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Sample records for nano-scale interpenetrating phase

  1. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  2. Nano-scale patterns of polymers and their structural phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Yushu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics

    1998-03-01

    Nano-scale patterns formed by polymers and their related soft materials were investigated by measuring neutron scattering from them. Two apparatuses installed at cold neutron guides in JRR-3M, a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) apparatus and a neutron reflectometer, which give out elastic scattering intensities, were used. Chain dimensions of polystyrenes diluted with low molecular weight homologous polystyrenes, orientation behaviour of microphase-separated block copolymer in concentrated solutions under shear, shrinkage and recovery of polyvinylalcohol gel with temperature and structural phase transition of microemulsion under high-pressure and so on were measured by SANS, while microphase-separated polystyrene(S)/poly(2-vinylpyridine)(P) interfaces of a PSP triblock copolymer was observed by specular neutron reflectivity measurements. (author)

  3. Droplets and the three-phase contact line at the nano-scale. Statics and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Sibley, David; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the behaviour of the solid-liquid-vapour contact line at the scale of several tens of molecular diameters is important in wetting hydrodynamics with applications in micro- and nano-fluidics, including the design of lab-on-a-chip devices and surfaces with specific wetting properties. Due to the fluid inhomogeneity at the nano-scale, the application of continuum-mechanical approaches is limited, and a natural way to remedy this is to seek descriptions accounting for the non-local molecular-level interactions. Density Functional Theory (DFT) for fluids offers a statistical-mechanical framework based on expressing the free energy of the fluid-solid pair as a functional of the spatially varying fluid density. DFT allows us to investigate small drops deposited on planar substrates whilst keeping track of the microscopic structural details of the fluid. Starting from a model of intermolecular forces, we systematically obtain interfaces, surface tensions, and the microscopic contact angle. Using a dynamic extension of equilibrium DFT, we investigate the diffusion-driven evolution of the three-phase contact line to gain insight into the dynamic behaviour of the microscopic contact angle, which is still under debate.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of interpenetrating phase ceramic metal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, T.

    2011-01-01

    Alumina powder was sintered in MW furnace under vacuum, without vacuum and conventional sintering furnace at different temperatures followed by characterization to observe the effect of sintering mode. Zirconia-Nickel and Alumina-Nickel systems were selected to study the effect of metallic phase interconnectivity on the electrical and thermal behavior in interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs). In order to obtain the homogenous mixture of Alumina and Nick powders, a detailed investigation was performed on the de-agglomeration and prop mixing of powders. Sintering parameters were optimized for the homogenization o Alumina with Nickel in planetary ball mill without sticking of powders with jar.- Homogenization of Zirconia-Nickel and Alumina-Nickel powders was perform using planetary ball mill as well as pestle mortar. Compaction of composites was performed uniaxially and sintering was carried in microwave furnace, tubular furnace with Argon environment and in vacuum sintering furnace. Electrical and thermal behavior of microwave as well as conventionally sintered ZrO/sub 2/-Ni and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Ni IPCs was also observed. Electrical behavior of Composites was characterized b determining the impedance of the composites. To find the percolation limit for both Alumina-Nickel and Zirconia-Nickel composite systems the real part of impedance was used. On the basis of electrical characterization, samples were selected for SEM, BET surface area and CTE analysis. SEM of selected samples was performed t observe the connectivity of Nickel in composites. Finally, the effect of percolation limit on thermal behavior of IPCs was investigated with the help of CTE. (author)

  5. Nano-scale clusters formed in the early stage of phase decomposition of Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirosawa, S.; Sato, T. [Dept. of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The formation of nano-scale clusters (nanoclusters) prior to the precipitation of the strengthening {beta}'' phase significantly influences two-step aging behavior of Al-Mg-Si alloys. In this work, the existence of two kinds of nanoclusters has been verified in the early stage of phase decomposition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP). Pre-aging treatment at 373 K before natural aging was also found to form preferentially one of the two nanoclusters, resulting in the remarkable restoration of age-hardenability at paint-bake temperatures. Such microstructural control by means of optimized heat-treatments; i.e. nanocluster assist processing (NCAP), possesses great potential for enabling Al-Mg-Si alloys to be used more widely as a body-sheet material of automobiles. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering - The determination of chemical concentrations in nano-scale phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerigk, G.; Huber, K.; Mattern, N.; Williamson, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    In the last years Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering became a precise quantitative method resolving scattering contributions two or three orders of magnitude smaller compared to the overall small-angle scattering, which are related to the so-called pure-resonant scattering contribution. Additionally to the structural information precise quantitative information about the different constituents of multi-component systems like the fraction of a chemical component implemented into the materials nano-structures are obtained from these scattering contributions. The application of the Gauss elimination algorithm to the vector equation established by ASAXS measurements at three X-ray energies is demonstrated for three examples from chemistry and solid state physics. All examples deal with the quantitative analysis of the Resonant Invariant (RI-analysis). From the integrals of the pure-resonant scattering contribution the chemical concentrations in nano-scaled phases are determined. In one example the correlated analysis of the Resonant Invariant and the Non-resonant Invariant (NI-analysis) is employed. (authors)

  7. Starch and chitosan oligosaccharides as interpenetrating phases in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) injectable gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Jacquelin N.; Posada, James J. [Chemistry Department, B" 5IDA Research Group, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rezende, Rodrigo A. [Divisão de Tecnologias Tridimensionais–Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sabino, Marcos A., E-mail: msabino@usb.ve [Chemistry Department, B" 5IDA Research Group, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Divisão de Tecnologias Tridimensionais–Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Thermosensitive interpenetrating gels were prepared by physically blending poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) as the matrix and the following polysaccharides as interpenetrating phases: chitosan oligosaccharides (identified as QNAD and QNED) and soluble starch (STARCH). The molecular weight of the dispersed phase, the free water/bound water ratio and the thermosensitivity (transition temperature: LCST) of the gels were determined. It was found that these gels are pseudoplastic and that their viscosity depends on the molecular weight of the dispersed phase. LCST transition occurred around 35–37 °C. The morphology of the porosity of the freeze-dried samples was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). An in vitro test of cell hemolysis on blood agar showed that these gels are noncytotoxic. According to the results obtained, these interpenetrating gels show characteristics of an injectable material, and have a transition LCST at body temperature, which reinforces their potential to be used in the surgical field and as scaffolds for tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Physical blends were prepared to obtain thermosensitive gels PNIPA/polysaccharides. • Rheological test allowed verifying the injectability of the gels. • Gels showed a LCST ∼ 37 °C, which makes them interesting for biomedical applications. • Porosity is a function of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity/molecular weight of phases. • The PNIPA/starch gel showed better morphology as scaffold for tissue engineering.

  8. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Lee, Tung-Ching, E-mail: lee@aesop.rutgers.edu [Department of Food Science, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Yue, Tianli, E-mail: yuetl305@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability.

  9. Two-step preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles using Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhengkun; Jiang, Feihong; Lee, Tung-Ching; Yue, Tianli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A new two-step route for nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles preparation. •Triton X-100 reversed-phase microemulsion system was used for chitosan coating. •Narrow size distribution of magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was achieved. •Quantitative evaluation of recoverability for the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A new two-step route for the preparation of nano-scaled magnetic chitosan particles has been developed, different from reported one-step in situ preparation and two-step preparation method of reversed-phase suspension, Triton X-100 reversed-phase water-in-oil microemulsion encapsulation method was employed in coating the pre-prepared Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with chitosan. The resultant magnetic chitosan particles owned a narrow size distribution ranging from 50 to 92 nm. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated that the chitosan coating procedure did not change the spinal structure of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the chitosan was coated on Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and its average mass content was ∼50%. The saturated magnetization of the magnetic Fe 3 O 4 /chitosan nanoparticles reached 18.62 emu/g, meanwhile, the nanoparticles showed the characteristics of superparamagnetism. The magnetic chitosan nanoparticles showed a high recoverability of 99.99% in 10 min when pH exceeded 4. The results suggested that the as-prepared magnetic chitosan particles were nano-scaled with a narrow size distribution and a high recoverability

  10. Temperature-induced phase transition in hydrogels of interpenetrating networks poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide)/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, J.; Hanyková, L.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Valentová, H.; Spěváček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 291, č. 10 (2013), s. 2409-2417 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1281 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : temperature-induced volume phase transition * poly (N-isopropylmethacrylamide) poly (Nisopropylacrylamide) interpenetrating network * 1H NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.410, year: 2013

  11. How fast are the ultra-fast nano-scale solid-liquid phase transitions induced by energetic particles in solids?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopasso, E.M.; Caro, A.; Caro, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic forces acting on the evolution of the nanoscale regions excited by collisions of energetic particles into solid targets. We analyze the role of diffusion, thermo-migration, and the liquidus-solidus two-phase field crossing, as the system cools down from the collision-induced melt under different conditions of energy deposition. To determine the relevance of these thermodynamic forces, solute redistribution is evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations of equilibrium Au-Ni solid solutions. At low collision energies, our results show that the quenching of spherical cascades is too fast to allow for solute redistribution according to equilibrium solidification as determined from the equilibrium phase diagram (zone refining effect), and only thermo-migration is observed. At higher energies instead, in the cylindrical symmetry of ion tracks, quenching rate is in a range that shows the combined effects of thermo-migration and solute redistribution that, depending on the material, can reinforce or cancel each other. These results are relevant for the interpretation of the early stage of radiation damage in alloys, and show that the combination of ultra-fast but nano-scale characteristics of these processes can still be described in terms of linear response of the perturbed system

  12. Process optimization in Nd:YAG laser microdrilling of alumina–aluminium interpenetrating phase composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjib Biswas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In laser beam micromachining process, the quality of the drilled hole is of great importance. The quality of the microdrilled hole mainly depends on appropriate selection of process parameters. Predefined diameter of hole with minimum taper is of today's demand. The composite used for microdrilling operation is alumina–aluminium (Al2O3–Al interpenetrating phase composite (IPC, which is widely used in aircraft and space stations. Until date, no experimental study has been done to obtain microdrilled hole of desired diameter. In the present paper three hole qualities such as hole diameter at entry, at exit and hole taper have been optimized individually as well as simultaneously using a central composite design (CCD based on response surface methodology (RSM during pulsed Nd:YAG laser microdrilling operation on alumina–aluminium IPC sheet of 1.14 mm thickness. The analysis of variance (ANOVA test has also been done to identify the process parameters that contributed the most to get desired hole quality.

  13. Quantitative characterization of the formation of an interpenetrating phase composite in polystyrene from the percolation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kota, Arun K; Cipriano, Bani H; Powell, Dan; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Bruck, Hugh A

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, an interpenetrating phase polymer nanocomposite formed by the percolation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in polystyrene (PS) has been quantitatively characterized through electrical conductivity measurements and melt rheology. Both sets of measurements, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, indicate the presence of a continuous phase of percolated MWCNTs appearing at particle concentrations exceeding 2 vol% MWCNTs in PS. To quantify the amount of this continuous phase present in the PS/MWCNT composite, electrical conductivity data at various MWCNT concentrations, β, are correlated with a proposed degree of percolation, C-bar(β), developed using a conventional power-law formula with and without a percolation threshold. To quantify the properties of the interpenetrating phase polymer nanocomposite, the PS/MWCNT composite is treated as a combination of two phases: a continuous phase consisting of a pseudo-solid-like network of percolated MWCNTs, and a continuous PS phase reinforced by non-interacting MWCNTs. The proposed degree of percolation is used to quantify the distribution of MWCNTs among the phases, and is then used in a rule-of-mixtures formulation for the storage modulus, G'(β, C-bar(β), ω), and the loss modulus, G''(β, C-bar(β), ω), to quantify the properties of the continuous phase consisting of percolated MWCNTs and the continuous PS phase reinforced by non-interacting MWCNTs from the experimental melt rheology data. The properties of the continuous phase of percolated MWCNTs are indicative of a scaffold-like microstructure exhibiting an elastic behavior with a complex modulus of 360 kPa at lower frequencies and viscoplastic behavior with a complex viscosity of 6 kPa s rad -1 at higher frequencies, most likely due to a stick-slip friction mechanism at the interface of the percolated MWCNTs. Additional evidence of this microstructure was obtained via scanning electron microscopy. This research

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano Scale YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirman, E.; Wisnu AA; Yustinus P; Sahidin W, D.; Rina M, Th.

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of the nano scale YBCO superconductor have been performed. The nano scale superconductor was synthesized from YBCO system (YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X ). Raw materials, namely Y 2 O 3 , BaCO 3 , and Cu°, were balanced and mixed with ethanol using magnetic steering as a churn in a beaker glass. Then, the precursor was calcined at T k = 900°C for 5 hours and repeated it until three times. The resulting precursor was ground by using High Energy Milling (HEM) for t = 0, 30, 50, 70, and 90 hour and hereinafter precursors are successively referred as YKM-00, YKM-30, YKM-50, YKM-70, and YKM-90. The resulting powders phase were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction technique using the Rietveld analysis method. Precursor of YKM-90 was pressed into pellets, and then sintered at various temperatures and periods. The sample phase was then characterized by using the Rietveld analysis method based on the x-ray diffraction data. The crystallites size were calculated using Scherrer formula. Results of analysis indicate that by minimizing crystallites size, period of sinter can be shortened from 10 to 1 hour, resulting crystallite size of D = 925 Å, critical current density of J c = 4 A / cm 2 , and can be grown of about 15 weight % of 211-phase in a matrix of 123-phase. The decrease of crystallite size will generate a change in physical properties dramatically, if the crystallite size of the material, D is smaller or equal to the coherence length of 10 Å. (author)

  15. The role of the bimodal distribution of ultra-fine silicon phase and nano-scale V-phase (AlSi2Sc2) on spark plasma sintered hypereutectic Al–Si–Sc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Hypereutectic Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys were spark plasma sintered from corresponding gas-atomized powders. The microstructures of the Al–Si and Al–Si–Sc alloys possessed remarkably refined silicon particles in the size range of 0.38–3.5 µm and 0.35–1.16 µm respectively in contrast to the silicon particles of size greater than 100 µm typically found in conventionally cast alloys. All the sintered alloys exhibited significant ductility of as high as 85% compressive strain without failure even with the presence of relatively higher weight fraction of the brittle silicon phase. Moreover, the Al–Si–Sc alloys have shown appreciable improvement in the compressive strength over their binary counterparts due to the presence of intermetallic compound AlSi 2 Sc 2 of size 10–20 nm distributed uniformly in the matrix of those alloys. The dry sliding pin-on-disc wear tests showed improvement in the wear performance of the sintered alloys with increase in silicon content in the alloys. Further, the Al–Si–Sc ternary alloys with relatively lesser silicon content exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear resistance over their binary counterparts. The Al–Si–Sc alloys with bimodal distribution of the strengthening phases consisting of ultra-fine (sub-micron size) silicon particles and the nano-scale AlSi 2 Sc 2 improved the strength and wear properties of the alloys while retaining significant amount of ductility.

  16. Chemical and phase structure of poly cyanurate-polyurethane grafted semi interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainleib, A.M.; Gomza, Yu.P.; Privalko, V.P.; Bershtein, V.A.; Carini, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this research the phase morphology and properties of dicyanate ester of bisphenol A (DCEBA) based poly cyanurate network (PCN) modified with linear polyurethane (LPU) were successfully studied by the combination of infra-red spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry and laser-interferometric creep rate spectroscopy

  17. Nano-scale study of phase separation in ferrite of long term thermally aged Mo-bearing duplex stainless steels - Atom probe tomography and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareige, C.; Emo, J.; Pareige, P.; Saillet, S.; Domain, C.

    2015-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), used in primary circuit of Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR), are prone to thermal ageing at service temperature, typically between 286 and 323 C. degrees. This ageing is due to the ferrite decomposition via two kinds of phase transformations: spinodal decomposition into Fe rich α zones and Cr rich α' zones and precipitation of G-phase enriched in Ni, Si, Mn and Mo. It has been shown by atom probe tomography (APT) that the G-phase particles form at the interface between α and α' regions thereby demonstrating that α-α' decomposition and G-phase precipitation are highly dependent. The synergy between the two decomposition processes should be related to both the thermodynamics of the system and the diffusion mechanisms active during ageing. This can be studied by atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) with a model that can reproduce the phase transformations which take place in ferrite of duplex stainless steels. This paper presents the first simulations of the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation occurring in ferrite of duplex stainless steels. The kinetics was simulated using a simple but effective atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model in a ternary alloy. The simulations reproduced the α/α' spinodal structure with precipitates at the α/α' interface. The comparison of simulated results with experiments shows that the simulations quantitatively reproduce the kinetics of phase transformation and the synergy observed experimentally between the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation: the time evolution of the wavelength of the spinodal decomposition and the radius of G-phase precipitates were quantitatively reproduced. The simulations endorse the assumption that G-phase precipitation mainly results from the rejection of G-formers from α and α' domains. By following the vacancy pathway during simulation, we show that coarsening of the G-phase precipitates must proceed via

  18. Mechanics over micro and nano scales

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2011-01-01

    Discusses the fundaments of mechanics over micro and nano scales in a level accessible to multi-disciplinary researchers, with a balance of mathematical details and physical principles Covers life sciences and chemistry for use in emerging applications related to mechanics over small scales Demonstrates the explicit interconnection between various scale issues and the mechanics of miniaturized systems

  19. Computer simulations for the nano-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stich, I.

    2007-01-01

    A review of methods for computations for the nano-scale is presented. The paper should provide a convenient starting point into computations for the nano-scale as well as a more in depth presentation for those already working in the field of atomic/molecular-scale modeling. The argument is divided in chapters covering the methods for description of the (i) electrons, (ii) ions, and (iii) techniques for efficient solving of the underlying equations. A fairly broad view is taken covering the Hartree-Fock approximation, density functional techniques and quantum Monte-Carlo techniques for electrons. The customary quantum chemistry methods, such as post Hartree-Fock techniques, are only briefly mentioned. Description of both classical and quantum ions is presented. The techniques cover Ehrenfest, Born-Oppenheimer, and Car-Parrinello dynamics. The strong and weak points of both principal and technical nature are analyzed. In the second part we introduce a number of applications to demonstrate the different approximations and techniques introduced in the first part. They cover a wide range of applications such as non-simple liquids, surfaces, molecule-surface interactions, applications in nano technology, etc. These more in depth presentations, while certainly not exhaustive, should provide information on technical aspects of the simulations, typical parameters used, and ways of analysis of the huge amounts of data generated in these large-scale supercomputer simulations. (author)

  20. Linear arrangement of nano-scale magnetic particles formed in Cu-Fe-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung, E-mail: k3201s@hotmail.co [Department of Materials Engineering (SEISAN), Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogayaku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan); Takeda, Mahoto [Department of Materials Engineering (SEISAN), Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogayaku, Yokohama, 240-8501 (Japan); Takeguchi, Masaki [Advanced Electron Microscopy Group, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sakura 3-13, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Bae, Dong-Sik [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Engineering, Changwon National University, Gyeongnam, 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-30

    The structural evolution of nano-scale magnetic particles formed in Cu-Fe-Ni alloys on isothermal annealing at 878 K has been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Phase decomposition of Cu-Fe-Ni occurred after an as-quenched specimen received a short anneal, and nano-scale magnetic particles were formed randomly in the Cu-rich matrix. A striking feature that two or more nano-scale particles with a cubic shape were aligned linearly along <1,0,0> directions was observed, and the trend was more pronounced at later stages of the precipitation. Large numbers of <1,0,0> linear chains of precipitates extended in three dimensions in late stages of annealing.

  1. Microstructure Charaterization of a Hardened and Tempered Tool Steel: from Macro to Nano Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Somers, Marcel A. J.; Carstensen, Jesper V.

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure of a conventionally heat treated PM AISI M3:2 tool steel, was characterised by a combination of light optical and electron microscopy, covering the range from micro to nano scale. Dilatometry and X-ray diffractometry were used for an overall macro characterisation of the phases...

  2. Toughening by nano-scaled twin boundaries in nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Haofei; Qu, Shaoxing; Yang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Joint enhancement on strength and toughness provides a cutting-edge research frontier for metals and alloys. Conventional strengthening methods typically lead to suppressed ductility and fracture toughness. In this study, large-scale atomic simulation on the fracture process is performed featuring nanocrystals embedded with nano-scaled twin boundaries (TBs). Four toughening mechanisms by nano-scaled TBs are identified: (i) crack blunting through dislocation accommodation along the nano-scaled TBs; (ii) crack deflection in a manner of intragranular propagation; (iii) daughter crack formation along the nano-scaled TBs that further enhances the toughness and (iv) curved TB planes owing to an excessive pileup of geometrically necessary dislocations. These toughening mechanisms jointly dictate the mechanical behavior of nano-structured materials, and provide insights into the application of nano-scaled TBs with an aim to simultaneously obtain enhanced strength and toughness. New approaches to introduce these coherent internal defects into the nanostructure of crystalline materials are also proposed

  3. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  4. Interpenetrating networks of two conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings, and beca......Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of two conjugated polymers are prepared by a combination of a chemical oxidation step and a vapour phase polymerisation step on non-conducting surfaces. In this work ferric tosylate was used as the oxidant as it gives very smooth and homogeneous coatings......, and because its reaction products can be removed efficiently after the formation of the composite. Several combinations of polymers are demonstrated, and the versatility of the proposed method allows extensions to a wide range of conjugated polymers. The IPNs show optical and electrochemical characteristics......, which are sums of the characteristics from the participating conducting polymers....

  5. Alternative chemical-based synthesis routes and characterization of nano-scale particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocchi, E.A.; Motta, M.S.; Solorzano, I.G.; Jena, P.K.; Moura, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Different nano-scale particles have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates dehydratation and oxide, or co-formed oxides, reduction by hydrogen. Chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support the feasibility for obtaining single-phase oxides and co-formed two-phase oxides. In addition, the reduction reaction has been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic nanocomposites. Structural characterization has been carried out by means of X-ray diffraction and, more extensively, transmission electron microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast mode (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM). Nano-scale size distribution of oxide particles is well demonstrated together with their defect-free structure in the lower range, around 20 nm, size. Structural features related to the synthesized nano-composites are also presented

  6. Topology optimization for nano-scale heat transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evgrafov, Anton; Maute, Kurt; Yang, Ronggui

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal design of nano-scale heat conducting systems using topology optimization techniques. At such small scales the empirical Fourier's law of heat conduction no longer captures the underlying physical phenomena because the mean-free path of the heat carriers, phonons...... in our case, becomes comparable with, or even larger than, the feature sizes of considered material distributions. A more accurate model at nano-scales is given by kinetic theory, which provides a compromise between the inaccurate Fourier's law and precise, but too computationally expensive, atomistic...

  7. Nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates in HSLC and HSLA steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the composition, quantity and particle size distribution of nano-scaled precipitates with size less than 20 nm in high strength low carbon (HSLC) steel and their effects on mechanical properties of HSLC steel by means of mass balance calculation of nano-scaled precipitates measured by chemical phase analysis plus SAXS method, high-resolution TEM analysis and thermodynamics calculation, as well as temper rapid cooling treatment of ZJ330. It is found that there existed a large quantity of nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 18 nm in low carbon steel produced by CSP and they are mainly Fe-O-C and Fe-Ti-O-C precipitates formed below temperature A1. These precipitates have ob- vious precipitation strengthening effect on HSLC steel and this may be regarded as one of the main reasons why HSLC steel has higher strength. There also existed a lot of iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 36 nm in HSLA steels.

  8. Nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates in HSLC and HSLA steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jie; WU HuaJie; LIU YangChun; KANG YongLin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the composition, quantity and particle size distribution of nano-scaled precipitates with size less than 20 nm in high strength Iow carbon (HSLC) steel and their effects on mechanical properties of HSLC steel by means of mass balance calculation of nano-scaled precipitates measured by chemical phase analysis plus SAXS method, high-resolution TEM analysis and thermodynamics calculation, as well as temper rapid cooling treatment of ZJ330. It is found that there existed a large quantity of nano-scaled iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 18 nm in Iow carbon steel produced by CSP and they are mainly Fe-O-C and Fe-Ti-O-C precipitates formed below temperature A1. These precipitates have obvious precipitation strengthening effect on HSLC steel and this may be regarded as one of the main reasons why HSLC steel has higher strength. There also existed a lot of iron-carbon precipitates with size less than 36 nm in HSLA steels.

  9. Nano-scale Materials and Nano-technology Processes in Environmental Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, Gh; Tzvetkoff, T.

    2003-01-01

    A number of environmental and energy technologies have benefited substantially from nano-scale technology: reduced waste and improved energy efficiency; environmentally friendly composite structures; waste remediation; energy conversion. In this report examples of current achievements and paradigm shifts are presented: from discovery to application; a nano structured materials; nanoparticles in the environment (plasma chemical preparation); nano-porous polymers and their applications in water purification; photo catalytic fluid purification; hierarchical self-assembled nano-structures for adsorption of heavy metals, etc. Several themes should be considered priorities in developing nano-scale processes related to environmental management: 1. To develop understanding and control of relevant processes, including protein precipitation and crystallisation, desorption of pollutants, stability of colloidal dispersion, micelle aggregation, microbe mobility, formation and mobility of nanoparticles, and tissue-nanoparticle interaction. Emphasis should be given to processes at phase boundaries (solid-liquid, solid-gas, liquid-gas) that involve mineral and organic soil components, aerosols, biomolecules (cells, microbes), bio tissues, derived components such as bio films and membranes, and anthropogenic additions (e.g. trace and heavy metals); 2. To carry out interdisciplinary research that initiates Noel approaches and adopts new methods for characterising surfaces and modelling complex systems to problems at interfaces and other nano-structures in the natural environment, including those involving biological or living systems. New technological advances such as optical traps, laser tweezers, and synchrotrons are extending examination of molecular and nano-scale processes to the single-molecule or single-cell level; 3. To integrate understanding of the roles of molecular and nano-scale phenomena and behaviour at the meso- and/or macro-scale over a period of time

  10. Predictive Mechanical Characterization of Macro-Molecular Material Chemistry Structures of Cement Paste at Nano Scale - Two-phase Macro-Molecular Structures of Calcium Silicate Hydrate, Tri-Calcium Silicate, Di-Calcium Silicate and Calcium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Espinosa, Ingrid Marcela

    Concrete is a hierarchical composite material with a random structure over a wide range of length scales. At submicron length scale the main component of concrete is cement paste, formed by the reaction of Portland cement clinkers and water. Cement paste acts as a binding matrix for the other components and is responsible for the strength of concrete. Cement paste microstructure contains voids, hydrated and unhydrated cement phases. The main crystalline phases of unhydrated cement are tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and di-calcium silicate (C2S), and of hydrated cement are calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). Although efforts have been made to comprehend the chemical and physical nature of cement paste, studies at molecular level have primarily been focused on individual components. Present research focuses on the development of a method to model, at molecular level, and analysis of the two-phase combination of hydrated and unhydrated phases of cement paste as macromolecular systems. Computational molecular modeling could help in understanding the influence of the phase interactions on the material properties, and mechanical performance of cement paste. Present work also strives to create a framework for molecular level models suitable for potential better comparisons with low length scale experimental methods, in which the sizes of the samples involve the mixture of different hydrated and unhydrated crystalline phases of cement paste. Two approaches based on two-phase cement paste macromolecular structures, one involving admixed molecular phases, and the second involving cluster of two molecular phases are investigated. The mechanical properties of two-phase macromolecular systems of cement paste consisting of key hydrated phase CSH and unhydrated phases C3S or C2S, as well as CSH with the second hydrated phase CH were calculated. It was found that these cement paste two-phase macromolecular systems predicted an isotropic material behavior. Also

  11. Nano-scaled chalcogenide-based memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redaelli, Andrea; Pirovano, Agostino

    2011-01-01

    Today phase change memory (PCM) technology has reached product maturity at 90 and 65 nm nodes, while the 45 nm node is under development and is expected to enter in the market soon. The continuous decrease of the cell size with scaling leads to an effective active area as small as 150 nm 2 and an active volume involved in the phase transformation of about 10 4 nm 3 , thus entering definitively into the nanotechnology world. At this extremely reduced dimension, the reliability of the device must be carefully investigated. In this work we show that the cycling performance of the device is well maintained, not being a problem for either the bipolar transistor or the storage element. The phase transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state is, of course, one of the most interesting phenomena, impacting cell retention capability and device performance. The stochastic nature of nano-nuclei percolation in the amorphous matrix is shown as an important ingredient in the retention of PCM devices. The related dispersion in crystallization times is analyzed through a crystallization Monte Carlo model and a physical insight into nucleation and growth mechanisms is provided.

  12. Strengthening effect of nano-scaled precipitates in Ta alloying layer induced by high current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Guangze; Luo, Dian; Fan, Guohua [School of Material Science & Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Ma, Xinxin, E-mail: maxin@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Liqin [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Ta alloying layer are fabricated by magnetron sputtering and high current pulsed electron beam. • Nano-scaled TaC precipitates forms within the δ-Fe grain after tempering treatment. • The mean diameter of TaC particles is about 5–8 nm. • The hardness of alloying layer increased by over 50% after formation of nano-scaled TaC particle. - Abstract: In this study, the combination of magnetron sputtering and high current pulsed electron beam are used for surface alloying treatment of Ta film on high speed steel. And the Ta alloying layer is about 6 μm. After tempering treatment, TaC phase forms in Ta alloying layer when the treated temperature is over 823 K. Through the TEM and HRTEM observation, a large amount of nano-scaled precipitates (mean diameter 5–8 nm) form within the δ-Fe grain in Ta alloying layer after tempering treatment and these nano-scaled precipitates are confirmed as TaC particles, which contribute to the strengthening effect of the surface alloying layer. The hardness of tempered alloying layer can reach to 18.1 GPa when the treated temperature is 823 K which increase by 50% comparing with the untreated steel sample before surface alloying treatment.

  13. SANS from interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markotsis, M.G.; Burford, R.P.; Knott, R.B.; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW; Hanley, T.L.; CRC for Polymers,; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW; Papamanuel, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have been formed by combining two polymeric systems in order to gain enhanced material properties. IPNs are a combination of two or more polymers in network form with one network polymerised and/or crosslinked in the immediate presence of the other(s).1 IPNs allow better blending of two or more crosslinked networks. In this study two sets of IPNs were produced and their microstructure studied using a variety of techniques including small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The first system combined a glassy polymer (polystyrene) with an elastomeric polymer (SBS) with the glassy polymer predominating, to give a high impact plastic. The second set of IPNs contained epichlorohydrin (CO) and nitrile rubber (NBR), and was formed in order to produce novel materials with enhanced chemical and gas barrier properties. In both cases if the phase mixing is optimised the probability of controlled morphologies and synergistic behaviour is increased. The PS/SBS IPNs were prepared using sequential polymerisation. The primary SBS network was thermally crosslinked, then the polystyrene network was polymerised and crosslinked using gamma irradiation to avoid possible thermal degradation of the butadiene segment of the SBS. Tough transparent systems were produced with no apparent thermal degradation of the polybutadiene segments. The epichlorohydrin/nitrile rubber IPNs were formed by simultaneous thermal crosslinking reactions. The epichlorohydrin network was formed using lead based crosslinker, while the nitrile rubber was crosslinked by peroxide methods. The use of two different crosslinking systems was employed in order to achieve independent crosslinking thus resulting in an IPN with minimal grafting between the component networks. SANS, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the size and shape of the phase domains and investigate any variation with crosslinking level and

  14. Brillouin gain enhancement in nano-scale photonic waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri Jouybari, Soodabeh

    2018-05-01

    The enhancement of stimulated Brillouin scattering in nano-scale waveguides has a great contribution in the improvement of the photonic devices technology. The key factors in Brillouin gain are the electrostriction force and radiation pressure generated by optical waves in the waveguide. In this article, we have proposed a new scheme of nano-scale waveguide in which the Brillouin gain is considerably improved compared to the previously-reported schemes. The role of radiation pressure in the Brillouin gain was much higher than the role of the electrostriction force. The Brillouin gain strongly depends on the structural parameters of the waveguide and the maximum value of 12127 W-1 m-1 is obtained for the Brillouin gain.

  15. Study of retained austenite and nano-scale precipitation and their effects on properties of a low alloyed multi-phase steel by the two-step intercritical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J.; Han, G., E-mail: hangang@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Zhou, W.H.; Zeng, C.Y.; Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    Microstructure evolution and properties were studied in a low carbon low alloyed hot-rolled bainitic steel by annealing and annealing plus tempering. Microstructure of the hot-rolled steel consists of lath bainite and martensite. By annealing at 720 °C for 30 min and water quenching, multi-phase microstructure consisting of intercritical ferrite, tempered bainite/martensite, retained austenite and fresh martensite was obtained. With increasing annealing temperature to 760 °C, microstructure of the steel consisted of intercritical ferrite, fresh martensite without retained austenite. After the second step of tempering at 680 °C for samples annealed both at 720 °C and 760 °C, ~ 8–9% volume fraction of retained austenite was obtained in the multi-phase microstructure. Moreover, fine precipitates of VC with size smaller than 10 nm and copper precipitates with size of ~ 10–50 nm were obtained after tempering. Results from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) give evidence to support that the partitioning of Mn, Ni and Cu is of significance for retained austenite stabilization. Due to the combined contribution of multiphase microstructure, the transformation-induced-plasticity effect of retained austenite and strengthening effect of nanometer-sized precipitates, yield strength greater than 800 MPa, yield to tensile ratio of 0.9, uniform elongation of ~ 9% and good low temperature impact toughness of 147 J at − 40 °C were achieved. - Highlights: • Stable retained austenite was produced in a low alloyed steel. • Partition of Mn, Ni and Cu was confirmed by STEM for austenite stabilization. • Nano-sized VC and Cu precipitates were achieved by second tempering. • High strength–high toughness with low Y/T ratio was obtained.

  16. Nano-Scale Positioning Design with Piezoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Yue Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials naturally possess high potential to deliver nano-scale positioning resolution; hence, they are adopted in a variety of engineering applications widely. Unfortunately, unacceptable positioning errors always appear because of the natural hysteresis effect of the piezoelectric materials. This natural property must be mitigated in practical applications. For solving this drawback, a nonlinear positioning design is proposed in this article. This nonlinear positioning design of piezoelectric materials is realized by the following four steps: 1. The famous Bouc–Wen model is utilized to present the input and output behaviors of piezoelectric materials; 2. System parameters of the Bouc–Wen model that describe the characteristics of piezoelectric materials are simultaneously identified with the particle swam optimization method; 3. Stability verification for the identified Bouc–Wen model; 4. A nonlinear feedback linearization control design is derived for the nano-scale positioning design of the piezoelectric material, mathematically. One important contribution of this investigation is that the positioning error between the output displacement of the controlled piezoelectric materials and the desired trajectory in nano-scale level can be proven to converge to zero asymptotically, under the effect of the hysteresis.

  17. Exploring Chondrule and CAI Rims Using Micro- and Nano-Scale Petrological and Compositional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Perez-Huerta, A.; Leitner, J.; Vollmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    As the major components within chondrites, chondrules (mm-sized droplets of quenched silicate melt) and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI, refractory) represent the most abundant and the earliest materials that solidified from the solar nebula. However, the exact formation mechanisms of these clasts, and whether these processes are related, remains unconstrained, despite extensive petrological and compositional study. By taking advantage of recent advances in nano-scale tomographical techniques, we have undertaken a combined micro- and nano-scale study of CAI and chondrule rim morphologies, to investigate their formation mechanisms. The target lithologies for this research are Wark-Lovering rims (WLR), and fine-grained rims (FGR) around CAIs and chondrules respectively, present within many chondrites. The FGRs, which are up to 100 µm thick, are of particular interest as recent studies have identified presolar grains within them. These grains predate the formation of our Solar System, suggesting FGR formation under nebular conditions. By contrast, WLRs are 10-20 µm thick, made of different compositional layers, and likely formed by flash-heating shortly after CAI formation, thus recording nebular conditions. A detailed multi-scale study of these respective rims will enable us to better understand their formation histories and determine the potential for commonality between these two phases, despite reports of an observed formation age difference of up to 2-3 Myr. We are using a combination of complimentary techniques on our selected target areas: 1) Micro-scale characterization using standard microscopic and compositional techniques (SEM-EBSD, EMPA); 2) Nano-scale characterization of structures using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and elemental, isotopic and tomographic analysis with NanoSIMS and atom probe tomography (APT). Preliminary nano-scale APT analysis of FGR morphologies within the Allende carbonaceous chondrite has successfully discerned

  18. Radiation synthesis of the nano-scale materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonghong, Ni; Zhicheng, Zhang; Xuewu, Ge; Xiangling, Xu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2000-03-01

    Some recent research jobs on fabricating the nano-scale materials via {gamma}-irradiation in our laboratory are simply summarized in this paper. The main contents contain four aspects: (1) the preparation of metal alloy - powders; (2) the fabrication of polymer -metal nano-composites in aqueous solution, micro-emulsion and emulsion systems; (3) the synthesis of metal sulfide nano-particles and (4) the preparation of the ordered nano-structure materials. The corresponding preparation processes are also simply described. (author)

  19. Radiation synthesis of the nano-scale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yonghong; Zhang Zhicheng; Ge Xuewu; Xu Xiangling

    2000-01-01

    Some recent research jobs on fabricating the nano-scale materials via γ-irradiation in our laboratory are simply summarized in this paper. The main contents contain four aspects: (1) the preparation of metal alloy - powders; (2) the fabrication of polymer -metal nano-composites in aqueous solution, micro-emulsion and emulsion systems; (3) the synthesis of metal sulfide nano-particles and (4) the preparation of the ordered nano-structure materials. The corresponding preparation processes are also simply described. (author)

  20. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system. (author)

  1. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-03-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system.

  2. Evaporation characteristics of thin film liquid argon in nano-scale confinement: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Shavik, Sheikh Mohammad; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Haque, Mominul

    2016-07-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to explore the evaporation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in nano-scale confinement. The present study has been conducted to realize the nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation inside a confined space for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of surface wetting conditions. The simulation domain consisted of two parallel platinum plates; one at the top and another at the bottom. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Considering hydrophilic and hydrophobic nature of top and bottom surfaces, two different cases have been investigated: (i) Case A: Both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophilic, (ii) Case B: both top and bottom surfaces are hydrophobic. For all cases, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall was set to four different temperatures such as 110 K, 120 K, 130 K and 140 K to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). The variation of temperature and density as well as the variation of system pressure with respect to time were closely monitored for each case. The heat fluxes normal to top and bottom walls were estimated and discussed to illuminate the effectiveness of heat transfer in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic confinement at various boundary temperatures of the bottom plate.

  3. Micro and Nano-Scale Technologies for Cell Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Unal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell mechanics is a multidisciplinary field that bridges cell biology, fundamental mechanics, and micro and nanotechnology, which synergize to help us better understand the intricacies and the complex nature of cells in their native environment. With recent advances in nanotechnology, microfabrication methods and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS, we are now well situated to tap into the complex micro world of cells. The field that brings biology and MEMS together is known as Biological MEMS (BioMEMS. BioMEMS take advantage of systematic design and fabrication methods to create platforms that allow us to study cells like never before. These new technologies have been rapidly advancing the study of cell mechanics. This review article provides a succinct overview of cell mechanics and comprehensively surveys micro and nano-scale technologies that have been specifically developed for and are relevant to the mechanics of cells. Here we focus on micro and nano-scale technologies, and their applications in biology and medicine, including imaging, single cell analysis, cancer cell mechanics, organ-on-a-chip systems, pathogen detection, implantable devices, neuroscience and neurophysiology. We also provide a perspective on the future directions and challenges of technologies that relate to the mechanics of cells.

  4. Design Optimization of Radionuclide Nano-Scale Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenfeld, D.W.; Tulenko, J.S.; Wang, J.; Smith, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for power sources in heart pacemakers and space applications dating back to the 50's. Two key properties of radioisotope power sources are high energy density and long half-life compared to chemical batteries. The tritium battery used in heart pacemakers exceeds 500 mW--hr, and is being evaluated by the University of Florida for feasibility as a MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) power source. Conversion of radioisotope sources into electrical power within the constraints of nano-scale dimensions requires cutting-edge technologies and novel approaches. Some advances evolving in the III-V and II-IV semiconductor families have led to a broader consideration of radioisotopes rather free of radiation damage limitations. Their properties can lead to novel battery configurations designed to convert externally located emissions from a highly radioactive environment. This paper presents results for the analytical computational assisted design and modeling of semiconductor prototype nano-scale radioisotope nuclear batteries from MCNP and EGS programs. The analysis evaluated proposed designs and was used to guide the selection of appropriate geometries, material properties, and specific activities to attain power requirements for the MEMS batteries. Plans utilizing high specific activity radioisotopes were assessed in the investigation of designs employing multiple conversion cells and graded junctions with varying band gap properties. Voltage increases sought by serial combination of VOC s are proposed to overcome some of the limitations of a low power density. The power density is directly dependent on the total active areas

  5. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  6. Vapor-phase deposition of regioregular and oriented poly(3-hexylthiophene) structures and novel nanostructured composites of interpenetrating poly(3-hexylthiophene) and polyaniline exhibiting full-color wavelength (400-1000 nm) photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A.; Bayer, I. S.; Karulkar, P. C.; Tripathi, A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2007-10-01

    A promising solvent-free technique of electron-beam-assisted vapor-phase codeposition method is presented which allows uniform blending of different conjugated and nonconjugated polymers at the nanoscale. The technique allows direct incorporation of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) polymer with different structural orientations into conventional and semiconducting polymers without fractionation or degradation of P3HT while maintaining the nanoscale morphology of deposited organic films. The results of fabricated novel nanostructured organic composites (˜100-200nm) comprising regioregular and oriented P3HT and different conjugated and nonconjugated polymers including selective assembly of P3HT nanonodules into a copolymer template are presented. We show a typical example of blending of P3HT and polyaniline (PANI) that formed a unique nanoscale morphology comprising interpenetrating networks of different shapes and sizes of nanospherulites (˜100nm) of P3HT in PANI. The so fabricated nanocomposites (˜200nm) exhibited remarkable broadband photoluminescence features covering the entire blue, green, and red wavelength regions between 400 and 1000nm. Such organic nanocomposites might be useful for flexible full-color screen flat panel displays and organic white-light solid-state lighting applications.

  7. Computational optimization of catalyst distributions at the nano-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ström, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Macroscopic data sampled from a DSMC simulation contain statistical scatter. • Simulated annealing is evaluated as an optimization algorithm with DSMC. • Proposed method is more robust than a gradient search method. • Objective function uses the mass transfer rate instead of the reaction rate. • Combined algorithm is more efficient than a macroscopic overlay method. - Abstract: Catalysis is a key phenomenon in a great number of energy processes, including feedstock conversion, tar cracking, emission abatement and optimizations of energy use. Within heterogeneous, catalytic nano-scale systems, the chemical reactions typically proceed at very high rates at a gas–solid interface. However, the statistical uncertainties characteristic of molecular processes pose efficiency problems for computational optimizations of such nano-scale systems. The present work investigates the performance of a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code with a stochastic optimization heuristic for evaluations of an optimal catalyst distribution. The DSMC code treats molecular motion with homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions in wall-bounded systems and algorithms have been devised that allow optimization of the distribution of a catalytically active material within a three-dimensional duct (e.g. a pore). The objective function is the outlet concentration of computational molecules that have interacted with the catalytically active surface, and the optimization method used is simulated annealing. The application of a stochastic optimization heuristic is shown to be more efficient within the present DSMC framework than using a macroscopic overlay method. Furthermore, it is shown that the performance of the developed method is superior to that of a gradient search method for the current class of problems. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of different types of objective functions are discussed.

  8. Controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2013-09-01

    Interest in nano-scale manufacturing research and development is growing. The reason is to accelerate the translation of discoveries and inventions of nanoscience and nanotechnology into products that would benefit industry, economy and society. Ongoing research in nanomanufacturing is focused primarily on developing novel nanofabrication techniques for a variety of applications—materials, energy, electronics, photonics, biomedical, etc. Our goal is to foster the development of high-throughput methods of fabricating nano-enabled products. Large-area parallel processing and highspeed continuous processing are high-throughput means for mass production. An example of large-area processing is step-and-repeat nanoimprinting, by which nanostructures are reproduced again and again over a large area, such as a 12 in wafer. Roll-to-roll processing is an example of continuous processing, by which it is possible to print and imprint multi-level nanostructures and nanodevices on a moving flexible substrate. The big pay-off is high-volume production and low unit cost. However, the anticipated cost benefits can only be realized if the increased production rate is accompanied by high yields of high quality products. To ensure product quality, we need to design and construct manufacturing systems such that the processes can be closely monitored and controlled. One approach is to bring cyber-physical systems (CPS) concepts to nanomanufacturing. CPS involves the control of a physical system such as manufacturing through modeling, computation, communication and control. Such a closely coupled system will involve in-situ metrology and closed-loop control of the physical processes guided by physics-based models and driven by appropriate instrumentation, sensing and actuation. This paper will discuss these ideas in the context of controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale.

  9. Protein-material interactions: From micro-to-nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapikouni, Theodora S.; Missirlis, Yannis F.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a survey on the significance of protein-material interactions, the mechanisms which control them and the techniques used for their study. Protein-surface interactions play a key role in regenerative medicine, drug delivery, biosensor technology and chromatography, while it is related to various undesired effects such as biofouling and bio-prosthetic malfunction. Although the effects of protein-surface interaction concern the micro-scale, being sometimes obvious even with bare eyes, they derive from biophysical events at the nano-scale. The sequential steps for protein adsorption involve events at the single biomolecule level and the forces driving or inhibiting protein adsorption act at the molecular level too. Following the scaling of protein-surface interactions, various techniques have been developed for their study both in the micro- and nano-scale. Protein labelling with radioisotopes or fluorescent probes, colorimetric assays and the quartz crystal microbalance were the first techniques used to monitor protein adsorption isotherms, while the surface force apparatus was used to measure the interaction forces between protein layers at the micro-scale. Recently, more elaborate techniques like total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface plasmon resonance, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) have been applied for the investigation of protein density, structure or orientation at the interfaces. However, a turning point in the study of protein interactions with the surfaces was the invention and the wide-spread use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) which can both image single protein molecules on surfaces and directly measure the interaction force

  10. Nano-scale structure in membranes in relation to enzyme action - computer simulation vs. experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, P.; Jørgensen, Kent; Mouritsen, O.G.

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing theoretical and experimental evidence indicating that small-scale domain structure and dynamical heterogeneity develop in lipid membranes as a consequence of the the underlying phase transitions and the associated density and composition fluctuations. The relevant coherence...... lengths are in the nano-meter range. The nano-scale structure is believed to be important for controlling the activity of enzymes, specifically phospholipases, which act at bilayer membranes. We propose here a lattice-gas statistical mechanical model with appropriate dynamics to account for the non......-equilibrium action of the enzyme phospholipase A(2) which hydrolyses lipid-bilayer substrates. The resulting product molecules are assumed to induce local variations in the membrane interfacial pressure. Monte Carlo simulations of the non-equilibrium properties of the model for one-component as well as binary lipid...

  11. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutting, R.S.; Coker, V.S.; Telling, N.D.; Kimber, R.L.; Pearce, C.I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe 3 O 4 powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion (∼10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a γ-camera to obtain real time images of a 99m Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more (∼20%) 99m Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe

  12. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral

  13. Simulation of the infiltration process of a ceramic open-pore body with a metal alloy in semi-solid state to design the manufacturing of interpenetrating phase composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomer, Laura; Liewald, Mathias; Riedmüller, Kim Rouven

    2018-05-01

    Metal-ceramic Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC) belong to a special subcategory of composite materials and reveal enhanced properties compared to conventional composite materials. Currently, IPC are produced by infiltration of a ceramic open-pore body with liquid metal applying high pressure and I or high temperature to avoid residual porosity. However, these IPC are not able to gain their complete potential, because of structural damages and interface reactions occurring during the manufacturing process. Compared to this, the manufacturing of IPC using the semi-solid forming technology offers great perspectives due to relative low processing temperatures and reduced mechanical pressure. In this context, this paper is focusing on numerical investigations conducted by using the FLOW-3D software for gaining a deeper understanding of the infiltration of open-pore bodies with semi-solid materials. For flow simulation analysis, a geometric model and different porous media drag models have been used. They have been adjusted and compared to get a precise description of the infiltration process. Based on these fundamental numerical investigations, this paper also shows numerical investigations that were used for basically designing a semi-solid forming tool. Thereby, the development of the flow front and the pressure during the infiltration represent the basis of the evaluation. The use of an open and closed tool cavity combined with various geometries of the upper die shows different results relating to these evaluation arguments. Furthermore, different overflows were designed and its effects on the pressure at the end of the infiltration process were investigated. Thus, this paper provides a general guideline for a tool design for manufacturing of metal-ceramic IPC using semi-solid forming.

  14. Nano-scale processes behind ion-beam cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Garcia, Gustavo; Mason, Nigel; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2016-04-01

    This topical issue collates a series of papers based on new data reported at the third Nano-IBCT Conference of the COST Action MP1002: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy, held in Boppard, Germany, from October 27th to October 31st, 2014. The Nano-IBCT COST Action was launched in December 2010 and brought together more than 300 experts from different disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology) with specialists in radiation damage of biological matter from hadron-therapy centres, and medical institutions. This meeting followed the first and the second conferences of the Action held in October 2011 in Caen, France and in May 2013 in Sopot, Poland respectively. This conference series provided a focus for the European research community and has highlighted the pioneering research into the fundamental processes underpinning ion beam cancer therapy. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey V. Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo Garcia and Eugene Surdutovich.

  15. Electron transport in nano-scaled piezoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengping; Kuroda, Marcelo A.; Tan, Yaohua; Newns, Dennis M.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Boykin, Timothy B.; Kubis, Tillmann; Klimeck, Gerhard; Martyna, Glenn J.

    2013-05-01

    The Piezoelectronic Transistor (PET) has been proposed as a post-CMOS device for fast, low-power switching. In this device, the piezoresistive channel is metalized via the expansion of a relaxor piezoelectric element to turn the device on. The mixed-valence compound SmSe is a good choice of PET channel material because of its isostructural pressure-induced continuous metal insulator transition, which is well characterized in bulk single crystals. Prediction and optimization of the performance of a realistic, nano-scaled PET based on SmSe requires the understanding of quantum confinement, tunneling, and the effect of metal interface. In this work, a computationally efficient empirical tight binding (ETB) model is developed for SmSe to study quantum transport in these systems and the scaling limit of PET channel lengths. Modulation of the SmSe band gap under pressure is successfully captured by ETB, and ballistic conductance shows orders of magnitude change under hydrostatic strain, supporting operability of the PET device at nanoscale.

  16. Strengthening effect of nano-scale precipitates in a die-cast Mg–4Al–5.6Sm–0.3Mn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Bu, Fanqiang [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yangzhou Hongfu Aluminium Co. Ltd, Yangzhou 100049 (China); Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong [E-ande Scientific & Technology Co. Ltd, Dongguan 523000 (China); Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu, Xiaojuan, E-mail: lxjuan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Meng, Jian, E-mail: jmeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-04-25

    In this paper we report a quantitative study of the age-hardening in the high-pressure die-cast Mg–4Al−5.6Sm−0.3Mn alloy. The results indicate that a number of nano-scale spherical precipitates identified as Al{sub 3}Sm using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, precipitated in Mg matrix after aging at 150–225 °C, with no obvious changes on grain sizes, intermetallic phases formed during solidification, and dislocation densities. From the existing strengthening theory equations in which some lacking parameters were taken from the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a quantitative insight into the strengthening mechanisms of the nano-scale precipitate was formulated. The results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values, and the operative mechanism of precipitation strengthening was revealed as Orowan dislocation bypassing. - Highlights: • The yield strength of Mg–Al–Sm alloy was improved by aging treatment. • A number of nano-scale precipitates formed in matrix after aging treatments. • The nanoscale precipitate was confirmed as Al{sub 3}Sm based on the data of HAADF-STEM study. • The strengthening mechanisms of the nano-scale precipitate were quantitatively formulated. • The operative mechanism of precipitate strengthening is Orowan dislocation bypassing.

  17. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  18. Nano-scaled semiconductor devices physics, modelling, characterisation, and societal impact

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez-D, Edmundo A

    2016-01-01

    This book describes methods for the characterisation, modelling, and simulation prediction of these second order effects in order to optimise performance, energy efficiency and new uses of nano-scaled semiconductor devices.

  19. Nano-scale measurement of sub-micrometer MEMS in-plane dynamics using synchronized illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnat, S; Forbrigger, C; Kujath, M; Hubbard, T

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring the sub-micrometer in-plane dynamics of MEMS devices with nano-scale precision using a CCD camera and synchronized pulsating illumination is presented. Typical MEMS actuators have fast responses (generally in the 1–200 kHz range), much faster than typical cameras which record a time averaged motion. Under constant illumination the average displacement is steady state and independent of dynamic amplitude or phase. Methods such as strobe illumination use short light pulses to freeze the motion. This paper develops the use of longer pulses of illumination that do not freeze the image, but make the average displacement depend on dynamic amplitude and phase; thus allowing both properties to be extracted. The expected signal is derived as a function of light pulse width and delay, and short versus longer pulses are compared. Measurements using a conventional microscope with replacement of the lamp with LEDs confirmed the derived equations. The system was used to measure sub-micrometer motion of MEMS actuators with ∼5 nm precision. The time constant of a thermal actuator was measured and found to be 48 µs. A resonant peak of a MEMS device was measured at 123.30 kHz with an amplitude of 238 nm. (paper)

  20. Micro/Nano-scale Strain Distribution Measurement from Sampling Moiré Fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ri, Shien; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2017-05-23

    This work describes the measurement procedure and principles of a sampling moiré technique for full-field micro/nano-scale deformation measurements. The developed technique can be performed in two ways: using the reconstructed multiplication moiré method or the spatial phase-shifting sampling moiré method. When the specimen grid pitch is around 2 pixels, 2-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated to reconstruct a multiplication moiré pattern for a deformation measurement. Both the displacement and strain sensitivities are twice as high as in the traditional scanning moiré method in the same wide field of view. When the specimen grid pitch is around or greater than 3 pixels, multi-pixel sampling moiré fringes are generated, and a spatial phase-shifting technique is combined for a full-field deformation measurement. The strain measurement accuracy is significantly improved, and automatic batch measurement is easily achievable. Both methods can measure the two-dimensional (2D) strain distributions from a single-shot grid image without rotating the specimen or scanning lines, as in traditional moiré techniques. As examples, the 2D displacement and strain distributions, including the shear strains of two carbon fiber-reinforced plastic specimens, were measured in three-point bending tests. The proposed technique is expected to play an important role in the non-destructive quantitative evaluations of mechanical properties, crack occurrences, and residual stresses of a variety of materials.

  1. Advanced Ceramics from Preceramic Polymers Modified at the Nano-Scale: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Enrico; Fiocco, Laura; Parcianello, Giulio; Storti, Enrico; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Preceramic polymers, i.e., polymers that are converted into ceramics upon heat treatment, have been successfully used for almost 40 years to give advanced ceramics, especially belonging to the ternary SiCO and SiCN systems or to the quaternary SiBCN system. One of their main advantages is the possibility of combining the shaping and synthesis of ceramics: components can be shaped at the precursor stage by conventional plastic-forming techniques, such as spinning, blowing, injection molding, warm pressing and resin transfer molding, and then converted into ceramics by treatments typically above 800 °C. The extension of the approach to a wider range of ceramic compositions and applications, both structural and thermo-structural (refractory components, thermal barrier coatings) or functional (bioactive ceramics, luminescent materials), mainly relies on modifications of the polymers at the nano-scale, i.e., on the introduction of nano-sized fillers and/or chemical additives, leading to nano-structured ceramic components upon thermal conversion. Fillers and additives may react with the main ceramic residue of the polymer, leading to ceramics of significant engineering interest (such as silicates and SiAlONs), or cause the formation of secondary phases, significantly affecting the functionalities of the polymer-derived matrix. PMID:28788548

  2. Advanced Ceramics from Preceramic Polymers Modified at the Nano-Scale: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bernardo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Preceramic polymers, i.e., polymers that are converted into ceramics upon heat treatment, have been successfully used for almost 40 years to give advanced ceramics, especially belonging to the ternary SiCO and SiCN systems or to the quaternary SiBCN system. One of their main advantages is the possibility of combining the shaping and synthesis of ceramics: components can be shaped at the precursor stage by conventional plastic-forming techniques, such as spinning, blowing, injection molding, warm pressing and resin transfer molding, and then converted into ceramics by treatments typically above 800 °C. The extension of the approach to a wider range of ceramic compositions and applications, both structural and thermo-structural (refractory components, thermal barrier coatings or functional (bioactive ceramics, luminescent materials, mainly relies on modifications of the polymers at the nano-scale, i.e., on the introduction of nano-sized fillers and/or chemical additives, leading to nano-structured ceramic components upon thermal conversion. Fillers and additives may react with the main ceramic residue of the polymer, leading to ceramics of significant engineering interest (such as silicates and SiAlONs, or cause the formation of secondary phases, significantly affecting the functionalities of the polymer-derived matrix.

  3. Advanced Ceramics from Preceramic Polymers Modified at the Nano-Scale: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Enrico; Fiocco, Laura; Parcianello, Giulio; Storti, Enrico; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-03-06

    Preceramic polymers, i.e. , polymers that are converted into ceramics upon heat treatment, have been successfully used for almost 40 years to give advanced ceramics, especially belonging to the ternary SiCO and SiCN systems or to the quaternary SiBCN system. One of their main advantages is the possibility of combining the shaping and synthesis of ceramics: components can be shaped at the precursor stage by conventional plastic-forming techniques, such as spinning, blowing, injection molding, warm pressing and resin transfer molding, and then converted into ceramics by treatments typically above 800 °C. The extension of the approach to a wider range of ceramic compositions and applications, both structural and thermo-structural (refractory components, thermal barrier coatings) or functional (bioactive ceramics, luminescent materials), mainly relies on modifications of the polymers at the nano-scale, i.e. , on the introduction of nano-sized fillers and/or chemical additives, leading to nano-structured ceramic components upon thermal conversion. Fillers and additives may react with the main ceramic residue of the polymer, leading to ceramics of significant engineering interest (such as silicates and SiAlONs), or cause the formation of secondary phases, significantly affecting the functionalities of the polymer-derived matrix.

  4. Structures and interactions in collapsed hydrogels of thermoresponsive interpenetrating polymer networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanyková, L.; Spěváček, Jiří; Radecki, M.; Zhigunov, Alexander; Šťastná, J.; Valentová, H.; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 293, č. 3 (2015), s. 709-720 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23392S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : temperature-induced volume phase transition * interpenetrating network * 1H NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2015

  5. Structure and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles derived from controlled crystallization of Nb-rich clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Lei [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Guo, Qianying [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Liu, Yongchang, E-mail: licmtju@163.com [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China); Yu, Liming; Li, Huijun [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, School of Material Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354 (China)

    2016-09-30

    This article describes the microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Fe-Cr model alloy strengthened by nano-scale NbC particles. According to the results obtained from X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, the bcc ultrafine grains and the disordered phase of Nb-rich nano-clusters were observed in the milled powders. The hot pressing (HP) resulted in a nearly equiaxed ferritic grains and dispersed nano-scale NbC (~8 nm) particles. The microstructure studies reveal that the formation of NbC nanoparticles is composed of nucleation and growth of the Nb-rich nano-clusters involving diffusion of their component. At room temperature the material exhibits an ultimate tensile strength of 700 MPa, yield strength of 650 MPa, and total elongation of 11.7 pct. The fracture surface studies reveal that a typical ductile fracture mode has occurred during tensile test.

  6. A study on a nano-scale materials simulation using a PC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Deok Kee; Ryu, Han Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Not a few scientists have paid attention to application of molecular dynamics to chemistry, biology and physics. With recent popularity of nano technology, nano-scale analysis has become a major subject in various engineering fields. A underlying nano scale analysis is based on classical molecular theories representing molecular dynamics. Based on Newton's law of motions of particles, the movement of each particles is to be determined by numerical integrations. As the size of computation is closely related with the number of molecules, materials simulation takes up huge amount of computer resources so that it is not until recent days that the application of molecular dynamics to materials simulations draw some attention from many researchers. Thanks to high-performance computers, materials simulation via molecular dynamics looks promising. In this study, a PC cluster consisting of multiple commodity PCs is established and nano scale materials simulations are carried out. Micro-sized crack propagation inside a nano material is displayed by the simulation

  7. Nano-scale chemical evolution in a proton-and neutron-irradiated Zr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harte, Allan, E-mail: allan.harte@manchester.ac.uk [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Topping, M.; Frankel, P. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jädernäs, D. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE 611 82, Nyköping (Sweden); Romero, J. [Westinghouse Electric Company, Columbia, SC (United States); Hallstadius, L. [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, SE 72163 Västerås (Sweden); Darby, E.C. [Rolls Royce Plc., Nuclear Materials, Derby (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Proton-and neutron-irradiated Zircaloy-2 are compared in terms of the nano-scale chemical evolution within second phase particles (SPPs) Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}(Fe,Ni). This is accomplished through ultra-high spatial resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and the use of energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic methods. Fe-depletion is observed from both SPP types after irradiation with both irradiative species, but is heterogeneous in the case of Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2}, predominantly from the edge region, and homogeneously in the case of Zr{sub 2}(Fe,Ni). Further, there is evidence of a delay in the dissolution of the Zr{sub 2}(Fe,Ni) SPP with respect to the Zr(Fe,Cr){sub 2}. As such, SPP dissolution results in matrix supersaturation with solute under both irradiative species and proton irradiation is considered well suited to emulate the effects of neutron irradiation in this context. The mechanisms of solute redistribution processes from SPPs and the consequences for irradiation-induced growth phenomena are discussed. - Highlights: •Protons emulate the effects of neutron irradiation in the evolution of chemistry and morphology of second phase particles. •Detailed energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals heterogeneity in Zr-Fe-Cr SPPs both before and after irradiation. •Zr-Fe-Ni SPPs are delayed in irradiation-induced dissolution due to their better self-solubility with respect to Zr-Fe-Cr.

  8. Polaron Hopping in Nano-scale Poly(dA–Poly(dT DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the current–voltage relationship and the temperature-dependent conductance of nano-scale samples of poly(dA–poly(dT DNA molecules. A polaron hopping model has been used to calculate the I–V characteristic of nano-scale samples of DNA. This model agrees with the data for current versus voltage at temperatures greater than 100 K. The quantities G 0 , i 0 , and T 1d are determined empirically, and the conductivity is estimated for samples of poly(dA–poly(dT.

  9. Special Issue on the Second International Workshop on Micro- and Nano-Scale Thermal Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Liu, Linhua; Zhu, Qunzhi; Mengüç, M. Pinar

    2015-06-01

    Micro- and nano-scale thermal radiation has become one of the fastest growing research areas because of advances in nanotechnology and the development of novel materials. The related research and development includes near-field radiation transfer, spectral and directional selective emitters and receivers, plasmonics, metamaterials, and novel nano-scale fabrication techniques. With the advances in these areas, important applications in energy harvesting such as solar cells and thermophotovoltaics, nanomanufacturing, biomedical sensing, thermal imaging as well as data storage with the localized heating/cooling have been pushed to higher levels.

  10. The mechanical properties modeling of nano-scale materials by molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.; Driel, W.D. van; Poelma, R.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a molecular modeling strategy which is capable of mod-eling the mechanical properties on nano-scale low-dielectric (low-k) materials. Such modeling strategy has been also validated by the bulking force of carbon nano tube (CNT). This modeling framework consists of model generation method,

  11. Phototoxicity and Dosimetry of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been testing nanoscale TiO2 (primarily Evonik P25) in acute exposures to identify and quantify its phototoxicity under solar simulated radiation (SSR), and to develop dose metrics reflective of both nano-scale properties and the photon component of its potency. Several e...

  12. Radiation preparation of interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.

    2002-01-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer netwoks were prepared using gamma radiation. Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) were used as elastomer and plastomer components respectively. Dicumyl peroxide (DCP) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were also used as the curing agent of SBR and crosslinker for MMA monomer. The resulting IPNs were characterized by evaluating their mechanical properties. The effect of the amount of DCP on the final properties of product was examined. It was found that amount of curing agent had an important role on the properties of obtained IPNS. The results of the mechanical properties of IPNs showed very good synergistic behavior. (Author)

  13. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of glycerol modified castor oil polyurethane (GC–PU) and poly[2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate] (PHEMA) were synthesized using benzoyl peroxide as initiator and N,N-methylene bis acrylamide as crosslinker. GC–PU/PHEMA interpenetrating polymer networks were obtained by ...

  14. Nano-scale orientation mapping of graphite in cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuwissen, Koenraad; Lacaze, Jacques; Véron, Muriel; Laffont, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    A diametrical section of a graphite spheroid from a ductile iron sample was prepared using the focused ion beam-lift out technique. Characterization of this section was carried out through automated crystal orientation mapping in a transmission electron microscope. This new technique automatically collects electron diffraction patterns and matches them with precalculated templates. The results of this investigation are crystal orientation and phase maps of the specimen, which bring new light to the understanding of growth mechanisms of this peculiar graphite morphology. This article shows that mapping the orientation of carbon-based materials such as graphite, which is difficult to achieve with conventional techniques, can be performed automatically and at high spatial resolution using automated crystal orientation mapping in a transmission electron microscope. - Highlights: • ACOM/TEM can be used to study the crystal orientation of carbon-based materials. • A spheroid is formed by conical sectors radiating from a central nuclei. • Misorientations exist within the conical sectors, defining various orientation domains

  15. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  16. Investigations on a nano-scale periodical waveguide structure taking surface plasmon polaritons into consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weihao; Zhong Renbin; Zhou Jun; Zhang Yaxin; Hu Min; Liu Shenggang

    2012-01-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis and computer simulations on the electromagnetic characteristics of a nano-scale periodical waveguide structure, taking surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) into consideration, are carried out in this paper. The results show that SPPs will significantly influence the electromagnetic characteristics of the structure. When the operation frequency is in a certain band—the ‘radial confinement band’, neither radial surface plasmon waves nor guided waves, which both will lead to radial energy loss, can be excited in the structure. And the electromagnetic waves are completely confined within the longitudinal waveguide and propagate along it with little attenuation. The radial energy loss is then significantly reduced. These results are of great significance not only for increasing the efficiency of the radiation sources based on the nano-scale periodical waveguide structure but also for the development of high-efficiency waveguides and wide-band filters in the infrared and visible light regimes. (paper)

  17. Investigation on the special Smith-Purcell radiation from a nano-scale rectangular metallic grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Weiwei; Liu, Weihao; Jia, Qika

    2016-01-01

    The special Smith-Purcell radiation (S-SPR), which is from the radiating eigen modes of a grating, has remarkable higher intensity than the ordinary Smith-Purcell radiation. Yet in previous studies, the gratings were treated as perfect conductor without considering the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) which are of significance for the nano-scale gratings especially in the optical region. In present paper, the rigorous theoretical investigations on the S-SPR from a nano-grating with SPPs taken into consideration are carried out. The dispersion relations and radiation characteristics are obtained, and the results are verified by simulations. According to the analyses, the tunable light radiation can be achieved by the S-SPR from a nano-grating, which offers a new prospect for developing the nano-scale light sources.

  18. Quasi-particle spectrum of nano-scale conventional and unconventional superconductors under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masaru; Suematsu, Hisataka; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio; Ishida, Takekazu

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a numerical method to solve the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation for nano-scaled isotropic and d-wave superconductors. It is based on the finite element method, and therefore applicable to arbitrary geometries. We argue the difference of the local density of states between isotropic and a d-wave superconducting square plate. For d-wave case, it appears as intrinsic surface bound states

  19. Study of the effects of the interconnectivity of the metallic phase on the electrical and thermal behavior in alumina-ni and zirconia-ni interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, R.N.; Awais, H.B.; Mehmood, M.; Tariq, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    The addition of metallic inclusion in ceramic matrix can enhance the electrical and magnetic properties of the composite. Connectivity of conducting phase in an insulating matrix can be studied using electrical conductivity, thermal expansion, Hall Effect and by microscopic techniques. The wide range of application of such studies include, susceptor materials for induction heating, thin film resistors, gel formation permeability in porous structure and electromagnetic behavior of composites. The main phenomenon to be investigated is the insulating to conducting transition by the determination to of percolation range. This phenomenon depends on the concentration, shape, dimension and the crystallographic direction of the imbedded conducting particles. In this investigation variable concerning the percolation range of alumina- Ni and zirconia-Ni composites have been studied. The results provided the role of the size ratio of particles of matrix and the conducting phase, variation of resistance in terms of real part of impedance and thermal expansion on percolation effect. Scanning electron image have been used to study the percolation microscopically. (author)

  20. Design exploration of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest techniques for characterization, modeling and design for nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices.  Coverage focuses on fundamental NVM device fabrication and characterization, internal state identification of memristic dynamics with physics modeling, NVM circuit design, and hybrid NVM memory system design-space optimization. The authors discuss design methodologies for nano-scale NVM devices from a circuits/systems perspective, including the general foundations for the fundamental memristic dynamics in NVM devices.  Coverage includes physical modeling, as well as the development of a platform to explore novel hybrid CMOS and NVM circuit and system design.   • Offers readers a systematic and comprehensive treatment of emerging nano-scale non-volatile memory (NVM) devices; • Focuses on the internal state of NVM memristic dynamics, novel NVM readout and memory cell circuit design, and hybrid NVM memory system optimization; • Provides both theoretical analysis and pr...

  1. Synthesis, fabrication, and spectroscopy of nano-scale photonic noble metal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Shunji

    Nanometer is an interesting scale for physicists, chemists, and materials scientists, in a sense that it lies between the macroscopic and the atomic scales. In this regime, materials exhibit distinct physical and chemical properties that are clearly different from those of atoms or macroscopic bulk. This thesis is concerned about both physics and chemistry of noble metal nano-structures. Novel chemical syntheses and physical fabrications of various noble metal nano-structures, and the development of spectroscopic techniques for nano-structures are presented. Scanning microscopy/spectroscopy techniques inherently perturbs the true optical responses of the nano-structures. However, by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip as the nanometer-confined excitation source of surface plasmons in the samples, and subsequently collecting the signals in the Fourier space, it is shown that the tip-perturbed part of the signals can be deconvoluted. As a result, the collected signal in this approach is the pure response of the sample. Coherent light is employed to study the optical response of nano-structures, in order to avoid complication from tip-perturbation as discussed above. White-light super-continuum excites the nano-structure, the monolayer of Au nanoparticles self-assembled on silicon nitride membrane substrates. The coherent excitation reveals asymmetric surface plasmon resonance in the nano-structures. One of the most important issues in nano-scale science is to gain control over the shape, size, and assembly of nanoparticles. A novel method is developed to chemically synthesize ligand-passivated atomic noble metal clusters in solution phase. The method, named thermal decomposition method, enables facile yet robust synthesis of fluorescent atomic clusters. Thus synthesized atomic clusters are very stable, and show behaviors of quantum dots. A novel and versatile approach for creation of nanoparticle arrays is developed. This method is different from the

  2. Ion conducting interpenetrated lattices for lithium generators; Reseaux interpenetres conducteurs ioniques pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosz, M.; Boileau, S. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Guegan, P.; Cheradame, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Thiais (France). LPCB; Deshayes, A. [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1996-12-31

    Interpenetrated lattices (IPL) are combinations of reticulated polymers linked together by permanent crisscross. This structure is well-adapted to combined highly incompatible pairs of polymers. The in-situ sequential method has been applied successfully to the synthesis of ethylene poly-oxides / poly-siloxanes IPLs. The results concerning the preparation of such lattices and their behaviour as solid polymer electrolytes are presented in this paper. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  3. Ion conducting interpenetrated lattices for lithium generators; Reseaux interpenetres conducteurs ioniques pour generateurs au lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosz, M; Boileau, S [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Guegan, P; Cheradame, H [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Thiais (France). LPCB; Deshayes, A [CNET, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    1997-12-31

    Interpenetrated lattices (IPL) are combinations of reticulated polymers linked together by permanent crisscross. This structure is well-adapted to combined highly incompatible pairs of polymers. The in-situ sequential method has been applied successfully to the synthesis of ethylene poly-oxides / poly-siloxanes IPLs. The results concerning the preparation of such lattices and their behaviour as solid polymer electrolytes are presented in this paper. (J.S.) 24 refs.

  4. Interpenetrating polymer networks from acetylene terminated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high temperature/high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of a novel class of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were investigated. These IPNs consist of a simple diacetylenic compound (aspartimide) blended with an acetylene terminated arylene ether oligomer. Various compositional blends were prepared and thermally cured to evaluate the effect of crosslink density on resin properties. The cured IPNs exhibited glass transition temperatures ranging from 197 to 254 C depending upon the composition and cure temperature. The solvent resistance, fracture toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the cured blends were related to the crosslink density. Isothermal aging of neat resin moldings, adhesive and composite specimens showed a postcure effect which resulted in improved elevated temperature properties. The chemistry, physical and mechanical properties of these materials will be discussed.

  5. Soft silicone based interpenetrating networks as materials for actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Gonzalez, Lidia; Hvilsted, Søren

    2014-01-01

    A new approach based on silicone interpenetrating networks with orthogonal chemistries has been investigated with focus on developing soft and flexible elastomers with high energy densities and small viscous losses. The interpenetrating networks are made as simple two pot mixtures...... as for the commercial available silylation based elastomers such as Elastosil RT625. The resulting interpenetrating networks are formulated to be softer than RT625 to increase the actuation caused when applying a voltage due to their softness combined with the significantly higher permittivity than the pure silicone...

  6. The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) Scale as an Assessment Tool for Survival in Patients With Primary Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Timothy H; Ney, Douglas E; Damek, Denise; Rusthoven, Chad G; Youssef, A Samy; Lillehei, Kevin O; Ormond, D Ryan

    2018-03-30

    The Neurologic Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (NANO) scale is a standardized objective metric designed to measure neurological function in neuro-oncology. Current neuroradiological evaluation guidelines fail to use specific clinical criteria for progression. To determine if the NANO scale was a reliable assessment tool in glioblastoma (GBM) patients and whether it correlated to survival. Our group performed a retrospective review of all patients with newly diagnosed GBM from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012, at our institution. We applied the NANO scale, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scale, Macdonald criteria, and the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria to patients at the time of diagnosis as well as at 3, 6, and 12 mo. Initial NANO score was correlated with overall survival at time of presentation. NANO progression was correlated with decreased survival in patients at 6 and 12 mo. A decrease in KPS was associated with survival at 3 and 6 mo, an increase in ECOG score was associated only at 3 mo, and radiological evaluation (RANO and Macdonald) was correlated at 3 and 6 mo. Only the NANO scale was associated with patient survival at 1 yr. NANO progression was the only metric that was linked to decreased overall survival when compared to RANO and Macdonald at 6 and 12 mo. The NANO scale is specific to neuro-oncology and can be used to assess patients with glioma. This retrospective analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the NANO scale in glioblastoma.

  7. MD Simulation on Collision Behavior Between Nano-Scale TiO₂ Particles During Vacuum Cold Spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hai-Long; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-04-01

    Particle collision behavior influences significantly inter-nano particle bonding formation during the nano-ceramic coating deposition by vacuum cold spraying (or aerosol deposition method). In order to illuminate the collision behavior between nano-scale ceramic particles, molecular dynamic simulation was applied to explore impact process between nano-scale TiO2 particles through controlling impact velocities. Results show that the recoil efficiency of the nano-scale TiO2 particle is decreased with the increase of the impact velocity. Nano-scale TiO2 particle exhibits localized plastic deformation during collision at low velocities, while it is intensively deformed by collision at high velocities. This intensive deformation promotes the nano-particle adhesion rather than rebounding off. A relationship between the adhesion energy and the rebound energy is established for the bonding formation of the nano-scale TiO2 particle. The adhesion energy required to the bonding formation between nano-scale ceramic particles can be produced by high velocity collision.

  8. Nano-scale observations of interface between lichen and basaltic rock: Pseudomorphic growth of amorphous silica on augite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Kyono, A.; Kebukawa, Y.; Takagi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, lichens as the earliest colonizers of terrestrial habitats are recognized to accelerate the mineral degradation at the interface between lichens and surface rocks. Much interest has been therefore devoted in recent years to the weathering induced by the lichen colonization. Here, we report nano-scale observations of the interface between lichens and basaltic rock by TEM and STXM techniques. Some samples of basaltic rocks totally covered by lichens were collected from the 1986 lava flows on the northwest part of Izu-Oshima volcano, Japan. To prepare specimens for the nano-scale observation, we utilized the focused ion beam (FIB) system. The microstructure and local chemistry of the specimens were thoroughly investigated by TEM equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Chemical components and chemical heterogeneity at the interface were observed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at Advanced Light Source branch line 5.3.2.2. The collected rocks were classified into the augite-pigeonite-bronzite basalt including 6 to 8% plagioclase phenocrysts. The lichens adhering to the rocks were mainly Stereocaulon vesuvianum, fruticose lichen, which are widespread over the study area. The metabolites of the Stereocaulon vesuvianum exhibited a mean pH of 4.5 and dominance by acids. The STEM-EDX observations revealed that the interface between augite and the lichen was completely covered with amorphous silica multilayer with a thickness of less than 1 µm. Ca L-edge XANES spectra of the augite showed that the energy profile of the absorption edge at 349 eV was varied with the depth from the surface, indicating that the M2 site coordination accommodating Ca2+ undergoes significant change in shape as a function of distance from the surface. This behavior results from the fact that the M2 site is more distorted and more flexible in the C2/c clinopyroxene phase. Taking into consideration that the S. vesuvianum can produce acidic organic compounds

  9. Introduction of Functional Structures in Nano-Scales into Engineering Polymer Films Using Radiation Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Y., E-mail: maekawa.yasunari@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, High Performance Polymer Group, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma-ken 370-1292 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Introduction of functional regions in nanometer scale in polymeric films using γ-rays, EB, and ion beams are proposed. Two approaches to build nano-scale functional domains in polymer substrates are proposed: 1) Radiation-induced grafting to transfer nano-scale polymer crystalline structures (morphology), acting as a nano-template, to nano-scale graft polymer regions. The obtained polymers with nano structures can be applied to high performance polymer membranes. 2) Fabrication of nanopores and functional domains in engineering plastic films using ion beams, which deposit the energy in very narrow region of polymer films. Hydrophilic grafting polymers are introduced into hydrophobic fluorinated polymers, cross-linked PTFE (cPTFE) and aromatic hydrocarbon polymer, poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK), which is known to have lamella and crystallite in the polymer films. Then, the hierarchical structures of graft domains are analyzed by a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. From these analyses, the different structures and the different formation of graft domains were observed in fluorinated and hydrocarbon polymer substrates. the grafted domains in the cPTFE film, working as an ion channel, grew as covering the crystallite and the size of domain seems to be similar to that of crystallite. On the other hand, the PEEK-based PEM has a smaller domain size and it seems to grow independently on the crystallites of PEEK substrate. For nano-fabrication of polymer films using heavy ion beams, the energy distribution in radial direction, which is perpendicular to ion trajectory, is mainly concerned. For penumbra, we re-estimated effective radius of penumbra, in which radiation induced grafting took place, for several different ion beams. We observed the different diameters of the ion channels consisting of graft polymers. The channel sizes were quite in good agreement with the effective penumbra which possess the absorption doses more than 1 kGy. (author)

  10. Writing to and reading from a nano-scale crossbar memory based on memristors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vontobel, Pascal O; Robinett, Warren; Kuekes, Philip J; Stewart, Duncan R; Straznicky, Joseph; Stanley Williams, R

    2009-01-01

    We present a design study for a nano-scale crossbar memory system that uses memristors with symmetrical but highly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics as memory elements. The memory is non-volatile since the memristors retain their state when un-powered. In order to address the nano-wires that make up this nano-scale crossbar, we use two coded demultiplexers implemented using mixed-scale crossbars (in which CMOS-wires cross nano-wires and in which the crosspoint junctions have one-time configurable memristors). This memory system does not utilize the kind of devices (diodes or transistors) that are normally used to isolate the memory cell being written to and read from in conventional memories. Instead, special techniques are introduced to perform the writing and the reading operation reliably by taking advantage of the nonlinearity of the type of memristors used. After discussing both writing and reading strategies for our memory system in general, we focus on a 64 x 64 memory array and present simulation results that show the feasibility of these writing and reading procedures. Besides simulating the case where all device parameters assume exactly their nominal value, we also simulate the much more realistic case where the device parameters stray around their nominal value: we observe a degradation in margins, but writing and reading is still feasible. These simulation results are based on a device model for memristors derived from measurements of fabricated devices in nano-scale crossbars using Pt and Ti nano-wires and using oxygen-depleted TiO 2 as the switching material.

  11. Introduction of Functional Structures in Nano-Scales into Engineering Polymer Films Using Radiation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction of functional regions in nanometer scale in polymeric films using γ-rays, EB, and ion beams are proposed. Two approaches to build nano-scale functional domains in polymer substrates are proposed: 1) Radiation-induced grafting to transfer nano-scale polymer crystalline structures (morphology), acting as a nano-template, to nano-scale graft polymer regions. The obtained polymers with nano structures can be applied to high performance polymer membranes. 2) Fabrication of nanopores and functional domains in engineering plastic films using ion beams, which deposit the energy in very narrow region of polymer films. Hydrophilic grafting polymers are introduced into hydrophobic fluorinated polymers, cross-linked PTFE (cPTFE) and aromatic hydrocarbon polymer, poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK), which is known to have lamella and crystallite in the polymer films. Then, the hierarchical structures of graft domains are analyzed by a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment. From these analyses, the different structures and the different formation of graft domains were observed in fluorinated and hydrocarbon polymer substrates. the grafted domains in the cPTFE film, working as an ion channel, grew as covering the crystallite and the size of domain seems to be similar to that of crystallite. On the other hand, the PEEK-based PEM has a smaller domain size and it seems to grow independently on the crystallites of PEEK substrate. For nano-fabrication of polymer films using heavy ion beams, the energy distribution in radial direction, which is perpendicular to ion trajectory, is mainly concerned. For penumbra, we re-estimated effective radius of penumbra, in which radiation induced grafting took place, for several different ion beams. We observed the different diameters of the ion channels consisting of graft polymers. The channel sizes were quite in good agreement with the effective penumbra which possess the absorption doses more than 1 kGy. (author)

  12. Gallium Nitride: A Nano scale Study using Electron Microscopy and Associated Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Benaissa; Vennegues, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A complete nano scale study on GaN thin films doped with Mg. This study was carried out using TEM and associated techniques such as HREM, CBED, EDX and EELS. It was found that the presence of triangular defects (of few nanometers in size) within GaN:Mg films were at the origin of unexpected electrical and optical behaviors, such as a decrease in the free hole density at high Mg doping. It is shown that these defects are inversion domains limited with inversion-domains boundaries. (author)

  13. Thermoelectric effect in nano-scaled lanthanides doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otal, E H; Canepa, H R; Walsoee de Reca, N E [Centro de Investigacion en Solidos, CITEFA, San Juan Bautista de La Salle 4397 (B1603ALO) Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schaeuble, N; Aguirre, M H, E-mail: canepa@citefa.gov.a, E-mail: myriam.aguirre@empa.c [Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-05-01

    Start Nano-scaled ZnO with 1% Er doping was prepared by soft chemistry methods. The synthesis was carried out in anhydrous polar solvent to achieve a crystal size of a few nanometers. Resulting particles were processed as precipitates or multi layer films. Structural characterization was evaluated by X-Ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of films, UV-Vis characterization was made. The thermoelectrical properties of ZnO:Er were evaluated and compared with a typical good thermoelectric material ZnO:Al. Both materials have also shown high Seebeck coefficients and they can be considered as potential compounds for thermoelectric conversion.

  14. Ion deceleration in interpenetrating plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, O.; Krousky, E.; Larroche, O.; Liska, R.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Inertial and magnetic confinement fusion schemes involve collisions of high-temperature plasma jets and their interaction with solid surfaces (the so-called plasma-wall interaction, PWI). A fundamental understanding of the PWI effects requires a detailed characterization of the transient collisional phenomena occurring in the interaction region. In this paper we discuss a PWI experiment with double-foil Al/Mg targets fielded at the PALS laser system. An energetic plasma jet was created at the rear (non-irradiated) side of the 0.8-μm-thick Al foil exploded by the main laser beam (50-200 J, 0.44/1.315 μm, 0.25-0.3 ns, 16 W/cm 2 ). This plasma jet streamed towards the 2-μm-thick Mg foil, where the secondary plasma was created either by an auxiliary 5 J laser beam or by the main laser radiation transmitted through the Al foil, together with radiation and particles emitted from the Al foil. The environmental conditions in the plasma were diagnosed by means of high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy and temporally-resolved x-ray imaging. For the first time, the deceleration of the incident Al ions in the near-wall region was directly observed and quantitatively characterized from the Doppler shift of the J-satellite from the Al Lyα spectral group. The interaction scenario was numerically modeled by two concerted codes, namely, i) the Prague Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian 2-D code PALE, which solves the Lagrangian mesh distortions by smoothing and conservative remapping of conserved quantities, and ii) the multispecies 1.5-D code MULTIF which models the hydrodynamics of an arbitrary number of interpenetrating ion species in a single space dimension while assuming self-similar plasma expansion in the other directions, and taking into account detailed Coulombian collisional processes. PALE was used to model two counter-streaming Al/Mg plasma plumes until the beginning of their interaction, and the resulting plasma state was then used as

  15. Synthesis of nano-scale fast ion conducting cubic Li7La3Zr2O12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeff; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Kim, Hyunjoung; Kim, Yunsung; Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2013-10-25

    A solution-based process was investigated for synthesizing cubic Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO), which is known to exhibit the unprecedented combination of fast ionic conductivity, and stability in air and against Li. Sol-gel chemistry was developed to prepare solid metal-oxide networks consisting of 10 nm cross-links that formed the cubic LLZO phase at 600 ° C. Sol-gel LLZO powders were sintered into 96% dense pellets using an induction hot press that applied pressure while heating. After sintering, the average LLZO grain size was 260 nm, which is 13 times smaller compared to LLZO prepared using a solid-state technique. The total ionic conductivity was 0.4 mS cm(-1) at 298 K, which is the same as solid-state synthesized LLZO. Interestingly, despite the same room temperature conductivity, the sol-gel LLZO total activation energy is 0.41 eV, which 1.6 times higher than that observed in solid-state LLZO (0.26 eV). We believe the nano-scale grain boundaries give rise to unique transport phenomena that are more sensitive to temperature when compared to the conventional solid-state LLZO.

  16. Adhesion and proliferation of OCT-1 osteoblast-like cells on micro- and nano-scale topography structured poly(L-lactide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yuqing; Wang, Yong; Liu, Zhimin; Qu, Xue; Han, Buxing; Bei, Jianzhong; Wang, Shenguo

    2005-07-01

    The impact of the surface topography of polylactone-type polymer on cell adhesion was to be concerned because the micro-scale texture of a surface can provide a significant effect on the adhesion behavior of cells on the surface. Especially for the application of tissue engineering scaffold, the pore size could have an influence on cell in-growth and subsequent proliferation. Micro-fabrication technology was used to generate specific topography to investigate the relationship between the cells and surface. In this study the pits-patterned surfaces of polystyrene (PS) film with diameters 2.2 and 0.45 microm were prepared by phase-separation, and the corresponding scale islands-patterned PLLA surface was prepared by a molding technique using the pits-patterned PS as a template. The adhesion and proliferation behavior of OCT-1 osteoblast-like cells morphology on the pits- and islands-patterned surface were characterized by SEM observation, cell attachment efficiency measurement and MTT assay. The results showed that the cell adhesion could be enhanced on PLLA and PS surface with nano-scale and micro-scale roughness compared to the smooth surfaces of the PLLA and PS. The OCT-1 osteoblast-like cells could grow along the surface with two different size islands of PLLA and grow inside the micro-scale pits of the PS. However, the proliferation of cells on the micro- and nano-scale patterned surface has not been enhanced compared with the controlled smooth surface.

  17. 3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nammoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  18. Crystallization of high-strength nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulos, A; Chen, X; Wilson, R M; Hill, R; Cattell, M J

    2013-11-01

    Fine-grained, high strength, translucent leucite dental glass-ceramics are synthesized via controlled crystallization of finely milled glass powders. The objectives of this study were to utilize high speed planetary milling of an aluminosilicate glass for controlled surface crystallization of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics and to test the biaxial flexural strength. An aluminosilicate glass was synthesized, attritor or planetary milled and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental (fine and nanoscale) and commercial (Ceramco-3, IPS Empress Esthetic) leucite glass-ceramics were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Gaussian and Weibull statistics were applied. Experimental planetary milled glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and nano-scale median crystal sizes (0.048-0.055 μm(2)) as a result of glass particle size reduction and heat treatments. Experimental materials had significantly (p0.05) strength difference. All other groups' mean BFS and characteristic strengths were found to be significantly different (pglass-ceramics with high flexural strength. These materials may help to reduce problems associated with brittle fracture of all-ceramic restorations and give reduced enamel wear. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced wear of enamel with novel fine and nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulos, Antonios; Chen, Xiaohui; Hill, Robert; Cattell, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Leucite glass-ceramics used to produce all-ceramic restorations can suffer from brittle fracture and wear the opposing teeth. High strength and fine crystal sized leucite glass-ceramics have recently been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate whether fine and nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics with minimal matrix microcracking are associated with a reduction in in vitro tooth wear. Human molar cusps (n=12) were wear tested using a Bionix-858 testing machine (300,000 simulated masticatory cycles) against experimental fine crystal sized (FS), nano-scale crystal sized (NS) leucite glass-ceramics and a commercial leucite glass-ceramic (Ceramco-3, Dentsply, USA). Wear was imaged using Secondary Electron Imaging (SEI) and quantified using white-light profilometry. Both experimental groups were found to produce significantly (pceramic) loss than the FS group. Increased waviness and damage was observed on the wear surfaces of the Ceramco-3 glass-ceramic disc/tooth group in comparison to the experimental groups. This was also indicated by higher surface roughness values for the Ceramco-3 glass-ceramic disc/tooth group. Fine and nano-sized leucite glass-ceramics produced a reduction in in vitro tooth wear. The high strength low wear materials of this study may help address the many problems associated with tooth enamel wear and restoration failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Broadband spectroscopy of magnetic response in a nano-scale magnetic wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Motoi, K.; Miyajima, H.; Utsumi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the broadband spectra of magnetic response in a single layered ferromagnetic nano-scale wire in order to investigate the size effect on the ferromagnetic resonance. We found that the resonance frequency difference between 300-nm- and 5-μm-wide wires was varied by about 5 GHz due to the shape anisotropy. Furthermore, we experimentally detected the magnetization precession induced by the thermal fluctuation via the rectification of a radio-frequency (rf) current by incorporating an additional direct current (dc) by using Wheatstone bridge circuit. Our investigation renders that the shape anisotropy is of great importance to control the resonance frequency and to provide thermal stability of the microwave devices. - Highlights: • We describe an experimental investigation of the magnetic response of a single layered ferromagnetic nano-scale wire. • We present the conventional broadband microwave spectroscopy with a vector network analyzer and rectifying spectroscopy obtained with a Wheatstone bridge technique. • The investigation enables us to characterize the size effect on the ferromagnetic response and also to detect the magnetization precession induced by the thermal fluctuations

  1. 3D positioning scheme exploiting nano-scale IR-UWB orthogonal pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nammoon; Kim, Youngok

    2011-10-04

    In these days, the development of positioning technology for realizing ubiquitous environments has become one of the most important issues. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a well-known positioning scheme, but it is not suitable for positioning in in-door/building environments because it is difficult to maintain line-of-sight condition between satellites and a GPS receiver. To such problem, various positioning methods such as RFID, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth have been developed for indoor positioning scheme. However, the majority of positioning schemes are focused on the two-dimension positioning even though three-dimension (3D) positioning information is more useful especially in indoor applications, such as smart space, U-health service, context aware service, etc. In this paper, a 3D positioning system based on mutually orthogonal nano-scale impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals and cross array antenna is proposed. The proposed scheme uses nano-scale IR-UWB signals providing fine time resolution and high-resolution multiple signal specification algorithm for the time-of-arrival and the angle-of-arrival estimation. The performance is evaluated over various IEEE 802.15.4a channel models, and simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed scheme.

  2. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Açıkkalp, Emin, E-mail: eacikkalp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik S.E. University, Bilecik (Turkey); Caner, Necmettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.

  3. Volume changes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy resins studied by PALS and PVT experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, A. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina) and CICPBA, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina)]. E-mail: asomoza@exa.unicen.edu.ar; Salgueiro, W. [IFIMAT-UNCentro, Pinto 399, B7000GHG Tandil (Argentina); Goyanes, S. [LPMPyMC, Depto. de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, J. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain); Mondragon, I. [Materials and Technology Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y M. Ambiente, Escuela University Politecnica, Universidad Pais Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pz. Europa 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastian (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    A systematic study on changes in the volumes at macro- and nano-scale in epoxy systems cured with selected aminic hardeners at different pre-cure temperatures is presented. Free- and macroscopic specific-volumes were measured by PALS and pressure-volume-temperature techniques, respectively. An analysis of the relation existing between macro- and nano-scales of the thermosetting networks developed by the different chemical structures is shown. The result obtained indicates that the structure of the hardeners governs the packing of the molecular chains of the epoxy network.

  4. Micro- and Nano-Scale Electrically Driven Two-Phase Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation discusses ground based proof of concept hardware under development at NASA GSFC to address high heat flux thermal management in silicon substrates. The goal is to develop proof of concept hardware for space flight validation. The space flight hardware will provide gravity insensitive thermal management for electronics applications such as transmit receive modules that are severely limited by thermal concerns.

  5. Software Architecture for a Virtual Environment for Nano Scale Assembly (VENSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Gu; Lyons, Kevin W; Feng, Shaw C

    2004-01-01

    A Virtual Environment (VE) uses multiple computer-generated media to let a user experience situations that are temporally and spatially prohibiting. The information flow between the user and the VE is bidirectional and the user can influence the environment. The software development of a VE requires orchestrating multiple peripherals and computers in a synchronized way in real time. Although a multitude of useful software components for VEs exists, many of these are packaged within a complex framework and can not be used separately. In this paper, an architecture is presented which is designed to let multiple frameworks work together while being shielded from the application program. This architecture, which is called the Virtual Environment for Nano Scale Assembly (VENSA), has been constructed for interfacing with an optical tweezers instrument for nanotechnology development. However, this approach can be generalized for most virtual environments. Through the use of VENSA, the programmer can rely on existing solutions and concentrate more on the application software design.

  6. Assembly and structural analysis of a covalently closed nano-scale DNA cage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Félicie Faucon; Knudsen, Bjarne; Oliveira, Cristiano Luis Pinto De

    2008-01-01

    for investigations of DNA-interacting enzymes. More recently, strategies for synthesis of more complex two-dimensional (2D) and 3D DNA structures have emerged. However, the building of such structures is still in progress and more experiences from different research groups and different fields of expertise...... be described as a nano-scale DNA cage, Hence, in theory it could hold proteins or other bio-molecules to enable their investigation in certain harmful environments or even allow their organization into higher order structures...... The inherent properties of DNA as a stable polymer with unique affinity for partner molecules determined by the specific Watson-Crick base pairing makes it an ideal component in self-assembling structures. This has been exploited for decades in the design of a variety of artificial substrates...

  7. Modeling and Design of a Nano Scale CMOS Inverter for Symmetric Switching Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for the modeling and design of a nano scale CMOS inverter circuit using artificial neural network and particle swarm optimization algorithm such that the switching characteristics of the circuit is symmetric, that is, has nearly equal rise and fall time and equal output high-to-low and low-to-high propagation delay. The channel width of the transistors and the load capacitor value are taken as design parameters. The designed circuit has been implemented at the transistor-level and simulated using TSPICE for 45 nm process technology. The PSO-generated results have been compared with SPICE results. A very good accuracy has been achieved. In addition, the advantage of the present approach over an existing approach for the same purpose has been demonstrated through simulation results.

  8. Effects of nano-scaled fish bone on the gelation properties of Alaska pollock surimi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2014-05-01

    Gelation properties of Alaska pollock surimi as affected by addition of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) at different levels (0%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%) were investigated. Breaking force and penetration distance of surimi gels after setting increased significantly as NFB concentration increased up to 1%. The first peak temperature and value of storage modulus (G'), which is known to relate to the unfolding and aggregation of light meromyosin, increased as NFB concentration increased. In addition, 1% NFB treatment demonstrated the highest G' after gelation was completed. The activity of endogenous transglutaminase (TGase) in Alaska pollock surimi increased as NFB calcium concentration increased. The intensity of myosin heavy chain cross-links also increased as NFB concentration increased indicating the formation of more ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine covalent bond by endogenous TGase and calcium ions from NFB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-strength wrought magnesium alloy with dense nano-scale spherical precipitate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU WenBin; CHEN ZhiQian; CHENG NanPu; GAN BingTai; HE Hong; LI XueLian; HU JinZhu

    2007-01-01

    This paper reported the influences of Yb addition on the precipitate and mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloy ZK60. The ingots of ZK60-1.78Yb (wt%,0.26 at%) alloys were cast using permanent mould and extruded at 370℃. By means of TEM and HRTEM,it was observed that Yb affected the precipitate and precipitation of ZK60-1.78Yb alloys significantly. Dynamic precipitation occurred in the as-extruded alloy and spherical nano-scale precipitate with high density and homogeneity exhibited in the aged alloys. The precipitate particles were about 5-20 nm in diameter,10-30 nm in average space length. The tensile test results showed that the ZK60-1.78Yb alloy had excellent precipitation strengthening response with the maximum tensile strength 417.5 MPa at ambient temperature.

  10. Self-assembly of micro- and nano-scale particles using bio-inspired events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNally, H.; Pingle, M.; Lee, S.W.; Guo, D.; Bergstrom, D.E.; Bashir, R.

    2003-01-01

    High sensitivity chemical and biological detection techniques and the development of future electronic systems can greatly benefit from self-assembly processes and techniques. We have approached this challenge using biologically inspired events such as the hybridization of single (ss)- to double-stranded (ds) DNA and the strong affinity between the protein avidin and its associated Vitamin, biotin. Using these molecules, micro-scale polystyrene beads and nano-scale gold particles were assembled with high efficiency on gold patterns and the procedures used for these processes were optimized. The DNA and avidin-biotin complex was also used to demonstrate the attachment of micro-scale silicon islands to each other in a fluid. This work also provides insight into the techniques for the self-assembly of heterogeneous materials

  11. Removal of basic dye from aqueous solutions using nano scale zero valent iron (NZVI) as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. S.; Ahmad, A.; Bangash, F. K.; Shah, S. S.; Khan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nano scale zero valent iron (NZVI) was synthesized and tested for the purification of waste water contaminated by the organic pollutants. In the present study removal of basic blue 3 dye was investigated by NZVI adsorbent. NZVI adsorbent was prepared in the presence of N/sub 2/ gas atmosphere by sodium boro- hydrate (NaHB/sub 4/) reduction method. The particle size of the prepared adsorbent was approximately in the range of 1 x 10/sup -2/nm to 2 x 10/sup -2/nm. The adsorption of basic blue 3 dyes was confirmed with various parameters such as ionic strength, contact time and initial dye concentrations. The experiments were carried out in a batch mode technique. The surface morphology was studied by SEM analysis technique. (author)

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Polymeric Hollow Fiber Membranes with Nano-scale Pore Sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir Mansourizadeh; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Porous polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polysulfide (PSF) hollow fiber membranes were fabricated via a wet spinning method. The membranes were characterized in terms of gas permeability, wetting pressure, overall porosity and water contact angle. The morphology of the membranes was examined by FESEM. From gas permeation test, mean pore sizes of 7.3 and 9.6 nm were obtained for PSF and PVDF membrane, respectively. Using low polymer concentration in the dopes, the membranes demonstrated a relatively high overall porosity of 77 %. From FESEM examination, the PSF membrane presented a denser outer skin layer, which resulted in significantly lower N 2 permeance. Therefore, due to the high hydrophobicity and nano-scale pore sizes of the PVDF membrane, a good wetting pressure of 4.5x10 -5 Pa was achieved. (author)

  13. Micro-and/or nano-scale patterned porous membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of using membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xianbin; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xixiang; Yue, Weisheng; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for materials that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane (e.g., micro- and/or nano-scale patterned), structures or devices that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane, methods of making pre-designed patterned, porous membranes, methods of separation, and the like.

  14. Micro-and/or nano-scale patterned porous membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of using membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xianbin

    2015-01-22

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for materials that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane (e.g., micro- and/or nano-scale patterned), structures or devices that include a pre-designed patterned, porous membrane, methods of making pre-designed patterned, porous membranes, methods of separation, and the like.

  15. Morphology and damping behavior of polyurethane/PMMA simultaneous interpenetrating networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang S.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethane/PMMA simultaneous interpenetrating networks (SINs with various hard segment contents (X in the polyurethane phase (X = 15.5 to 36.5% in polyurethane and wide range of polyurethane (PU to polyacrylate (PA ratio (PU/PA = 20:80 to 80:20 were prepared, and the damping and mechanical properties of these materials were studied. The damping of polyurethane soft phase was increased and shifted to lower temperature with increased content of PA vitreous phase. The mechanical properties were improved with increasing PA contents. The results show that PA and the polyurethane hard segment interaction play a special role in chain interpenetration density and its magnitude is revealed by the decreased dispersed domain size observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and increased loss area as measured by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA. When the weight ratio of PU/PA was 40:60, the resulting SIN materials possessed better damping properties, independent of X concentration.

  16. Pros and Cons of the Interpenetrating Panel Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen

    2000-01-01

    The interpenetrating sample design has been selected for the USDA Forest Service's Annual Forest Inventory System. The advantages and disadvantages of this design are discussed by considering alternatives such as the formerly used periodic design, a concentrated grid design, and disturbance based sampling. Factors considered for each design include fulfilling 1998...

  17. The silicon chip: A versatile micro-scale platform for micro- and nano-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Edward

    Cutting-edge advances in micro- and nano-scale technology require instrumentation to interface with the external world. While technology feature sizes are continually being reduced, the size of experimentalists and their instrumentation do not mirror this trend. Hence there is a need for effective application-specific instrumentation to bridge the gap from the micro and nano-scale phenomena being studied to the comparative macro-scale of the human interfaces. This dissertation puts forward the idea that the silicon CMOS integrated circuit, or microchip in short, serves as an excellent platform to perform this functionality. The electronic interfaces designed for the semiconductor industry are particularly attractive as development platforms, and the reduction in feature sizes that has been a hallmark of the industry suggests that chip-scale instrumentation may be more closely coupled to the phenomena of interest, allowing finer control or improved measurement capabilities. Compatibility with commercial processes will further enable economies of scale through mass production, another welcome feature of this approach. Thus chip-scale instrumentation may replace the bulky, expensive, cumbersome-to-operate macro-scale prototypes currently in use for many of these applications. The dissertation examines four specific applications in which the chip may serve as the ideal instrumentation platform. These are nanorod manipulation, polypyrrole bilayer hinge microactuator control, organic transistor hybrid circuits, and contact fluorescence imaging. The thesis is structured around chapters devoted to each of these projects, in addition to a chapter on preliminary work on an RFID system that serves as a wireless interface model. Each of these chapters contains tools and techniques developed for chip-scale instrumentation, from custom scripts for automated layout and data collection to microfabrication processes. Implementation of these tools to develop systems for the

  18. Characterization of nanocellulose reinforced semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol) & polyacrylamide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arup; Chakrabarty, Debabrata

    2015-12-10

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide was reinforced with various doses of nanocellulose. The different composite films thus prepared were characterized with respect to their mechanical, thermal, morphological and barrier properties. The composite film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose showed the highest tensile strength. The semi-interpenetrating polymer network of poly(vinyl alcohol)/polyacrylamide; and its various composites with nanocellulose were almost identical in their thermal stability. Each of the composites however exhibited much superior stability with respect to the linear poly(vinyl alcohol) and crosslinked polyacrylamide. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies exhibited phase separated morphology where agglomerates of nanocellulose were found to be dispersed in the matrix of the semi-IPN. The moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR) was the lowest for the film containing 5 wt.% of nanocellulose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functionalized Carbon Nano-scale Drug Delivery Systems From Biowaste Sago Bark For Cancer Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manaf, Shoriya Aruni; Hegde, Gurumurthy; Mandal, Uttam Kumar; Wui, Tin Wong; Roy, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique. The nanospheres were functionalized with fluorescent dye coumarin-6 for cell imaging. Fluorescent nanosytems were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X ray, photon correlation spectroscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The average size of carbon nanospheres ranged between 30 and 40 nm with zeta potential of -26.8 ± 1.87 mV. The percentage viability of cancer cells on exposure to nanospheres varied from 91- 89 % for N2a cells and 90-85 % for A-375 cells respectively. Speedy uptake of the fluorescent nanospheres in both N2a and A-375 cells was observed within two hours of exposure. Novel fluorescent carbon nanosystem design following waste-to-wealth approach exhibited promising potential in cancer cell imaging applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Theoretical study of silicon carbide under irradiation at the nano scale: classical and ab initio modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, G.

    2006-10-01

    The behaviour of silicon carbide under irradiation has been studied using classical and ab initio simulations, focusing on the nano scale elementary processes. First, we have been interested in the calculation of threshold displacement energies, which are difficult to determine both experimentally and theoretically, and also the associated Frenkel pairs. In the framework of this thesis, we have carried out simulations in classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. For the classical approach, two types of potentials have been used: the Tersoff potential, which led to non satisfactory results, and a new one which has been developed during this thesis. This potential allows a better modelling of SiC under irradiation than most of the empirical potentials available for SiC. It is based on the EDIP potential, initially developed to describe defects in silicon, that we have generalized to SiC. For the ab initio approach, the feasibility of the calculations has been validated and average energies of 19 eV for the C and 38 eV for the Si sublattices have been determined, close to the values empirically used in the fusion community. The results obtained with the new potential EDIP are globally in agreement with those values. Finally, the elementary processes involved in the crystal recovery have been studied by calculating the stability of the created Frenkel pairs and determining possible recombination mechanisms with the nudged elastic band method. (author)

  1. Modeling the Charge Transport in Graphene Nano Ribbon Interfaces for Nano Scale Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Engles, Derick

    2015-05-01

    In this research work we have modeled, simulated and compared the electronic charge transport for Metal-Semiconductor-Metal interfaces of Graphene Nano Ribbons (GNR) with different geometries using First-Principle calculations and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) method. We modeled junctions of Armchair GNR strip sandwiched between two Zigzag strips with (Z-A-Z) and Zigzag GNR strip sandwiched between two Armchair strips with (A-Z-A) using semi-empirical Extended Huckle Theory (EHT) within the framework of Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF). I-V characteristics of the interfaces were visualized for various transport parameters. The distinct changes in conductance and I-V curves reported as the Width across layers, Channel length (Central part) was varied at different bias voltages from -1V to 1 V with steps of 0.25 V. From the simulated results we observed that the conductance through A-Z-A graphene junction is in the range of 10-13 Siemens whereas the conductance through Z-A-Z graphene junction is in the range of 10-5 Siemens. These suggested conductance controlled mechanisms for the charge transport in the graphene interfaces with different geometries is important for the design of graphene based nano scale electronic devices like Graphene FETs, Sensors.

  2. Nano-scale characterization of the dynamics of the chloroplast Toc translocon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, L Evan; Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Crenshaw, Will; Dave, Ashita; Vaughn, Michael; Bruce, Barry D

    2008-01-01

    Translocons are macromolecular nano-scale machines that facilitate the selective translocation of proteins across membranes. Although common in function, different translocons have evolved diverse molecular mechanisms for protein translocation. Subcellular organelles of endosymbiotic origin such as the chloroplast and mitochondria had to evolve/acquire translocons capable of importing proteins whose genes were transferred to the host genome. These gene products are expressed on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins and targeted back to the organelle by an N-terminal extension called the transit peptide or presequence. In chloroplasts the transit peptide is specifically recognized by the Translocon of the Outer Chloroplast membrane (Toc) which is composed of receptor GTPases that potentially function as gate-like switches, where GTP binding and hydrolysis somehow facilitate preprotein binding and translocation. Compared to other translocons, the dynamics of the Toc translocon are probably more complex and certainly less understood. We have developed biochemical/biophysical, imaging, and computational techniques to probe the dynamics of the Toc translocon at the nanoscale. In this chapter we provide detailed protocols for kinetic and binding analysis of precursor interactions in organeller, measurement of the activity and nucleotide binding of the Toc GTPases, native electrophoretic analysis of the assembly/organization of the Toc complex, visualization of the distribution and mobility of Toc apparatus on the surface of chloroplasts, and conclude with the identification and molecular modeling Toc75 POTRA domains. With these new methodologies we discuss future directions of the field.

  3. Biochemical Stability Analysis of Nano Scaled Contrast Agents Used in Biomolecular Imaging Detection of Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer; Kyung, Richard

    Imaging contrast agents are materials used to improve the visibility of internal body structures in the imaging process. Many agents that are used for contrast enhancement are now studied empirically and computationally by researchers. Among various imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a major diagnostic tool in many clinical specialties due to its non-invasive characteristic and its safeness in regards to ionizing radiation exposure. Recently, researchers have prepared aqueous fullerene nanoparticles using electrochemical methods. In this paper, computational simulations of thermodynamic stabilities of nano scaled contrast agents that can be used in biomolecular imaging detection of tumor cells are presented using nanomaterials such as fluorescent functionalized fullerenes. In addition, the stability and safety of different types of contrast agents composed of metal oxide a, b, and c are tested in the imaging process. Through analysis of the computational simulations, the stabilities of the contrast agents, determined by optimized energies of the conformations, are presented. The resulting numerical data are compared. In addition, Density Functional Theory (DFT) is used in order to model the electron properties of the compound.

  4. Plastic deformation and failure mechanisms in nano-scale notched metallic glass specimens under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanmay; Chauniyal, Ashish; Singh, I.; Narasimhan, R.; Thamburaja, P.; Ramamurty, U.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, numerical simulations using molecular dynamics and non-local plasticity based finite element analysis are carried out on tensile loading of nano-scale double edge notched metallic glass specimens. The effect of acuteness of notches as well as the metallic glass chemical composition or internal material length scale on the plastic deformation response of the specimens are studied. Both MD and FE simulations, in spite of the fundamental differences in their nature, indicate near-identical deformation features. Results show two distinct transitions in the notch tip deformation behavior as the acuity is increased, first from single shear band dominant plastic flow localization to ligament necking, and then to double shear banding in notches that are very sharp. Specimens with moderately blunt notches and composition showing wider shear bands or higher material length scale characterizing the interaction stress associated with flow defects display profuse plastic deformation and failure by ligament necking. These results are rationalized from the role of the interaction stress and development of the notch root plastic zones.

  5. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L-C; Huang, Y-T; Chang, P-B

    2006-01-01

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed

  6. High-Bandwidth Dynamic Full-Field Profilometry for Nano-Scale Characterization of MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L-C [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Y-T [Graduate Institute of Automation Technology, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, P-B [Graduate Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1 Sec. 3 Chung-Hsiao East Rd., Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China)

    2006-10-15

    The article describes an innovative optical interferometric methodology to delivery dynamic surface profilometry with a measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher and a vertical resolution up to 1 nm. Previous work using stroboscopic microscopic interferometry for dynamic characterization of micro (opto)electromechanical systems (M(O)EMS) has been limited in measurement bandwidth mainly within a couple of MHz. For high resonant mode analysis, the stroboscopic light pulse is insufficiently short to capture the moving fringes from dynamic motion of the detected structure. In view of this need, a microscopic prototype based on white-light stroboscopic interferometry with an innovative light superposition strategy was developed to achieve dynamic full-field profilometry with a high measurement bandwidth up to 10MHz or higher. The system primarily consists of an optical microscope, on which a Mirau interferometric objective embedded with a piezoelectric vertical translator, a high-power LED light module with dual operation modes and light synchronizing electronics unit are integrated. A micro cantilever beam used in AFM was measured to verify the system capability in accurate characterisation of dynamic behaviours of the device. The full-field seventh-mode vibration at a vibratory frequency of 3.7MHz can be fully characterized and nano-scale vertical measurement resolution as well as tens micrometers of vertical measurement range can be performed.

  7. Imaging Catalysts at Work: A Hierarchical Approach from the Macro- to the Meso- and Nano-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights the importance of developing multi-scale characterisation techniques for analysing operating catalysts in their working environment. We emphasise that a hierarchy of insitu techniques that provides macro-, meso- and nano-scale information is required to elucidate and optimise....../heat/mass transport gradients in shaped catalysts and catalyst grains and c)meso- and nano-scale information about particles and clusters, whose physical and electronic properties are linked directly to the micro-kinetic behaviour of the catalysts. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR), Raman, X......-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/Vis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which have mainly provided global atomic scale information, are being developed to provide the same information on a more local scale, often with sub-second time resolution. X-ray microscopy, both in the soft and more recently...

  8. Production of ultra-thin nano-scaled graphene platelets from meso-carbon micro-beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-11-11

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets (NGPs) having an average thickness no greater than 50 nm, typically less than 2 nm, and, in many cases, no greater than 1 nm. The method comprises (a) intercalating a supply of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMBs) to produce intercalated MCMBs; and (b) exfoliating the intercalated MCMBs at a temperature and a pressure for a sufficient period of time to produce the desired NGPs. Optionally, the exfoliated product may be subjected to a mechanical shearing treatment, such as air milling, air jet milling, ball milling, pressurized fluid milling, rotating-blade grinding, or ultrasonicating. The NGPs are excellent reinforcement fillers for a range of matrix materials to produce nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  9. Three new 5-fold interpenetrating diamondoid frameworks constructed by rigid diimidazole and dicarboxylate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jianqiang; Yan, Shuai; Li, Haiqiang; Yu, Donghui; Arulsamy, Navamoney

    2018-03-01

    A series of three-dimensional coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(BIMB)(SCA)]n (1), [M(BIMB)(trans-CHDC)]n (2, M = Cd2+; 3, M = Co2+), where BIMB = 1,4-di(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene, SCA2- = succinate dianion, CHDC2- = cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylate dianion) are synthesized hydro/solvatothermal methods. The products are characterized by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both the dianion and BIMB bridge different pairs of the metal ions, the three complexes are polymeric and their three-dimensional topology feature a diamond-like metal-organic framework (MOF). Owing to the length of the two bridging ligands, moderate size voids are formed in the diamondoid networks. However, the voids are filled by mutual interpenetration of four independent equivalent frameworks in a 5-fold interpenetrating architecture, and there is no sufficient void volume available for any guest molecules. The phase purity and thermal stability of the compounds are verified by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and thermogravimetric (TG) data. The solid-state fluorescence spectra for the 3d10 Cd2+ MOF's 1 and 2 reveal significant enhancement in their emission intensities in comparison to the non-metallated BIMB. The enhanced emission is attributed to perturbation of intra-ligand emission states due to Cd2+ coordination.

  10. Field limit and nano-scale surface topography of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of extreme type II superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The field limit of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of type II superconductor with a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter is studied with taking effects of nano-scale surface topography into account. If the surface is ideally flat, the field limit is imposed by the superheating field. On the surface of cavity, however, nano-defects almost continuously distribute and suppress the superheating field everywhere. The field limit is imposed by an effective superheating field given by the pro...

  11. Density functional theory studies on the nano-scaled composites consisted of graphene and acyl hydrazone molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, J. L.; Zhou, L.; Lv, Z. C.; Ding, C. H.; Wu, Y. H.; Bai, H. C.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, which is the first obtained single atomic layer 2D materials, has drawn a great of concern in nano biotechnology due to the unique property. On one hand, acyl hydrazone compounds belonging to the Schif bases have aroused considerable attention in medicine, pharmacy, and analytical reagent. However, few understanding about the interaction between graphene and acyl hydrazone molecules is now available. And such investigations are much crucial for the applications of these new nano-scaled composites. The current work revealed theoretical investigations on the nano-scaled composites built by acyl hydrazone molecules loaded on the surface of graphene. The relative energy, electronic property and the interaction between the counterparts of graphene/acyl hydrazone composites are investigated based on the density functional theory calculations. According to the obtained adsorption energy, the formation of the nano-scaled composite from the isolated graphene and acyl hydrazone molecule is exothermic, and thus it is energetically favorable to form these nano composites in viewpoint of total energy change. The frontier molecular orbital for the nano composite is mainly distributed at the graphene part, leading to that the energy levels of the frontier molecular orbital of the nano composites are very close to that of isolated graphene. Moreover, the counterpart interaction for the graphene/acyl hydrazone composites is also explored based on the discussions of orbital hybridization, charge redistribution and Van der Waals interaction.

  12. The viability and performance characterization of nano scale energetic materials on a semiconductor bridge (SCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Gianna Sophia

    The move from conventional energetic composites to nano scale energetic mixtures (nano energetics) has shown dramatic improvement in energy release rate and sensitivity to ignition. A possible application of nano energetics is on a semiconductor bridge (SCB). An SCB typically requires a tenth of the energy input as compared to a bridge wire design with the same no-fire and is capable of igniting in tens of microseconds. For very low energy applications, SCBs can be manufactured to extremely small sizes and it is necessary to find materials with particle sizes that are even smaller to function. Reactive particles of comparable size to the bridge can lead to problems with ignition reliability for small bridges. Nano-energetic composites and the use of SCBs have been significantly studied individually, however, the process of combining nano energetics with an SCB has not been investigated extensively and is the focus of this work. Goals of this study are to determine if nano energetics can be used with SCBs to further reduce the minimum energy required and improve reliability. The performance of nano-scale aluminum (nAl) and bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) with nitrocellulose (NC), Fluorel(TM) FC 2175 (chemically equivalent to VitonRTM) and Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as binders where quantified initially using the SenTest(TM) algorithm at three weight fractions (5, 7, and 9%) of binder. The threshold energy was calculated and compared to previous data using conventional materials such as zirconium potassium chlorate (ZPC), mercuric 5-Nitrotetrazol (DXN-1) and titanium sub-hydride potassium per-chlorate (TSPP). It was found that even though there where only slight differences in performance between the binders with nAl/Bi2O 3 at any of the three binder weight fractions, the results show that these nano energetic materials require about half of the threshold energy compared to conventional materials using an SCB with an 84x42 mum bridge. Binder limit testing was conducted to

  13. Implicit multi-fluid simulation of interpenetrating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, P.W.; Denavit, J.

    1992-01-01

    A one dimensional simulation code for interpenetrating multi-component plasmas is presented. Separate fluid equations for multiple species and the Poisson equation for the electric field are solved implicitly to allow stable accurate solutions over a wide range of the time scale parameters ω p Δt and ν c Δt (ω p is the plasma frequency, ν c a typical collision frequency and Δt the time step). In regions where ω p Δt c Δt p Δt >>1 and/or ν c Δt>>1, the ambipolar and/or diffusion models are recovered. In regions of low collisionality, particles may be created and deleted which are followed using particle and cell techniques combined with scatter and drag due to collisions with the fluids. Applications of this code to interpenetrating laser generated plasmas are presented

  14. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  15. Nano-scale gene delivery systems; current technology, obstacles, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guerra, Antonio; Dunwell, Thomas L; Trigueros, Sonia

    2018-01-07

    Within the different applications of nanomedicine currently being developed, nano-gene delivery is appearing as an exciting new technique with the possibility to overcome recognised hurdles and fulfill several biological and medical needs. The central component of all delivery systems is the requirement for the delivery of genetic material into cells, and for them to eventually reside in the nucleus where their desired function will be exposed. However, genetic material does not passively enter cells; thus, a delivery system is necessary. The emerging field of nano-gene delivery exploits the use of new materials and the properties that arise at the nanometre-scale to produce delivery vectors that can effectively deliver genetic material into a variety of different types of cells. The novel physicochemical properties of the new delivery vectors can be used to address the current challenges existing in nucleic acid delivery in vitro and in vivo. While there is a growing interest in nanostructure-based gene delivery, the field is still in its infancy, and there is yet much to discover about nanostructures and their physicochemical properties in a biological context. We carry out an organized and focused search of bibliographic databases. Our results suggest that despite new breakthroughs in nanostructure synthesis and advanced characterization techniques, we still face many barriers in producing highly efficient and non-toxic delivery systems. In this review, we overview the types of systems currently used for clinical and biomedical research applications along with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as discussing barriers that arise from nano-scale interactions with biological material. In conclusion, we hope that by bringing the far reaching multidisciplinary nature of nano-gene delivery to light, new targeted nanotechnology-bases strategies are developed to overcome the major challenges covered in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For

  16. Nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as an electrochemical sensor for iodate and periodate determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatraei, Fatemeh; Zare, Hamid R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a promising electrochemical sensor was fabricated by the electrodeposition of nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON) on a glassy carbon electrode (RuON–GCE). Then, the electrocatalytic oxidation of iodate and periodate was investigated on it, using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and amperometry as diagnostic techniques. The charge transfer coefficient, α, and the charge transfer rate constant, k s , for electron transfer between RuON and GCE were calculated as 0.5 ± 0.03 and 9.0 ± 0.7 s −1 respectively. A comparison of the data obtained from the electrocatalytic reduction of iodate and periodate at a bare GCE (BGCE) and RuON–GCE clearly shows that the unique electronic properties of nanoparticles definitely improve the characteristics of iodate and periodate electrocatalytic reduction. The kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient, α, and the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, k′, for the reduction of iodate and periodate at RuON–GCE surface were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Amperometry revealed a good linear relationship between the peak current and the concentration of iodate and periodate. The detection limits of 0.9 and 0.2 μM were calculated for iodate and periodate respectively. Highlights: ► Ruthenium oxide nanoparticles, RuON, were used for electrocatalytic reduction iodate and periodate. ► Formal potential, E 0 ′, of the surface redox couple of RuON is pH-dependent. ► The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant values between both analytes and RuON were calculated.

  17. Impact of Subsurface Heterogeneities on nano-Scale Zero Valent Iron Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M. M.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been applied as a remediation technology at sites contaminated with chlorinated compounds and heavy metals. Although laboratory studies have demonstrated high reactivity for the degradation of target contaminants, the success of nZVI in the field has been limited due to poor subsurface mobility. When injected into the subsurface, nZVI tends to aggregate and be retained by subsurface soils. As such nZVI suspensions need to be stabilized for increased mobility. However, even with stabilization, soil heterogeneities can still lead to non-uniform nZVI transport, resulting in poor distribution and consequently decreased degradation of target compounds. Understanding how nZVI transport can be affected by subsurface heterogeneities can aid in improving the technology. This can be done with the use of a numerical model which can simulate nZVI transport. In this study CompSim, a finite difference groundwater model, is used to simulate the movement of nZVI in a two-dimensional domain. CompSim has been shown in previous studies to accurately predict nZVI movement in the subsurface, and is used in this study to examine the impact of soil heterogeneity on nZVI transport. This work also explores the impact of different viscosities of the injected nZVI suspensions (corresponding to different stabilizing polymers) and injection rates on nZVI mobility. Analysis metrics include travel time, travel distance, and average nZVI concentrations. Improving our understanding of the influence of soil heterogeneity on nZVI transport will lead to improved field scale implementation and, potentially, to more effective remediation of contaminated sites.

  18. Micro- and nano-scale characterization to study the thermal degradation of cement-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seungmin; Mondal, Paramita

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of hydration products of cement is known to cause changes in the micro- and nano-structure, which ultimately drive thermo-mechanical degradation of cement-based composite materials at elevated temperatures. However, a detailed characterization of these changes is still incomplete. This paper presents results of an extensive experimental study carried out to investigate micro- and nano-structural changes that occur due to exposure of cement paste to high temperatures. Following heat treatment of cement paste up to 1000 °C, damage states were studied by compressive strength test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM image analysis. Using experimental results and research from existing literature, new degradation processes that drive the loss of mechanical properties of cement paste are proposed. The development of micro-cracks at the interface between unhydrated cement particles and paste matrix, a change in C–S–H nano-structure and shrinkage of C–S–H, are considered as important factors that cause the thermal degradation of cement paste. - Highlights: • The thermal degradation of hydration products of cement is characterized at micro- and nano-scale using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). • The interface between unhydrated cement particles and the paste matrix is considered the origin of micro-cracks. • When cement paste is exposed to temperatures above 300 ºC, the nano-structure of C-S-H becomes a more loosely packed globular structure, which could be indicative of C-S-H shrinkage

  19. Complementary techniques for solid oxide cell characterisation on micro- and nano-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenmann, D.; Hauch, A.; Grobety, B.; Mogensen, M.; Vogt, U.

    2009-01-01

    High temperature steam electrolysis by solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) is a way with great potential to transform clean and renewable energy from non-fossil sources to synthetic fuels such as hydrogen, methane or dimethyl ether, which have been identified as promising alternative energy carriers. Also, as SOEC can operate in the reverse mode as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), during high peak hours e.g. hydrogen can be used in a very efficient way to reconvert chemically stored energy into electrical energy. As solid oxide cells (SOC) are working at high temperatures (700-900 o C), material degradation and evaporation can occur e.g. from the cell sealing material, leading to poisoning effects and aging mechanisms which are decreasing the cell efficiency and long-term durability. In order to investigate such cell degradation processes, thorough examination on SOC often requires the chemical and structural characterisation on the microscopic and the nanoscopic level. The combination of different microscope techniques like conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) and the focused ion-beam (FIB) preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allows performing post mortem analysis on a multi scale level of cells after testing. These complementary techniques can be used to characterize structural and chemical changes over a large and representative sample area (micro-scale) on the one hand, and also on the nano-scale level for selected sample details on the other hand. This article presents a methodical approach for the structural and chemical characterisation of changes in aged cathode-supported electrolysis cells produced at Riso DTU, Denmark. Also, results from the characterisation of impurities at the electrolyte/hydrogen interface caused by evaporation from sealing material are discussed. (author)

  20. Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhe, E-mail: zhe.chen@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Colliander, Magnus Hörnqvist; Sundell, Gustav [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Peng, Ru Lin [Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden); Zhou, Jinming [Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Johansson, Sten; Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-01-27

    The formation mechanism of white layers during broaching and their mechanical properties are not well investigated and understood to date. In the present study, multiple advanced characterization techniques with nano-scale resolution, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), atom probe tomography (APT) as well as nano-indentation, have been used to systematically examine the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties of a surface white layer formed when broaching the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718. TEM observations showed that the broached white layer consists of nano-sized grains, mostly in the range of 20–50 nm. The crystallographic texture detected by TKD further revealed that the refined microstructure is primarily caused by strong shear deformation. Co-located Al-rich and Nb-rich fine clusters have been identified by APT, which are most likely to be γ′ and γ′′ clusters in a form of co-precipitates, where the clusters showed elongated and aligned appearance associated with the severe shearing history. The microstructural characteristics and crystallography of the broached white layer suggest that it was essentially formed by adiabatic shear localization in which the dominant metallurgical process is rotational dynamic recrystallization based on mechanically-driven subgrain rotations. The grain refinement within the white layer led to an increase of the surface nano-hardness by 14% and a reduction in elastic modulus by nearly 10% compared to that of the bulk material. This is primarily due to the greatly increased volume fraction of grain boundaries, when the grain size was reduced down to the nanoscale.

  1. Nano-Scale Sample Acquisition Systems for Small Class Exploration Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm for space exploration is changing. Large and expensive missions are very rare and the space community is turning to smaller, lighter, and less expensive missions that could still perform great exploration. These missions are also within reach of commercial companies such as the Google Lunar X Prize teams that develop small scale lunar missions. Recent commercial endeavors such as "Planet Labs inc." and Sky Box Imaging, inc. show that there are new benefits and business models associated with miniaturization of space hardware. The Nano-Scale Sample Acquisition System includes NanoDrill for capture of small rock cores and PlanetVac for capture of surface regolith. These two systems are part of the ongoing effort to develop "Micro Sampling" systems for deployment by the small spacecraft with limited payload capacities. The ideal applications include prospecting missions to the Moon and Asteroids. The MicroDrill is a rotary-percussive coring drill that captures cores 7 mm in diameter and up to 2 cm long. The drill weighs less than 1 kg and can capture a core from a 40 MPa strength rock within a few minutes, with less than 10 Watt power and less than 10 Newton of preload. The PlanetVac is a pneumatic based regolith acquisition system that can capture surface sample in touch-and-go maneuver. These sampling systems were integrated within the footpads of commercial quadcopter for testing. As such, they could also be used by geologists on Earth to explore difficult to get to locations.

  2. A novel nonlinear nano-scale wear law for metallic brake pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep P; Chilakamarri, Sri Harsha; Markert, Bernd

    2018-05-03

    In the present work, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the temperature distribution as well as the fundamental friction characteristics such as the coefficient of friction and wear in a disc-pad braking system. A wide range of constant velocity loadings was applied on metallic brake pads made of aluminium, copper and iron with different rotating speeds of a diamond-like carbon brake disc. The average temperature of Newtonian atoms and the coefficient of friction of the brake pad were investigated. The resulting relationship of the average temperature with the speed of the disc as well as the applied loading velocity can be described by power laws. The quantitative description of the volume lost from the brake pads was investigated, and it was found that the volume lost increases linearly with the sliding distance. Our results show that Archard's linear wear law is not applicable to a wide range of normal loads, e.g., in cases of low normal load where the wear rate was increased considerably and in cases of high load where there was a possibility of severe wear. In this work, a new formula for the brake pad wear in a disc brake assembly is proposed, which displays a power law relationship between the lost volume of the metallic brake pads per unit sliding distance and the applied normal load with an exponent of 0.62 ± 0.02. This work provides new insights into the fundamental understanding of the wear mechanism at the nano-scale leading to a new bottom-up wear law for metallic brake pads.

  3. Atom probe characterization of nano-scaled features in irradiated Eurofer and ODS Eurofer steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogozkin, S.; Aleev, A.; Nikitin, A.; Zaluzhnyi, A.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.; Lindau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Outstanding performance of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels at high temperatures and up to high doses allowed to consider them as potential candidates for fusion and fission power plants. At the same time their mechanical parameters strongly correlate with number density of oxide particles and their size. It is believed that fine particles are formed at the last stage of sophisticated production procedures and play a crucial role in higher heat- and radiation resistance in comparison with conventional materials. However, due to their small size - only few nanometers, characterization of such objects requires considerable efforts. Recent study of ODS steel by tomographic atom probe, the most appropriate technique in this case, shown considerable stability of these particles under high temperatures and ion-irradiation. However, these results were obtained for 12/14% Cr with addition of 0.3% Y 2 O 3 and titanium which is inappropriate in case of ODS Eurofer 97 and possibility to substitute neutron by ion irradiation is still under consideration. In this work effect of neutron irradiation on nanostructure behaviour of ODS Eurofer are investigated. Irradiation was performed on research reactor BOR-60 in SSC RF RIAR (Dimitrovgrad, Russia) up to 30 dpa at 280 deg. C and 580 deg. C. Recent investigation of unirradiated state revealed high number density of nano-scaled features (nano-clusters) even without addition of Ti in steel. It was shown that vanadium played significant role in nucleation process and core of nano-clusters was considerably enriched with it. In irradiated samples solution of vanadium in matrix was observed while the size of particles stayed practically unchanged. Also no nitrogen was detected in these particles in comparison with unirradiated state where bond energy of N with V was considered to be high as VN 2+ ions were detected on mass-spectra. (author)

  4. Static semicoercive normal compliance contact problem with limited interpenetration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarušek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2015), s. 2161-2172 ISSN 0044-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : contact * limited interpenetration * friction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.560, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00033-015-0539-5

  5. Molecular dynamics study on evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin film liquid Argon on nanostructured surface in nano-scale confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle; Sabah, Arefiny; Ahmed, Jannat; Kuri, Subrata Kumar; Rakibuzzaman, S. M.

    2017-06-01

    Investigation of Molecular level phase change phenomena are becoming important in heat and mass transfer research at a very high rate, driven both by the need to understand certain fundamental phenomena as well as by a plethora of new and forthcoming applications in the areas of micro- and nanotechnologies. Molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out to go through the evaporation and condensation characteristics of thin liquid argon film in Nano-scale confinement. In the present study, a cuboid system is modeled for understanding the Nano-scale physics of simultaneous evaporation and condensation. The cuboid system consists of hot and cold parallel platinum plates at the bottom and top ends. The fluid comprised of liquid argon film at the bottom plate and vapor argon in between liquid argon and upper plate of the domain. Three different simulation domains have been created here: (i) Both platinum plates are considered flat, (ii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of low height and (iii) Upper plate consisting of transverse slots of bigger height. Considering hydrophilic nature of top and bottom plates, two different high temperatures of the hot wall was set and an observation was made on normal and explosive vaporizations and their impacts on thermal transport. For all the structures, equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) was performed to reach equilibrium state at 90 K. Then the lower wall is set to two different temperatures like 110 K and 250 K for all three models to perform non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). For vaporization, higher temperature of the hot wall led to faster transport of the liquid argon as a cluster moving from hot wall to cold wall. But excessive temperature causes explosive boiling which seems not good for heat transportation because of less phase change. In case of condensation, an observation was made which indicates that the nanostructured transverse slots facilitate condensation. Two factors affect the rate of

  6. The Reverse Thermal Effect in Epoxy Resins and Moisture Absorption in Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sa'Ad, Leila

    1989-12-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Epoxy resins exhibit many desirable properties which make them ideal subjects for use as matrices of composite materials in many commercial, military and space applications. However, due to their high cross-link density they are often brittle. Epoxy resin networks have been modified by incorporating tough, ductile thermoplastics. Such systems are referred to as Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (Semi-IPN). Systematic modification to the thermoplastics backbone allowed the morphology of the blend to be controlled from a homogeneous one-phase structure to fully separated structures. The moisture absorption by composites in humid environments has been found to lead to a deterioration in the physical and mechanical properties of the matrix. Therefore, in order to utilize composites to their full potential, their response to hot/wet environments must be known. The aims of this investigation were two-fold. Firstly, to study the effect of varying the temperature of exposure at different stages in the absorption process on the water absorption behaviour of a TGDDM/DDS epoxy resin system. Secondly, to study water absorption characteristics, under isothermal conditions, of Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks possessing different morphologies, and develop a theoretical model to evaluate the diffusion coefficients of the two-phase structures. The mathematical treatment used in this analysis was based on Fick's second law of diffusion. Tests were performed on specimens immersed in water at 10 ^circ, 40^circ and 70^circC, their absorption behaviour and swelling behaviour, as a consequence of water absorption, were investigated. The absorption results of the variable temperature absorption tests indicated a saturation dependence on the absorption behaviour. Specimens saturated at a high temperature will undergo further absorption when transferred to a lower temperature. This behaviour was

  7. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  8. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  9. Long-term superelastic cycling at nano-scale in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Juan, J., E-mail: jose.sanjuan@ehu.es; Gómez-Cortés, J. F. [Dpto. Física Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); López, G. A.; Nó, M. L. [Dpto. Física Aplicada II, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Univ. del País Vasco UPV/EHU, Apdo. 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Jiao, C. [FEI, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-06

    Superelastic behavior at nano-scale has been studied along cycling in Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy micropillars. Arrays of square micropillars were produced by focused ion beam milling, on slides of [001] oriented Cu-Al-Ni single crystals. Superelastic behavior of micropillars, due to the stress-induced martensitic transformation, has been studied by nano-compression tests during thousand cycles, and its evolution has been followed along cycling. Each pillar has undergone more than thousand cycles without any detrimental evolution. Moreover, we demonstrate that after thousand cycles they exhibit a perfectly reproducible and completely recoverable superelastic behavior.

  10. Stagnation and interpenetration of laser-created colliding plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollaine, S.M.; Albritton, J.R.; Kauffman, R.; Keane, C.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Berger, R.L.; Bosch, R.; Delameter, N.D.; Failor, B.H. (KMS Fusion, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

    1990-11-05

    A KMS laser experiment collides Aluminum (A1) and Magnesium (Mg) plasmas. The measurements include electron density, time and space resolved Ly-alpha and He-alpha lines of Al and Mg, and x-ray images. These measurements were analyzed with a hydrodynamic code, LASNEX, and a special two-fluid code OFIS. The results strongly suggest that at early times, the Al interpenetrates the counterstreaming Mg and deposits in the dense Mg region. At late times, the Al plasma stagnates against the Mg plasma.

  11. Analysis of the nano-scale structure of a natural clayey soil using the small angle neutron scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, T.; Bertram, W.K.; Hathaway, P.V.; Knott, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    The small angle neutron scattering method (SANS) was used to analyze the nano-structure of a natural clayey soil used for containment of industrial liquid wastes. A Tertiary clay deposit called the Londonderry clay was used to contain the wastes in a state-run landfill facility in NSW. A number of site assessments have been carried out at the site and continual efforts have been made to characterize interactions between soil materials and contaminants at the site. Hence, it is of research and practical interest to investigate the effects of deformation on the nano-scale structure of the soil. Experiments have been conducted to analyze the structure of reconstituted clayey soil samples that were subjected to uniaxial compression ranging from 200 kPa to 800 kPa. The small angle neutron scattering instrument was used to measure the scattering intensity of these samples at a scattering vector (q) range between 0.01 and 0.1 Angstroms -1 . The sector integration technique was used to analyse elliptical scattering patterns along the major and minor axes. A relation between stress, void ratio and nano-scale structure properties was then briefly discussed for use in assessing the performance of clayey soils as in situ barriers

  12. Performance assessment and optimization of an irreversible nano-scale Stirling engine cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad-Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah

    2015-09-01

    Developing new technologies like nano-technology improves the performance of the energy industries. Consequently, emerging new groups of thermal cycles in nano-scale can revolutionize the energy systems' future. This paper presents a thermo-dynamical study of a nano-scale irreversible Stirling engine cycle with the aim of optimizing the performance of the Stirling engine cycle. In the Stirling engine cycle the working fluid is an Ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas. Moreover, two different strategies are proposed for a multi-objective optimization issue, and the outcomes of each strategy are evaluated separately. The first strategy is proposed to maximize the ecological coefficient of performance (ECOP), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F . Furthermore, the second strategy is suggested to maximize the thermal efficiency ( η), the dimensionless ecological function (ecf) and the dimensionless thermo-economic objective function ( F). All the strategies in the present work are executed via a multi-objective evolutionary algorithms based on NSGA∥ method. Finally, to achieve the final answer in each strategy, three well-known decision makers are executed. Lastly, deviations of the outcomes gained in each strategy and each decision maker are evaluated separately.

  13. Controlled fabrication of nano-scale double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions using focused ion beam milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, H.X.; Wang, T.X.; Zeng, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Q.; Zhao, J.; Han, X.F.

    2006-01-01

    The controlled fabrication method for nano-scale double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (DBMTJs) with the layer structure of Ta(5)/Cu(10)/Ni 79 Fe 21 (5)/Ir 22 Mn 78 (12)/Co 6 Fe 2 B 2 (4)/Al(1) -oxide/Co 6 Fe 2 B 2 (6)/Al (1)-oxide/Co 6 Fe 2 B 2 (4)/Ir 22 Mn 78 (12)/Ni 79 Fe 21 (5)/Ta(5) (thickness unit: nm) was used. This method involved depositing thin multi-layer stacks by sputtering system, and depositing a Pt nano-pillar using a focused ion beam which acted both as a top contact and as an etching mask. The advantages of this process over the traditional process using e-beam and optical lithography in that it involve only few processing steps, e.g. it does not involve any lift-off steps. In order to evaluate the nanofabrication techniques, the DBMTJs with the dimensions of 200 nmx400 nm, 200 nmx200 nm nano-scale were prepared and their R-H, I-V characteristics were measured.

  14. Formation of Nano scale Bio imprints of Muscle Cells Using UV-Cured Spin-Coated Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsuri, F.; Alkaisi, M.M.; Mitchell, J.S.; Evans, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We report a nano scale replication method suitable for biological specimens that has potential in single cell studies and in formation of 3D biocompatible scaffolds. Earlier studies using a heat-curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or a UV-curable elastomer introduced Bio imprint replication to facilitate cell imaging. However, the replicating conditions for thermal polymerization are known to cause cell dehydration during curing. In this study, a UV-cured methacrylate copolymer was developed for use in creating replicas of living cells and was tested on rat muscle cells. Bio imprints of muscle cells were formed by spin coating under UV irradiation. The polymer replicas were then separated from the muscle cells and were analyzed under an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), in tapping mode, because it has low tip-sample forces and thus will not destroy the fine structures of the imprint. The new polymer is biocompatible with higher replication resolution and has a faster curing process than other types of silicon-based organic polymers such as PDMS. High resolution images of the muscle cell imprints showed the micro-and nano structures of the muscle cells, including cellular fibers and structures within the cell membranes. The AFM is able to image features at nano scale resolution with the potential for recognizing abnormalities on cell membranes at early stages of disease progression.

  15. Silk Fibroin/Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajiang Kuang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silk fibroin hydrogel is an ideal model as biomaterial matrix due to its excellent biocompatibility and used in the field of medical polymer materials. Nevertheless, native fibroin hydrogels show poor transparency and resilience. To settle these drawbacks, an interpenetrating network (IPN of hydrogels are synthesized with changing ratios of silk fibroin/N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidonemixtures that crosslink by H2O2 and horseradish peroxidase. Interpenetrating polymer network structure can shorten the gel time and the pure fibroin solution gel time for more than a week. This is mainly due to conformation from the random coil to the β-sheet structure changes of fibroin. Moreover, the light transmittance of IPN hydrogel can be as high as more than 97% and maintain a level of 90% within a week. The hydrogel, which mainly consists of random coil, the apertures inside can be up to 200 μm. Elastic modulus increases during the process of gelation. The gel has nearly 95% resilience under the compression of 70% eventually, which is much higher than native fibroin gel. The results suggest that the present IPN hydrogels have excellent mechanical properties and excellent transparency.

  16. Evaporation characteristics of a hydrophilic surface with micro-scale and/or nano-scale structures fabricated by sandblasting and aluminum anodization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungmo; Kim, Joonwon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of evaporation experiments using water droplets on aluminum sheets that were either smooth or had surface structures at the micro-scale, at the nano-scale or at both micro- and nano-scales (dual-scale). The smooth surface was a polished aluminum sheet; the surface with micro-scale structures was obtained by sandblasting; the surface with nano-scale structures was obtained using conventional aluminum anodization and the surface with dual-scale structures was prepared using sandblasting and anodization sequentially. The wetting properties and evaporation rates were measured for each surface. The evaporation rates were affected by their static and dynamic wetting properties. Evaporation on the surface with dual-scale structures was fastest and the evaporation rate was analyzed quantitatively.

  17. Calculation of Thomson scattering spectral fits for interpenetrating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F., E-mail: george.swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Lebedev, S. V., E-mail: george.swadling@imperial.ac.uk; Burdiak, G. C.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Suzuki-Vidal, F. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2JI (Canada); Hall, G. N. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom SW7 2BW and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Collective mode optical Thomson scattering has been used to investigate the interactions of radially convergent ablation flows in Tungsten wire arrays. These experiments were carried out at the Magpie pulsed power facility at Imperial College, London. Analysis of the scattered spectra has provided direct evidence of ablation stream interpenetration on the array axis, and has also revealed a previously unobserved axial deflection of the ablation streams towards the anode as they approach the axis. It is has been suggested that this deflection is caused by the presence of a static magnetic field, advected with the ablation streams, stagnated and accrued around the axis. Analysis of the Thomson scattering spectra involved the calculation and fitting of the multi-component, non-relativistic, Maxwellian spectral density function S (k, ω). The method used to calculate the fits of the data are discussed in detail.

  18. A multi-level capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on a nano-scale strained silicon-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jea-Gun; Kim, Seong-Je; Shin, Mi-Hee; Song, Seung-Hyun; Shim, Tae-Hun; Chung, Sung-Woong; Enomoto, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    A multi-level capacitor-less memory cell was fabricated with a fully depleted n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor on a nano-scale strained silicon channel on insulator (FD sSOI n-MOSFET). The 0.73% biaxial tensile strain in the silicon channel of the FD sSOI n-MOSFET enhanced the effective electron mobility to ∼ 1.7 times that with an unstrained silicon channel. This thereby enables both front- and back-gate cell operations, demonstrating eight-level volatile memory-cell operation with a 1 ms retention time and 12 μA memory margin. This is a step toward achieving a terabit volatile memory cell.

  19. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  20. Nano-scale patterning on sulfur terminated GaAs (0 0 1) surface by scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Yuki; Toda, Yusuke; Hirai, Masakazu; Fujishiro, Hiroki Inomata

    2004-01-01

    We perform nano-scale patterning on a sulfur (S) terminated GaAs (0 0 1) surface by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). A multi-layer of S deposited by using (NH 4 ) 2 S x solution is changed to a mono-layer after annealing at 560 deg. C for 15 h, which terminates the GaAs (0 0 1) surface. Groove structures with about 0.23 nm in depth and about 5 nm in width are patterned successfully on the S-terminated surface. We investigate dependences of both depth and width of the patterned groove on the tunneling current and the scanning speed of tip. It is observed that topmost S atoms are extracted together with first-layer Ga atoms, because of the larger binding energy of S-Ga bond

  1. Nano-scale pattern formation on the surface of HgCdTe produced by ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A.B.; Gudymenko, A.I.; Kladko, V.P.; Korchevyi, A.A.; Savkina, R.K.; Sizov, F.F.; Udovitska, R.S. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-08-15

    Presented in this work are the results concerning formation of nano-scale patterns on the surface of a ternary compound Hg{sub 1-x}Cd{sub x}Te (x ∝ 0.223). Modification of this ternary chalcogenide semiconductor compound was performed using the method of oblique-incidence ion bombardment with silver ions, which was followed by low-temperature treatment. The energy and dose of implanted ions were 140 keV and 4.8 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively. Atomic force microscopy methods were used for the surface topography characterization. The structural properties of MCT-based structure was analyzed using double and triple crystal X-ray diffraction to monitor the disorder and strain of the implanted region as a function of processing conditions. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Water soluble nano-scale transient material germanium oxide for zero toxic waste based environmentally benign nano-manufacturing

    KAUST Repository

    Almuslem, A. S.

    2017-02-14

    In the recent past, with the advent of transient electronics for mostly implantable and secured electronic applications, the whole field effect transistor structure has been dissolved in a variety of chemicals. Here, we show simple water soluble nano-scale (sub-10 nm) germanium oxide (GeO) as the dissolvable component to remove the functional structures of metal oxide semiconductor devices and then reuse the expensive germanium substrate again for functional device fabrication. This way, in addition to transiency, we also show an environmentally friendly manufacturing process for a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Every year, trillions of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics are manufactured and billions are disposed, which extend the harmful impact to our environment. Therefore, this is a key study to show a pragmatic approach for water soluble high performance electronics for environmentally friendly manufacturing and bioresorbable electronic applications.

  3. Signal Processing for Wireless Communication MIMO System with Nano- Scaled CSDG MOSFET based DP4T RF Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Viranjay M

    2015-01-01

    In the present technological expansion, the radio frequency integrated circuits in the wireless communication technologies became useful because of the replacement of increasing number of functions, traditional hardware components by modern digital signal processing. The carrier frequencies used for communication systems, now a day, shifted toward the microwave regime. The signal processing for the multiple inputs multiple output wireless communication system using the Metal- Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) has been done a lot. In this research the signal processing with help of nano-scaled Cylindrical Surrounding Double Gate (CSDG) MOSFET by means of Double- Pole Four-Throw Radio-Frequency (DP4T RF) switch, in terms of Insertion loss, Isolation, Reverse isolation and Inter modulation have been analyzed. In addition to this a channel model has been presented. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic.

  4. The applications of small-angle X-ray scattering in studying nano-scaled polyoxometalate clusters in solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Zhang, Mingxin; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.; Yin, Panchao

    2018-05-01

    Nano-scaled polyoxometalates (POMs) clusters with sizes ranging from 1 to 10 nm attract tremendous attention and have been extensively studied due to POMs' fascinating structural characteristics and prospects for wide-ranging applications. As a unique class of nanoparticles with well-defined structural topologies and monodispersed masses, the structures and properties of POMs in both bulk state and solutions have been explored with several well-developed protocols. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique, as a powerful tool for studying polymers and nanoparticles, has been recently extended to the investigating of solution behaviors of POMs. In this mini-review, the general principle and typical experimental procedures of SAXS are illustrated first. The applications of SAXS in characterizing POMs' morphology, counterion distribution around POMs, and short-range interactions among POMs in solutions are highlighted. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Multi-objective optimization and exergetic-sustainability of an irreversible nano scale Braysson cycle operating with Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Ahmadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano technology is developed in this decade and changes the way of life. Moreover, developing nano technology has effect on the performance of the materials and consequently improves the efficiency and robustness of them. So, nano scale thermal cycles will be probably engaged in the near future. In this paper, a nano scale irreversible Braysson cycle is studied thermodynamically for optimizing the performance of the Braysson cycle. In the aforementioned cycle an ideal Maxwell–Boltzmann gas is used as a working fluid. Furthermore, three different plans are used for optimizing with multi-objectives; though, the outputs of the abovementioned plans are assessed autonomously. Throughout the first plan, with the purpose of maximizing the ecological coefficient of performance and energy efficiency of the system, multi-objective optimization algorithms are used. Furthermore, in the second plan, two objective functions containing the ecological coefficient of performance and the dimensionless Maximum available work are maximized synchronously by utilizing multi-objective optimization approach. Finally, throughout the third plan, three objective functions involving the dimensionless Maximum available work, the ecological coefficient of performance and energy efficiency of the system are maximized synchronously by utilizing multi-objective optimization approach. The multi-objective evolutionary approach based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm approach is used in this research. Making a decision is performed by three different decision makers comprising linear programming approaches for multidimensional analysis of preference and an approach for order of preference by comparison with ideal answer and Bellman–Zadeh. Lastly, analysis of error is employed to determine deviation of the outcomes gained from each plan.

  6. Determination of crystal growth rates during rapid solidification of polycrystalline aluminum by nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweiacker, K., E-mail: Kai@zweiacker.org; Liu, C.; Wiezorek, J. M. K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States); McKeown, J. T.; LaGrange, T.; Reed, B. W.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Physical and Life Science Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    In situ investigations of rapid solidification in polycrystalline Al thin films were conducted using nano-scale spatio-temporal resolution dynamic transmission electron microscopy. Differences in crystal growth rates and asymmetries in melt pool development were observed as the heat extraction geometry was varied by controlling the proximity of the laser-pulse irradiation and the associated induced melt pools to the edge of the transmission electron microscopy support grid, which acts as a large heat sink. Experimental parameters have been established to maximize the reproducibility of the material response to the laser-pulse-related heating and to ensure that observations of the dynamical behavior of the metal are free from artifacts, leading to accurate interpretations and quantifiable measurements with improved precision. Interface migration rate measurements revealed solidification velocities that increased consistently from ∼1.3 m s{sup −1} to ∼2.5 m s{sup −1} during the rapid solidification process of the Al thin films. Under the influence of an additional large heat sink, increased crystal growth rates as high as 3.3 m s{sup −1} have been measured. The in situ experiments also provided evidence for development of a partially melted, two-phase region prior to the onset of rapid solidification facilitated crystal growth. Using the experimental observations and associated measurements as benchmarks, finite-element modeling based calculations of the melt pool evolution after pulsed laser irradiation have been performed to obtain estimates of the temperature evolution in the thin films.

  7. Effect of nano-scale morphology on micro-channel wall surface and electrical characterization in lead silicate glass micro-channel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Li, Fangjun; Xu, Yanglei; Bo, Tiezhu; Zhou, Dongzhan; Lian, Jiao; Li, Qing; Cao, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Wang, Caili; Liu, Hui; Li, Guoen; Jia, Jinsheng

    2017-10-01

    Micro-channel plate (MCP) is a two dimensional arrays of microscopic channel charge particle multiplier. Silicate composition and hydrogen reduction are keys to determine surface morphology of micro-channel wall in MCP. In this paper, lead silicate glass micro-channel plates in two different cesium contents (0at%, 0.5at%) and two different hydrogen reduction temperatures (400°C,450°C) were present. The nano-scale morphology, elements content and chemical states of microporous wall surface treated under different alkaline compositions and reduction conditions was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Meanwhile, the electrical characterizations of MCP, including the bulk resistance, electron gain and the density of dark current, were measured in a Vacuum Photoelectron Imaging Test Facility (VPIT).The results indicated that the granular phase occurred on the surface of microporous wall and diffuses in bulk glass is an aggregate of Pb atom derived from the reduction of Pb2+. In micro-channel plate, the electron gain and bulk resistance were mainly correlated to particle size and distribution, the density of dark current (DDC) went up with the increasing root-mean-square roughness (RMS) on the microporous wall surface. Adding cesiums improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, lowered the relative concentration of [Pb] reduced from Pb2+ and decreased the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a less dark current. Increasing hydrogen reduction temperature also improved the size of Pb atomic aggregation, but enhanced the relative concentration of [Pb] and enlarged the total roughness of micro-channel wall surface, leading a higher bulk resistance, a lower electron gain and a larger dark current. The reasons for the difference of electrical characteristics were discussed.

  8. Kinetics of nitrate adsorption and reduction by nano-scale zero valent iron (NZVI): Effect of ionic strength and initial pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Do-Gun; Hwang, Yuhoon; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic models for pollutants reduction by Nano-scale Zero Valent Iron (NZVI) were tested in this study to gain a better understanding and description of the reaction. Adsorption kinetic models and a heterogeneous catalytic reaction kinetic equation were proposed for nitrate removal and for ammon...

  9. Nanoscale Engineering of Multiferroic Hybrid Composites for Micro- and Nano-scale Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    presented in Fig.1. In the case of laminate structures we proposed to use AIN as a piezoelectric phase [publication 4]. Although commonly used Pb...16-19, 2009, Zhengzhou, China. 30)L. Malkinski, "Magnetic heterostructures with convoluted architectures" (invited) 7th Workshop on Multifunction

  10. Topological superfluids confined in a regular nano-scale slab geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, John; Bennett, Robert; Levitin, Lev; Casey, Andrew; Cowan, Brian [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Parpia, Jeevak [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Drung, Dietmar; Schurig, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, D-19587, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superfluid 3He confined in a regular nano-fabricated slab geometry provides a model system for the investigation of surface and thin film effects in a p-wave superfluid. We have fabricated and cooled such samples to well below 1 mK for the first time, and investigated their NMR response, exploiting a SQUID NMR spectrometer of exquisite sensitivity. We have used NMR on a 650 nm thick superfluid slab to identify the profound effect of confinement on the relative stability of the A and B phases and to make quantitative measurements of the suppression and surface induced distortion of the order parameter. In these systems the effective confinement length scale (slab thickness/superfluid coherence length) is the new tuning parameter. Increasing confinement should stabilize new p-wave superfluid states of matter, such as the quasi-2D gapped A phase or the planar phase. Nanofluidic samples of superfluid 3He promise a route to explore topological superfluids and their surface, edge and defect-bound excitations under well controlled conditions.

  11. Effect of nano-scaled styrene butadiene rubber based nucleating agent on the thermal, crystallization and physical properties of isotactic polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petchwattana, Nawadon [Division of Polymer Materials Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Product Innovation and Technology, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Covavisaruch, Sirijutaratana, E-mail: sirijutaratana.c@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sripanya, Panjapong [Thai Oleochemicals Company Limited (A Subsidiary of PTT Global Chemical Public Company Limited), Mueang Rayong, Rayong 21150 (Thailand)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • The effect of a SBR based β-NA on the properties iPP was investigated. • The addition of β-NA led to higher population of nuclei and smaller spherulites. • β to α phase transformation was observed when re-extrusion process was applied. • Impact strength was increased when the β-NA was added from 0.10 to 0.20 wt%. -- Abstract: The influence of a specific nano-scaled styrene butadiene rubber based β-nucleating agent (β-NA) on the properties of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) was investigated in the current research. β-NA was applied at the concentration ranged from 0.05 to 0.50 wt%. Microscopic observation revealed that the neat iPP crystals grew very slowly; they ranged in size from 100 to 200 μm. The addition of β-NA led to higher population of nuclei and smaller spherulites than those found in neat iPP. The addition of only 0.05 wt% β-NA significantly decreased the sizes of the spherulites down to 5 μm; the crystal grew very rapidly, leading to extremely fine morphology. Analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that iPP/β-NA constituted mainly of β-crystal structure. The transformation of β to α phase was observed upon re-extrusion, it was verified by the lowered fraction of the β-crystalline phase (K{sub β}) although the total degree of crystallinity remained unchanged. A significant improvement in the impact strength of the iPP/β-NA was observed when the β-NA was employed from 0.10 to 0.20 wt%, leading to the formation of tough β-crystals in the β-NA nucleated iPP. The color measurement implied that the iPP nucleated with β-NA was superior in terms of whiteness but it was less transparent, as was evident by the increased haze.

  12. A multi-physics modelling framework to describe the behaviour of nano-scale multilayer systems undergoing irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage is known to lead to material failure and thus is of critical importance to lifetime and safety within nuclear reactors. While mechanical behaviour of materials under irradiation has been the subject of numerous studies, the current predictive capabilities of such phenomena appear limited. The clustering of point defects such as vacancies and self interstitial atoms gives rise to creep, void swelling and material embrittlement. Nano-scale metallic multilayer systems have be shown to have the ability to evacuate such point defects, hence delaying the occurrence of critical damage. In addition, they exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. The objective of this work is to develop a thermodynamically consistent continuum framework at the meso and nano-scales, which accounts for the major physical processes encountered in such metallic multilayer systems and is able to predict their microstructural evolution and behavior under irradiation. Mainly three physical phenomena are addressed in the present work: stress-diffusion coupling and diffusion induced creep, the void nucleation and growth in multilayer systems under irradiation, and the interaction of dislocations with the multilayer interfaces. In this framework, the microstructure is explicitly modeled, in order to account accurately for their effects on the system behavior. The diffusion creep strain rate is related to the gradient of the vacancy flux. A Cahn-Hilliard approach is used to model void nucleation and growth, and the diffusion equations for vacancies and self interstitial atoms are complemented to take into account the production of point defects due to irradiation cascades, the mutual recombination of defects and their evacuation through grain boundaries. In metallic multilayers, an interface affected zone is defined, with an additional slip plane to model the interface shearable character, and where dislocations cores are able to spread. The model is then implemented numerically

  13. Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Lohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have always been valuable excipients in conventional dosage forms, also have shown excellent performance into the parenteral arena, and are now capable of offering advanced and sophisticated functions such as controlled drug release and drug targeting. Advances in polymer science have led to the development of several novel drug delivery systems. Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have shown superior performances over the conventional individual polymers and, consequently, the ranges of applications have grown rapidly for such class of materials. The advanced properties of IPNs like swelling capacity, stability, biocompatibility, nontoxicity and biodegradability have attracted considerable attention in pharmaceutical field especially in delivering bioactive molecules to the target site. In the past few years various research reports on the IPN based delivery systems showed that these carriers have emerged as a novel carrier in controlled drug delivery. The present review encompasses IPNs, their types, method of synthesis, factors which affects the morphology of IPNs, extensively studied IPN based drug delivery systems, and some natural polymers widely used for IPNs.

  14. Interpenetrating polyaniline-gold electrodes for SERS and electrochemical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. M.; Semancik, S.

    2016-11-01

    Facile fabrication of nanostructured electrode arrays is critical for development of bimodal SERS and electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, the variation of applied potential at a polyaniline-coated Pt electrode is used to selectivity deposit Au on the polyaniline amine sites or on the underlying Pt electrode. By alternating the applied potential, the Au is grown simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the polyaniline film, leading to an interpenetrated, nanostructured polymer-metal composite extending from the Pt electrode to the electrolyte solution. The resulting films have unique pH-dependent electrochemical properties, e.g. they retain electrochemical activity in both acidic and neutral solutions, and they also include SERS-active nanostructures. By varying the concentration of chloroaurate used during deposition, Au nanoparticles, nanodendrites, or nanosheets can be selectively grown. For the films deposited under optimal conditions, using 5 mmol/L chloroaurate, the SERS enhancement factor for Rhodamine 6G was found to be as high as 1.1 × 106 with spot-to-spot and electrode-to-electrode relative standard deviations as low as 8% and 12%, respectively. The advantages of the reported PANI-Au composite electrodes lie in their facile fabrication, enabling the targeted deposition of tunable nanostructures on sensing arrays, and their ability to produce orthogonal optical and electrochemical analytical results.

  15. Interpenetrating network ceramic-resin composite dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Coldea, A; Bilkhair, A; Guess, P C

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure and some properties of resin infiltrated ceramic network structure materials suitable for CAD/CAM dental restorative applications. Initially the basis of interpenetrating network materials is defined along with placing them into a materials science perspective. This involves identifying potential advantages of such structures beyond that of the individual materials or simple mixing of the components. Observations from a number of recently published papers on this class of materials are summarized. These include the strength, fracture toughness, hardness and damage tolerance, namely to pointed and blunt (spherical) indentation as well as to burr adjustment. In addition a summary of recent results of crowns subjected to simulated clinical conditions using a chewing simulator are presented. These results are rationalized on the basis of existing theoretical considerations. The currently available ceramic-resin IPN material for clinical application is softer, exhibits comparable strength and fracture toughness but with substantial R-curve behavior, has lower E modulus and is more damage tolerant than existing glass-ceramic materials. Chewing simulation observations with crowns of this material indicate that it appears to be more resistant to sliding/impact induced cracking although its overall contact induced breakage load is modest. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation and characterization of shape memory composite foams with interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yongtao; Zhou, Tianyang; Yang, Cheng; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a feasible approach of fabricating shape memory composite foams with an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) based on polyurethane (PU) and shape memory epoxy resin (SMER) via a simultaneous polymerization technique. The PU component is capable of constructing a foam structure and the SMER is grafted on the PU network to offer its shape memory property in the final IPN foams. A series of IPN foams without phase separation were produced due to good compatibility and a tight chemical interaction between PU and SMER components. The relationships of the geometry of the foam cell were investigated via varying compositions of PU and SMER. The physical property and shape memory property were also evaluated. The stimulus temperature of IPN shape memory composite foams, glass temperature (T g ), could be tunable by varying the constituents and T g of PU and SMER. The mechanism of the shape memory effect of IPN foams has been proposed. The shape memory composite foam with IPN developed in this study has the potential to extend its application field. (paper)

  17. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  18. Understanding interpenetrating-polymer-network-like porous nitrile butadiene rubber hybrids by their long-period miscibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jihua; Wang, Lifeng; Zhao, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrogen bonds are introduced into NBR to develop its IPN-like porous hybrids. • NBR is partly miscible with AO-60. • AO-60 possesses the viscoelastic behavior resembling that of polymers. • Phase separation aggravates and AO-60 crystallizes in the durations. • The porous hybrids may have potential damping applications. - Abstract: In this article, tetrakis [methylene-3-(3, 5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy phenyl) propionyloxy] methane (AO-60) with hydrogen bonds was designed to interpenetrate into the chemical crosslinking bonds of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and then porous materials were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) demonstrate that NBR is partly miscible with AO-60 which induces the micro-pores and interpenetrating-polymer-network (IPN)-like phase morphology in the hybrids. The wide double tan δ peak in DMA curve displays that AO-60 possesses similar viscoelastic behaviors to polymers which come from supramolecular interactions between polar groups of NBR chains and hydroxyl (OH) groups of AO-60. To further understand the supramolecular abilities of AO-60 in the rubber, the long-period observations for their miscibility are conducted. With the increase of durations, the hydrogen bond network from AO-60 is weakened. The phase separation between AO-60 and NBR is aggravated and even extremely few AO-60 crystallizes which develops multi-scale porous morphology in the hybrids. It is believed that these findings can serve as a guide for the designs of the IPN-like hybrids with small molecule substances and their applications of damping materials

  19. Nano-scaled hydroxyapatite/silk fibroin sheets support osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Hirose, Motohiro; Kotobuki, Noriko; Ohgushi, Hajime; Furuzono, Tsutomu; Sato, Junichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel biomaterial that was composed of nano-scaled sintered hydroxyapatite (HAp) and silk fibroin (SF) was fabricated. We cultured rat marrow mesenchymal cells (MMCs) on this biomaterial (nano-HAp/SF sheet), on bare SF sheets, and on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes as controls, then evaluated cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of the MMCs. After 1 h of culture, a large number of viable cells were observed on the nano-HAp/SF sheets in comparison to the controls. In addition, after 3 h of culture, the morphology of the cells on the nano-HAp/SF sheets was quite different from that on the SF sheets. MMCs extrude their cytoplasmic processes to nano-HAp particles and are well attached to the sheets. After 14 days of culture, under osteogenic conditions, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone-specific osteocalcin secretion of the cells on nano-HAp/SF sheets were higher than were those on the controls. These results indicated that the surface of the nano-HAp/SF sheets is covered with appropriate HAp crystal for MMC adhesion/proliferation and that the sheets effectively support the osteogenic differentiation of MMCs. Therefore, the nano-HAp/SF sheet is an effective biomaterial that is applicable in bone reconstruction surgery

  20. Electroless deposition and nanolithography can control the formation of materials at the nano-scale for plasmonic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, Maria Laura; Gentile, Francesco; Francardi, Marco; Perozziello, Gerardo; Malara, Natalia; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    The new revolution in materials science is being driven by our ability to manipulate matter at the molecular level to create structures with novel functions and properties. The aim of this paper is to explore new strategies to obtain plasmonic metal nanostructures through the combination of a top down method, that is electron beam lithography, and a bottom up technique, that is the chemical electroless deposition. This technique allows a tight control over the shape and size of bi- and three-dimensional metal patterns at the nano scale. The resulting nanostructures can be used as constituents of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) substrates, where the electromagnetic field is strongly amplified. Our results indicate that, in electroless growth, high quality metal nanostructures with sizes below 50 nm may be easily obtained. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model, that is a simulation model that makes it possible to decipher, at an atomic level, the rules governing the evolution of the growth front; moreover, we give a description of the physical echanisms of growth at a basic level. In the discussion, we show how these findings can be utilized to fabricate dimers of silver nanospheres where the size and shape of those spheres is controlled with extreme precision and can be used for very large area SERS substrates and nano-optics, for single molecule detection. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  1. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Chung, Haegeun; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High integrity supercapacitors are achieved by improving adhesion of CNTs on PET. • Nanostructures on PET substrate significantly enhances the adhesion strength. • A simple RIE process generates the nanostructures on PET surface. • RIE induces hydrophilicity on the PET and further enhances the adhesive strength. • The supercapacitors show good cyclability with high specific capacitance retention. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  2. Electrodeposited nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for simultaneous catalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Hamid R., E-mail: hrzare@yazduni.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Center, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S. Hossein; Benvidi, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-04

    For the first time, an electrodeposited nano-scale islands of ruthenium oxide (ruthenium oxide nanoparticles), as an excellent bifunctional electrocatalyst, was successfully used for hydrazine and hydroxylamine electrocatalytic oxidation. The results show that, at the present bifunctional modified electrode, two different redox couples of ruthenium oxides serve as electrocatalysts for simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrazine and hydroxylamine. At the modified electrode surface, the peaks of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) for hydrazine and hydroxylamine oxidation were clearly separated from each other when they co-exited in solution. Thus, it was possible to simultaneously determine hydrazine and hydroxylamine in the samples at a ruthenium oxide nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (RuON-GCE). Linear calibration curves were obtained for 2.0-268.3 {mu}M and 268.3-417.3 {mu}M of hydrazine and for 4.0-33.8 {mu}M and 33.8-78.3 {mu}M of hydroxylamine at the modified electrode surface using an amperometric method. The amperometric method also exhibited the detection limits of 0.15 {mu}M and 0.45 {mu}M for hydrazine and hydroxylamine respectively. RuON-GCE was satisfactorily used for determination of spiked hydrazine in two water samples. Moreover, the studied bifunctional modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity, good repeatability, wide linear range and long-term stability.

  3. Enhancement of CNT/PET film adhesion by nano-scale modification for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu Jin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Haegeun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Seop [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woong, E-mail: woongkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High integrity supercapacitors are achieved by improving adhesion of CNTs on PET. • Nanostructures on PET substrate significantly enhances the adhesion strength. • A simple RIE process generates the nanostructures on PET surface. • RIE induces hydrophilicity on the PET and further enhances the adhesive strength. • The supercapacitors show good cyclability with high specific capacitance retention. - Abstract: We demonstrate the fabrication of high-integrity flexible supercapacitors using carbon nanotubes (CNTs), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and ion gels. Although both CNTs and PET films are attractive materials for flexible electronics, they have poor adhesion properties. In this work, we significantly improve interfacial adhesion by introducing nanostructures at the interface of the CNT and PET layers. Simple reactive ion etching (RIE) of the PET substrates generates nano-scale roughness on the PET surface. RIE also induces hydrophilicity on the PET surface, which further enhances adhesive strength. The improved adhesion enables high integrity and excellent flexibility of the fabricated supercapacitors, demonstrated over hundreds of bending cycles. Furthermore, the supercapacitors show good cyclability with specific capacitance retention of 87.5% after 10,000 galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD) cycles. Our demonstration may be important for understanding interfacial adhesion properties in nanoscale and for producing flexible, high-integrity, high-performance energy storage systems.

  4. Atomic and nano-scale characterization of a 50-year-old hydrated C3S paste

    KAUST Repository

    Geng, Guoqing

    2015-07-15

    This paper investigates the atomic and nano-scale structures of a 50-year-old hydrated alite paste. Imaged by TEM, the outer product C-S-H fibers are composed of particles that are 1.5-2 nm thick and several tens of nanometers long. 29Si NMR shows 47.9% Q1 and 52.1% Q2, with a mean SiO4 tetrahedron chain length (MCL) of 4.18, indicating a limited degree of polymerization after 50 years\\' hydration. A Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) study was conducted on this late-age paste and a 1.5 year old hydrated C3S solution. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) at Ca L3,2-edge indicates that Ca2 + in C-S-H is in an irregular symmetric coordination, which agrees more with the atomic structure of tobermorite than that of jennite. At Si K-edge, multi-scattering phenomenon is sensitive to the degree of polymerization, which has the potential to unveil the structure of the SiO44 - tetrahedron chain. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Field limit and nano-scale surface topography of superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of extreme type II superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    The field limit of a superconducting radio-frequency cavity made of a type II superconductor with a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter is studied, taking the effects of nano-scale surface topography into account. If the surface is ideally flat, the field limit is imposed by the superheating field. On the surface of cavity, however, nano-defects almost continuously distribute and suppress the superheating field everywhere. The field limit is imposed by an effective superheating field given by the product of the superheating field for an ideal flat surface and a suppression factor that contains the effects of nano-defects. A nano-defect is modeled by a triangular groove with a depth smaller than the penetration depth. An analytical formula for the suppression factor of bulk and multilayer superconductors is derived in the framework of the London theory. As an immediate application, the suppression factor of the dirty Nb processed by electropolishing is evaluated by using results of surface topographic study. The estimated field limit is consistent with the present record field of nitrogen-doped Nb cavities. Suppression factors of surfaces of other bulk and multilayer superconductors, and those after various surface processing technologies, can also be evaluated by using the formula.

  6. Atomic and nano-scale characterization of a 50-year-old hydrated C3S paste

    KAUST Repository

    Geng, Guoqing; Taylor, Rae; Bae, Sungchul; Herná ndez-Cruz, Daniel; Kilcoyne, David A.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the atomic and nano-scale structures of a 50-year-old hydrated alite paste. Imaged by TEM, the outer product C-S-H fibers are composed of particles that are 1.5-2 nm thick and several tens of nanometers long. 29Si NMR shows 47.9% Q1 and 52.1% Q2, with a mean SiO4 tetrahedron chain length (MCL) of 4.18, indicating a limited degree of polymerization after 50 years' hydration. A Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) study was conducted on this late-age paste and a 1.5 year old hydrated C3S solution. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) at Ca L3,2-edge indicates that Ca2 + in C-S-H is in an irregular symmetric coordination, which agrees more with the atomic structure of tobermorite than that of jennite. At Si K-edge, multi-scattering phenomenon is sensitive to the degree of polymerization, which has the potential to unveil the structure of the SiO44 - tetrahedron chain. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biofunctionalization of scaffold material with nano-scaled diamond particles physisorbed with angiogenic factors enhances vessel growth after implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Magdalena M; Stigler, Robert; Wu, Xujun; Waag, Thilo; Buschmann, Peter; Kern, Johann; Untergasser, Gerold; Rasse, Michael; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Krueger, Anke; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Biofunctionalized scaffold facilitates complete healing of large defects. Biological constraints are induction and ingrowth of vessels. Angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor or angiopoietin-1 can be bound to nano-scaled diamond particles. Corresponding bioactivities need to be examined after biofunctionalization. We therefore determined the physisorptive capacity of distinctly manufactured, differently sized nDP and the corresponding activities of bound factors. The properties of biofunctionalized nDPs were investigated on cultivated human mesenchymal stem cells and on the developing chicken embryo chorio-allantoic membrane. Eventually porous bone substitution material was coated with nDP to generate an interface that allows biofactor physisorption. Angiopoietin-1 was applied shortly before scaffold implantation into an osseous defect in sheep calvaria. Biofunctionalized scaffolds exhibited significantly increased rates of angiogenesis already one month after implantation. Conclusively, nDP can be used to ease functionalization of synthetic biomaterials. With the advances in nanotechnology, many nano-sized materials have been used in the biomedical field. This is also true for nano-diamond particles (nDP). In this article, the authors investigated the physical properties of functionalized nano-diamond particles in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. The positive findings would help improve understanding of these nanomaterials in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is there an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors? Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huajie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Sun Yuanyuan; Cao Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com; Wang Kui; Yang Lin [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China); Zhang Yidong; Zheng Zhi [Xuchang University, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials (China)

    2012-05-15

    Although nano-structured surfaces exhibit superior biological activities to the smooth or micro-structured surfaces, whether there is an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors is still controversial. In this study, porous aluminum oxide membranes with different pore sizes ranging from 25 to 120 nm were prepared by the anodic oxidation technique. The surface morphology, topography and wettability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The results indicated that the synergistic action of the nano-topography structure and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties resulted in a highest protein adsorption on the aluminum oxide membrane with 80 nm pore size. Additionally, the morphological, metabolic and cell counting methods showed that cells had different sensitivity to porous aluminum oxide membranes with different surface features. Furthermore, this sensitivity was cell type dependent. The optimal pore size of aluminum oxide membranes for cell growth was 80 nm for PC12 cells and 50 nm for NIH 3T3 cells.

  9. Dielectric strength of voidless BaTiO{sub 3} films with nano-scale grains fabricated by aerosol deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hong-Ki; Lee, Young-Hie, E-mail: yhlee@kw.ac.kr [Department of Electronics Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Hwan [Department of Electronics Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); R and D Center, Samwha Capacitor, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); In Kim, Soo; Woo Lee, Chang [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rag Yoon, Jung [R and D Center, Samwha Capacitor, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Gap [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Engineering Research Institute, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-07

    In order to investigate the dielectric strength properties of the BaTiO{sub 3} films with nano-scale grains with uniform grain size and no voids, BaTiO{sub 3} films were fabricated with a thickness of 1 μm by an AD process, and the fabricated films were sintered at 800, 900, and 1000 °C in air and reducing atmosphere. The films have superior dielectric strength properties due to their uniform grain size and high density without any voids. In addition, based on investigation of the leakage current (intrinsic) properties, it was confirmed that the sintering conditions of the reducing atmosphere largely increase leakage currents due to generated electrons and doubly ionized oxygen vacancies following the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism, and increased leakage currents flow at grain boundary regions. Therefore, we conclude that the extrinsic breakdown factors should be eliminated for superior dielectric strength properties, and it is important to enhance grain boundaries by doping acceptors and rare-earth elements.

  10. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  11. An Overview on Gripping Force Measurement at the Micro and Nano-Scales Using Two-Fingered Microrobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokrane Boudaoud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-fingered micromanipulation systems with an integrated force sensor are widely used in robotics to sense and control gripping forces at the micro and nano-scales. They became of primary importance for an efficient manipulation and characterization of highly deformable biomaterials and nanostructures. This paper presents a chronological overview of gripping force measurement using two-fingered micromanipulation systems. The work summarizes the major achievements in this field from the early 90s to the present, focusing in particular on the evolution of measurement technologies regarding the requirements of microrobotic applications. Measuring forces below the microNewton for the manipulation of highly deformable materials, embedding force sensors within microgrippers to increase their dexterity, and reducing the influence of noise to improve the measurement resolution are among the addressed challenges. The paper shows different examples of how these challenges have been addressed. Resolution, operating range and signal/noise ratio of gripping force sensors are reported and compared. A discussion about force measurement technologies and gripping force control is performed and future trends are highlighted.

  12. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electroless deposition and nanolithography can control the formation of materials at the nano-scale for plasmonic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, Maria Laura

    2014-03-27

    The new revolution in materials science is being driven by our ability to manipulate matter at the molecular level to create structures with novel functions and properties. The aim of this paper is to explore new strategies to obtain plasmonic metal nanostructures through the combination of a top down method, that is electron beam lithography, and a bottom up technique, that is the chemical electroless deposition. This technique allows a tight control over the shape and size of bi- and three-dimensional metal patterns at the nano scale. The resulting nanostructures can be used as constituents of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) substrates, where the electromagnetic field is strongly amplified. Our results indicate that, in electroless growth, high quality metal nanostructures with sizes below 50 nm may be easily obtained. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) model, that is a simulation model that makes it possible to decipher, at an atomic level, the rules governing the evolution of the growth front; moreover, we give a description of the physical echanisms of growth at a basic level. In the discussion, we show how these findings can be utilized to fabricate dimers of silver nanospheres where the size and shape of those spheres is controlled with extreme precision and can be used for very large area SERS substrates and nano-optics, for single molecule detection. 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  14. The challenge of screen printed Ag metallization on nano-scale poly-silicon passivated contacts for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Song, Lixin; Yan, Li; Becht, Gregory; Zhang, Yi; Hoerteis, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Passivated contacts can be used to reduce metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon solar cells, and are obtained increasing attentions by PV industries in recent years. The reported thicknesses of passivated contact layers are mostly within tens of nanometer range, and the corresponding metallization methods are realized mainly by plating/evaporation technology. This high cost metallization cannot compete with the screen printing technology, and may affect its market potential comparing with the presently dominant solar cell technology. Very few works have been reported on screen printing metallization on passivated contact solar cells. Hence, there is a rising demand to realize screen printing metallization technology on this topic. In this work, we investigate applying screen printing metallization pastes on poly-silicon passivated contacts. The critical challenge for us is to build low contact resistance that can be competitive to standard technology while restricting the paste penetrations within the thin nano-scale passivated contact layers. The contact resistivity of 1.1mohm-cm2 and the open circuit voltages > 660mV are achieved, and the most appropriate thickness range is estimated to be around 80 150nm.

  15. Electroless Deposition and Nanolithography Can Control the Formation of Materials at the Nano-Scale for Plasmonic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Coluccio

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The new revolution in materials science is being driven by our ability to manipulate matter at the molecular level to create structures with novel functions and properties. The aim of this paper is to explore new strategies to obtain plasmonic metal nanostructures through the combination of a top down method, that is electron beam lithography, and a bottom up technique, that is the chemical electroless deposition. This technique allows a tight control over the shape and size of bi- and three-dimensional metal patterns at the nano scale. The resulting nanostructures can be used as constituents of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS substrates, where the electromagnetic field is strongly amplified. Our results indicate that, in electroless growth, high quality metal nanostructures with sizes below 50 nm may be easily obtained. These findings were explained within the framework of a diffusion limited aggregation (DLA model, that is a simulation model that makes it possible to decipher, at an atomic level, the rules governing the evolution of the growth front; moreover, we give a description of the physical mechanisms of growth at a basic level. In the discussion, we show how these findings can be utilized to fabricate dimers of silver nanospheres where the size and shape of those spheres is controlled with extreme precision and can be used for very large area SERS substrates and nano-optics, for single molecule detection.

  16. Atomic and nano-scale characterization of a 50-year-old hydrated C3S paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Guoqing; Taylor, Rae; Bae, Sungchul; Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Kilcoyne, David A.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the atomic and nano-scale structures of a 50-year-old hydrated alite paste. Imaged by TEM, the outer product C–S–H fibers are composed of particles that are 1.5–2 nm thick and several tens of nanometers long. 29 Si NMR shows 47.9% Q 1 and 52.1% Q 2 , with a mean SiO 4 tetrahedron chain length (MCL) of 4.18, indicating a limited degree of polymerization after 50 years' hydration. A Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) study was conducted on this late-age paste and a 1.5 year old hydrated C 3 S solution. Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) at Ca L 3,2 -edge indicates that Ca 2+ in C–S–H is in an irregular symmetric coordination, which agrees more with the atomic structure of tobermorite than that of jennite. At Si K-edge, multi-scattering phenomenon is sensitive to the degree of polymerization, which has the potential to unveil the structure of the SiO 4 4− tetrahedron chain.

  17. Particles from a Diesel ship engine: Mixing state on the nano scale and cloud condensation abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieke, K. I.; Rosenørn, T.; Fuglsang, K.; Frederiksen, T.; Butcher, A. C.; King, S. M.; Bilde, M.

    2012-04-01

    Transport by ship plays an important role in global logistics. Current international policy initiatives by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) are taken to reduce emissions from ship propulsion systems (NO and SO, primarily). However, particulate emissions (e.g. soot) from ships are yet not regulated by legislations. To date, there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the global and local effects of the particulate matter emitted from ships at sea. Particles may influence the climate through their direct effects (scattering and absorption of long and shortwave radiation) and indirectly through formation of clouds. Many studies have been carried out estimating the mass and particle number from ship emissions (e.g. Petzold et al. 2008), many of them in test rig studies (e.g. Kasper et al. 2007). It is shown that particulate emissions vary with engine load and chemical composition of fuels. Only a few studies have been carried out to characterize the chemical composition and cloud-nucleating ability of the particulate matter (e.g. Corbett et al. 1997). In most cases, the cloud-nucleating ability of emission particles is estimated from number size distribution. We applied measurements to characterize particulate emissions from a MAN B&W Low Speed engine on test bed. A unique data set was obtained through the use of a scanning mobility particle sizing system (SMPS), combined with a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) counter and a thermodenuder - all behind a dilution system. In addition, impactor samples were taken on nickel grids with carbon foil for use in an electron microscope (EM) to characterize the mineral phase and mixing state of the particles. The engine was operated at a series of different load conditions and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system was applied. Measurements were carried out before and after the EGR system respectively. Our observations show significant changes in number size distribution and CCN activity with varying conditions

  18. Specimen preparation for nano-scale investigation of cementitious repair material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarsa, Pejman; Gupta, Rishi

    2018-04-01

    Cementitious Repair Materials (CRMs) in the construction industry have been used for many decades now and has become a very important part of activities in cement world. The performance of some of these CRMs when applied to retrofitting concrete structural elements is also well documented. However, the characterization of some of the CRMs at the micro- and nano level is not fully documented. The first step to studying materials at the microscopic level is to be able to fabricate proper specimens for microscopy. In this study, a special and newly developed class of CRM was selected and fabricated by Focused Ion Beam (FIB) using well-known "Lift-out" technique. The prepared specimen was later examined using various analytical techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray analysis using one of the highest and most stable Scanning Transmission Electron Holography Microscopy (STEHM) around the world. This process enabled understanding of the composition, morphology, and spatial distribution of various phases of the CRM. It was observed that the microstructure consisted of a very fine, compact, and homogenous amorphous structure. X-ray analysis indicated that there was considerable deviation between the Si/Ca ratios for the hydrated product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing Using Optical Fibre Long Period Grating with Mesoporous Nano-Scale Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hromadka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A long period grating (LPG modified with a mesoporous film infused with a calixarene as a functional compound was employed for the detection of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs and their mixtures. The mesoporous film consisted of an inorganic part, SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, along with an organic moiety of poly(allylamine hydrochloride polycation PAH, which was finally infused with the functional compound, p-sulphanato calix[4]arene (CA[4] or p-sulphanato calix[8]arene (CA[8]. The LPG sensor was designed to operate at the phase matching turning point to provide the highest sensitivity. The sensing mechanism is based on the measurement of the refractive index (RI change induced by a complex of the VOCs with calixarene. The LPG, modified with a coating of 5 cycles of (SiO2 NPs/PAH and infused with CA[4] or CA[8], was exposed to chloroform, benzene, toluene and acetone vapours. The British Standards test of the VOCs emissions from material (BS EN ISO 16000-9:2006 was used to test the LPG sensor performance.

  20. Nano-scale bubble thermonuclear fusion in acoustically cavitated deuterated liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert I Nigmatulin; Richard T Lahey Jr; Rusi Taleyarkhan

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: It has been experimentally shown (Taleyarkhan, West, Cho, Lahey, Nigmatulin, Block, 2002, 2004) that neutron emission and tritium formation may occur in deuterated acetone (D-acetone C 3 DO 6 ) under acoustic cavitation conditions. Intensity of the fast neutron (2.45 MeV) emission and tritium nucleus production is ∼ 4 x 10 5 s -1 . This suggests ultrahigh compression of matter produced inside bubbles during their collapse. In the paper a systematic theoretical analysis of the vapor bubble growth and subsequent implosion in intense acoustic fields in D-acetone is presented. The goal is to describe and explain the experimental observations of thermonuclear fusion for collapsing cavitation bubble in D-acetone. The dynamics of bubbles formed during maximum rarefaction in the liquid is numerically studied on the basis of the developed models of a single bubble and bubble clusters. It is supposed that during their growth the bubbles coagulate and form a few bigger bubbles, which then collapse under the action of additional pressure pulses produced in the liquid through the intensification of acoustic waves within the cluster. A shock wave is shown to be formed inside the bubble during the latter's rapid contraction. Focusing of this shock wave in the bubble center initiates dissociation and ionization, violent increases in density (10 4 kg m 3 ), pressure (10 10 -10 11 bar) and temperature (2 x 10 8 K), high enough to produce nuclear fusion reactions. The bubble looks like micro-hydrogen bomb. The diameter of the neutron emission zone is about 100 nm. The highest neutron emission is recorded at about 10-20 nm from the bubble center. It is found out that the intensity of bubble implosion and the number of neutron emitted increase with variations in nucleation phase, positive half-wave amplitude, liquid temperature and also with the involvement of coagulation mechanisms within the cluster during the bubble simultaneous growth. The number

  1. Thermal, Microchannel, and Immersed Boundary Extension Validation for the Lattice-Boltzmann Method: Report 2 in Discrete Nano Scale Mechanics and Simulations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Lattice- Boltzmann Method Report 2 in “Discrete Nano-Scale Mechanics and Simulations” Series In fo rm at io n Te ch no lo gy L ab or at or y...William P. England and Jeffrey B. Allen July 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and...Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and

  2. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (<1 μm) than for colloids and was numerically simulated using a Convective-Diffusion model and experimentally validated. Inclusion of flow field and hydrodynamic retardation effects explained particle deposition profiles better than when only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force was considered. This work provides 1) a first comprehensive framework for describing the hydrodynamic impacts of nano-scale surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  3. Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y-H; Lin, G-R

    2012-01-01

    The free-standing graphite nano-particle located between two FC/APC fiber connectors is employed as the saturable absorber to passively mode-lock the ring-type Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). The host-solvent-free graphite nano-particles with sizes of 300 – 500 nm induce a comparable modulation depth of 54%. The interlayer-spacing and lattice fluctuations of polished graphite nano-particles are observed from the weak 2D band of Raman spectrum and the azimuth angle shift of –0.32 ° of {002}-orientation dependent X-ray diffraction peak. The graphite nano-particles mode-locked EDFL generates a 1.67-ps pulsewidth at linearly dispersion-compensated regime with a repetition rate of 9.1 MHz. The time-bandwidth product of 0.325 obtained under a total intra-cavity group-delay-dispersion of –0.017 ps 2 is nearly transform-limited. The extremely high stability of the nano-scale graphite saturable absorber during mode-locking is observed at an intra-cavity optical energy density of 7.54 mJ/cm 2 . This can be attributed to its relatively high damage threshold (one order of magnitude higher than the graphene) on handling the optical energy density inside the EDFL cavity. The graphite nano-particle with reduced size and sufficient coverage ratio can compete with other fast saturable absorbers such as carbon nanotube or graphene to passively mode-lock fiber lasers with decreased insertion loss and lasing threshold

  4. Field- to nano-scale evidence for weakening mechanisms along the fault of the 2016 Amatrice and Norcia earthquakes, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Doglioni, Carlo

    2017-08-01

    In August and October 2016, two normal fault earthquakes (Mw 6.0 and Mw 6.5, respectively) struck the Amatrice-Norcia area in the central Apennines, Italy. The mainshocks nucleated at depths of 7-9 km with the co-seismic slip propagating upward along the Mt. Gorzano Fault (MGF) and Mt. Vettore Fault System (MVFS). To recognize possible weakening mechanisms along the carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults that generated the Amatrice-Norcia earthquakes, the fresh co-seismic fault exposure (i.e., "nastrino") exposed along the Mt. Vettoretto Fault was sampled and analyzed. This exposed fault belongs to the MVFS and was exhumed from 2-3 km depth. Over the fresh fault surface, phyllosilicates concentrated and localized along mm- to μm-thick layers, and truncated clasts and fluid-like structures were found. At the nano-scale, instead of their common platy-lamellar crystallographic texture, the analyzed phyllosilicates consist of welded nm-thick nanospherules and nanotubes similar to phyllosilicates deformed in rotary shear apparatus at seismic velocities or altered under high hydrothermal temperatures (> 250 °C). Moreover, the attitude of the Mt. Vettoretto Fault and its kinematics inferred from exposed slickenlines are consistent with the co-seismic fault and slip vectors obtained from the focal mechanisms computed for the 2016 mainshocks. All these pieces of evidence suggest that the Mt. Vettoretto Fault slipped seismically during past earthquakes and that co-seismic slip was assisted and facilitated at depths of synoptic picture of co-seismic processes and weakening mechanisms that may occur in carbonate-hosted seismogenic faults.

  5. Impact of size and sorption on degradation of trichloroethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls by nano-scale zerovalent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Elijah J. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Pinto, Roger A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Shi, Xiangyang [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Huang, Qingguo, E-mail: qhuang@uga.edu [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nZVIs were synthesized using a layer-by-layer or poly(acrylic acid) stabilization approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These nZVIs were used to degrade TCE and PCB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nZVI coatings impacted reactivity by altering pollutants/particle interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller nZVI particle size led to greater reactivity. - Abstract: Nano-scale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has been studied in recent years for environmental remediation applications such as the degradation of chlorinated organic contaminants. To overcome limitations related to the transport of nZVI, it is becoming common to add a polymer stabilizer to limit aggregation and enhance the particle reactivity. Another method investigated to enhance particle reactivity has been to limit particle size through novel synthesis techniques. However, the relative impacts of particle size and interactions of the chemicals with the coatings are not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of particle size and polymer coating or polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) synthesis conditions on degradation of two common chlorinated contaminants: trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This was accomplished using two different synthesis techniques, a layer-by-layer approach at different pH values or iron reduction in the presence of varying concentrations of poly(acrylic acid). nZVI produced by both techniques yielded higher degradation rates than a traditional approach. The mechanistic investigation indicated that hydrophobicity and sorption to the multilayer impacts the availability of the hydrophobic compound to the nZVI and that particle size also had a large role with smaller particles having stronger dechlorination rates.

  6. Barrier breakdown mechanism in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with ultrathin MgO barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hua; Leitao, Diana C.; Hou, Zhiwei; Freitas, Paulo P.; Cardoso, Susana; Kämpfe, Thomas; Müller, Johannes; Langer, Juergen; Wrona, Jerzy

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) arouse great interest because of its unique features in the application of spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM), such as low switching current density, good thermal stability and high access speed. In this paper, we investigated current induced switching (CIS) in ultrathin MgO barrier p-MTJs with dimension down to 50 nm. We obtained a CIS perpendicular tunnel magnetoresistance (p-TMR) of 123.9% and 7.0 Ω.μm2 resistance area product (RA) with a critical switching density of 1.4×1010 A/m2 in a 300 nm diameter junction. We observe that the extrinsic breakdown mechanism dominates, since the resistance of our p-MTJs decreases gradually with the increasing current. From the statistical analysis of differently sized p-MTJs, we observe that the breakdown voltage (Vb) of 1.4 V is 2 times the switching voltage (Vs) of 0.7 V and the breakdown process exhibits two different breakdown states, unsteady and steady state. Using Simmons' model, we find that the steady state is related with the barrier height of the MgO layer. Furthermore, our study suggests a more efficient method to evaluate the MTJ stability under high bias rather than measuring Vb. In conclusion, we developed well performant p-MTJs for the use in STT-MRAM and demonstrate the mechanism and control of breakdown in nano-scale ultrathin MgO barrier p-MTJs.

  7. Extension of nano-scaled exploration into solution/liquid systems using tip-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Vantasin, Sanpon; Kitahama, Yasutaka; Ekgasit, Sanong; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-08-01

    This review shows updated experimental cases of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) operated in solution/liquid systems. TERS in solution/liquid is still infancy, but very essential and challenging because crucial and complicated biological processes such as photosynthesis, biological electron transfer, and cellular respiration take place and undergo in water, electrolytes, or buffers. The measurements of dry samples do not reflect real activities in those kinds of systems. To deeply understand them, TERS in solution/liquid is needed to be developed. The first TERS experiment in solution/liquid is successfully performed in 2009. After that time, TERS in solution/liquid has gradually been developed. It shows a potential to study structural changes of biomembranes, opening the world of dynamic living cells. TERS is combined with electrochemical techniques, establishing electrochemical TERS (EC-TERS) in 2015. EC-TERS creates an interesting path to fulfil the knowledge about electrochemical-related reactions or processes. TERS tip can be functionalized with sensitive molecules to act as a "surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) at tip" for investigating distinct properties of systems in solution/liquid e.g., pH and electron transfer mechanism. TERS setup is continuously under developing. Versatile geometry of the setup and a guideline of a systematic implementation for a setup of TERS in solution/liquid are proposed. New style of setup is also reported for TERS imaging in solution/liquid. From all of these, TERS in solution/liquid will expand a nano-scaled exploration into solution/liquid systems of various fields e.g., energy storages, catalysts, electronic devices, medicines, alternative energy sources, and build a next step of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  8. Semi-interpenetrating networks based on POLY(N-isopropyl acrilamide and POLY(N-vinylpyrrolidone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žugić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Three series of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks based on cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide, PNIPA, and 1, 2 and 3 wt% of linear poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone, PVP, were synthesized in order to improve the mechanical properties of PNIPA gels. The effect of the incorporation of the linear PVP polymer into the temperature responsive networks on the phase transition temperature, swelling behavior and mechanical properties was studied. Polymer networks with four different crosslinking densities were prepared with various molar ratios (25/1 to 100/1 of the monomer (N-isopropylacrylamide to the cross linker (N,N'-methylene-bisacrylamide. The hydrogels were characterized by determination of the equilibrium degree of swelling at 25 °C, the dynamic shear modulus and the effective crosslinking density, as well as the ultimate hydrogel properties, such as the tensile strength and elongation at break. Furthermore, the deswelling kinetics of the hydrogels was also studied by measuring their water retention capacity. The inclusion of the linear hydrophilic PVP in the PNIPA networks increased the equilibrium degree of swelling, the highest values of which were obtained for samples with 2 and 3 wt% of PVP and the NIPA/MBA molar ratio of 75/1 and 100/1. The highest reinforcement effect, evaluated from the ratio of G'red(semi-IPN to G'red(PNIPA, was obtained by incorporation of 2 wt% PVP. The tensile strength of the semi-IPNs reinforced with linear PVP was higher than that of the PNIPA networks. The elongation at break of these semi-IPNs varied between 22 and 55%, which are 22^11% larger than those for single PNIPA networks. The tensile measurements confirmed that the presence of 2 wt% of the linear polymer significantly reinforced the PNIPA network.

  9. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of

  10. Soft hydrogels interpenetrating silicone – a polymer network for drug releasing medical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Søren Langer; Merete H., Vestergaard,; Møller, Eva Horn

    2016-01-01

    such a sophisticated material by forming an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) material through modification of silicone elastomers with a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA)-based hydrogel. IPN materials with a PHEMA content in the range of 13%–38% (w/w) were synthesized by using carbon dioxide...

  11. Development of visible-light responsive and mechanically enhanced "smart" UCST interpenetrating network hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ghag, Onkar; Reimann, Morgan; Sitterle, Philip; Chatterjee, Prithwish; Nofen, Elizabeth; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing; Dai, Lenore L

    2017-12-20

    An interpenetrating polymer network (IPN), chlorophyllin-incorporated environmentally responsive hydrogel was synthesized and exhibited the following features: enhanced mechanical properties, upper critical solution temperature (UCST) swelling behavior, and promising visible-light responsiveness. Poor mechanical properties are known challenges for hydrogel-based materials. By forming an interpenetrating network between polyacrylamide (PAAm) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) polymer networks, the mechanical properties of the synthesized IPN hydrogels were significantly improved compared to hydrogels made of a single network of each polymer. The formation of the interpenetrating network was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the analysis of glass transition temperature, and a unique UCST responsive swelling behavior, which is in contrast to the more prevalent lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behaviour of environmentally responsive hydrogels. The visible-light responsiveness of the synthesized hydrogel also demonstrated a positive swelling behavior, and the effect of incorporating chlorophyllin as the chromophore unit was observed to reduce the average pore size and further enhance the mechanical properties of the hydrogel. This interpenetrating network system shows potential to serve as a new route in developing "smart" hydrogels using visible-light as a simple, inexpensive, and remotely controllable stimulus.

  12. Self-assembled interpenetrating networks by orthogonal self assembly of surfactants and hydrogelators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brizard, Aurelie M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; van Esch, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Interpenetrating networks (IPN) consist of two or more networks of different components which are entangled on a molecular scale and cannot be separated without breaking at least one of the networks. They are of great technological interest because they allow the blending of two or more otherwise

  13. Interpenetrating metal-organic and inorganic 3D networks: a computer-aided systematic investigation. Part II [1]. Analysis of the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburin, I.A.; Blatov, V.A.; Carlucci, L.; Ciani, G.; Proserpio, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Interpenetration in metal-organic and inorganic networks has been investigated by a systematic analysis of the crystallographic structural databases. We have used a version of TOPOS (a package for multipurpose crystallochemical analysis) adapted for searching for interpenetration and based on the concept of Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra and on the representation of a crystal structure as a reduced finite graph. In this paper, we report comprehensive lists of interpenetrating inorganic 3D structures from the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD), inclusive of 144 Collection Codes for equivalent interpenetrating nets, analyzed on the basis of their topologies. Distinct Classes, corresponding to the different modes in which individual identical motifs can interpenetrate, have been attributed to the entangled structures. Interpenetrating nets of different nature as well as interpenetrating H-bonded nets were also examined

  14. Time-Dependent Measure of a Nano-Scale Force-Pulse Driven by the Axonemal Dynein Motors in Individual Live Sperm Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M J; Rudd, R E; McElfresh, M W; Balhorn, R

    2009-04-23

    Nano-scale mechanical forces generated by motor proteins are crucial to normal cellular and organismal functioning. The ability to measure and exploit such forces would be important to developing motile biomimetic nanodevices powered by biological motors for Nanomedicine. Axonemal dynein motors positioned inside the sperm flagellum drive microtubule sliding giving rise to rhythmic beating of the flagellum. This force-generating action makes it possible for the sperm cell to move through viscous media. Here we report new nano-scale information on how the propulsive force is generated by the sperm flagellum and how this force varies over time. Single cell recordings reveal discrete {approx}50 ms pulses oscillating with amplitude 9.8 {+-} 2.6 nN independent of pulse frequency (3.5-19.5 Hz). The average work carried out by each cell is 4.6 x 10{sup -16} J per pulse, equivalent to the hydrolysis of {approx}5,500 ATP molecules. The mechanochemical coupling at each active dynein head is {approx}2.2 pN/ATP, and {approx}3.9 pN per dynein arm, in agreement with previously published values obtained using different methods.

  15. Investigation of the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of the Nano-Scale GZO Thin Films on Glass and Flexible Polyimide Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Hsing Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ga2O3-doped ZnO (GZO thin films were deposited on glass and flexible polyimide (PI substrates at room temperature (300 K, 373 K, and 473 K by the radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. After finding the deposition rate, all the GZO thin films with a nano-scale thickness of about 150 ± 10 nm were controlled by the deposition time. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the GZO thin films were not amorphous and all exhibited the (002 peak, and field emission scanning electron microscopy showed that only nano-scale particles were observed. The dependences of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO thin films on different deposition temperatures and substrates were investigated. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS was used to measure the elemental composition at the chemical and electronic states of the GZO thin films deposited on different substrates, which could be used to clarify the mechanism of difference in electrical properties of the GZO thin films. In this study, the XPS binding energy spectra of Ga2p3/2 and Ga2p1/2 peaks, Zn2p3/2 and Zn2p1/2 peaks, the Ga3d peak, and O1s peaks for GZO thin films on glass and PI substrates were well compared.

  16. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  17. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  18. Semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes containing ADOGEN{sup ®} 364 for Cd(II) transport from HCl media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Tamez, Lucía; Rodríguez de San Miguel, Eduardo; Briones-Guerash, Ulrich; Munguía-Acevedo, Nadia M.; Gyves, Josefina de, E-mail: degyves@unam.mx

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes are used for quantitative cadmium(II) recovery. • Optimization of membrane and solutions compositions is performed. • Membranes present increased stability respect to polymer inclusion membranes. • Models for cadmium (II) extraction and transport are proposed. • Excellent selectivity for Cd(II) over Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) was achieved. - Abstract: Cd(II) transport from 1 mol dm{sup −3} HCl media was investigated across semi-interpenetrating hybrid membranes (SIHMs) that were prepared by mixing an organic matrix composed of ADOGEN{sup ®} 364 as an extracting agent, cellulose triacetate as a polymeric support and nitrophenyloctyl ether as a plasticizer with an organic/inorganic network (silane phase, SP) composed of polydimethylsiloxane and a crosslinking agent. The stripping phase used was a 10{sup −2} mol dm{sup −3} ethanesulfonic acid solution. The effects of tetraorthoethoxysilane, phenyltrimethoxysilane and N′,N′-bis[3-tri(methoxysilyl)propyl]ethylendiamine as crosslinking agents on the transport were studied. H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was used as an acid catalyst during the SP synthesis and optimized for transport performance. Solid–liquid extraction experiments were performed to determine the model that describe the transport of Cd(II) via ADOGEN{sup ®} 364. The transport was found to be chained-carrier controlled with a percolation threshold of 0.094 mmol g{sup −1}. The selective recovery of Cd(II) was studied with respect to Ni(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) at a 1:1 molar ratio, and the optimized membrane system was applied for the recovery of Cd(II) from a real sample consisting of a Ni/Cd battery with satisfactory results. Finally, stability experiments were performed using the same membrane for 14 cycles. The results obtained showed that SIHMs had excellent stability and selectivity, with permeabilities comparable to those of PIMs.

  19. Processing and Dynamic Failure Characterization of Novel Impact Absorbing Transparent Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (t-IPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    samples were placed into the oven for the same curing treatment as before. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo in Figure 19 shows a typical...Interpenetrating Polymer Networks with Polyurethane and Methacrylate-based Polymers,’ S. A . Bird , PhD Dissertation, Department of Polymer and Fiber Engineering...Jajam, H. V. Tippur, S. A . Bird , and M. L. Auad, Proceedings of the 50th SES Annual Technical Meeting and ASME-AMD Summer Meeting, Providence, RI

  20. Interpenetrated Uranyl-Organic Frameworks with bor and pts Topology: Structure, Spectroscopy, and Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Chen, Fang-Yuan; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Yang, Weiting; Pan, Qing-Jiang; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2017-11-20

    Two novel three-dimensional interpenetrated uranyl-organic frameworks, (NH 4 ) 4 [(UO 2 ) 4 (L 1 ) 3 ]·6H 2 O (1) and [(UO 2 ) 2 (H 2 O) 2 L 2 ]·2H 2 O (2), where L 1 = tetrakis(3-carboxyphenyl)silicon and L 2 = tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)silicon, were synthesized by a combination of two isomeric tetrahedral silicon-centered ligands with 3-connected triangular [(UO 2 )(COO) 3 ] - and 4-connected dinuclear [(UO 2 ) 2 (COO) 4 ] units, respectively. Structural analyses indicate that 1 possesses a 2-fold interpenetrating anion bor network, while 2 exhibits a 3-fold interpenetrated 4,4-connected neutral network with pts topology. Both compounds were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and IR, UV-vis, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A relativistic density functional theory (DFT) investigation on 10 model compounds of 1 and 2 shows good agreement of the structural parameters, stretching vibrational frequencies, and absorption with experimental results; the time-dependent DFT calculations unravel that low-energy absorption bands originate from ligand-to-uranium charge transfer.

  1. Potassium fulvate as co-interpenetrating agent during graft polymerization of acrylic acid from cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Mohamed B M; El-Hai, Farag Abd; Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A

    2016-10-01

    Grafting polymerization of acrylic acid onto cellulose in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) as a co-interpenetrating agent results enhanced water sorption compared to materials prepared similarly in its absence. The insertion of potassium fulvate (KF) did not affect the grafting process and is thought to proceed in parallel to the graft polymerization via intensive polycondensation reactions of its function groups (-COOH and OH) with COOH of the monomer and OH groups of cellulose. The combination of graft copolymerization and polycondensation reactions is assumed to produce interpenetrating network structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) confirmed successful incorporation within the network structure which is an evidence for formation of interpenetrating network. The obtained structures showed homogeneous uniform surface as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained superabsorbent possessed high water absorbency 422 and 48.8g/g in distilled water and saline (0.9wt.% NaCl solution), respectively, and enhanced water retention even at elevated temperatures as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This could be explained by the high content of hydrophilic groups. The new superabsorbents proved to be efficient devices for controlled release of fertilizers which expands their use in agricultural applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Selective Adsorption of Ethane over Ethylene in PCN-245: Impacts of Interpenetrated Adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Daofei; Shi, Renfeng; Chen, Yongwei; Wu, Ying; Wu, Houxiao; Xi, Hongxia; Xia, Qibin; Li, Zhong

    2018-03-07

    The separation of ethane from ethylene using cryogenic distillation is an energy-intensive process in the industry. With lower energetic consumption, the adsorption technology provides the opportunities for developing the industry with economic sustainability. We report an iron-based metal-organic framework PCN-245 with interpenetrated structures as an ethane-selective adsorbent for ethylene/ethane separation. The material maintains stability up to 625 K, even after exposure to 80% humid atmosphere for 20 days. Adsorptive separation experiments on PCN-245 at 100 kPa and 298 K indicated that ethane and ethylene uptakes of PCN-245 were 3.27 and 2.39 mmol, respectively, and the selectivity of ethane over ethylene was up to 1.9. Metropolis Monte Carlo calculations suggested that the interpenetrated structure of PCN-245 created greater interaction affinity for ethane than ethylene through the crossing organic linkers, which is consistent with the experimental results. This work highlights the potential application of adsorbents with the interpenetrated structure for ethane separation from ethylene.

  3. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H.

    2002-01-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H 2 O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction

  4. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H. [The University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H{sub 2}O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction.

  5. Capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Jea-Gun

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the combined effect of the strained Si channel and hole confinement on the memory margin enhancement for a capacitor-less memory cell fabricated on nano-scale strained Si on a relaxed SiGe layer-on-insulator (ε-Si SGOI). The memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell was higher than that of the memory cell fabricated on an unstrained Si-on-insulator (SOI) and increased with increasing Ge concentration of the relaxed SiGe layer; i.e. the memory margin for the ε-Si SGOI capacitor-less memory cell (138.6 µA) at a 32 at% Ge concentration was 3.3 times higher than the SOI capacitor-less memory cell (43 µA). (paper)

  6. An in-situ nano-scale swelling-filling strategy to improve overall performance of Nafion membrane for direct methanol fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fan, Kun; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Liying; Xu, Guoxiao; Xu, Sen; Ma, Liang; Cheng, Hansong

    2016-11-01

    A novel in-situ nano-scale swelling-filling (SF) strategy is proposed to modify commercial Nafion membranes for performance enhancement of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). A Nafion membrane was filled in-situ with proton conductive macromolecules (PCMs) in the swelling process of a Nafion membrane in a PCM solution. As a result, both proton conductivity and methanol-permeation resistivity of the SF-treated Naifion membrane was substantially improved with the selectivity nearly doubled compared to the original Nafion membrane. The mechanical strength of the optimal SF treated Nafion membrane was also enforced due to the strong interaction between the PCM fillers and the Nafion molecular chains. As a result, a DMFC equipped with the SF-treated membrane yielded a 33% higher maximum power density than that offered by the DMFC with the original Nafion membrane.

  7. Two interpenetrating Cu{sup II}/Ni{sup II}-coordinated polymers based on an unsymmetrical bifunctional N/O-tectonic: Syntheses, structures and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yong-Liang [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Tailings Resources, Shang Luo University, Shang Luo 726000 (China); Wu, Ya-Pan [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Li, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: lidongsheng1@126.com [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Dong, Wen-Wen [College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002 (China); Zhou, Chun-Sheng [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Comprehensive Utilization of Tailings Resources, Shang Luo University, Shang Luo 726000 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Two new interpenetrating Cu{sup II}/Ni{sup II} coordination polymers, based on a unsymmetrical bifunctional N/O-tectonic 3-(pyrid-4′-yl)-5-(4″-carbonylphenyl)-1,2,4-triazolyl (H{sub 2}pycz), ([Cu-(Hpycz){sub 2}]·2H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) and ([Ni(Hpycz){sub 2}]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), have been solvothermally synthesized and structure characterization. Single crystal X-ray analysis indicates that compound 1 shows 2-fold parallel interpenetrated 4{sup 4}-sql layers with the same handedness. The overall structure of 1 is achiral—in each layer of doubly interpenetrating nets, the two individual nets have the opposite handedness to the corresponding nets in the adjoining layers—while 2 features a rare 8-fold interpenetrating 6{sup 6}-dia network that belongs to class IIIa interpenetration. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 both show similar paramagnetic characteristic properties. - Graphical abstract: Two new Cu(II)/Ni(II) coordination polymers present 2D parallel 2-fold interpenetrated 4{sup 4}-sql layers and a rare 3D 8-fold interpenetrating 6{sup 6}-dia network. In addition, magnetic susceptibility measurements show similar paramagnetic characteristic for two complexes. - Highlights: • A new unsymmetrical bifunctional N/O-tectonic as 4-connected spacer. • A 2-fold parallel interpenetrated sql layer with the same handedness. • A rare 8-fold interpenetrating dia network (class IIIa)

  8. Physical properties of a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane modified castor oil based polyurethane/epoxy interpenetrating polymer network composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shoubing; Wang, Qihua; Wang, Tingmei

    2011-06-01

    A series of polyurethane (PU)/epoxy resin (EP) graft interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) composites modified by a high molecular weight hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (HTPDMS) were prepared. The effects of HTPDMS content on the phase structure, damping properties and the glass transition temperature ( Tg) of the HTPDMS-modified PU/EP IPN composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition temperature of the composites increased with the increase of HTPDMS content. The tensile strength and impact strength of the IPN composites were also significantly improved, especially when the HTPDMS content was 10%. The modified IPN composites were expected to be used as structural damping materials in the future.

  9. Thomson scattering measurements of ion interpenetration in cylindrically converging, supersonic magnetized plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, George

    2015-11-01

    Ion interpenetration driven by high velocity plasma collisions is an important phenomenon in high energy density environments such as the interiors of ICF vacuum hohlraums and fast z-pinches. The presence of magnetic fields frozen into these colliding flows further complicates the interaction dynamics. This talk focuses on an experimental investigation of ion interpenetration in collisions between cylindrically convergent, supersonic, magnetized flows (M ~10, Vflow ~ 100km/s, ni ~ 1017cm-3) . The flows used in this study were plasma ablation streams produced by tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4MA, 240ns Magpie facility at Imperial College, and diagnosed using a combination of optical Thomson scattering, Faraday rotation and interferometry. Optical Thomson scattering (TS) provides time-resolved measurements of local flow velocity and plasma temperature across multiple (7 to 14) spatial positions. TS spectra are recorded simultaneously from multiple directions with respect to the probing beam, resulting in separate measurements of the rates of transverse diffusion and slowing-down of the ion velocity distribution. The measurements demonstrate flow interpenetration through the array axis at early time, and also show an axial deflection of the ions towards the anode. This deflection is induced by a toroidal magnetic field (~ 10T), frozen into the plasma that accumulates near the axis. Measurements obtained later in time show a change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams, and rapid radial collapse of the magnetized plasma column. The quantitative nature of the spatial profiles of the density, flow velocities and ion temperatures measured in these experiments will allow detailed verification of MHD and PIC codes used by the HEDP community. Work Supported by EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G001324/1), DOE (Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-F03-02NA00057 & DE-SC-0001063) & Sandia National

  10. Dielectric elastomers, with very high dielectric permittivity, based on silicone and ionic interpenetrating networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    permittivity and the Young's modulus of the elastomer. One system that potentially achieves this involves interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs), based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks from amino- and carboxylic acid-functional silicones. The applicability of these materials as DEs...... are obtained while dielectric breakdown strength and Young's modulus are not compromised. These good overall properties stem from the softening effect and very high permittivity of ionic networks – as high as ε′ = 7500 at 0.1 Hz – while the silicone elastomer part of the IPN provides mechanical integrity...

  11. Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogels Based on Gelatin and PVA by Biocompatible Approaches: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltjani-Eltahir Hago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new approach was introduced to prepare interpenetrating polymer network PVA/GE hydrogels by cross-linking of various concentration gelatin in the presence of transglutaminase enzyme by using the freezing-thawing cycles technique. The effects of freezing-thawing cycles on the properties of morphological characterization, gel fraction, swelling, mechanical, and MTT assay were investigated. The IPN PVA/GE hydrogels showed excellent physical and mechanical Properties. MTT assay data and the fibroblasts culture also showed excellent biocompatibility and good proliferation. This indicates that the IPN hydrogels are stable enough for various biomedical applications.

  12. Investigating the effects of smoothness of interfaces on stability of probing nano-scale thin films by neutron reflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Jahromi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the reflectometry methods which are used for determining the phase of complex reflection coefficient such as Reference Method and Variation of Surroundings medium are based on solving the Schrödinger equation using a discontinuous and step-like scattering optical potential. However, during the deposition process for making a real sample the two adjacent layers are mixed together and the interface would not be discontinuous and sharp. The smearing of adjacent layers at the interface (smoothness of interface, would affect the the reflectivity, phase of reflection coefficient and reconstruction of the scattering length density (SLD of the sample. In this paper, we have investigated the stability of Reference Method in the presence of smooth interfaces. The smoothness of interfaces is considered by using a continuous function scattering potential. We have also proposed a method to achieve the most reliable output result while retrieving the SLD of the sample.

  13. Study of SiO2/PMMA/CE tri-component interpenetrating polymer network composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junlong; Wang Chuang; Jiao Gengsheng; Wang Qiuya

    2010-01-01

    A technology of conjugated tri-component interpenetrating polymer networks was applied to synthesize a nano-SiO 2 /polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/cyanate (CE) composite through an asynchronous synthesis way. The microstructure of the composite was characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanical properties were measured in German-made DL-1000B and XCL-40 universal material test machines, respectively. Results showed that both the impact strength and the flexural strength were in the optimum status when 3% SiO 2 /PMMA/CE was chosen as a sample with the PMMA/CE ratio of 20/80. Compared with the strengths of pure cyanate, those of the composite were raised by 137.28% and 31.29%, respectively. When 3% nano-SiO 2 was added, the impact strength was increased by 29.96% and the flexural strength by 20.05%, compared with the strengths of polymers without SiO 2 . Analysis and measurements by IR and TEM indicated that no chemical reactions took place among components in the composite. The interpenetration of the conjugated tri-component improved the loading capacity of the polymer, hence the toughness enhancement of cyanate.

  14. Isolation and surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals from sugarcane bagasse waste: From a micro- to a nano-scale view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, F. V.; Mariano, M.; Rabelo, S. C.; Gouveia, R. F.; Lona, L. M. F.

    2018-04-01

    This work presents the isolation and functionalization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) extracted from sugarcane bagasse (SCB). CNCs were obtained by acid hydrolysis of bleached bagasse pulp and functionalized with adipic acid. The results showed that unmodified CNCs exhibit both a high crystallinity index and a significant aspect ratio. Surface modification with adipic acid decreases the nanocrystal dimensions due to removal of the amorphous region between the crystalline domains and also changes the electrostatic repulsion and hydrophilic affinity of CNCs. Unmodified CNCs offer potential applications as reinforcing phase in hydrophilic polymeric matrices, while modified CNCs interact better with hydrophobic matrices. The use of CNCs as reinforcement in polymer nanocomposites expands the application of this renewable material and increases its added value, providing nonenergy-based markets for the main biomass of the sugarcane industry.

  15. Electro-mechanical properties of free standing micro- and nano-scale polymer-ceramic composites for energy density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Paritosh; Borkar, Hitesh [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) Campus, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Singh, B.P.; Singh, V.N. [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) Campus, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi, 110012 (India)

    2015-11-05

    The integration of inorganic fillers in polymer matrix is useful for superior mechanical strength and functional properties of polymer-ceramic composites. We report the fabrication and characterization of polyvinylidene fluoride-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PVDF-CFO) (wt% 80:20, respectively) and PVDF-Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}–CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (PVDF-PZT-CFO) (wt% 80:10:10, respectively) free standing 50 μm thick ferroelectric-polymer-ceramic composites films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and Raman spectra revealed the presence of major semi-crystalline β-PVDF along with α-phase which is responsible for ferroelectric nature in both the composite systems. Ferroelectric, dielectric and mechanical strength measurements were performed in order to evaluate the effects of CFO and PZT inorganic fillers in PVDF matrix. The inclusion of CFO and PZT micro-/nano-particles in PVDF polymer matrix improved the polarization behavior, dielectric properties and mechanical strength. The energy density was calculated by polarization-electric field hysteresis loop and found in the range of 6–8 J/cm{sup 3} may be useful for microelectronics. - Graphical abstract: Large area PVDF-PZT-CFO nano- and micro-composite films have been fabricated for high energy density storage flexible capacitor. Presence of nanocrystalline PZT and CFO particles in polymer matrix significantly enhanced their energy density capacity. - Highlights: • Physical interaction of cobalt iron oxide with polymer matrix results β-PVDF phase. • Evidence of Micro and Nano crystalline CFO and PZT fillers in polymer matrix. • The CFO and PZT fillers provide better mechanical strength to composite films. • PVDF-ceramic nanocomposites show low leakage behavior for high electric field.

  16. Polymer matrix of fiber-reinforced composites: Changes in the semi-interpenetrating polymer network during the shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aftab A; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Al-Shehri, Abdullah M; Säilynoja, Eija; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2018-02-01

    This laboratory study was aimed to characterize semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) prepregs that had been stored for up to two years before curing. Resin impregnated prepregs of everStick C&B (StickTech-GC, Turku, Finland) glass FRC were stored at 4°C for various lengths of time, i.e., two-weeks, 6-months and 2-years. Five samples from each time group were prepared with a light initiated free radical polymerization method, which were embedded to its long axis in self-curing acrylic. The nanoindentation readings on the top surface toward the core of the sample were made for five test groups, which were named as "stage 1-5". To evaluate the nanohardness and modulus of elasticity of the polymer matrix, a total of 4 slices (100µm each) were cut from stage 1 to stage 5. Differences in nanohardness values were evaluated with analysis of variance (ANOVA), and regression model was used to develop contributing effect of the material's different stages to the total variability in the nanomechanical properties. Additional chemical and thermal characterization of the polymer matrix structure of FRC was carried out. It was hypothesized that time of storage may have an influence on the semi-IPN polymer structure of the cured FRC. The two-way ANOVA test revealed that the storage time had no significant effect on the nanohardness of FRC (p = 0.374). However, a highly significant difference in nanohardness values was observed between the different stages of FRC (Pprepregs might be due to phase-segregation of components of semi-IPN structure of FRC prepregs before their use. This may have an influence to the surface bonding properties of the cured FRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Creative scientific research international session of 2nd meeting on advanced pulsed-neutron research on quantum functions in nano-scale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi

    2005-06-01

    1 MW-class pulsed-neutron sources will be constructed in Japan, United State and United Kingdom in a few years. Now is the time for a challenge to innovate on neutron science and extend new science fields. Toward the new era, we develop new pulsed-neutron technologies as well as new neutron devices under the international collaborations with existing pulsed-neutron facilities, such as the UK-Japan collaboration program on neutron scattering. At the same time, the new era will bring international competitions to neutron researchers. We aim to create new neutron science toward the new pulsed-neutron era by introducing the new technologies developed here. For this purpose, we have started the research project, 'Advanced pulsed-neutron research on quantum functions in nano-scale materials,' in the duration between JFY2004 and JFY2008. The 2nd meeting of this project was held on 22-24 February 2005 to summarize activities in FY2004 and to propose research projects in the coming new fiscal year. In this international session as a part of this meeting, the scientific results and research plans on the UK-Japan collaboration program, the research plans on the collaboration between IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, Argonne National Laboratory) and KENS (Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK), also the recent scientific results arisen form this project were presented. (author)

  18. Nano-scale Biophysical and Structural Investigations on Intact and Neuropathic Nerve Fibers by Simultaneous Combination of Atomic Force and Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Rosso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The links between neuropathies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies, and impaired biomechanical and structural integrity of PNS nerves remain poorly understood despite the medical urgency. Here, we present a protocol describing simultaneous structural and biomechanical integrity investigations on isolated nerve fibers, the building blocks of nerves. Nerve fibers are prepared from nerves harvested from wild-type and exemplary PNS neuropathy mouse models. The basic principle of the designed experimental approach is based on the simultaneous combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM and confocal microscopy. AFM is used to visualize the surface structure of nerve fibers at nano-scale resolution. The simultaneous combination of AFM and confocal microscopy is used to perform biomechanical, structural, and functional integrity measurements at nano- to micro-scale. Isolation of sciatic nerves and subsequent teasing of nerve fibers take ~45 min. Teased fibers can be maintained at 37°C in a culture medium and kept viable for up to 6 h allowing considerable time for all measurements which require 3–4 h. The approach is designed to be widely applicable for nerve fibers from mice of any PNS neuropathy. It can be extended to human nerve biopsies.

  19. Micro- and nano-scale damage on the surface of W divertor component during exposure to high heat flux loads with He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.; Greuner, H.; Zhao, S.X.; Böswirth, B.; Luo, G.N.; Zhou, X.; Jia, Y.Z.; Liu, X.; Liu, W.

    2015-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale surface damage on a W divertor component sample exposed to high heat flux loads generated with He atoms has been investigated through SEM, EBSD, AFM and FIB-SEM. The component sample was supplied by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) and AT&M company, China, and the loading experiment was performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP Garching, Germany. Two typical damage structures were observed on the surface: the first one is characterized by obvious blisters and some grooves formed from ruptured blisters, and the other one is a kind of porous structure accompanying with at least ∼25 nm surface material loss. As the grain orientation is further away from , the damage morphology gradually changes from the former structure to the latter. The possible damage mechanism is discussed. - Highlights: • Two damage structures were observed on W component surface under He beam heating. • Blistering was more obvious in near grains. • Porous structure appeared in the grains away from . • A loose layer caused by He aggregation was formed in near-surface region.

  20. Internal Morphologies of Cycled Li-Metal Electrodes Investigated by Nano-Scale Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Sarah; Liu, Danny X; Kumar, Arjun; Whitacre, Jay F; Love, Corey T; Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Litster, Shawn

    2017-06-07

    While some commercially available primary batteries have lithium metal anodes, there has yet to be a commercially viable secondary battery with this type of electrode. Research prototypes of these cells typically exhibit a limited cycle life before dendrites form and cause internal cell shorting, an occurrence that is more pronounced during high-rate cycling. To better understand the effects of high-rate cycling that can lead to cell failure, we use ex situ nanoscale-resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) with the aid of Zernike phase contrast to image the internal morphologies of lithium metal electrodes on copper wire current collectors that have been cycled at low and high current densities. The Li that is deposited on a Cu wire and then stripped and deposited at low current density appears uniform in morphology. Those cycled at high current density undergo short voltage transients to >3 V during Li-stripping from the electrode, during which electrolyte oxidation and Cu dissolution from the current collector may occur. The effect of temperature is also explored with separate cycling experiments performed at 5 and 33 °C. The resulting morphologies are nonuniform films filled with voids that are semispherical in shape with diameters ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers, where the void size distributions are temperature-dependent. Low-temperature cycling elicits a high proportion of submicrometer voids, while the higher-temperature sample morphology is dominated by voids larger than 2 μm. In evaluating these morphologies, we consider the importance of nonidealities during extreme charging, such as electrolyte decomposition. We conclude that nano-CT is an effective tool for resolving features and aggressive cycling-induced anomalies in Li films in the range of 100 nm to 100 μm.

  1. Theoretical Investigations of CO 2 and H 2 Sorption in an Interpenetrated Square-Pillared Metal–Organic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; McLaughlin, Keith; Tudor, Brant; Nugent, Patrick; Hogan, Adam; Mullen, Ashley; Cioce, Christian R.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of CO2 and H2 sorption and separation were performed in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i], a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of an interpenetrated square grid of Cu2+ ions coordinated to 4,4′-dipyridylacetylene (dpa) rings and pillars of SiF6 2

  2. Semi-Interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels based on aspen hemicellulose and chitosan: Effect of crosslinking sequence on hydrogel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffer Ahmet Karaaslan; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2012-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel films were prepared using hemicellulose and chemically crosslinked chitosan. Hemicellulose was extracted from aspen by using a novel alkaline treatment and characterized by HPSEC, and consisted of a mixture of high and low molecular weight polymeric fractions. HPLC analysis of the acid hydrolysate of the hemicellulose showed that...

  3. Nano-scale investigations of electric-dipole-layer enhanced field and thermionic emission from high current density cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Vasilios

    optimal work functions of ˜2 eV. We hypothesize that scandium enables the barium-oxygen surface monolayer kinetics to access a more thermodynamically stable phase with reported work functions as low as ˜1.3 eV.

  4. Micro- and nano-scale optical devices for high density photonic integrated circuits at near-infrared wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Rohit

    fabrication and measurement techniques to demonstrate for the first time a "superlens" for the technologically important near infrared wavelength ranges with the opportunity to scale down further to visible wavelengths. The observed resolution is 0.47lambda, clearly smaller than the diffraction limit of 0.61lambda and is supported by detailed theoretical analyses and comprehensive numerical simulations. Importantly, we clearly show for the first time this subdiffraction limit imaging is due to the resonant excitation of surface slab modes, permitting amplification of evanescent waves. The demonstrated "superlens" has the largest figure of merit ever reported till date both theoretically and experimentally. The techniques and devices described in this thesis can be further applied to develop new devices with different functionalities. In Chapter 6 we describe two examples using these ideas. First, we experimentally demonstrate the use of the nanomechanical proximity perturbation technique to develop a phase retarder for on-chip all state polarization control. Next, we use the negative refraction photonic crystals described in Chapter 5 to achieve a special kind of bandgap called the zero-n¯ bandgap having unique properties.

  5. Unique Chiral Interpenetrating d-f Heterometallic MOFs as Luminescent Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Lei; Dong, Jie; Ni, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Bo-Wen; Cui, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Bin

    2015-06-01

    One novel three-dimensional (3D) 3d-4f metal-organic framework (MOF), [TbZn(L)(CO3)2(H2O)]n (1) [HL = 4'-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine], has been successfully synthesized and structurally characterized. Structural analysis shows that compound 1 features a unique chiral interpenetrating 3D framework for the first time. The resulting crystals of 1 are composed of enantiomers 1a (P41) and 1b (P43), as was clearly confirmed by the crystal structure and the corresponding circular dichroism (CD) analyses of eight randomly selected crystals. The investigations on CD spectra based on every single crystal clearly assigned the Cotton effect signals. The powder X-ray diffraction measurement of 1 after being immersed in common solvents reveals that 1 possess excellent solvent stability. Furthermore, luminescent studies imply that 1 displays highly selective luminescent sensing of aldehydes, such as formol, acetaldehyde, and propanal.

  6. Series of chiral interpenetrating 3d-4f heterometallic MOFs: Luminescent sensors and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Peng; Hu, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Series of chiral 3d-4f heterometallic MOFs based on a multidentate terpyridyl carboxylic acid ligand have been synthesized under the solvothermal conditions, namely, [LnZnL(CO3)2(H2O)]n (Ln = Eu (1), Gd (2), Dy (3), Ho (4), Er (5), Tm (6), Yb (7), Lu (8)) (HL = 4‧-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine). Compounds 1-8 were structurally characterized by the elemental analyses, infrared spectra, and single crystal X-ray diffractions. Compounds 1-8 exhibit the chiral interpenetrating 3D frameworks. Interestingly, 1 can serve as the luminescent sensor to detect nitrobenzene molecules with high sensitivity. The investigations on CD spectra of single crystals clearly assigned the Cotton effect, indicating that there exist two chiral enantiomers of 1-8 in the course of crystallization. The magnetic properties of 2 and 7 were exploited, respectively.

  7. Interpenetrated Binary Supramolecular Nanofibers for Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of Six Classes of Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhu, Qijian; Gong, Yanjun; Wang, Chen; Che, Yanke; Zhao, Jincai

    2018-04-03

    In this work, we develop a sequential self-assembly approach to fabricate interpenetrated binary supramolecular nanofibers consisting of carbazole oligomer 1-cobalt(II) (1-Co 2+ ) coordination nanofibers and oligomer 2 nanofibers for the sensitive detection of six classes of explosives. When exposed to peroxide explosives (e.g., H 2 O 2 ), Co 2+ in 1-Co 2+ coordination nanofibers can be reduced to Co + that can transfer an electron to the excited 2 nanofibers and thereby quench their fluorescence. On the other hand, when exposed to the other five classes of explosives, the excited 2 nanofibers can transfer an electron to explosives to quench their fluorescence. On the basis of the distinct fluorescence quenching mechanisms, six classes of explosives can be sensitively detected. Herein, we provide a new strategy to design broad-band fluorescence sensors for a rich identification of threats.

  8. Structure and properties of semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel based on starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baodong; Ma, Dongzhuo; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-11-20

    Starch-g-P(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide)/PVA semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) hydrogels were prepared by aqueous solution polymerization method. Starch grafting copolymerization reaction, semi-IPN structure and crystal morphology were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The PVA in the form of partial crystallization distributing in the gel matrix uniformly were observed by Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The space network structure, finer microstructure and pore size in the interior of hydrogel were presented by biomicroscope. The results demonstrated that absorption ratio of water and salt generated different degree changes with the effect of PVA. In addition, the mechanical strength of hydrogel was improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A 12-Fold ThSi2 Interpenetrated Network Utilizing a Glycine-Based Pseudopeptidic Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Loukopoulos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and characterization of a 3D Cu(II coordination polymer, [Cu3(L12(H2O8]·8H2O (1, with the use of a glycine-based tripodal pseudopeptidic ligand (H3L1 = N,N′,N″-tris(carboxymethyl-1,3,5-benzenetricarboxamide or trimesoyl-tris-glycine. This compound presents the first example of a 12-fold interpenetrated ThSi2 (ths net. We attempt to justify the unique topology of 1 through a systematic comparison of the synthetic parameters in all reported structures with H3L1 and similar tripodal pseudopeptidic ligands. We additionally explore the catalytic potential of 1 in the A3 coupling reaction for the synthesis of propargylamines. The compound acts as a very good heterogeneous catalyst with yields up to 99% and loadings as low as 3 mol %.

  10. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of glucose oxidase on three-dimensional interpenetrating, porous graphene modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Min; Xu, Bing; Hu, Chuangang; Shao, Hui Bo; Qu, Liangti

    2013-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) on three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating porous graphene electrodes has been reported, which have been fabricated by one-step electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) from its aqueous suspension. The electrochemically reduced GO (ERGO) modified electrodes exhibited excellent electron transfer properties for GOD and enhanced the enzyme activity and stability by the assistance of chitosan. The immobilized GOD shows a fast electron transfer with the rate constant (k s ) of 6.05 s −1 . It is worth mentioning that in the air-saturated phosphate buffer solution without any mediator, the resultant modified electrodes exhibited low detection limit of 1.7 μM with wide linear range of 0.02–3.2 mM and high sensitivity and high selectivity for measuring glucose. It would also be extended to various enzymes and bioactive molecules to develop the biosensor or other bio-electrochemical devices

  11. CFA-7: an interpenetrated metal-organic framework of the MFU-4 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Phillip; Grzywa, Maciej; Denysenko, Dmytro; Hambach, Manuel; Volkmer, Dirk

    2015-08-07

    The novel interpenetrated metal-organic framework CFA-7 (Coordination Framework Augsburg University-7), [Zn5Cl4(tqpt)3], has been synthesized containing the organic linker {H2-tqpt = 6,6,14,14-tetramethyl-6,14-dihydroquinoxalino[2,3-b]phenazinebistriazole}. Reaction of H2-tqpt and anhydrous ZnCl2 in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) yields CFA-7 as pseudo-cubic crystals. CFA-7 serves as precursor for the synthesis of isostructural frameworks with redox-active metal centers, which is demonstrated by postsynthetic metal exchange of Zn(2+) by different M(2+) (M = Co, Ni, Cu) ions. The novel framework is robust upon solvent removal and has been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, TGA and IR spectroscopy, as well as gas sorption (Ar, CO2 and H2).

  12. Synthesis and characterization of p and n dopable interpenetrating polymer networks for organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lav, T.X.; Tran-Van, F.; Vidal, F.; Peralta, S.; Chevrot, C.; Teyssie, D.; Grazulevicius, J.V.; Getautis, V.; Derbal, H.; Nunzi, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) based on carbazole derivatives and diacrylate perylene are synthesized in two steps via an in-situ process. From a spin-coated thin film of a mixture of the two precursors, the diacrylate perylene is first photopolymerized to form a network in the presence of the carbazole derivative which is then electropolymerized to elaborate the IPN. Electrochemical characterizations show that the carbazole and perylene are electroactive inside the film which confirm the p and n dopable properties of the IPN. AFM images of the IPNs show a homogenous and smooth surface, compared to single network, which indicate a high quality of association of each network which should allow an efficient p/n bulk heterojunction

  13. Synthesis and characterization of p and n dopable interpenetrating polymer networks for organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lav, T.X. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces, EA 2528 Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Tran-Van, F. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces, EA 2528 Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France)], E-mail: francois.tran-van@u-cergy.fr; Vidal, F.; Peralta, S.; Chevrot, C.; Teyssie, D. [Laboratoire de Physicochimie des Polymeres et des Interfaces, EA 2528 Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Grazulevicius, J.V.; Getautis, V. [Faculty of Chemical Technology, Kaunas University of Technology, Radvilenu Plentas 19, LT 50254 (Lithuania); Derbal, H.; Nunzi, J.-M. [PPF Cellules Solaires Photovoltaiques Plastiques - Laboratoire POMA, UMR-CNRS 6136, Universite d' Angers, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France)

    2008-08-30

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) based on carbazole derivatives and diacrylate perylene are synthesized in two steps via an in-situ process. From a spin-coated thin film of a mixture of the two precursors, the diacrylate perylene is first photopolymerized to form a network in the presence of the carbazole derivative which is then electropolymerized to elaborate the IPN. Electrochemical characterizations show that the carbazole and perylene are electroactive inside the film which confirm the p and n dopable properties of the IPN. AFM images of the IPNs show a homogenous and smooth surface, compared to single network, which indicate a high quality of association of each network which should allow an efficient p/n bulk heterojunction.

  14. High quality junctions by interpenetration of vapor liquid solid grown nanostructures for microchip integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebril, Seid; Kuhlmann, Hanna; Adelung, Rainer [Funktionale Nanomaterialien, CAU Kiel (Germany); Mueller, Sven [Nanowires and Thin Films, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Universitaet Jena (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Synthese und Realstruktur, CAU Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The usability of nanostructures in electrical devices like gas sensors depends critically on the ability to form high quality contacts and junctions. For the fabrication of various nanostructures, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a wide spread and very efficient technique. However, forming contacts with the VLS grown structures to utilize them in a device is still tedious, because either the substrate has to be epitaxial to the VLS material or a manual alignment is necessary. Here we demonstrate the contact formation by simply using the ability of individual crystals to interpenetrate each other during the straight forward VLS growth. This allows growing VLS structures directly on two neighboring gold circuit paths of a microchip; bridges over predefined gaps will be formed. Moreover, TEM investigations confirm the high quality of the crystalline junctions that allow demonstrations as UV and hydrogen-sensor. The VLS devices are compared with conventional produced.

  15. Pinning in high performance MgB{sub 2} thin films and bulks: Role of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhna, Tatiana, E-mail: prikhna@mail.ru [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Shapovalov, Andrey [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Eisterer, Michael [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Shaternik, Vladimir [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 Academician Vernadsky blvd., Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Goldacker, Wilfried [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein (Germany); Weber, Harald W. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Moshchil, Viktor; Kozyrev, Artem; Sverdun, Vladimir [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine); Boutko, Viktor [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O. Galkin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg str.72, Donetsk-114, 83114 (Ukraine); Grechnev, Gennadiy [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47, Prospekt Nauky, Kharkiv 61103 (Ukraine); Gusev, Alexandr [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after O.O. Galkin of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, R. Luxemburg str.72, Donetsk-114, 83114 (Ukraine); Kovylaev, Valeriy; Shaternik, Anton [Institute for Superhard Materials of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine , 2, Avtozavodskaya Str. , Kiev 07074 (Ukraine)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Pinning in MgB{sub 2} depends on the Mg-B-O nano-scaled inhomogeneities. • Finer oxygen-enriched inhomogeneities is the reason of the higher J{sub c} in MgB{sub 2} thin films as compared to bulk. • The results of DOS calculations for MgB{sub 2-x}O{sub x} compounds demonstrate that they have metal-like behavior. • Ordered oxygen distribution in MgB{sub 2} (in pairs or zigzags) reduces binding energy. - Abstract: The comparison of nano-crystalline MgB{sub 2} oxygen-containing thin film (140 nm) and highly dense bulk materials showed that the critical current density, J{sub c}, depends on the distribution of Mg-B-O nano-scale inhomogeneities. It has been shown that MgB{sub 2} bulks with high J{sub c} in low (∼10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} in 0-1 T at 10 K) and medium magnetic fields contain MgB{sub 0.6-0.8}O{sub 0.8-0.9} nano-inclusions, where δT{sub c} or a combined δT{sub c} (dominant) / δ{sub l} pinning mechanism prevails, while in bulk MgB{sub 2} with high J{sub c} in high magnetic fields (B{sub irr}(18.5 K) = 15 T, B{sub c2}(0 K) = 42.1 T) MgB{sub 1.2-2.7}O{sub 1.8-2.5} nano-layers are present and δ{sub l} pinning prevails. The structure of oxygen-containing films with high J{sub c} in low and high magnetic fields (J{sub c} (0 T) = 1.8 × 10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} and J{sub c} (5 T) = 2 × 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} at 10 K) contains very fine oxygen-enriched Mg-B-O inhomogeneities and δ{sub l} pinning is realized. The results of DOS calculations in MgB{sub 2-x}O{sub x} cells for x = 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1 demonstrate that all compounds are conductors with metal-like behaviour. In the case of ordered oxygen substitution for boron the binding energy, E{sub b}, does not increase sufficiently as compared with that for MgB{sub 2}, while when oxygen atoms form zigzag chains the calculated E{sub b} is even lower (E{sub b} = −1.15712 Ry).

  16. A single-layer flat-coil-oscillator (SFCO)-based super-broadband position sensor for nano-scale-resolution seismometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgyan, Samvel [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)], E-mail: gevs_sam@web.am; Gevorgyan, Vardan [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia); International Scientific-Educational Center, National Academy of Sciences, 24-D Marshal Baghramyan av., Yerevan 0019 (Armenia); Karapetyan, Gagik [Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian Street, Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Institute for Physical Researches, National Academy of Sciences, Gitavan IFI, 0203 Ashtarak-2 (Armenia)

    2008-05-15

    A new class super-broadband, nano-scale-resolution position sensor is tested. It is used as an additional sensor in seismograph. It enables to extend the band and enhance the sensitivity of the available technique by at least an order of magnitude. It allows transferring of mechanical vibrations of constructions and buildings, with amplitudes over 1 nm, into detectable signal in a frequency range starting practically from quasi-static movements. It is based on detection of position changes of a vibrating normal-metallic plate placed near the flat coil-being used as a pick-up in a stable tunnel diode oscillator. Frequency of the oscillator is used as a detecting parameter, and the measuring effect is determined by a distortion of the MHz-range testing field configuration near a coil by a vibrating plate, leading to magnetic inductance changes of the coil, with a resolution {approx}10 pH. This results in changes of oscillator frequency. We discuss test data of such a position sensor, installed in a Russian SM-3 seismometer, as an additional pick-up component, showing its advantages compared to traditional techniques. We also discuss the future of such a novel sensor involving substitution of a metallic coil by a superconductive one and replacement of a tunnel diode by an S/I/S hetero-structure-as much less-powered active element in the oscillator, compared to tunnel diode. These may strongly improve the stability of oscillators, and therefore enhance the resolution of seismic techniques.

  17. Closed-form approximation and numerical validation of the influence of van der Waals force on electrostatic cantilevers at nano-scale separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezani, Asghar [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alasty, Aria [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akbari, Javad [Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics, and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-01-09

    In this paper the two-point boundary value problem (BVP) of the cantilever deflection at nano-scale separations subjected to van der Waals and electrostatic forces is investigated using analytical and numerical methods to obtain the instability point of the beam. In the analytical treatment of the BVP, the nonlinear differential equation of the model is transformed into the integral form by using the Green's function of the cantilever beam. Then, closed-form solutions are obtained by assuming an appropriate shape function for the beam deflection to evaluate the integrals. In the numerical method, the BVP is solved with the MATLAB BVP solver, which implements a collocation method for obtaining the solution of the BVP. The large deformation theory is applied in numerical simulations to study the effect of the finite kinematics on the pull-in parameters of cantilevers. The centerline of the beam under the effect of electrostatic and van der Waals forces at small deflections and at the point of instability is obtained numerically. In computing the centerline of the beam, the axial displacement due to the transverse deformation of the beam is taken into account, using the inextensibility condition. The pull-in parameters of the beam are computed analytically and numerically under the effects of electrostatic and/or van der Waals forces. The detachment length and the minimum initial gap of freestanding cantilevers, which are the basic design parameters, are determined. The results of the analytical study are compared with the numerical solutions of the BVP. The proposed methods are validated by the results published in the literature.

  18. Metrology at the nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, B.; Cumpson, P.; Bailey, M.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in nano technology relies on ever more accurate measurements of quantities such as distance, force and current industry has long depended on accurate measurement. In the 19th century, for example, the performance of steam engines was seriously limited by inaccurately made components, a situation that was transformed by Henry Maudsley's screw micrometer calliper. And early in the 20th century, the development of telegraphy relied on improved standards of electrical resistance. Before this, each country had its own standards and cross border communication was difficult. The same is true today of nano technology if it is to be fully exploited by industry. Principles of measurement that work well at the macroscopic level often become completely unworkable at the nano metre scale - about 100 nm and below. Imaging, for example, is not possible on this scale using optical microscopes, and it is virtually impossible to weigh a nano metre-scale object with any accuracy. In addition to needing more accurate measurements, nano technology also often requires a greater variety of measurements than conventional technology. For example, standard techniques used to make microchips generally need accurate length measurements, but the manufacture of electronics at the molecular scale requires magnetic, electrical, mechanical and chemical measurements as well. (U.K.)

  19. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  20. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  1. Highly Efficient Cooperative Catalysis by Co III (Porphyrin) Pairs in Interpenetrating Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2016-12-02

    A series of porous twofold interpenetrated In-CoIII(porphyrin) metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) were constructed by in situ metalation of porphyrin bridging ligands and used as efficient cooperative catalysts for the hydration of terminal alkynes. The twofold interpenetrating structure brings adjacent CoIII(porphyrins) in the two networks parallel to each other with a distance of about 8.8 Å, an ideal distance for the simultaneous activation of both substrates in alkyne hydration reactions. As a result, the In-CoIII(porphyrin) MOFs exhibit much higher (up to 38 times) catalytic activity than either homogeneous catalysts or MOF controls with isolated CoIII(porphyrin) centers, thus highlighting the potential application of MOFs in cooperative catalysis.

  2. Preparation and wear behavior of polymer matrix composites with an interpenetrating network structure derived from natural sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tianchi; Zhou Tianle; Xiong Dangsheng

    2010-01-01

    Natural sponge was used as a template to produce carbon/epoxy resin and (carbon+silicon carbide)/epoxy resin composites with interpenetrating network structures. Carbon with a network structure was first obtained by pyrolysis of the natural sponge. The composites were then obtained by injecting epoxy resin and silicone resin into the carbon. Their microstructures and wear properties were analyzed. The results show that the natural structure of sponge controlled the interpenetrating network structures of the composites. The netlike carbon in the composites reduced the wear rate of the epoxy resin. Compared with the carbon/epoxy resin composite, the (carbon+silicon carbide)/epoxy resin composite shows better wear resistance.

  3. Development of an optimum end-effector with a nano-scale uneven surface for non-adhesion cell manipulation using a micro-manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horade, M; Kojima, M; Kamiyama, K; Kurata, T; Mae, Y; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    In order to realize effective micro-manipulation using a micro-manipulator system, an optimum end-effector is proposed. Cell-manipulation experiments using mouse fibroblast cells are conducted, and the usability of the proposed end-effector is confirmed. A key advantage of the micro-manipulator is high-accuracy, high-speed 3D micro- and nano-scale positioning. Micro-manipulation has often been used in research involving biological cells. However, there are two important concerns with the micro-manipulator system: gripping efficiency and the release of gripped objects. When it is not possible to grip a micro-object, such as a cell, near its center, the object may be dropped during manipulation. Since the acquisition of exact position information for a micro-object in the vertical direction is difficult using a microscope, the gripping efficiency of the end-effector should be improved. Therefore, technical skill or operational support is required. Since, on the micro-scale, surface forces such as the adsorption force are greater than body forces, such as the gravitational force, the adhesion force between the end-effector and the object is strong. Therefore, manipulation techniques without adhesion are required for placed an object at an arbitrary position. In the present study, we consider direct physical contact between the end-effector and objects. First, the design and materials of the end-effector for micro-scale manipulation were optimized, and an end-effector with an optimum shape to increase the grip force was fabricated. Second, the surface of the end-effector tip was made uneven, and the adhesion force from increasing on the micro-scale was prevented. When an end-effector with an uneven surface was used, release without adhesion was successful 85.0% of the time. On the other hand, when an end-effector without an uneven surface was used, release without adhesion was successful 6.25% of the time. Therefore, the superiority of a structure with an uneven

  4. Exploration of the biomacromolecular interactions of an interpenetrating proteo-saccharide hydrogel network at the mucosal interface

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashingaidze, F

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXPLORATION OF THE BIOMACROMOLECULAR INTERACTIONS OF AN INTERPENETRATING PROTEO-SACCHARIDE HYDROGEL NETWORK AT THE MUCOSAL INTERFACE 1Felix Mashingaidze, 1Yahya E. Choonara, 1Pradeep Kumar, 1Lisa C. du Toit, 2Vinesh Maharaj, 3Eckhart Buchmann, 4Valence M..., Department of Biosciences, Meiring Naud_e Road, Brummeria, Pretoria, South Africa 3University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7 York Road, Parktown, 2193, Johannesburg, South Africa 4St. John’s...

  5. Tribological Properties of AlSi12-Al₂O₃ Interpenetrating Composite Layers in Comparison with Unreinforced Matrix Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Anna Janina

    2017-09-06

    Alumina-Aluminum composites with interpenetrating network structures are a new class of advanced materials with potentially better properties than composites reinforced by particles or fibers. Local casting reinforcement was proposed to take into account problems with the machinability of this type of materials and the shaping of the finished products. The centrifugal infiltration process fabricated composite castings in the form of locally reinforced shafts. The main objective of the research presented in this work was to compare the tribological properties (friction coefficient, wear resistance) of AlSi12/Al₂O₃ interpenetrating composite layers with unreinforced AlSi12 matrix areas. Profilometric tests enabled both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the wear trace that formed on investigated surfaces. It has been shown that interpenetrating composite layers are characterized by lower and more stable coefficients of friction (μ), as well as higher wear resistance than unreinforced matrix areas. At the present stage, the study confirmed that the tribological properties of the composite layers depend on the spatial structure of the ceramic reinforcement, and primarily the volume and size of alumina foam cells.

  6. Biodegradation study of enzymatically catalyzed interpenetrating polymer network: Evaluation of agrochemical release and impact on soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN has been synthesized through enzymatic initiation using lipase as initiator, glutaraldehyde as cross-linker, acrylic acid as primary monomer and acrylamide as secondary monomer. Biodegradability of synthesized interpenetrating polymer network was studied through soil burial and composting methods. Synthesized hydrogel was completely degraded within 70 days using composting method, while it was 86.03% degraded within 77 days using soil burial method. This was confirmed by Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Synthesized interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel was used as a device for controlled release of urea and also act as water releasing device. Their impact on soil fertility and plant growth was also studied. The initial diffusion coefficient has a greater value than the later diffusion coefficient indicating a higher fertilizer release rate during the early stage. Fertilizer release kinetic was also studied which showed Non-Fickian diffusion behavior, as the rate of fertilizer release was comparable to the relaxation time of the synthesized matrix. Synthesized IPN enhance the water uptake capacity up to 6.2% and 7.2% in sandy loam and clay soil, respectively.

  7. Experimental studies of collisional plasma shocks and plasma interpenetration via merging supersonic plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past 4 years on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL, we have studied obliquely and head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets of an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture. The jets are formed/launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. In successive experimental campaigns, we characterized the (a) evolution of plasma parameters of a single plasma jet as it propagated up to ~ 1 m away from the railgun nozzle, (b) density profiles and 2D morphology of the stagnation layer and oblique shocks that formed between obliquely merging jets, and (c) collisionless interpenetration transitioning to collisional stagnation between head-on-merging jets. Key plasma diagnostics included a fast-framing CCD camera, an 8-chord visible interferometer, a survey spectrometer, and a photodiode array. This talk summarizes the primary results mentioned above, and highlights analyses of inferred post-shock temperatures based on observations of density gradients that we attribute to shock-layer thickness. We also briefly describe more recent PLX experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution with magnetic and viscous effects, and potential future collisionless shock experiments enabled by low-impurity, higher-velocity plasma jets formed by contoured-gap coaxial guns. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences and LANL LDRD.

  8. Injectable and inherently vascularizing semi-interpenetrating polymer network for delivering cells to the subcutaneous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahou, Redouan; Zhang, David K Y; Vlahos, Alexander E; Sefton, Michael V

    2017-07-01

    Injectable hydrogels are suitable for local cell delivery to the subcutaneous space, but the lack of vasculature remains a limiting factor. Previously we demonstrated that biomaterials containing methacrylic acid promoted vascularization. Here we report the preparation of a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (SIPN), and its evaluation as an injectable carrier to deliver cells and generate blood vessels in a subcutaneous implantation site. The SIPN was prepared by reacting a blend of vinyl sulfone-terminated polyethylene glycol (PEG-VS) and sodium polymethacrylate (PMAA-Na) with dithiothreitol. The swelling of SIPN was sensitive to the PMAA-Na content but only small differences in gelation time, permeability and stiffness were noted. SIPN containing 20 mol% PMAA-Na generated a vascular network in the surrounding tissues, with 2-3 times as many vessels as was obtained with 10 mol% PMAA-Na or PEG alone. Perfusion studies showed that the generated vessels were perfused and connected to the host vasculature as early as seven days after transplantation. Islets embedded in SIPN were viable and responsive to glucose stimulation in vitro. In a proof of concept study in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model, a progressive return to normoglycemia was observed and the presence of insulin positive islets was confirmed when islets were embedded in SIPN prior to delivery. Our approach proposes a biomaterial-mediated strategy to deliver cells while enhancing vascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Fibrin-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks as Potential Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfat Gsib

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs have gained great attention for a number of biomedical applications due to their improved properties compared to individual components alone. In this study, we investigated the capacity of newly-developed naturally-derived IPNs as potential biomaterials for tissue engineering. These IPNs combine the biologic properties of a fibrous fibrin network polymerized at the nanoscale and the mechanical stability of polyethylene oxide (PEO. First, we assessed their cytotoxicity in vitro on L929 fibroblasts. We further evaluated their biocompatibility ex vivo with a chick embryo organotypic culture model. Subcutaneous implantations of the matrices were subsequently conducted on nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. Our preliminary data highlighted that our biomaterials were non-cytotoxic (viability above 90%. The organotypic culture showed that the IPN matrices induced higher cell adhesion (across all the explanted organ tissues and migration (skin, intestine than the control groups, suggesting the advantages of using a biomimetic, yet mechanically-reinforced IPN-based matrix. We observed no major inflammatory response up to 12 weeks post implantation. All together, these data suggest that these fibrin-based IPNs are promising biomaterials for tissue engineering.

  10. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on cyanate ester and fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly soluble fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide (FETI oligomers were prepared via a conventional one-step method in m-cresol, using 4, 4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride and 2, 2′-bis(trifluoromethyl benzidine as the monomers, and ethynylphthalic anhydride as the end-capper; then interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN were formulated from FETI oligomers and bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy through a solvent-free procedure, and their thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties were fully characterized. The curing mechanism was studied by model reactions using nitrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. As evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and rheological measurements, the FETI/BADCy blends exhibited lower curing temperature and shorter gelation time in comparison with pure BADCy due to the catalytic effects of ethynyl and residue amic acid groups. The properties of IPNs were fully compared with those of polycyanurate, and the results revealed that the incorporation of FETI into cyanate ester resins could significantly improve the toughness, glass transition temperatures, mechanical and dielectric properties of the resultant IPNs.

  11. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena; Dinda, Amit K; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-01-01

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p 0 C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 t /M ∞ ≤ 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  12. Evaluating the mechanical properties of E-Glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforced interpenetrating polymer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Suresh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of vinyl ester and polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks were prepared by changing the component ratios of VER (Vinyl ester and PU (Polyurethane and the polymerization process was confirmed with Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. IPN (Inter Penetrating Polymer Network - VER/PU reinforced Glass and carbon fiber composite laminates were made using the Hand lay up technique. The Mechanical properties of the E-glass and carbon fiber specimens were compared from tests including Tensile, Compressive, Flexural, ILSS (Inter Laminar Shear Strength, Impact & Head Deflection Test (HDT. The IPN Reinforced Carbon fiber specimen showed better results in all the tests than E-Glass fibre reinforced IPN laminate with same thickness of the specimen, according to ASTM standards. It was found that the combination of 60%VER and 40%PU IPN exhibits better impact strength and maximum elongation at break, but at the slight expense of mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural, ILSS properties. The morphology of the unreinforced and reinforced composites was analyzed with help of scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Structural optimization of interpenetrated pillared-layer coordination polymers for ethylene/ethane separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Keisuke; Horike, Satoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Tahara, Mina; Inubushi, Yasutaka; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2014-06-01

    With the goal of achieving effective ethylene/ethane separation, we evaluated the gas sorption properties of four pillared-layer-type porous coordination polymers with double interpenetration, [Zn2(tp)2(bpy)]n (1), [Zn2(fm)2(bpe)]n (2), [Zn2(fm)2(bpa)]n (3), and [Zn2(fm)2(bpy)]n (4) (tp = terephthalate, bpy = 4,4'-bipyridyl, fm = fumarate, bpe = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene and bpa = 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethane). It was found that 4, which contains the narrowest pores of all of these compounds, exhibited ethylene-selective sorption profiles. The ethylene selectivity of 4 was estimated to be 4.6 at 298 K based on breakthrough experiments using ethylene/ethane gas mixtures. In addition, 4 exhibited a good regeneration ability compared with a conventional porous material. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN) / polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycik, G.A.; Gurellier, R.

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. Adsorption analyses were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10 -2 M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. Adsorption capacities of uranyl ions by PEG/AN IPNS were determined by gamma spectrometer. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. The max adsorption capacity was found as 602 mgu/g IPN at 308K. Adsorption rate was evaluated from the curve plotted of adsorption capacity versus time, for each temperature. Rate constants for uranyl ions adsorption on amidoximated ipns were calculated for 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K at the solution concentration of 1x10 -2 M . The results showed that as the temperature increases the rate constant increases exponentially too. The mean activation energy of uranyl ions adsorption was found as 34.6 kJ/mole by using arrhenius equation. (author)

  15. Highly water-absorbing silk yarn with interpenetrating network via in situ polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka I; Wang, Xiaowen; Guo, Xia; Yung, Ka-Fu; Fei, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Silk was modified via in situ polymerization of two monomers acrylamide and sodium acrylate by swelling in an effective LiBr dissolution system. Swelling of natural silks in LiBr solutions of low concentration was clearly observed under optical microscope, and their conformational changes were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dissolution tests and FTIR spectra of these modified silks suggested the presence of interpenetrating network of polyacrylamide and poly(sodium acrylate) in the silk yarns. These modified silks exhibited superior water absorption to that of raw silk and greatly improved mechanical properties in both dry and wet states. These novel modified silks also showed low cytotoxicity towards skin keratinocytes, having potential applications in biomedical textiles. This modification method by in situ polymerization after swelling in LiBr provides a new route to highly enhance the properties and performance of silk for various applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D printing of an interpenetrating network hydrogel material with tunable viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootsma, Katherine; Fitzgerald, Martha M; Free, Brandon; Dimbath, Elizabeth; Conjerti, Joe; Reese, Greg; Konkolewicz, Dominik; Berberich, Jason A; Sparks, Jessica L

    2017-06-01

    Interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel materials are recognized for their unique mechanical properties. While IPN elasticity and toughness properties have been explored in previous studies, the factors that impact the time-dependent stress relaxation behavior of IPN materials are not well understood. Time-dependent (i.e. viscoelastic) mechanical behavior is a critical design parameter in the development of materials for a variety of applications, such as medical simulation devices, flexible substrate materials, cellular mechanobiology substrates, or regenerative medicine applications. This study reports a novel technique for 3D printing alginate-polyacrylamide IPN gels with tunable elastic and viscoelastic properties. The viscoelastic stress relaxation behavior of the 3D printed alginate-polyacrylamide IPN hydrogels was influenced most strongly by varying the concentration of the acrylamide cross-linker (MBAA), while the elastic modulus was affected most by varying the concentration of total monomer material. The material properties of our 3D printed IPN constructs were consistent with those reported in the biomechanics literature for soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, skin and subcutaneous tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion pair reinforced semi-interpenetrating polymer network for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chunliu; Julius, David; Tay, Siok Wei; Hong, Liang; Lee, Jim Yang

    2012-06-07

    This paper describes the synthesis of ion-pair-reinforced semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs) as proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Specifically, sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (SPPO), a linear polymer proton source, was immobilized in a brominated PPO (BPPO) network covalently cross-linked by ethylenediamine (EDA). The immobilization of SPPO in the SIPN network was accomplished not only by the usual means of mechanical interlocking but also by ion pair formation between the sulfonic acid groups of SPPO and the amine moieties formed during the cross-linking reaction of BPPO with EDA. Through the ion pair interactions, the immobilization of SPPO polymer in the BPPO network was made more effective, resulting in a greater uniformity of sulfonic acid cluster distribution in the membrane. The hydrophilic amine-containing cross-links also compensated for some of the decrease in proton conductivity caused by ion pair formation. The SIPN membranes prepared as such showed good proton conductivity, low methanol permeability, good mechanical properties, and dimensional stability. Consequently, the PPO based SIPN membranes were able to deliver a higher maximum power density than Nafion, demonstrating the potential of the SIPN structure for PEM designs.

  18. UV-radiation curing of simultaneous interpenetrating polymer network hydrogels for enhanced heavy metal ion removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous IPN hydrogels were prepared by hybrid photopolymerization of AM and DVE-3. ► The synergistic complexation was found in the adsorption studies. ► The simultaneous IPN hydrogels could be used as fast-responsive and renewable sorbent materials. - Abstract: Simultaneous interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels have been prepared by UV-initiated polymerization of a mixture of acrylamide (AM) and triethylene glycol divinyl ether (DVE-3). The consumption of each monomer upon UV-irradiation was monitored in situ by real-time infrared (RTIR) spectroscopy. The acrylamide monomer AM was shown to polymerize faster and more extensively than the vinyl ether monomer DVE-3, which was further consumed upon storage of the sample in the dark, due to the living character of the cationic polymerization. The IPN hydrogels were used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solution under the non-competitive condition. The effects of pH values of the feed solution and the DVE-3 content in the formulation on the adsorption capacity were investigated. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of the IPN hydrogels increased with the pH values and DVE-3 content in the formulation. Furthermore, the synergistic complexation of metal ions with two polymer networks in the IPN was found in the adsorption studies. Adsorption kinetics and regeneration studies suggested that the IPN hydrogels could be used as fast-responsive and renewable sorbent materials in heavy metal removing processes.

  19. Kinetic instability of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in inter-penetrating plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, M. F.; Ilie, R.; Murtaza, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron (EIC) instability that includes the effect of wave-particle interaction is studied owing to the free energy source through the flowing velocity of the inter-penetrating plasmas. It is shown that the origin of this current-less instability is different from the classical current driven EIC instability. The threshold conditions applicable to a wide range of plasma parameters and the estimate of the growth rate are determined as a function of the normalized flowing velocity ( u0/vt f e ), the temperature ( Tf/Ts ) and the density ratios ( nf 0/ns 0 ) of flowing component to static one. The EIC instability is driven by either flowing electrons or flowing ions, depending upon the different Doppler shifted frequency domains. It is found that the growth rate for electron-driven instability is higher than the ion-driven one. However, in both cases, the denser (hotter) is the flowing plasma, the lesser (greater) is the growth rate. The possible applications related to the terrestrial solar plasma environment are also discussed.

  20. Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Networks with Predefined Architecture for Metal Ion Fluorescence Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Christodoulou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of new synthetic approaches for the preparation of efficient 3D luminescent chemosensors for transition metal ions receives considerable attention nowadays, owing to the key role of the latter as elements in biological systems and their harmful environmental effects when present in aquatic media. In this work, we describe an easy and versatile synthetic methodology that leads to the generation of nonconjugated 3D luminescent semi-interpenetrating amphiphilic networks (semi-IPN with structure-defined characteristics. More precisely, the synthesis involves the encapsulation of well-defined poly(9-anthrylmethyl methacrylate (pAnMMA (hydrophobic, luminescent linear polymer chains within a covalent poly(2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA hydrophilic polymer network, derived via the 1,2-bis-(2-iodoethoxyethane (BIEE-induced crosslinking process of well-defined pDMAEMA linear chains. Characterization of their fluorescence properties demonstrated that these materials act as strong blue emitters when exposed to UV irradiation. This, combined with the presence of the metal-binding tertiary amino functionalities of the pDMAEMA segments, allowed for their applicability as sorbents and fluorescence chemosensors for transition metal ions (Fe3+, Cu2+ in solution via a chelation-enhanced fluorescence-quenching effect promoted within the semi-IPN network architecture. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-induced metal ion desorption and thus material recyclability has been also demonstrated.

  1. Proposal for new experimental tests of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction and transmutation processes in deuterium loaded micro- and nano-scale cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong, E. Kim; Koltick, David S.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    Most of experimental results of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) reported so far cannot be reproduced on demand. There have been persistent. experimental results indicating that the LENR und transmutation processes in condensed matter (LENRTPCM) are surface phenomena rather than bulk phenomena. Recently, proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism may provide a suitable theoretical description of the surface phenomena. New experiments are proposed and described for testing the BEC mechanism for LENR and transmutation processes in micro- and nano-scale traps. (1) We propose the use of micro-or nano-porous conducting materials as a cathode in electrolysis experiments with heavy water with or without Li in order to stabilize the active surface spots and to enhance the effect for the purpose of improving the reproducibility of excess heat generation and nuclear emission. (2) We propose new experimental tests of the BEC mechanism by measuring the pressure and temperature dependence of LENR events using deuterium gas and those deuterated metals with or without Li. If the LENRTPCM are surface phenomena, the proposed use of micro-/nano-scale porous materials is expected to enhance and scale up the LENRTPCM effects by many orders of magnitude, and thus may lead to better reproducibility and theoretical understanding of the phenomena. (authors)

  2. Proposal for new experimental tests of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction and transmutation processes in deuterium loaded micro- and nano-scale cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeong, E. Kim; Koltick, David S.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Zubarev, Alexander L. [Department of Phsysics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Most of experimental results of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) reported so far cannot be reproduced on demand. There have been persistent. experimental results indicating that the LENR und transmutation processes in condensed matter (LENRTPCM) are surface phenomena rather than bulk phenomena. Recently, proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism may provide a suitable theoretical description of the surface phenomena. New experiments are proposed and described for testing the BEC mechanism for LENR and transmutation processes in micro- and nano-scale traps. (1) We propose the use of micro-or nano-porous conducting materials as a cathode in electrolysis experiments with heavy water with or without Li in order to stabilize the active surface spots and to enhance the effect for the purpose of improving the reproducibility of excess heat generation and nuclear emission. (2) We propose new experimental tests of the BEC mechanism by measuring the pressure and temperature dependence of LENR events using deuterium gas and those deuterated metals with or without Li. If the LENRTPCM are surface phenomena, the proposed use of micro-/nano-scale porous materials is expected to enhance and scale up the LENRTPCM effects by many orders of magnitude, and thus may lead to better reproducibility and theoretical understanding of the phenomena. (authors)

  3. Proposal for New Experimental Tests of the Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterium Loaded - and Nano-Scale Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Koltick, David S.; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2006-02-01

    Most of experimental results of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) reported so far cannot be reproduced on demand. There have been persistent experimental results indicating that the LENR and transmutation processes in condensed matters (LENRTPCM) are surface phenomena rather than bulk phenomena. Recently proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism may provide a suitable theoretical description of the surface phenomena. New experiments are proposed and described for testing the BEC mechanism for LENR and transmutation processes in micro- and nano-scale traps. (1) We propose the use of micro- or nano-porous conducting materials as a cathode in electrolysis experiments with heavy water with or without Li in order to stabilize the active surface spots and to enhance the effect for the purpose of improving the reproducibility of excess heat generation and nuclear emission. (2) We propose new experimental tests of the BEC mechanism by measuring the pressure and temperature dependence of LENR events using deuterium gas and these deuterated metals with or without Li. If the LENRTPCM are surface phenomena, the proposed use of micro-/nano-scale porous materials is expected to enhance and scale up the LENRTPCM effects by many order of magnitude, and thus may lead to better reproductivity and theoretical understanding of the phenomena.

  4. Taste masking of ofloxacin and formation of interpenetrating polymer network beads for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to carry out taste masking of ofloxacin (Ofl by ion exchange resins (IERs followed by sustained release of Ofl by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN beads. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of Ofl to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared by batch method and investigated for in vivo and in vitro taste masking. DRC of methacrylic acid-divinyl benzene (MD resin and Ofl prepared at a ratio of 1:4 was used to form IPN beads. IPN beads of MD 1:4 were prepared by following the ionic cross-linking method using sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum (SCMXG and SCMXG-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMXG-SCMC. IPN beads were characterized with FT-IR and further studied on sustained release of Ofl at different pH. In vivo taste masking carried out by human volunteers showed that MD 1:4 significantly reduced the bitterness of Ofl. Characterization studies such as FT-IR, DSC, P-XRD and taste masking showed that complex formation took place between drug and resin. In vitro study at gastric pH showed complete release of drug from MD 1:4 within 30 min whereas IPN beads took 5 h at gastric pH and 10 h at salivary pH for the complete release of drug. As the crosslinking increased the release kinetics changed into non-Fickian diffusion to zero-order release mechanism. MD 1:4 showed better performance for the taste masking of Ofl and IPNs beads prepared from it were found useful for the sustained release of Ofl at both the pH, indicating a versatile drug delivery system.

  5. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dinda, Amit K [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Gupta, Asheesh, E-mail: veenak_iitd@yahoo.co [Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Ministry of Defense, New Delhi 110059 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt {approx} 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 {+-} 1.4 to 75 {+-} 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 {+-} 6.4 to 23 {+-} 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 {+-} 0.2 {sup 0}C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity} {<=}} 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  6. Electroactive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks architecture with tunable IR reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, C.; Teyssié, D.; Verge, P.; Goujon, L.; Tran-Van, F.; Vidal, F.; Aubert, P. H.; Peralta, S.; Sauques, L.

    2011-04-01

    A promising alternative of multi-layered devices showing electrochromic properties results from the design of a self-supported semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) including an electronic conductive polymer (ECP) formed within. The formation of the ECP in the network has already been described by oxidative polymerization using iron trichloride as an oxidant and leading to conducting semi-IPN with mixed electronic and ionic conductivities as well as convenient mechanical properties. This presentation relates to the elaboration of such semi-IPN using polyethyleneoxide (PEO) network or a PEO/NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) IPN in which a linear poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is formed symmetrically and selectively as very thin layers very next to the two main faces of the film matrix. PEO/PEDOT semi-IPNs lead to interesting optical reflective properties in the IR between 0.8 and 25 μm. Reflectance contrasts up to 35 % is observed when, after swelling in an ionic liquid, a low voltage is applied between the two main faces of the film. However the low flexibility and brittleness of the film and a slow degradation in air at temperature up from 60°C prompted to replace the PEO matrix by a flexible PEO/NBR IPN one. Indeed, the combination of NBR and PEO in an IPN leads to materials possessing flexible properties, good ionic conductivity at 25°C as well as a better resistance to thermal ageing. Finally, NBR/PEO/PEDOT semi-IPNs allow observing comparable reflectance contrast in the IR range than those shown by PEO/PEDOT semi-IPNs.

  7. Development and optimization of locust bean gum and sodium alginate interpenetrating polymeric network of capecitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mansi; Adena, Sandeep Kumar Reddy; Vardhan, Harsh; Pandey, Sureshwar; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the study was to develop interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) of capecitabine (CAP) using natural polymers locust bean gum (LBG) and sodium alginate (NaAlg). The IPN microbeads were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to provide anticipated particle size with good drug entrapment efficiency. The comparative dissolution profile of IPN microbeads of CAP with the marketed preparation proved an excellent sustained drug delivery vehicle. Ionotropic gelation method utilizing metal ion calcium (Ca 2+ ) as a cross-linker was used to prepare IPN microbeads. The optimization study was done by response surface methodology based Box-Behnken Design. The effect of the factors on the responses of optimized batch was exhibited through response surface and contour plots. The optimized batch was analyzed for particle size, % drug entrapment, pharmacokinetic study, in vitro drug release study and further characterized by FTIR, XRD, and SEM. To study the water uptake capacity and hydrodynamic activity of the polymers, swelling studies and viscosity measurement were performed, respectively. The particle size and % drug entrapment of the optimized batch was 494.37 ± 1.4 µm and 81.39 ± 2.9%, respectively, closer to the value predicted by Minitab 17 software. The in vitro drug release study showed sustained release of 92% for 12 h and followed anomalous drug release pattern. The derived pharmacokinetic parameters of optimized batch showed improved results than pure CAP. Thus, the formed IPN microbeads of CAP proved to be an effective extended drug delivery vehicle for the water soluble antineoplastic drug.

  8. Some experiments to study diffusive transport through a semi interpenetrating polymeric network in the absence and presence of aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Pritha; Das, Atreyee; Yasmin, Tanvee; Kanjilal, Baishali; Chakrabarti, Haimanti

    2018-05-01

    The study of ion transport in biological system has become a topic of great current interest. This work presents the diffusive transport properties through a typical semi interpenetrating polymeric network (SIPN) which mimics many characteristic features of the walls of human food pipes. The SIPN matrix has been synthesised from Polyvinyl alcohol, Acrylamide monomer, Glutaraldehyde and Ammonium Per sulphate in our laboratory is utilised to study the diffusive transport in the absence and presence of aqueous electrolyte (KCl) at varying concentrations. The diffusivity of the SIPN polymer hydrogel was estimated by the `Theory of Elastomer' to get an insight into process of Potassium and Chlorine ion transport through the SIPN.

  9. Microcellular foams via phase separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    A study of wide variety of processes for making plastic foams shows that phase separation processes for polymers from solutions offers the most viable methods for obtaining rigid plastic foams which met the physical requirements for fusion target designs. Four general phase separation methods have been shown to give polymer foams with densities less than 0.1 g/cm 3 and cell sizes of 30μm or less. These methods involve the utilization of non-solvent, chemical or thermal cooling processes to achieve a controlled phase separation wherein either two distinct phases are obtained where the polymer phase is a continuous phase or two bicontinuous phases are obtained where both the polymer and solvent are interpenetrating, continuous, labyrinthine phases. Subsequent removal of the solvent gives the final foam structure

  10. Theoretical investigations of CO₂ and CH₄ sorption in an interpenetrated diamondoid metal-organic material.

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A; Tudor, Brant; Elsaidi, Sameh K; Mohamed, Mona H; McLaughlin, Keith; Cioce, Christian R; Zaworotko, Michael J; Space, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of CO2 and CH4 sorption and separation were performed in dia-7i-1-Co, a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of a 7-fold interpenetrated net of Co(2+) ions coordinated to 4-(2-(4-pyridyl)ethenyl)benzoate linkers. This MOM shows high affinity toward CH4 at low loading due to the presence of narrow, close fitting, one-dimensional hydrophobic channels-this makes the MOM relevant for applications in low-pressure methane storage. The calculated CO2 and CH4 sorption isotherms and isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values in dia-7i-1-Co are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results for all state points considered. The experimental initial Qst value for CH4 in dia-7i-1-Co is currently the highest of reported MOM materials, and this was further validated by the simulations performed herein. The simulations predict relatively constant Qst values for CO2 and CH4 sorption across all loadings in dia-7i-1-Co, consistent with the one type of binding site identified for the respective sorbate molecules in this MOM. Examination of the three-dimensional histogram showing the sites of CO2 and CH4 sorption in dia-7i-1-Co confirmed this finding. Inspection of the modeled structure revealed that the sorbate molecules form a strong interaction with the organic linkers within the constricted hydrophobic channels. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculations and GCMC binary mixture simulations predict that the selectivity of CO2 over CH4 in dia-7i-1-Co is quite low, which is a direct consequence of the MOM's high affinity toward both CO2 and CH4 as well as the nonspecific mechanism shown here. This study provides theoretical insights into the effects of pore size on CO2 and CH4 sorption in porous MOMs and its effect upon selectivity, including postulating design strategies to distinguish between sorbates of similar size and hydrophobicity.

  11. Kinetic studies of uranyl ion adsorption on acrylonitrile (AN)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating networks (IPN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aycik, G.A.; Gurellier, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The kinetics of the adsorption of uranyl ions on amidoximated acrylonitrile (AN)/ polyethylene glycol (PEG) interpenetrating network (IPNs) from aqueous solutions was studied as a function of time and temperature. The IPNs were prepared by irradiation initiated gamma polymerisation using Co-60 gamma source. Adsorption capacities were performed for definite uranyl ion concentrations of 1x10 -2 M and at four different temperatures as 290K, 298K, 308K and 318K by gamma spectrometer. Adsorption time was increased from zero to 48 hours. The results indicate that adsorption capacity increases linearly with increasing temperature. Temperature and agitation hardly influence equilibrium and kinetics and decreasing of temperature results in a slightly greater time to reach equilibrium. The adsorption of uranyl ions has been studied in a multi step mechanism processes thus comparing chemical sorption and diffusion sorption processes. The experimental data was analysed using various kinetic models to determine the best-fit equation for the adsorption mechanisms. However, it was shown that all models, in general according to the reaction time and uranyl ion concentration in the solution, could describe the adsorption of uranyl ion onto amidoximated IPN, the adsorption kinetics was best described by zeroth order and intraparticle diffusion model whereas that of in increasing time by pseudo first and pseudo second order response respectively. External-intraparticle diffusion and zeroth order process in the IPN structure is proposed as a mass transfer mechanism and the results indicate a diffusion-controlled process. The Mean Activation Energy Of Uranyl Ions Adsorption Was Found As 4,1 Kj/Mole By Using Arrhenius Equation. The Rate Constant, The Equilibrium Adsorption Capacity And The Initial Adsorption Rate Were Calculated For All Models At Each Temperature. Kinetic Parameters Of All Models And The Normalized Standard Deviations Between The Measured And Predicted

  12. Grafting of Interpenetrating Networks of Two Stimuli-responsive Polymers onto PP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work a new strategy was used to prepare interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of two 'stimuli-responsive' polymers: a thermosensitive poly N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm) and pH sensitive poly acrylic acid (PAAc), the last grafted onto PP films. IPNs are a combination of two or more polymers in network form, which are mixed together (not chemically but physically), with al least one such polymer polymerized and/or crosslinked in the immediate presence of the other(s). The 'stimuli-responsive' polymers, also called 'smart' polymers, exhibit relatively large and sharp physical or chemical changes in response to small physical or chemical stimuli. These polymers are being used as hydrogels or copolymers for technical applications in chemical and mechanical engineering systems such as mass separation, chemical valves, temperature or pH indicators, biomedical and drug delivery systems. For these applications a rapid response and good mechanical properties are necessary. Formerly when PNIPAAm and PAAc were chemically combined their sensitivity was often altered or eliminated and their copolymer had poor mechanical properties. Attempts to solve this problem by creating IPN's with a reduced gel size or by using a macro-porous structure were successful in preserving sensitivity but failed to produce adequate mechanical properties. The object of this paper is to improve the past results of using a binary graft of PNIPAAm and PAAc onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene) PTFE. Poly acrylic acid was grafted onto polypropylene films (with good mechanical properties) by gamma radiation in air (pre-irradiation method), then these grafts were crosslinked using any of the next two methods: The first one, the grafted film in water and argon atmosphere by gamma radiation; and the second one, in the same conditions, but adding a crosslinking agent N, N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAAm). The second network was carried out in situ, in the cross-linked PAAc grafted onto PP films, by

  13. Theoretical investigations of CO₂ and CH₄ sorption in an interpenetrated diamondoid metal-organic material.

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2014-05-29

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of CO2 and CH4 sorption and separation were performed in dia-7i-1-Co, a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of a 7-fold interpenetrated net of Co(2+) ions coordinated to 4-(2-(4-pyridyl)ethenyl)benzoate linkers. This MOM shows high affinity toward CH4 at low loading due to the presence of narrow, close fitting, one-dimensional hydrophobic channels-this makes the MOM relevant for applications in low-pressure methane storage. The calculated CO2 and CH4 sorption isotherms and isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values in dia-7i-1-Co are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results for all state points considered. The experimental initial Qst value for CH4 in dia-7i-1-Co is currently the highest of reported MOM materials, and this was further validated by the simulations performed herein. The simulations predict relatively constant Qst values for CO2 and CH4 sorption across all loadings in dia-7i-1-Co, consistent with the one type of binding site identified for the respective sorbate molecules in this MOM. Examination of the three-dimensional histogram showing the sites of CO2 and CH4 sorption in dia-7i-1-Co confirmed this finding. Inspection of the modeled structure revealed that the sorbate molecules form a strong interaction with the organic linkers within the constricted hydrophobic channels. Ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) calculations and GCMC binary mixture simulations predict that the selectivity of CO2 over CH4 in dia-7i-1-Co is quite low, which is a direct consequence of the MOM\\'s high affinity toward both CO2 and CH4 as well as the nonspecific mechanism shown here. This study provides theoretical insights into the effects of pore size on CO2 and CH4 sorption in porous MOMs and its effect upon selectivity, including postulating design strategies to distinguish between sorbates of similar size and hydrophobicity.

  14. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-07-15

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the “precursor” plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100–140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  15. Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN with Epoxidized and Acrylated Bioresins and their Composites with Glass and Jute Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cardona

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epoxidized (EHO and acrylated (AEHO bio-resins from hemp oil were synthesized, and their interpenetrating networks (IPNs were investigated in reinforced bio-composites with natural jute fibres and glass fibres. The mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, Charpy impact, and inter-laminar shear and viscoelastic properties (glass transition temperature, storage modulus, and crosslink density of the bio-resins and their hybrid IPNs EHO/AEHO system were investigated as a function of the level of bio-resin hybridization. The hybrid bio-resins exhibited interpenetrating network (IPN behaviour. Composites prepared with the synthetic vinyl ester (VE and epoxy resins showed superior mechanical and viscoelastic properties compared with their bio-resins and IPNs-based counterparts. With glass fibre (GF reinforcement, increases in the EHO content of the IPNs resulted in increased stiffness of the composites, while the strength, inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS, and impact resistance decreased. However, in the jute fibre reinforced bio-composites, increases in AEHO content generated increased tensile modulus, ILSS, and mechanical strength of the bio-materials. Crosslink density and glass transition temperature (Tg were also higher for the synthetic resins than for the bio-resins. Increased AEHO content of the IPNs resulted in improved viscoelastic properties.

  16. An interpenetrating HA/G/CS biomimic hydrogel via Diels-Alder click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Cao, Xiaodong; Zeng, Lei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2013-08-14

    In order to mimic the natural cartilage extracellular matrix, a novel biological degradable interpenetrating network hydrogel was synthesized from the gelatin (G), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) by Diels-Alder "click" chemistry. HA was modified with furylamine and G was modified with furancarboxylic acid respectively. (1)H NMR spectra and elemental analysis showed that the substitution degrees of HA-furan and G-furan were 71.5% and 44.5%. Then the hydrogels were finally synthesized by cross-linking furan-modified HA and G derivatives with dimaleimide poly(ethylene glycol) (MAL-PEG-MAL). The mechanical and degradation properties of the hydrogels could be tuned simply through varying the molar ratio between furan and maleimide. Rheological, mechanical and degradation studies demonstrated that the Diels-Alder "click" chemistry is an efficient method for preparing high performance biological interpenetrating hydrogels. This biomimic hydrogel with improved mechanical properties could have great potential applications in cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrical characterization of Ge–Sb–Te phase change nano-pillars using conductive atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byeong-Ju; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Seon-Yong; Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Yang, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Heon

    2009-01-01

    The electrical characteristic of phase change material was studied in nano-scale using nanoimprint lithography and a conducting atomic force microscopy measurement system. Nanoimprint lithography was used to fabricate the nano-scale phase change material pattern. A Pt-coated AFM tip was used as a top electrode to measure the electrical characteristics of the GST nano-pillar. The GST nano-pillar, which is 200 nm in diameter, was amorphized by 2 V and 5 ns reset pulse and was then brought back to the crystalline phase by applying 1.3 V and 150 ns set pulse. Using this measurement system, the GST nano-pillar was switched between the amorphous and crystalline phases more than five times. The results of the reset and the set current measurement with the GST nano-pillar sizes show that the reset and the set currents also decreased with the decrease of the GST pillar size

  18. Glass transition temperatures of microphase separated semi-interpenetrating polymer networks of polystyrene-inter-poly(cross)-2-ethylhexyl-methacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, L.A.; de Graaf, Leontine A.; Möller, Martin; Moller, M.

    1995-01-01

    The glass transition temperature of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) of atactic polystyrene (PS) in crosslinked methacrylates was studied by systematic variation of the morphology, that is domain size, continuity and concentration in the domains. Semi-IPNs were prepared from

  19. Microstructured poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)/poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) interpenetrating network hydrogels: UV-scattering induced accelerated formation and tensile behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadakbayeva, Zhansaya; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Šturcová, Adriana; Pfleger, Jiří; Dušek, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 101, April (2018), s. 304-313 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogels * interpenetrating polymer networks * kinetics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  20. Mathematical and numerical analysis of a multi-velocity multi-fluid model for interpenetration of miscible fluids; Analyse mathematique et numerique d'un modele multifluide multivitesse pour l'interpenetration de fluides miscibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enaux, C

    2007-11-15

    The simulation of indirect laser implosion requires an accurate knowledge of the inter-penetration of the laser target materials turned into plasma. This work is devoted to the study of a multi-velocity multi-fluid model recently proposed by Scannapieco and Cheng (SC) to describe the inter-penetration of miscible fluids. In this document, we begin with presenting the SC model in the context of miscible fluids flow modelling. Afterwards, the mathematical analysis of the model is carried out (study of the hyperbolicity, existence of a strictly convex mathematical entropy, asymptotic analysis and diffusion limit). As a conclusion the problem is well set. Then, we focus on the problem of numerical resolution of systems of conservation laws with a relaxation source term, because SC model belongs to this class. The main difficulty of this task is to capture on a coarse grid the asymptotic behaviour of the system when the source term is stiff. The main contribution of this work lies in the proposition of a new technique, allowing us to construct a Lagrangian numerical flux taking into account the presence of the source term. This technique is applied first on the model-problem of a one-dimensional Euler system with friction, and then on the multi-fluid SC model. In both cases, we prove that the new scheme is asymptotic-preserving and entropic under a CFL-like condition. The two-dimensional extension of the scheme is done by using a standard alternate directions method. Some numerical results highlight the contribution of the new flux, compared with a standard Lagrange plus Remap scheme where the source term is processed using an operator splitting. (author)

  1. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks composed of silk fibroin and poly(ethylene glycol) for wound dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, HaeYong; Yeo, Joo-hong; Lee, Kwang-gill; Lee, Hyun Chul; Na, Hee Sam; Won, Young Ho; Cho, Chong Su

    2008-01-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs) composed of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were prepared by photopolymerization of a PEG macromer in the presence of SF to improve the mechanical properties of SF sponge as wound dressing. The morphological structure of the SF/PEG SIPNs was observed to be composed of an interconnected microporous surface and a cross-sectional area. SF/PEG SIPNs showed non-cytotoxicity evaluated by a cell proliferation method using L929 fibroblasts. Wound contraction treated with SF/PEG SIPNs sponges was faster than that of Vaseline gauze as a control. Histological observation confirmed that the deposition of collagen in the dermis was organized by covering the wound area with SF/PEG SIPNs. The above results indicated that SF/PEG SIPNs could be used as wound dressing

  2. Interpenetrated polymer networks based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks with high dielectric permittivity and self-healing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliani, Elisa; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    the applicability. One method used to avoid this limitation is to increase the dielectric permittivity of the material in order to improve the actuation response at a given field. Recently, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on covalently cross-linked commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks...... from amino- and carboxylic acid- functional silicones have been designed[2] (Figure 1). This novel system provides both the mechanical stability and the high breakdown strength given by the silicone part of the IPNs and the high permittivity and the softening effect of the ionic network. Thus......,1 Hz), and the commercial elastomers RT625 and LR3043/30 provide thebest viscoelastic properties to the systems, since they maintain low viscous losses upon addition of ionic network. The values ofthe breakdown strength in all cases remain higher than that of the reference pure PDMS network (ranging...

  3. Mathematical and numerical analysis of a multi-velocity multi-fluid model for interpenetration of miscible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enaux, C.

    2007-11-01

    The simulation of indirect laser implosion requires an accurate knowledge of the inter-penetration of the laser target materials turned into plasma. This work is devoted to the study of a multi-velocity multi-fluid model recently proposed by Scannapieco and Cheng (SC) to describe the inter-penetration of miscible fluids. In this document, we begin with presenting the SC model in the context of miscible fluids flow modelling. Afterwards, the mathematical analysis of the model is carried out (study of the hyperbolicity, existence of a strictly convex mathematical entropy, asymptotic analysis and diffusion limit). As a conclusion the problem is well set. Then, we focus on the problem of numerical resolution of systems of conservation laws with a relaxation source term, because SC model belongs to this class. The main difficulty of this task is to capture on a coarse grid the asymptotic behaviour of the system when the source term is stiff. The main contribution of this work lies in the proposition of a new technique, allowing us to construct a Lagrangian numerical flux taking into account the presence of the source term. This technique is applied first on the model-problem of a one-dimensional Euler system with friction, and then on the multi-fluid SC model. In both cases, we prove that the new scheme is asymptotic-preserving and entropic under a CFL-like condition. The two-dimensional extension of the scheme is done by using a standard alternate directions method. Some numerical results highlight the contribution of the new flux, compared with a standard Lagrange plus Remap scheme where the source term is processed using an operator splitting. (author)

  4. Grain boundary engineering with nano-scale InSb producing high performance InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudite thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric semiconductors based on CoSb3 hold the best promise for recovering industrial or automotive waste heat because of their high efficiency and relatively abundant, lead-free constituent elements. However, higher efficiency is needed before thermoelectrics reach economic viability for widespread use. In this study, n-type InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudites with high thermoelectric performance are produced by combining several phonon scattering mechanisms in a panoscopic synthesis. Using melt spinning followed by spark plasma sintering (MS-SPS, bulk InxCeyCo4Sb12+z alloys are formed with grain boundaries decorated with nano-phase of InSb. The skutterudite matrix has grains on a scale of 100–200 nm and the InSb nano-phase with a typical size of 5–15 nm is evenly dispersed at the grain boundaries of the skutterudite matrix. Coupled with the presence of defects on the Sb sublattice, this multi-scale nanometer structure is exceptionally effective in scattering phonons and, therefore, InxCeyCo4Sb12/InSb nano-composites have very low lattice thermal conductivity and high zT values reaching in excess of 1.5 at 800 K.

  5. Theoretical study of silicon carbide under irradiation at the nano scale: classical and ab initio modelling; Etude theorique a l'echelle nanometrique du carbure de silicium sous irradiation: modelisation classique et ab initio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, G

    2006-10-15

    The behaviour of silicon carbide under irradiation has been studied using classical and ab initio simulations, focusing on the nano scale elementary processes. First, we have been interested in the calculation of threshold displacement energies, which are difficult to determine both experimentally and theoretically, and also the associated Frenkel pairs. In the framework of this thesis, we have carried out simulations in classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. For the classical approach, two types of potentials have been used: the Tersoff potential, which led to non satisfactory results, and a new one which has been developed during this thesis. This potential allows a better modelling of SiC under irradiation than most of the empirical potentials available for SiC. It is based on the EDIP potential, initially developed to describe defects in silicon, that we have generalized to SiC. For the ab initio approach, the feasibility of the calculations has been validated and average energies of 19 eV for the C and 38 eV for the Si sublattices have been determined, close to the values empirically used in the fusion community. The results obtained with the new potential EDIP are globally in agreement with those values. Finally, the elementary processes involved in the crystal recovery have been studied by calculating the stability of the created Frenkel pairs and determining possible recombination mechanisms with the nudged elastic band method. (author)

  6. Low-temperature phase transformation in rubidium and cesium superoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhanov, R.A.; Toshich, B.S.; Smirnov, L.S.

    1980-01-01

    Crystal structures of rubidium and cesium superoxides which are two interpenetrating lattices of metal ions and oxygen molecule ions reveal a number of phase transformations with temperature decrease. Crystal-phase transformations in CsO 2 are 1-2, 2-3 and low temperature one 3-4 at 378, 190 and 10 K. Low temperature transition is considered as the instability of lattice quadrupoles of oxygen molecule ions to phase transformation of the order-disorder type. Calculated temperatures of low temperature phase transformations in PbO 2 and CsO 2 agree with experimental calculations satisfactory [ru

  7. An analysis of formation mechanism and nano-scale hardness of the laser-induced coating on Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanming; Yang, Jianguo; Fu, Wei; Wang, Limei; Gao, Zengliang

    2016-01-01

    The Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy was laser surface treated in argon atmosphere to enhance its tribological property. The formation mechanism of the coating was revealed and its mechanical properties were characterized. The microstructure and phase identification in the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the coating, i.e. elastic modulus and hardness, were measured by nanoindentation tests. The SiC particles were used as the coating materials. During the laser treatment, the SiC will first decompose and the decomposition products Si will trigger the formation of MoC carbides in the coating. After complete solidification, the coating consists of the MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic Ni matrix and graphite. Lot of tiny MoC and chromium carbides can also occur in the interdendritic matrix. The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are characterized to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa, which are far higher than that of the matrix (E = 246.8 GPa, H = 5.3 GPa). In addition, the volume fraction of hard MoC can reach about 45.3% in the coating. The method reported in this work will provide us a new approach to fabricate the wear-resisting coating. - Highlights: • The SiC will decompose and the released Si atoms can trigger formation of hard MoC. • The coating consists of MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic matrix and graphite. • The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are measured to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa. • The volume fraction of hard MoC in the coating can reach approximately 45.3%.

  8. An analysis of formation mechanism and nano-scale hardness of the laser-induced coating on Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yanming [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); Yang, Jianguo, E-mail: yangjianguo@hit.edu.cn [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Fu, Wei [Shanghai Baosteel Industry Technological Service Co., Ltd., Shanghai, 201900 (China); Wang, Limei; Gao, Zengliang [Institute of Process Equipment and Control Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The Ni–17Mo–7Cr based superalloy was laser surface treated in argon atmosphere to enhance its tribological property. The formation mechanism of the coating was revealed and its mechanical properties were characterized. The microstructure and phase identification in the coating were investigated by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques. The mechanical properties of the coating, i.e. elastic modulus and hardness, were measured by nanoindentation tests. The SiC particles were used as the coating materials. During the laser treatment, the SiC will first decompose and the decomposition products Si will trigger the formation of MoC carbides in the coating. After complete solidification, the coating consists of the MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic Ni matrix and graphite. Lot of tiny MoC and chromium carbides can also occur in the interdendritic matrix. The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are characterized to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa, which are far higher than that of the matrix (E = 246.8 GPa, H = 5.3 GPa). In addition, the volume fraction of hard MoC can reach about 45.3% in the coating. The method reported in this work will provide us a new approach to fabricate the wear-resisting coating. - Highlights: • The SiC will decompose and the released Si atoms can trigger formation of hard MoC. • The coating consists of MoC equiaxed dendrites, interdendritic matrix and graphite. • The elastic modulus and hardness of MoC are measured to be 394.0 GPa and 22.3 GPa. • The volume fraction of hard MoC in the coating can reach approximately 45.3%.

  9. Nano-Scale Interface Modification of the Co/Cu System: Metallic Surface Modifiers in the Growth of Smooth Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolny-Marszalek, M.

    2007-10-01

    This review is a collection of twelve original papers concerning growth and interface modification in the Co/Cu system. Most of this research has been carried out in the Laboratory of Surface and Thin Film Physics at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. The Laboratory was created by the author of this review in 1996 in strong collaboration with the Institute of Nuclear Physics Wilhelms-Universitaet in Muenster, Germany and the Institute of Applied Physics Ukrainian Academy of Science in Sumy, Ukraine. The big international team worked under the leadership of Dr Marta Marszalek, initially developing a multicomponent ultrahigh vacuum setup for thin film preparation and analysis, and next accompanying her in studies of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co/Cu multilayers. Systems that exhibit giant magnetoresistance effect have been receiving intensive attentions over recent years since they are possible candidates for applications in ultrahigh-density data storage and magnetoelectronic devices. The focus of this research is the growth of magnetic Co/Cu multilayers modified by using metallic surface modifiers called surfactants. The different approaches have been used. Surfactant metals were introduced once into growth process as a buffer layer or they were deposited sequentially at each interface of Co/Cu multilayers. The growth was performed by molecular beam epitaxy technique which allows to tailor carefully deposition conditions. The results showed that two approaches gave different results. Surfactant buffer layers resulted in loss of layered character of multilayers being a kind of an intermediate cluster-like phase combined with a layered area. Small amount of surfactants introduced at each interface lead to well-ordered structures with small roughness and smoother interfaces than in the case of pure Co/Cu multilayers. Despite of the differences, in both cases the improvement of magnetoresistance value was observed. The atomic scale study

  10. Nano-Scale Interface Modification of the Co/Cu System: Metallic Surface Modifiers in the Growth of Smooth Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny-Marszalek, M [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 152 Radzikowskiego str., 31-342, Cracow (Poland)

    2007-10-15

    This review is a collection of twelve original papers concerning growth and interface modification in the Co/Cu system. Most of this research has been carried out in the Laboratory of Surface and Thin Film Physics at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. The Laboratory was created by the author of this review in 1996 in strong collaboration with the Institute of Nuclear Physics Wilhelms-Universitaet in Muenster, Germany and the Institute of Applied Physics Ukrainian Academy of Science in Sumy, Ukraine. The big international team worked under the leadership of Dr Marta Marszalek, initially developing a multicomponent ultrahigh vacuum setup for thin film preparation and analysis, and next accompanying her in studies of the structural, magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Co/Cu multilayers. Systems that exhibit giant magnetoresistance effect have been receiving intensive attentions over recent years since they are possible candidates for applications in ultrahigh-density data storage and magnetoelectronic devices. The focus of this research is the growth of magnetic Co/Cu multilayers modified by using metallic surface modifiers called surfactants. The different approaches have been used. Surfactant metals were introduced once into growth process as a buffer layer or they were deposited sequentially at each interface of Co/Cu multilayers. The growth was performed by molecular beam epitaxy technique which allows to tailor carefully deposition conditions. The results showed that two approaches gave different results. Surfactant buffer layers resulted in loss of layered character of multilayers being a kind of an intermediate cluster-like phase combined with a layered area. Small amount of surfactants introduced at each interface lead to well-ordered structures with small roughness and smoother interfaces than in the case of pure Co/Cu multilayers. Despite of the differences, in both cases the improvement of magnetoresistance value was observed. The atomic scale study

  11. Development of semi- and grafted interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaghiele, Marta; Marotta, Francesco; Demitri, Christian; Montagna, Francesco; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Sannino, Alessandro

    2014-12-30

    The objective of this work was to develop composite hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) and collagen (Coll), potentially useful for biomedical applications. Semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) were obtained by photo-stabilizing aqueous solutions of PEGDA and acrylic acid (AA), in the presence of collagen. Further grafting of the collagen macromolecules to the PEGDA/poly(AA) network was achieved by means of a carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reaction. The resulting hydrogels were characterized in terms of swelling capability, collagen content and mechanical properties. The grafting procedure was found to significantly improve the mechanical stability of the IPN hydrogels, due to the establishment of covalent bonding between the PEGDA/poly(AA) and the collagen networks. The suitability of the composite hydrogels to be processed by means of stereolithography (SLA) was also investigated, toward creating biomimetic constructs with complex shapes, which might be useful either as platforms for tissue engineering applications or as tissue mimicking phantoms.

  12. Taste masking of ciprofloxacin by ion-exchange resin and sustain release at gastric-intestinal through interpenetrating polymer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to taste mask ciprofloxacin (CP by using ion-exchange resins (IERs followed by sustain release of CP by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN. IERs based on the copolymerization of acrylic acid with different cross linking agents were synthesised. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of drug to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared & evaluated for taste masking by following in vivo and in vitro methods. Human volunteers graded ADC 1:4, acrylic acid-divinyl benzene (ADC-3 resin as tasteless. Characterization studies such as FTIR, SEM, DSC, P-XRD differentiated ADC 1:4, from physical mixture (PM 1:4 and confirmed the formation of complex. In vitro drug release of ADC 1:4 showed complete release of CP within 60 min at simulated gastric fluid (SGF i.e. pH 1.2. IPN beads were prepared with ADC 1:4 by using sodium alginate (AL and sodium alginate-chitosan (AL-CS for sustain release of CP at SGF pH and followed by simulated intestinal fluid (SIF i.e. pH 7.4. FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of IPN beads. The release of CP was sustain at SGF pH (75%. The kinetic model of IPN beads showed the release of CP was non-Fickian diffusion type.

  13. Microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion behavior of interpenetrating (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composite fabricated by suction casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Dong, L.H.; Li, J.T.; Li, X.L.; Ma, X.L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The novel interpenetrating (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composites were fabricated by infiltrating MgCa alloy into porous HA + β-TCP using suction casting technique. The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of the composites have been evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical testing, electrochemical and immersion tests. It was shown that the composites had compact structure and the interfacial bonding between MgCa alloy and HA + β-TCP scaffolds was very well. The ultimate compressive strength of the composites was about 500–1000 fold higher than that of the original porous scaffolds, and it still retained quarter-half of the strength of the bulk MgCa alloy. The electrochemical and immersion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of the composites was better than that of the MgCa matrix alloy, and the corrosion products of the composite surface were mainly Mg(OH) 2 , HA and Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 . Meanwhile, the mechanical and corrosive properties of the (HA + β-TCP)/MgCa composites were adjustable by the choice of HA content. - Highlights: • The composites were fabricated by infiltrating MgCa alloy into porous HA + β-TCP. • The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties were investigated. • It showed composites had compact structures and good interfacial bonding. • The mechanical and corrosive properties can be adjustable by the HA content. • The corrosion mechanism of the composite has been explained

  14. Simulation on the Performance of a Driven Fan Made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Jamri, Azmil; Nawawi, Azli; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Fauzi Ahmad, Md; Adzila, Sharifah; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a driven fan design made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN) material that specifically used for turbocharger compressor. Polyester/Epoxy IPN is polymer plastics that was used as replacements for traditional polymers and has been widely used in a variety of applications because of their limitless conformations. Simulation based on several parameters which are air pressure, air velocity and air temperature have been carried out for a driven fan design performance of two different materials, aluminum alloy (existing driven fan design) and Polyester/Epoxy IPN using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. Results from both simulations were analyzed and compared where both materials show similar performance in terms of air pressure and air velocity due to similar geometric and dimension, but Polyester/Epoxy IPN produces lower air temperature than aluminum alloy. This study shows a preliminary result of the potential Polyester/Epoxy IPN to be used as a driven fan design material. In the future, further studies will be conducted on detail simulation and experimental analysis.

  15. Semi-interpenetrating network of acrylamide-grafted-sodium alginate microspheres for controlled release of diclofenac sodium, preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed A; Sherigara, B S

    2014-03-01

    The semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) of acrylamide grafted sodium alginate (AAm-g-NaAlg) microspheres (MPs) were prepared by emulsion-crosslinking method using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent. The grafting of acrylamide onto sodium alginate was prepared by free-radical graft polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as initiator at three acrylamide concentrations with monomer to polymer ratio of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. The grafting efficiency was found to be 91%. The produced MPs are almost spherical in nature with smooth surfaces. Diclofenac sodium (DS), an anti-inflammatory drug was successfully encapsulated into the MPs. The encapsulation efficiency was found to vary between 83% and 95%. The MPs were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The diffusion coefficient (D) was dependent upon the amount of crosslinking agent (GA) and amount of grafting ratio in the matrix. The rate of release was found to be dependent on the amount of GA, AAm:NaAlg grafting ratio and % drug loading in the MPs. The release data have been fitted to an empirical equation to investigate the diffusional exponent (n), which indicated that the release mechanism from MPs follows the super Case II transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nitrogen-doped graphene interpenetrated 3D Ni-nanocages: efficient and stable water-to-dioxygen electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhavale, Vishal M.; Gaikwad, Sachin S.; George, Leena; Devi, R. Nandini; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2014-10-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis of a nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) interpenetrated 3D Ni-nanocage (Ni-NGr) electrocatalyst by a simple water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion technique for oxidation of water to dioxygen. Correlation of adsorption of NGr and subsequent interpenetration through the specific surface plane of nickel particles as well as the concomitant interaction of N and C with Ni in the nano-regime has been investigated. Apart from the benefits of the synergistic interactions between Ni, N, and C, the overall integrity of the structure and its intra-molecular connectivity within the framework help in achieving better oxygen evolution characteristics at a significantly reduced overpotential. The engineered Ni-NGr nanocage displays a substantially low overpotential of ~290 mV at a practical current density of 20 mA cm-2 in 0.1 M KOH. In comparison, NGr and Ni-particles as separate entities give overpotentials of ~570 and ~370 mV under similar conditions. Moreover, the long term stability of Ni-NGr was investigated by anodic potential cycling for 500 cycles and an 8.5% increment in the overpotential at 20 mA cm-2 was observed. Additionally, a chronoamperometric test was performed for 15 h at 20 mA cm-2, which highlights the better sustainability of Ni-NGr under the actual operating conditions. Finally, the quantitative estimation of evolved oxygen was monitored by gas chromatography and was found to be 70 mmol h-1 g-1 of oxygen, which is constant in the second cycle as well.Herein, we report the synthesis of a nitrogen-doped graphene (NGr) interpenetrated 3D Ni-nanocage (Ni-NGr) electrocatalyst by a simple water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion technique for oxidation of water to dioxygen. Correlation of adsorption of NGr and subsequent interpenetration through the specific surface plane of nickel particles as well as the concomitant interaction of N and C with Ni in the nano-regime has been investigated. Apart from the benefits of the synergistic interactions between Ni, N

  17. Thermosensitive Behavior and Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Fabric Modified with a Chitosan-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide Interpenetrating Polymer Network Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase the themosensitive behavior and antibacterial activity of cotton fabric, a series of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide/chitosan (PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogels was synthesized by interpenetrating polymer network (IPN technology using a redox initiator. The IPN PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results indicated that the IPN PNIPAAm/Cs hydrogel has a lower critical solution temperature (LCST at 33 °C. The IPN hydrogel was then used to modify cotton fabric using glutaric dialdehyde (GA as a crosslinking agent following a double-dip-double-nip process. The results demonstrated that the modified cotton fabric showed obvious thermosensitive behavior and antibacterial activity. The contact angle of the modified cotton fabric has a sharp rise around 33 °C, and the modified cotton fabric showed an obvious thermosensitive behavior. The bacterial reduction of modified cotton fabric against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli were more than 99%. This study presents a valuable route towards smart textiles and their applications in functional clothing.

  18. Interpenetrating network hydrogel membranes of sodium alginate and poly(vinyl alcohol) for controlled release of prazosin hydrochloride through skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra V; Sreedhar, V; Mutalik, Srinivas; Setty, C Mallikarjun; Sa, Biswanath

    2010-11-01

    Interpenetrating network (IPN) hydrogel membranes of sodium alginate (SA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were prepared by solvent casting method for transdermal delivery of an anti-hypertensive drug, prazosin hydrochloride. The prepared membranes were thin, flexible and smooth. The X-ray diffraction studies indicated the amorphous dispersion of drug in the membranes. Differential scanning calorimetric analysis confirmed the IPN formation and suggests that the membrane stiffness increases with increased concentration of glutaraldehyde (GA) in the membranes. All the membranes were permeable to water vapors depending upon the extent of cross-linking. The in vitro drug release study was performed through excised rat abdominal skin; drug release depends on the concentrations of GA in membranes. The IPN membranes extended drug release up to 24 h, while SA and PVA membranes discharged the drug quickly. The primary skin irritation and skin histopathology study indicated that the prepared IPN membranes were less irritant and safe for skin application. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Segmental dynamics in poly(methyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) sequential interpenetrating polymer networks: structural relaxation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribelles, J L Gomez; Duenas, J M Meseguer; Cabanilles, C Torregrosa; Pradas, M Monleon

    2003-01-01

    The miscibility of poly(methyl acrylate)-poly(methyl methacrylate) sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) has been studied by probing the conformational mobility of the component polymer chains. These IPNs exhibit the phenomenon of forced compatibilization. In a conventional heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, the highly cross-linked IPN shows a single glass transition which covers a temperature interval of around 100 d eg C; in contrast, loosely cross-linked IPNs show two glass transitions. The conformational mobility in these IPNs is studied by subjecting them to isothermal annealings at temperatures in the region of the glass transition and below it. The DSC scans measured after these treatments allow one to determine the temperature interval in which the sample is out of thermodynamic equilibrium but keeps enough conformational mobility to relax during the isothermal annealing in such a way that the enthalpy loss is measurable with the sensitivity of a conventional DSC. The results allow one to reach some conclusions about the compositional distribution of the IPN on the nanometre scale

  20. Alginate-polyvinyl alcohol based interpenetrating polymer network for prolonged drug therapy, Optimization and in-vitro characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Hina; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman; Rehmani, Sahrish

    2017-06-15

    A new natural and synthetic polymeric blend to form interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) hydrogels was synthesized utilizing sodium alginate and PVA as polymers by free radical polymerization employing 2-Acylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid as monomer (AMPS) and tramadol HCl as model drug through 3 2 level full factorial design to evaluate the impact of selected independent factors i.e. polymer (sodium alginate) and monomer (AMPS) contents on swelling index at 18th hour, percent drug release at 18th hour, time required for 80% drug release and drug entrapment efficiency as dependent variables. FTIR, SEM, sol-gel analysis, equilibrium swelling studies and in-vitro release kinetics were performedfor in-vitro characterization of formulated IPN hydrogels. In-vitro studies carried out at pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 revealed pH independent swelling and drug release from polymeric IPN, providing controlled drug release for an extended period of time with improved entrapment efficiency, thereby concluding that this polymeric blend may be a promising system for the prolonged drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Printing continuously graded interpenetrating polymer networks of acrylate/epoxy by manipulating cationic network formation during stereolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-violet (UV laser assisted stereolithography is used to print graded interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs by controlling network formation. Unlike the traditional process where structural change in IPNs is achieved by varying the feeding ratio of monomers or polymer precursors, in this demonstration property is changed by controlled termination of network formation. A photo-initiated process is used to construct IPNs by a combination of radical and cationic network formation in an acrylate/epoxy system. The extent of the cationic network formation is used to control the final properties of the system. Rapid-Scan Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectroscopy (RS-FTIR is used to track the curing kinetics of the two networks and identify key parameters to control the final properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC confirm the formation of homogenous IPNs, whereas nano-indentation indicates that properties vary with the extent of cationic network formation. The curing characteristics are used to design and demonstrate printing of graded IPNs that show two orders of magnitude variation in mechanical properties in the millimeter scale.

  2. Injectable glycosaminoglycan-protein nano-complex in semi-interpenetrating networks: A biphasic hydrogel for hyaline cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Subramanian, Anuradha; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2017-11-01

    Articular hyaline cartilage regeneration remains challenging due to its less intrinsic reparability. The study develops injectable biphasic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPN) hydrogel impregnated with chondroitin sulfate (ChS) nanoparticles for functional cartilage restoration. ChS loaded zein nanoparticles (∼150nm) prepared by polyelectrolyte-protein complexation were interspersed into injectable SIPNs developed by blending alginate with poly(vinyl alcohol) and calcium crosslinking. The hydrogel exhibited interconnected porous microstructure (39.9±5.8μm pore diameter, 57.7±5.9% porosity), 92% swellability and >350Pa elastic modulus. Primary chondrocytes compatibility, chondrocyte-matrix interaction with cell-cell clustering and spheroidal morphology was demonstrated in ChS loaded hydrogel and long-term (42days) proliferation was also determined. Higher fold expression of cartilage-specific genes sox9, aggrecan and collagen-II was observed in ChS loaded hydrogel while exhibiting poor expression of collagen-I. Immunoblotting of aggregan and collagen II demonstrate favorable positive influence of ChS on chondrocytes. Thus, the injectable biphasic SIPNs could be promising composition-mimetic substitute for cartilage restoration at irregular defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contact engineering for nano-scale CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-09-10

    High performance computation with longer battery lifetime is an essential component in our today\\'s digital electronics oriented life. To achieve these goals, field effect transistors based complementary metal oxide semiconductor play the key role. One of the critical requirements of transistor structure and fabrication is efficient contact engineering. To catch up with high performance information processing, transistors are going through continuous scaling process. However, it also imposes new challenges to integrate good contact materials in a small area. This can be counterproductive as smaller area results in higher contact resistance thus reduced performance for the transistor itself. At the same time, discovery of new one or two-dimensional materials like nanowire, nanotube, or atomic crystal structure materials, introduces new set of challenges and opportunities. In this paper, we are reviewing them in a synchronized fashion: fundamentals of contact engineering, evolution into non-planar field effect transistors, opportunities and challenges with one and two-dimensional materials and a new opportunity of contact engineering from device architecture perspective. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nano-scale effects in electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J.; Schiøtz, Jakob; Liu, Ping

    2004-01-01

    as the diameter of the palladium particles parallel to the support surface decreases from 200 to 6 nm. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations combined with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been used to investigate the origin of the effect. It is concluded that the size effect is given...

  5. Contact engineering for nano-scale CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2012-01-01

    . One of the critical requirements of transistor structure and fabrication is efficient contact engineering. To catch up with high performance information processing, transistors are going through continuous scaling process. However, it also imposes new

  6. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heterogeneous Ceramic-Polymer Composite Using Interpenetrating Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Hee, K.; Yeon-Gil, J.; Chang-Yong, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prepolymer, which can be polymerized by a photo, has been infiltrated into a porous ceramic to improve the addition effect of polymer into the ceramic, as a function of the functionality of prepolymer. It induces the increase in the mechanical properties of the ceramic. The porous alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and the polyurethane acrylate (PUA) with a network structure by photo-polymerization were used as the matrix and infiltration materials, respectively. The porous Al 2 O 3 matrix without the polymer shows lower values in fracture strength than the composites, since the stress is transmitted more quickly via propagation of cracks from intrinsic defects in the porous matrix. However, in the case of composites, the distribution of stress between hetero phases results in the improved mechanical properties. In addition, the mechanical properties of composites, such as elastic modulus and fracture strength, are enhanced with increasing the functionality of prepolymer attributed to the crosslinking density of polymer.

  7. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y., E-mail: wxy@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G. [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, H.X. [ZHENGHE electronics Co., Ltd, Jining 272023 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis.

  8. Influence of Ethylene Glycol Methacrylate to the Hydration and Transition Behaviors of Thermo-Responsive Interpenetrating Polymeric Network Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of ethylene glycol methacrylate (EGMA to the hydration and transition behaviors of thermo-responsive interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN hydrogels containing sodium alginate, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm, and EGMA were investigated. The molar ratios of NIPAAm and EGMA were varied from 20:0 to 19.5:0.5 and 18.5:1.5 in the thermo-responsive alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA IPN hydrogels. Due to the more hydrophilicity and high flexibility of EGMA, the IPN hydrogels exhibited higher lower critical solution temperature (LCST and lower glass transition temperature (Tg when the ratio of EGMA increases. The swelling/deswelling kinetics of the IPN hydrogels could be controlled by adjusting the NIPAAm/EGMA molar ratio. A faster water uptake rate and a slower water loss rate could be realized by increase the amount of EGMA in the IPN hydrogel (the shrinking rate constant was decreased from 0.01207 to 0.01195 and 0.01055 with the changing of NIPAAm/EGMA ratio from 20:0, 19.5:0.5 to 18.5:1.5. By using 2-Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX as a photo initiator, the obtained alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA360 IPN hydrogels were successfully immobilized on cotton fabrics. The surface and cross section of the hydrogel were probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. They all exhibited a porous structure, and the pore size was increased with the amount of EGMA. Moreover, the LCST values of the fabric-grafted hydrogels were close to those of the pure IPN hydrogels. Their thermal sensitivity remained unchanged. The cotton fabrics grafted with hydrogel turned out to be much softer with the continuous increase of EGMA amount. Therefore, compared with alginate-Ca2+/PNIPAAm hydrogel, alginate-Ca2+/P(NIPAAm-co-EGMA360 hydrogel is a more promising candidate for wound dressing in the field of biomedical textile.

  9. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G.; Wang, H.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis

  10. Tuning mechanical performance of poly(ethylene glycol) and agarose interpenetrating network hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennerfeldt, Deena A; Renth, Amanda N; Talata, Zsolt; Gehrke, Stevin H; Detamore, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    Hydrogels are attractive for tissue engineering applications due to their incredible versatility, but they can be limited in cartilage tissue engineering applications due to inadequate mechanical performance. In an effort to address this limitation, our team previously reported the drastic improvement in the mechanical performance of interpenetrating networks (IPNs) of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) and agarose relative to pure PEG-DA and agarose networks. The goal of the current study was specifically to determine the relative importance of PEG-DA concentration, agarose concentration, and PEG-DA molecular weight in controlling mechanical performance, swelling characteristics, and network parameters. IPNs consistently had compressive and shear moduli greater than the additive sum of either single network when compared to pure PEG-DA gels with a similar PEG-DA content. IPNs withstood a maximum stress of up to 4.0 MPa in unconfined compression, with increased PEG-DA molecular weight being the greatest contributing factor to improved failure properties. However, aside from failure properties, PEG-DA concentration was the most influential factor for the large majority of properties. Increasing the agarose and PEG-DA concentrations as well as the PEG-DA molecular weight of agarose/PEG-DA IPNs and pure PEG-DA gels improved moduli and maximum stresses by as much as an order of magnitude or greater compared to pure PEG-DA gels in our previous studies. Although the viability of encapsulated chondrocytes was not significantly affected by IPN formulation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content was significantly influenced, with a 12-fold increase over a three-week period in gels with a lower PEG-DA concentration. These results suggest that mechanical performance of IPNs may be tuned with partial but not complete independence from biological performance of encapsulated cells. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental investigations of ablation stream interaction dynamics in tungsten wire arrays: Interpenetration, magnetic field advection, and ion deflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Burdiak, G. C.; Pickworth, L.; De Grouchy, P.; Skidmore, J.; Khoory, E.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Hare, J. D.; Clayson, T.; Bland, S. N.; Smith, R. A.; Stuart, N. H.; Patankar, S.; Robinson, T. S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); and others

    2016-05-15

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate the collisional dynamics of ablation streams produced by cylindrical wire array z-pinches. A combination of laser interferometric imaging, Thomson scattering, and Faraday rotation imaging has been used to make a range of measurements of the temporal evolution of various plasma and flow parameters. This paper presents a summary of previously published data, drawing together a range of different measurements in order to give an overview of the key results. The paper focuses mainly on the results of experiments with tungsten wire arrays. Early interferometric imaging measurements are reviewed, then more recent Thomson scattering measurements are discussed; these measurements provided the first direct evidence of ablation stream interpenetration in a wire array experiment. Combining the data from these experiments gives a view of the temporal evolution of the tungsten stream collisional dynamics. In the final part of the paper, we present new experimental measurements made using an imaging Faraday rotation diagnostic. These experiments investigated the structure of magnetic fields near the array axis directly; the presence of a magnetic field has previously been inferred based on Thomson scattering measurements of ion deflection near the array axis. Although the Thomson and Faraday measurements are not in full quantitative agreement, the Faraday data do qualitatively supports the conjecture that the observed deflections are induced by a static toroidal magnetic field, which has been advected to the array axis by the ablation streams. It is likely that detailed modeling will be needed in order to fully understand the dynamics observed in the experiment.

  12. Theoretical Investigations of CO 2 and H 2 Sorption in an Interpenetrated Square-Pillared Metal–Organic Material

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2013-05-16

    Simulations of CO2 and H2 sorption and separation were performed in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i], a metal-organic material (MOM) consisting of an interpenetrated square grid of Cu2+ ions coordinated to 4,4′-dipyridylacetylene (dpa) rings and pillars of SiF6 2- ions. This class of water stable MOMs shows great promise in practical gas sorption/separation with especially high selectivity for CO2 and variable selectivity for other energy related gases. Simulated CO2 sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption, Qst, at ambient temperatures were in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements at all pressures considered. Further, it was observed that the Qst for CO2 increases as a function of uptake in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i]. This suggests that nascently sorbed CO2 molecules within a channel contribute to a more energetically favorable site for additional CO2 molecules, i.e., in stark contrast to typical behavior, sorbate intermolecular interactions enhance sorption energetics with increased loading. The simulated structure at CO2 saturation shows a loading with tight packing of 8 CO2 molecules per unit cell. The CO2 molecules can be seen alternating between a vertical and horizontal alignment within a channel, with each CO2 molecule coordinating to an equatorial fluorine MOM atom. Calculated H 2 sorption isotherms and Qst values were also in good agreement with the experimental measurements in [Cu(dpa)2SiF 6-i]. H2 saturation corresponds to 10 H2 molecules per unit cell for the studied structure. Moreover, there were two observed binding sites for hydrogen sorption in [Cu(dpa)2SiF 6-i]. Simulations of a 30:70 CO2/H2 mixture, typical of syngas, in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i] showed that the MOM exhibited a high uptake and selectivity for CO2. In addition, it was observed that the presence of H2O had a negligible effect on the CO2 uptake and selectivity in [Cu(dpa)2SiF6-i], as simulations of a mixture containing CO2, H2, and small amounts of CO, N2, and H2O produced comparable

  13. Synthesis and characterization of poly (n-butyl acrylate)-poly (methyl methacrylate) latex interpenetrating polymer networks by radiation-induced seeded emulsion polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haibo [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng Jing [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: jpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhai Maolin; Li Jiuqiang; Wei Genshuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qiao Jinliang [Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); SINOPEC Beijing Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Beijing 100013 (China)

    2007-11-15

    A series of latex interpenetrating polymer networks (LIPNs) were prepared via a two-stage emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) or mixture of MMA and n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) on crosslinked poly(n-butyl acrylate)(PBA) seed latex using {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray radiation. The particles of resultant latex were produced with diameters between 150 and 250 nm. FTIR spectra identified the formation of crosslinked copolymers of PMMA or P(MMA-co-BA). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that with increasing n-BA concentration in second-stage monomers, the particle size of LIPN increased. Transmission electron microscope(TEM) photographs showed that the morphology of resultant acrylate interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) latex varied from the distinct core-shell structure to homogenous particle structure with the increase of n-BA concentration, and the morphology was mainly controlled by the miscibility between crosslinked PBA seed and second-stage copolymers and polarity of P(MMA-co-BA)copolymers. In addition, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements indicated the existence of reinforced miscibility between PBA seed and P(MMA-co-BA)copolymer in prepared LIPNs.

  14. 2D→3D polycatenated and 3D→3D interpenetrated metal–organic frameworks constructed from thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate and rigid bis(imidazole) ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erer, Hakan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Yeşilel, Okan Zafer, E-mail: yesilel@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Arıcı, Mürsel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Keskin, Seda [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, İstanbul (Turkey); Büyükgüngör, Orhan [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139 Samsun (Turkey)

    2014-02-15

    Hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks, namely, [Zn(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (1), [Cd(µ-tdc)(H{sub 2}O)(µ-dib)]{sub n} (2), and ([Cd{sub 2}(µ{sub 3}-tdc){sub 2}(µ-dimb){sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n}(3). These MOFs were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, elemental, thermal (TG, DTA, DTG and DSC), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. Moreover, these coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: In this study, hydrothermal reactions of rigid 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)benzene (dib) and 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-2,5-dimethylbenzene (dimb) with deprotonated thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}tdc) in the presence of Zn(II) and Cd(II) salts in H{sub 2}O produced three new metal–organic frameworks. Isomorphous complexes 1 and 2 reveal polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework based on an undulated (4,4)-sql layer. Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework with the point symbol of 6{sup 6}. Molecular simulations were used to assess the potentials of the complexes for H{sub 2} storage application. These coordination polymers exhibit blue fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Complexes 1 and 2 display polycatenated 2D+2D→3D framework. • Complex 3 exhibits a new 4-fold interpenetrating 3D framework. • Complex 1 adsorbs the highest amount of

  15. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  16. Emergent Power-Law Phase in the 2D Heisenberg Windmill Antiferromagnet: A Computational Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Orth, Peter P.

    2015-10-01

    In an extensive computational experiment, we test Polyakov's conjecture that under certain circumstances an isotropic Heisenberg model can develop algebraic spin correlations. We demonstrate the emergence of a multispin U(1) order parameter in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on interpenetrating honeycomb and triangular lattices. The correlations of this relative phase angle are observed to decay algebraically at intermediate temperatures in an extended critical phase. Using finite-size scaling we show that both phase transitions are of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type, and at lower temperatures we find long-range Z6 order.

  17. Photovoltaic Properties in Interpenetrating Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Utilizing MoO3 and ZnO Charge Transport Buffer Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Hori

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic thin-film solar cells with a conducting polymer (CP/fullerene (C60 interpenetrating heterojunction structure, fabricated by spin-coating a CP onto a C60 deposit thin film, have been investigated and demonstrated to have high efficiency. The photovoltaic properties of solar cells with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/C60/ poly(3-hexylthiophene (PAT6/Au have been improved by the insertion of molybdenum trioxide (VI (MoO3 and zinc oxide charge transport buffer layers. The enhanced photovoltaic properties have been discussed, taking into consideration the ground-state charge transfer between PAT6 and MoO3 by measurement of the differential absorption spectra and the suppressed contact resistance at the interface between the organic and buffer layers.

  18. Photovoltaic Properties in Interpenetrating Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Utilizing MoO3 and ZnO Charge Transport Buffer Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tetsuro; Moritou, Hiroki; Fukuoka, Naoki; Sakamoto, Junki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film solar cells with a conducting polymer (CP)/fullerene (C60) interpenetrating heterojunction structure, fabricated by spin-coating a CP onto a C60 deposit thin film, have been investigated and demonstrated to have high efficiency. The photovoltaic properties of solar cells with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/C60/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PAT6)/Au have been improved by the insertion of molybdenum trioxide (VI) (MoO3) and zinc oxide charge transport buffer layers. The enhanced photovoltaic properties have been discussed, taking into consideration the ground-state charge transfer between PAT6 and MoO3 by measurement of the differential absorption spectra and the suppressed contact resistance at the interface between the organic and buffer layers. PMID:28883360

  19. Exploring 3D non-interpenetrated metal-organic framework with malonate-bridged Co(II) coordination polymer: structural elucidation and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Anowar; Mandal, Tripti; Mitra, Monojit; Manna, Prankrishna; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Seth, Saikat Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2017-12-01

    A Co(II)-based coordination polymer with tetranuclear cobalt(II)-malonate cluster has been easily generated by aqueous medium self-assembly from Cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate and malonic acid. The structure exhibits a non-interpenetrating, highly undulating two-dimensional (2D) bi-layer network with (4,4) topology. The crystal structure is composed of infinite interdigitated 2D metal-organic bi-layers which extended to an intricate 3D framework through the interbilayer hydrogen bonds. We have studied energetically by means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations the H-bonding interactions that connect the 2D metal-organic bi-layers. The finite theoretical models have been used to compute conventional O‒H•••O and unconventional C‒H•••O interactions which plays a key role to build 3D architecture.

  20. An unprecedented extended architecture constructed from a 2-D interpenetrating cationic coordination framework templated by SiW12O404- anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuli; Lin Hongyan; Bi Yanfeng; Chen Baokuan; Liu Guocheng

    2008-01-01

    A novel inorganic-organic hybrid compound based on polyoxometalates (POMs) and organic ligand formulated as [Cu 2 (bpp) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ](SiW 12 O 40 )∼6H 2 O (1) [bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], was hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, TG, and cyclic voltammetry. Crystal data for 1: Orthorhombic, Pbcn, a=23.0085(19) A, b=14.6379(12) A, c=23.6226(19) A, V=7956.0(11) A 3 , Z=4, Dc=3.315 g cm -3 , and R(final)=0.0826. X-ray diffraction study reveals that compound 1 was the first interpenetrating network of 2-D metal-organic cationic coordination framework [Cu 2 (bpp) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ] n 4n+ , in which Keggin-type anions SiW 12 O 40 4- has been used as a non-coordinating anionic template. The electrochemical property of 1-bulk modified carbon paste electrode (1-CPE) has been studied, and the results indicate that 1-CPE has good electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of nitrite in 1 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. - Graphical abstract: Compound [Cu 2 (bpp) 4 (H 2 O) 2 ](SiW 12 O 40 )∼6H 2 O (1) represents the first 2-D interpenetrating cationic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) templated by Keggin-type anions. These MOF layers are stacked together along the crystallographic c axis exactly to construct large cubic-like channels (with dimensions of 12.3x13.6 A) occupied by SiW 12 O 40 4- clusters

  1. Laser-induced microstructural development and phase evolution in magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Z.L.; Zheng, H.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase evolution caused by laser processing was firstly reported. • Microstructure development was controlled by heat flow thermodynamics and kinetics. • Solid-state transformation resulted in submicron and nano-scale precipitates. • Cluster-shaped particles in overlapped region were due to precipitation coarsening. • Properties of materials can be tailored selectively by laser processing. -- Abstract: Secondary phase plays an important role in determining microstructures and properties of magnesium alloys. This paper focuses on laser-induced microstructure development and secondary phase evolution in AZ91D Mg alloy studied by SEM, TEM and EDS analyses. Compared to bulk shape and lamellar structure of the secondary phase in as-received cast material, rapid-solidified microstructures with various morphologies including nano-precipitates were observed in laser melt zone. Formation mechanisms of microstructural evolution and effect of phase development on surface properties were further discussed

  2. 2D parallel interpenetration of [M2(bpp)4X4] [M, Fe(II)/Co(II); bpp, 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine; X, SCN-, SeCN- and N3-] complexes: Pseudohalide-dependent conformation of bpp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, Subal Chandra; Jana, Atish Dipankar; Rosair, Georgina M.; Drew, Michael G.B.; Mostafa, Golam; Ray Chaudhuri, Nirmalendu

    2008-01-01

    Three coordination complexes of Co(II)/Fe(II) with 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine (bpp) and pseudohalides (SCN - , SeCN - and N 3 - ) have been synthesized. The complexes have been characterized by X-ray single crystal structure determination. They are isomorphous having 2D layers in which two independent wavy nets display parallel interwoven structures. Pseudohalide binds metal centers through N terminal and occupies the trans axial positions of the octahedral metal coordination environment. Pseudohalide remains pendant on both sides of the polymeric layer and help the stacking through hydrogen bonding. The conformation of bpp in the interpenetrated nets is observed to be dependent on the choice of pseudohalide. - Graphical abstract: Complexes of [M 2 (bpp) 4 X 4 ] [M, Fe(II)/Co(II); bpp, 4,4'-trimethylenedipyridine; X, SCN - , SeCN - and N3 - ] have been synthesized. The structural analysis reveals undulated 2D network with (4,4) net topology adopting two different conformations of bpp alternately. Two such networks undergo parallel interpenetration. Pseudohalides are observed to help in stacking the interpenetrated nets through hydrogen bonding

  3. Adsorption of ammonium and phosphate by feather protein based semi-interpenetrating polymer networks hydrogel as a controlled-release fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yuan; Liu, Jia; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian; Gao, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    A new feather protein-grafted poly(potassium acrylate)/polyvinyl alcohol (FP-g-PKA/PVA) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) hydrogel was produced through graft copolymerization with FP as a basic macromolecular skeletal material, acrylic acid as a monomer and PVA as a semi-IPNs polymer. The adsorption of ammonium and phosphate ions from aqueous solution using the new hydrogel as N and P controlled-release fertilizer with water-retention capacity was studied. The effects of pH value, concentration, contact time and ion strength on NH4+ and PO3-4 removal by FP-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel were investigated using batch adsorption experiments. The results indicated that the hydrogel had high adsorption capacities and fast adsorption rates for NH4+ and PO3-4 in wide pH levels ranging from 4.0 to 9.0. Kinetic analysis presented that both NH4+ and PO3-4 removal were closely fitted with the pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, the adsorption isotherms of hydrogel were best represented by the Freundlich model. The adsorption-desorption experimental results showed the sustainable stability of FP-g-PKA/PVA semi-IPNs hydrogel for NH4+ and PO3-4 removal. Overall, FP-g-PKA/PVA could be considered as an efficient material for the removal and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus with the agronomic reuse as a fertilizer.

  4. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-based semi-interpenetrating polymer networks as highly selective and chemically stable membranes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Zhang, Z. H.

    2016-09-01

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) with their high flexibility in configuration and operation, as well as long cycle life are competent for the requirement of future energy storage systems. Nevertheless, due to the application of perfluorinated membranes, VRFBs are plagued by not only the severe migration issue of vanadium ions, but also their high cost. Herein, we fabricate semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (SIPNs), consisting of cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polysulfone (PSF), as alternative membranes for VRFBs. It is demonstrated that the PVP-based SIPNs exhibit extremely low vanadium permeabilities, which contribute to the well-established hydrophilic/hydrophobic microstructures and the Donnan exclusion effect. As a result, the coulombic efficiencies of VRFBs with PVP-based SIPNs reach almost 100% at 40 mA cm-2 to 100 mA cm-2; the energy efficiencies are more than 3% higher than those of VRFBs with Nafion 212. More importantly, the PVP-based SIPNs exhibit a superior chemical stability, as demonstrated both by an ex situ immersion test and continuously cycling test. Hence, all the characterizations and performance tests reported here suggest that PVP-based SIPNs are a promising alternative membrane for redox flow batteries to achieve superior cell performance and excellent cycling stability at the fraction of the cost of perfluorinated membranes.

  5. Novel composite membrane coated with a poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/urushi semi-interpenetrating polymer network for non-aqueous redox flow battery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunhae; Won, Jongok

    2016-12-01

    Novel composite membranes of a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) coated on the surfaces of a porous Celgard 2400 support are prepared and investigate for application in a non-aqueous redox flow battery (RFB). A natural polymer, urushi, is used for the matrix because of its high mechanical robustness, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) provides anionic exchange sites. The PDDA/urushi (P/U) semi-IPN film is prepared by the photo polymerization of urushiol in the presence of PDDA. The thin layer composed of the P/U semi-IPN on the porous support provides selectivity while maintaining the ion conductivity. The coulombic and energy efficiencies increase with increasing amounts of PDDA in the P/U semi-IPN layer, and the values reach 69.5% and 42.5%, respectively, for the one containing 40 wt% of PDDA. These values are substantially higher than those of the Neosepta AHA membrane and the Celgard membrane, indicating that the selective layer reduces the crossover of the redox active species through the membrane. This result implies that the formation of composite membranes using semi-IPN selective layers on the dimensionally stable porous membrane enable the successful use of a non-aqueous RFB for future energy storage systems.

  6. Enhancement of Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5 survival in broiler gastrointestinal tract by microencapsulation with alginate-chitosan semi-interpenetrating polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodklongtan, A; La-ongkham, O; Nitisinprasert, S; Chitprasert, P

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate an alginate-chitosan microcapsule for an intestinal probiotic delivery system for broilers. Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5 was successfully microencapsulated with alginate and chitosan mixtures using an emulsion cross-linking method with high microencapsulation efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a large number of the bacteria entrapped in the semi-interpenetrating network. The microcapsule effectively protected the cells against strong acids. The in vitro study showed that the 8 log CFU g(-1) was released at the jejunum and ileum. For the in vivo study, the number of probiotics was detected by a polymerase chain reaction-based random amplified polymorphic DNA technique. From provision of 10 log CFU, cell numbers of 5-8 log CFU were observed in the intestine. The alginate-chitosan microcapsule can serve as a potential intestine-targeted probiotic delivery system. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparison study of the in vitro and in vivo gastrointestinal profiles of microencapsulated probiotics used as feed additives for broilers. This study reveals the similarities and differences of the in vitro and in vivo probiotic profiles and provides convincing evidence of the potential use of the alginate-chitosan microcapsule as a probiotic delivery system. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Quantum gyroscope based on Berry phase of spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi

    2018-02-01

    Gyroscope is the crucial sensor of the inertial navigation system, there is always high demand to improve the sensitivity and reduce the size of the gyroscopes. Using the NV center electronic spin and nuclear spin qubits in diamond, we introduce the research of new types of quantum gyroscopes based on the Berry phase shifts of the spin states during the rotation of the sensor systems. Compared with the performance of the traditional MEMS gyroscope, the sensitivity of the new types of quantum gyroscopes was highly improved and the spatial resolution was reduced to nano-scale. With the help of micro-manufacturing technology in the semiconductor industry, the quantum gyroscopes introduced here can be further integrated into chip-scale sensors.

  8. Determination of electrostatic force and its characteristics based on phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kesheng; Cheng, Jia; Yao, Shiji; Lu, Yijia; Ji, Linhong; Xu, Dengfeng

    2016-12-01

    Electrostatic force measurement at the micro/nano scale is of great significance in science and engineering. In this paper, a reasonable way of applying voltage is put forward by taking an electrostatic chuck in a real integrated circuit manufacturing process as a sample, applying voltage in the probe and the sample electrode, respectively, and comparing the measurement effect of the probe oscillation phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy. Based on the phase difference obtained from the experiment, the quantitative dependence of the absolute magnitude of the electrostatic force on the tip-sample distance and applied voltage is established by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that the varying characteristics of the electrostatic force with the distance and voltage at the micro/nano scale are similar to those at the macroscopic scale. Electrostatic force gradually decays with increasing distance. Electrostatic force is basically proportional to the square of applied voltage. Meanwhile, the applicable conditions of the above laws are discussed. In addition, a comparison of the results in this paper with the results of the energy dissipation method shows the two are consistent in general. The error decreases with increasing distance, and the effect of voltage on the error is small.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonic acid membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks for application in fuel cells; Sintese e caracterizacao de membranas sulfonadas baseadas em redes polimericas interpenetrantes para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Lyzed Toloza; Loureiro, Felipe A.M.; Rocco, Ana Maria [Grupo de Materiais Condutores e Energia, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: amrocco@eq.ufrj.br; Pereira, Robson Pacheco [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of sulfonic membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN). In order to obtain such systems, the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was polymerized in presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). These membranes were submitted to sulfonation reactions, originating IPN-SO{sub 3}H membranes. The characterization by FTIR evidenced the formation of a Semi-IPN structure, while sulfonation reactions resulted in systems containing -SO{sub 3}H groups covalently bonded to the chains. The membranes exhibited water retention up to 200 degree C, in a temperature range sufficient for application in PEMFC under hydration. (author)

  10. Reactive Ion Etching as Cleaning Method Post Chemical Mechanical Polishing for Phase Change Memory Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Zhong; Zhi-Tang, Song; Bo, Liu; Song-Lin, Feng; Bomy, Chen

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve nano-scale phase change memory performance, a super-clean interface should be obtained after chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change films. We use reactive ion etching (RIE) as the cleaning method. The cleaning effect is analysed by scanning electron microscopy and an energy dispersive spectrometer. The results show that particle residue on the surface has been removed. Meanwhile, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 material stoichiometric content ratios are unchanged. After the top electrode is deposited, current-voltage characteristics test demonstrates that the set threshold voltage is reduced from 13 V to 2.7V and the threshold current from 0.1mA to 0.025mA. Furthermore, we analyse the RIE cleaning principle and compare it with the ultrasonic method

  11. Three-dimensional phase-field simulation on the deformation of metallic glass nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.Y.; Zheng, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D phase-field modeling is developed to investigate the deformation of MG nanowires. • The surface defects significantly affect the mechanical properties of nanowires. • Multiple shear bands are initiated from the surfaces of nanowires with D < 50 nm. - Abstract: It is very challenging to investigate the deformation mechanisms in micro- and nano-scale metallic glasses with diameters below several hundred nanometers using the atomistic simulation or the experimental approaches. In this work, we develop the fully three-dimensional phase-field model to bridge this gap and investigate the sample size effects on the deformation behaviors of metallic glass nanowires. The initial deformation defects on the surface are found to significantly affect the mechanical strength and deformation mode of nanowires. The improved ductility of metallic glass nanowires could be related with the multiple shear bands initiated from the nanowire surfaces

  12. 基于EHD微纳尺度3D打印中导电银浆成线规律的实验研究%Experimental study on the rule of conductive silver paste with EHD micro/nano scale 3D printing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔歆; 杨建军; 兰红波

    2017-01-01

    E-jet printing (EHD) is one of the most important micro/nano scale 3D printing technology,which can realize high precision patterning of sub micron and nano scale resolution without nozzle clogging.The effect of conductive silver paste volume concentration,spray printing distance,jet printing voltage and the jet head moving speed on line performance are studied through experiments in this paper.Results showed that,applied voltage within a certain range can form the Taylor cone,too big or too small will influence the formation of Taylor cone;within the scope of the voltage is the best value is 2 000 V,minimize the line width.As the change of jet head moving speed,line width change significantly,too small or too big resulting in the phenomenon of line width is too big or not into line.Conductive silver paste volume concentration is too small to lead to the big line width,the volume concentration is too large to printing can not realize;the optimal value is 6:1 minimize the line width.In a certain range of spray printing distance (0.05 ~0.1 mm),can form stable spray print.Distance is too big or too little to lead to cant into line phenomenon.%基于EHD微纳尺度3D打印技术(电喷印)是最具应用前景的微纳尺度3D打印技术之一.通过实验研究了电喷印过程中导电银浆体积浓度、喷印距离、喷印电压及喷印头移动速度对成线性能的影响.实验结果表明:外加电压在一定范围内能形成泰勒锥,过大或过小都会影响泰勒锥的形成;在此范围内存在最佳值2 000 V,使线宽最小.随着喷印头移动速度的变化,线宽变化显著,速度过小或过大分别导致线宽过大或无法成线的现象.导电银浆体积浓度过小会导致线宽过大、体积浓度过大导致粘度过大无法喷印;存在最佳值6:1使线宽最小.在一定的喷印距离0.05~0.1 mm的范围内变化时,可以形成稳定喷印.距离过大或过小会导致无法成线现象.

  13. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  14. Characterization and fluoride uptake studies of nano-scale iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 8 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Nano-scaled carbon fillers and their functional polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes Ghislandi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of low density conductive plastics, that could replace metals in many applications, is a challenging target that has been pursued by several technological segments. The incorporation of carbon nanofillers, namely carbon nanotubes and graphene, into a polymer matrix is a recent and

  16. Intense radiative heat transport across a nano-scale gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budaev, Bair V.; Ghafari, Amin; Bogy, David B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the radiative heat transport in layered structures. The analysis is based on our prior description of the spectrum of thermally excited waves in systems with a heat flux. The developed method correctly predicts results for all known special cases for both large and closing gaps. Numerical examples demonstrate the applicability of our approach to the calculation of the radiative heat transport coefficient across various layered structures.

  17. Nano-scaling law: geometric foundation of thiolated gold nanomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Amala

    2012-04-07

    Thiolated gold nanomolecules show a power correlation between the number of gold atoms and the thiolate ligands with a 2/3 scaling similar to Platonic and Archimedean solids. Nanomolecule stability is influenced by a universal geometric factor that is foundational to its stability through the Euclidean surface rule, in addition to the electronic shell closing factor and staple motif requirements. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Study of nano-scale friction using vortices in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, A.; Nakamura, D.; Kitano, H.; Matsumura, H.

    2007-01-01

    Toward the microscopic understanding of physics of friction at the solid interface, we use the dynamics of driven vortices of superconductor as a new model system. We measured the static friction as a function of the aging time, and compared with the kinetic friction as a function of velocity for the driven vortex lattice of La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 . No definite relationship, such as the one proposed for the friction of thick papers, was observed. This supports our previous proposal of the critical phenomena view that the non-Amontons-Coulomb-like behavior of the kinetic friction is a broadened dynamic transition between the static and kinetic regimes

  19. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenfei, E-mail: zwenfei@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Sun, Hongyu [Key Laboratory of Mechanical Reliability for Heavy Equipments and Large Structures of Hebei Province, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2012-04-16

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  20. Bulk velocity extraction for nano-scale Newtonian flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Sun, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The conventional velocity extraction algorithm in MDS method has difficulty to determine the small flow velocity. This study proposes a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. Based on the Newton's law of viscosity, according to the calculated viscosities and shear stresses, the flow velocity can be obtained by numerical integration. This new method can overcome the difficulty existed in the conventional MDS method and improve the stability of the computational process. Numerical results show that this method is effective for the extraction of bulk velocity, no matter the bulk velocity is large or small. -- Highlights: ► Proposed a new method to calculate the bulk velocity in nano-flows. ► It is effective for the extraction of small bulk velocity. ► The accuracy, convergence and stability of the new method is good.

  1. Monolithic silica aerogel - material design on the nano-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Ingerslev; Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Kristiansen, Finn Harken

    structure of aerogel could be used for gas filters in the 20 to 100 nm region. - The sound velocity within aerogel is in the range of 100 to 300 m/s, which should be one of lowest for an inorganic material. Due to the low density, low acoustic impedance of aerogel could help boost the efficiency...... of piezoelectric transducers. - Other applications could be; waste encapsulation, spacers for vacuum insulation panels, membranes, etc. Department of Civil Engineering is co-ordinator of a current EU FP5 research project1, which deals with the application of aerogel as transparent insulation materials in windows....... Due to the excellent optical and thermal properties of aerogel, it is possible to develop windows with both high insulation and high transmittance, which is impossible applying the conventional window techniques, i.e. extra layers of glass, low-e coatings and gas fillings. It can be shown...

  2. Industrial characterization of nano-scale roughness on polished surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik; Pilny, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    with a thin liquid film. It is shown that the changes in the angular scattering intensities can be compensated for the liquid film, using empirically determined relations. This allows a restoration of the “true” scattering intensities which would be measured from a corresponding clean surface. The compensated...

  3. Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Diganta

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed due to defective costal cartilage. However, costal cartilage is less studied compared to load bearing cartilage. Results show that there is a difference between chemical fixation and non-chemical fixation treatments. Our findings imply that the patients' chest wall is mechanically weak and protein deposition is abnormal. This may impact the nanostraws' ability to facilitate fluid flow between the ribs and the sternum. At present, AFM is the only tool for imaging cells' ultra-structure at the nanometer scale because cells are not homogeneous. The first layer of the cell is called the cell membrane, and the layer under it is made of the cytoskeleton. Cancerous cells are different from normal cells in term of cell growth, mechanical properties, and ultra-structure. Here, force is measured with very high sensitivity and this is accomplished with highly sensitive probes such as a nano-probe. We performed experiments to determine ultra-structural differences that emerge when such cancerous cells are subject to treatments such as with drugs and electric pulses. Jurkat cells are cancerous cells. These cells were pulsed at different conditions. Pulsed and non-pulsed Jurkat cell ultra-structures were investigated at the nano meter scale using AFM. Jurkat cell mechanical properties were measured under different conditions. In addition, AFM was used to measure the charge density of cell surface in physiological conditions. We found that the treatments changed the cancer cells' ultra-structural and mechanical properties at the nanometer scale. Finally, we used AFM to characterize many non-biological materials with relevance to biomedical science. Various metals, polymers, and semi-conducting materials were characterized in air and multiple liquid media through AFM - techniques from which a plethora of industries can benefit. This applies especially to the fledging solar industry which has found much promise in nanoscopic insights. Independent of the material being examined, a reliable method to measure the surface force between a nano probe and a sample surface in a variety of ionic concentrations was also found in the process of procuring these measurements. The key findings were that the charge density increases with the increase of the medium's ionic concentration.

  4. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  5. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2016-12-15

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  6. Active osmotic exchanger for advanced filtration at the nano scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Sophie; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2015-11-01

    One of the main functions of the kidney is to remove the waste products of an organism, mostly by excreting concentrated urea while reabsorbing water and other molecules. The human kidney is capable of recycling about 200 liters of water per day, at the relatively low cost of 0.5 kJ/L (standard dialysis requiring at least 150 kJ/L). Kidneys are constituted of millions of parallel filtration networks called nephrons. The nephrons of all mammalian kidneys present a specific loop geometry, the Loop of Henle, that is believed to play a key role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. One limb of the loop is permeable to water and the other contains sodium pumps that exchange with a common interstitium. In this work, we take inspiration from this osmotic exchanger design to propose new nanofiltration principles. We first establish simple analytical results to derive general operating principles, based on coupled water permeable pores and osmotic pumps. The best filtration geometry, in terms of power required for a given water recycling ratio, is comparable in many ways to the mammalian nephron. It is not only more efficient than traditional reverse osmosis systems, but can also work at much smaller pressures (of the order of the blood pressure, 0.13 bar, as compared to more than 30 bars for pressure-retarded osmosis systems). We anticipate that our proof of principle will be a starting point for the development of new filtration systems relying on the active osmotic exchanger principle.

  7. Design for manufacturability and yield for nano-scale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Charles C

    2007-01-01

    Talks about the various aspects of manufacturability and yield in a nano-CMOS process and how to address each aspect at the proper design step starting with the design and layout of standard cells. This book is suitable for practicing IC designer and for graduate students intent on having a career in IC design or in EDA tool development.

  8. Characterization and fluoride uptake studies of nano-scale iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption data followed second order kinetic model. The isothermic data fitted to both Langmuir and Freundlich models and maximum loading capacity as estimated by Langmuir model was 62.89 mg/g for the studied concentration range of 10-30 mg/L. The high loading capacity points towards the potential of this ...

  9. Neural assembly models derived through nano-scale measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyou; Branda, Catherine; Schiek, Richard Louis; Warrender, Christina E.; Forsythe, James Chris

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes accomplishments of a three-year project focused on developing technical capabilities for measuring and modeling neuronal processes at the nanoscale. It was successfully demonstrated that nanoprobes could be engineered that were biocompatible, and could be biofunctionalized, that responded within the range of voltages typically associated with a neuronal action potential. Furthermore, the Xyce parallel circuit simulator was employed and models incorporated for simulating the ion channel and cable properties of neuronal membranes. The ultimate objective of the project had been to employ nanoprobes in vivo, with the nematode C elegans, and derive a simulation based on the resulting data. Techniques were developed allowing the nanoprobes to be injected into the nematode and the neuronal response recorded. To the authors's knowledge, this is the first occasion in which nanoparticles have been successfully employed as probes for recording neuronal response in an in vivo animal experimental protocol.

  10. Nano-Scale Devices for Frequency-Based Magnetic Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    show the basic measurement setup (the field is applied perpendicular to the disk plane). A radiofrequency signal is injected across the disk (disks...shown in Fig. 7(a). A spectrum analyser (S.A.) (or a high frequency oscilloscope) is used to measure the radiofrequency STO output signal with Fig...crystals and, via electrical measurements , in magnetic-vortex-containing, isolated micro- and nano-devices. Via micromagnetic simulations, we have largely

  11. Reactive Nano Scale Emulsions for High Performance Hybrid Propulsion

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As we enter into a new era of space exploration, with less dependence on foreign technology and more dependence on private industry, persistent innovation is vital...

  12. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  13. Microstructure research for ferroelectric origin in the strained Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 thin film via geometric phase analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Han; Sun, Qingqing; Zhao, Xuebing; You, Wenbin; Zhang, David Wei; Che, Renchao

    2018-04-01

    Recently, non-volatile semiconductor memory devices using a ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film have been attracting extensive attention. However, at the nano-scale, the phase structure remains unclear in a thin Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film, which stands in the way of the sustained development of ferroelectric memory nano-devices. Here, a series of electron microscopy evidences have illustrated that the interfacial strain played a key role in inducing the orthorhombic phase and the distorted tetragonal phase, which was the origin of the ferroelectricity in the Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 film. Our results provide insight into understanding the association between ferroelectric performances and microstructures of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2-based systems.

  14. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au)

  15. Room Temperature Monoclinic Phase in BaTiO3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Sava; Kumar, Amit; Barnes, Andrew; Vlahos, Eftihia; Shepard, Gabriella; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2010-03-01

    BaTiO3 is a well studied ferroelectric material for the last half century. It is well known to show phase transitions to tetragonal, orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases upon cooling. Yet, some old and some recent studies have argued that all these phases co-exist with a second phase with monoclinic distortion. Using optical second harmonic generation (SHG) at room temperature we directly present evidence for such monoclininc phase co-existing with tetragonal phase at room temperature. We observe domains with the expected tetragonal symmetry exhibiting 90^o and 180^o domain walls. However, at points of higher stress at the tips of the interpenetrating tetragonal domains we observe a well pronounced metastable ``staircase pattern'' with a micron-scale fine structure. Polarization studies show that this phase can be explained only by monoclinic symmetry. This phase is very sensitive to external perturbations such as temperature and fields, hence stabilizing this phase at room temperature could lead to large properties' tunability.

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of the ω phase in water quenched Ti-5553 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Dongyang; Lu, Yafeng; Zhang, Kong; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Lian

    2012-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the ω phase in water quenched Ti-5553 alloy with a nominal composition of Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr (wt.%), and the ω and the β phase were distinguished by deconvoluting the XPS spectra of Al2p, V2p and Cr2p core level regions. In addition, it is found that the binding energy of core level electron of alloying elements shifts comparing with that of pure metals, and the fact was interpreted by charge redistribution model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique could be used to characterize the nano-scale ω phase in β alloys. - Highlights: ► We characterize the ω phase in Ti-5553 alloy by XPS. ► Binding energy of Al2p, V2p and Cr2p electron are different in the ω and β phase. ► Structural difference leads to the binding energy gap.

  17. Composite carbohydrate interpenetrating polyelectrolyte nano-complexes (IPNC) as a controlled oral delivery system of citalopram HCl for pediatric use: in-vitro/in-vivo evaluation and histopathological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Rabab; Abbas, Haidy; El-Naa, Mona

    2018-06-01

    Citalopram HCl (CH) is one of the few drugs which can be used safely in childhood psychiatric disorders. This study was focused on the preparation of interpenetrating polyelectrolytes nano-complexes (IPNC) to transform the hydrophilic carbohydrate polymers into an insoluble form. The IPNCs were loaded with CH to sustain its effect. The IPNC2 (composed of chitosan:pectin in a 3:1 ratio) showed the most extended drug release pattern (P < 0.05) and followed a Higuchi-order kinetics model. It was characterized using SEM, X-rays diffractometry, and FTIR. In-vivo studies were performed using immature rats with induced depression, and were based on the investigation of behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological changes at different time intervals up to 24 h. Rats treated with IPNC2 showed a significant more rapid onset of action and more extended effect in the behavioral tests, in addition to a significantly higher serotonin brain level up to 24 h, compared to rats treated with the market product (P < 0.05). The histopathological examination showed a profound amelioration of the cerebral cortex features of the depressed rats after IPNC2 administration. This study proves the higher efficacy and more extended effect of the new polyelectrolytes nano-complexes compared to the market product.

  18. The structural, morphological and thermal properties of grafted pH-sensitive interpenetrating highly porous polymeric composites of sodium alginate/acrylic acid copolymers for controlled delivery of diclofenac potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Aamir; Khan, Samiullah; Naeem, Fahad; Haider, Malik Suleman; Sarwar, Shoaib; Riaz, Amna; Ranjha, Nazar Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In present investigation new formulations of Sodium Alginate/Acrylic acid hydrogels with high porous structure were synthesized by free radical polymerization technique for the controlled drug delivery of analgesic agent to colon. Many structural parameters like molecular weight between crosslinks ( M c ), crosslink density ( M r ), volume interaction parameter ( v 2, s ), Flory Huggins water interaction parameter and diffusion coefficient ( Q ) were calculated. Water uptake studies was conducted in different USP phosphate buffer solutions. All samples showed higher swelling ratio with increasing pH values because of ionization of carboxylic groups at higher pH values. Porosity and gel fraction of all the samples were calculated. New selected samples were loaded with the model drug (diclofenac potassium).The amount of drug loaded and released was determined and it was found that all the samples showed higher release of drug at higher pH values. Release of diclofenac potassium was found to be dependent on the ratio of sodium alginate/acrylic acid, EGDMA and pH of the medium. Experimental data was fitted to various model equations and corresponding parameters were calculated to study the release mechanism. The Structural, Morphological and Thermal Properties of interpenetrating hydrogels were studied by FTIR, XRD, DSC, and SEM.

  19. Phase Equilibrium of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Flame-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changran; Camacho, Joaquin; Wang, Hai

    2018-01-19

    Nano-scale titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) is a material useful for a wide range of applications. In a previous study, we showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles of both rutile and anatase crystal phases could be synthesized over the size range of 5 to 20 nm in flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Rutile was unexpectedly dominant in oxygen-lean synthesis conditions, whereas anatase is the preferred phase in oxygen-rich gases. The observation is in contrast to the 14 nm rutile-anatase crossover size derived from the existing crystal-phase equilibrium model. In the present work, we made additional measurements over a wider range of synthesis conditions; the results confirm the earlier observations. We propose an improved model for the surface energy that considers the role of oxygen desorption at high temperatures. The model successfully explains the observations made in the current and previous work. The current results provide a useful path to designing flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition of TiO 2 nanocrystals with controllable crystal phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system in an oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Polat, Yasin

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins σ=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T abs and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i 1 , i 2 , i 3 ) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i 1 +p, i 2 +p and i 3 +p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  1. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Polat, Yasin [Institutes of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins {sigma}=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T{sub abs} and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i{sub 1}, i{sub 2}, i{sub 3}) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i{sub 1}+p, i{sub 2}+p and i{sub 3}+p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  2. Optical phase nanoscopy in red blood cells using low-coherence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Itay; Barbul, Alexander; Girshovitz, Pinhas; Nevo, Uri; Korenstein, Rafi; Shaked, Natan T

    2012-10-01

    We propose a low-coherence spectral-domain phase microscopy (SDPM) system for accurate quantitative phase measurements in red blood cells (RBCs) for the prognosis and monitoring of disease conditions that affect the visco-elastic properties of RBCs. Using the system, we performed time-recordings of cell membrane fluctuations, and compared the nano-scale fluctuation dynamics of healthy and glutaraldehyde-treated RBCs. Glutaraldehyde-treated RBCs possess lower amplitudes of fluctuations, reflecting an increased membrane stiffness. To demonstrate the ability of our system to measure fluctuations of lower amplitudes than those measured by the commonly used holographic phase microscopy techniques, we also constructed wide-field digital interferometry (WFDI) system and compared the performances of both systems. Due to its common-path geometry, the optical-path-delay stability of SDPM was found to be less than 0.3 nm in liquid environment, at least three times better than WFDI under the same conditions. In addition, due to the compactness of SDPM and its inexpensive and robust design, the system possesses a high potential for clinical applications.

  3. 1D helix, 2D brick-wall and herringbone, and 3D interpenetration d10 metal-organic framework structures assembled from pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid N-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li-Li; Dang, Dong-Bin; Duan, Chun-Ying; Li, Yi-Zhi; Tian, Zheng-Fang; Meng, Qing-Jin

    2005-10-03

    Five novel interesting d(10) metal coordination polymers, [Zn(PDCO)(H2O)2]n (PDCO = pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid N-oxide) (1), [Zn2(PDCO)2(4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)2.3H2O]n (bpy = bipyridine) (2), [Zn(PDCO)(bix)]n (bix = 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene) (3), [Zn(PDCO)(bbi).0.5H2O]n (bbi = 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)) (4), and [Cd(PDCO)(bix)(1.5).1.5H2O]n (5), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Polymer 1 possesses a one-dimensional (1D) helical chainlike structure with 4(1) helices running along the c-axis with a pitch of 10.090 Angstroms. Polymer 2 has an infinite chiral two-dimensional (2D) brick-wall-like layer structure in the ac plane built from achiral components, while both 3 and 4 exhibit an infinite 2D herringbone architecture, respectively extended in the ac and ab plane. Polymer 5 features a most remarkable and unique three-dimensional (3D) porous framework with 2-fold interpenetration related by symmetry, which contains channels in the b and c directions, both distributed in a rectangular grid fashion. Compounds 1-5, with systematic variation in dimensionality from 1D to 2D to 3D, are the first examples of d(10) metal coordination polymers into which pyridinedicarboxylic acid N-oxide has been introduced. In addition, polymers 1, 4, and 5 display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state. Polymer 3 exhibits a strong SHG response, estimated to be approximately 0.9 times that of urea.

  4. One pot synthesis, structure and magnetic property of a pseudo-interpenetrated 2D copper framework based on coordinated 1,1‧-biphenyl-3,3‧,5,5‧-tetracarboxylate and synthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Feng; Lu, Liping; Zhu, Miaoli; Feng, Sisi

    2016-03-01

    A mixture of 1,1‧-biphenyl-3,3‧,5,5‧-tetracarboxylate acid (abbreviated as H4bpta), 4,4‧-bipyridine (abbreviated as 4,4‧-bipy), and CuCl2·2H2O generates co-crystallization supramolecular solids [Cu2(cis-H2bpta)2(4,4‧-bipy)2]n·nH4bpta·2nH2O (I) under hydrothermal condition and form of partly deprotonated cis-H2bpta2- firstly emerges in this work. Crystallographically, a 1:1 co-crystal is formed by co-crystallization of [Cu2(cis-H2bpta)2(4,4‧-bipy)2] and H4bpta in self-assembled process. Structurally, the compound (I) exhibits two-dimensional (2D) double-layered nets with a pseudo-interpenetrated skeleton, one layer is characteristic of metal-organic moiety linked via cis-H2bpta2- and 4,4‧-bipy spaces, and the other formed by O-H···O H-bonds presented in neutral H4bpta ligands. Interestingly, its mechanically interlocked structure is formed by hydrogen bonds, which results in an interesting interweaving framework with a new (3,4,5)-connected topological structure. Magnetic couplings between adjacent Cu(II) centers are mediated through double syn-syn carboxylate bridges. Magnetic susceptibility measurement indicates that (I) exhibits a dinuclear Cu(II) behavior with antiferromagnetic coupling (J = -35.69(1) cm-1).

  5. Phase separation and antisite defects in the thermoelectric TiNiSn half-Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirievsky, K.; Gelbstein, Y.; Fuks, D.

    2013-01-01

    The half-Heusler TiNiSn alloys have recently gained an attention as promising candidates for thermoelectric applications. Improvement of these alloys for such applications can be obtained by both electronic and compositional optimizations. The latter can result in a miscibility gap, allowing a phase separation in the nano-scale and consequently a thermal conductivity reduction. Combination of ab initio calculations and statistical thermodynamics was applied for studying the relative stability of a number of superstructures in TiNiSn based alloys. The quasi-binary phase diagram beyond T=0 K for TiNiSn–TiNi 2 Sn solid solutions was calculated using energy parameters extracted from the total energy calculations for ordered structures in the Ni sublattice. We demonstrated that a decomposition of the off-stoichiometric Ni-rich half-Heusler alloy into the stoichiometric TiNiSn phase and into Ni deficient Heusler TiNi 2 Sn phase occurs at elevated temperatures—an effect which recently had been observed experimentally. Furthermore, favorable energetic conditions for antisite defects formation were deduced, based on calculations of the energy of formation, an effect which was explained as a cooperative process of partial disordering on the Ni sublattice. The influence of these two effects on improvement of the thermoelectric performance of TiNiSn based half Heusler compounds is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Phase separation and antisite defects in the thermoelectric TiNiSn alloy, are covered as methods for nanostructuring and thereby enhancement of the thermoelectric potential. - Highlights: • Ab initio calculations/statistical thermodynamics was applied for studying the TiNiSn system. • The phase diagram for TiNiSn–TiNi 2 Sn solid solutions was calculated. • Decomposition of the Ni-rich HH into TiNiSn and Ni deficient TiNi 2 Sn phases was observed. • Favorable energetic conditions for antisite defects formation were deduced

  6. Stacking faults in Zr(Fe, Cr)2 Laves structured secondary phase particle in Zircaloy-4 alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengze; Li, Geping; Yuan, Fusen; Han, Fuzhou; Zhang, Yingdong; Gu, Hengfei

    2018-02-01

    Stacking faults (SFs) in secondary phase particles (SPPs), which generally crystallize in the Laves phase in Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) alloy, have been frequently observed by researchers. However, few investigations on the nano-scale structure of SFs have been carried out. In the present study, an SF containing C14 structured SPP, which located at grain boundaries (GBs) in the α-Zr matrix, was chosen to be investigated, for its particular substructure as well as location, aiming to reveal the nature of the SFs in the SPPs in Zr-4 alloy. It was indicated that the SFs in the C14 structured SPP actually existed in the local C36 structured Laves phase, for their similarities in crystallography. The C14 → C36 phase transformation, which was driven by synchroshearing among the (0001) basal planes, was the formation mechanism of the SFs in the SPPs. By analyzing the strained regions near the SPP, a model for understanding the driving force of the synchroshear was proposed: the interaction between SPP and GB resulted in the Zener pinning effect, leading to the shearing parallel to the (0001) basal planes of the C14 structured SPP, and the synchroshear was therefore activated.

  7. Governing equations for a seriated continuum: an unequal velocity model for two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, C.W.; Hughes, E.D.

    1975-05-01

    The description of the flow of two-phase fluids is important in many engineering devices. Unexpected transient conditions which occur in these devices cannot, in general, be treated with single-component momentum equations. Instead, the use of momentum equations for each phase is necessary in order to describe the varied transient situations which can occur. These transient conditions can include phases moving in the opposite directions, such as steam moving upward and liquid moving downward, as well as phases moving in the same direction. The derivation of continuity and momentum equations for each phase and an overall energy equation for the mixture are presented. Terms describing interphase forces are described. A seriated (series of) continuum is distinguished from an interpenetrating medium by the representation of interphase friction with velocity differences in the former and velocity gradients in the latter. The seriated continuum also considers imbedded stationary solid surfaces such as occur in nuclear reactor cores. These stationary surfaces are taken into account with source terms. Sufficient constitutive equations are presented to form a complete set of equations. Methods are presented to show that all these coefficients are determinable from microscopic models and well known experimental results. Comparison of the present deviation with previous work is also given. The equations derived here may also be employed in certain multiphase, multicomponent flow applications. (U.S.)

  8. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au). 9 tabs., 40 ills., 81 refs.

  9. Normal compliance contact models with finite interpenetration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eck, Ch.; Jarušek, Jiří; Stará, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 1 (2013), s. 25-57 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compliance models * approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-012-0602-8#

  10. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  11. Molecular dynamics study on the effect of boundary heating rate on the phase change characteristics of thin film liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Mohammad Nasim, E-mail: nasim@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Morshed, A. K. M. Monjur, E-mail: shavik@me.buet.ac.bd.com; Rabbi, Kazi Fazle, E-mail: rabbi35.me10@gmail.com; Haque, Mominul, E-mail: mominulmarup@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    In this study, theoretical investigation of thin film liquid phase change phenomena under different boundary heating rates has been conducted with the help of molecular dynamics simulation. To do this, the case of argon boiling over a platinum surface has been considered. The study has been conducted to get a better understanding of the nano-scale physics of evaporation/boiling for a three phase system with particular emphasis on the effect of boundary heating rate. The simulation domain consisted of liquid and vapor argon atoms placed over a platinum wall. Initially the whole system was brought to an equilibrium state at 90 K with the help of equilibrium molecular dynamics and then the temperature of the bottom wall was increased to a higher temperature (250 K/130 K) over a finite heating period. Depending on the heating period, the boundary heating rate has been varied in the range of 1600×10{sup 9} K/s to 8×10{sup 9} K/s. The variations of argon region temperature, pressure, net evaporation number with respect to time under different boundary heating rates have been determined and discussed. The heat fluxes normal to platinum wall for different cases were also calculated and compared with theoretical upper limit of maximum possible heat transfer to elucidate the effect of boundary heating rate.

  12. Phase field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.; Clarno, K.; Tonks, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phase-field method and its application to microstructure evolution in reactor fuel and clad are discussed. The examples highlight the capability of the phase-field method to capture evolution processes that are influenced by both thermal and elastic stress fields that are caused by microstructural changes in the solid-state. The challenges that need to be overcome before the technique can become predictive and material-specific are discussed. (authors)

  13. Liquid Phase Sintering of (Ti,Zr)C with WC-Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Taoran; Borrajo-Pelaez, Rafael; Hedström, Peter; Blomqvist, Andreas; Borgh, Ida; Norgren, Susanne; Odqvist, Joakim

    2017-01-11

    (Ti,Zr)C powder was sintered with WC-Co following an industrial process, including an isotherm at 1410 °C. A series of interrupted sintering trials was performed with the aim of studying the sintering behavior and the microstructural evolution during both solid-state and liquid-state sintering. Reference samples, using the same elemental compositions but with the starting components TiC and ZrC instead of (Ti,Zr)C, were also sintered. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is found that the (Ti,Zr)C phase decomposes into Ti-rich and Zr-rich nano-scale lamellae before the liquid-state of the sintering initiates. The final microstructure consists of the binder and WC as well as two different γ phases, rich in either Ti (γ₁) or Zr (γ₂). The γ₂ phase grains have a core-shell structure with a (Ti,Zr)C core following the full sintering cycle. The major differences observed in (Ti,Zr)C with respect to the reference samples after the full sintering cycle were the referred core-shell structure and the carbide grain sizes; additionally, the microstructural evolution during sintering differs. The grain size of carbides (WC, γ₁, and γ₂) is about 10% smaller in WC-(Ti,Zr)C-Co than WC-TiC-ZrC-Co. The shrinkage behavior and hardness of both composites are reported and discussed.

  14. Boride-based nano-laminates with MAX-phase-like behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, Rainer; Momozawa, Ai; Music, Denis; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-01-01

    MAX-phases being usually composed of transition metals, group A elements and carbon/nitrogen are considered interesting materials for many applications because of their tremendous bulk modulus, 'reversible' plasticity, and machinability. This is mainly due to their unique kind of bonding comprising covalent, ionic as well as metallic bonds providing 'easy' planes of rupture and deformability due to the layered crystal structures. In transition metal boride systems, similar types of bonding are available. In particular the W 2 B 5 -structure type and its stacking variations allow the synthesis of strongly layered crystal structures exhibiting unique delamination phenomena. The paper presents ab initio calculations showing the similarities of bonding between the ternary carbides and the corresponding ternary or quaternary borides. Formation of boride-based nano-laminates from auxiliary liquid phases, from the melt as well as during sintering and precipitation from supersaturated solid solutions will be discussed by means of SEM and TEM studies. The role of impurities weakening the interlayer bonding will be addressed in particular. The pronounced cleavage parallel to the basal plane gives rise for crack deflection and pull-out mechanisms if the laminates are dispersed in brittle matrices such as boron carbide, silicon carbide or other transition metal borides. - Graphical abstract: Some transition metal borides crystallise in a layered structure of alternating stacks of metal and boron atoms giving rise for strongly anisotropic properties. Their preferred cleavage parallel and the deformability perpendicular to the basal plan are similar to the peculiar mechanical behaviour recently described for MAX-phases. Ab initio calculations of the crystal structure prove the weak bonds between the layers for a variety of borides which can be used to reinforce ceramic materials on a nano-scale level

  15. Liquid Phase Sintering of (Ti,ZrC with WC-Co

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoran Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available (Ti,ZrC powder was sintered with WC-Co following an industrial process, including an isotherm at 1410 °C. A series of interrupted sintering trials was performed with the aim of studying the sintering behavior and the microstructural evolution during both solid-state and liquid-state sintering. Reference samples, using the same elemental compositions but with the starting components TiC and ZrC instead of (Ti,ZrC, were also sintered. The microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is found that the (Ti,ZrC phase decomposes into Ti-rich and Zr-rich nano-scale lamellae before the liquid-state of the sintering initiates. The final microstructure consists of the binder and WC as well as two different γ phases, rich in either Ti (γ1 or Zr (γ2. The γ2 phase grains have a core-shell structure with a (Ti,ZrC core following the full sintering cycle. The major differences observed in (Ti,ZrC with respect to the reference samples after the full sintering cycle were the referred core-shell structure and the carbide grain sizes; additionally, the microstructural evolution during sintering differs. The grain size of carbides (WC, γ1, and γ2 is about 10% smaller in WC-(Ti,ZrC-Co than WC-TiC-ZrC-Co. The shrinkage behavior and hardness of both composites are reported and discussed.

  16. Phase stabilization in transparent Lu2O3:Eu ceramics by lattice expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Z. M.; Dai, Z. R.; Kuntz, J. D.; Cherepy, N. J.; Payne, S. A.

    2012-11-01

    Gadolinium lutetium oxide transparent ceramics doped with europium (Gd,Lu)2O3:Eu were fabricated via vacuum sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Nano-scale starting powder with the composition GdxLu1.9-xEu0.1O3 (x = 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1) were uniaxially pressed and sintered under high vacuum at 1625 °C to obtain ˜97% dense structures with closed porosity. Sintered compacts were then subjected to 200 MPa argon gas at temperatures between 1750 and 1900 °C to reach full density. It was observed that a small portion of the Eu3+ ions were exsolved from the Lu2O3 cubic crystal lattice and concentrated at the grain boundaries, where they precipitated into a secondary monoclinic phase creating optical scattering defects. Addition of Gd3+ ions into the Lu2O3 cubic lattice formed the solid solution (Gd,Lu)2O3:Eu and stretched the lattice parameter allowing the larger Eu3+ ions to stay in solid solution, reducing the secondary phase and improving the transparency of the ceramics. Excess gadolinium, however, resulted in a complete phase transformation to monoclinic at pressures and temperatures sufficient for densification. Light yield performance was measured and all samples show equal amounts of the characteristic Eu3+ luminescence, indicating gadolinium addition had no adverse effect. This material has potential to improve the performance of high energy radiography devices.

  17. Phase Vocoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Flanagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vocoder technique is described in which speech signals are represented by their short-time phase and amplitude spectra. A complete transmission system utilizing this approach is simulated on a digital computer. The encoding method leads to an economy in transmission bandwidth and to a means for time compression and expansion of speech signals.

  18. Investigating the effects of polymer molecular weight and non-solvent content on the phase separation, surface morphology and hydrophobicity of polyvinyl chloride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoryani, Zahra; Seyfi, Javad; Nekoei, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to study the effects of polymer molecular weight as well as non-solvent concentration on the phase separation, surface morphology and wettability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) results showed that the Mn of the used PVC grades is 6 × 104, 8.7 × 104 and 1.26 × 105 g/mol. It was found that a proper combination of polymer molecular weight and non-solvent content could result in superhydrophobic and self-cleaning behaviors. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results demonstrated that addition of ethanol causes the polymer chains to be severely aggregated at the films' surface forming strand-like structures decorated by nano-scale polymer spheres. The polymer molecular weight was found to affect the degree of porosity which is highly influential on the hydrophobicity of the films. The mechanism of phase separation process was also discussed and it was found that the instantaneous demixing is the dominant mechanism once higher contents of non-solvent were used. However, a delayed demixing mechanism was detected when the lower molecular weight PVC has been used which resulted in a pore-less and dense skin layer. Differential scanning calorimetry was also utilized to study the crystallization and glass transition behavior of samples.

  19. Plastic deformation in nano-scale multilayer materials — A biomimetic approach based on nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Juergen M., E-mail: juergen.lackner@joanneum.at [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Strasse 94, A-8712 Niklasdorf (Austria); Waldhauser, Wolfgang [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsges.m.b.H., Institute for Surface Technologies and Photonics, Functional Surfaces, Leobner Strasse 94, A-8712 Niklasdorf (Austria); Major, Boguslaw; Major, Lukasz [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Sciences, IMIM-PAN, ul. Reymonta 25, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland); Kot, Marcin [University of Science and Technology, AGH, Aleja Adama Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-05-01

    The paper reports about a biomimetic based comparison of deformation in magnetron sputtered multilayer coatings based on titanium (Ti), titanium nitride (TiN) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers and the deformation mechanisms in nacre of mollusc shells. Nacre as highly mineralized tissue combines high stiffness and hardness with high toughness, enabling resistance to fracture and crack propagation during tensile loading. Such behaviour is based on a combination of load transmission by tensile stressed aragonite tablets and shearing in layers between the tablets. Shearing in these polysaccharide and protein interlayers demands hydrated conditions. Otherwise, nacre has similar brittle behaviour to aragonite. To prevent shear failure, shear hardening occurs by progressive tablet locking due to wavy dovetail-like surface geometry of the tablets. Similar effects by shearing and strain hardening mechanisms were found for Ti interlayers between TiN and DLC layers in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies, performed in deformed zones beneath spherical indentations. 7 nm thin Ti films are sufficient for strong toughening of the whole multi-layered coating structure, providing a barrier for propagation of cracks, starting from tensile-stressed, hard, brittle TiN or DLC layers. - Highlights: • Biomimetic approach to TiN-diamond-like carbon (DLC) multilayers by sputtering • Investigation of deformation in/around hardness indents by HR-TEM • Plastic deformation with shearing in 7-nm thick Ti interlayers in TiN–DLC multilayers • Biomimetically comparable to nacre deformation.

  20. Resistance networks as a model for conduction on the nano-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Benjamin Ashley

    In this thesis, we calculate transport properties of amorphous materials in one, two, and three dimensions. We take into account site disorder, manifest as a random variation of the locations of atomic species. We employ a resistor network model as a theoretical framework for calculating transport characteristics. The numerical calculations we employ are based on an iterative algorithm used as an improvement over the direct solution of the relevant linear systems. The Monte Carlo calculations are used to validate analytical perturbative treatment valid in the bulk limit. In approaching random resistor networks, we discuss and apply a paradigm based on the connectivity of nodes instead of mesh currents where the applicability is limited to a specific set of geometries. We argue that this perspective is very useful in strongly disordered systems, especially for three-dimensional cases.

  1. Determination of the nano-scaled contact area of staphylococcal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Christian; Thewes, Nicolas; Jung, Philipp; Bischoff, Markus; Jacobs, Karin

    2017-07-20

    Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step during the development of infections as well as the formation of biofilms. Hence, fundamental research of bacterial adhesion mechanisms is of utmost importance. So far, less is known about the size of the contact area between bacterial cells and a surface. This gap will be filled by this study using a single-cell force spectroscopy-based method to investigate the contact area between a single bacterial cell of Staphylococcus aureus and a solid substrate. The technique relies on the strong influence of the hydrophobic interaction on bacterial adhesion: by incrementally crossing a very sharp hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface while performing force-distance curves with a single bacterial probe, the bacterial contact area can be determined. Assuming circular contact areas, their radii - determined in our experiments - are in the range from tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. The contact area can be slightly enlarged by a larger load force, yet does not resemble a Hertzian contact, rather, the enlargement is a property of the individual bacterial cell. Additionally, Staphylococcus carnosus has been probed, which is less adherent than S. aureus, yet both bacteria exhibit a similar contact area size. This corroborates the notion that the adhesive strength of bacteria is not a matter of contact area, but rather a matter of which and how many molecules of the bacterial species' cell wall form the contact. Moreover, our method of determining the contact area can be applied to other microorganisms and the results might also be useful for studies using nanoparticles covered with soft, macromolecular coatings.

  2. A Study on Removal of Environmental Pollution Materials with Nano-scale Iron Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Ahn, Hong Ju

    2009-07-15

    In this study, a method of nano-sized iron particles with zero valent state was developed. Also, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of silica based micro-particles were obtained for micro particle analysis. Basic physical data for standard particles were obtained in various synthesis conditions for mass production. From the experiment of removal of Pb in the solution with iron particles with zero valent state, most of Pb was removed from the solution over pH 7, as a result of reaction of Pb with iron particles with zero valent state. Nano sized iron particles with zero valent state obtained from this study will be apply for removing heavy metals and radionuclides as well as waste treatment and remediation for contaminated materials in the environment.

  3. Self-Consistent Monte Carlo Study of the Coulomb Interaction under Nano-Scale Device Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Nobuyuki

    2011-03-01

    It has been pointed that the Coulomb interaction between the electrons is expected to be of crucial importance to predict reliable device characteristics. In particular, the device performance is greatly degraded due to the plasmon excitation represented by dynamical potential fluctuations in high-doped source and drain regions by the channel electrons. We employ the self-consistent 3D Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which could reproduce both the correct mobility under various electron concentrations and the collective plasma waves, to study the physical impact of dynamical potential fluctuations on device performance under the Double-gate MOSFETs. The average force experienced by an electron due to the Coulomb interaction inside the device is evaluated by performing the self-consistent MC simulations and the fixed-potential MC simulations without the Coulomb interaction. Also, the band-tailing associated with the local potential fluctuations in high-doped source region is quantitatively evaluated and it is found that the band-tailing becomes strongly dependent of position in real space even inside the uniform source region. This work was partially supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (No. 2160160) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis and characterisation of nano-scale hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilton, M; Brown, A P; Milne, S J

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) forms the main mineral component of bone and teeth. This naturally occurring HAp is in the form of nano-metre sized crystallites of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 that contain a number of cation and anion impurities, for example CO 3 2- , F - , Na + , Mg 2+ and Sr 2+ . Synthetic nano-sized HAp particles exhibit favourable biocompatibility and bioactivity and in order to better match the composition to natural HAp there is great interest in producing a range of chemically modified powders. In this study, two HAp powders have been synthesised via a water-based low-temperature sol-gel method and a third, commercial powder from Sigma-Aldrich have been analysed. Subsequent powder calcination has been carried out within the temperature range of 500-700 0 C and the products characterised by bulk chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) in the TEM has been used to assess the composition of individual HAp particles. In order to do this accurately it is first necessary to account for the sensitivity of the HAp structure and composition to irradiation by the high energy electron beam of the TEM. This was done by monitoring the estimated Ca/P ratio derived from TEM-EDX of stoichiometric HAp under increasing levels of electron fluence. A fluence threshold (at a given beam energy) was established below which the measured Ca/P ratio can be considered to be stable. Subsequent elemental analysis at or below this threshold has enabled the variation in composition between particles both within and between synthesis batches to be accurately assessed. Compositional variability between particles is also evident, even in the commercial powder, but is far greater in the powders prepared by the sol-gel method.

  5. Defluoridation chemistry of synthetic hydroxyapatite at nano scale: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C. Sairam; Viswanathan, Natrayasamy; Meenakshi, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the advantages of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp), a cost effective sorbent for fluoride removal. n-HAp possesses a maximum defluoridation capacity [DC] of 1845 mg F - /kg which is comparable with that of activated alumina, a defluoridation agent commonly used in the indigenous defluoridation technology. A new mechanism of fluoride removal by n-HAp was proposed in which it is established that this material removes fluoride by both ion-exchange and adsorption process. The n-HAp and fluoride-sorbed n-HAp were characterized using XRD, FTIR and TEM studies. The fluoride sorption was reasonably explained with Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG o , ΔH o , ΔS o and E a were calculated in order to understand the nature of sorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by pseudo-second-order and pore diffusion models. Field studies were carried out with the fluoride containing water sample collected from a nearby fluoride endemic area in order to test the suitability of n-HAp material as a defluoridating agent at field condition

  6. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  7. Interactions of radionuclides and CO2 with clays: elucidating mechanisms at nano-scale level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict and regulate the environmental impact of human activities such as uranium mining and radioactive waste disposal, it is necessary to understand the behavior of actinides in the environment because their interaction with clay mineral is an important factor to control the migration of radionuclide in the environment. The behavior of actinides in the soil is mainly the surface adsorption interactions, which change the forms of radioactive elements and reduces the mobility of actinides in the natural systems. Therefore, it is important to search how the actinides interact with clay mineral such as the fundamental process of surface precipitation. Uranium is the predominant heavy metal content of the final waste in the nuclear fuel cycle (≥95% UO 2 ). In addition, uranium is a major contaminant in the soil, subsurface and groundwater as a result of human activity. Under standard environmental conditions, the most stable chemical form of U(VI) is the uranyl ion UO 2 2+ , which is potentially very mobile and readily complexes with organic and inorganic matter. On the other hand, carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, warming the earth's surface to a higher temperature by reducing outward radiation. However, problems may occur when the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases increases. Amounts of carbon dioxide were produced since the industrial revolution, which is behind the significant global warming and rising sea level. Clay minerals are of great practical importance here, in storage of carbon dioxide due to its hydraulic permeability and ability to retain mobile species. We have chosen kaolinite and montmorillonite as prototypes of clay minerals of 1:1 and 2:1. Classical Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods have been used in this work in order to understand the adsorption behaviour of radionuclide and carbon dioxide in clays surface. In this thesis, we will investigate first the adsorption of uranyl on kaolinite surface by means of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics simulation methods. Several adsorption sites have been modeled by considering surface defects in order to have inner or outer-sphere complexes. Then, the adsorptions of uranyl species onto Montmorillonite surfaces in the presence of different counterions will be performed. Interaction energy between Montmorillonite sheets and work of adhesion between the radionuclide and MMT surface will be discussed as well. Finally, we will study the adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide in MMT, and investigate at the same time thermodynamics, structural and dynamical properties. (author)

  8. Quantum Control of Light and Matter: From the Macroscopic to the Nano Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    solution of KOH (40%) was then used to anisotropically etch the exposed Si, forming freestanding Si3N4 membranes (250 x 250 μm2). A second round of... Raman spectroscopy analysis of successfully suspended Gr are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 (a) is a grayscale optical image of Gr suspended over a 30...areas of residual polymer contamination, and multiple Gr layers. A single Raman spectrum taken at the center of the aperture is shown in Figure 2

  9. Nano-scale Radiotherapy-NBTXR3 Hafnium Oxide Nanoparticles as Promising Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiorella, L.; Barouch, G.; Devaux, C.; Pottier, A.; Levy, L.; Deutsch, E.; Bourhis, J.; Borghi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Background: There is considerable interest in approaches that could improve the therapeutic window of radiotherapy, which represents a crucial modality of treatment in oncology. We present the rationale for designing NBTXR3 nanoparticles activated by radiotherapy and validate the concept. We performed the Monte Carlo calculations for the first time based on the 'local model' simulation that showed a dose enhancement of radiation to tumour cells of approximately nine-fold. NBTXR3 was shown to deposit high energy when the ionizing radiation source is 'on' and to have chemically inert behavior in cellular and subcellular systems demonstrated by very good systemic tolerance, thus decreasing potential health hazards. Material and Methods: We used conventional methods, implemented in different ways, to explore interactions of high Z matter and ionizing radiation with biological systems. In addition, microtomography was performed to explore the nanoparticle volume occupancy inside the tumour and its persistence overtime in mouse tumour models. The antitumour activity of NBTXR3 and tolerance were evaluated in Ewing tumour (A673) and fibrosarcoma (HT1080) using high energy source. Results and Conclusion: We created and developed NBTXR3 nanoparticles with a crystalline hafnium oxide core which provide high electron density structure and inert behavior in biological media. NBTXR3 nanoparticles' characteristics, size, charge and shape, allow for efficient interaction with biological entities, cell membrane binding and cellular uptake. The nanoparticles were shown to form clusters at the subcellular level in tumour models. Of most importance, we show NBTXR3 intra-tumour bioavailability with dispersion of nanoparticles in the three dimensions and persistence within the tumour structure, supporting the use of NBTXR3 as effective antitumour therapeutic agent. Antitumour activity of NBTXR3 showed marked advantage in terms of survival, tumour specific growth delay and local control in A673 and HT1080 human tumour models. Changing radiotherapy benefit-risk ratio is challenging. These data are supportive for the first clinical development of hafnium oxide nanoparticles, with an on/off mode of action through successive fractions of radiation therapy using current equipment available in hospitals

  10. Nano-scale analysis of titanium dioxide fingerprint-development powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, A J; Jones, B J; Sears, V; Bowman, V

    2008-01-01

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide is suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a small particle reagent (SPR). Analysis of commercially available products shows varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of prints developed with different powders show a range of levels of aggregation of particles. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the fingerprint powder shows TiO 2 particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the composition and chemical state of the surface of the powders; with a penetration depth of approximately 10nm, this technique demonstrates differing Ti: Al: Si ratios and oxidation states between the surfaces of different powders. Levels of titanium detected with this technique demonstrate variation in the integrity of the surface coating. The thickness, integrity and composition of the Al/Si-based coating is related to the level of aggregation of TiO 2 particles and efficacy of print development.

  11. Modeling, methodologies and tools for molecular and nano-scale communications modeling, methodologies and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Nakano, Tadashi; Moore, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (Preliminary) The book presents the state of art in the emerging field of molecular and nanoscale communication. It gives special attention to fundamental models, and advanced methodologies and tools used in the field. It covers a wide range of applications, e.g. nanomedicine, nanorobot communication, bioremediation and environmental managements. It addresses advanced graduate students, academics and professionals working at the forefront in their fields and at the interfaces between different areas of research, such as engineering, computer science, biology and nanotechnology.

  12. Nano-scale microfluidics to study 3D chemotaxis at the single cell level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Frick

    Full Text Available Directed migration of cells relies on their ability to sense directional guidance cues and to interact with pericellular structures in order to transduce contractile cytoskeletal- into mechanical forces. These biomechanical processes depend highly on microenvironmental factors such as exposure to 2D surfaces or 3D matrices. In vivo, the majority of cells are exposed to 3D environments. Data on 3D cell migration are mostly derived from intravital microscopy or collagen-based in vitro assays. Both approaches offer only limited controllability of experimental conditions. Here, we developed an automated microfluidic system that allows positioning of cells in 3D microenvironments containing highly controlled diffusion-based chemokine gradients. Tracking migration in such gradients was feasible in real time at the single cell level. Moreover, the setup allowed on-chip immunocytochemistry and thus linking of functional with phenotypical properties in individual cells. Spatially defined retrieval of cells from the device allows down-stream off-chip analysis. Using dendritic cells as a model, our setup specifically allowed us for the first time to quantitate key migration characteristics of cells exposed to identical gradients of the chemokine CCL19 yet placed on 2D vs in 3D environments. Migration properties between 2D and 3D migration were distinct. Morphological features of cells migrating in an in vitro 3D environment were similar to those of cells migrating in animal tissues, but different from cells migrating on a surface. Our system thus offers a highly controllable in vitro-mimic of a 3D environment that cells traffic in vivo.

  13. Nonlinear nano-scale localized breather modes in a discrete weak ferromagnetic spin lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, L.; Parasuraman, E.; Gopi, D.; Prabhu, A.; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the propagation dynamics of highly localized discrete breather modes in a weak ferromagnetic spin lattice with on-site easy axis anisotropy due to crystal field effect. We derive the discrete nonlinear equation of motion by employing boson mappings and p-representation. We explore the onset of modulational instability both analytically in the framework of linear stability analysis and numerically by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and a perfect agreement was demonstrated. It is also explored that how the antisymmetric nature of the canted ferromagnetic lattice supports highly localized discrete breather (DBs) modes as shown in the stability/instability windows. The energy exchange between low amplitude discrete breathers favours the growth of higher amplitude DBs, resulting eventually in the formation of few long-lived high amplitude DBs. - Highlights: • The effects of DM and anisotropy interaction on the DB modes are studied. • The antisymmetric nature of the canted ferromagnetic medium supports the DB modes. • Dynamics of ferromagnetic chain is governed by boson mappings and p-representation.

  14. Neutron Scattering Studies of Nano-Scale Wood-Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza Rodriguez, Nayomi Z.

    Understanding and controlling water in wood is critical to both improving forest products moisture durability and developing new sustainable forest products-based technologies. While wood is known to be hygroscopic, there is still a lack of understanding on the nanoscale wood-water interactions necessary for increased moisture-durability and dimensional stability. My PhD thesis focuses on the development and implementation of neutron scattering methods that can provide insight on both the structural and dynamical changes associated with these interactions so that products with improved moisture durability can be developed efficiently. Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and a custom-built in situ relative humidity chamber I studied the anisotropic moisture-induced swelling of wood nanostructure. First, I studied the effects of sample preparation by comparing SANS patterns of wiley milled wood and intact latewood cell walls, and found that scattering from intact wood provide more information about the spatial arrangement of the wood nanostructures inside the cell wall. Comparisons between SANS patterns from earlywood and latewood, also showed that the higher cell wall density of latewood cell walls results in patterns with more pronounced anisotropic features. Then, by measuring latewood loblolly pine sections obtained from the same growth ring and prepared in each of the primary wood planes, I tracked the cellulose elementary fibril spacing as a function of humidity in both intact and partially cut cell walls. These studies showed that even though swelling at the elementary fibril spacing is responsible for the majority of the transverse swelling observed at the S2 level, it is not primary plane dependent. Additionally, there were no differences in the elementary fibril spacing between partially-cut and intact cell walls, except at high humidity where the spacing in partially-cut cells was higher. SANS was also used to study the effects of two chemical modifications, namely, adhesive infiltration and acetylation, on the wood nanostructure as well as its moisture-induced swelling. Tangential-longitudinal latewood loblolly pine 0.5 mm thick sections were acetylated or treated with an adhesive (Phenol-formaldehyde (PF) or polymeric methylene diisocyanate (pMDI)) using deuterated or hydrogenated chemicals. Contrast variation experiments on wood modified with deuterated chemicals revealed that PF can infiltrate the regions between the elementary fibrils, while acetylation does not. The moisture-induced swelling of the chemically modified wood was studied, by studying the samples modified with hydrogenated chemicals using SANS and the previously built humidity chamber. These studies revealed that while both PF and pMDI can infiltrate the microfibrils, only PF reduced significantly the swelling at both the elementary fibril and bulk levels. In acetylated samples, the elementary fibril spacing was proportional to the moisture-content of the sample, which was reduced with increasing acetylation. This suggested that the acetylation treatment did not reduce the swelling at the elementary fibril but prevented water from entering the microfibril by modifying the regions surrounding the elementary fibrils. Using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) and a custom-built in situ relative humidity sample environment I measured experimentally the (5 - 400 ps) water dynamics inside wood cell walls for the first time and found that there are two types of bound water in the cell wall, namely, slow and fast water. The motion of both water types is well described by a jump-diffusion model, which corresponds to water molecules whose movement follows a stop and go process. Here, the slow water corresponds to water molecules that are highly associated to the wood polymers, whereas the fast water corresponds to water confined inside nanopores within the wood cell wall.

  15. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly...

  16. Adsorption of Arsenate by Nano Scaled Activated Carbon Modified by Iron and Manganese Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Gallios

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of arsenic in water supplies is a major problem for public health and still concerns large parts of population in Southeast Asia, Latin America and Europe. Removal of arsenic is usually accomplished either by coagulation with iron salts or by adsorption with iron oxides or activated alumina. However, these materials, although very efficient for arsenic, normally do not remove other undesirable constituents from waters, such as chlorine and organo-chlorine compounds, which are the results of water chlorination. Activated carbon has this affinity for organic compounds, but does not remove arsenic efficiently. Therefore, in the present study, iron modified activated carbons are investigated as alternative sorbents for the removal of arsenic(V from aqueous solutions. In addition, modified activated carbons with magnetic properties can easily be separated from the solutions. In the present study, a simple and efficient method was used for the preparation of magnetic Fe3(Mn2+O4 (M:Fe and/or Mn activated carbons. Activated carbons were impregnated with magnetic precursor solutions and then calcinated at 400 °C. The obtained carbons were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements. Their adsorption performance for As(V was evaluated. The iron impregnation presented an increase in As(V maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax from about 4 mg g−1 for the raw carbon to 11.05 mg g−1, while Mn incorporation further increased the adsorption capacity at 19.35 mg g−1.

  17. Probing properties, stability, and performances of hierarchical meso-porous materials with nano-scale interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Gosset, Dominique; Simeone, David; Muller, Guillaume; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Sanchez, Clement

    2012-01-01

    Nano-crystals growth mechanism embedded into meso-porous thin films has been determined directly from grazing incidence X-ray diffraction data. We have shown, for the first time, that surface capillary forces control the growth mechanism of nano-crystals into these nano-architectures. Moreover, these data allow an estimation of the surface tension of the nano-crystals organized into a 3-D nano-architecture. The analysis of the variations in the strain field of these nano-crystals gives information on the evolution of the microstructure of these meso-porous films, that is, the contacts among nano-crystals. This work represents the first application of grazing incidence X-ray for understanding stability and performances of meso-porous thin films. This approach can be used to understand the structural stability of these nano-architectures at high temperature. (authors)

  18. Performance and Structural Evolution of Nano-Scale Infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Ann Virginia

    Nano-structured mixed ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) materials have garnered intense interest in electrode development for solid oxide fuel cells due to their high surface areas which allow for effective catalytic activity and low polarization resistances. In particular, composite solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes consisting of ionic conducting scaffolds infiltrated with MIEC nanoparticles have exhibited some of the lowest reported polarization resistances. In order for cells utilizing nanostructured moRPhologies to be viable for commercial implementation, more information on their initial performance and long term stability is necessary. In this study, symmetric cell cathodes were prepared via wet infiltration of Sr0.5Sm 0.5CoO3 (SSC) nano-particles via a nitrate process into porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC) scaffolds to be used as a model system to investigate performance and structural evolution. Detailed analysis of the cells and cathodes was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Initial polarization resistances (RP) as low as 0.11 O cm2 at 600ºC were obtained for these SSC-GDC cathodes, making them an ideal candidate for studying high performance nano-structured electrodes. The present results show that the infiltrated cathode microstructure has a direct impact on the initial performance of the cell. Small initial particle sizes and high infiltration loadings (up to 30 vol% SSC) improved initial RP. A simple microstructure-based electrochemical model successfully explained these trends in RP. Further understanding of electrode performance was gleaned from fitting EIS data gathered under varying temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to equivalent circuit models. Both RQ and Gerischer impedance elements provided good fits to the main response in the EIS data, which was associated with the combination of oxygen surface exchange and oxygen diffusion in the electrode. A gas diffusion response was also observed at relatively low pO2. The cells were subjected to life testing at temperatures between 650°C and 800°C for as long as 1500 h. EIS measurements, carried out periodically during the life tests, were done in air at 600°C, a typical expected intermediate-temperature SOFC operating temperature. These were accelerated tests because the aging temperatures > 600ºC should accelerate most degradation processes such as nano-particle coarsening. Long-term RP versus time data was fitted to a combined surface resistance and coarsening kinetics model, and a t0.25 power law coarsening model was found to provide the best fits to the data, suggesting that surface diffusion is the dominant mass transport pathway in SSC-GDC infiltrated cathodes. That is, cathode degradation was due primarily to the coarsening-induced decrease in active SSC surface area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) performed after electrochemical life testing confirmed the extent of coarsening of the SSC nanoparticles. The model is used to make predictions regarding long-term stability of infiltrated SSC electrodes, and is also compared with prior results on a similar perovskite MIEC electrode, LSCF. An important new finding is that increasing infiltration loadings yields a marked decrease in the long term degradation rate. Predictions based on accelerated life tests found the lowest possible operating temperature while achieving a degradation rate of 0.5% per kh is 595°C, corresponding to an initial particle size of 40 nm.

  19. Energy Harvesting A Nano-Scale Based Magneto-Thermal-Electric Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    titanate  ( PZT ),  a  heat  source  containing  a  hard   ferromagnetic  material  (e.g.  neodymium  iron  boron  (NdFeB... coefficients  (K’s)  as  functions   of   the   temperature   from   the   literature11,14–16     and   fitting   each

  20. Energy Harvesting A Nano-Scale Based Magnetothermal-Electric Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    PZT ),  a  heat  source  containing  a  hard   ferromagnetic  material  (e.g.  neodymium  iron  boron  (NdFeB)),  and  a...obtaining   the   saturation   magnetization  (Ms),  heat  capacity  (Cp),  and  magnetocrystalline  anisotropy   coefficients

  1. Ecotoxicity and environmental safety related to nano-scale zerovalent iron remediation application

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semerád, Jaroslav; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 23 (2016), s. 9809-9819 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020218 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Abstracting * Cytotoxicity * Nanotechnology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.420, year: 2016

  2. The performance evaluation of a micro/nano-scaled cooler working with an ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the size effect of a confined ideal Bose gas, the design concept of a quantum cooler is originally put forward. The cooler consists of two long tubes with the same length but different sizes of cross section, which are filled up with the ideal Bose gas, and is operated between two heat reservoirs. Expressions for the refrigeration rate and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooler are derived. The effects of the size effect on the refrigeration rate and COP are discussed. The general performance characteristics of the cooler are revealed. -- Highlights: ► The design concept of a quantum cooler is originally put forward. ► Expressions for the refrigeration rate and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooler are derived. ► The effects of the size effect on the refrigeration rate and COP are discussed. ► The general performance characteristics of the cooler are revealed. ► The results obtained are more general and significant than those in the current literature.

  3. Processing and Development of Nano-Scale HA Coatings for Biomedical Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabiei, Afsaneh; Thomas, Brent

    2005-01-01

    .... The present study aims to increase the service-life of an orthopedic/dental implant by creating materials that form a strong, long lasting, bond with the Ti substrate as well as juxtaposed bone...

  4. Theoretical study on junctions in porphyrin oligomers for nano scale devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Belosludov, Rodion V.; Farajian, Amir A.; Igarashi, Nobuaki; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    A unimolecular rectifier could be built by combining two molecular sub-units that contain acceptor or donor groups. Porphyrin possesses good electron-donating properties due to its large, easily ionized, π-conjugated system. In this study, we propose that a rectifier diode could be created by combining two metal porphyrin molecules containing different metal atoms. This function would realize an effect similar to a p-n junction in a solid-state device. A Zn porphyrin-Ni porphyrin junction in a non-conjugated porphyrin system displays a localization of frontier orbitals that is similar to a rectifier function

  5. Optical shaping of a nano-scale tip by femtosecond laser assisted field evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Russo, E.; Houard, J.; Langolff, V.; Moldovan, S.; Rigutti, L.; Deconihout, B.; Blavette, D.; Bogdanowicz, J.; Vella, A.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the morphology of a nanotip under femtosecond laser pulse illumination and a high electric field. We show that both the symmetry and the local radius of the tip change with the direction of laser polarization as against the tip axis. The experiments were performed on the very same GaN nanotip by laser-assisted atom probe tomography and electron tomography. This allowed an accurate assessment of the tip features by following the order of evaporation of single atoms from the surface. A change of atom emission sites was observed when a change of the angle between the tip axis and the linearly polarized electric field of the laser was imposed. This enables an optical control of field-evaporation sites. A close optical control of the tip morphology on a scale below 10 nm is thus achievable. Calculations of the field at nanotip apex and absorption maps support the experimental observations. Based on the present study, methods can be developed for reshaping nanotips at the nanometer level. This finding opens perspectives for numerous applications, making use of nanotips as probes or field emitters, and for plasmonic devices.

  6. Foundations for in vivo nano-scale measurement of memory processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsythe, James Chris

    2006-09-01

    An ongoing program of research and development is utilizing nanomaterials as a basis for observing and measuring neurophysiological processes. Work commencing in fiscal year 2007 will focus on expanding current capabilities to create nanoelectrode arrays that will allow nanoscale measurement of the activity of 10's to 100's of neurons. This development is a vital step in gaining scientific insights concerning network properties associated with neural representations and processes. Specifically, attention will be focused the representation of memory in the hippocampus, for which extensive research has been conducted using laboratory rats. This report summarizes background research providing a foundation for work planned for fiscal year 2007 and beyond. In particular, the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of the hippocampus is described. Additionally, several programs of research are described that have addressed the relationship between neurophysiological processes and behavioral measures of memory performance. These studies provide insight into methodological and analytic approaches for studying the representation of memory processes in the hippocampus. The objective of this report is to document relevant literature in a reference document that will support future research in this area.

  7. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-11-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c

  8. Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004

  9. Nano-scale study of the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrère, F.; Snel, M.M.E.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.; Layrolle, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of a calcium phosphate (Ca-P) coating deposited on titanium implants from simulated body fluid was investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Forty titanium alloy plates were assigned into two groups. One group

  10. Se substitution and micro-nano-scale porosity enhancing thermoelectric Cu2Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoman; Wang, Guoyu; Wang, Ruifeng; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Xu, Jingtao; Tang, Jun; Ang, Ran

    2018-04-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51771126 and 11774247), the Youth Foundation of Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2016JQ0051), Sichuan University Outstanding Young Scholars Research Funding (Grant No. 2015SCU04A20), the World First-Class University Construction Funding, and the Fundamental and Frontier Research Project in Chongqing (Grant No. CSTC2015JCYJBX0026).

  11. Nano-scale analysis of titanium dioxide fingerprint-development powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, A J; Jones, B J [Experimental Techniques Centre, Brunei University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Sears, V; Bowman, V [Fingerprint and Footwear Forensics, Home Office Scientific Development Branch, Sandridge, St Albans, Hertfordshire, AL4 9HQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.j.jones@physics.org

    2008-08-15

    Titanium dioxide based powders are regularly used in the development of latent fingerprints on dark surfaces. For analysis of prints on adhesive tapes, the titanium dioxide is suspended in a surfactant and used in the form of a small particle reagent (SPR). Analysis of commercially available products shows varying levels of effectiveness of print development, with some powders adhering to the background as well as the print. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of prints developed with different powders show a range of levels of aggregation of particles. Analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the fingerprint powder shows TiO{sub 2} particles with a surrounding coating, tens of nanometres thick, consisting of Al and Si rich material. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine the composition and chemical state of the surface of the powders; with a penetration depth of approximately 10nm, this technique demonstrates differing Ti: Al: Si ratios and oxidation states between the surfaces of different powders. Levels of titanium detected with this technique demonstrate variation in the integrity of the surface coating. The thickness, integrity and composition of the Al/Si-based coating is related to the level of aggregation of TiO{sub 2} particles and efficacy of print development.

  12. Emulsified Zero-Valent Nano-Scale Iron Treatment of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Source Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    point (knot>~) $0 th~t tha tube hanqs cle~1 o( tha wei l C3&in9 1o14ll. fluml’ .., atar ttam tnc "’t ’ll by Of"H•tinq h.Jnd le •t a tate of o~t...Number Name Printed Name Printed Meeting Conducted By Supervisor Signature Protective Clothing / Equipment Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards

  13. A Novel Hybrid Nano Scale MOSFET Structure for Low Leak Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, novel hybrid MOSFET(HMOS structure has been proposed to reduce the gate leakage current drastically. This novel hybrid MOSFET (HMOS uses source/drain-to-gate non-overlap region in combination with high-K layer/interfacial oxide as gate stack. The extended S/D in the non-overlap region is induced by fringing gate electric field through the high-k dielectric spacer. The gate leakage behaviour of HMOS has been investigated with the help of compact analytical model and Sentaurus Simulation. The results so obtained show good agreement between model and simulation data. It is found that HMOS structure has reduced the gate leakage current to great extent as compared to conventional overlapped MOSFET structure. Further, the proposed structure had demonstrated improved on current, off current, subthreshold slope and DIBL characteristic.

  14. Complementary techniques for solid oxide electrolysis cell characterisation at the micro- and nano-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedenmann, D.; Hauch, Anne; Grobety, B.

    2010-01-01

    ), material degradation and evaporation can occur, e.g., from the cell-sealing material, leading to poisoning effects and aging mechanisms that decrease the cell efficiency and long-term durability. To investigate such cell degradation processes, thorough examination of SOCs often requires a chemical...... approach for the structural and chemical characterisation of changes in aged cathode-supported electrolysis cells produced at Risø DTU, Denmark. Additionally, we present results from the characterisation of impurities at the electrolyte/hydrogen interface caused by evaporation of sealing material....

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Thermoelectric Oxides at Macro- and Nano-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feiyue

    Thermoelectric materials can directly convert a temperature difference into electrical voltage and vice versa. Due to this unique property, thermoelectric materials are widely used in industry and scientific laboratories for temperature sensing and thermal management applications. Waste heat harvesting, another potential application of thermoelectric materials, has long been limited by the low conversion efficiency of the materials. Potential high temperature applications, such as power plant waste heat harvesting and combustion engine exhaust heat recovery, make thermoelectric oxides a very promising class of thermoelectric materials. In this thesis, the synthesis and characterization of thermoelectric oxide materials are explored. In the first part of this thesis, the measurement methodologies and instrumentation processes employed to investigate different thermoelectric properties, such as the Seebeck coefficient and carrier concentration at the bulk scale and the thermal conductivity at the nanoscale, are detailed. Existing scientific and engineering challenges associated with these measurements are also reviewed. To overcome such problems, original parts and methodologies have been designed. Three fully functional systems were ultimately developed for the characterization of macroscale thermoelectric properties as well as localized thermal conductivity. In the second part of the thesis, the synthesis of NaxCo 2O4, a thermoelectric oxide material, is discussed. Modification of both composition and structure were carried out so as to optimize the thermoelectric performance of NaxCo2O4. Nanostructuring methods, such as ball milling, electrospinning, auto-combustion synthesis, and core-shell structure fabrication, have been developed to refine the grain size of NaxCo2O4 in order to reduce its thermal conductivity. However, the structure of the nanostructured materials is very unstable at high temperature and limited improvement on thermoelectric performance is observed. Therefore, another technique was adopted to address this issue. A texturing process was also explored to optimize the NaxCo 2O4 structure. It was found that a highly textured structure can be obtained using a combined process of combustion synthesis, chemical demixing, and a flux method.

  16. Electronic transport properties of nano-scale Si films: an ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Jesse; Ke, Youqi; Zahid, Ferdows; Guo, Hong

    2010-03-01

    Using a recently developed first principles transport package, we study the electronic transport properties of Si films contacted to heavily doped n-type Si leads. The quantum transport analysis is carried out using density functional theory (DFT) combined with nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). This particular combination of NEGF-DFT allows the investigation of Si films with thicknesses in the range of a few nanometers and lengths up to tens of nanometers. We calculate the conductance, the momentum resolved transmission, the potential profile and the screening length as a function of length, thickness, orientation and surface structure. Moreover, we compare the properties of Si films with and without a top surface passivation by hydrogen.

  17. Nano-scaled particles of titanium dioxide convert benign mouse fibrosarcoma cells into aggressive tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Kunishige; Sato, Yu; Ogawara, Satomi; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Yoshitake, Jun; Yoshimura, Tetsuhiko; Iigo, Masaaki; Fujii, Junichi; Okada, Futoshi

    2009-11-01

    Nanoparticles are prevalent in both commercial and medicinal products; however, the contribution of nanomaterials to carcinogenesis remains unclear. We therefore examined the effects of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) on poorly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 fibrosarcoma cells. We found that mice that were cotransplanted subcutaneously with QR-32 cells and nano-sized TiO(2), either uncoated (TiO(2)-1, hydrophilic) or coated with stearic acid (TiO(2)-2, hydrophobic), did not form tumors. However, QR-32 cells became tumorigenic after injection into sites previously implanted with TiO(2)-1, but not TiO(2)-2, and these developing tumors acquired metastatic phenotypes. No differences were observed either histologically or in inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression between TiO(2)-1 and TiO(2)-2 treatments. However, TiO(2)-2, but not TiO(2)-1, generated high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell-free conditions. Although both TiO(2)-1 and TiO(2)-2 resulted in intracellular ROS formation, TiO(2)-2 elicited a stronger response, resulting in cytotoxicity to the QR-32 cells. Moreover, TiO(2)-2, but not TiO(2)-1, led to the development of nuclear interstices and multinucleate cells. Cells that survived the TiO(2) toxicity acquired a tumorigenic phenotype. TiO(2)-induced ROS formation and its related cell injury were inhibited by the addition of antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine. These results indicate that nano-sized TiO(2) has the potential to convert benign tumor cells into malignant ones through the generation of ROS in the target cells.

  18. Laser direct writing of micro- and nano-scale medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittard, Shaun D; Narayan, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based direct writing of materials has undergone significant development in recent years. The ability to modify a variety of materials at small length scales and using short production times provides laser direct writing with unique capabilities for fabrication of medical devices. In many laser-based rapid prototyping methods, microscale and submicroscale structuring of materials is controlled by computer-generated models. Various laser-based direct write methods, including selective laser sintering/melting, laser machining, matrix-assisted pulsed-laser evaporation direct write, stereolithography and two-photon polymerization, are described. Their use in fabrication of microstructured and nanostructured medical devices is discussed. Laser direct writing may be used for processing a wide variety of advanced medical devices, including patient-specific prostheses, drug delivery devices, biosensors, stents and tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:20420557

  19. Nano-scale surface modification of materials with slow, highly charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Tona, M.; Takahashi, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Yamada, C.; Ohtani, S.; Sakaue, H.A.; Kawase, Y.; Mitsumori, K.; Terui, T.; Mashiko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Some results on surface modification of Si and graphite with highly charged ions (HCIs) are presented. Modified surfaces were observed using scanning tunneling microscopy. Crater-like structure with a diameter in nm region is formed on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by the incidence of a single HCI. The protrusion structure is formed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface on the other hand, and the structure becomes an active site for molecular adsorption. A new, intense HCI source and an experimental apparatus are under development in order to process and observe aligned nanostructures created by the impact of collimated HCI beam

  20. Nano-Scaled Particles of Titanium Dioxide Convert Benign Mouse Fibrosarcoma Cells into Aggressive Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Kunishige; Sato, Yu; Ogawara, Satomi; Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Yoshitake, Jun; Yoshimura, Tetsuhiko; Iigo, Masaaki; Fujii, Junichi; Okada, Futoshi

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are prevalent in both commercial and medicinal products; however, the contribution of nanomaterials to carcinogenesis remains unclear. We therefore examined the effects of nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) on poorly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic QR-32 fibrosarcoma cells. We found that mice that were cotransplanted subcutaneously with QR-32 cells and nano-sized TiO2, either uncoated (TiO2−1, hydrophilic) or coated with stearic acid (TiO2−2, hydrophobic), did not form tumors. However, QR-32 cells became tumorigenic after injection into sites previously implanted with TiO2−1, but not TiO2−2, and these developing tumors acquired metastatic phenotypes. No differences were observed either histologically or in inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression between TiO2−1 and TiO2−2 treatments. However, TiO2−2, but not TiO2−1, generated high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell-free conditions. Although both TiO2−1 and TiO2−2 resulted in intracellular ROS formation, TiO2−2 elicited a stronger response, resulting in cytotoxicity to the QR-32 cells. Moreover, TiO2−2, but not TiO2−1, led to the development of nuclear interstices and multinucleate cells. Cells that survived the TiO2 toxicity acquired a tumorigenic phenotype. TiO2-induced ROS formation and its related cell injury were inhibited by the addition of antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine. These results indicate that nano-sized TiO2 has the potential to convert benign tumor cells into malignant ones through the generation of ROS in the target cells. PMID:19815711

  1. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-Ti02) catalyzes many reactions under UV radiation and is hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six different samples of nano-Ti02 and exposed to UVA radiation. The Ti02 ...

  2. A quantitative AFM analysis of nano-scale surface roughness in various orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Ki-Ho; Park, Young-Guk; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2010-10-01

    In orthodontics, the surface roughnesses of orthodontic archwire and brackets affect the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement, corrosion behavior, and the aesthetics of orthodontic components. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were used to provide quantitative information on the surface roughness of the orthodontic material. In this study, the changes in surface roughness of various orthodontic bracket slots before and after sliding movement of archwire in vitro and in vivo were observed through the utilization of AFM. Firstly, we characterized the surface of four types of brackets slots as follows: conventional stainless steel (Succes), conventional ceramic (Perfect), self-ligating stainless steel (Damon) and self-ligating ceramic (Clippy-C) brackets. Succes) and Damon brackets showed relatively smooth surfaces, while Perfect had the roughest surface among the four types of brackets used. Secondly, after in vitro sliding test with beta titanium wire in two conventional brackets (Succes and Perfect), there were significant increases in only stainless steel bracket, Succes. Thirdly, after clinical orthodontic treatment for a maximum of 2 years, the self-ligating stainless steel bracket, Damon, showed a significant increase in surface roughness. But self-ligating ceramic brackets, Clippy-C, represented less significant changes in roughness parameters than self-ligating stainless steel ones. Based on the results of the AFM measurements, it is suggested that the self-ligating ceramic bracket has great possibility to exhibit less friction and better biocompatibility than the other tested brackets. This implies that these bracket slots will aid in the effectiveness of arch-guided tooth movement.

  3. Simulated Nano scale Peeling Process of Monolayer Graphene Sheet: Effect of Edge Structure and Lifting Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, N.; Okamoto, H.; Masuda, S.; Itamura, N.; Miura, K.

    2010-01-01

    The nanoscale peeling of the graphene sheet on the graphite surface is numerically studied by molecular mechanics simulation. For center-lifting case, the successive partial peelings of the graphene around the lifting center appear as discrete jumps in the force curve, which induce the arched deformation of the graphene sheet. For edge-lifting case, marked atomic-scale friction of the graphene sheet during the nanoscale peeling process is found. During the surface contact, the graphene sheet takes the atomic-scale sliding motion. The period of the peeling force curve during the surface contact decreases to the lattice period of the graphite. During the line contact, the graphene sheet also takes the stick-slip sliding motion. These findings indicate the possibility of not only the direct observation of the atomic-scale friction of the graphene sheet at the tip/surface interface but also the identification of the lattice orientation and the edge structure of the graphene sheet.

  4. The peeling behaviour of a graphene sheet on a nano-scale corrugated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Chen, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    The peeling process and average peeling force of a graphene (GE) sheet on a corrugated surface are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. It is found that the peeling behaviour varies with the substrate surface roughness and the peeling angle. Three kinds of typically peeling behaviours include (a) GE sheet directly passing the valley of the substrate roughness; (b) bouncing off from the substrate; and (c) continuously peeling off similarly to that on a flat substrate. As a result, the average peeling force is strongly dependent of the peeling behaviours. Furthermore, some interesting phenomena are caught, such as partial detaching and partial sliding of GE sheet in the valley of the substrate roughness, which are mainly due to the effects of pre-tension in GE sheet and the reduction of friction resistance. The results in this paper should be useful for the design of nano-film/substrate systems. (paper)

  5. Nano-scale control of energy transfer in the system 'donor-acceptor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyukin, Yu.V.; Yefimova, S.L.; Lebedenko, A.N.; Sorokin, A.V.; Borovoy, I.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a cascade scheme between three amphiphilic dyes 3,3'-dioctadecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate (DiOC 18 (3), donor), 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC 18 (3), acceptor/donor) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC 18 (5), acceptor) has been investigated at low dye concentration (10 -5 mol/l) in water-micellar solutions due to a forced assembling of dyes in nanoscale volume. The experimental data have revealed that sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles solubilize dye molecules such that their hydrophilic heads are in contact with water, while hydrophobic tails are embedded into the hydrocarbon core of the micelle. FRET efficiency has been found to depend on the concentration of dyes in micelles and the most effective when each SDS micelle contains 1 donor (DiOC 18 (3)), 2 acceptor/donor (DiIC 18 (3)) and 4 acceptor (DiIC 18 (5)) molecules

  6. Nano-scale simulation based study of creep behavior of bimodal nanocrystalline face centered cubic metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraj, Md; Pal, Snehanshu

    2017-10-11

    In this paper, the creep behavior of nanocrystalline Ni having bimodal grain structure is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. Analysis of structural evolution during the creep process has also been performed. It is observed that an increase in size of coarse grain causes improvement in creep properties of bimodal nanocrystalline Ni. Influence of bimodality (i.e., size difference between coarse and fine grains) on creep properties are found to be reduced with increasing creep temperature. The dislocation density is observed to decrease exponentially with progress of creep deformation. Grain boundary diffusion controlled creep mechanism is found to be dominant at the primary creep region and the initial part of the secondary creep region. After that shear diffusion transformation mechanism is found to be significantly responsible for deformation as bimodal nanocrystalline Ni transforms to amorphous structure with further progress of the creep process. The presence of , , and  distorted icosahedra has a significant influence on creep rate in the tertiary creep regime according to Voronoi cluster analysis.

  7. Micron R&D: Global Scope and Nano-Scale in N-Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Mark

    2006-03-01

    The Globalization of world markets and the globally dispersed manufacturing that supports them, drives complexity in managing today's leading edge R&D organizations beyond that historically experienced. The dimensions involve not only location, but time, economics, government relations, complex supply and customer chains, and Intellectual Property strategy. Each must be contemplated and optimized in light of the nature of worldwide 24 hour a day competition.

  8. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skibsted, Jorgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly

  9. Computer simulations of laser hot spots and implosion symmetry kiniform phase plate experiments on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R. R.; Lindman, E. L.; Delamater, N. D.; Magelssen, G. R.

    2000-01-01

    LASNEX computer code simulations have been performed for radiation symmetry experiments on the Nova laser with vacuum and gas-filled hohlraum targets [R. L. Kauffman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 1927 (1998)]. In previous experiments with unsmoothed laser beams, the symmetry was substantially shifted by deflection of the laser beams. In these experiments, laser beams have been smoothed with Kiniform Phase Plates in an attempt to remove deflection of the beams. The experiments have shown that this smoothing significantly improves the agreement with LASNEX calculations of implosion symmetry. The images of laser produced hot spots on the inside of the hohlraum case have been found to differ from LASNEX calculations, suggesting that some beam deflection or self-focusing may still be present or that emission from interpenetrating plasmas is an important component of the images. The measured neutron yields are in good agreement with simulations for vacuum hohlraums but are far different for gas-filled hohlraums. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Carbon nanotube-based benzyl polymethacrylate composite monolith as a solid phase extraction adsorbent and a stationary phase material for simultaneous extraction and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rifai, Asma'a; Aqel, Ahmad; Wahibi, Lamya Al; ALOthman, Zeid A; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine

    2018-02-02

    A composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes incorporated into a benzyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate porous monolith was prepared, characterized and used as solid phase adsorbent and as stationary phase for simultaneous extraction and separation of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by nano-liquid chromatography analysis. The extraction and chromatographic parameters were optimized with regard to the extraction efficiency and the quality of chromatographic analytes separation. Under the optimized conditions, all PAHs were separated in 13 min with suitable resolution values (Rs = 1.74-3.98). Addition of a small amount of carbon nanotubes (0.1% with respect to monomers) to the polymerization mixture increased the efficiency for the separation column to over 41,700 plates m -1 for chrysene at flow rate of 0.5 μL min -1 . The method showed a wide linear range (1-500 μg L -1 with R 2 more than 0.9938), acceptable extraction repeatability (RSDs extraction cartridges) and satisfactory detection limits (0.02-0.22 μg L -1 ). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. After a simple extraction procedure with preconcentration factor equal to 100, the average recovery values in ultra-pure, tap and sea water samples were found to be in the range 81.3-95.4% with %RSD less than 6.4. Again, the presence of carbon nanotubes (0.3% relatively to monomers) in native polymer enhanced the extraction performance for the solid phase adsorbent up to 78.4%. The application of the monoliths modified with CNTs in extraction and nano-scale liquid chromatography for analysis of environmental samples offered several advantages; it demonstrated an acceptable precision, low detection limits, good reproducibility, satisfying recoveries and wide dynamic linear ranges. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Parallelization of TWOPORFLOW, a Cartesian Grid based Two-phase Porous Media Code for Transient Thermo-hydraulic Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Nico; Jiménez, Javier; Imke, Uwe; Sanchez, Victor

    2014-06-01

    TWOPORFLOW is a thermo-hydraulic code based on a porous media approach to simulate single- and two-phase flow including boiling. It is under development at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at KIT. The code features a 3D transient solution of the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for two inter-penetrating fluids with a semi-implicit continuous Eulerian type solver. The application domain of TWOPORFLOW includes the flow in standard porous media and in structured porous media such as micro-channels and cores of nuclear power plants. In the latter case, the fluid domain is coupled to a fuel rod model, describing the heat flow inside the solid structure. In this work, detailed profiling tools have been utilized to determine the optimization potential of TWOPORFLOW. As a result, bottle-necks were identified and reduced in the most feasible way, leading for instance to an optimization of the water-steam property computation. Furthermore, an OpenMP implementation addressing the routines in charge of inter-phase momentum-, energy- and mass-coupling delivered good performance together with a high scalability on shared memory architectures. In contrast to that, the approach for distributed memory systems was to solve sub-problems resulting by the decomposition of the initial Cartesian geometry. Thread communication for the sub-problem boundary updates was accomplished by the Message Passing Interface (MPI) standard.

  12. A novel molybdenum disulfide nanosheet self-assembled flower-like monolithic sorbent for solid-phase extraction with high efficiency and long service life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Fanpeng; Liu, Hongmei; Wang, Xiaoqi; Guo, Yong

    2017-07-21

    A novel material consisting of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) nanosheet that self-assemble into flower-like microspheres which aggregate to form a monolithic matrix with a micro or nano-scaled mesopore structure was successfully synthesized and used as an efficient sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) due to its large specific adsorption area and good stability. The extraction properties of the as-prepared sorbent were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with variable wavelength detection (HPLC-VWD) by analyzing four flavonoids (apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol). Under optimal conditions, the LODs and LOQs were found to be in the ranges of 0.1-0.25 and 0.4-0.5μgL -1 , respectively, and wide linear ranges were obtained with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9996. Compared with commercial C18 and Alumina-N sorbents, the as-prepared sorbent showed high extraction efficiency at different concentrations of flavonoids. After 100 uses, the extraction ability of the self-assembled MoS 2 nanosheet monolithic sorbent had no evident decline, denoting a long service life. Finally, the SPE-HPLC-VWD method using the as-prepared sorbent was applied to flavonoid analysis in beverage samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. C-axis correlated pinning mechanism in vortex liquid and solid phases for Sm123 film with well-aligned BaHfO3 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Miura, Shun; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2017-11-01

    Nanorods, which are nano-scaled columnar-shape precipitates, have recently been used to improve critical current density J c in magnetic fields for REBa2Cu3O y (RE123, RE: rare earth element) high temperature superconducting tapes/films. However, the flux pinning mechanism of the nanorod is not clear yet. We investigated the J c and resistivity ρ properties in detail and discussed the flux pinning properties on the basis of the flux pinning state diagram for high-quality Sm123 films with well-aligned 5.6 vol% BaHfO3 nanorods. Plateaus were observed in the field dependence of J c and ρ at high temperatures above the delocalization temperature. This suggests that nanorod pinning becomes effective in the vortex liquid phase and it grows up when the temperature decreases toward the delocalization temperature. In the ‘many-nanorod’ state in the high temperature region above the delocalization temperature, double peaks in the F p curves appear due to the coexistence of nanorod pinning and random pinning. At low temperatures below 70 K, however, the well-scaled F p curves at low fields and temperature dependent (non-scaled) normalized F p curves are observed. From detailed analysis using the cooperation model of the random and the correlated pinning centers, we found that nanorod pinning is dominant below the matching field and the cooperation between nanorod pinning and random pinning determines the high field J c properties above the matching field.

  14. Magnetic solid phase extraction of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental water samples with metal organic framework MIL-101 (Cr) modified zero valent iron nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingxiang; Lei, Man; Wu, Yalin; Yuan, Yongyong

    2017-03-03

    Metal-organic framework material has been paid more attention because of its good physical and chemical properties. Nanoscale zero valent iron is also in the center of concern recently. Combination of their merits will give impressive results. Present study firstly synthesized a new magnetic nanomaterial nano-scale zero valent iron-functionalized metal-organic framworks MIL-101 (Fe@MIL-101) by co-precipitation method. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared Fe@MIL-101 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, etc. The experimental results showed that Fe@MIL-101 earned good adsorption ability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The limits of detection of developed magnetic solid phase extraction were all below 0.064μgL -1 and precision can be expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD, %) and which was better than 4.4% (n=6). The real water analysis indicated that the spiked recoveries were satisfied, and Fe@MIL-101 earned excellent reusability. All these demonstrated that Fe@MIL-101 exhibited excellent adsorption capability to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and would be a good adsorbent for development of new monitoring methods for environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous measurement of monocomponent droplet temperature/refractive index, size and evaporation rate with phase rainbow refractometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingchun; Crua, Cyril; Li, Haipeng; Saengkaew, Sawitree; Mädler, Lutz; Wu, Xuecheng; Gréhan, Gérard

    2018-07-01

    The accurate measurements of droplet temperature, size and evaporation rate are of great importance to characterize the heat and mass transfer during evaporation/condensation processes. The nanoscale size change of a micron-sized droplet exactly describes its transient mass transfer, but is difficult to measure because it is smaller than the resolutions of current size measurement techniques. The Phase Rainbow Refractometry (PRR) technique is developed and applied to measure droplet temperature, size and transient size changes and thereafter evaporation rate simultaneously. The measurement principle of PRR is theoretically derived, and it reveals that the phase shift of the time-resolved ripple structures linearly depends on, and can directly yield, nano-scale size changes of droplets. The PRR technique is first verified through the simulation of rainbows of droplets with changing size, and results show that PRR can precisely measure droplet refractive index, absolute size, as well as size change with absolute and relative errors within several nanometers and 0.6%, respectively, and thus PRR permits accurate measurements of transient droplet evaporation rates. The evaporations of flowing single n-nonane droplet and mono-dispersed n-heptane droplet stream are investigated by two PRR systems with a high speed linear CCD and a low speed array CCD, respectively. Their transient evaporation rates are experimentally determined and quantitatively agree well with the theoretical values predicted by classical Maxwell and Stefan-Fuchs models. With the demonstration of evaporation rate measurement of monocomponent droplet in this work, PRR is an ideal tool for measurements of transient droplet evaporation/condensation processes, and can be extended to multicomponent droplets in a wide range of industrially-relevant applications.

  16. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  17. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  18. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is reviewed under the headings: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase; crystallography; physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase; electronic structure of omega phase; electronic basis for omega phase stability; omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase; conclusion. The following elements of nuclear interest (or their alloys) are included: Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Mo. (U.K.)

  19. Toughening of a Carbon-Fibre Composite Using Electrospun Poly(Hydroxyether of Bisphenol A Nanofibrous Membranes Through Inverse Phase Separation and Inter-Domain Etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Fox

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The interlaminar toughening of a carbon fibre reinforced composite by interleaving a thin layer (~20 microns of poly(hydroxyether of bisphenol A (phenoxy nanofibres was explored in this work. Nanofibres, free of defect and averaging several hundred nanometres, were produced by electrospinning directly onto a pre-impregnated carbon fibre material (Toray G83C at various concentrations between 0.5 wt % and 2 wt %. During curing at 150 °C, phenoxy diffuses through the epoxy resin to form a semi interpenetrating network with an inverse phase type of morphology where the epoxy became the co-continuous phase with a nodular morphology. This type of morphology improved the fracture toughness in mode I (opening failure and mode II (in-plane shear failure by up to 150% and 30%, respectively. Interlaminar shear stress test results showed that the interleaving did not negatively affect the effective in-plane strength of the composites. Furthermore, there was some evidence from DMTA and FT-IR analysis to suggest that inter-domain etherification between the residual epoxide groups with the pendant hydroxyl groups of the phenoxy occurred, also leading to an increase in glass transition temperature (~7.5 °C.

  20. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  1. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R. [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of California, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  2. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  3. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  4. Correlative micro-diffraction and differential phase contrast study of mean inner potential and subtle beam-specimen interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Mingjian, E-mail: mingjian.wu@fau.de; Spiecker, Erdmann, E-mail: erdmann.spiecker@fau.de

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Correlative micro-diffraction and DPC-STEM as effective and intuitive method for probing nano-scale electric fields/electrostatic potentials. • Mean inner potential accurately measured by electron refraction from cleaved crystal wedge. • Suggested a pseudo-contactless mode for probing electrostatic potential differences by considering subtle displacements of Fresnel fringes. - Abstract: We present a correlative micro-diffraction and differential phase contrast (DPC) study within scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) on the determination of mean inner potential (MIP) and explain the origin of subtle beam-specimen interactions at the edge of wedge-shaped crystals using both experiment and simulation. Our measurement of MIP of Si and GaAs resulted in 12.48 ± 0.22 V and 14.15 ± 0.22 V, respectively, from directly evaluating beam refraction in micro-diffraction mode. DPC-STEM measurements gave very similar values. Fresnel fringes within the diffraction disk resulting from interaction of the highly coherent electron beam with the aperture are observed and a numerical simulation scheme is implemented to reproduce the effect of the specimen on the fringe pattern. Perfect agreement between experiment and simulation has been achieved in terms of subtle displacements of the fringes upon approaching the sample edge with the electron probe. The existence of the fringes has minor effect on the DPC-STEM signal, which is well below the noise level of our setup at practically reasonable acquisition times. We suggest the possibility to perform pseudo-contactless probing of weak potential differences in beam sensitive samples by evaluating the subtle displacements of Fresnel fringes quantitatively.

  5. Inhomogeneities and superconductivity in poly-phase Fe-Se-Te systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S.; Schäfer, N.; Schulze, M.; Landsgesell, S.; Abou-Ras, D.; Blum, Ch. G. F.; Wurmehl, S.; Sokolowski, A.; Büchner, B.; Prokeš, K.

    2018-02-01

    The impact of synthesis conditions, post-preparation heating procedure, aging and influence of pressure on the superconducting properties of FeSe0.4Te0.6 crystals is reported. Two FeSe0.4Te0.6 single crystals were used in the study, prepared from stoichiometric melt but cooled down with very different cooling rates, and investigated using magnetic bulk and electrical-resistivity methods. The fast-cooled crystal contains large inclusions of Fe3Se2.1Te1.8 and exhibits bulk superconductivity in its as-prepared state, while the other is homogeneous and shows only traces of superconductivity. AC susceptibility measurements under hydrostatic pressure show that the superconducting transition temperature of the inhomogeneous crystal increases from 12.3 K at ambient pressure to Tsc = 17.9 K at 9 kbar. On the other hand, neither pressure nor mechanically-induced stress is sufficient to induce superconductivity in the homogeneous crystal. However, an additional heat treatment at 673 K followed by fast cooling down and/or long-term aging at ambient conditions leads to the appearance of bulk superconductivity also in the latter sample. This sample remains homogeneous on a scale down to few μm but shows an additional magnetic phase transition around 130 K suggesting that it must be inhomogeneous. For comparison also Fe3Se2.1Te1.8 polycrystals have been prepared and their magnetic properties have been studied. It appears that this phase is not superconducting by itself. It is concluded that nano-scale inhomogeneities that appear in the FeSexTe1-x system due to a spinodal decomposition in the solid state are necessary for bulk superconductivity, possibly due to minor changes in the crystal structure and microstructure. Macroscopic inclusions quenched by fast cooling from high temperatures lead obviously to strain and hence variations in the lattice constants, an effect that is further supported by application of pressure/stress.

  6. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  7. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  8. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  9. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  10. Digital quadrature phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  11. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  12. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  13. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...

  14. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase (omega phase in Ti, Zr and Hf under high pressures; omega phase in Group IV transition metal alloys; omega in other systems; omega embryos at high temperatures); crystallography (omega structure; relationship of ω-structure to bcc (β) and hcp (α) structures); physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase (kinetics of α-ω transformation under high pressures; kinetics of β-ω transformation; synthesis and metastability studies); electronic structure of omega phase (electronic structure models; band structure calculations; theoretical results and experimental studies); electronic basis for omega phase stability (unified phase diagram; stability of omega phase); omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys (Ti-V alloys under pressure - a prototype case study; P-X phase diagrams for alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase (is omega structure a charge density distortion of the bcc phase; nature of incommensurate ω-structure and models for diffuse scattering); conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Electron backscatter diffraction study of deformation and recrystallization textures of individual phases in a cross-rolled duplex steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaid, Md; Bhattacharjee, P.P., E-mail: pinakib@iith.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during cross-rolling and annealing was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction in a ferritic–austenitic duplex stainless steel. For this purpose an alloy with nearly equal volume fraction of the two phases was deformed by multi-pass cross-rolling process up to 90% reduction in thickness. The rolling and transverse directions were mutually interchanged in each pass by rotating the sample by 90° around the normal direction. In order to avoid deformation induced phase transformation and dynamic strain aging, the rolling was carried out at an optimized temperature of 898 K (625 °C) at the warm-deformation range. The microstructure after cross warm-rolling revealed a lamellar structure with alternate arrangement of the bands of two phases. Strong brass and rotated brass components were observed in austenite in the steel after processing by cross warm-rolling. The ferrite in the cross warm-rolling processed steel showed remarkably strong RD-fiber (RD//< 011 >) component (001)< 011 >. The development of texture in the two phases after processing by cross warm-rolling could be explained by the stability of the texture components. During isothermal annealing of the 90% cross warm-rolling processed material the lamellar morphology was retained before collapse of the lamellar structure to the mutual interpenetration of the phase bands. Ferrite showed recovery resulting in annealing texture similar to the deformation texture. In contrast, the austenite showed primary recrystallization without preferential orientation selection leading to the retention of deformation texture. The evolution of deformation and annealing texture in the two phases of the steel was independent of one another. - Highlights: • Effect of cross warm-rolling on texture formation is studied in duplex steel. • Brass texture in austenite and (001)<110 > in ferrite are developed. • Ferrite shows recovery during annealing retaining the (001

  16. Epoxy-Based Organogels for Thermally Reversible Light Scattering Films and Form-Stable Phase Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Julieta; Dell' Erba, Ignacio E; Schroeder, Walter F; Hoppe, Cristina E; Williams, Roberto J J

    2017-03-29

    Alkyl chains of β-hydroxyesters synthesized by the capping of terminal epoxy groups of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) with palmitic (C16), stearic (C18), or behenic (C22) fatty acids self-assemble forming a crystalline phase. Above a particular concentration solutions of these esters in a variety of solvents led to supramolecular (physical) gels below the crystallization temperature of alkyl chains. A form-stable phase change material (FS-PCM) was obtained by blending the ester derived from behenic acid with eicosane. A blend containing 20 wt % ester was stable as a gel up to 53 °C and exhibited a heat storage capacity of 161 J/g, absorbed during the melting of eicosane at 37 °C. Thermally reversible light scattering (TRLS) films were obtained by visible-light photopolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate-ester blends (50 wt %) in the gel state at room temperature. The reaction was very fast and not inhibited by oxygen. TRLS films consisted of a cross-linked methacrylic network interpenetrated by the supramolecular network formed by the esters. Above the melting temperature of crystallites formed by alkyl chains, the film was transparent due to the matching between refractive indices of the methacrylic network and the amorphous ester. Below the crystallization temperature, the film was opaque because of light dispersion produced by the organic crystallites uniformly dispersed in the material. Of high significance for application was the fact that the contrast ratio did not depend on heating and cooling rates.

  17. Eigenstate Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    Phase transitions are one of the most exciting physical phenomena ever discovered. The understanding of phase transitions has long been of interest. Recently eigenstate phase transitions have been discovered and studied; they are drastically different from traditional thermal phase transitions. In eigenstate phase transitions, a sharp change is exhibited in properties of the many-body eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of a quantum system, but not the thermal equilibrium properties of the same system. In this thesis, we study two different types of eigenstate phase transitions. The first is the eigenstate phase transition within the ferromagnetic phase of an infinite-range spin model. By studying the interplay of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and Ising symmetry breaking, we find two eigenstate phase transitions within the ferromagnetic phase: In the lowest-temperature phase the magnetization can macroscopically oscillate by quantum tunneling between up and down. The relaxation of the magnetization is always overdamped in the remainder of the ferromagnetic phase, which is further divided into phases where the system thermally activates itself over the barrier between the up and down states, and where it quantum tunnels. The second is the many-body localization phase transition. The eigenstates on one side of the transition obey the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis; the eigenstates on the other side are many-body localized, and thus thermal equilibrium need not be achieved for an initial state even after evolving for an arbitrary long time. We study this many-body localization phase transition in the strong disorder renormalization group framework. After setting up a set of coarse-graining rules for a general one dimensional chain, we get a simple "toy model'' and obtain an almost purely analytical solution to the infinite-randomness critical fixed point renormalization group equation. We also get an estimate of the correlation length critical exponent nu

  18. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  19. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  1. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  2. Numerical simulations of energy transfer in two collisionless interpenetrating plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ion stream instabilities are essential for collisionless shock formation as seen in astrophysics. Weakly relativistic shocks are considered as candidates for sources of high energy cosmic rays. Laboratory experiments may provide a better understanding of this phenomenon. High intensity short pulse laser systems are opening possibilities for efficient ion acceleration to high energies. Their collision with a secondary target could be used for collisionless shock formation. In this paper, using particle-in-cell simulations we are studying interaction of a sub-relativistic, laser created proton beam with a secondary gas target. We show that the ion bunch initiates strong electron heating accompanied by the Weibel-like filamentation and ion energy losses. The energy repartition between ions, electrons and magnetic fields are investigated. This yields insight on the processes occurring in the interstellar medium (ISM and gamma-ray burst afterglows.

  3. Review and comparison of bi-fluid interpenetration mixing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enaux, C.

    2006-01-01

    Today, there is a lot of bi-fluid models with two different speeds: Baer-Nunziato models; Godunov-Romensky models. coupled Euler's equations, and so on. In this report, one compares the most used models in the fields of physics and mathematics while basing this study on the literature. From the point of view of physics. for each model. one reviews: -) the type of mixture considered and modeling assumptions, -) the technique of construction, -) some properties like the respect of thermodynamical principles, the respect of the Galilean invariance principle, or the equilibrium conservation. From the point of view of mathematics, for each model, one looks at: -) the possibility of writing the equations in conservative form, -) hyperbolicity, -) the existence of a mathematical entropy. Finally, a unified review of the models is proposed. It is shown that under certain closing assumptions or for certain flow types. some of the models become equivalent. (author)

  4. Thomson scattering measurements from asymmetric interpenetrating plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. S., E-mail: ross36@llnl.gov; Moody, J. D.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Divol, L.; Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of collective ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion temperature and density from laser produced counter-streaming asymmetric flows. Two foils are heated with 8 laser beams each, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 60 J 2ω probe laser with a 200 ps pulse length. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the multi-ion species, asymmetric flows theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperatures, ion densities, and flow velocities for each plasma flow are determined.

  5. Plasma interpenetration study on the Omega laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pape, Sebastien; Divol, Laurent; Ross, Steven; Wilks, Scott; Amendt, Peter; Berzak Hopkins, Laura; Huser, Gael; Moody, John; MacKinnon, Andy; Meezan, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The Near Vacuum Campaign on the National Ignition Facility has sparked an interest on the nature of the gold/carbon interface at high velocity, high electron temperature, low-electron density. Indeed radiation-hydrodynamic simulations have been unable to accurately reproduce the experimental shape of the hot spot resulting from implosion driven in Near Vacuum Holhraum. The experimental data are suggesting that the inner beams are freely propagating to the waist of the hohlraum when simulations predict that a density ridge at the gold/carbon interface blocks the inner beams. The discrepancy between experimental data and simulation might be explained by the fluid description of the plasma interface in a rad-hydro code which is probably not valid in when two plasma at high velocity, high temperature are meeting. To test our assumption, we went to the Omega laser facility to study gold/carbon interface in the relevant regime. Time resolved images of the self-emission as well as Thomson scattering data will be presented. For the first time, a transition from a multifluid to a single fluid is observed as plasmas are interacting. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Aliphatic amine cured PDMS–epoxy interpenetrating network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tg, heat-distortion temperature and reduced the percentage weight loss with ... The siliconized epoxy IPN, with better impact and thermal resistance, ... However, these materials also deteriorate ... the method of compounding remains the state of the art. ... geneity and to ascertain any chemical change during storage.

  7. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on polyol modified castor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    glycerol modification of castor oil results in more crosslinked and stiffer IPNs possessing better mechanical properties over that of unmodified castor oil polyurethane/. PHEMA IPNs. 3.5 Chemical resistance. The percentage weight loss of IPNs were determined in. H2SO4, CH3COOH, HCl, HNO3, NaCl and NaOH etc and.

  8. Small-angle neutron scattering investigation of the chain conformation of lamellar polystyrene/isoprene phase in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering has been used in the study of chain conformation of lamellar styrene/isoprene block copolymers oriented in large single crystals. The radius of gyration of deuterated polystyrene chains around the normal to the interface has been measured. By comparing this direct evolution of the lateral dimension of the chains with the average chain separation given by the molecular area (the surface available at the interface for each covalent bond linking the blocks together) we characterized the transverse interpenetration degree of the chains. The polystyrene chains are displayed in simple strata own micro-domains, without an important interpenetration. (Author) 9 Figs., 2 Tabs., 25 Refs

  9. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  10. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  11. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...... phasors attain predetermined values for predetermined spatial frequencies, and the phasor value of the specific resolution element of the spatial phase mask corresponds to a distinct intensity level of the image of the resolution element in the intensity pattern, and a spatial phase filter for phase...... shifting of a part of the electromagntic radiation, in combination with an imaging system for generation of the intensity pattern by interference in the image plane of the imaging system between the part of the electromagnetic raidation that has been phase shifted by the phase filter and the remaining part...

  12. Phase behavior in diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checon, A.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical formulation of a straight edge diffraction shows a phase difference of π/2 between the incoming and diffracted waves. Experiments using two straight edges do not confirm the π/2 difference but suggest that the incoming wave is in phase with the wave diffracted into the shadowed region of the edge and out of phase by a factor of π with the wave diffracted into the illuminated region. (Author) [pt

  13. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  14. Phase Holograms In PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.

  15. Thermodynamics of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofta, H.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)

  16. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  17. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  18. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  19. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  20. Phases of Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.