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Sample records for nanobiosensors optofluidic electrical

  1. Optofluidics Refractometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Refractometry is a classic analytical method in analytical chemistry and biosensing. By integrating advanced micro- and nano-optical systems with well-developed microfluidics technology, optofluidics are shown to be a powerful, smart and universal platform for refractive index sensing applications. This paper reviews recent work on optofluidic refractometers based on different sensing mechanisms and structures (e.g., photonic crystal/photonic crystal fibers, waveguides, whisper gallery modes and surface plasmon resonance, and traces the performance enhancement due to the synergistic integration of optics and microfluidics. A brief discussion of future trends in optofluidic refractometers, namely volume sensing and resolution enhancement, are also offered.

  2. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  3. Nanobiosensors in diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chamorro-Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical diagnosis has been greatly improved thanks to the development of new techniques capable of performing very sensitive detection and quantifying certain parameters. These parameters can be correlated with the presence of specific molecules and their quantity. Unfortunately, these techniques are demanding, expensive, and often complicated. On the other side, progress in other fields of science and technology has contributed to the rapid growth of nanotechnology. Although being an emerging discipline, nanotechnology has raised huge interest and expectations. Most of the enthusiasm comes from new possibilities and properties of nanomaterials. Biosensors (simple, robust, sensitive, cost-effective combined with nanomaterials, also called nanobiosensors, are serving as bridge between advanced detection/diagnostics and daily/routine tests. Here we review some of the latest applications of nanobiosensors in diagnostics field.

  4. Optofluidics of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Psaltis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  5. Roadmap for optofluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Minzioni, Paolo; Osellame, Roberto; Sada, Cinzia; Zhao, S; Omenetto, F G; Gylfason, Kristinn B; Haraldsson, Tommy; Zhang, Yibo; Ozcan, Aydogan; Wax, Adam; Mugele, Frieder; Schmidt, Holger; Testa, Genni; Bernini, Romeo; Guck, Jochen; Liberale, Carlo; Berg-Sø rensen, Kirstine; Chen, Jian; Pollnau, Markus; Xiong, Sha; Liu, Ai-Qun; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Fan, Shih-Kang; Erickson, David; Sinton, David

    2017-01-01

    Optofluidics, nominally the research area where optics and fluidics merge, is a relatively new research field and it is only in the last decade that there has been a large increase in the number of optofluidic applications, as well as in the number of research groups, devoted to the topic. Nowadays optofluidics applications include, without being limited to, lab-on-a-chip devices, fluid-based and controlled lenses, optical sensors for fluids and for suspended particles, biosensors, imaging tools, etc. The long list of potential optofluidics applications, which have been recently demonstrated, suggests that optofluidic technologies will become more and more common in everyday life in the future, causing a significant impact on many aspects of our society. A characteristic of this research field, deriving from both its interdisciplinary origin and applications, is that in order to develop suitable solutions a combination of a deep knowledge in different fields, ranging from materials science to photonics, from microfluidics to molecular biology and biophysics, is often required. As a direct consequence, also being able to understand the long-term evolution of optofluidics research is not easy. In this article, we report several expert contributions on different topics so as to provide guidance for young scientists. At the same time, we hope that this document will also prove useful for funding institutions and stakeholders to better understand the perspectives and opportunities offered by this research field.

  6. Roadmap for optofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzioni, Paolo; Osellame, Roberto; Sada, Cinzia; Zhao, S.; Omenetto, F. G.; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Haraldsson, Tommy; Zhang, Yibo; Ozcan, Aydogan; Wax, Adam; Mugele, Frieder; Schmidt, Holger; Testa, Genni; Bernini, Romeo; Guck, Jochen; Liberale, Carlo; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Chen, Jian; Pollnau, Markus; Xiong, Sha; Liu, Ai-Qun; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Fan, Shih-Kang; Erickson, David; Sinton, David

    2017-09-01

    Optofluidics, nominally the research area where optics and fluidics merge, is a relatively new research field and it is only in the last decade that there has been a large increase in the number of optofluidic applications, as well as in the number of research groups, devoted to the topic. Nowadays optofluidics applications include, without being limited to, lab-on-a-chip devices, fluid-based and controlled lenses, optical sensors for fluids and for suspended particles, biosensors, imaging tools, etc. The long list of potential optofluidics applications, which have been recently demonstrated, suggests that optofluidic technologies will become more and more common in everyday life in the future, causing a significant impact on many aspects of our society. A characteristic of this research field, deriving from both its interdisciplinary origin and applications, is that in order to develop suitable solutions a combination of a deep knowledge in different fields, ranging from materials science to photonics, from microfluidics to molecular biology and biophysics, is often required. As a direct consequence, also being able to understand the long-term evolution of optofluidics research is not easy. In this article, we report several expert contributions on different topics so as to provide guidance for young scientists. At the same time, we hope that this document will also prove useful for funding institutions and stakeholders to better understand the perspectives and opportunities offered by this research field.

  7. Roadmap for optofluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Minzioni, Paolo

    2017-08-22

    Optofluidics, nominally the research area where optics and fluidics merge, is a relatively new research field and it is only in the last decade that there has been a large increase in the number of optofluidic applications, as well as in the number of research groups, devoted to the topic. Nowadays optofluidics applications include, without being limited to, lab-on-a-chip devices, fluid-based and controlled lenses, optical sensors for fluids and for suspended particles, biosensors, imaging tools, etc. The long list of potential optofluidics applications, which have been recently demonstrated, suggests that optofluidic technologies will become more and more common in everyday life in the future, causing a significant impact on many aspects of our society. A characteristic of this research field, deriving from both its interdisciplinary origin and applications, is that in order to develop suitable solutions a combination of a deep knowledge in different fields, ranging from materials science to photonics, from microfluidics to molecular biology and biophysics, is often required. As a direct consequence, also being able to understand the long-term evolution of optofluidics research is not easy. In this article, we report several expert contributions on different topics so as to provide guidance for young scientists. At the same time, we hope that this document will also prove useful for funding institutions and stakeholders to better understand the perspectives and opportunities offered by this research field.

  8. Roadmap for optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzioni, Paolo; Osellame, Roberto; Sada, Cinzia

    2017-01-01

    that optofluidic technologies will become more and more common in everyday life in the future, causing a significant impact on many aspects of our society. A characteristic of this research field, deriving from both its interdisciplinary origin and applications, is that in order to develop suitable solutions a...

  9. Waveguide-based optofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnutsch, Christian; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Monat, Christelle

    2010-01-01

    blocks in many applications, from microlasers and biomedical sensor systems to optical switches and integrated circuits. In this paper, we show that PhC microcavities can be formed by infusing a liquid into a selected section of a uniform PhC waveguide and that the optical properties of these cavities...... and highlight the benefits of an optofluidic approach, focusing on optofluidic cavities created in silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide platforms. These cavities can be spatially and spectrally reconfigured, thus allowing a dynamic control of their optical characteristics. PhC cavities are major building...... can be tuned and adapted. By taking advantage of the negative thermo-optic coefficient of liquids, we describe a method which renders PhC cavities insensitive to temperature changes in the environment. This is only one example where the fluid-control of optical elements results in a functionality...

  10. Optofluidic control of axonal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Ordonez, Simon; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Significant efforts are being made for control on axonal guidance due to its importance in nerve regeneration and in the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in-vitro. These include several physical (topographic modification, optical force, and electric field), chemical (surface functionalization cues) and hybrid (electro-chemical, photochemical etc) methods. Here, we report comparison of the effect of linear flow versus microfluidic flow produced by an opticallydriven micromotor in guiding retinal ganglion axons. A circularly polarized laser tweezers was used to hold, position and spin birefringent calcite particle near growth cone, which in turn resulted in microfluidic flow. The flow rate and resulting shear-force on axons could be controlled by a varying the power of the laser tweezers beam. The calcite particles were placed separately in one chamber and single particle was transported through microfluidic channel to another chamber containing the retina explant. In presence of flow, the turning of axons was found to strongly correlate with the direction of flow. Turning angle as high as 90° was achieved. Optofluidic-manipulation can be applied to other types of mammalian neurons and also can be extended to stimulate mechano-sensing neurons.

  11. Optofluidic bioanalysis: fundamentals and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik Damla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, optofluidics has established itself as a new and dynamic research field for exciting developments at the interface of photonics, microfluidics, and the life sciences. The strong desire for developing miniaturized bioanalytic devices and instruments, in particular, has led to novel and powerful approaches to integrating optical elements and biological fluids on the same chip-scale system. Here, we review the state-of-the-art in optofluidic research with emphasis on applications in bioanalysis and a focus on waveguide-based approaches that represent the most advanced level of integration between optics and fluidics. We discuss recent work in photonically reconfigurable devices and various application areas. We show how optofluidic approaches have been pushing the performance limits in bioanalysis, e.g. in terms of sensitivity and portability, satisfying many of the key requirements for point-of-care devices. This illustrates how the requirements for bianalysis instruments are increasingly being met by the symbiotic integration of novel photonic capabilities in a miniaturized system.

  12. Optofluidic Microlasers based on Femtosecond Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the different optofluidic lasers which have been realized using the Femtosecond Micromachining technique to fabricate the monolithic optofluidic structures in glass chips. We show how the great flexibility of this 3D technique allows getting different kind of optical cavities. The most recent devices fabricated by this technique as ring shaped and Fabry-Perot resonators show excellent emission performances.We also point out how the addition of the inkjet printing technique provides further opportunities in realizing optofluidic chips.

  13. Nanobiosensors Based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance for Biomarker Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoochan Hong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR is induced by incident light when it interacts with noble metal nanoparticles that have smaller sizes than the wavelength of the incident light. Recently, LSPR-based nanobiosensors were developed as tools for highly sensitive, label-free, and flexible sensing techniques for the detection of biomolecular interactions. In this paper, we describe the basic principles of LSPR-based nanobiosensing techniques and LSPR sensor system for biomolecule sensing. We also discuss the challenges using LSPR nanobiosensors for detection of biomolecules as a biomarker.

  14. Optofluidic Approaches for Enhanced Microsensor Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Testa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a relatively young research field able to create a tight synergy between optics and micro/nano-fluidics. The high level of integration between fluidic and optical elements achievable by means of optofluidic approaches makes it possible to realize an innovative class of sensors, which have been demonstrated to have an improved sensitivity, adaptability and compactness. Many developments in this field have been made in the last years thanks to the availability of a new class of low cost materials and new technologies. This review describes the Italian state of art on optofluidic devices for sensing applications and offers a perspective for further future advances. We introduce the optofluidic concept and describe the advantages of merging photonic and fluidic elements, focusing on sensor developments for both environmental and biomedical monitoring.

  15. Evaluation of 3D printed optofluidic smart glass prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Daniel; Goossen, K W

    2018-01-22

    Smart glass or smart windows are an innovative technology used for thermal management, energy efficiency, and privacy applications. Notable commercially available smart glass relies on an electric stimuli to modulate the glass from a transparent to a translucent mode of operation. However, the current market technologies, such as electrochromic, polymer dispersed liquid crystal, and suspended particle devices are expensive and suffer from solar absorption, poor transmittance modulation, and in some cases, continuous power consumption. The authors of this paper present a novel optofluidic smart glass prototype capable of modulating visible light transmittance from 8% to 85%.

  16. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Nitta, Nao; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-04-01

    Flow cytometry is an indispensable method for valuable applications in numerous fields such as immunology, pathology, pharmacology, molecular biology, and marine biology. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy is superior to conventional flow cytometry methods for its capability to acquire high-quality images of single cells at a high-throughput exceeding 10,000 cells per second. This makes it possible to extract copious information from cellular images for accurate cell detection and analysis with the assistance of machine learning. Optofluidic time-stretch microscopy has proven its effectivity in various applications, including microalga-based biofuel production, evaluation of thrombotic disorders, as well as drug screening and discovery. In this review, we discuss the principles and recent advances of optofluidic time-stretch microscopy.

  17. A Perspective on the Rise of Optofluidics and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, the field of optofluidics has thrived from the immense efforts of researchers from diverse communities. The concept of optofluidics combines optics and microfluidics to exploit novel properties and functionalities. In the very beginning, the unique properties of liquid, such as mobility, fungibility and deformability, initiated the motivation to develop optical elements or functions using fluid interfaces. Later on, the advancements of microelectromechanical system (MEMS and microfluidic technologies enabled the realization of optofluidic components through the precise manipulation of fluids at microscale thus making it possible to streamline complex fabrication processes. The optofluidic system aims to fully integrate optical functions on a single chip instead of using external bulky optics, which can consequently lower the cost of system, downsize the system and make it promising for point-of-care diagnosis. This perspective gives an overview of the recent developments in the field of optofluidics. Firstly, the fundamental optofluidic components will be discussed and are categorized according to their basic working mechanisms, followed by the discussions on the functional instrumentations of the optofluidic components, as well as the current commercialization aspects of optofluidics. The paper concludes with the critical challenges that might hamper the transformation of optofluidic technologies from lab-based procedures to practical usages and commercialization.

  18. Optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Wu, Yi; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Lee, Sangwook; Isozaki, Akihiro; Li, Ming; Jiang, Yiyue; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Di Carlo, Dino; Tanaka, Yo; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2018-03-01

    Innovations in optical microscopy have opened new windows onto scientific research, industrial quality control, and medical practice over the last few decades. One of such innovations is optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy - an emerging method for high-throughput quantitative phase imaging that builds on the interference between temporally stretched signal and reference pulses by using dispersive properties of light in both spatial and temporal domains in an interferometric configuration on a microfluidic platform. It achieves the continuous acquisition of both intensity and phase images with a high throughput of more than 10,000 particles or cells per second by overcoming speed limitations that exist in conventional quantitative phase imaging methods. Applications enabled by such capabilities are versatile and include characterization of cancer cells and microalgal cultures. In this paper, we review the principles and applications of optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy and discuss its future perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Noninvasive glucose monitoring using saliva nano-biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide live with diabetes and several millions die from it each year. A noninvasive, painless method of glucose testing would highly improve compliance and glucose control while reducing complications and overall disease management costs. To provide accurate, low cost, and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a unique, disposable saliva nano-biosensor. More than eight clinical trials on real-time noninvasive salivary glucose monitoring were carried out on two healthy individuals (a 2–3 h-period for each trial, including both regular food and standard glucose beverage intake with more than 35 saliva samples obtained. Excellent clinical accuracy was revealed as compared to the UV Spectrophotometer. By measuring subjects’ salivary glucose and blood glucose in parallel, we found the two generated profiles share the same fluctuation trend but the correlation between them is individual dependent. There is a time lag between the peak glucose values from blood and from saliva. However, the correlation between the two glucose values at fasting is constant for each person enabling noninvasive diagnosis of diabetes through saliva instead of blood. Furthermore, a good correlation of glucose levels in saliva and in blood before and 2 h after glucose intake was observed. Glucose monitoring before and 2 h after meals is usually prescribed by doctors for diabetic patients. Thus, this disposable biosensor will be an alternative for real-time salivary glucose tracking at any time.

  20. Magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structures for reusable nano-biosensor chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Haneul; Cho, Dong-guk; Park, Juhun; Nam, Ki Wan; Cho, Young Tak; Chen, Xing; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Dong Jun; Park, Jae Yeol

    2016-01-01

    We developed a magnetically-refreshable receptor platform structure which can be integrated with quite versatile nano-biosensor structures to build reusable nano-biosensor chips. This structure allows one to easily remove used receptor molecules from a biosensor surface and reuse the biosensor for repeated sensing operations. Using this structure, we demonstrated reusable immunofluorescence biosensors. Significantly, since our method allows one to place receptor molecules very close to a nano-biosensor surface, it can be utilized to build reusable carbon nanotube transistor-based biosensors which require receptor molecules within a Debye length from the sensor surface. Furthermore, we also show that a single sensor chip can be utilized to detect two different target molecules simply by replacing receptor molecules using our method. Since this method does not rely on any chemical reaction to refresh sensor chips, it can be utilized for versatile biosensor structures and virtually-general receptor molecular species. (paper)

  1. Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) dye lasers. The lasers rely on light-confinement in a nano-structured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels constitutes a third order Bragg grating DFB laser resonator with a central phase-shift. The lasers...... are operated by filling the DFB laser resonator with a dye solution by capillary action and optical pumping with a frequency doubled Nd: YAG laser. The low reflection order of the DFB laser resonator yields low out-of-plane scattering losses as well as a large free spectral range (FSR), and low threshold...... fluences down to similar to 7 mu J/mm2 are observed. The large FSR facilitates wavelength tuning over the full gain spectrum of the chosen laser dye and we demonstrate 45 nm tunability using a single laser dye by changing the grating period and dye solution refractive index. The lasers are straight...

  2. Enhancing Single Molecule Imaging in Optofluidics and Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E. Vasdekis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics and optofluidics have revolutionized high-throughput analysis and chemical synthesis over the past decade. Single molecule imaging has witnessed similar growth, due to its capacity to reveal heterogeneities at high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, both resolution types are dependent on the signal to noise ratio (SNR of the image. In this paper, we review how the SNR can be enhanced in optofluidics and microfluidics. Starting with optofluidics, we outline integrated photonic structures that increase the signal emitted by single chromophores and minimize the excitation volume. Turning then to microfluidics, we review the compatible functionalization strategies that reduce noise stemming from non-specific interactions and architectures that minimize bleaching and blinking.

  3. Nanostructured materials with plasmonic nanobiosensors for early cancer detection: A past and future prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Sathish; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Bellan, Chandar Shekar; Schreurs, Dominique

    2018-02-15

    Early cancer detection and treatment is an emerging and fascinating field of plasmonic nanobiosensor research. It paves to enrich a life without affecting living cells leading to a possible survival of the patient. This review describes a past and future prospect of an integrated research field on nanostructured metamaterials, microwave transmission, surface plasmonic resonance, nanoantennas, and their manifested versatile properties with nano-biosensors towards early cancer detection to preserve human health. Interestingly, (i) microwave transmission shows more advantages than other electromagnetic radiation in reacting with biological tissues, (ii) nanostructured metamaterial (Au) with special properties like size and shape can stimulate plasmonic effects, (iii) plasmonic based nanobiosensors are to explore the efficacy for early cancer tumour detection or single molecular detection and (iv) nanoantenna wireless communication by using microwave inverse scattering nanomesh (MISN) technique instead of conventional techniques can be adopted to characterize the microwave scattered signals from the biomarkers. It reveals that the nanostructured material with plasmonic nanobiosensor paves a fascinating platform towards early detection of cancer tumour and is anticipated to be exploited as a magnificent field in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optofluidics for handling and analysis of single living cells

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2017-12-07

    Optofluidics is a field with important applications in areas such as biotechnology, chemical synthesis and analytical chemistry. Optofluidic devices combine optical elements into microfluidic devices in ways that increase portability and sensitivity of analysis for diagnostic or screening purposes .In fact in these devices fluids give fine adaptability, mobility and accessibility to nanoscale photonic devices which otherwise could not be realized using conventional devices. This review describes several cases inwhich optical or microfluidic approaches are used to trap single cells in proximity of integrated optical sensor for being analysed.

  5. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...... out two types of experiments that benefit from the improved optical system: optical stretching of red blood cells (RBCs) and Raman spectroscopy of a solution loaded into a hollow core fiber. The advantages offered by the presented technology are intended to encourage the use of LoC technology...

  6. A reconfigurable optofluidic Michelson interferometer using tunable droplet grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, L K; Liu, A Q; Soh, Y C; Lim, C S; Lin, C L

    2010-04-21

    This paper presents a novel optofluidic Michelson interferometer based on droplet microfluidics used to create a droplet grating. The droplet grating is formed by a stream of plugs in the microchannel with constant refractive index variation. It has a real-time tunability in the grating period through varying the flow rates of the liquids and index variation via different combinations of liquids. The optofluidic Michelson interferometer is highly sensitive and is suitable for the measurement of biomedical and biochemical buffer solutions. The experimental results show that it has a sensitivity of 66.7 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) and a detection range of 0.086 RIU.

  7. Optofluidics for handling and analysis of single living cells

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    Optofluidics is a field with important applications in areas such as biotechnology, chemical synthesis and analytical chemistry. Optofluidic devices combine optical elements into microfluidic devices in ways that increase portability and sensitivity of analysis for diagnostic or screening purposes .In fact in these devices fluids give fine adaptability, mobility and accessibility to nanoscale photonic devices which otherwise could not be realized using conventional devices. This review describes several cases inwhich optical or microfluidic approaches are used to trap single cells in proximity of integrated optical sensor for being analysed.

  8. Bio-optofluidics and biophotonics at the cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micro-manipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...

  9. Bleaching and diffusion dynamics in optofluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Asger

    2007-01-01

    The authors have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in optofluidic dye lasers where the liquid laser dye in a microfluidic channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. They find that for microfluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules...

  10. Optofluidic Applications of Diblock Copolymer Derived Nanoporous Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi

    To confine light in a liquid and thereby form a liquid core waveguide, the surrounding cladding materials must have a lower refractive index than the liquid core. In the context of biosensing, it is a challenge to obtain the right cladding material, as most of the relevant liquids are aqueous and...... waveguiding particle filters can be a promising platform for optofluidic and biosensing applications....

  11. Preface to Special Topic: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Optofluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Yang, Zhenchuan

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Optofluidics (Optofluidics 2015) was held in Taipei, Taiwan, July 26–29, 2015. The aim of this conference was to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international researchers in optics and micro/nanofluidics across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 was deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovat...

  12. Nano-biosensors as new tool for detection of food quality and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosensors can be defined as sensors based on nanotechnology. The aim of some nanobiosensor projects at potentially high volume applications in the public health sector, as preventing food poisoning where markets might be significant, while the other aim to improve on existing clinical practises by allowing the more quantification and rapid detection of bacteria and viruses. It should increase the safety of the food for the customer.

  13. DNA-Based Nanobiosensors as an Emerging Platform for Detection of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Abu-Salah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Detection of disease at an early stage is one of the biggest challenges in medicine. Different disciplines of science are working together in this regard. The goal of nanodiagnostics is to provide more accurate tools for earlier diagnosis, to reduce cost and to simplify healthcare delivery of effective and personalized medicine, especially with regard to chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes and cardiovascular diseases that have high healthcare costs. Up-to-date results suggest that DNA-based nanobiosensors could be used effectively to provide simple, fast, cost-effective, sensitive and specific detection of some genetic, cancer, and infectious diseases. In addition, they could potentially be used as a platform to detect immunodeficiency, and neurological and other diseases. This review examines different types of DNA-based nanobiosensors, the basic principles upon which they are based and their advantages and potential in diagnosis of acute and chronic diseases. We discuss recent trends and applications of new strategies for DNA-based nanobiosensors, and emphasize the challenges in translating basic research to the clinical laboratory.

  14. Optofluidic refractive index sensor based on partial reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhang; Wang, Yichuan; Ye, Meiying; Fang, Wei; Tong, Limin

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a novel optofluidic refractive index (RI) sensor with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range based on partial reflection. Benefited from the divergent incident light and the output fibers with different tilting angles, we have achieved highly sensitive RI sensing in a wide range from 1.33 to 1.37. To investigate the effectiveness of this sensor, we perform a measurement of RI with a resolution of ca. 5.0×10-5 refractive index unit (RIU) for ethylene glycol solutions. Also, we have measured a series of liquid solutions by using different output fibers, achieving a resolution of ca. 0.52 mg/mL for cane surge. The optofluidic RI sensor takes advantage of the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, small footprint, and low sample consumption, as well as the efficient fluidic sample delivery, making it useful for applications in the food industry.

  15. Monolithic optofluidic ring resonator lasers created by femtosecond laser nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrahalim, Hengky; Chen, Qiushu; Said, Ali A; Dugan, Mark; Fan, Xudong

    2015-05-21

    We designed, fabricated, and characterized a monolithically integrated optofluidic ring resonator laser that is mechanically, thermally, and chemically robust. The entire device, including the ring resonator channel and sample delivery microfluidics, was created in a block of fused-silica glass using a 3-dimensional femtosecond laser writing process. The gain medium, composed of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) dissolved in quinoline, was flowed through the ring resonator. Lasing was achieved at a pump threshold of approximately 15 μJ mm(-2). Detailed analysis shows that the Q-factor of the optofluidic ring resonator is 3.3 × 10(4), which is limited by both solvent absorption and scattering loss. In particular, a Q-factor resulting from the scattering loss can be as high as 4.2 × 10(4), suggesting the feasibility of using a femtosecond laser to create high quality optical cavities.

  16. Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Mavandadi, Sam; Coskun, Ahmet F; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-09-01

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical sciences. Cost-effective translation of these technologies to remote and resource-limited environments could create new opportunities especially for telemedicine applications. Toward this direction, here we demonstrate the integration of imaging cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using a compact, lightweight, and cost-effective optofluidic attachment. In this cell-phone-based optofluidic imaging cytometry platform, fluorescently labeled particles or cells of interest are continuously delivered to our imaging volume through a disposable microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. The same microfluidic device also acts as a multilayered optofluidic waveguide and efficiently guides our excitation light, which is butt-coupled from the side facets of our microfluidic channel using inexpensive light-emitting diodes. Since the excitation of the sample volume occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to the detection path, our cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the specimens as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the target solution of interest. We tested the performance of our cell-phone-based imaging cytometer by measuring the density of white blood cells in human blood samples, which provided a decent match to a commercially available hematology analyzer. We further characterized the imaging quality of the same platform to demonstrate a spatial resolution of ~2 μm. This cell-phone-enabled optofluidic imaging flow cytometer could especially be useful for rapid and sensitive imaging of bodily fluids for conducting various cell counts (e.g., toward monitoring of HIV+ patients) or rare cell analysis as well as for screening of water quality in

  17. Preface to Special Topic: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Optofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shih-Kang; Yang, Zhenchuan

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Optofluidics (Optofluidics 2015) was held in Taipei, Taiwan, July 26-29, 2015. The aim of this conference was to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international researchers in optics and micro/nanofluidics across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 was deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovative developments in micro/nanoscale science and technology. Topics ranged from fundamental research to its applications in chemistry, physics, biology, materials, and medicine.

  18. Three-dimensional optofluidic device for isolating microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloth, A.; Paterson, L.; Markx, G. H.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    Development of efficient methods for isolation and manipulation of microorganisms is essential to study unidentified and yet-to-be cultured microbes originating from a variety of environments. The discovery of novel microbes and their products have the potential to contribute to the development of new medicines and other industrially important bioactive compounds. In this paper we describe the design, fabrication and validation of an optofluidic device capable of redirecting microbes within a flow using optical forces. The device holds promise to enable the high throughput isolation of single microbes for downstream culture and analysis. Optofluidic devices are widely used in clinical research, cell biology and biomedical engineering as they are capable of performing analytical functions such as controlled transportation, compact and rapid processing of nanolitres to millilitres of clinical or biological samples. We have designed and fabricated a three dimensional optofluidic device to control and manipulate microorganisms within a microfluidic channel. The device was fabricated in fused silica by ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) followed by selective chemical etching. The unique three-dimensional capability of ULI is utilized to integrate microfluidic channels and waveguides within the same substrate. The main microfluidic channel in the device constitutes the path of the sample. Optical waveguides are fabricated at right angles to the main microfluidic channel. The potential of the optical scattering force to control and manipulate microorganisms is discussed in this paper. A 980 nm continuous wave (CW) laser source, coupled to the waveguide, is used to exert radiation pressure on the particle and particle migrations at different flow velocities are recorded. As a first demonstration, device functionality is validated using fluorescent microbeads and initial trials with microalgae are presented.

  19. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risveden, Klas; Bhand, Sunil; Danielsson, Bengt [Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Center for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund University, PO Box 124, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Dick, Kimberly A; Samuelson, Lars [Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Rydberg, Patrik, E-mail: Kimberly.Dick@ftf.lth.se [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-02-05

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN{sub x}-covered wafers. Two different reactors are shown: one with simple, one-dimensional nanorods and one with branched nanorod structures (nanotrees). Significantly higher enzymatic activity is found for the nanotree reactors than for the nanorod reactors, most likely due to the increased gold surface area and thereby higher enzyme binding capacity. A theoretical calculation is included to show how the enzyme kinetics and hence the sensitivity can be influenced and increased by the control of electrical fields in relation to the active sites of enzymes in an electronic biosensor. The possible effects of electrical fields employed in the RISFET on the function of acetylcholine esterase is investigated using quantum chemical methods, which show that the small electric field strengths used are unlikely to affect enzyme kinetics. Acetylcholine esterase activity is determined using choline oxidase and peroxidase by measuring the amount of choline formed using the chemiluminescent luminol reaction.

  20. Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Felipe; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate optofluidic tuning of polymer photonic crystal band edge lasers with an imposed rectangular symmetry. The emission wavelength depends on both lattice constant and cladding refractive index. The emission wavelength is shown to change 1 nm with a cladding refractive index change of 10......−2. The rectangular symmetry modification alters the emission characteristics of the devices and the relative emission intensities along the symmetry axes depend on cladding refractive index, suggesting a sensor concept based on detection of intensity rather than wavelength....

  1. Nanobiosensors Based on Chemically Modified AFM Probes: A Useful Tool for Metsulfuron-Methyl Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio L. Leite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of agrochemicals has increased considerably in recent years, and consequently, there has been increased exposure of ecosystems and human populations to these highly toxic compounds. The study and development of methodologies to detect these substances with greater sensitivity has become extremely relevant. This article describes, for the first time, the use of atomic force spectroscopy (AFS in the detection of enzyme-inhibiting herbicides. A nanobiosensor based on an atomic force microscopy (AFM tip functionalised with the acetolactate synthase (ALS enzyme was developed and characterised. The herbicide metsulfuron-methyl, an ALS inhibitor, was successfully detected through the acquisition of force curves using this biosensor. The adhesion force values were considerably higher when the biosensor was used. An increase of ~250% was achieved relative to the adhesion force using an unfunctionalised AFM tip. This considerable increase was the result of a specific interaction between the enzyme and the herbicide, which was primarily responsible for the efficiency of the nanobiosensor. These results indicate that this methodology is promising for the detection of herbicides, pesticides, and other environmental contaminants.

  2. Ethics, Nanobiosensors and Elite Sport: The Need for a New Governance Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert; McNamee, Michael; Guy, Owen

    2017-12-01

    Individual athletes, coaches and sports teams seek continuously for ways to improve performance and accomplishment in elite competition. New techniques of performance analysis are a crucial part of the drive for athletic perfection. This paper discusses the ethical importance of one aspect of the future potential of performance analysis in sport, combining the field of biomedicine, sports engineering and nanotechnology in the form of 'Nanobiosensors'. This innovative technology has the potential to revolutionise sport, enabling real time biological data to be collected from athletes that can be electronically distributed. Enabling precise real time performance analysis is not without ethical problems. Arguments concerning (1) data ownership and privacy; (2) data confidentiality; and (3) athlete welfare are presented alongside a discussion of the use of the Precautionary Principle in making ethical evaluations. We conclude, that although the future potential use of Nanobiosensors in sports analysis offers many potential benefits, there is also a fear that it could be abused at a sporting system level. Hence, it is essential for sporting bodies to consider the development of a robust ethically informed governance framework in advance of their proliferated use.

  3. Wide range optofluidically tunable multimode interference fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2014-01-01

    An optofluidically tunable fiber laser based on multimode interference (MMI) effects with a wide tuning range is proposed and demonstrated. The tunable mechanism is based on an MMI fiber filter fabricated using a special fiber known as no-core fiber, which is a multimode fiber (MMF) without cladding. Therefore, when the MMI filter is covered by liquid the optical properties of the no-core fiber are modified, which allow us to tune the peak wavelength response of the MMI filter. Rather than applying the liquid on the entire no-core fiber, we change the liquid level along the no-core fiber, which provides a highly linear tuning response. In addition, by selecting the adequate refractive index of the liquid we can also choose the tuning range. We demonstrate the versatility of the optofluidically tunable MMI filter by wavelength tuning two different gain media, erbium doped fiber and a semiconductor optical amplifier, achieving tuning ranges of 55 and 90 nm respectively. In both cases, we achieve side-mode suppression ratios (SMSR) better than 50 dBm with output power variations of less than 0.76 dBm over the whole tuning range. (paper)

  4. Diffusion driven optofluidic dye lasers encapsulated into polymer chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienhold, Tobias; Breithaupt, Felix; Vannahme, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip systems made of polymers are promising for the integration of active optical elements, enabling e.g. on-chip excitation of fluorescent markers or spectroscopy. In this work we present diffusion operation of tunable optofluidic dye lasers in a polymer foil. We demonstrate that these ......Lab-on-a-chip systems made of polymers are promising for the integration of active optical elements, enabling e.g. on-chip excitation of fluorescent markers or spectroscopy. In this work we present diffusion operation of tunable optofluidic dye lasers in a polymer foil. We demonstrate...... that these first order distributed feedback lasers can be operated for more than 90 min at a pulse repetition rate of 2 Hz without fluidic pumping. Ultra-high output pulse energies of more than 10 μJ and laser thresholds of 2 μJ are achieved for resonator lengths of 3 mm. By introducing comparatively large on......-chip dye solution reservoirs, the required exchange of dye molecules is accomplished solely by diffusion. Polymer chips the size of a microscope cover slip (18 × 18 mm2) were fabricated in batches on a wafer using a commercially available polymer (TOPAS® Cyclic Olefin Copolymer). Thermal imprinting...

  5. Thermoresponsive Magnetic Nano-Biosensors for Rapid Measurements of Inorganic Arsenic and Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Maeda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III or Cd(II. In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III and Cd(II in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  6. Thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors for rapid measurements of inorganic arsenic and cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, Mohammad Shohel Rana; Shimoaoki, Shun; Ueda, Shunsaku; Maeda, Isamu

    2012-10-18

    Green fluorescent protein-tagged sensor proteins, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, have been produced as biosensors for simple and low-cost quantification of As(III) or Cd(II). In this study, the sensor protein-promoter DNA complexes were reconstructed on the surfaces of magnetic particles of different sizes. After the surface modification all the particles could be attracted by magnets, and released different amounts of GFP-tagged protein, according to the metal concentrations within 5 min, which caused significant increases in fluorescence. A detection limit of 1 µg/L for As(III) and Cd(II) in purified water was obtained only with the nanoparticles exhibiting enough magnetization after heat treatment for 1 min. Therefore, thermoresponsive magnetic nano-biosensors offer great advantages of rapidity and sensitivity for the measurement of the toxic metals in drinking water.

  7. Advances of Optofluidic Microcavities for Microlasers and Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidic microcavities with high Q factor have made rapid progress in recent years by using various micro-structures. On one hand, they are applied to microfluidic lasers with low excitation thresholds. On the other hand, they inspire the innovation of new biosensing devices with excellent performance. In this article, the recent advances in the microlaser research and the biochemical sensing field will be reviewed. The former will be categorized based on the structures of optical resonant cavities such as the Fabry–Pérot cavity and whispering gallery mode, and the latter will be classified based on the working principles into active sensors and passive sensors. Moreover, the difficulty of single-chip integration and recent endeavors will be briefly discussed.

  8. Sol-gel materials for optofluidics - process and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Morten Bo Lindholm

    2011-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis is concerned with the use of sol-gel materials in optofluidic applications and the physics of DNA molecules in nanoconfinement. The bottom-up formation of solid material, which is provided by the sol-gel process, enables control of the chemical composition and porosity...... of the material. At early stages of gelation, thin gel coatings can be structured by nanoimprint lithography, and purely inorganic silica materials can be obtained by subsequent thermal annealing. The sol-gel process thus constitutes a unique method for nanofabrication of silica materials of special properties....... In this work, sol-gel silica is introduced as a new material class for the fabrication of lab-on-a-chip devices for DNA analysis. An imprint process with a rigid, non-permeable stamp was developed, which enabled fabrication of micro- and nanofluidic silica channels in a single process step without use of any...

  9. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-20

    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  10. Optofluidic Sensor for Inline Hemolysis Detection on Whole Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chen; Keshavarz Hedayati, Mehdi; Zhu, Xiaolong

    2018-01-01

    -plasma separation, which is complex, time-consuming, and not easy to integrate into point-of-care (PoC) systems. Here, we demonstrate an optofluidic sensor composed of nanofilters on an optical waveguide, which enables evanescent-wave absorption measurement of hemoglobin in plasma with the capability of real......-time inline detection on whole blood without extra sample preparation like centrifugation. Long-term testing with inline integration in a modified, commercial blood gas analyzer shows high reliability and repeatability of the measurements even with the presence of interference from bilirubin. We envision...... that the present work has large potential in improving diagnosis quality by enabling PoC hemolysis detection in blood gas analyzers and can also lend unique sensing capabilities to other applications dealing with complex turbid media....

  11. A nanobiosensor composed of Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Gold Nano-Urchins, for detection of GMO products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Zahra; Nasirizadeh, Navid; Divsalar, Adeleh; Shoeibi, Shahram; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh

    2017-09-15

    Genetically Modified Organisms, have been entered our food chain and detection of these organisms in market products are still the main challenge for scientists. Among several developed detection/quantification methods for detection of these organisms, the electrochemical nanobiosensors are the most attended which are combining the advantages of using nanomaterials, electrochemical methods and biosensors. In this research, a novel and sensitive electrochemical nanobiosensor for detection/quantification of these organisms have been developed using nanomaterials; Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Gold Nano-Urchins for modification of the screen-printed carbon electrode, and also applying a specific DNA probe as well as hematoxylin for electrochemical indicator. Application time period and concentration of the components have been optimized and also several reliable methods have been used to assess the correct assembling of the nanobiosensor e.g. field emission scanning electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results shown the linear range of the sensor was 40.0-1100.0 femtomolar and the limit of detection calculated as 13.0 femtomolar. Besides, the biosensor had good selectivity towards the target DNA over the non-specific sequences and also it was cost and time-effective and possess ability to be used in real sample environment of extracted DNA of Genetically Modified Organism products. Therefore, the superiority of the aforementioned specification to the other previously published methods was proved adequate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals as an Optofluidic Platform for Fast Analysis of Hydrocarbon Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiwei; Mahpeykar, Seyed Milad; Burgess, Ian B; Wang, Xihua

    2018-06-13

    Most of the reported optofluidic devices analyze liquid by measuring its refractive index. Recently, the wettability of liquid on various substrates has also been used as a key sensing parameter in optofluidic sensors. However, the above-mentioned techniques face challenges in the analysis of the relative concentration of components in an alkane hydrocarbon mixture, as both refractive indices and wettabilities of alkane hydrocarbons are very close. Here, we propose to apply volatility of liquid as the key sensing parameter, correlate it to the optical property of liquid inside inverse opal photonic crystals, and construct powerful optofluidic sensors for alkane hydrocarbon identification and analysis. We have demonstrated that via evaporation of hydrocarbons inside the periodic structure of inverse opal photonic crystals and observation of their reflection spectra, an inverse opal film could be used as a fast-response optofluidic sensor to accurately differentiate pure hydrocarbon liquids and relative concentrations of their binary and ternary mixtures in tens of seconds. In these 3D photonic crystals, pure chemicals with different volatilities would have different evaporation rates and can be easily identified via the total drying time. For multicomponent mixtures, the same strategy is applied to determine the relative concentration of each component simply by measuring drying time under different temperatures. Using this optofluidic sensing platform, we have determined the relative concentrations of ternary hydrocarbon mixtures with the difference of only one carbon between alkane hydrocarbons, which is a big step toward detailed hydrocarbon analysis for practical use.

  13. Olfactory receptors for a smell sensor: a comparative study of the electrical responses of rat I7 and human 17-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfinito, E; Millithaler, J-F; Reggiani, L

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relevant electrical properties of two olfactory receptors (ORs), one from rat, OR I7, and the other from human, OR 17-40, which are of interest for the realization of smell nanobiosensors. The investigation compares existing experiments, coming from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, with the theoretical expectations obtained from an impedance network protein analogue, recently developed. The changes in the response due to the sensing action of the proteins are correlated with the conformational change undergone by the single protein. The satisfactory agreement between theory and experiments points to a promising development of a new class of nanobiosensors based on the electrical properties of sensing proteins

  14. Nanobiosensor for Detection and Quantification of DNA Sequences in Degraded Mixed Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of nanobiosensor was developed by integrating a 27-nucleotide AluI fragment of swine cytochrome b (cytb gene to a 3-nm diameter citrate-tannate coated gold nanoparticle (GNP. The biosensor detected 0.5% and 1% pork in raw and 2.5-h autoclaved pork-beef binary admixtures in a single step without any separation or washing. The hybridization kinetics of the hybrid sensor was studied with synthetic and AluI digested real pork targets from moderate to extreme target concentrations and a sigmoidal relationship was found. Using the kinetic curve, a convenient method for quantifying and counting target DNA copy number was developed. The accuracy of the method was over 90% and 80% for raw and autoclaved pork-beef binary admixtures in the range of 5–100% pork adulteration. The biosensor probe identified a target DNA sequence that was several-folds shorter than a typical PCR-template. This offered the detection and quantitation of potential targets in highly processed or degraded samples where PCR amplification was not possible due to template crisis. The assay was a viable alternative approach of qPCR for detecting, quantifying and counting copy number of shorter size DNA sequences to address a wide ranging biological problem in food industry, diagnostic laboratories and forensic medicine.

  15. A novel quantum dot-laccase hybrid nanobiosensor for low level determination of dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Shanehasz, Maryam; Khajeh, Khosro; Mollania, Nasrin; Kazemi, Sayyed Habib

    2012-12-07

    This work reports a novel nanobiosensor based on a thioglycolic acid (TGA)-capped CdTe quantum dot-laccase (Lac) enzyme system for sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). The enzyme used catalyzes the oxidation of DA to dopamine-o-quinone (DOQ), which can selectively quench the strong luminescence of CdTe nanocrystals at neutral pH. The relationship between luminescence intensity of CdTe nanocrystals and DA concentration is nicely described by the Stern-Volmer equation. At an optimum pH of 7.4, the proposed sensor gives a linear calibration over a DA concentration range of 0.3 to 100 μM, with a limit of detection of 0.16 μM and a response time of 2 min. The relative standard deviation for seven replicate determinations of 6.0 μM of DA was found to be 3.7%. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of DA in a blood plasma sample and in a DA injection formulation.

  16. Particle trapping and hopping in an optofluidic fishnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. Z.; Xiong, S.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, T. N.; Liu, A. Q.

    2017-08-01

    Particle jumping between optical potentials has attracted much attention owing to its extensive involvement in many physical and biological experiments. In some circumstances, particle jumping indicates escaping from the optical trap, which is an issue people are trying to avoid. Nevertheless, particle jumping can facilitate the individual trap in each laser spot in the optical lattice and enable sorting and delivery of nanoparticles. Particle hopping has not been seen in fluid because Fluidic drag force dramatically reduce the dwell time of particle or break the potential well. Here, we observe particle hopping in the microchannel by three reasons, e.g., particle collision or aggregation, light disturbing by pretrapped particle and fake trapping position. We show that commonly ignored particle influence to the light could create a new isolated trapping position, where particle hops to the adjacent potential well. The hopping happens in an optofluidic fishnet which is comprised of discrete hotspots enabling 2D patterning of particles in the flow stream for the first time. We also achieve a 2D patterning of cryptosporidium in the microchannel. Our observed particle hopping in the flow stream completes the family of particle kinetics in potential wells and inspires new interests in the particle disturbed optical trapping. The 2D patterning of particles benefits the parallel study of biological samples in the flow stream and have potential on cell sorting and drug delivery.

  17. Quantum ballistic analysis of transition metal dichalcogenides based double gate junctionless field effect transistor and its application in nano-biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Abir; Rahman, Ehsanur; Khosru, Quazi D. M.

    2017-11-01

    To reduce the thermal budget and the short channel effects in state of the art CMOS technology, Junctionless field effect transistor (JLFET) has been proposed in the literature. Numerous experimental, modeling, and simulation based works have been done on this new FET with bulk materials for various geometries until now. On the other hand, the two-dimensional layered material is considered as an alternative to current Si technology because of its ultra-thin body and high mobility. Very recently few simulation based works have been done on monolayer molybdenum disulfide based JLFET mainly to show the advantage of JLFET over conventional FET. However, no comprehensive simulation-based work has been done for double gate JLFET keeping in mind the prominent transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) to the authors' best knowledge. In this work, we have studied quantum ballistic drain current-gate voltage characteristics of such FETs within non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework. Our simulation results reveal that all these TMDC materials are viable options for implementing state of the art Junctionless MOSFET with emphasis on their performance at short gate lengths. Besides evaluating the prospect of TMDC materials in the digital logic application, the performance of Junctionless Double Gate trilayer TMDC heterostructure FET for the label-free electrical detection of biomolecules in dry environment has been investigated for the first time to the authors' best knowledge. The impact of charge neutral biomolecules on the electrical characteristics of the biosensor has been analyzed under dry environment situation. Our study shows that these materials could provide high sensitivity in the sub-threshold region as a channel material in nano-biosensor, a trend demonstrated by silicon on insulator FET sensor in the literature. Thus, going by the trend of replacing silicon with these novel materials in device level, TMDC heterostructure could be a viable alternative to

  18. Liquid Core ARROW Waveguides: A Promising Photonic Structure for Integrated Optofluidic Microsensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Testa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a liquid core antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW as a novel optofluidic device that can be used to create innovative and highly functional microsensors. Liquid core ARROWs, with their dual ability to guide the light and the fluids in the same microchannel, have shown great potential as an optofluidic tool for quantitative spectroscopic analysis. ARROWs feature a planar architecture and, hence, are particularly attractive for chip scale integrated system. Step by step, several improvements have been made in recent years towards the implementation of these waveguides in a complete on-chip system for highly-sensitive detection down to the single molecule level. We review applications of liquid ARROWs for fluids sensing and discuss recent results and trends in the developments and applications of liquid ARROW in biomedical and biochemical research. The results outlined show that the strong light matter interaction occurring in the optofluidic channel of an ARROW and the versatility offered by the fabrication methods makes these waveguides a very promising building block for optofluidic sensor development.

  19. Femtosecond laser fabrication of fiber based optofluidic platform for flow cytometry applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serhatlioglu, Murat; Elbuken, Caglar; Ortac, Bulend; Solmaz, Mehmet E.

    2017-02-01

    Miniaturized optofluidic platforms play an important role in bio-analysis, detection and diagnostic applications. The advantages of such miniaturized devices are extremely low sample requirement, low cost development and rapid analysis capabilities. Fused silica is advantageous for optofluidic systems due to properties such as being chemically inert, mechanically stable, and optically transparent to a wide spectrum of light. As a three dimensional manufacturing method, femtosecond laser scanning followed by chemical etching shows great potential to fabricate glass based optofluidic chips. In this study, we demonstrate fabrication of all-fiber based, optofluidic flow cytometer in fused silica glass by femtosecond laser machining. 3D particle focusing was achieved through a straightforward planar chip design with two separately fabricated fused silica glass slides thermally bonded together. Bioparticles in a fluid stream encounter with optical interrogation region specifically designed to allocate 405nm single mode fiber laser source and two multi-mode collection fibers for forward scattering (FSC) and side scattering (SSC) signals detection. Detected signal data collected with oscilloscope and post processed with MATLAB script file. We were able to count number of events over 4000events/sec, and achieve size distribution for 5.95μm monodisperse polystyrene beads using FSC and SSC signals. Our platform shows promise for optical and fluidic miniaturization of flow cytometry systems.

  20. Electro-optical phenomena based on ionic liquids in an optofluidic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Shao, Qunfeng; Cao, Pengfei; Kong, Weijie; Sun, Jiqian; Zhang, Xiaoping; Deng, Youquan

    2015-03-07

    An optofluidic waveguide with a simple two-terminal electrode geometry, when filled with an ionic liquid (IL), forms a lateral electric double-layer capacitor under a direct current (DC) electric field, which allows the realization of an extremely high carrier density in the vicinity of the electrode surface and terminals to modulate optical transmission at room temperature under low voltage operation (0 to 4 V). The unique electro-optical phenomenon of ILs was investigated at three wavelengths (663, 1330 and 1530 nm) using two waveguide geometries. Strong electro-optical modulations with different efficiencies were observed at the two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, while no detectable modulation was observed at 663 nm. The first waveguide geometry was used to investigate the position-dependent modulation along the waveguide; the strongest modulation was observed in the vicinity of the electrode terminal. The modulation phase is associated with the applied voltage polarity, which increases in the vicinity of the negative electrode and decreases at the positive electrode. The second waveguide geometry was used to improve the modulation efficiency. Meanwhile, the electro-optical modulations of seven ILs were compared at an applied voltage ranging from ±2 V to ±3.5 V. The results reveal that the modulation amplitude and response speed increase with increasing applied voltage, as well as the electrical conductivity of ILs. Despite the fact that the response speed isn't fast due to the high ionic density of ILs, the modulation amplitude can reach up to 6.0 dB when a higher voltage (U = ±3.5 V) is applied for the IL [Emim][BF4]. Finally, the physical explanation of the phenomenon was discussed. The effect of the change in IL structure on the electro-optical phenomena was investigated in another new experiment. The results reveal that the electro-optical phenomenon is probably caused mainly by the change in carrier concentration (ion redistribution near charged

  1. Simulation of a broadband nano-biosensor based on an onion-like quantum dot–quantum well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absalan, H; SalmanOgli, A; Rostami, R

    2013-01-01

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is studied between modified quantum-dots and quantum-wells used as a donor and an acceptor. Because of the unique properties of quantum dots, including diverse surface modification flexibility, bio-compatibility, high quantum yields and wide absorption, their use as nano-biosensors and bio-markers used in diagnosis of cancer is suggested. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is simulated in a quantum dot–quantum well system, where the energy can flow from donor to acceptor. If the energy transfer can be either turned on or off by a specific interaction, such as interaction with any dyes, a molecular binding event or a cleavage reaction, a sensor can be designed (under assumption that the healthy cells have a known effect or unyielding effect on output parameters while cancerous cells, due to their pandemic optical properties, can impact the fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameters). The developed nano-biosensor can operate in a wide range of wavelengths (310 – 760 nm). (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  2. Simulation of a broadband nano-biosensor based on an onion-like quantum dot-quantum well structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absalan, H; SalmanOgli, A; Rostami, R

    2013-07-31

    The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is studied between modified quantum-dots and quantum-wells used as a donor and an acceptor. Because of the unique properties of quantum dots, including diverse surface modification flexibility, bio-compatibility, high quantum yields and wide absorption, their use as nano-biosensors and bio-markers used in diagnosis of cancer is suggested. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer is simulated in a quantum dot-quantum well system, where the energy can flow from donor to acceptor. If the energy transfer can be either turned on or off by a specific interaction, such as interaction with any dyes, a molecular binding event or a cleavage reaction, a sensor can be designed (under assumption that the healthy cells have a known effect or unyielding effect on output parameters while cancerous cells, due to their pandemic optical properties, can impact the fluorescence resonance energy transfer parameters). The developed nano-biosensor can operate in a wide range of wavelengths (310 - 760 nm). (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  3. Optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy for spatially, temperature, and wavelength dependent refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Joel D.

    A microfluidic refractometer was designed based on previous optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) chips utilized to distinguish healthy and cancerous cells. The optofluidic cavity is realized by adding high reflectivity dielectric mirrors to the top and bottom of a microfluidic channel. This creates a plane-plane Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the resonant wavelengths are highly dependent on the optical path length inside the cavity. Refractometry is a useful method to determine the nature of fluids, including the concentration of a solute in a solvent as well as the temperature of the fluid. Advantages of microfluidic systems are the easy integration with lab-on-chip devices and the need for only small volumes of fluid. The unique abilities of the microfluidic refractometer in this thesis include its spatial, temperature, and wavelength dependence. Spatial dependence of the transmission spectrum is inherent through a spatial filtering process implemented with an optical fiber and microscope objective. A sequence of experimental observations guided the change from using the OFIS chip as a cell discrimination device to a complimentary refractometer. First, it was noted the electrode structure within the microfluidic channel, designed to trap and manipulate biological cells with dielectrophoretic (DEP) forces, caused the resonant wavelengths to blue-shift when the electrodes were energized. This phenomenon is consistent with the negative dn/dT property of water and water-based solutions. Next, it was necessary to develop a method to separate the optical path length into physical path length and refractive index. Air holes were placed near the microfluidic channel to exclusively measure the cavity length with the known refractive index of air. The cavity length was then interpolated across the microfluidic channel, allowing any mechanical changes to be taken into account. After the separation of physical path length and refractive index, it was of interest

  4. Integrated hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensor for therapeutic drug monitoring in sub-nanoliter volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Dübner, Matthias; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.

    2016-07-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) typically requires painful blood drawn from patients. We propose a painless and minimally-invasive alternative for TDM using hollow microneedles suitable to extract extremely small volumes (microneedle is functionalized to be used as a micro-reactor during sample collection to trap and bind target drug candidates during extraction, without requirements of sample transfer. An optofluidic device is integrated with this microneedle to rapidly quantify drug analytes with high sensitivity using a straightforward absorbance scheme. Vancomycin is currently detected by using volumes ranging between 50-100 μL with a limit of detection (LoD) of 1.35 μM. The proposed microneedle-optofluidic biosensor can detect vancomycin with a sample volume of 0.6 nL and a LoD of <100 nM, validating this painless point of care system with significant potential to reduce healthcare costs and patients suffering.

  5. Bio-optofluidics and Bio-photonics: Programmable Phase Optics activities at DTU Fotonik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Pedersen, Finn

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micromanipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...... tweezers, the BioPhotonics workstation is e.g. capable of long range 3D manipulation. This enables a variety of biological studies such as manipulation of intricate microfabricated assemblies or for automated and parallel optofluidic cell sorting. To further reduce its overhead, we propose ways of making...... the BioPhotonics Workstation platform more photon efficient by studying the 3D distribution of the counter propagating beams and utilizing the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method for illuminating the applied spatial light modulators....

  6. Multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an integrated optofluidic lab on a chip

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Sorting and sizing of DNA molecules within the human genome project has enabled the genetic mapping of various illnesses. Furthermore by employing tiny lab-on-a-chip device, integrated DNA sequencing and genetic diagnostics have become feasible. We present the combination of capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence for optofluidic integration toward an on-chip bio-analysis tool. Integrated optical fluorescence excitation allows for a high spatial resolution (12 μm) ...

  7. Multi-color fluorescent DNA analysis in an integrated optofluidic lab-on-a-chip

    OpenAIRE

    Dongre, C.; van Weerd, J.; van Weeghel, R.; Martinez-Vazquez, R.; Osellame, R.; Cerullo, G.; Besselink, G.A.J.; van den Vlekkert, H.H.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Pollnau, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Sorting and sizing of DNA molecules within the human genome project has enabled the genetic mapping of various illnesses. By employing tiny lab-on-a-chip devices for such DNA analysis, integrated DNA sequencing and genetic diagnostics have become feasible. However, such diagnostic chips typically lack integrated sensing capability. We address this issue by combining microfluidic capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection resulting in optofluidic integration towards an...

  8. A compact and portable optofluidic device for detection of liquid properties and label-free sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, F.; Martín, I. R.; Walo, D.; Gil-Rostra, J.; Yubero, F.; Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

    2017-06-01

    Optofluidic lasers have been widely investigated over the last few years mainly because they can be easily integrated in sensor devices. However, high power pulse lasers are required as excitation sources, which, in practice, limit the portability of the system. Trying to overcome some of these limitations, in this paper we propose the combined use of a small CW laser with a Fabry-Perot optofluidic planar microcavity showing high sensitivity and versatility for detection of liquid properties and label-free sensing. Firstly, a fluorescein solution in ethanol is used to demonstrate the high performances of the FP microcavity as a temperature sensor both in the laser (high pump power above laser threshold) and in the fluorescence (low pump power) regimes. A shift in the wavelength of the resonant cavity modes is used to detect changes in the temperature and our results show that high sensitivities could be already obtained using cheap and portable CW diode lasers. In the second part of the paper, the demonstration of this portable device for label-free sensing is illustrated under low CW pumping. The wavelength positions of the optofluidic resonant modes are used to detect glucose concentrations in water solutions using a protein labelled with a fluorescent dye as the active medium.

  9. A PDMS/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic biochip integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide nano-biosensors for one-step multiplexed pathogen detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Peng; Li, XiuJun; Dominguez, Delfina C.; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious pathogens often cause serious public health concerns throughout the world. There is an increasing demand for simple, rapid and sensitive approaches for multiplexed pathogen detection. In this paper we have developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic system integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nano-biosensors for simple, one-step, multiplexed pathogen detection. The paper substrate used in this hybrid microfluidic system facilitated ...

  10. Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    Optofluidic sensors based on highly dispersive two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides are studied theoretically. Results show that these structures are strongly sensitive to the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid (nl), which is used to tune dispersion of the photonic crystal waveguide....... The waveguide mode-gap edge shifts about 1.2 nm for δnl = 0.002. The shifts can be explained well by band structure theory combined with first-order perturbation theory. These devices are potentially interesting for chemical sensing applications....

  11. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  12. Lab-on-fiber electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic device based on a microstructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Guo, Xiaohui; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Yuan, Libo

    2016-04-15

    We report an in-fiber integrated electrophoretic trace mixture separating and detecting an optofluidic optical fiber sensor based on a specially designed optical fiber. In this design, rapid in situ separation and simultaneous detection of mixed analytes can be realized under electro-osmotic flow in the microstructured optical fiber. To visually display the in-fiber separating and detecting process, two common fluorescent indicators are adopted as the optofluidic analytes in the optical fiber. Results show that a trace amount of the mixture (0.15 μL) can be completely separated within 3.5 min under a high voltage of 5 kV. Simultaneously, the distributed information of the separated analytes in the optical fiber can be clearly obtained by scanning along the optical fiber using a 355 nm laser. The emission from the analytes can be efficiently coupled into the inner core and guides to the remote end of the optical fiber. In addition, the thin cladding around the inner core in the optical fiber can prevent the fluorescent cross talk between the analytes in this design. Compared to previous optical fiber optofluidic devices, this device first realizes simultaneously separating treatment and the detection of the mixed samples in an optical fiber. Significantly, such an in-fiber integrated separating and detecting optofluidic device can find wide applications in various analysis fields involves mixed samples, such as biology, chemistry, and environment.

  13. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-29

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology-fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01-0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  15. Optofluidic in-fiber interferometer based on hollow optical fiber with two cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tingting; Yang, Xinghua; Liu, Zhihai; Yang, Jun; Li, Song; Kong, Depeng; Qi, Xiuxiu; Yu, Wenting; Long, Qunlong; Yuan, Libo

    2017-07-24

    We demonstrate a novel integrated optical fiber interferometer for in-fiber optofluidic detection. It is composed of a specially designed hollow optical fiber with a micro-channel and two cores. One core on the inner surface of the micro-channel is served as sensing arm and the other core in the annular cladding is served as reference arm. Fusion-and-tapering method is employed to couple light from a single mode fiber to the hollow optical fiber in this device. Sampling is realized by side opening a microhole on the surface of the hollow optical fiber. Under differential pressure between the end of the hollow fiber and the microhole, the liquids can form steady microflows in the micro-channel. Simultaneously, the interference spectrum of the interferometer device shifts with the variation of the concentration of the microfluid in the channel. The optofluidic in-fiber interferometer has a sensitivity of refractive index around 2508 nm/RIU for NaCl. For medicine concentration detection, its sensitivity is 0.076 nm/mmolL -1 for ascorbic acid. Significantly, this work presents a compact microfluidic in-fiber interferometer with a micro-channel which can be integrated with chip devices without spatial optical coupling and without complex manufacturing procedure of the waveguide on the chips.

  16. An in-fiber integrated optofluidic device based on an optical fiber with an inner core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yuan, Tingting; Teng, Pingping; Kong, Depeng; Liu, Chunlan; Li, Entao; Zhao, Enming; Tong, Chengguo; Yuan, Libo

    2014-06-21

    A new kind of optofluidic in-fiber integrated device based on a specially designed hollow optical fiber with an inner core is designed. The inlets and outlets are built by etching the surface of the optical fiber without damaging the inner core. A reaction region between the end of the fiber and a solid point obtained after melting is constructed. By injecting samples into the fiber, the liquids can form steady microflows and react in the region. Simultaneously, the emission from the chemiluminescence reaction can be detected from the remote end of the optical fiber through evanescent field coupling. The concentration of ascorbic acid (AA or vitamin C, Vc) is determined by the emission intensity of the reaction of Vc, H2O2, luminol, and K3Fe(CN)6 in the optical fiber. A linear sensing range of 0.1-3.0 mmol L(-1) for Vc is obtained. The emission intensity can be determined within 2 s at a total flow rate of 150 μL min(-1). Significantly, this work presents information for the in-fiber integrated optofluidic devices without spatial optical coupling.

  17. Detection of viability of micro-algae cells by optofluidic hologram pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Yu, Xiaomei; Wang, Yanjuan; Pan, Xinxiang; Li, Dongqing

    2018-03-01

    A rapid detection of micro-algae activity is critical for analysis of ship ballast water. A new method for detecting micro-algae activity based on lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging is presented in this paper. A compact lens-free optofluidic holographic imaging device was developed. This device is mainly composed of a light source, a small through-hole, a light propagation module, a microfluidic chip, and an image acquisition and processing module. The excited light from the light source passes through a small hole to reach the surface of the micro-algae cells in the microfluidic chip, and a holographic image is formed by the diffraction light of surface of micro-algae cells. The relation between the characteristics in the hologram pattern and the activity of micro-algae cells was investigated by using this device. The characteristics of the hologram pattern were extracted to represent the activity of micro-algae cells. To demonstrate the accuracy of the presented method and device, four species of micro-algae cells were employed as the test samples and the comparison experiments between the alive and dead cells of four species of micro-algae were conducted. The results show that the developed method and device can determine live/dead microalgae cells accurately.

  18. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems: Improvements in Assembly and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteucci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow precise optical alignment and improve delivery of optical power. Using a multi-level chip fabrication process, complex channel designs with extremely vertical sidewalls, and dimensions that range from few tens of nanometers to hundreds of microns can be obtained. The technology has been used to align optical fibers in a quick and precise manner, with a lateral alignment accuracy of 2.7 ± 1.8 μm. We report the production, assembly methods, and the characterization of the resulting injection-molded chips for Lab-on-Chip (LoC applications. We demonstrate the versatility of this technology by carrying out two types of experiments that benefit from the improved optical system: optical stretching of red blood cells (RBCs and Raman spectroscopy of a solution loaded into a hollow core fiber. The advantages offered by the presented technology are intended to encourage the use of LoC technology for commercialization and educational purposes.

  19. Design considerations of a hollow microneedle-optofluidic biosensing platform incorporating enzyme-linked assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A.; Padeste, Celestino; Häfeli, Urs O.; Stoeber, Boris; Cadarso, Victor J.

    2018-02-01

    A hollow metallic microneedle is integrated with microfluidics and photonic components to form a microneedle-optofluidic biosensor suitable for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in biological fluids, like interstitial fluid, that can be collected in a painless and minimally-invasive manner. The microneedle inner lumen surface is bio-functionalized to trap and bind target analytes on-site in a sample volume as small as 0.6 nl, and houses an enzyme-linked assay on its 0.06 mm2 wall. The optofluidic components are designed to rapidly quantify target analytes present in the sample and collected in the microneedle using a simple and sensitive absorbance scheme. This contribution describes how the biosensor components were optimized to detect in vitro streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase (Sav-HRP) as a model analyte over a large detection range (0-7.21 µM) and a very low limit of detection (60.2 nM). This biosensor utilizes the lowest analyte volume reported for TDM with microneedle technology, and presents significant avenues to improve current TDM methods for patients, by potentially eliminating blood draws for several drug candidates.

  20. Optofluidic UV-Vis spectrophotometer for online monitoring of photocatalytic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Zhao, Yu; Tsoi, Chi Chung; Fan, Xudong; Yu, Weixing; Zhang, Xuming

    2016-06-01

    On-chip integration of optical detection units into the microfluidic systems for online monitoring is highly desirable for many applications and is also well in line with the spirit of optofluidics technology-fusion of optics and microfluidics for advanced functionalities. This paper reports the construction of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer on a microreactor, and demonstrates the online monitoring of the photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue and methyl orange under different flow rates and different pH values by detecting the intensity change and/or the peak shift. The integrated device consists of a TiO2-coated glass substrate, a PDMS micro-sized reaction chamber and two flow cells. By comparing with the results of commercial equipment, we have found that the measuring range and the sensitivity are acceptable, especially when the transmittance is in the range of 0.01-0.9. This integrated optofluidic device can significantly cut down the test time and the sample volume, and would provide a versatile platform for real-time characterization of photochemical performance. Moreover, its online monitoring capability may enable to access the usually hidden information in biochemical reactions like intermediate products, time-dependent processes and reaction kinetics.

  1. Optofluidic analysis system for amplification-free, direct detection of Ebola infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, H.; Parks, J. W.; Wall, T. A.; Stott, M. A.; Stambaugh, A.; Alfson, K.; Griffiths, A.; Mathies, R. A.; Carrion, R.; Patterson, J. L.; Hawkins, A. R.; Schmidt, H.

    2015-09-01

    The massive outbreak of highly lethal Ebola hemorrhagic fever in West Africa illustrates the urgent need for diagnostic instruments that can identify and quantify infections rapidly, accurately, and with low complexity. Here, we report on-chip sample preparation, amplification-free detection and quantification of Ebola virus on clinical samples using hybrid optofluidic integration. Sample preparation and target preconcentration are implemented on a PDMS-based microfluidic chip (automaton), followed by single nucleic acid fluorescence detection in liquid-core optical waveguides on a silicon chip in under ten minutes. We demonstrate excellent specificity, a limit of detection of 0.2 pfu/mL and a dynamic range of thirteen orders of magnitude, far outperforming other amplification-free methods. This chip-scale approach and reduced complexity compared to gold standard RT-PCR methods is ideal for portable instruments that can provide immediate diagnosis and continued monitoring of infectious diseases at the point-of-care.

  2. Fiber optic refractive index sensor using optofluidic anti-resonant reflecting guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ran; Lu, Danfeng; Cheng, Jin; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2017-10-01

    An optofluidic anti-resonant reflecting guidance has been proposed and experimental demonstrated for the measurement of liquid refractive index. Two micro-channels were fabricated for the delivery of the liquid sample in the hollow core photonic crystal fiber by using femtosecond laser micromachining, serving as an inlet and outlet. The refractive index can be detected by using the resonant condition of the Fabry-Perot resonator, which is interrogated through the wavelength shift and of the lossy dip in the transmission spectrum. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of up to 1328 nm/RIU is achieved for the refractive index in the range from 1.345 to 1.363 RIU, respectively. The proposed sensor appears to have potential applications of precise measurement in chemistry, medicine, and biology.

  3. Laser-assisted patterning of double-sided adhesive tapes for optofluidic chip integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Vanessa; Janeczka, Christian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Havlik, George; Queisser, Marco; Schröder, Henning

    2018-02-01

    Portable high-sensitivity biosensors exhibit a growing demand in healthcare, food industry and environmental monitoring sectors. Optical biosensors based on photonic integration platforms are attractive candidates due to their high sensitivity, compactness and multiplexing capabilities. However, they need a low-cost and reliable integration with the microfluidic system. Laser-micropatterned double-sided biocompatible adhesive tapes are promising bonding layers for hybrid integration of an optofluidic biochip. As a part of the EU-PHOCNOSIS project, double-sided adhesive tapes have been proposed to integrate the polymer microfluidic system with the optical integrated waveguide sensor chip. Here the adhesive tape should be patterned in a micrometer scale in order to create an interaction between the sample that flows through the polymer microchannel and the photonic sensing microstructure. Three laser-assisted structuring methods are investigated to transfer microchannel patterns to the adhesive tape. The test structure design consists of a single channel with 400 μm wide, 30 mm length and two circular receivers with 3 mm radius. The best structuring results are found by using the picosecond UV laser where smooth and straight channel cross-sections are obtained. Such patterned tapes are used to bond blank polymer substrates to blank silicon substrates. As a proof of concept, the hybrid integration is tested using colored DI-water. Structuring tests related to the reduction of channel widths are also considered in this work. The use of this technique enables a simple and rapid manufacturing of narrow channels (50-60 μm in width) in adhesive tapes, achieving a cheap and stable integration of the optofluidic biochip.

  4. Development of an opto-fluidic micro-system dedicated to chemical analysis in a nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffray, F.; Canto, F.; Couston, L. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SERA/LAMM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Allenet, T.; Bucci, D.; Broquin, J.E. [IMEP-LaHC, Universite de Grenoble Alpes, UMR 5130 CNRS, Minatec-Grenoble-INP, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble (France); Jardinier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SERA/LAMM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); IMEP-LaHC, Universite de Grenoble Alpes, UMR 5130 CNRS, Minatec-Grenoble-INP, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-01

    Micromachining techniques enable the fabrication of innovative lab-on-a-chip. Following the trend in chemical and biological analysis, the use of microsystems also appears compelling in the nuclear industry. The volume reduction of radioactive solutions is especially attractive in order to reduce the workers radiation exposition in the context of off-line analysis in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. We hence present the development of an opto-fluidic sensor combining micro-fluidic channels for fluid transportation and integrated optics for detection. With the aim of achieving automated microanalysis with reduced response time the sensor is made compatible with a commercial micro-fluidic holder. Therefore the chip is connected to computer controlled pumps and electro-valves thanks to capillary tubing. In this paper we emphasis on the fluid handling capacities of the opto-fluidic sensor. (authors)

  5. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  6. Silicon-Nitride-based Integrated Optofluidic Biochemical Sensors using a Coupled-Resonator Optical Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei eWANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride (SiN is a promising material platform for integrating photonic components and microfluidic channels on a chip for label-free, optical biochemical sensing applications in the visible to near-infrared wavelengths. The chip-scale SiN-based optofluidic sensors can be compact due to a relatively high refractive index contrast between SiN and the fluidic medium, and low-cost due to the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate SiN-based integrated optofluidic biochemical sensors using a coupled-resonator optical waveguide (CROW in the visible wavelengths. The working principle is based on imaging in the far field the out-of-plane elastic-light-scattering patterns of the CROW sensor at a fixed probe wavelength. We correlate the imaged pattern with reference patterns at the CROW eigenstates. Our sensing algorithm maps the correlation coefficients of the imaged pattern with a library of calibrated correlation coefficients to extract a minute change in the cladding refractive index. Given a calibrated CROW, our sensing mechanism in the spatial domain only requires a fixed-wavelength laser in the visible wavelengths as a light source, with the probe wavelength located within the CROW transmission band, and a silicon digital charge-coupled device (CCD / CMOS camera for recording the light scattering patterns. This is in sharp contrast with the conventional optical microcavity-based sensing methods that impose a strict requirement of spectral alignment with a high-quality cavity resonance using a wavelength-tunable laser. Our experimental results using a SiN CROW sensor with eight coupled microrings in the 680nm wavelength reveal a cladding refractive index change of ~1.3 × 10^-4 refractive index unit (RIU, with an average sensitivity of ~281 ± 271 RIU-1 and a noise-equivalent detection limit (NEDL of 1.8 ×10^-8 RIU ~ 1.0 ×10^-4 RIU across the CROW bandwidth of ~1 nm.

  7. Multi-Pixel Photon Counters for Optofluidic Characterization of Particles and Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Asrar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an optofluidic biosensor to study microscale particles and different species of microalgae. The system is comprised of a microchannel with a set of chevron-shaped grooves. The chevrons allows for hydrodynamic focusing of the core stream in the center using a sheath fluid. The device is equipped with a new generation of highly sensitive photodetectors, multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC, with high gain values and an extremely small footprint. Two different sizes of high intensity fluorescent microspheres and three different species of algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain 21 gr, Chlamydomonas suppressor, and Chlorella sorokiniana were studied. The forward scattering emissions generated by samples passing through the interrogation region were carried through a multimode fiber, located in 135 degree with respect to the excitation fiber, and detected by a MPPC. The signal outputs obtained from each sample were collected using a data acquisition system and utilized for further statistical analysis. Larger particles or cells demonstrated larger peak height and width, and consequently larger peak area. The average signal output (integral of the peak for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strain 21 gr, Chlamydomonas suppressor, and Chlorella sorokiniana falls between the values found for the 3.2 and 10.2 μm beads. Different types of algae were also successfully characterized.

  8. Smelling in chemically complex environments: an optofluidic Bragg fiber array for differentiation of methanol adulterated beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2013-07-02

    A novel optoelectronic nose for analysis of alcohols (ethanol and methanol) in chemically complex environments is reported. The cross-responsive sensing unit of the optoelectronic nose is an array of three distinct hollow-core infrared transmitting photonic band gap fibers, which transmit a specific band of IR light depending on their Bragg mirror structures. The presence of alcohol molecules in the optofluidic core quenches the fiber transmissions if there is an absorption band of the analyte overlapping with the transmission band of the fiber; otherwise they remain unchanged. The cumulative response data of the fiber array enables rapid, reversible, and accurate discrimination of alcohols in chemically complex backgrounds such as beer and fruit juice. In addition, we observed that humidity of the environment has no effect on the response matrix of the optoelectronic nose, which is rarely achieved in gas-sensing applications. Consequently, it can be reliably used in virtually any environment without precalibration for humidity or drying the analytes. Besides the discussed application in counterfeit alcoholic beverages, with its superior sensor parameters, this novel concept proves to be a promising contender for many other applications including food quality control, environmental monitoring, and breath analysis for disease diagnostics.

  9. Gold nanoparticle incorporated inverse opal photonic crystal capillaries for optofluidic surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangwei; Xue, Jiangyang; Mu, Zhongde; Huang, Yin; Lu, Meng; Gu, Zhongze

    2015-10-15

    Novel transducers are needed for point of care testing (POCT) devices which aim at facile, sensitive and quick acquisition of health related information. Recent advances in optofluidics offer tremendous opportunities for biological/chemical analysis using extremely small sample volumes. This paper demonstrates nanostructured capillary tubes for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis in a flow-through fashion. The capillary tube integrates the SERS sensor and the nanofluidic structure to synergistically offer sample delivery and analysis functions. Inside the capillary tube, inverse opal photonic crystal (IO PhC) was fabricated using the co-assembly approach to form nanoscale liquid pathways. In the nano-voids of the IO PhC, gold nanoparticles were in situ synthesized and functioned as the SERS hotspots. The advantages of the flow-through SERS sensor are multifold. The capillary effect facilities the sample delivery process, the nanofluidic channels boosts the interaction of analyte and gold nanoparticles, and the PhC structure strengthens the optical field near the SERS hotspots and results in enhanced SERS signals from analytes. As an exemplary demonstration, the sensor was used to measure creatinein spiked in artificial urine samples with detection limit of 0.9 mg/dL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Circularly Polarized Light with Sense and Wavelengths To Regulate Azobenzene Supramolecular Chirality in Optofluidic Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Laibing; Yin, Lu; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xiulin; Fujiki, Michiya

    2017-09-20

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) as a massless physical force causes absolute asymmetric photosynthesis, photodestruction, and photoresolution. CPL handedness has long been believed to be the determining factor in the resulting product's chirality. However, product chirality as a function of the CPL handedness, irradiation wavelength, and irradiation time has not yet been studied systematically. Herein, we investigate this topic using achiral polymethacrylate carrying achiral azobenzene as micrometer-size aggregates in an optofluidic medium with a tuned refractive index. Azobenzene chirality with a high degree of dissymmetry ratio (±1.3 × 10 -2 at 313 nm) was generated, inverted, and switched in multiple cycles by irradiation with monochromatic incoherent CPL (313, 365, 405, and 436 nm) for 20 s using a weak incoherent light source (≈ 30 μW·cm -2 ). Moreover, the optical activity was retained for over 1 week in the dark. Photoinduced chirality was swapped by the irradiating wavelength, regardless of whether the CPL sense was the same. This scenario is similar to the so-called Cotton effect, which was first described in 1895. The tandem choice of both CPL sense and its wavelength was crucial for azobenzene chirality. Our experimental proof and theoretical simulation should provide new insight into the chirality of CPL-controlled molecules, supramolecules, and polymers.

  11. Femtosecond laser direct-write of optofluidics in polymer-coated optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kevin A. J.; Haque, Moez; Ho, Stephen; Aitchison, J. Stewart; Herman, Peter R.

    2017-03-01

    Multifunctional lab in fiber technology seeks to translate the accomplishments of optofluidic, lab on chip devices into silica fibers. a robust, flexible, and ubiquitous optical communication platform that can underpin the `Internet of Things' with distributed sensors, or enable lab on chip functions deep inside our bodies. Femtosecond lasers have driven significant advances in three-dimensional processing, enabling optical circuits, microfluidics, and micro-mechanical structures to be formed around the core of the fiber. However, such processing typically requires the stripping and recoating of the polymer buffer or jacket, increasing processing time and mechanically weakening the device. This paper reports on a comprehensive assessment of laser damage in urethane-acrylate-coated fiber. The results show a sufficient processing window is available for femtosecond laser processing of the fiber without damaging the polymer jacket. The fiber core, cladding, and buffer could be simultaneously processed without removal of the buffer jacket. Three-dimensional lab in fiber devices were successfully fabricated by distortion-free immersionlens focusing, presenting fiber-cladding optical circuits and progress towards chemically-etched channels, microfluidic cavities, and MEMS structure inside buffer-coated fiber.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of an Opto-Fluidic Sensor for Lab-on-a-Chip Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesha Muniswamy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work modeling and analysis of an integrated opto-fluidic sensor, with a focus on achievement of single mode optical confinement and continuous flow of microparticles in the microfluidic channel for lab-on-a-chip (LOC sensing application is presented. This sensor consists of integrated optical waveguides, microfluidic channel among other integrated optical components. A continuous flow of microparticles in a narrow fluidic channel is achieved by maintaining the two sealed chambers at different temperatures and by maintaining a constant pressure of 1 Pa at the centroid of narrow fluidic channel geometry. The analysis of silicon on insulator (SOI integrated optical waveguide at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm for single mode sensing operation is presented. The optical loss is found to be 5.7 × 10−4 dB/cm with an effective index of 2.3. The model presented in this work can be effectively used to detect the nature of microparticles and continuous monitoring of pathological parameters for sensing applications.

  13. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  14. A theoretical investigation of the interaction of Immucillin-A with N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles: Applications to nanobiosensors and nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirali Abbasi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Adsorption of IMMUCILLIN-A (BCX4430 molecule on the pristine and N-doped TiO2 anatase nanoparticles were studied using the density functional theory (DFT calculations. The adsorption energy analysis indicated that TiO2+IMMUCILLIN-A complexes including OC-substituted TiO2 have higher adsorption energy than the complexes with OT substituted TiO2, thus providing more stable configurations. Methods: The structural properties including bond lengths, adsorption energies and bond angles were analysed. The electronic structure of the adsorption system were investigated in view of the density of states, molecular orbitals and Mulliken charge analysis.Results: The results show that, the interaction of IMMUCILLIN-A drug with N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles is more energetically favorable than the interaction with the pristine ones, suggesting that the N-doped nanoparticles can react with IMMUCILLIN-A drug more efficiently. The Mulliken charge analysis also suggests a charge transfer from IMMUCILLIN-A molecule to the TiO2 nanoparticle.Conclusions: Based on obtained results, it can be concluded that the N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle could be utilized as an efficient candidate for application as highly sensitive nanobiosensors and efficient nanocarriers for IMMUCILLIN-A drugs.

  15. A PDMS/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic biochip integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide nano-biosensors for one-step multiplexed pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Peng; Li, XiuJun; Dominguez, Delfina C; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-10-07

    Infectious pathogens often cause serious public health concerns throughout the world. There is an increasing demand for simple, rapid and sensitive approaches for multiplexed pathogen detection. In this paper we have developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic system integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nano-biosensors for simple, one-step, multiplexed pathogen detection. The paper substrate used in this hybrid microfluidic system facilitated the integration of aptamer biosensors on the microfluidic biochip, and avoided complicated surface treatment and aptamer probe immobilization in a PDMS or glass-only microfluidic system. Lactobacillus acidophilus was used as a bacterium model to develop the microfluidic platform with a detection limit of 11.0 cfu mL(-1). We have also successfully extended this method to the simultaneous detection of two infectious pathogens - Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica. This method is simple and fast. The one-step 'turn on' pathogen assay in a ready-to-use microfluidic device only takes ~10 min to complete on the biochip. Furthermore, this microfluidic device has great potential in rapid detection of a wide variety of different other bacterial and viral pathogens.

  16. Photonic crystal fiber as lab-in-fiber optofluidic platform for sensing and process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei

    deposited inside PCF-LPG has been registered with robust pH response of the hydrogel. These findings have demonstrated the significant potential of PCF-LPG as a novel lab-in-fiber optofluidic platform for basic and applied studies of LbL in confined geometry for nanosensors and nano-actuators based on stimuli-responsive polyelectrolyte thin films.

  17. Optical trapping and binding of particles in an optofluidic stable Fabry-Pérot resonator with single-sided injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Noha; Malak, Maurine; Marty, Frédéric; Angelescu, Dan E; Richalot, Elodie; Bourouina, Tarik

    2014-07-07

    In this article, microparticles are manipulated inside an optofluidic Fabry-Pérot cylindrical cavity embedding a fluidic capillary tube, taking advantage of field enhancement and multiple reflections within the optically-resonant cavity. This enables trapping of suspended particles with single-side injection of light and with low optical power. A Hermite-Gaussian standing wave is developed inside the cavity, forming trapping spots at the locations of the electromagnetic field maxima with a strong intensity gradient. The particles get arranged in a pattern related to the mechanism affecting them: either optical trapping or optical binding. This is proven to eventually translate into either an axial one dimensional (1D) particle array or a cluster of particles. Numerical simulations are performed to model the field distributions inside the cavity allowing a behavioral understanding of the phenomena involved in each case.

  18. Color capable sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope and its application to blood cell imaging for malaria diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ah Lee

    Full Text Available Miniaturization of imaging systems can significantly benefit clinical diagnosis in challenging environments, where access to physicians and good equipment can be limited. Sub-pixel resolving optofluidic microscope (SROFM offers high-resolution imaging in the form of an on-chip device, with the combination of microfluidics and inexpensive CMOS image sensors. In this work, we report on the implementation of color SROFM prototypes with a demonstrated optical resolution of 0.66 µm at their highest acuity. We applied the prototypes to perform color imaging of red blood cells (RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a particularly harmful type of malaria parasites and one of the major causes of death in the developing world.

  19. High-Throughput Accurate Single-Cell Screening of Euglena gracilis with Fluorescence-Assisted Optofluidic Time-Stretch Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Guo

    Full Text Available The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E. gracilis with high throughout, high accuracy, and single-cell resolution simultaneously. Here we demonstrate high-throughput, high-accuracy, single-cell screening of E. gracilis with fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscopy-a method that combines the strengths of microfluidic cell focusing, optical time-stretch microscopy, and fluorescence detection used in conventional flow cytometry. Specifically, our fluorescence-assisted optofluidic time-stretch microscope consists of an optical time-stretch microscope and a fluorescence analyzer on top of a hydrodynamically focusing microfluidic device and can detect fluorescence from every E. gracilis cell in a population and simultaneously obtain its image with a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s. With the multi-dimensional information acquired by the system, we classify nitrogen-sufficient (ordinary and nitrogen-deficient (lipid-accumulated E. gracilis cells with a low false positive rate of 1.0%. This method holds promise for evaluating cultivation techniques and selective breeding for microalgae-based biofuel production.

  20. Detection and Quantification of Biologically Active Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotypes A and B Using a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Quantum Dot Nanobiosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yun [Center for Food; Fry, H. Christopher [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, DuPage County, Illinois 60439, United States; Skinner, Guy E. [Center for Food; Schill, Kristin M. [Center for Food; Duncan, Timothy V. [Center for Food

    2017-03-20

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is the most potent toxin known. The ingestion of food contaminated with biologically active BoNT causes foodborne botulism, which can lead to respiratory paralysis, coma, and death after ingestion of as little as 70 mu g for a 70 kg human. Because of its lethality and challenges associated with current detection methods, there is an urgent need for highly sensitive rapid screening techniques capable of detecting biologically active BoNT. Here, we describe a Forster resonance energy transfer-based nanobiosensor that uses quantum dots (QDs) and two specific quencher-labeled peptide probes to detect and differentiate two biologically active forms of BoNT, serotypes A and B, which were responsible for 80% of human foodborne botulism cases in the U.S. from 2012 to 2015. Each peptide probe contains an enzymatic cleavage site specific to only one serotype. QDs were selected based on the spectral overlap with the quenchers. In the presence of the target BoNT serotype, the peptide probe is cleaved and the quenching of QD photoluminescence (PL) is reduced, giving a signal that is easily detected by a PL spectrophotometer. This sensor performance was evaluated with light chains of BoNT/A and BoNT/B (LcA and LcB), catalytic domains of the respective serotypes. LcA and LcB were detected in 3 h with limits of detection of 0.2 and 2 ng/mL, respectively. The specificity of the sensor was evaluated, and no cross-reactivity from nontarget serotypes was observed with 2 h of incubation. Because each serotype-specific peptide is conjugated to a QD with a unique emission wavelength, multiple biologically active BoNT serotypes could be detected in one PL spectrum. The sensor was also shown to be responsive to BoNT/A and BoNT/B holotoxins. Good performance of this sensor implies its potential application as a rapid screening method for biologically active BoNT/A and BoNT/B in the laboratory and in the field.

  1. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  2. Nanoparticle-coated micro-optofluidic ring resonator as a detector for microscale gas chromatographic vapor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, K; Collin, W R; Fan, X; Zellers, E T

    2015-05-28

    A vapor sensor comprising a nanoparticle-coated microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator (μOFRR) is introduced. A multilayer film of polyether functionalized, thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (MPN) was solvent cast on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical SiOxμOFRR resonator structure, and whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances were generated with a 1550 nm tunable laser via an optical fiber taper. Reversible shifts in the WGM resonant wavelength upon vapor exposure were detected with a photodetector. The μOFRR chip was connected to a pair of upstream etched-Si chips containing PDMS-coated separation μcolumns and calibration curves were generated from the peak-area responses to five volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration curves were linear, and the sensitivities reflected the influence of analyte volatility and analyte-MPN functional group affinity. Sorption-induced changes in film thickness apparently dominate over changes in the refractive index of the film as the determinant of responses for all VOCs. Peaks from the MPN-coated μOFRR were just 20-50% wider than those from a flame ionization detector for similar μcolumn separation conditions, reflecting the rapid response of the sensor for VOCs. The five VOCs were baseline separated in <1.67 min, with detection limits as low as 38 ng.

  3. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erps, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.van.erps@vub.ac.be; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-15

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  4. Nanoparticle-coated micro-optofluidic ring resonator as a detector for microscale gas chromatographic vapor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, K.; Collin, W. R.; Fan, X.; Zellers, E. T.

    2015-05-01

    A vapor sensor comprising a nanoparticle-coated microfabricated optofluidic ring resonator (μOFRR) is introduced. A multilayer film of polyether functionalized, thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (MPN) was solvent cast on the inner wall of the hollow cylindrical SiOx μOFRR resonator structure, and whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances were generated with a 1550 nm tunable laser via an optical fiber taper. Reversible shifts in the WGM resonant wavelength upon vapor exposure were detected with a photodetector. The μOFRR chip was connected to a pair of upstream etched-Si chips containing PDMS-coated separation μcolumns and calibration curves were generated from the peak-area responses to five volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration curves were linear, and the sensitivities reflected the influence of analyte volatility and analyte-MPN functional group affinity. Sorption-induced changes in film thickness apparently dominate over changes in the refractive index of the film as the determinant of responses for all VOCs. Peaks from the MPN-coated μOFRR were just 20-50% wider than those from a flame ionization detector for similar μcolumn separation conditions, reflecting the rapid response of the sensor for VOCs. The five VOCs were baseline separated in <1.67 min, with detection limits as low as 38 ng.

  5. Autonomous Optofluidic Chemical Analyzers for Marine Applications: Insights from the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instruments (SAMI for pH and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ze Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial availability of inexpensive fiber optics and small volume pumps in the early 1990's provided the components necessary for the successful development of low power, low reagent consumption, autonomous optofluidic analyzers for marine applications. It was evident that to achieve calibration-free performance, reagent-based sensors would require frequent renewal of the reagent by pumping the reagent from an impermeable, inert reservoir to the sensing interface. Pumping also enabled measurement of a spectral blank further enhancing accuracy and stability. The first instrument that was developed based on this strategy, the Submersible Autonomous Moored Instrument for CO2 (SAMI-CO2, uses a pH indicator for measurement of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2. Because the pH indicator gives an optical response, the instrument requires an optofluidic design where the indicator is pumped into a gas permeable membrane and then to an optical cell for analysis. The pH indicator is periodically flushed from the optical cell by using a valve to switch from the pH indicator to a blank solution. Because of the small volume and low power light source, over 8,500 measurements can be obtained with a ~500 mL reagent bag and 8 alkaline D-cell battery pack. The primary drawback is that the design is more complex compared to the single-ended electrode or optode that is envisioned as the ideal sensor. The SAMI technology has subsequently been used for the successful development of autonomous pH and total alkalinity analyzers. In this manuscript, we will discuss the pros and cons of the SAMI pCO2 and pH optofluidic technology and highlight some past data sets and applications for studying the carbon cycle in aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Lab-on-fiber optofluidic platform for in-situ study of therapeutic peptides and bacterial response (Rising Researcher Presentation) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Yang, Fan; Liang, Junfeng

    2017-05-01

    Hospital acquired infections in indwelling device have become a life-threatening issue accompanied by the wide use of medical devices and implants. The infection process typically involves the attachment, growth and eventual assemblage of microbial cells into biofilms, with the latter exhibiting extremely higher antibiotic tolerance than planktonic bacteria. Surface constructed antimicrobial coatings offer a viable solution for bacteria responsive antibiotic strategy in medical devices such as catheter and stents. Therapeutic peptide has pioneered the field for their attractive pharmacological profile with broad antibacterial spectrum, great efficacy and long life-span. It has been a common practice to separately assess bacteria responses through commercially available activity assay kits after their exposure to antibiotic coatings, limiting the assessment of their activity in vitro with a discontinuous fashion. We developed and demonstrated an innovative all-optical lab-on-fiber optofluidic platform (LOFOP) to fill in this technical gap by allowing in situ measurement of the bacteria attachment in a continuous manner. This LOFOP allows for evaluation of drug release and resultant bacterial response by integrating glass capillary with lytic peptide-containing LbL-coated long period graing (LPG) as its core. S. aureus suspension is introduced through the assembled optofluidic platform with the capillary and the peptide-coated LPG. The efficacy of the peptide-containing coating is evaluated in situ by monitoring the attachment of bacteria and the ensuing development of biofilms using the LPG. LPG without antimicrobial coatings will be explored and compared as control.

  7. Nanotag-enabled photonic crystal fiber as quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering optofluidic platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkhasova, P.; Chen, H.; Kaňka, Jiří; Mergo, P.; Du, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 7 (2015), 0711061-0711064 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11038 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Photonic crystal fibers * Raman scattering * Crystal whiskers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  8. High-throughput label-free detection of aggregate platelets with optofluidic time-stretch microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiyue; Lei, Cheng; Yasumoto, Atsushi; Ito, Takuro; Guo, Baoshan; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Yatomi, Yutaka; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-02-01

    According to WHO, approximately 10 million new cases of thrombotic disorders are diagnosed worldwide every year. In the U.S. and Europe, their related diseases kill more people than those from AIDS, prostate cancer, breast cancer and motor vehicle accidents combined. Although thrombotic disorders, especially arterial ones, mainly result from enhanced platelet aggregability in the vascular system, visual detection of platelet aggregates in vivo is not employed in clinical settings. Here we present a high-throughput label-free platelet aggregate detection method, aiming at the diagnosis and monitoring of thrombotic disorders in clinical settings. With optofluidic time-stretch microscopy with a spatial resolution of 780 nm and an ultrahigh linear scanning rate of 75 MHz, it is capable of detecting aggregated platelets in lysed blood which flows through a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic device at a high throughput of 10,000 particles/s. With digital image processing and statistical analysis, we are able to distinguish them from single platelets and other blood cells via morphological features. The detection results are compared with results of fluorescence-based detection (which is slow and inaccurate, but established). Our results indicate that the method holds promise for real-time, low-cost, label-free, and minimally invasive detection of platelet aggregates, which is potentially applicable to detection of platelet aggregates in vivo and to the diagnosis and monitoring of thrombotic disorders in clinical settings. This technique, if introduced clinically, may provide important clinical information in addition to that obtained by conventional techniques for thrombotic disorder diagnosis, including ex vivo platelet aggregation tests.

  9. Universal quantum dot-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules using portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong; Shi, Hanchang; Long, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples

  10. Universal quantum dot-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules using portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Liping; Zhu, Anna; Lou, Xuening; Song, Dan; Yang, Rong [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China); Shi, Hanchang [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Long, Feng, E-mail: longf04@ruc.edu.cn [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-28

    A universal sandwich-like immunoassay strategy based on quantum-dots immunoprobe (QD-labeled anti-mouse IgG antibody) was developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of small molecules. A portable and reusable optofluidic nano-biosensing platform was applied to investigate the sandwich-like immunoassay mechanism and format of small molecules, as well as the binding kinetics between QD immunoprobe and anti-small molecule antibody. A two-step immunoassay method that involves pre-incubation mixture of different concentration of small molecule and anti-small molecule antibody, and subsequent introduction of QD immunoprobe into the optofluidic cell was conducted for small molecule determination. Compared with the one-step immunoassay method, the two-step immunoassay method can obtain higher fluorescence signal and higher sensitivity index, thus improving the nano-biosensing performance. Based on the proposed strategy, two mode targets, namely, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and Bisphenol A (BPA) were tested with high sensitivity, rapidity, and ease of use. A higher concentration of small molecules in the sample led to less anti-small molecule antibody bound with antigen-carrier protein conjugate immobilized onto the sensor surface, and less QD immunoprobes bound with anti-small molecule antibody. This phenomenon lowered the fluorescence signal detected by nano-biosensing platform. Under optimal operating conditions, MC-LR and BPA exhibited a limit of detection of 0.003 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively. The LODs were better than those of the indirect competitive immunoassay method for small molecules via Cy5.5-labeled anti-small molecule antibody. The proposed QD-based sandwich-like immunoassay strategy was evaluated in spiked water samples, and showed good recovery, precision and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. All these results demonstrate that the new detection strategy could be readily applied to the other trace small molecules in real water samples

  11. High-throughput, label-free, single-cell, microalgal lipid screening by machine-learning-equipped optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Jiang, Yiyue; Tanaka, Yo; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO 2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner. Here high-throughput label-free single-cell screening of lipid-producing microalgal cells with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy was demonstrated. In particular, Euglena gracilis, an attractive microalgal species that produces wax esters (suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel after refinement), within lipid droplets was investigated. The optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscope is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch quantitative phase microscope, and a digital image processor equipped with machine learning. As a result, it provides both the opacity and phase maps of every single cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s, enabling accurate cell classification without the need for fluorescent staining. Specifically, the dataset was used to characterize heterogeneous populations of E. gracilis cells under two different culture conditions (nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient) and achieve the cell classification with an error rate of only 2.15%. The method holds promise as an effective analytical tool for microalgae-based biofuel production. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  12. Optofluidics-based DNA structure-competitive aptasensor for rapid on-site detection of lead(II) in an aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feng; Zhu, Anna; Wang, Hongchen

    2014-11-07

    Lead ions (Pb(2+)), ubiquitous and one of the most toxic metallic pollutants, have attracted increasing attentions because of their various neurotoxic effects. Pb(2+) has been proven to induce a conformational change in G-quadruplex (G4) aptamers to form a stabilizing G4/Pb(2+) complex. Based on this principle, an innovative optofluidics-based DNA structure-competitive aptasensor was developed for Pb(2+) detection in an actual aquatic environment. The proposed sensing system has good characteristics, such as high sensitivity and selectivity, reusability, easy operation, rapidity, robustness, portability, use of a small sample volume, and cost effectiveness. A fluorescence-labeled G4 aptamer was utilized as a molecular probe. A DNA probe, a complementary strand of G4 aptamer, was immobilized onto the sensor surface. When the mixture of Pb(2+) solution and G4 aptamer was introduced into the optofluidic cell, Pb(2+) and the DNA probe bound competitively with the G4 aptamer. A high Pb(2+) concentration reduced the binding of the aptamer and the DNA probe; thus, a low-fluorescence signal was detected. A sensitive sensing response to Pb(2+) in the range of 1.0-300.0 nM with a low detection limit of 0.22 nM was exhibited under optimal conditions. The potential interference of the environmental sample matrix was assessed with spiked samples, and the recovery of Pb(2+) ranged from 80 to 105% with a relative standard deviation value of monitoring of other trace analytes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optofluidic Fabry-Pérot Micro-Cavities Comprising Curved Surfaces for Homogeneous Liquid Refractometry—Design, Simulation, and Experimental Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Gaber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the scope of miniaturized optical sensors for liquid refractometry, this work details the design, numerical simulation, and experimental characterization of a Fabry-Pérot resonator consisting of two deeply-etched silicon cylindrical mirrors with a micro-tube in between holding the liquid analyte under study. The curved surfaces of the tube and the cylindrical mirrors provide three-dimensional light confinement and enable achieving stability for the cavity illuminated by a Gaussian beam input. The resonant optofluidic cavity attains a high-quality factor (Q—over 2800—which is necessary for a sensitive refractometer, not only by providing a sharp interference spectrum peak that enables accurate tracing of the peak wavelengths shifts, but also by providing steep side peaks, which enables detection of refractive index changes by power level variations when operating at a fixed wavelength. The latter method can achieve refractometry without the need for spectroscopy tools, provided certain criteria explained in the details are met. By experimentally measuring mixtures of acetone-toluene with different ratios, refractive index variations of 0.0005 < Δn < 0.0022 could be detected, with sensitivity as high as 5500 μW/RIU.

  14. Real-time two-photon lithography in controlled flow to create a single-microparticle array and particle-cluster array for optofluidic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Shi, Yang; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Li, Guoqiang; Hu, Yanlei; Li, Jiawen; Chu, Jiaru; Wu, Dong; Sugioka, Koji

    2018-01-30

    Microarray technology provides an excellent platform for biomedical and biochemical research including basic scientific studies, drug discovery, and diagnostics. Here, we develop a novel method referred to as real-time two-photon lithography in a controlled flow in which femtosecond laser two-photon lithography is performed in situ in the sequential mode stopping and flowing the flow of liquid resin containing microparticles to achieve 100% trapping on a one-bead-to-one-trap basis. Polydisperse particles can be all trapped to form a desired array by freely designing trap structures, resulting in an unprecedentedly high capture efficiency of ∼100%. No persistent pressure is needed after trapping which reduces the complexity of the system. In addition, trapping of particle-cluster arrays with a controlled number of particles is also achieved via this method. The trapped particles inside the microchip are successfully applied as microlenses for high quality imaging. The present technology marks an essential step towards a versatile platform for the integration of bead-based assays and paves the way for developing innovative microfluidics, optofluidics, micro-optics and single-cell analysis devices.

  15. Lab-on-fiber optofluidic platform for in situ monitoring of drug release from therapeutic eluting polyelectrolyte multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tian, F.; Min, J.; Kaňka, Jiří; Li, X.; Hammond, P. T.; Du, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 15 (2015), s. 20132-20142 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11038 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : long-period grating * drug release * thin film Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.148, year: 2015

  16. Optofluidic ring resonator sensor for sensitive label-free detection of breast cancer antigen CA15-3 in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Dale, Paul S.; Fan, Xudong

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women worldwide. Because of its great impact on society, a lot of research funding has been used to develop novel detection tools for aiding breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. In this work, we demonstrated a simple, fast, and sensitive detection of circulating breast cancer biomarker CA15-3 with opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) sensors. The OFRR sensor employs a thin-walled capillary with wall thickness less than 4 μm. The circular cross section of the capillary forms the optical ring resonator, in which the light circulates in the form of whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The capillary wall is thin enough that the evanescent field of the WGM extends into the capillary core and responds to refractive index changes in the capillary core or close to its interior surface. The WGM spectral position will change when the biomolecules bind to the surface, yielding quantitative and kinetic information about the biomolecule interaction. Here, the direct immunoassay method was employed for the detection of CA15-3 antigen without any signal amplification steps. The sensor performance in both PBS buffer and human serum were investigated, respectively. The experimental detection limit was 5 units/mL in PBS buffer and 30 units/mL for CA15-3 spiked in serum, both of which satisfied clinical diagnosis requirements. The potential use of the OFRR as the point-of-care device for breast cancer detection was tested by measuring the CA15-3 level in blood samples collected from stage IV breast cancer patients and the results were compared with standard clinical test.

  17. FTIR nanobiosensors for Escherichia coli detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mura

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Infections due to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (Escherichia coli have a low incidence but can have severe and sometimes fatal health consequences, and thus represent some of the most serious diseases due to the contamination of water and food. New, fast and simple devices that monitor these pathogens are necessary to improve the safety of our food supply chain. In this work we report on mesoporous titania thin-film substrates as sensors to detect E. coli O157:H7. Titania films treated with APTES ((3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and GA (glutaraldehyde were functionalized with specific antibodies and the absorption properties monitored. The film-based biosensors showed a detection limit for E. coli of 1 × 102 CFU/mL, constituting a simple and selective method for the effective screening of water samples.

  18. Aptamer-functionalized nano-biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tai-Chia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2009-01-01

    Nanomaterials have become one of the most interesting sensing materials because of their unique size- and shape-dependent optical properties, high surface energy and surface-to-volume ratio, and tunable surface properties. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity. The use of nanomaterials that are bioconjugated with aptamers for selective and sensitive detection of analytes such as small molecules, metal ions, proteins, and cells has been demonstrated. This review focuses on recent progress in the development of biosensors by integrating functional aptamers with different types of nanomaterials, including quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs), metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Colorimetry, fluorescence, electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and magnetic resonance imaging are common detection modes for a broad range of analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity when using aptamer bioconjugated nanomaterials (Apt-NMs). We highlight the important roles that the size and concentration of nanomaterials, the secondary structure and density of aptamers, and the multivalent interactions play in determining the specificity and sensitivity of the nanosensors towards analytes. Advantages and disadvantages of the Apt-NMs for bioapplications are focused.

  19. Aptamer-Functionalized Nano-Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chia Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have become one of the most interesting sensing materials because of their unique size- and shape-dependent optical properties, high surface energy and surface-to-volume ratio, and tunable surface properties. Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity. The use of nanomaterials that are bioconjugated with aptamers for selective and sensitive detection of analytes such as small molecules, metal ions, proteins, and cells has been demonstrated. This review focuses on recent progress in the development of biosensors by integrating functional aptamers with different types of nanomaterials, including quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs, metallic NPs, and carbon nanotubes. Colorimetry, fluorescence, electrochemistry, surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and magnetic resonance imaging are common detection modes for a broad range of analytes with high sensitivity and selectivity when using aptamer bioconjugated nanomaterials (Apt-NMs. We highlight the important roles that the size and concentration of nanomaterials, the secondary structure and density of aptamers, and the multivalent interactions play in determining the specificity and sensitivity of the nanosensors towards analytes. Advantages and disadvantages of the Apt-NMs for bioapplications are focused.

  20. Nanobiosensors for personalized and onsite biomedical diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Pranjal

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the latest advances in the field of biosensors and biosensing applications. The book also includes an assessment of some current and emerging technologies for detecting protein biomarkers and other potential cancer biomarkers and is essential reading for researchers and graduate students in the field.

  1. Optically induced dielectropheresis sorting with automated medium exchange in an integrated optofluidic device resulting in higher cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wu, Huan-Chun; Yang, Po-Fu; Mai, John D

    2014-08-07

    We demonstrated the integration of a microfluidic device with an optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) device such that the critical medium replacement process was performed automatically and the cells could be subsequently manipulated by using digitally projected optical images. ODEP has been demonstrated to generate sufficient forces for manipulating particles/cells by projecting a light pattern onto photoconductive materials which creates virtual electrodes. The production of the ODEP force usually requires a medium that has a suitable electrical conductivity and an appropriate dielectric constant. Therefore, a 0.2 M sucrose solution is commonly used. However, this requires a complicated medium replacement process before one is able to manipulate cells. Furthermore, the 0.2 M sucrose solution is not suitable for the long-term viability of cells. In comparison to conventional manual processes, our automated medium replacement process only took 25 minutes. Experimental data showed that there was up to a 96.2% recovery rate for the manipulated cells. More importantly, the survival rate of the cells was greatly enhanced due to this faster automated process. This newly developed microfluidic chip provided a promising platform for the rapid replacement of the cell medium and this was also the first time that an ODEP device was integrated with other active flow control components in a microfluidic device. By improving cell viability after cell manipulation, this design may contribute to the practical integration of ODEP modules into other lab-on-a-chip devices and biomedical applications in the future.

  2. Electricity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Soung

    2006-12-01

    The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.

  3. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    A chip scale tunable laser in the visible spectral band is realized by generating a periodic droplet array inside a microfluidic channel. Combined with a gain medium within the droplets, the periodic structure provides the optical feedback of the laser. By controlling the pressure applied to two...

  4. Tunable on chip optofluidic laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakal, Avraham; Vannahme, Christoph; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range.......On chip tunable laser is demonstrated by realizing a microfluidic droplet array. The periodicity is controlled by the pressure applied to two separate inlets, allowing to tune the lasing frequency over a broad spectral range....

  5. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  6. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  7. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  8. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  9. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  10. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  11. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  12. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  13. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  14. Teaching Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iona, Mario

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the meaning of electrical terms, a chart is used to compare electrical concepts and relationships with a more easily visualized system in which water flows from a hilltop reservoir through a pipe to drive a mill at the bottom of the hill. A diagram accompanies the chart. (Author/SK)

  15. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  16. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  17. Electric empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the economic and political aspects of Ontario Hydro, a provincial crown corporation. He also deals with nuclear safety of the CANDU reactors and the ecological effects of electric power supply. Alternate sources of energy are also mentioned

  18. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  19. Electric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Seong

    2006-02-01

    This book explains electric theory which is divided into four chapters. The first chapter includes electricity and material, electric field, capacitance, magnetic field and electromagnetic force, inductance. The second chapter mentions electronic circuit analysis, electric resistance,heating and power, chemical activity on current and battery with electrolysis. The third chapter deals with an alternating current circuit about the basics of an AC circuit, operating of resistance, inductance and capacitance, series circuit and parallel circuit of PLC, an alternating current circuit, Three-phase Alternating current, two terminal pair network and voltage and current of non-linearity circuit. The last explains transient phenomena of RC series circuit, RL series circuit, transient phenomena of an alternating current circuit and transient phenomena of RLC series circuit.

  20. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  1. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Greengrid Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on what customers want from a competitive electricity market and what motivates customers to choose a renewable energy product and service. Greengrid Electric, a subsidiary of Enershare Technology Corp., intends to provide the green electricity that they believe customers have wanted for some time. Enershare and Greengrid have been active participants in the electricity restructuring process in Ontario, and have provided input to the Market Design Committee. Once licensed as a retailer, Greengrid intends to be the major provider of green electricity in Ontario. The company will supply a 100 per cent renewable energy product to their wholesale and retail customers. The company is confident that there is a significant niche market in Ontario for selling a green product that has a blend of wind, small hydro (run-of-river or existing dam), solar, and for energy produced from capturing methane gas from municipal landfill sites. Company officials are confident that customers will be willing to pay a premium price for energy if their purchases will lead to environmental improvement

  3. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  4. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  5. Electrical Rectification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    bio-mimetic systems. O w ing to the saturation of the e± ciency of sil- icon devices in electronics industry, m olecular electronics has gained trem endous im petus in re- cent tim es. T heoretical predictions and experi- m ental realizations of such system s have given birth to a ... their electrical conductance property and pos-.

  6. Atmospheric Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, based on evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent. The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with Earth as a model. All atmospheres contain charged molecules, electrons, and/or molecular clusters created by ionization from cosmic rays and other processes, which may affect an atmosphere's energy balance both through aerosol and cloud formation, and direct absorption of radiation. Several planets are anticipated to host a "global electric circuit" by analogy with the circuit occurring on Earth, where thunderstorms drive current of ions or electrons through weakly conductive parts of the atmosphere. This current flow may further modulate an atmosphere's radiative properties through cloud and aerosol effects. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport. It has been observed on many of the Solar System planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and it may also be present on Venus and Mars. On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System

  7. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  8. Electricity Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, A.; Beith, A.J.; Hardy, P.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the debate, which lasted a total of about 7 hours, a verbatim report of the first five of which are included here, was about energy conservation. Several new clauses and amendments were discussed. One would place a duty on the new Director of the Energy Supply industry to promote the efficiency and conservation of energy, another would appoint a Deputy Director with responsibility for energy conservation, and the third would require targets of energy efficiency and pollution reduction to be achieved. This allowed discussion on energy saving by domestic thermal insulation, improved efficiency of heating and refrigeration units and on renewable energy sources especially world energy. The second part of the debate was about access to information regarding health and safety resulting from any activities of the electricity supply industry. The remainder of the debate concerned regional representation and the economics of the electricity supply industry. (UK)

  9. Electricity unplugged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  10. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  11. Electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear heart pacer having a heat-to-electricity converter including a solid-state thermoelectric unit embedded in rubber which is compressed to impress hydrostatic precompression on the unit is described. The converter and the radioactive heat source are enclosed in a container which includes the electrical circuit components for producing and controlling the pulses; the converter and components being embedded in rubber. The portions of the rubber in the converter and in the container through which heat flows between the radioactive primary source and the hot junction and between the cold junction and the wall of the container are of thermally conducting silicone rubber. The 238 Pu primary radioactive source material is encapsuled in a refractory casing of WC-222 (T-222) which in turn is encapsuled in a corrosion-resistant casing of platinum rhodium, a diffusion barrier separating the WC-222 and the Pt--Rh casings. The Pt--Rh casing is in a closed basket of tantalum. The tantalum protects the Pt--Rh from reacting with other materials during cremation of the host, if any. The casings and basket suppress the transmission of hard x rays generated by the alpha particles from the 238 Pu. The outside casing of the pacer is typically of titanium but its surface is covered by an electrically insulating coating, typically epoxy resin, except over a relatively limited area for effective electrical grounding to the body of the host. It is contemplated that the pacer will be inserted in the host with the exposed titanium engaging a non-muscular region of the body

  12. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  13. Electrical deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity sector took effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. Business consumers discovered that their electricity rates had almost doubled in a one-month period. The government argued that it was the case of short term pain for long term gain. The intent of the deregulation is the lowering of prices through competition. This principle applies when the supply meets the demand, but when the demand exceeds the supply, prices increase. When initial plans were made for the deregulation of the sector, utilities did not invest huge amounts of capital to build new generation plants, as it was not known how they would fare in the deregulated environment. This situation was compounded by the fact that there was an economic boom around the same time in Alberta, adding to the demands made on the existing generation infrastructure (approximately 4 per cent per year over the past decade). At the moment, some resource developers such as Syncrude, Amoco, and Daishowa produce their own electricity and export their excess capacity to the provincial grid for general use. The rules of the deregulated market have been clarified and a number of utilities are planning new generation plants and facilities. TransAlta, EPCOR, and Enmax Corp. have announced plans to expand or build new coal-fired plants. Alberta has an estimated 35 billion tonnes of recoverable coal, and 25 million tonnes of coal were used in 1999 to produce 75 per cent of the electricity required in Alberta. Over the next ten years, 4,000 megawatts of new capacity is planned, representing a 50 per cent increase over current levels. AES Corporation, a Virginia power giant, has also announced plans to build a generator in Alberta

  14. Electrical cardioversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, Murat; Davutoglu, Vedat; Ozer, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    External electrical cardioversion was first performed in the 1950s. Urgent or elective cardioversions have specific advantages, such as termination of atrial and ventricular tachycardia and recovery of sinus rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is life-saving when applied in urgent circumstances. The succcess rate is increased by accurate tachycardia diagnosis, careful patient selection, adequate electrode (paddles) application, determination of the optimal energy and anesthesia levels, prevention of embolic events and arrythmia recurrence and airway conservation while minimizing possible complications. Potential complications include ventricular fibrillation due to general anesthesia or lack of synchronization between the direct current (DC) shock and the QRS complex, thromboembolus due to insufficient anticoagulant therapy, non-sustained VT, atrial arrhythmia, heart block, bradycardia, transient left bundle branch block, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, transient hypotension, pulmonary edema and skin burn. Electrical cardioversion performed in patients with a pacemaker or an incompatible cardioverter defibrillator may lead to dysfunction, namely acute or chronic changes in the pacing or sensitivity threshold. Although this procedure appears fairly simple, serious consequences might occur if inappropriately performed. PMID:19448376

  15. evaluation of electricity consumer's behaviour towards electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy efficiency and sustainability: evaluation of electricity consumer's behaviour towards electricity usage and energy conservation. ... Remember me ... particularly about electricity consumer's attitudes, behaviour and practices with respect ...

  16. Electrical transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, D P

    1960-05-01

    After briefly tracing the history of electricity transmission, trends in high voltage transmission and experiments being conducted on 650 kV are discussed. 5000 miles of the U.K. grid are operated at 132 kV and 1000 at 275 kV, ultimately to provide a super grid at 380 kV. Problems are insulation, radio interference and the cost of underground lines (16 times that of overhead lines). Also considered are the economics of the grid as a means of transporting energy and as a means of spreading the peak load over the power stations in the most efficient manner. Finally, the question of amenities is discussed.

  17. Electric rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, S.

    1992-04-01

    James Bay II, the projected Canadian hydroelectric power plant of gigantic dimensions, is to deliver its electricity to Europe: in the USA, opposition to power imports from James Bay is growing. Its realization means the flooding of an area as big as the Federal Republic of Germany; the native territory and hunting grounds of the Cree indians would be inundated. The interests of the European power industry in the James Bay project and the consequences for Europe are described in an appendix (EQHHPP project, project management Hydro-Quebec and Ludwig Boelkow Foundation, hydrogen production through electrolysis, methods for transporting hydrogen to Hamburg). (orig./HP) [de

  18. [Electrical storm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, C; Taieb, J; Morice, R

    2007-11-01

    Electrical storm is defined as repeated occurrence of severe ventricular arrhythmias requiring multiple cardioversions, two or more or three or more following different studies. The clinical aspect can sometimes be made of multiple, self aggravating, life threatening accesses. There are three main clinical circumstances of occurrence: in patients equipped with intracardiac defibrillators, during the acute phase of myocardial infarction and in Brugada syndrome. 10 to 15% of patients with cardiac defibrillators are subject to electrical storms in a period of two years. The causative arrhythmia is most often ventricular tachycardia than ventricular fibrillation, especially in secondary prevention and if the initial arrhythmias justifying the device was a ventricular tachycardia. Precipitaing factors are present in one third of cases, mainly acute heart failure, ionic disorders and arrhythmogenic drugs. Predictive factors are age, left ventricular ejection fractionelectrical shock in 50% of cases, antitachycardi stimulation in 30% and in 20% by association of the two. Treatment, after elimination of inappropriate shocks, is mainly based on beta-blockers and amiodarone, class I antiarrhythmics, lidocaïne or bretylium in some cases, and sedation pushed to general anesthesia in some cases. Radio-frequency ablation and even heart transplantation have been proposed in extreme cases. Quinidine has been proved efficient in cases of Brugada syndrome.

  19. Electric crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, R.M.; Luria, N.G.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns an electric crossover that makes a steam and pressure-tight seal for a conductor crossing two separate walls of a nuclear reactor vessel that seismic tremors or thermal expansion of the walls and conductor subject to relative displacements. The conductors, that have to cross the vessels, are fixed to the walls of the vessel in crossover systems fitted in crossover channels made in the walls of the vessel on their initial manufacture. The separate walls of the vessel move independently when they undergo an earth tremor or a temperature change between the walls or between the conductor. This shift can damage the conductor or the crossover system and this could give rise to cause steam or other materials to leak in the reactor should leaks occur in the primary system. Furthermore, in the case of medium or high power conductors, which are relatively rigid, the non-alignment of the crossover channels can bring about awkward stresses in the conductors or their protective sheathing. The aims of this invention are fulfilled by designing an electric crossover to pass at least one conductor through the two separate walls of a vessels, that includes an initial sub-assembly crossover, secured in a leak-tight manner to the first wall and a second sub-sessembly crossover in sliding or rolling contact with the second wall, whilst forming a leak-tight seal with it [fr

  20. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  1. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  2. Electricity privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Frank; Skinner, Dennis; Marshall, John

    1990-01-01

    In this amendment debate about the privatisation of the electricity supply, the opposition develops a number of themes detracting from the government's policy in this matter. It is felt that the industry is being sold off much too cheaply, at about one third of its value based on previous audits. Measures to prevent environmental damage are not likely to be implemented as they would reduce profits. Fuel reserves are in danger of depletion, especially natural gas. Coal imports will increase with accompanying threats to the balance of payments. Lastly, it is argued that very large sums of money are being paid unnecessarily to City Analysts and that big business and M.P.s are acting immorally in extracting money from what should be a publicly owned utility. The amendment was defeated by 298 to 186. (author)

  3. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN(x)-covered w......A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on Si......N(x)-covered wafers. Two different reactors are shown: one with simple, one-dimensional nanorods and one with branched nanorod structures (nanotrees). Significantly higher enzymatic activity is found for the nanotree reactors than for the nanorod reactors, most likely due to the increased gold surface area...

  4. DNA Nanobiosensors: An Outlook on Signal Readout Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Richard Chandrasekaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A suite of functionalities and structural versatility makes DNA an apt material for biosensing applications. DNA-based biosensors are cost-effective and sensitive and have the potential to be used as point-of-care diagnostic tools. Along with robustness and biocompatibility, these sensors also provide multiple readout strategies. Depending on the functionality of DNA-based biosensors, a variety of output strategies have been reported: fluorescence- and FRET-based readout, nanoparticle-based colorimetry, spectroscopy-based techniques, electrochemical signaling, gel electrophoresis, and atomic force microscopy.

  5. Glucose Binding Protein as a Novel Optical Glucose Nanobiosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed DWEIK

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of an in vivo optical sensor requires the utilization of Near Infra Red (NIR fluorophores due to their ability to operate within the biological tissue window. Alexa Fluor 750 (AF750 and Alexa Fluor 680 (AF680 were examined as potential NIR fluorophores for an in vivo fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET glucose biosensor. AF680 and AF750 found to be a FRET pair and percent energy transfer was calculated. Next, the tested dye pair was utilized in a competitive binding assay in order to detect glucose. Concanavalin A (Con A and dextran have binding affinity, but in the presence of glucose, glucose displaces dextran due to its higher affinity to Con A than dextran. Finally, the percent signal transfer through porcine skin was examined. The results showed with approximately 4.0 mm porcine skin thickness, 1.98 % of the fluorescence was transmitted and captured by the detector.

  6. Rapid Magnetic Nanobiosensor for the detection of Serratia marcescen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Hussein, Emad; Aljumaili, Omar; Zoubi, Mazhar Al; Altrad, Bahaa; Albatayneh, Khaled; Al-razaq, Mutaz A. Abd

    2018-02-01

    The development of rapid, sensitive, accurate and reliable bacterial detection methods are of keen interest to ensure food safety and hospital security. Therefore, the development of a fast, specific, low-cost and trusted methods is in high demand. Magnetic nanoparticles with their unique material properties have been utilized as a tool for pathogen detection. Here, we present a novel iron oxide nanoparticles labeled with specific targeting antibodies to improve specificity and extend the use of nanoparticles as nanosensors. The results indicated that antibody labeled iron oxide platform that binds specifically to Serriata marcescenst in a straightforward method is very specific and sensitive. The system is capable of rapid and specific detection of various clinically relevant bacterial species, with sensitivity down to single bacteria. The generic platform could be used to identify pathogens for a variety of applications rapidly.

  7. Nano/biosensors based on large-area graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Pedro Jose

    Two dimensional materials have properties that make them ideal for applications in chemical and biomolecular sensing. Their high surface/volume ratio implies that all atoms are exposed to the environment, in contrast to three dimensional materials with most atoms shielded from interactions inside the bulk. Graphene additionally has an extremely high carrier mobility, even at ambient temperature and pressure, which makes it ideal as a transduction device. The work presented in this thesis describes large-scale fabrication of Graphene Field Effect Transistors (GFETs), their physical and chemical characterization, and their application as biomolecular sensors. Initially, work was focused on developing an easily scalable fabrication process. A large-area graphene growth, transfer and photolithography process was developed that allowed the scaling of production of devices from a few devices per single transfer in a chip, to over a thousand devices per transfer in a full wafer of fabrication. Two approaches to biomolecules sensing were then investigated, through nanoparticles and through chemical linkers. Gold and platinum Nanoparticles were used as intermediary agents to immobilize a biomolecule. First, gold nanoparticles were monodispersed and functionalized with thiolated probe DNA to yield DNA biosensors with a detection limit of 1 nM and high specificity against noncomplementary DNA. Second, devices are modified with platinum nanoparticles and functionalized with thiolated genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies to realize a HER3 biosensor. Sensors retain the high affinity from the scFv fragment and show a detection limit of 300 pM. We then show covalent and non-covalent chemical linkers between graphene and antibodies. The chemical linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (pyrene) stacks to the graphene by Van der Waals interaction, being a completely non-covalent interaction. The linker 4-Azide-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, succinimidyl ester (azide) is a photoactivated perfluorophenyl azide that covalently binds to graphene. A comparison is shown for genetically engineered scFv HER3 antibodies and show a low detection limit of 10 nM and 100 pM for the pyrene and azide, respectively. Finally, we use the azide linker to demonstrate a large-scale fabrication of a multiplexed array for Lyme disease. Simultaneous detection of a mixture of two target proteins of the Lyme disease bacterium (Borrelia burgdorferi), this is done by separating the antibodies corresponding to each target in the mixture to different regions of the chip. We show we can differentiate concentrations of the two targets.

  8. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  9. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  10. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  11. Controlling Electrical Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...). In general, OSHA's electrical standards are based on the National Fire Protection Associations Standard NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, and in turn, from the National Electrical Code (NEC...

  12. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  13. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid from 1 January 2003. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis.The prices for transmission services 1 January 2003 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 882 for flats, SEK 4 335 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1 925 for those without electric heating. Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2003 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households with standard agreements was SEK 0.519 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.447 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.471 without electric heating. As a result, the mean annual cost increased by SEK 326 for flats, SEK 3 012 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating, and by SEK 774 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by about 290 per cent during 2002 (1 USD is about 8 SEK)

  14. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  15. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  16. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  17. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho

    1999-03-01

    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  18. Optofluidic microscope with 3D spatial resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Marie, Rodolphe; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    in the plane perpendicular to the flow direction and the velocity along the flow direction of separated fluorescent labeled polystyrene microspheres with diameters of 1μm, 2.1μm, 3μm and 4μm is determined by the OFM. These results are bench marked against those obtained with a PFF device using conventional...

  19. Three-dimensional positioning with optofluidic microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vig, Asger Laurberg; Marie, Rodolphe; Jensen, Eric

    2010-01-01

    in the plane perpendicular to the flow direction and the velocity along the flow direction of separated fluorescent labeled polystyrene microspheres with diameters of 1 μm, 2.1 μm, 3 μm and 4 μm is measured using the OFM readout. These results are bench marked against those obtained with a PFF device using...

  20. Optofluidic plasmonic onchip nanosensor array for biodetection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing has been demonstrated in the past decade to be the gold standard technique for biochemical interaction analysis, and plays an important role in drug discovery and biomedical research. The technique circumvents the need of fluorescence/radioactive tagging or enzymatic detection, enables ultrasensitive remote sensing, and quantitatively monitors bio-interaction in real time. Although SPR has these attractive features that can satisfy most research/clinic requirements, there still exist problems that limit its applications. First, the reflection geometry of the prism coupling scheme adds limitations for high throughput screening application. Additionally, SPR instrumentations are bulky and not suitable for point-of-care settings. Moreover, the SPR sensor is embedded in conventional micro-fluidic cells, in which the sensor performance is limited by inefficient analyte transport. Suspended plasmonic nanohole array (PNA) offers an opportunity to overcome these limitations. A collinear excitation/collection coupling scheme combined with the small footprint of PNA provides unique platform for multiplexing and system minimization. The suspended nanohole structure also offers a unique configuration to integrate nano-photonics with nano-fluidics. This thesis focuses on developing a lab-on-a-chip PNA platform for point-of-care bio-detection. To achieve this, we first demonstrate that the figure-of-merit of our PNA sensor surpasses that of the prism coupled SPR. We also show that the ultrasensitive label-free PNA sensor is able to directly detect intact viruses from biological media at clinically relevant concentrations with little sample preparation. We then present a plasmonic microarray with over one million PNA sensors on a microscope slide for high throughput screening applications. A dual-color filter imaging method is introduced to increase the accuracy, reliability, and signal-to-noise ratio in a highly multiplexed manner. Finally, we present a nanoplasmonic-nanofluidic platform enabling active delivery of analyte to the sensor. Sensor response time is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to the conventional flow scheme. A dynamic range spanning 5 orders of magnitude from 103 to 107 particles/mL is shown on this platform corresponding to analyte concentration sufficient for clinical applications. The proposed approach opens up opportunities of a lab-on-a-chip bio-detection system for drug screening, disease diagnostic as well as clinic studies.

  1. Optofluidic third order distributed feedback dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Kristensen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    which has a refractive index lower than that of the polymer. In combination with a third order DFB grating, formed by the array of nanofluidic channels, this yields a low threshold for lasing. The laser is straightforward to integrate on lab-on-a-chip microsystems where coherent, tunable light......This letter describes the design and operation of a polymer-based third order distributed feedback (DFB) microfluidic dye laser. The device relies on light confinement in a nanostructured polymer film where an array of nanofluidic channels is filled by capillary action with a liquid dye solution...

  2. Machine-vision based optofluidic cell sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew

    the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam’s propagation and its interaction with the laser catapulted and sorted cells....... machine vision1. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS-systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass objects commonly used in the optical manipulation literature2, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient...... approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method3-9 that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators10 or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps11 is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating...

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  4. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  5. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhaoguang; Hu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  6. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  7. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid on 1 January 2002. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis. The prices for transmission services 1 January 2002 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 856 for flats, SEK 4,194 one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1,881 without electric heating. (1 SEK ∼ 0.1 USD). Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2002 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households according to standard agreement was SEK 0.356 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.296 for apartments in one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.316 without electric heating. That means that the mean annual cost increased by SEK 171 for flats. For one- or two-family houses with electric heating, costs increased by SEK 1,424, and by SEK 379 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by 75 per cent during 2001. The price development for household customers during 1996-2002 is shown in a diagram

  8. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  9. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  10. Electricity market 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment

  11. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  12. Electricity restructuring in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkyvrak, Oezlem

    2005-01-01

    Turkey implemented the electricity sector reform by which the Electricity Market Law no. 4628 passed in February 2001. Recently, all segments of the Turkish electricity sector are dominated by a vertically integrated, public-owned monopoly - Tuerkiye Elektrik Kurumu - the Turkish electricity institution. The Turkish electricity reform involves vertical deintegration of generation, transmission and distribution, introduction of competition into generation and retail sale, establishment of an independent regulatory authority and privatization of public generation and distribution entities. This article provides an overview of the Turkish electricity sector reform and defines some problems that may affect the reform success

  13. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  14. Casebook on electric safety accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This book gives concentration on electric safety accidents in domestic and abroad, which introduces general electrical safety with property of electricity, safe equipment and maintenance and protection of electric shock. It lists the cases of accident caused of electricity in domestic like accident in power substation, utilization equipment, load system and another accident by electricity like death in electric shock another by electricity like death in electric shock in new building construction, the cases caused of electricity in abroad like damage in electric shock by high voltage electric transformer, electric shock in summer and earth fault accident by fault cooling tower.

  15. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  17. Electrical transformer handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Electricity market 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  19. Electric Holding Company Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...

  20. Driving with electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursin, M.; Hoeckel, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at the chances offered to the electricity supply industry by the increasing use of battery-driven vehicles - and the advantages thus offered to the environment. The use of the vehicles' batteries to form a distributed electricity storage scheme is discussed. The authors comment that, although electrically-driven vehicles consume more power, the total primary energy consumption and pollutant emissions will be reduced. The actual electricity consumption of electric vehicles and the source of this power are examined. Power saved by the reduced use of electrical heating systems and boilers could, according to the authors, be used to charge the batteries of electric vehicles. The use of these batteries as a storage system to help regulate electricity supplies is discussed and the steps to be taken for the implementation of such a system are listed

  1. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  2. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  3. Electricity and Man (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimov, Isaac

    1974-01-01

    Our whole industrial civilization depends upon cheap energy streaking out in all directions and under fingertip controls—and that would be very difficult without electric current. It would take enormous ingenuity to find substitutes. If all electricity were shut off, then all electronic devices would be dead. Electric lights would darken. Aluminum would become a rare metal. All factories would have to develop power sources on the spot and would have to switch to primitive, mechanical controls. Every house and every farm would have to give up items we have come to take for granted—not only electric lights, but electric irons, electric toasters, electric water pumps, electric control of furnaces, and so on.

  4. Electric Power Transmission Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Transmission Lines are the system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power...

  5. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  6. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  7. Mastering one's electricity purchases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belon, D.

    2005-01-01

    Manager of about 50000 public lighting areas, the inter-cities energy syndicate of Loire (SIEL) has started in 2003 a procedure in order to chose his electric power supplier conformably with the new rules of public electricity purchase and with the new organization of the electricity market. This article presents this approach and its experience feedback, concretized by the European call for bids launched by SIEL for the annual purchase of about 186 GWh of electric power. (J.S.)

  8. Electricity production of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodor, T.

    2003-01-01

    Here is examined the spatial structure of electric energy production divided in hydropower plants (through-flow and re-pumping), thermal power plants as the most expensive way of electric energy production and nuclear power plants where high difficulty and long-term realisation of construction projects and spent financial resources are pointed out. Work describes present structure of electric energy production and consumption and refers to alternative electric energy sources

  9. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  10. Electric dipole moments reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupertsberger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  11. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  12. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...

  13. Schneider Electric sozdajot set

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Maailma juhtiv elektriseadmete müüja Schneider Electric ühendab oma ettevõtted Balti- ja Põhjamaades uude divisjoni, mille nimeks saab Schneider Nordic Baltic. Eestis luuakse AS Schneider Electric Eesti, mis seni tegutses AS-i Lexel Electric nime all

  14. Electric Vehicle Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2011-01-01

    With President Obama's goal to have one million electric vehicles (EV) on the road by 2015, the electric vehicle technician should have a promising and busy future. "The job force in the car industry is ramping up for a revitalized green car industry," according to Greencareersguide.com. An electric vehicle technician will safely troubleshoot and…

  15. Electric Current Solves Mazes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrinhac, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We present in this work a demonstration of the maze-solving problem with electricity. Electric current flowing in a maze as a printed circuit produces Joule heating and the right way is instantaneously revealed with infrared thermal imaging. The basic properties of electric current can be discussed in this context, with this challenging question:…

  16. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  17. Electricity in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  18. The electricity market 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. We now have a common Nordic electricity market that includes all of the Nordic countries, with the exception of Iceland. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and increased trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish Energy Agency is the supervisory authority specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of 'The Electricity Market 2003' publication is to meet the need for generalized and easily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. The publication also includes summaries of the information from recent years concerning power generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  19. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  20. Electricity sequence control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heung Ryeol

    2010-03-01

    The contents of the book are introduction of control system, like classification and control signal, introduction of electricity power switch, such as push-button and detection switch sensor for induction type and capacitance type machinery for control, solenoid valve, expression of sequence and type of electricity circuit about using diagram, time chart, marking and term, logic circuit like Yes, No, and, or and equivalence logic, basic electricity circuit, electricity sequence control, added condition, special program control about choice and jump of program, motor control, extra circuit on repeat circuit, pause circuit in a conveyer, safety regulations and rule about classification of electricity disaster and protective device for insulation.

  1. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  2. Managing electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Wiggins, James H, Jr

    2001-01-01

    Managing Electrical Safety provides an overview of electric basics, hazards, and established standards that enables you to understand the hazards you are likely to encounter in your workplace. Focusing on typical industrial environments-which utilize voltages much higher than household or office circuits-the author identifies the eight key components of an electrical safety program and examines each using a model safety management process. You'll learn how to identify electrical hazards, how to prescribe necessary electrical Personal Protective Equipment, how to ensure that equipment is de-ene

  3. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  4. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  5. Electric Vehicle Interaction at the Electrical Circuit Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Electric Vehicle Interaction at the Electrical Circuit Level project was to investigate electric vehicle (EV) charging as a means of mitigating transient over-voltages (TOVs) on the circuit level electric utility distribution gri...

  6. Electric power production contra electricity savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Grohnheit, P.E.; Soerensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of electricity-producing plants has, in Denmark until now, taken place in accordance with the demand for electricity. Recently, it has been suggested that the cost of the further development of such systems is greater than the cost of instigating and carrying out energy conservation efforts. The aim of the project was to evaluate the consequences for power producing plants of a reduction of the electricity consumption of end-users. A method for the analysis of the costs involved in the system and operation of power plants contra the costs that are involved in saving electricity is presented. In developing a model of this kind, consideration is given to the interplay of the individual saving project and the existing or future electricity supply. Thus it can be evaluated to what extent it would be advisable to substitute investments in the development of the capacity of the power plants with investments in the reduction of electricity consumption by the end users. This model is described in considerable detail. It will be tested in representative situations and locations throughout the Nordic countries. (AB) 17 refs

  7. Electric power annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. ''The Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter

  8. Electricity in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1985-01-01

    European electricity consumption and demand is summarized in Chapter 1. The relationship between government and electricity producers is touched on. Five further chapters examine aspects of electricity in Europe. Chapter 2 discusses the electricity trade (import and export of electricity). The next looks at the current status of nuclear power in individual European countries. The environmental impact of generating electricity (eg acid rain, radioactive waste disposal) is assessed next and then the price of electricity in Europe is reviewed (with comparisons between the countries). Profiles of the situation in each country are presented in the last chapter. There are 72 tables presenting the facts and figures on which the text is based. (U.K.)

  9. The Electric Vehicle Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    In order to respond to the energy crisis and environment problem, countries carry out their research and promotion about electric vehicles. As the ten cities one thousand new energy buses started in 2009, the new energy vehicles have been greatly developed in China, while the development...... in three aspects-city environment, government and stakeholders. Then the paper discusses the promotion ways and role of government and consumer. Finally, the paper offers some suggestions to promote electric vehicles in China: focusing on feasibility and adaptability of electric vehicles, playing...... of electric vehicles is not that good. This paper selects four cities-Los Angeles, Kanagawa, Hamburg, Amsterdam-that promote electric vehicles successfully and deeply analyzes the development of electric vehicles in these four cities and analyzes the factors that affect the development of electric vehicles...

  10. Pervasive Electricity Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Tahir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Now a days a country cannot become economically strong until and unless it has enough electrical power to fulfil industrial and domestic needs. Electrical power being the pillar of any country’s economy, needs to be used in an efficient way. The same step is taken here by proposing a new system for energy distribution from substation to consumer houses, also it monitors the consumer consumption and record data. Unlike traditional manual Electrical systems, pervasive electricity distribution system (PEDS introduces a fresh perspective to monitor the feeder line status at distribution and consumer level. In this system an effort is taken to address the issues of electricity theft, manual billing, online monitoring of electrical distribution system and automatic control of electrical distribution points. The project is designed using microcontroller and different sensors, its GUI is designed in Labview software.

  11. Demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.; Fouquet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different utilizations of electric energy are reviewed in the residential and tertiary sectors, in the industry. The competitive position of electricity in regard to other fuels has been strengthned by the sudden rise in the price of oil in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The evolution of electricity prices depended on the steps taken to adjust the electricity generation system. The substitution of electricity applications for hydro-carbons is an essential point of energy policy. The adjustment at all times, at least cost and most reliability, of the supply of electricity to the demand for it is a major problem in the design and operation of electric systems. National demand for power at a given moment is extremely diversified. Electricity consumption presents daily and seasonal variations, and variations according to the different sectors. Forecasting power requirements is for any decision on operation or investment relating to an electrical system. Load management is desirable (prices according to the customers, optional tariffs for ''peak-day withdrawal''). To conclude, prospects for increased electricity consumption are discussed [fr

  12. Essays on electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay, 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market. Essays 2-4 focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. 'Understanding the Stochastics of Nodal Prices: Price Processes in a Constrained Network' seeks a further understanding of stochastic nodal prices processes. 'Investment Evaluation in a Constrained Electricity Network with Stochastic Nodal Price Processes' studies how the interaction of the competitive market and the capacitated network affects the evaluation of investments under uncertainty, and points out potential pitfalls of evaluation. In the last essay, 'A Newsboy Model Perspective on the Power Market: The Case of a Wind Power Producer' we discuss aspects of optimal bidding for a wind power producer. (Author)

  13. Electrical system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL

    2008-07-15

    An electrical system for a vehicle includes a first power source generating a first voltage level, the first power source being in electrical communication with a first bus. A second power source generates a second voltage level greater than the first voltage level, the second power source being in electrical communication with a second bus. A starter generator may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus, and at least one additional power source may be configured to provide power to at least one of the first bus and the second bus. The electrical system also includes at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the first bus and at least one power consumer in electrical communication with the second bus.

  14. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  15. Control of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qi; Chen, Yong; Li, Jian

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the modeling of electric vehicle is discussed in detail. Then, the control of electric vehicle driven by different motors is discussed. Both brushed and brushless DC (Direct Current) motors are discussed. And for AC (Alternative Current) motors, the discussion is focused on induction motor and permanent magnet synchronous motor. The design of controllers for different motor-driven electric vehicle is discussed in-depth, and the tested high-performance control strategies for d...

  16. The earth's electrical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lighting, cloud and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind

  17. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  18. Operational electricity transmission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    1997-01-01

    In a liberalized electricity market both the consumers and the producers of electricity must pay for the use of the power transmission network. Thus, the net manager has unlimited options to realize efficiency improvements. A neutral and transparent management of the power grid is necessary to avoid disturbance of the market. KEMA Consulting translated abstract ideas and strategic advices to operational concepts in its report 'A framework for the determination of tariffs of the transport in the Dutch electricity sector'

  19. Perspectives of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The 7 papers read at the symposium discussed the following subjects: Effects of the CO 2 problems of fossil energy systems on the world climate; status and perspectives of the German electricity industry in terms of competitiveness; The European electricity market and the integrated power supply system; Power supply without nuclear power; Costs and rates for households and other customers; Renewable energy sources and their contribution to energy supply in the Federal Republic of Germany; Electricity utilities as service partners. (UA) [de

  20. Competition in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines expanded wholesale and retail competition and the effect that they are likely to have on the electric power industry. The author believes that expanded wholesale competition is good and will bring immediate benefit to all electric consumers; however, based on the experience of the natural gas industry and the electric power industry in California and other parts of the world, the author counsels caution in moving toward expanded retail competition

  1. Electrical control of superparamagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kihiro T.; Koyama, Tomohiro; Kakizakai, Haruka; Miwa, Kazumoto; Ando, Fuyuki; Ishibashi, Mio; Kim, Kab-Jin; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Shimpei; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2017-01-01

    The electric field control of superparamagnetism is realized using a Cu/Ni system, in which the deposited Ni shows superparamagnetic behavior above the blocking temperature. An electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) with the Cu/Ni electrode and a nonmagnetic counter electrode is fabricated to examine the electric field effect on magnetism in the magnetic electrode. By changing the voltage applied to the EDLC, the blocking temperature of the system is clearly modulated.

  2. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  3. Essays on electricity theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Keva Ullanda

    Electricity theft is a relatively unknown crime with high economic costs. In this dissertation, I try to identify the factors that motivate persons to steal electricity. First, I use a panel dataset of 97 countries spanning the five year period 2003--2007 to estimate a model that describes the effect of the unemployment rate, GDP per capita, male population and urbanization on theft, robbery and homicide rates. The results are consistent with previous empirical work on crime and economic opportunity. The second and main contribution of this paper is to estimate the same model using distribution loss as a proxy for electricity theft. The results show that the unemployment rate, a key explanatory economic factor for crime, cannot explain variation in electricity theft, although there is some evidence, albeit weak, supporting correlation in rich countries. Therefore, policies that target the reduction of property crime through a reduction in unemployment will have no effect on electricity theft. The third contribution relates to the role that political institutions play in the incentives to steal electricity. After control for socioeconomic factors, I find that there is no relationship between political governance indicators and electricity theft. In the second and third chapters, I compare the United States, a high income, low electricity theft country with Jamaica, a middle income, high electricity theft country. The effect of unemployment on electricity theft mirrors the results found in the first chapter. In the United States, electricity theft is affected by changes in economic conditions but in Jamaica, it is not. These results suggest that the state of institutions plays a role in how social norms are determined. Poor countries will be more likely than rich countries to have weak institutions with social norms that encourage electricity theft.

  4. Electricity in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Historical background; The Nationalisation Law of 1946 and the present electricity regulatory framework; Other regulations and policies having an impact on the French electricity system; Forces for and against Liberalisation; The legislative framework in preparation; Electricity costs and prices; The main industrial player. EdF; Key nuclear issues; EdF and the HV transmission network; The non-nationalised distributors; Other players on the generation side; Conclusions. (Author)

  5. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department

    1977-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  6. Turkish electricity reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagdadioglu, Necmiddin [Department of Public Finance, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Odyakmaz, Necmi [E.ON Holding, Armada Business Centre, 06520 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Turkish electricity reform has progressed slowly due to internal resistance against privatisation, and gained momentum after Electricity Market Law of 2001, prepared in line with EU Energy Acquis and established required institutional and legal framework. Although the eligibility threshold has reached 39% market opening rate, the dominant position of public both as owner and decision-maker is still the major problem in the sector. Currently Turkey is self-sufficient in electricity, but likely to face shortages in 10 years if the growing demand is not met by either speeding the liberalisation process, or joining the South East Europe Electricity Market. (author)

  7. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  8. Electricity supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, H.J.

    1993-09-01

    This briefing deals with the electricity supply industry in India in two parts. In the first, the structure and organization of the industry is described under sections dealing with national government involvement, energy policy, state electricity boards, regional electricity boards, state corporations, the private sector and private investment in the power sector including foreign investment. Secondly, the power supply system is described covering generation, plant load factor, non-utility generation, nuclear power, transmission and distribution, system losses and electricity consumption. (8 tables) (UK)

  9. Fire protection electrical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jung Min

    2000-03-01

    This book concentrates of electricity with current, voltage, power, ohms law, access of resistance, electrolytic analysis and battery, static on frictional electricity and electrostatic induction, coulomb's law, Gauss's law, condenser and capacity, magmatism on magnetic field and magnetic line of force, magnetic circuit, electromagnetic force, electromotive current, basic alternating current circuit, circuit network analysis, three-phase current, non-sinusoidal alternating current, transient phenomena, semiconductor, electric measurement on measurement over resistance, power, power rate and circuit tester, automatic control on introduction, term, classification, foundation of sequence control, logic circuit and basic logic circuit and electric equipment.

  10. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  11. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  12. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  13. Electric engineering summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sing Eun; Park, Seong Taek; Lim, Yong Un

    1975-03-01

    This book is made up six parts, which deals with circuit theory about sinusoidal alternating current, basic current circuit, wave power, distorted wave, two terminal network, distributed circuit, laplace transformation and transfer function, power engineering on line, failure analysis transmission of line, substation and protection device and hydroelectric power plant, electricity machine like DC machine, electric transformer, induction machine and rectifier, electromagnetic on dielectric substance current, electromagnetic, electricity application like lighting engineering, heat transfer and electricity chemistry, industry, industry math with integer, rational number, factorization, matrix and differential.

  14. Electrical equipment qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    Electrical equipment qualification research programs being carried out by CEA, JAERI, and Sandia Laboratories are discussed. Objectives of the program are: (1) assessment of accident simulation methods for electrical equipment qualification testing; lower coarse (2) evaluation of equipment aging and accelerated aging methods; (3) determine radiation dose spectrum to electrical equipment and assess simulation methods for qualification; (4) identify inadequacies in electrical equipment qualification procedures and standards and potential failure modes; and (5) provide data for verifying and improving standards, rules and regulatory guides

  15. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  16. Electric air filtration movie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Jaeger, R.

    1984-01-01

    The use of electrostatics to improve the performance of conventional air filters has gained considerable attention in recent years. This interest is due to the higher efficiency and reduced pressure drop of electrically enhanced filters compared to conventional fibrous filters. This 30-minute movie presents a state of the art review of electric air filters in the United States with major illustrations provided by the research and development program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored by the Department of Energy. The electric air filters described in this movie are mechanical air filters to which electrical forces have been added

  17. Electric Field Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NDE historically has focused technology development in propagating wave phenomena with little attention to the field of electrostatics and emanating electric fields....

  18. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  19. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  20. Electric vehicle propulsion alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Schuh, R. M.; Beach, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.

  1. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...

  2. Electricity from wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable electricity generation by the plant microbial fuel cell

    Fossil fuels are currently the main source of electricity production. Combustion of fossil fuels causes air pollution severely affecting human health and nature. This results in an increasing demand for

  3. Unified electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    A unified European electricity market means a unification and harmonisation of functioning of the national electricity market into one European Market or into one entity. It gives an opportunity to Slovenske elektrarne to open room for their wider activity within Europe where common rules for cross-boarder trade and markets functioning will apply. (author)

  4. The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a first part proposing predictions for electricity production and consumption for 2016, for the turnovers of electricity suppliers and producers, an indication of important recent important events regarding enterprises belonging to the sector, and a dashboard of the sector activity, an annual report proposes a detailed overview of trends and of the competition context for the electricity market. It identifies the main market opportunities for electricity suppliers, identifies eight determining factors for the sector activity, gives an overview of the sector context evolution between 2004 and 2014 (temperatures, rainfalls, manufacturing industry production, housing and office building stock, projected housing and office building). It analyses the evolution of the sector activity by presenting and commenting various activity indicators and financial performance of electricity producers. It analyses the sector economic structure: evolution of the economic fabric, presentation of various structural characteristics (cross-border exchanges, production capacities per energy source, nuclear plant fleet, thermal plant fleet, location, electricity supply market). It proposes a presentation of the various actors and of their respective market shares, and presentations of groups, electricity suppliers, and electricity producers. It indicates highlights and presents various rankings of the main enterprises in 2014

  5. Electric industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of electricity in 1992 is analyzed. The increase (0,4%) of electricity consumption and the decrease of its production are the main characteristics of 1993 in Spain. These aspect with the UNESA data are studied. In 1992 30000 Kw of 216.505 Kw total were produced by wind mills

  6. Electric power annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The 1991 edition has been enhanced to include statistics on electric utility demand-side management and nonutility supply. ''The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms

  7. Electricity information 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Basic statistics on the electricity and heat production in OECD countries are compiled by the International Energy Agency. The statistics cover annual OECD data for prices, production, consumption and trade. Detailed electricity and heat statistics are also presented for each OECD countries. (O.L.). 34 figs., 36 tabs

  8. Sustainable Use of Electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    An overview is presented of the need for keeping electricity consumption low, including a suggested definition of sustainable development. Specific attention is devoted to present and future electricity production´s contribution to the environmental problems. Prognoses are shown from before any...

  9. The harnessing of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia Giraldo, Asdrubal

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary is presented on the evolution of electricity knowledge from antiquity to our days. At the same time the growth of its practical applications, i. e. the electrical industry, is described, as well as its technical, scientific, economic and social consequences

  10. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  11. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  12. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  13. French electricity report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In terms of electricity, 2003 saw a great increase in electricity consumption in France. This increase was accompanied by a global progression in cross-border commercial exchanges, but a notable drop in the net export balance for physical exchanges between France and its neighbouring countries

  14. Pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of pulsed electric fields (PEF) was first proposed in 1967 to change the behavior or microorganisms. The electric field phenomenon was identified as membrane rupture theory in the 1980s. Increasing the membrane permeability led to the application of PEF assisted extraction of cellular co...

  15. Materials and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffee, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an increase in the intensity of electricity usage, electricity has been reversing its historical trend of reduced cost since 1970 to the point where costs are increasing faster than inflation. Designers and operators on both sides of the meter and the developers of materials from which the electric system is constructed must contribute to the lowering of costs and an increase in reliability for the generation, transmission and distribution, and utilization of electricity. Four specific cases illustrate the role of materials/process improvements to this end. The examples highlight the use of forged or welded integral rotors, improvements in the heat rate of coal-fired plants through higher steam conditions and reduced heat losses, reduced losses through amorphous steel cores for transformers, and reduced ac electric motor losses through silicon variable speed drives. 37 references, 27 figures, 9 tables

  16. Electric automobile: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1992-01-01

    Performance results during one-month test driving of a small FIAT car (normally equipped with a 30-45 Hp internal combustion engine), retrofitted to operate with a set of electric batteries delivering 15 Hp, demonstrated that, unless the design of an electric car's transmission and control systems are based completely on electric power operation, the vehicle loses its competitiveness with conventional cars. Making reference to the findings of an ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) electric powered vehicle R ampersand D program, this paper assesses the feasibility of electric powered vehicles and points out their major drawbacks: battery volume, weight, cost and recharging requirements in densely populated urban environments. The paper also notes that mass conversion to these vehicles by itself will not solve the urban traffic congestion problem for which optimum traffic control and parking areas are required

  17. Electricity Storage. Technology Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simbolotti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development ENEA, Rome (Italy); Kempener, R. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Electricity storage is a key technology for electricity systems with a high share of renewables as it allows electricity to be generated when renewable sources (i.e. wind, sunlight) are available and to be consumed on demand. It is expected that the increasing price of fossil fuels and peak-load electricity and the growing share of renewables will result in electricity storage to grow rapidly and become more cost effective. However, electricity storage is technically challenging because electricity can only be stored after conversion into other forms of energy, and this involves expensive equipment and energy losses. At present, the only commercial storage option is pumped hydro power where surplus electricity (e.g. electricity produced overnight by base-load coal or nuclear power) is used to pump water from a lower to an upper reservoir. The stored energy is then used to produce hydropower during daily high-demand periods. Pumped hydro plants are large-scale storage systems with a typical efficiency between 70% and 80%, which means that a quarter of the energy is lost in the process. Other storage technologies with different characteristics (i.e. storage process and capacity, conversion back to electricity and response to power demand, energy losses and costs) are currently in demonstration or pre-commercial stages and discussed in this brief report: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems, Flywheels; Electrical batteries; Supercapacitors; Superconducting magnetic storage; and Thermal energy storage. No single electricity storage technology scores high in all dimensions. The technology of choice often depends on the size of the system, the specific service, the electricity sources and the marginal cost of peak electricity. Pumped hydro currently accounts for 95% of the global storage capacity and still offers a considerable expansion potential but does not suit residential or small-size applications. CAES expansion is limited due to the lack of suitable

  18. Ontario electricity industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of Ontario's electricity industry restructuring was described as an effort to enhance Ontario's competitiveness. It is believed that restructuring can be accomplished without an increase in electricity rates. In a series of charts, the report provides the timeline of restructuring from the time of the Macdonald report in 1995 to the beginning of open competition in Ontario electricity markets. It oulines the principles underlying the financial restructuring and the financial results of restructuring, including the size of the stranded debt ($ 7.8 billion). It lists the changes that have occurred since October 1998, explains some key factors in valuing the successor companies and profiles the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation. Restructuring of the industry is expected to have a neutral to positive impact on Ontario's fiscal position. The residual stranded debt of $7.8 billion will be retired through revenues generated by the electricity sector, without recourse to the Provincial Treasury. 9 figs

  19. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  20. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  1. Earth's electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The earth becomes charged during thunderstorm activity and discharges through the weak conducting atmosphere. Balloon and rocket studies infer that a high altitude electric field penetrates virtually unattenuated through the atmosphere, at least as far as balloon heights. The field has two primary sources. At low and mid latitudes, interaction between the earth's magnetic field and the neutral wind creates electric fields. At latitudes above 60 0 , the high altitude electrical structure is dominated by the interaction between the solar wind and the earth's magnetic field. The auroral light is emitted by atmospheric atoms and molecules excited by electrons with potentials of many thousands volts. The potentials are induced by the solar wind. Recent satellite data shows that the electrons get this energy by passing through a localized electric field about 6000 km above the auroral zone. Several rocket and satellite experiments used to study the earth's electric field are discussed

  2. Electricity Bill [second reading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, G.; Williams, C.C.P.; Ezra, D.

    1989-01-01

    The Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Department of Energy introduced the second reading of the Electricity Bill which provides for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Three features at the heart of the Government's proposals are mentioned - first that the proposals will promote competition in electricity generation and supply of electricity so there will be a downward pressure on costs and prices, second is a new deal for customers and third is the security of electricity supply which will be ensured by the diversity of suppliers. The benefits of the scheme are outlined and then specific details of the Bill are considered. The debate which followed lasted six hours and is reported verbatim. The issues raised included environmental effects, efficiency, energy conservation, research and development and investment. (UK)

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  4. Electricity from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augenstein, D.; Benemann, J.; Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    Biogas is a medium-Btu methane and carbon dioxide mix produced by bacterial decomposition of organic matter. Its sources include landfills, waste water sludges, and animal wastes. It can fuel energy applications, of which electricity generation is a frequently-preferred option. The greatest current U.S. biogas recovery and energy use is at landfills, where biogas at about 80 landfill sites fuels a total of approximately 300 MWe. Wastewater treatment plants and confined animal waste management systems support additional electric power production. Generation of electricity from biogas can present difficulties due to the generally small scale of the generating facility, variable energy content of the gas, fluctuating availability, contaminant problems, and often-demanding control needs. However, such difficulties are being successfully addressed and economics for electricity generation are often favorable as biogas can be essentially open-quotes freeclose quotes fuel. Biogas recovery and use has the additional advantage of mitigating a potent greenhouse gas. Biogas from U.S. landfills alone could fuel about 1% of U.S. electrical generation while giving climate change benefit equivalent to reducing CO 2 emissions in the electricity sector by more than 10%. Growth in landfill gas use will be facilitated by recent regulations, advances in equipment, and improved management techniques such as open-quotes controlled landfillingclose quotes. The potential for biogas recovery and electricity production from sewage sludges, animal wastes and other organic resources such as agricultural residues is uncertain but probably exceeds the estimate for landfills

  5. Electricity and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Symposium was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental and health factors as well as the economic factors involved in supplying electricity services, and to suggest a framework within which these issues should be taken into account in making future plans and decisions on electricity production and use. The potential role of different ways of meeting electricity service requirements was also to be analysed, taking into consideration both demand side and supply side options in the light of their comparative economic, environmental and health related impacts. Four Expert Groups considered key issues: the environmental implications of energy and electricity supply and demand; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. During the Symposium, keynote addresses and invited papers presented by leading experts and policy makers provided additional related information. In this volume the background papers are presented. The proceedings have been published separately, and the individual papers in both volumes have been indexed separately for INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Electricity and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Symposium was to provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental and health factors as well as the economic factors involved in supplying electricity services, and to suggest a framework within which these issues should be taken into account in making future plans and decisions on electricity production and use. The potential role of different ways of meeting electricity service requirements was also to be analysed, taking into consideration both demand side and supply side options in the light of their comparative economic, environmental and health related impacts. Four Expert Groups considered key issues: the environmental implications of energy and electricity supply and demand; energy sources and technologies for electricity generation; comparative environmental and health effects of different energy systems for electricity generation; and the incorporation of environmental and health impacts into policy, planning and decision making for the electricity sector. During the Symposium, keynote addresses and invited papers presented by leading experts and policy makers provided additional related information. The Proceedings contain all the addresses and papers presented (which are also indexed separately) together with summaries of the discussions that took place. The Key Issues Papers are presented in a separate publication. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Electric power distribution handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Short, Thomas Allen

    2014-01-01

    Of the ""big three"" components of electrical infrastructure, distribution typically gets the least attention. In fact, a thorough, up-to-date treatment of the subject hasn't been published in years, yet deregulation and technical changes have increased the need for better information. Filling this void, the Electric Power Distribution Handbook delivers comprehensive, cutting-edge coverage of the electrical aspects of power distribution systems. The first few chapters of this pragmatic guidebook focus on equipment-oriented information and applications such as choosing transformer connections,

  8. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  9. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  10. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  11. Intelligent Electricity Broker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Væggemose, Poul Erik; Kulik, Tomas

    The Intelligent Electricity Broker (IEB) is a new energy storage and energy broker facility that serves two purposes. Firstly, it allows for storing excessive energy in the Smart Grid [1, 2, 3] it is connected to. Secondly, it runs a broker-algorithm that ensures that energy is purchased and sold...... when feasible to the system owner. This paper describes how the IEB can be used by house owners, in building clusters, and/or by energy providers to take advantage of electricity stock market prices and weather forecasts to control energy surplus storage suffers as well as to lower electricity bills...

  12. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  13. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  14. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  15. Electric scooter pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slanina, Zdenek; Dedek, Jan; Golembiovsky, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the issue of electric scooter development for educational and demonstration purposes on the Technical University of Ostrava. Electric scooter is equipped with a brushless motor with permanent magnets and engine controller, measuring and monitoring system for speed regulation, energy flow control and both online and off-line data analysis, visualization system for real-time diagnostics and battery management with balancing modules system. Implemented device brings a wide area for the following scientific research. This article also includes some initial test results and electric vehicles experiences.

  16. Electricity from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    1998-11-01

    Electricity from biomass assesses the potential of biomass electricity for displacing other more polluting power sources and providing a relatively clean and ecologically friendly source of energy; discusses its environmental and economic effects, while analysing political and institutional initiatives and constraints; evaluates key factors, such as energy efficiency, economics, decentralisation and political repurcussions; considers the processes and technologies employed to produce electricity from biomass; and discusses the full range of incentives offered to producers and potential producers and the far-reaching implications it could have for industry, society and the environment. (author)

  17. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  18. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  19. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  20. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  1. The electricity market 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2002' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment. The market price of electricity is affected by a number of factors, including fuel prices, availability of water, and the power and energy balances of the various countries. The availability of water in Norway and Sweden has been very good in recent years, which has had a major influence on the price. 1996 was a dry year, which led to a high system price on Nord Pool. The price of electricity then dropped and has remained at a relatively low level up to the year 2001. The price of electricity rose during the spring of 2001 and remained at a higher level also during the summer months. The main reason was that the availability of water was lower than normal in Norway during the early part of the year. This created a higher demand for imported electricity in Norway and caused some apprehension that the year would be dry. The total price of electricity to the end users has not followed the system price development. The total cost of electricity to the end consumers consists of three items, i.e. the price of electricity, the network charges and

  2. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  3. Electricity : Italian style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    2007-01-01

    Italy's electricity system was described. Italy relies on outside sources for between 10 and 15 per cent of its electricity supply. Most Italians use gas, wood stoves and fossil fuels, and are conservative about lighting. Electricity costs more in Italy than in any other European country. Italy made the decision to decommission its nuclear power stations after Chernobyl. In 2005, Italy's largest utility group signed a memorandum of understanding ensuring that they would contract energy from France's nuclear reactors. Italy is now financing and managing projects in Russia and eastern Europe, and has strengthened its ties in Spain and the Netherlands. Although Italy is intent on producing its own power, the perceptions of health hazards from electricity towers cause citizens to strongly protest new installations. It was concluded that rising energy prices may force Italians to reconsider the use of alternative energy sources. 3 figs

  4. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  5. Electric transmission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    Electric transmission technology has matured and can transmit bulk power more reliably and economically than the technology 10 years ago.In 1882, Marcel Depres transmitted 15 kW electric power at 2 kV, using a constant direct current; present transmission voltages have risen to ± 600 kV direct current (DC) and 765 kV alternating current (AC), and it is now possible to transmit bulk electric power at voltages as high as ± 1000 kV DC and 1500 kV AC. Affordable computer systems are now available to optimize transmission reliably. New materials have reduced the bulk of insulation for lines and equipment. New conducting materials and configurations have reduced losses in transmission. Advances in line structures and conductor motion, understanding of flashover characteristics of insulators and air-gaps and electrical performance of lines have resulted in more compact urban transmission lines. (author). 15 refs., 7 tabs., 11 figs

  6. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  7. Electric vehicle energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles (EVs) and : renewable wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation on reducing petroleum imports : and greenhouse gas emissions to Hawaii. In 2015, the state...

  8. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  9. Home Electrical Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interrupter Protection for Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs Metal Ladders and Electricity Don’t Mix Electrocution Hazard with Do-It-Yourself Repairs of Microwave Ovens Preventing Home Fires: Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters (AFCIs) Power up with ...

  10. Electricity and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    2003-11-01

    The sustainable development is a political project. Its purpose is to erase the contradictions between the requirements of Environment and social development. the first article of the law of February 10, 2000 erects a sustainable electricity. For the first time. a law integrates the environmental requirements into the electrical industry. The starting point of this study is in the observation of the effects of this integration in a central sector for the developed countries. electricity is the motive of social development. However, it is carried by a Network. This network results from the confusion between the energy policy and the rules which aim at ensuring the construction and the management of structures of production and transport. Nevertheless, if the energy policy integrates the requirements of the environment, the structures subject them to a dominant social logic which aim is to satisfy an increasing demand for electricity. (author)

  11. The electricity market 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2002' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment. The market price of electricity is affected by a number of factors, including fuel prices, availability of water, and the power and energy balances of the various countries. The availability of water in Norway and Sweden has been very good in recent years, which has had a major influence on the price. 1996 was a dry year, which led to a high system price on Nord Pool. The price of electricity then dropped and has remained at a relatively low level up to the year 2001. The price of electricity rose during the spring of 2001 and remained at a higher level also during the summer months. The main reason was that the availability of water was lower than normal in Norway during the early part of the year. This created a higher demand for imported electricity in Norway and caused some apprehension that the year would be dry. The total price of electricity to the end users has not followed the system price development. The total cost of electricity to the end consumers consists of three items, i.e. the price of electricity, the network

  12. Solar electricity for Mali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naehr, Catrin [SMA Corporate Communication, Niestetal (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Eight off-grid PV power plants that supply households, schools and smaller businesses in southern Mali villages with electricity not only boost the rural electrification but also the local economy in the crisis-ridden country. (orig.)

  13. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal for the Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) project is to develop a reliable portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional...

  14. Modernizing Electricity Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explains how modern grid, or smart grid, investments can enable grid operators to respond faster to changes in grid conditions and allow for two-way communication between utilities and electricity end-users.

  15. Pricing electricity for sustainability : climate change and Canada's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The electricity sector is Canada's largest single source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed electricity and carbon pricing approaches to reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector. An overview of the links between electricity pricing and climate change was presented, and current and emerging trends in electricity pricing related to encouraging energy conservation were reviewed. Market prices and failures were discussed. Approaches to pricing electricity included an increase in block prices; time-of-use prices; demand-side management and energy efficiency; and carbon pricing in Canada and electricity pricing signals. The study showed that several provincial utilities in Canada are experimenting with market-based pricing approaches for electricity and carbon that may help to reduce GHG emissions over time. Concerns over electricity supply and the negative environmental impacts of electricity production may lead to the full social pricing of electricity in some regions of Canada. 46 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  17. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  18. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  19. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  20. Electricity Bill [Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, C.; Hogg, N.; Salmond, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the first part of the Parliamentary debate on the second reading of the Electricity Bill, House of Commons, London 1988. The Bill sets out the government's proposals for the restructuring and privatisation of the electricity supply industry throughout Great Britain. Customers and suppliers, choice for the consumer, competition promotion, security of supply, nuclear power stations, and cost, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1992-01-01

    In these early years of electricity privitization in the United Kingdom, it is impossible to draw any firm conclusions about whether this particular government policy has benefited the country as a whole. This article examines early trends in the economic fortunes of National Power and Power Gen the two non-nuclear utilities and Nuclear Electric, which generate power in England and Wales, as well as Scottish Power, Scottish Hydro and Scottish Nuclear which generate power for Scotland. (UK)

  2. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  5. Privatizing electricity: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1988, the Government announced their intention of privatizing the electricity supply industry of England, Wales and Scotland. The Government's proposals were outlined in two White Papers. Cm 322 covered the proposals for England and Wales and Cm 327 the proposals for Scotland. This article deals with the events covering the stages of the privatization process from just before passing of the Electricity Bill in July 1989 to December 1990. (author)

  6. Particle electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Pendlebury, J M

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.

  7. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  8. On the electricity shortage, price and electricity theft nexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is facing severe electricity shortfall of its history since 2006. Several measures have been implemented in order to mitigate electricity shortage. The focus has been on raising the installed capacity of electricity generation and transmission. The present policy results in expensive thermal electricity generation mostly using expensive and environmentally hazardous furnace oil and inability of utilities to recover their cost of supply although there is unprecedented rise in electricity tariffs. This study concentrates on the electricity demand and traces the relationship between electricity shortfalls, tariff rate and electricity theft in the background of recent electricity crisis using the data for the period 1985–2010. We employed the Granger causality test through error correction model and out-of-sample causality through variance decomposition method. Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft greatly influences electricity shortfalls through lowering investment and inefficient use of electricity. The study concludes that electricity crisis cannot be handled without combating rampant electricity theft in the country. - Highlights: ► The study investigates relationship among electricity outages, price and electricity theft. ► It employed Johansen approach, ECM and variance decomposition analysis. ► Empirical evidence shows that electricity theft causes outages and rising tariff rates. ► Variance decomposition analysis results are slightly different from ECM

  9. Asia electricity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    Electricity demand in Asia has grown and continues to grow rapidly. Over 40 per cent of the world's growth in electricity output up to 2010 is expected to come from China and East and South Asia. The need to build the additional production capacity to meet demand is the driving force behind the major structural and institutional changes that are presently transforming the electricity sectors throughout the region. The Asia Electricity Study looks in detail at the current and future role of the electricity sectors in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand. It analyses existing and planned electricity policies in areas such as financing regulation, environment and end-use efficiency. To build the region's power infrastructure will require large investments, well beyond what governments or multilateral lending institutions can provide. Consequently, mobilizing private sector participation in the process is vital. Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are being allowed to enter what has, until recently, been a government-dominated field. State-owned utilities are being corporatized and/or privatized to improve their competitiveness. Developing the regulatory environment to match the changes taking place is a key challenge. The significant expansion of generation capacity in Asia will have implications well beyond the region. Changes in energy trade volumes and patterns, caused by the need to obtain fuel for power stations, will have an impact on the energy security of Asia and the world as a whole Similarly, fuel and technology choices will have important consequences for both the regional and global environment. (author)

  10. Essays on electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rud, Linda

    2009-07-01

    The report covers several topics of electricity markets: The first essay, 'Selected Topics on Early Electricity Market Design in Norway' studies market design issues in establishing the market-based Norwegian electricity market. Essays 2-4 focus on issues of network congestion: 'Capacity Charges: A Price Adjustment Process for Managing Congestion in Electricity Transmission Networks' presents the capacity charge approach for managing transmission constraints in electricity networks. 'Understanding the Stochastics of Nodal Prices: Price Processes in a Constrained Network' seeks a further understanding of stochastic nodal prices processes. 'Investment Evaluation in a Constrained Electricity Network with Stochastic Nodal Price Processes' studies how the interaction of the competitive market and the capacitated network affects the evaluation of investments under uncertainty, and points out potential pitfalls of evaluation. In the last essay, 'A Newsboy Model Perspective on the Power Market: The Case of a Wind Power Producer' we discuss aspects of optimal bidding for a wind power producer. (Author)

  11. Electricity and magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2005-01-01

    Shocked by static? Mixed up about magnets? Curious about currents? This book will help you get beyond memorizing electricity-related formulas, rules, and procedures so you can understand the topic at a deep level deep enough to teach it with confidence and comfort. By covering the basics of static electricity, current electricity, and magnetism, the book develops a scientific model showing that electricity and magnetism are really the same phenomenon in different forms. A bonus feature: access to interactive software that you can download from the NSTA Web site. The software will help you investigate electrical circuits from simple to complex without having to buy a lot of expensive materials (or risking electrocution!). Electricity and Magnetism is the fifth title in the award-winning NSTA Press Stop Faking It! Series. As author Bill Robertson writes, The book you have in your hands is not a textbook. It is, however, designed to help you get science at a level you never thought possible, and also to bring yo...

  12. The electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez duran, R.

    2010-01-01

    The decarbonization of transport is a key element in both energy and environmental European policies as well as one of the levers that will help us achieve the goals of improving energy efficiency, reducing CO 2 emissions and energy dependence. The use of electricity compared to other low-carbon fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen has the advantage of its existing infrastructure (power generation plants, transmission and distribution networks), being only necessary to developed recharging infrastructures. We emphasize the role of electricity networks and their evolution, which will enable to manage demand and maximise the potential of renewable energies. The idea of an electric vehicle is not a recent one but dates back to the beginning of the last century, when first units appeared. Unfortunately, technological barriers were too high at the time to let them succeed. Namely those barriers limited the range of the electric vehicle due to problems with battery recharges. Nowadays, those difficulties have almost been solved and we can state that institutional support and coordination among all actors involved have made the electric vehicle a plausible reality. While the technological improvements needed for the electric vehicle to become cost competitive are carried out, the plug-in hybrid vehicle represents the intermediate step to reach a total decarbonization of transport. Endesa is committed to this revolution in transport mobility and believes that now is the right time to focus our efforts on it. Our goal is to contribute to a more balanced and sustainable world in the near future. (Author)

  13. Electrical model of Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paananen, M.; Lehtonen, T.; Korhonen, K. (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (FI))

    2007-05-15

    The goal of this work is to construct a composite electrical model of Olkiluoto, focussing on integration of four separate geophysical methods: mise-a-la-masse (MAM), SAMPO EM soundings, Slingram (HLEM) and single-hole electrical soundings. The electrical structure of Olkiluoto is rather complex, dominated by mineral electrical conductors such as sulphide minerals and graphite. The basic idea of this work is the fact that the sulphide-rich zones and fracturing appear to coincide frequently. Accordingly, knowing the geometry of the major electric conductors would facilitate the interpretation of brittle deformation zones. The work consists of three separate phases: method-specific interpretation, integration and block modelling. In the single-hole interpretation, locations of electric conductors (resistivity < 1000 ohmm), based on long normal survey have been determined in 42 drillholes. Since MAM survey does not cover all the conductive sections and drillholes and SAMPO EM has its own limitations in sensitivity and resolution, a proportion of the conductive sections have been combined between the drillholes using only the single-hole data and the geological idea of features dipping gently to SE - S. The MAM survey has been done in numerous drillholes in order to find galvanic connections between the drillholes. Based on MAM, geometry of numerous electric conductors has been determined. Generally the results indicate continuous, gently dipping semiplanar features intersected by several drillholes. The Slingram survey and interpretation have been done on the ground surface to map electric conductors located at shallow depths (some tens of meters at maximum). A number of conductive zones have been delineated, trending mainly from ENE to WSW. The conductors have also been classified according to their in-phase/quadrature-ratio, and in some cases, also numerical modelling has been done. The SAMPO EM soundings and interpretations have been done to map subsurface electric

  14. Electrical model of Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.; Lehtonen, T.; Korhonen, K.

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this work is to construct a composite electrical model of Olkiluoto, focussing on integration of four separate geophysical methods: mise-a-la-masse (MAM), SAMPO EM soundings, Slingram (HLEM) and single-hole electrical soundings. The electrical structure of Olkiluoto is rather complex, dominated by mineral electrical conductors such as sulphide minerals and graphite. The basic idea of this work is the fact that the sulphide-rich zones and fracturing appear to coincide frequently. Accordingly, knowing the geometry of the major electric conductors would facilitate the interpretation of brittle deformation zones. The work consists of three separate phases: method-specific interpretation, integration and block modelling. In the single-hole interpretation, locations of electric conductors (resistivity < 1000 ohmm), based on long normal survey have been determined in 42 drillholes. Since MAM survey does not cover all the conductive sections and drillholes and SAMPO EM has its own limitations in sensitivity and resolution, a proportion of the conductive sections have been combined between the drillholes using only the single-hole data and the geological idea of features dipping gently to SE - S. The MAM survey has been done in numerous drillholes in order to find galvanic connections between the drillholes. Based on MAM, geometry of numerous electric conductors has been determined. Generally the results indicate continuous, gently dipping semiplanar features intersected by several drillholes. The Slingram survey and interpretation have been done on the ground surface to map electric conductors located at shallow depths (some tens of meters at maximum). A number of conductive zones have been delineated, trending mainly from ENE to WSW. The conductors have also been classified according to their in-phase/quadrature-ratio, and in some cases, also numerical modelling has been done. The SAMPO EM soundings and interpretations have been done to map subsurface electric

  15. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  16. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  17. Swiss electrical power association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Milestones of electrical power development in Switzerland during 1982 are quoted. An energy balance is shown for the utilisation of 864,630 terajoules of primary energy. This is related to global data on per capita power consumption. In the electricity generation section, annual load factors are given for the four nuclear stations. A brief review is made of hydro potential and monthly export/import figures for power to other countries (mostly export, especially in summer). Total electrical power output grew about 1.3% in the last year. Recent transmission line developments are noted, mostly 2x380kV, and including a link with Austria. In the financial section, consumer price indices are quoted for liquid and solid fuel, gas and electricity since 1966. Under administration, details are listed of the main and about 18 supporting Committees and working groups with special functions (e.g. tariffs, electrical vehicles). Public relations have included nuclear power press conferences, a mobile video unit, information leaflets for the media and a teaching seminar. (G.C.)

  18. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  19. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  20. Electrical distribution system management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos, L.; Mortarulo, M.; Chang, K.; Sparks, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that maintenance of electrical system data is essential to the operation, maintenance, and modification of a nuclear station. Load and equipment changes affect equipment sizing, available short-circuit currents and protection coordination. System parameters must be maintained in a controlled manner to enable evaluation of proposed modifications and provide adequate verification and traceability. For this purpose, Public Service Electric and Gas Company has implemented a Verified and Validated Electric Distribution System Management (EDSM) program at the Hope Creek and Salem Nuclear Power Stations. EDSM program integrates computerized configuration management of electrical systems with calculational software the Technical Standard procedures. The software platform is PC-based. The Database Manager and Calculational programs have been linked together through a user friendly menu system. The database management nodule enable s assembly and maintenance of databases for individual loads, buses, and branches within the electrical systems with system access and approval controlled through electronic security incorporated within the database manger. Reports drawn from the database serve as the as-built and/or as-designed record of the system configurations. This module also creates input data files of network parameters in a format readable by the calculational modules. Calculations modules provide load flow, voltage drop, motor starting, and short-circuit analyses, as well as dynamic analyses of bus transfers

  1. Ontario electricity bill review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, G.

    2003-01-01

    Findings of an independent review of charges to electricity bills and recommendations to assist in the development of a standard, province-wide residential electricity bill for Ontario are discussed. The review was requested by the province's Minister of Energy in an effort to dispel growing confusion about the variations in customer billing practices used by the province's 90+ local distribution companies. Key recommendations and findings were as follows: (1)Consumer bill formats issued by local distribution companies should be more consumer-friendly, adhere to minimum design standards, adapt uniform terminology and common line charges; (2) charges on customer bills should be grouped into four standard line items, with full details available to customers: the four line items should be a basic service charge, a charge for delivering electricity to the customer, a charge for the electricity itself, and a separate charge for retiring the outstanding debt of the former Ontario Hydro; (3) bills should take advantage of opportunities for promoting province-wide energy conservation, such as encouraging the long-term use of interval meters, presenting historical consumption data on residential bills on a period-to-period basis, and education and communications initiatives. Details of the recommendations, including the calculation of the fixed and variable components of usage charges, an explanation of the concept of electricity system loss adjustments, a method for phasing in the recommendations, and the anticipated benefits to consumers are provided

  2. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  3. Electricity rates in Canada, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Numerical data only are presented for monthly electricity costs (residential and commercial) for selected Canadian cities. Total electricity supply is broken down by province. Residential, urban and rural electricity costs, including taxation, are provided for selected Canadian cities. Calculations of electricity costs for commercial and residential sectors are tabulated by province. Historical data from 1974 are supplied

  4. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  5. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  6. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2003 for consumption, prices of electric power, power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  8. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2000 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  9. Danish electricity supply. Statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Danish Electric Utilities each year issues the statistical yearbook 'Danish electricity supply'. By means of brief text, figures, and tables a description is given of the electric supply sector. The report presents data for the year 2002 for consumption, prices of electric power; power generation and transmission, and trade. (ln)

  10. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  11. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  13. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  14. The European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The creation of a single European market also will have its effects on the power and electricity sector. Expectations tied to this abandonment of borders on the electricity market are different: some hope for a reduction of energy costs, others fear safeguarded supplies to be at risk. It cannot be fully judged at present what the situation will be on a strongly integrated, European power and electricity market, and the brochure in hand is intended to present a first survey of the situation from the perspective of the power industry and energy policy, concentrating on main aspects. The survey is compiled in the form of reprints of journal articles written on this topic by a number of well-known German experts in the field. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing...... not designed to take into account the uncertainty brought by the substantial variability and limited predictability associated with stochastic sources, most notably wind power and solar energy. Due to these developments, the need for decision making models able to account for the uncertainty introduced by high...... from renewables, and on the adaption of electricity market designs and power system operations to the aforementioned characteristics of renewables. Additionally, the aim of the research group is supplemented by providing the appropriate frameworks for secure future investments in the field...

  16. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  17. Practical electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    N Makarov, Sergey; Bitar, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This textbook provides comprehensive, in-depth coverage of the fundamental concepts of electrical and computer engineering. It is written from an engineering perspective, with special emphasis on circuit functionality and applications. Reliance on higher-level mathematics and physics, or theoretical proofs has been intentionally limited in order to prioritize the practical aspects of electrical engineering. This text is therefore suitable for a number of introductory circuit courses for other majors such as robotics, mechanical, biomedical, aerospace, civil, architecture, petroleum, and industrial engineering. The authors’ primary goal is to teach the aspiring engineering student all fundamental tools needed to understand, analyze and design a wide range of practical circuits and systems. Their secondary goal is to provide a comprehensive reference, for both major and non-major students as well as practicing engineers. Provides a self-contained, fundamental textbook on electric circuits and basic electronic...

  18. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  19. Privatising British electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1992-01-01

    The privatisation of the British electricity industry was intended to be the most radical change made to a European power system in the post-war period. It was of an experimental nature, imposing on electricity a way of operating which has no equivalent anywhere in the world. This report shows, however, that in the long run-up to privatisation, a number of factors combined to pull the plan far from its original aims and to produce a hybrid system which has caused many new difficulties without establishing a fully commercial market. The original ideas behind the new system - most notably the establishment of a fully competitive commercial system - have not been fulfilled. Many of them were wholly impractical. The problems of establishing a competitive market in electricity were never properly addressed until the planning for the new system was well under way. (author)

  20. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc.) was established on November 1, 1994 as one entity among new entities created as successors to the former Slovensky energeticky podnik. The subject activity is the generation of electric power, operation of transmission 220 kV and 400 kV systems, transit, import, export, and sales of electric power. Besides these activities the company deals with generation, distribution, and sales of heat. The company operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and thirty hydro power plants. One nuclear Power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997). On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the company; (2) The production Units; (3) The economic power of the company; (4) The operation culture of the company; (5) The strategic plans of the company

  1. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator is described comprising a magnet having a magnetic field, an elongate hollow housing containing an electrically conductive liquid and a thermoacoustic structure positioned in the liquid, heat exchange means thermally connected to the thermoacoustic structure for inducing the liquid to oscillate at an acoustic resonant frequency within the housing. The housing is positioned in the magnetic field and oriented such that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid are substantially orthogonal to one another, first and second electrical conductor means connected to the liquid on opposite sides of the housing along an axis which is substantially orthogonal to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid, an alternating current output signal is generated in the conductor means at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the oscillatory motion of the liquid

  2. Quebec's electricity exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, W.F.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 Hydro-Quebec exported over 16 TWh to New England and New York and it plans to export 3,500 MW of firm power, not interruptible, by the early 2000s. It estimates that the northeast US market has an additional potential of 9,000 MW. The export market has become more difficult than anticipated. The federal/state regulatory framework for electricity generation was changing - it encouraged small scale generation, cogeneration and conservation which decreased demand. Demand for power imports has also been influenced by pricing judgements and avoided costs. Environmental concerns and Native protest have become increasingly important factors affecting future export sales and hence the proposed James Bay developments. Regulatory changes affecting supply and pricing, concerns about continental impacts, about further development of electrical sources together with Native requirements will further complicate the Quebec-US electricity trade. (author)

  3. Electricity supply in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    Electric power was introduced in Denmark in 1891. Recently, the development of the Danish electricity supply industry has been influenced by a number of political measures aiming at a cleaner environment. The booklet gives a general introduction to the industry in Denmark. It reflects the actual supply situation and looks at the future as well as giving a survey of the historical and political background. In addition to relevant statistics, brief information is given on national energy balance, consumption, costs and pricing, distribution and transmission, end-use efficiency, electric power generation, imports and exports, wind power, cogeneration and district heating, pollutive emission, planning and Danish energy policy. There is also a list of useful addresses. (AB)

  4. Electrical aspects of rainout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.; Serduke, F.J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Under extreme conditions, the radioactivity of fresh nuclear debris particles greatly alters the electrical phenomena within a natural cloud. There is sufficient beta and gamma activity to generate ions in the atmosphere at rates many orders of magnitude higher than those associated with natural terrestrial sources and cosmic rays. This ion production, when counterbalanced by recombination and attachment, yields steady-state ion concentrations that are several orders of magnitude greater than those present in fair weather. Such concentrations of ions greatly reduce the chance of accumulating large droplet charges or of generating high electric fields. Consequently, electrical interactions which lead to scavenging are estimated to be considerably less potent in the presence of fresh nuclear debris than might have been expected on the basis of parameters associated with natural thunderstorms. Rosenkilde has given a more detailed description of the work being summarized here. 8 references, 5 figures

  5. Electric vehicle demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellet, M. [National Centre for Advanced Transportation, Saint-Jerome, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The desirable characteristics of Canadian projects that demonstrate vehicle use in real-world operation and the appropriate mechanism to collect and disseminate the monitoring data were discussed in this presentation. The scope of the project was on passenger cars and light duty trucks operating in plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) or battery electric vehicle modes. The presentation also discussed the funding, stakeholders involved, Canadian travel pattern analysis, regulatory framework, current and recent electric vehicle demonstration projects, and project guidelines. It was concluded that some demonstration project activities may have been duplicated as communication between the proponents was insufficient. It was recommended that data monitoring using automatic data logging with minimum reliance on logbooks and other user entry should be emphasized. figs.

  6. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  7. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  8. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  9. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  10. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  11. Electricity and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade with ele......This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade...

  12. Dispatches - electricity and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, P.

    1996-01-01

    This Channel 4 Television booklet on 'Electricity and Cancer' provides the content of such a programme broadcast in 1996. This programme explored the possible links between electric power lines, radon in our homes and childhood cancer. This link is based on research showing that electromagnetic fields such as those surrounding power lines increase the concentration of radon decay products in the immediate vicinity. Because radon is known to cause cancer, this may be a key part of the puzzle of why there is a higher incidence of cancers near power lines. (UK)

  13. New electric power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    In a trend analysis of methods of energy production and use, this paper cites forecasted significant gains in efficiency through the use of combined cycles for heat and power production, and rapidly falling costs of solar and wind power plants. A technical/economic feasibility analysis is then performed on the future use of electric vehicles in Italy. Here, the paper cites the possible benefits in terms of energy conservation and air pollution abatement. A review is made of current progress in research efforts aimed at reducing electric battery sizing, weight and recharging constraints

  14. Change in Nuclear Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Activities of Nuclear Electric company (Great Britain) in 1990-1995, aimed at privatization of certain NPPs and services, are considered. The company introduced commercial principles of work and control in all areas of expenditures. Great attention was paid to the work with personnel according to the program Investments in Personnel. All these initiatives resulted in increase in the total electricity production by 39% during the period of time under consideration in the 100% increase in the output per man/hour. This made it possible for the government to introduce its proposal on privatization of greater part of companies

  15. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  17. Markets for utility electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Every analysis of energy use, no matter what the sector or the country, has shown enormous opportunities for cost-effective conservation. Such opportunities should be identified and pursued wherever they appear. Because of its capital intensity and balance-of-payments implications on the supply side, and its potential to improve industrial efficiency and quality of life on the demand side, nowhere are such opportunities more critical than with electricity. Indeed, given the large and unsatisfied demand for electricity in those markets where it can be used efficiently, to ignore those opportunities is to invite ever more serious energy supply and demand problems. (author). 34 refs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix

  18. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  19. The greening of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, J.; Wikstroem, T. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    As people`s values change, the requirements imposed on products change as well. One value which is becoming increasingly important is that of an environmental orientation. Consumers are demanding that manufacturers supply information on the extent to which the production, use, and disposal of products negatively affect the natural environment. For industry, electricity is one of the factors of production. As such, it is also a commodity. The power industry must respond to the demands of consumers and be prepared to explain how electricity is generated

  20. Newnes electrical pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, E A

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electrical Pocket Book, Twenty-first Edition, provides engineers with convenient access to various facts, tables, and formulae relating to the particular branch of engineering being dealt with. In the case of electrical engineering, it is essential that the engineer have a clear understanding of the methods by which the various formulae are derived to ensure that any particular formulae is applicable to the conditions being considered. The first section of the Pocket Book is devoted to the theoretical groundwork upon which all the practical applications are based. This covers symbols,

  1. Electrical estimating methods

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2014-01-01

    Simplify the estimating process with the latest data, materials, and practices Electrical Estimating Methods, Fourth Edition is a comprehensive guide to estimating electrical costs, with data provided by leading construction database RS Means. The book covers the materials and processes encountered by the modern contractor, and provides all the information professionals need to make the most precise estimate. The fourth edition has been updated to reflect the changing materials, techniques, and practices in the field, and provides the most recent Means cost data available. The complexity of el

  2. Alberta's electricity forwards market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlined how the province of Alberta is starting over with a wholesale electricity market. Wholesalers have retreated back to the real-time market. The Watt-Ex standard market design position paper, issued in October 2002, examines wholesale market issues. The author notes that the biggest constraint to competitive electricity market is the reliance on real-time markets to price a good portion of transactions. Doing so, creates extreme price volatility and ineffective price signals because demand and supply have only a limited ability to respond to prices

  3. Air tight electrical box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, C.G.

    1990-08-14

    An air-impervious electrical box to facilitate air sealing a house comprises an integral, rigid box body having a continuous flange, integral with the body, circumscribing and outwardly extending from the sides of the body. This flange is rearwardly positioned behind the front edges of the sides of the body a predetermined distance so that the electrical box may be secured to framing by nailing through the flange. Drywall is then secured to the frame on top of and adjecent to the flange. Such box eliminates the necessity for solid backing and minimizes passage of air through the box and space between the drywall and the box.

  4. The new electricity age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Michael; Willnow, Klaus

    2010-09-15

    A sustainable energy system requires optimal integration of all components resulting in an integrated energy system. To setup the integrated energy system three steps have to be completed: 1. Optimal selection and allocation of the Energy Mix 2. Efficiency increase along all steps of the energy conversion chain 3. Holistic optimization across infrastructures and across regions using Smart Grid Technologies Due to greater complexity caused by growing demand for electricity and decentralized generation only end-to-end intelligence from power plants via networks to end-use applications, so-called smart grid technologies will enable the integrated energy system and thus the New Electricity Age.

  5. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  6. Electricity consumption and electricity saving in the Swedish households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstroem, B M; Eklund, Y; Sjoeberg, L

    1997-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine which factors influence electricity consumption behavior of Swedish households, the level of knowledge about electricity use and the willingness to pay for the use of electricity. In Sweden, as in many other developed countries, the need for electric power is constantly increasing. The major reason for this increase in electricity consumption is the lifestyle of a modern society. A feature in the nuclear power discussion is that the government in Sweden is having a hard time to establish how to phase-out all nuclear power plants by 2010. An additional major change in Swedish energy policy is the deregulation of the electricity market, which started in the beginning of 1996. There is an increased demand for strategies to save electricity among households. The results of this study stress the difficulties in reducing electricity consumption and to develop new electricity saving strategies in Sweden 125 refs, 6 figs, 21 tabs

  7. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  8. Electricity market under change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The electric power sector of the countries and their many problems are described. Statistical data on supply and demand pieces, primary energy use et cetera are given. A brief overview of the economical situation, and a discussion of nuclear power safety in the area are presented. (34 refs., 7 figs., 37 tabs.)

  9. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  10. Electrical energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    El-Hawary, Mohamed E

    2007-01-01

    Features discussions ranging from the technical aspects of generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization to power system components, theory, protection, and the energy control center that offer an introduction to effects of deregulating electric power systems, blackouts and their causes, and minimizing their effects.

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015

  12. Electric Guitar and Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Colin

    Almost all the instruments described in this book have their origins in historical cultures dating back over many centuries. In contrast, the electric guitar and violin are clearly twentieth-century innovations. They are products of the electronics age following invention of the rectifying thermionic valve (tube) by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904, the amplifying triode valve (tube) by Lee de Forest in 1907, and the vacuum-filled amplifying valve (tube) by Irving Langmuir in 1915. By 1916, such valves were already being used in radio receivers, and important advances were being made in microphone, amplifier, and loudspeaker design. This, and the increasingly wide distribution of mains electricity in the 1920s, provided the technology and infrastructure for the development of the electric guitar and violin and their lower-pitched relations - the bass guitar, viola, cello, and string-bass. Although we focus here on the electric guitar and violin, almost everything discussed in this chapter is also relevant to their lower-pitched relations.

  13. Basic Electricity. Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    Third (part 3) in a set of four guides designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, this guide includes four units: Unit VI--Ohm's Law, covering six lessons (voltage, current-flow and resistance, the Ohm's Law formula, formula for finding voltage, formula for finding resistance); Unit VII--Voltages, covering five lessons…

  14. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  15. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  16. Bulgarian electricity market restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganev, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The energy sector in Bulgaria has undergone major restructuring in recent years. It faces the dual challenges of achieving regulatory stability to attract private investors, and creating a functioning competition energy market. As of the EU Accession in 2007, Bulgaria has fully liberalized power and gas markets. The 2003 Energy Law establishes the energy sector legal framework and sets the basis for creation of a transparent and predictable regulatory environment where the key regulatory responsibilities are vested with the State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission (SEWRC). The energy sector experienced significant problems in the first half of 2007 due to lost production capacities and regulatory failures on the electricity market. Excess price regulations on the market of electricity supplies to household, coupled with insufficient liberalization of imports and exports, create unfavorable conditions for power producers and large electricity users. The energy regulator has tried to achieve several incompatible targets as of July 1, 2007 for maintaining low electricity prices for households in response to political pressure, low power generation prices amid rising input costs, and market opening in compliance with EU regulations. (author)

  17. Solar Electricity for Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Every day, the sun showers the Earth with millions of times more energy than its people use. The only problem is that energy is spread out over the entire Earth's surface and must be harvested. Engineers are learning to capture and use some of this energy to make electricity for homes. Solar panels make up the heart of a solar system. They can be…

  18. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  19. Electric-car simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. P.; Slusser, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    PARAMET, interactive simulation program for parametric studies of electric vehicles, guides user through simulation by menu and series of prompts for input parameters. Program considers aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, linear and rotational acceleration, and road gradient as forces acting on vehicle.

  20. Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When an electric field is applied, this electron can be lifted to this higher energy ... By such a virtual process two electrons .... using superconducting coils has come to be a reality. ... nance imaging techniques used in medical diagnostics. Com ...

  1. The Electric Vehicle Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a design activity that provides students with a solid understanding of the many issues involved with alternate energy system design. In this activity, students will be able to learn about electric vehicles and have the opportunity to design a way to recharge the batteries while the cars are parked in a commuter garage. The…

  2. Electricity in Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation examines the development of the power generation and transmission capacity of the power system of Oman. The topics of the presentation include economic development of Oman; growth of the electricity sector including capacity generation, transmission and distribution and load characteristics; involvement of the private sector; power interconnections and exchanges; privatization; and training

  3. Restructuring the Electricity Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    We study the role of vertical structure in determining generating capacities and retail prices in the electricity industry. Allowing for uncertain demand, we compare three market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly wit...

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  5. For smart electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thiet, Jean-Paul; Leger, Sebastien; Bressand, Florian; Perez, Yannick; Bacha, Seddik; Laurent, Daniel; Perrin, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The authors identify and discuss the main challenges faced by the French electric grid: the management of electricity demand and the needed improvement of energy efficiency, the evolution of consumer's state of mind, and the integration of new production capacities. They notably outline that France have been living until recently with an electricity abundance, but now faces the highest consumption peaks in Europe, and is therefore facing higher risks of power cuts. They also notice that the French energy mix is slowly evolving, and outline the problems raised by the fact that renewable energies which are to be developed, are decentralised and intermittent. They propose an overview of present developments of smart grids, and outline their innovative characteristics, challenges raised by their development and compare international examples. They show that smart grids enable a better adapted supply and decentralisation. A set of proposals is formulated about how to finance and to organise the reconfiguration of electric grids, how to increase consumer's responsibility for peak management and demand management, how to create the conditions of emergence of a European market of smart grids, and how to support self-consumption and the building-up of an energy storage sector

  6. Electric Six : Ettevaatust! Kõrgepinge!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika rockansamblist Electric Six, albumitest "Fire", "Swizerland". Ameerika rockauljast-kitarristist Nick Oliveri'st, ansambli Mondo Generator (www.mondogenerator.com) albumist "Dead Planet: SonicSlowMotionTrails". Info festivalist: www.rabarock.delfi.ee / www.rabarock.ee

  7. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  8. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  9. Electrical aspects of rainout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission

  10. Recirculating electric air filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  11. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc., abbrevation 'SE, a.s.') is the Slovak electricity generating utility, incorporated on November 1, 1994 as one of new companies formed from substantially all of the assets and a legal successor of Slovensky energeticky podnik, s.p., founded on January 1, 1969 in the form of SEP group. From its predecessor, Slovak Electric, Plc., took over generation of power, operation of 220 kV and 400 kV power system, transit, import, export, and sale of electricity. It is also involved in generation, distribution, and sale of heat. At present, SE's share of electriciry sales in the Slovak Republic is 88.47%. Electricity is delivered to three regional distribution companies and directly to several major industrial enterprises. SE, a.s. operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and 30 hydro power plants. The second nuclear power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997) and SE is participating in the construction of two hydro power plants and one combined cycle power plant. The efforts of SE, s.a. focus on the generation of power and heat with minimal environmental impacts. Ecology is given priority in the SE, a.s. development programmes. SE's mission is to permanently satisfy customers' needs, for an acceptable price and with minimal environmental impact. On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the Company; (2) Production units; (3) The economic power of the Company; (4) The operation culture; (5) The strategic plans of the Company

  12. Nova Scotia electricity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandlemire, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an update of electricity issues concerning Nova Scotia such as supply, capacity, emission commitments, as well as co-generation and the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC). The goals of the strategy were reliability combined with competitive prices and greater environmental responsibility. The scope of these objectives included new capacity, transmission, renewables and co-generation. Other objectives included encouraging wholesale market competition; meeting reciprocity requirements; and a 50 MW renewable energy target. Recommendations of the EMGC included wholesale market competition; a broader market scope with a cost benefit analysis; Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT); a scheduling and information system; network integration and a point to point service; and a separation of transmission and generation business units. Other recommendations included an open competitive process for new generation; a consideration of emissions and overall efficiency; a Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) to start in 2006; the separation of RPS tags from electricity; and net metering of renewables. These recommendations were accepted in 2003, followed by the new Electricity Act in 2004, which made OATT mandatory, established RPS and opened to the wholesale market. Capacity at present was considered to be tight, with preparations for the new regulations under way. Reductions in air pollution were reported at 25 per cent, with renewable energy projects such as 2 windmills currently under way, as well as various other projects. Opportunities for provincial Atlantic cooperation were identified as being management of reserve requirements; trading of lowest cost electricity; new generation on a regional scale; stronger transmission ties; a system operator; a regional approach to RPS; regional management of air emissions; and regional opportunities for Carbon dioxide reductions. tabs., figs

  13. Regulation of electricity prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihok, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the regulation of electricity prices in the Slovak Republic. Author contests the social policy of the government through doped prices of electricity. Two thirds of electricity is generated in nuclear power plants in Slovakia. Hence, it is necessary to focus on the solution of problem of nuclear waste. In 2004 Ministry of Economy stated, that the deficit in nuclear fund, from which the country have to fully cover the costs of liquidation and final disposal of nuclear waste, is estimated in the amount of around 89 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 3.7 billion $). From it, so called historical deficit, which originated because of late foundation of fund, represents officially 15 billion Slovak crowns (≅ 0.62 billion $). In Slovakia exists the real risk, that by maintenance of present state by creation and draw of the fund, it will be possible to ensure only 39 per cent of financial sources necessary for full financial handling of the back part of nuclear energetic. Even though the Ministry of Economy in connection with privatisation of Slovenske elektrarne designed to decrease the transfers of operators of nuclear power plants into nuclear fund. In 2006 the Parliament decreased by the law the level of gains of the fund from sale of nuclear electricity (the second from two components of the gains of the fund) from 6.8 to 5.95 per cent from annual revenues. So the tax of forced reduction of the price of nuclear electricity will be represented by loading of the further generations

  14. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  15. The latest electrical installation (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jong Su

    1976-04-01

    This book deals with the latest electrical installation. The contents of this book are construction electrical installation, regulations related electrical installation, foundation and principle of wiring, main line feeder, lighting installation, power of wiring, main line feeder, lighting installation, power installation, method to read structure drawing for electrical construct drawing electric lamp wiring diagram, working drawing, material and tools and method of construction of electrical installation on types of wiring construction, metallic conduit, rigid poly-vinyl conduit wiring, bus duct work, cable work and insulation out of metal lathed.

  16. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  17. Electric sales and revenue 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  18. Strategic Sustainable Electric Power Energy for Ethiopia:- Electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mengesha

    Present trend in electrical engineering education; ... (EERS) USA plans to reduce its electric energy ... at the distribution center, step-down to low voltage. (400 V .... Ethiopian market and in use [13]. .... involved in the teaching EEPCo students.

  19. Economic analysis of electric heating based on critical electricity price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Sun, Zhijie; Zhou, Xinnan; Fu, Chengran; Yang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    The State Grid Corporation of China proposes an alternative energy strategy, which will make electric heating an important task in the field of residential electricity consumption. This article takes this as the background, has made the detailed introduction to the inhabitant electric heating technology, and take the Zhangjiakou electric panels heating technology as an example, from the expense angle, has carried on the analysis to the electric panels heating economy. In the field of residential heating, electric panels operating costs less than gas boilers. After customers implying energy-saving behavior, electric panels operating cost is even lower than coal-fired boilers. The critical price is higher than the execution price, which indicates that the economic performance of the electric panels is significantly higher than that of the coal boiler.

  20. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  1. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  2. Our Lives with Electric Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schick, Lea

    2017-01-01

    Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing, and susta......Our lives with electric things are positively charged with meaning. Our bodies pulse with electrical activity. The electric appliances, devices, and technologies around us bring hope and anxiety, possibility and danger. Some have transformed our possibilities for reproducing, nurturing......, and sustaining life. Some mediate human sociality across time and space, while others knit ecological and interspecies relationships together. Still others create possibilities for controlling, managing, exploiting, and ending life. Against this backdrop any anthropology of electricity seems to require electric...... things. Can we still imagine the possibility of lives without electric things? Can electric things help us to address the possibilities and limits of life with electricity? Can our lives with electricity ever be disentangled from electric things? What are the unique capacities and material politics...

  3. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  4. Experience of electric power conservation in COELBA (Bahia Electric Company)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, A.C.F.

    1990-01-01

    The electric power crisis of Brazilian north-east in 1987 imposes the Bahia Electric Company-COELBA to management a electric power conservation. The institutional, organizational and operational aspects are presented, including the tariff system, the market, the consumption and the relation with public. (author)

  5. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  6. Thermo-electric pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georges, J.-L.; Veyret, J.-F.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a thermo-pump for electrically conductive liquid fluids, e.g. for a liquid metal such as sodium. This pump is characterized in that the piping for the circulation of the conductive liquid is constituted by a plurality of conduits defined by two co-axial cylinders and two walls parallel to their axis. Each conduit limited outside by a magnet, inside by a mild-iron tube, and laterally by two materials forming a thermocouple. The electric current generated by that thermo-couple and the magnetic flux generated by the magnets both loop the loop through an outer cylindrical nickel shell. This can be applied to sodium circulation loops for testing nuclear fuel elements [fr

  7. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its 'thermal' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York.

  8. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  9. Electrical properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, L; Syms, R R A

    2014-01-01

    An informal and highly accessible writing style, a simple treatment of mathematics, and clear guide to applications have made this book a classic text in electrical and electronic engineering. Students will find it both readable and comprehensive. The fundamental ideas relevant to the understanding of the electrical properties of materials are emphasized; in addition, topics are selected in order to explain the operation of devices having applications (or possible future applications) in engineering. The mathematics, kept deliberately to a minimum, is well within the grasp of a second-year student. This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microele...

  10. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  11. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  12. Electric circuits and signals

    CERN Document Server

    Sabah, Nassir H

    2007-01-01

    Circuit Variables and Elements Overview Learning Objectives Electric Current Voltage Electric Power and Energy Assigned Positive Directions Active and Passive Circuit Elements Voltage and Current Sources The Resistor The Capacitor The Inductor Concluding Remarks Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Circuit Connections and Laws Overview Learning Objectives Circuit Terminology Kirchhoff's Laws Voltage Division and Series Connection of Resistors Current Division and Parallel Connection of Resistors D-Y Transformation Source Equivalence and Transformation Reduced-Voltage Supply Summary of Main Concepts and Results Learning Outcomes Supplementary Topics and Examples on CD Problems and Exercises Basic Analysis of Resistive Circuits Overview Learning Objectives Number of Independent Circuit Equations Node-Voltage Analysis Special Considerations in Node-Voltage Analysis Mesh-Current Analysis Special Conside...

  13. Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Monica (Compiler); Sharkey, John (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the NASA Electrical Actuation Technology Bridging (ELA-TB) Workshop held in Huntsville, Alabama, September 29-October 1, 1992. The workshop was sponsored by the NASA Office of Space Systems Development and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The workshop addressed key technologies bridging the entire field of electrical actuation including systems methodology, control electronics, power source systems, reliability, maintainability, and vehicle health management with special emphasis on thrust vector control (TVC) applications on NASA launch vehicles. Speakers were drawn primarily from industry with participation from universities and government. In addition, prototype hardware demonstrations were held at the MSFC Propulsion Laboratory each afternoon. Splinter sessions held on the final day afforded the opportunity to discuss key issues and to provide overall recommendations. Presentations are included in this document.

  14. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  15. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  16. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  17. Electric rate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    1993-01-01

    The share of nuclear power in EDF production implies multiple rate structures. How are these rates determined. What are the new applications of electricity, and in particular those that make use of the especially low summer prices for electricity. These are topics of interest to the man in the street (witness EDF's recent 'red-white-blue' rates). This prompted the 'Nuclear Power in the Financial, Energy and Economic situation' department of France's nuclear power company to organize a conference bringing together an expert on rates - M.P. Bernard, head of the rate fixing service at the EDF's headquarters - and representatives from suppliers of equipment taking advantage of the various EDF rate options

  18. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  19. Environmentally damaging electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billette de Villemeur, Etienne [Toulouse School of Economics (IDEI and GREMAQ) (France); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [HEC Montreal (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    Electricity trade across regions is often considered welfare enhancing. We show in this paper that this should be reconsidered if environmental externalities are taken into account. We consider two cases where trade is beneficial, before accounting for environmental damages: first, when two regions with the same technology display some demand heterogeneity; second when one region endowed with hydropower arbitrages with its ''thermal'' neighbor. Our results show that under reasonable demand and supply elasticities, trade comes with an additional environmental cost. This calls for integrating environmental externalities into market reforms when redesigning the electricity sector. Two North American applications illustrate our results: trade between Pennsylvania and New York, and trade between hydro-rich Quebec and New York. (author)

  20. Fair weather atmospheric electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R G

    2011-01-01

    Not long after Franklin's iconic studies, an atmospheric electric field was discovered in 'fair weather' regions, well away from thunderstorms. The origin of the fair weather field was sought by Lord Kelvin, through development of electrostatic instrumentation and early data logging techniques, but was ultimately explained through the global circuit model of C.T.R. Wilson. In Wilson's model, charge exchanged by disturbed weather electrifies the ionosphere, and returns via a small vertical current density in fair weather regions. New insights into the relevance of fair weather atmospheric electricity to terrestrial and planetary atmospheres are now emerging. For example, there is a possible role of the global circuit current density in atmospheric processes, such as cloud formation. Beyond natural atmospheric processes, a novel practical application is the use of early atmospheric electrostatic investigations to provide quantitative information on past urban air pollution.

  1. Electric power: the liberalization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Nine months after the beginning of the deregulation of electric power markets in Europe, the first effects are being felt: fall of prices, amalgamation of electric power companies, development of new technologies and unemployment. (O.M.)

  2. Electricity markets theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Electricity Markets: Theories and Applications offers students and practitioners a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts of the economic theories, particularly microeconomic theories, as well as information on some advanced optimization methods of electricity markets. The authors--noted experts in the field--cover the basic drivers for the transformation of the electricity industry in both the United States and around the world and discuss the fundamentals of power system operation, electricity market design and structures, and electricity market operations. The text also explores advanced topics of power system operations and electricity market design and structure including zonal versus nodal pricing, market performance and market power issues, transmission pricing, and the emerging problems electricity markets face in smart grid and micro-grid environments. The authors also examine system planning under the context of electricity market regime. They explain the new ways to solve problems with t...

  3. Electric Shock Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Electric Shock Injuries in Children Page Content ​When the ... comes into direct contact with a source of electricity, the current passes through it, producing what's called ...

  4. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  5. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  6. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  7. Electric moving shadow garden

    OpenAIRE

    Bracey, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Electric Moving Shadow Garden is a multi-directional exploration of the links between artists and cinema, with multiple reference and contextual points. it accompanied the exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by Bracey and Dave Griffiths at Corernhouse, Manchester, who also edited the publication. Published to accompany the Cornerhouse exhibition, UnSpooling: Artists & Cinema, curated by artists Andrew Bracey and Dave Griffiths. This illustrated catalogue explores how internat...

  8. Static and dynamic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smythe, W.B.

    1988-01-01

    Incorporating the revolutionary advances in electromagnetic computation problems occasioned by the advent of the digital computer, this third edition also includes new examinations of elliptic function conformed transformations and wave guides and cavities and extended coverage of radiation from accelerated particles and eddy currents. Additional topics covered include basic electrostatic concepts, two-and-three-dimensional potential distributors, electric current and magnetic interaction of currents, electromagnetic magnetism, and electromagnetic radiation

  9. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  10. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  11. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  12. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  13. Designing competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, H.P.; Huntington, H.

    1998-01-01

    This volume of papers, originally presented at Stanford in March 1997 in a conference sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, examines several questions about the restructuring and deregulation of electricity markets. Its stated goal is to present guiding principles for evaluating proposals to restructure the US electric power industry. While a collection of essays is perhaps not the best place to lay out guiding principles, the volume does contain a great deal of learning about restructuring. The first essay is a reprint of Paul Joskow's excellent article in the ''Journal of Economic Perspectives''. An essay by William Hogan on the debate between zonal and locational pricing is next. Paul Kleindorfer lists the various governance schemes which other countries that have restructured have used to govern system operation, access to the market for power, and transmission ownership and pricing. One difficulty with the book, as well as the debate in the US, is that it fails to draw adequately upon the international experience. Shmuel Oren lays out the potential areas over which an ISO could have authority. The chapter by Stephen Rassenti and Vernon Smith that bilateral trading should never be allowed, implying that a mandatory pool should be established. A reduction in regulation may increase the incentives for technological innovation. Martin Baughman suggests a number of ways by which costs of transmitting and storing electricity may be reduced. Robert Wilson returns to the volume with a chapter on institutional design. To end the volume, Hung-Po Chao and Stephen Peck present an extension of their earlier work in the ''Journal of Regulatory Economics'' showing how markets for transmission rights would work in a transmission grid of three points

  14. Electric arc hydrogen heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasypin, I.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental data on the electric arc burning in hydrogen are presented. Empirical and semiempirical dependences for calculating the arc characteristics are derived. An engineering method of calculating plasma torches for hydrogen heating is proposed. A model of interaction of a hydrogen arc with a gas flow is outlined. The characteristics of plasma torches for heating hydrogen and hydrogen-bearing gases are described. (author)

  15. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  16. Uranium and electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    Producing and using uranium as a fuel for the generation of electricity involves many activities and industries. Some 100,000 Canadian jobs are dependent upon the nuclear power industry. Of these, 38,000 people are employed directly by more than 100 corporations. This publication describes the components, relationships and some special aspects of 'the nuclear fuel cycle,' which includes exploration, mining, milling, refining, conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactors, and waste management

  17. Electric control of antiferromagnets

    OpenAIRE

    Fina, I.; Marti, X.

    2016-01-01

    In the past five years, most of the paradigmatic concepts employed in spintronics have been replicated substituting ferromagnets by antiferromagnets in critical parts of the devices. The numerous research efforts directed to manipulate and probe the magnetic moments in antiferromagnets have been gradually established a new and independent field known as antiferromagnetic spintronics. In this paper, we focus on the electrical control and detection of antiferromagnetic moments at a constant tem...

  18. Method for protecting an electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  19. Electricity generation cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bald, M.

    1984-01-01

    Also questions of efficiency play a part in the energy discussion. In this context, the economic evaluation of different energy supply variants is of importance. Especially with regard to the generation of electric power there have been discussions again and again during the last years on the advantage of the one or the other kind of electric power generation. In the meantime, a large number of scientific studies has been published on this topic which mainly deal with comparisons of the costs of electric power generated by hard coal or nuclear energy, i.e. of those energy forms which still have the possibilities of expansion. The following part shows a way for the evaluation of efficiency comparisons which starts from simplified assumptions and which works with arithmetical aids, which don't leave the area of the fundamental operations. The general comprehensibility is paid for with cuts on ultimate analytical and arithmetical precision. It will, however, turn out that the results achieved by this method don't differ very much from those which have been won by scientific targets. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Electrical apparatus lockout device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, R.

    1999-10-12

    A simple lockout device for electrical equipment equipped with recessed power blades is described. The device comprises a face-plate (12) having a threaded member (14) attached thereto and apertures suitable for accommodating the power blades of a piece of electrical equipment, an elastomeric nose (16) abutting the face-plate having a hole for passage of the threaded member therethrough and power blade apertures in registration with those of the face-plate, a block (20) having a recess (34) in its forward face for receiving at least a portion of the hose, a hole therein for receiving the threaded member and an integral extension (26) extending from its rear face. A thumb screw (22) suitable for turning with the hands and having internal threads suitable for engaging the threaded member attached to the face-plate is inserted into a passage in the integral extension to engage the threaded member in such a fashion that when the device is inserted over the recessed power blades of a piece of electrical equipment and the thumb screw (22) tightened, the elastomeric nose (16) is compressed between the face-plate (12) and the block (20) forcing it to expand laterally thereby securing the device in the recess and precluding the accidental or intentional energization of the piece of equipment by attachment of a power cord to the recessed power blades. Means are provided in the interval extension and the thumb screw for the attachment of a locking device (46) which will satisfy OSHA standards.

  1. Nuclear electricity from France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, W.

    1987-01-01

    This second volume of the Berlin series presents the papers and discussion of the eleventh discussion meeting on energy law, for the first time held in Berlin, on May 12-13, 1987. The leading subject of the first conference day, namely electricity imports from France, has since then widely been discussed in the media or at other meetings, although the legal problems or obstacles revealed at this Berlin meeting are far from being solved. There is EdF's wish to export electricity to West Germany on the other hand, and there is the West German coal industry's scepticism on the other hand. Much is at stake for West Germany's national concept of enhanced use of coal for electricity generation, and the related system of subventions. Supply concepts and franchise charges, a standing topic of the power sector for quite a time now, have been discussed on the second conference day. The papers read there gave an account of the situation and also presented some new aspects. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Electrical apparatus lockout device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, R.

    1999-01-01

    A simple lockout device for electrical equipment equipped with recessed power blades is described. The device comprises a face-plate (12) having a threaded member (14) attached thereto and apertures suitable for accommodating the power blades of a piece of electrical equipment, an elastomeric nose (16) abutting the face-plate having a hole for passage of the threaded member therethrough and power blade apertures in registration with those of the face-plate, a block (20) having a recess (34) in its forward face for receiving at least a portion of the hose, a hole therein for receiving the threaded member and an integral extension (26) extending from its rear face. A thumb screw (22) suitable for turning with the hands and having internal threads suitable for engaging the threaded member attached to the face-plate is inserted into a passage in the integral extension to engage the threaded member in such a fashion that when the device is inserted over the recessed power blades of a piece of electrical equipment and the thumb screw (22) tightened, the elastomeric nose (16) is compressed between the face-plate (12) and the block (20) forcing it to expand laterally thereby securing the device in the recess and precluding the accidental or intentional energization of the piece of equipment by attachment of a power cord to the recessed power blades. Means are provided in the interval extension and the thumb screw for the attachment of a locking device (46) which will satisfy OSHA standards

  3. Electric industry restructuring review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry began in the early 1990's in many jurisdictions in the United States. Restructuring was an attempt to offer large industrial customers lower rates and freedom from regulation for generators and traditional public utilities. The move has gained most attention in the past two years as some utilities report high profits while others, such as Pacific Gas and Electric Co., the largest investor-owned utility in the United States, is in bankruptcy. The August 2003 blackout in the Midwest and Northeast United States and Canada also raised questions regarding electric reliability. The question now remains whether markets should be allowed to determine the need for services and the prices to be charged, and who is in charge in the imperfect market. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) Order 2000 led to the formation of a Regional Transmission Organizations which is still in the implementation stage. Its influence on precursor Order numbers 888 and 889 were discussed in this paper with reference to independent system operators; regional transmission organizations; standard market design; rates and pricing devices; congestion management; market monitoring; market investigations; reliability measures; OASIS and other information access; interconnection policy; jurisdiction; mergers and merger policy; standards of conduct; policing affiliates; municipal utilities; stranded costs; and, state restructuring scorecards. refs

  4. Electricity and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity underpins economic development and contributes to the welfare of human beings. But its responsibility in current emissions of greenhouse gases is evident and is likely to go on increasing with the return of coal and the putting into service of an impressive number of new power plants, especially in China. Is electricity for the climate a threat or sheet anchor? The article calls for a thermodynamic approach of the climate problems and how, thanks to a comprehensive optimization of the electrical system, it is possible to imagine scenarios that are compatible with the climate constraints. It warns against excessive optimism on some solutions (notably carbon capture) and recalls that nuclear energy remains, with energy efficiency, the only industrially proven large scale solution to reduce emissions. Finally, the article stresses that the fight against global warming is a matter of incremental costs. It questions the capacity of market mechanisms to adequately address the climate issue which is a long-term one relating to general interest. (author)

  5. NASA Electric Propulsion System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, James L.

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA efforts in the area of hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion in large transport. This overview includes a list of reasons why we are looking at transmitting some or all of the propulsive power for the aircraft electrically, a list of the different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems, and the results of 4 aircraft studies that examined different types of hybrid-turbo electric propulsion systems.

  6. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  7. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  8. Electric power balance sheet 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2013: stabilisation of the electricity consumption in France, high level of hydropower generation, fast evolution of the European power network, electricity markets in a transition situation, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  9. Electrical properties of molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    This literature survey summarizes the electrical properties of molecular crystals: molecular crystal structure, transport and excitation mechanisms of charge-carriers, and differences compared to inorganic semi-conductors. The main results concerning the electrical conductivity of the most-studied molecular crystals are presented, together with the optical and photo-electrical properties of these crystals. Finally the different types of electrical measurements used are reviewed, as well as the limits of each method. (author) [fr

  10. Comprehensive dictionary of electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Philip A

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Dictionary of Electrical Engineering is a complete lexicon covering all the fields of electrical engineering.Areas examined include:applied electrical engineeringmicrowave engineeringcontrol engineeringpower engineeringdigital systems engineeringdevice electronicsand much more! The book provides workable definitions for practicing engineers, serves as a reference and research tool for students, and offers practical information for scientists and engineers in other disciplines.

  11. Designing a New Electricity Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug

    The paper reports on a smart grid experiment for the making of a new retail electricity market integrating fluctuating electricity generation into electricity systems. An outline of design challenges faced by the market engineers when dealing with different and lacking conceptions of consumers...

  12. Electricity your common sense guide

    CERN Document Server

    Ilich, Nick

    2015-01-01

    At last, a book that explains electricity in a very simple and easy way for everyone to understand. You will learn the basics of electricity, power to your home, receptacles, neutral and grounding, extension cord "Do's" and "Don'ts" and electrical shock.The book ends with safety tips and suggestions for you to stay safe and be shock free.

  13. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  14. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  15. Going Green with Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in electric and hybrid cars because of environmental and climate change concerns, tougher fuel efficiency standards, and increasing dependence on imported oil. In this article, the author describes the history of electric vehicles in the automotive world and discusses the components of a hybrid electric vehicle.…

  16. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  17. Analysis of electric vehicles measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, B.M.J.; Geldtmeijer, D.A.M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are expected to have a significant impact on electricity grids. Intelligent charging strategies are suggested by literature and tested in the field to prevent overloading of network assets in electricity grids by using the flexibility of electro-mobility. This paper covers an

  18. Electric vehicle - near or far

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, Y.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic is rapidly becoming the number one environmental problem, especially in metropolitan areas. Electric vehicles have many important advantages to offer. Air quality would be improved, since electric vehicles do not pollute the environment. The improvement obtained might be equated with that resulting from the introduction of district heat for the heating of residential buildings. Electric vehicles also present considerable potential for energy conservation

  19. AutoCAD electrical 2013 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham; CADCIM Technologies

    2013-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2013 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers learn the application of various AutoCAD Electrical tools and options for creating electrical control designs. After reading this textbook, the users will be able to create professional electrical-control drawings easily and effectively. Moreover, the users will be able to automate various control engineering tasks such as building circuits, numbering wires, creating bills of materials, and many more. The textbook takes the users across a wide spectrum of electrical control drawings through progressive examples and numerous illustrations and exercises, thereby making it an ideal guide for both the novice and the advanced users. Salient Features of the Textbook Consists of 14 chapters that are organized in a pedagogical sequence covering various tools and features of AutoCAD Electrical such as schematic drawings, parametric and non-parametric PLC modules, Circu...

  20. Does Driving Range of Electric Vehicles Influence Electric Vehicle Adoption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiho Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influential factors on the market share of electric vehicles through panel data analysis based on time series data from 2011 to 2015 in 31 countries. We selected five significant independent variables that are expected to affect electric vehicle adoption based on literature review. The econometric model in this study suggests that the relative price of electric vehicle compared to internal combustion engine vehicle, driving range, and number of models available in markets are correlated to the market share of electric vehicles. On the other hand, relationship between recharging infrastructure—an important factor for electric vehicle adoption in many studies—and market share of electric vehicles turned out to be insignificant in this study. From a political point of view, we argue that policy makers need to allocate more resources to research and development in order to extend driving range at the early stage of electric vehicle deployment in the markets.

  1. Topics on electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-01-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  2. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  3. REC profile 2: Southern Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented of South Electric plc, one of the United Kingdom's Regional Electricity Companies (RECs), at present distributing electric power in central southern England. Known in financial markets as an efficient performer, the staff reductions and changes of employment conditions undertaken to achieve this end are described. The need to maintain success in its core business, while simultaneously seeking diversification, drive the company's keen competitive edge. The relationship between the RECs and the electricity regulator is also explored, as Southern Electric considers a friendly merger with another REC to improve its market competitiveness in price terms. (UK)

  4. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  5. Real business of electrical skill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This book introduces electrical structure and duty of electric security officials with definition, kinds, safe system for electrical structure and position, mission, duty, license and revocation of one's license of officials. It also deals with plan for non utility electric installation such as condition control, the cost of materials and the cost of construction, important equipment and materials, supervisory control, design on non utility power substation, construction of non utility power substation, high voltage substation by cubicle interior wiring, utilization equipment, communication installation and safe work and safe education of electricity and related regulations.

  6. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  7. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  8. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  9. World green electricity, sustaining investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Jannic, N.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of the green production to the world production of electricity reached 20.2% in 2011, it means a slight increase in respect to the figure of 2010: 19.8%. Green electricity is the second source of electricity behind fossil energy (67.9%) but before nuclear power (11.7%). The decrease in nuclear power due to the Fukushima accident has automatically benefited green electricity. The figures show the importance of China, China is now the first electricity producer in the world before US and also passed US for the production of green electricity. At the world scale the production of green electricity can break down into: hydro energy (80.5%), wind energy (10.3%), biomass (6.2%), geothermal energy (1.6%) and solar energy (1.4%). The crisis has slowed down the investment in renewable energies in Europe. (A.C.)

  10. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  11. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  12. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  13. The future electricity business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    The transition of the electricity business into the competitive market will result in change as significant as that brought about by the PC or the deregulation of telecommunications,and with it opportunities for new products, service, and technologies, particularly to support an increase in distributed generation. The electricity business has been viewed as having three building blocks--generation, transmission, and distribution. Almost all investments in these three sectors historically have been made by utilities, but now these investments have begun to be made by customers or new entrants under a competitive market model. With the high-voltage transmission system largely built, the business focus will shift to efficient utilization of that infrastructure through investments in grid automation control, communications, and network management. And while the primary function of the distribution system--connecting customers to the utility grid--will remain unchanged, there will be new requirements on the distribution system to integrate distributed technologies and customer micro grids. Generation power plants are as likely to be located at customer sites as at utility or central-station sites. Customers may choose to create micro grids that are locally self sufficient and may or may not be connected to the utility grid. The characteristics of the distribution grid are likely to change from a one-way system in which power flows from utility central-station power plants to customers, to a two-way system in which power may flow in either direction. Hence, the focus will increasingly shift to integration of portfolio of distributed technologies. The opening of the electricity business to competition also opens new markets and business opportunities for new entrants

  14. Electric vehicles in imperfect electricity markets: The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use a game-theoretic model to analyze the impacts of a hypothetical fleet of plug-in electric vehicles on the imperfectly competitive German electricity market. Electric vehicles bring both additional demand and additional storage capacity to the market. We determine the effects on prices, welfare, and electricity generation for various cases with different players in charge of vehicle operations. Vehicle loading increases generator profits, but decreases consumer surplus in the power market. If excess vehicle batteries can be used for storage, welfare results are reversed: generating firms suffer from the price-smoothing effect of additional storage, whereas power consumers benefit despite increasing overall demand. Strategic players tend to under-utilize the storage capacity of the vehicle fleet, which may have negative welfare implications. In contrast, we find a market power-mitigating effect of electric vehicle recharging on oligopolistic generators. Overall, electric vehicles are unlikely to be a relevant source of market power in Germany in the foreseeable future. - Highlights: → We study the effect of electric vehicles on an imperfectly competitive electricity market. → We apply a game-theoretic model to the German market. → There is a market power-mitigating effect of vehicle loading on oligopolistic generating firms. → Consumers benefit from electric vehicles if excess battery capacity can be used for grid storage. → Electric vehicles are unlikely to be a source of market power in Germany in the near future.

  15. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  16. Electrical machines with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gonen, Turan

    2011-01-01

    Basic ConceptsDistribution SystemImpact of Dispersed Storage and GenerationBrief Overview of Basic Electrical MachinesReal and Reactive Powers in Single-Phase AC CircuitsThree-Phase CircuitsThree-Phase SystemsUnbalanced Three-Phase LoadsMeasurement of Average Power in Three-Phase CircuitsPower Factor CorrectionMagnetic CircuitsMagnetic Field of Current-Carrying ConductorsAmpère's Magnetic Circuital LawMagnetic CircuitsMagnetic Circuit with Air GapBrief Review of FerromagnetismMagnetic Core LossesHow to Determine Flux for a Given MMFPermanent MagnetsTransformersTransformer ConstructionBrief Rev

  17. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  18. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  19. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  20. Electricity Generation Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aabakken, Jorn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ganda, Francesco [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tarka, Thomas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Brewer, John [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Schultz, Travis [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of national laboratory analysts over the period October 2015 to May 2016 and is part of a series of studies that provide background material to inform development of the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). The report focuses specifically on U.S. power sector generation. The report limits itself to the generation sector and does not address in detail parallel issues in electricity end use, transmission and distribution, markets and policy design, and other important segments. The report lists 15 key findings about energy system needs of the future.