33MnO3 thin film were observed by magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and electric force microscopy (EFM) operated in the vicinity of the peak resistance temperature (Tp). Predominantly in-plane oriented FM domains of sub-micrometer size emerge below Tp and their local magnetic moment increased as the temperature is reduced. Charge-ordered insulating regions show a strong electrostatic interaction with an EFM tip at a few degrees above Tp and the interaction correlates well with the temperature dependence of resistivity of the film. Cross-correlation analysis between topography and magnetic structure on several substrates indicates FM domains form on the flat regions of the surface, while charge ordering occurs at surface protrusions. In the investigation of ballistic magnetoresistance, new results on half-metallic ferromagnets formed by atomic or nanometer contacts of CrO2-CrO 2 and CrO2-Ni are presented showing magnetoconductance as high as 400%. Analysis of the magnetoconductance versus conductance data for all materials known to exhibit so-called ballistic magnetoresistance strongly suggests that magnetoconductance of nanocontacts follows a universal mechanism. If the maximum magnetoconductance is normalized to unity and the conductance is scaled with the resistivity of the material, then all data points fall onto a universal curve independent of the contact material and the transport mechanism. The analysis has been applied to all available magnetoconductance data of magnetic nanocontacts in the literature. The results are in agreement with a theory that takes into account only the spin-scattering within a magnetic domain wall and are independent of whether the transport is ballistic or diffusive.

  17. New insights into nano-magnetism by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Dirk, E-mail: sander@mpi-halle.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Oka, Hirofumi; Corbetta, Marco; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Kirschner, Jürgen [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We measure the magnetization reversal of individual nm small Co island by spin-STM. ► We identify an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy within a single Co island. ► The magnetic anisotropy near the rim is negligible as compared to 0.148 meV/atom at the island center. ► A crossover of the magnetization reversal from an exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation is suggested. ► The impact of the observed spatial variation of the spin-dependent electronic properties on reversal is discussed. -- Abstract: We study the magnetization reversal and the position dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties of nm small bilayer Co islands on Cu(1 1 1) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy in magnetic fields at low temperatures of 8 K. The analysis of the energy barrier of magnetization reversal from measurements of the switching field suggests a crossover of the magnetization reversal mode with increasing island size around 7500 atoms from exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation. The quantitative analysis of the island size dependence of the energy barrier indicates an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy of the island. The island rim is magnetically soft, whereas the center shows a pronounced effective anisotropy of 0.148 meV/atom. We speculate that this inhomogeneity of the magnetic anisotropy might be a consequence of the spatial dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties. We measure a spin-polarization and a tunnel magneto resistance ratio of opposite sign at the rim as compared to the island center.

  18. New insights into nano-magnetism by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Dirk; Oka, Hirofumi; Corbetta, Marco; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measure the magnetization reversal of individual nm small Co island by spin-STM. ► We identify an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy within a single Co island. ► The magnetic anisotropy near the rim is negligible as compared to 0.148 meV/atom at the island center. ► A crossover of the magnetization reversal from an exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation is suggested. ► The impact of the observed spatial variation of the spin-dependent electronic properties on reversal is discussed. -- Abstract: We study the magnetization reversal and the position dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties of nm small bilayer Co islands on Cu(1 1 1) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy in magnetic fields at low temperatures of 8 K. The analysis of the energy barrier of magnetization reversal from measurements of the switching field suggests a crossover of the magnetization reversal mode with increasing island size around 7500 atoms from exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation. The quantitative analysis of the island size dependence of the energy barrier indicates an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy of the island. The island rim is magnetically soft, whereas the center shows a pronounced effective anisotropy of 0.148 meV/atom. We speculate that this inhomogeneity of the magnetic anisotropy might be a consequence of the spatial dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties. We measure a spin-polarization and a tunnel magneto resistance ratio of opposite sign at the rim as compared to the island center

  19. Isotopic effect on the quantum tunneling of the magnetization of molecular nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessoli, Roberta; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sorace, Lorenzo; Cornia, Andrea; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The molecular cluster [Fe 8 (tacn) 6 O 2 (OH) 12 ]Br 8 ·9H 2 O, Fe 8 , characterized by S=10, with biaxial magnetic anisotropy is an ideal system to investigate quantum effects in the dynamics of the magnetization. Resonant quantum tunneling gives rise to stepped hysteresis cycles and below 0.35 K pure quantum tunneling of the magnetization has been observed. The role of hyperfine fields in promoting the tunneling as a source of dynamic broadening of the states involved in the tunnel transition is investigated by preparing and characterizing two isotopically enriched samples using 57 Fe and 2 H. The relaxation rate in the tunneling regime is proportional to the hyperfine field generated by the nuclei. Also, the intrinsic linewidth of the tunneling resonance scales with the hyperfine field as confirmed by calculations of the super (or transfer) and direct hyperfine interactions. Preliminary results on a novel cluster of formula [Fe 4 (OCH 3 ) 6 (dpm) 6 ], Fe 4 , suited for a more dramatic isotope effect on the tunneling rate are also reported

  20. Spin Dynamics and Quantum Tunneling in Fe8 Nanomagnet and in AFM Rings by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung-Ho-Baek

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, our main interest has been to investigate the spin dynamics and quantum tunneling in single molecule magnets (SMMs), For this we have selected two different classes of SMMs: a ferrimagnetic total high spin S = 10 cluster Fe8 and antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring-type clusters. For Fe8, our efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the quantum tunneling of magnetization in the very low temperature region. The most remarkable experimental finding in Fe8 is that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T l ) at low temperatures takes place via strong collision mechanism, and thus it allows to measure directly the tunneling rate vs T and H for the first time. For AFM rings, we have shown that 1/T l probes the thermal fluctuations of the magnetization in the intermediate temperature range. We find that the fluctuations are dominated by a single characteristic frequency which has a power law T-dependence indicative of fluctuations due to electron-acoustic phonon interactions