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Sample records for nano-plasmonics based urine

  1. An On-Chip Nano-Plasmonics Based Urine Protein Assay Cartridge, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-term exposure to microgravity and radiation during space exploration can pose a critical threat to the health of a flight crew. Real-time monitoring of urine...

  2. An On-Chip Nano-Plasmonics Based Urine Protein Assay Cartridge, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-term exposure to microgravity and radiation during space exploration can pose a critical threat to the health of a flight crew. Real-time monitoring of urine...

  3. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  4. Mass spectrometric based approaches in urine metabolomics and biomarker discovery.

    Khamis, Mona M; Adamko, Darryl J; El-Aneed, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Urine metabolomics has recently emerged as a prominent field for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers that can detect subtle metabolic discrepancies in response to a specific disease or therapeutic intervention. Urine, compared to other biofluids, is characterized by its ease of collection, richness in metabolites and its ability to reflect imbalances of all biochemical pathways within the body. Following urine collection for metabolomic analysis, samples must be immediately frozen to quench any biogenic and/or non-biogenic chemical reactions. According to the aim of the experiment; sample preparation can vary from simple procedures such as filtration to more specific extraction protocols such as liquid-liquid extraction. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on urine metabolome stability, higher storage temperatures (i.e. 4°C) and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles should be avoided. To date, among all analytical techniques, mass spectrometry (MS) provides the best sensitivity, selectivity and identification capabilities to analyze the majority of the metabolite composition in the urine. Combined with the qualitative and quantitative capabilities of MS, and due to the continuous improvements in its related technologies (i.e. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography [UPLC] and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography [HILIC]), liquid chromatography (LC)-MS is unequivocally the most utilized and the most informative analytical tool employed in urine metabolomics. Furthermore, differential isotope tagging techniques has provided a solution to ion suppression from urine matrix thus allowing for quantitative analysis. In addition to LC-MS, other MS-based technologies have been utilized in urine metabolomics. These include direct injection (infusion)-MS, capillary electrophoresis-MS and gas chromatography-MS. In this article, the current progresses of different MS-based techniques in exploring the urine metabolome as well as the recent findings in providing

  5. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table

  6. Ultrasonic-based membrane aided sample preparation of urine proteomes.

    Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Santos, Hugo M; López-Fernández, H; Lodeiro, Carlos; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h. The process is assessed using urine of healthy volunteers. The method shows that male can be differentiated from female using the protein content of urine in a fast, easy and straightforward way. 232 and 226 proteins are identified in urine of male and female, respectively. From this, 162 are common to both genders, whilst 70 are unique to male and 64 to female. From the 162 common proteins, 13 are present at levels statistically different (p minimalism concept as outlined by Halls, as each stage of this analysis is evaluated to minimize the time, cost, sample requirement, reagent consumption, energy requirements and production of waste products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteinuria: The diagnostic strategy based on urine proteins differentiation

    Stojimirović Biljana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal glomerular membrane represents mechanical and electrical barrier for passing of the plasma proteins. Mechanical barrier is composed of cylindrical pores and filtration fissure, and negative layer charge in exterior and interior side of basal glomerular membrane, made of heparan sulphate and sialoglicoproteine, provides certain electrical barrier. Diagnostic strategy based on different serum and urine proteins enables the differentiation of various types of proteinuria. Depending on etiology of proteinuria it can be prerenal, renal and postrenal. By analyzing albumin, armicroglobulin, immunoglobulin G and armacroglobulin, together with total protein in urine, it is possible to detect and differentiate causes of prerenal, renal (glomerular, tubular, glomerulo-tubular and postrenal proteinuria. The adequate and early differentiation of proteinuria type is of an immense diagnostic and therapeutic importance.

  8. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  9. Non-invasive optical detection of esophagus cancer based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weiwei; Lin, Duo; Huang, Lingling; Wu, Shanshan; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) approach was utilized for urine biochemical analysis with the aim to develop a label-free and non-invasive optical diagnostic method for esophagus cancer detection. SERS spectrums were acquired from 31 normal urine samples and 47 malignant esophagus cancer (EC) urine samples. Tentative assignments of urine SERS bands demonstrated esophagus cancer specific changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of urea and a decrease in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of normal compared with EC. The empirical algorithm integrated with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to identify some important urine SERS bands for differentiation between healthy subjects and EC urine. The empirical diagnostic approach based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity at 527 to 1002 cm-1 and 725 to 1002 cm-1 coupled with LDA yielded a diagnostic sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 96.8%, respectively. The area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.954, which further evaluate the performance of the diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the SERS peak intensity combined with LDA analysis. This work demonstrated that the urine SERS spectra associated with empirical algorithm has potential for noninvasive diagnosis of esophagus cancer.

  10. Patient Specific Dosimetry based in excreted urine measurements

    Barquero, R.; Nunez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Valverde, J.; Basurto, F.

    2006-07-01

    One of the limiting factors in utilising therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the I-131 thyroid therapy is the potential hazard to the bone marrow, kidneys, and other internal organs. In this work, by means of daily dose rate measurements at a point in contact of the can with the urine excreted by the patient undergoing radio-iodine therapy, activities and associated absorbed doses in total body are calculated. The urine can is characterised by a geometric and materials model for MC simulation with MCNP. Knowing the conversion factor from activity in urine to dose rate in the measurement point of the can for each filling volume, the urine and patient activity can be obtained at each measurement time. From the fitting of these activities, the time evolution, the effective half life in the patient and the cumulative whole body activity are calculated. The emission characteristics of I-131 are using after to estimate the maximum whole body absorbed dose. The results for 2 hyperthyroidism and 4 carcinoma treatments are presented. The maximum total body absorbed dose are 673 and 149 Gy for the carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The corresponding range of T1/2 eff is o.2 to 2.5 days (carcinoma) and 5.4 to 6.6 days (hyperthyroidism). (Author)

  11. Paper-Plastic Hybrid Microfluidic Device for Smartphone-Based Colorimetric Analysis of Urine.

    Jalal, Uddin M; Jin, Gyeong Jun; Shim, Joon S

    2017-12-19

    In this work, a disposable paper-plastic hybrid microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) has been developed and successfully applied for the colorimetric measurement of urine by the smartphone-based optical platform using a "UrineAnalysis" Android app. The developed device was cost-effectively implemented as a stand-alone hybrid LOC by incorporating the paper-based conventional reagent test strip inside the plastic-based LOC microchannel. The LOC device quantitatively investigated the small volume (40 μL) of urine analytes for the colorimetric reaction of glucose, protein, pH, and red blood cell (RBC) in integration with the finger-actuating micropump. On the basis of our experiments, the conventional urine strip showed large deviation as the reaction time goes by, because dipping the strip sensor in a bottle of urine could not control the reaction volume. By integrating the strip sensor in the LOC device for urine analysis, our device significantly improves the time-dependent inconstancy of the conventional dipstick-based urine strip, and the smartphone app used for image analysis enhances the visual assessment of the test strip, which is a major user concern for the colorimetric analysis in point-of-care (POC) applications. As a result, the user-friendly LOC, which is successfully implemented in a disposable format with the smartphone-based optical platform, may be applicable as an effective tool for rapid and qualitative POC urinalysis.

  12. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Chen, Weisheng; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA-LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer.

  13. Potential of non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Huang, Shaohua; Wang, Lan; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Buhong; Chen, Rong; Chen, Weisheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive esophagus cancer detection based on urine surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis was presented. Urine SERS spectra were measured on esophagus cancer patients (n = 56) and healthy volunteers (n = 36) for control analysis. Tentative assignments of the urine SERS spectra indicated some interesting esophagus cancer-specific biomolecular changes, including a decrease in the relative content of urea and an increase in the percentage of uric acid in the urine of esophagus cancer patients compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to analyze and differentiate the SERS spectra between normal and esophagus cancer urine. The diagnostic algorithms utilizing a multivariate analysis method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 89.3% and specificity of 83.3% for separating esophagus cancer samples from normal urine samples. These results from the explorative work suggested that silver nano particle-based urine SERS analysis coupled with PCA–LDA multivariate analysis has potential for non-invasive detection of esophagus cancer. (letter)

  14. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) μg/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r s =0.5; p 2 ; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  15. A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.

    Bordelon, Hali; Russ, Patricia K; Wright, David W; Haselton, Frederick R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3) to 5×10(8) copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6), 14×10(6), and 8×10(6) copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR.

  16. A magnetic bead-based method for concentrating DNA from human urine for downstream detection.

    Hali Bordelon

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of PCR inhibitors, PCR cannot be used directly on most clinical samples, including human urine, without pre-treatment. A magnetic bead-based strategy is one potential method to collect biomarkers from urine samples and separate the biomarkers from PCR inhibitors. In this report, a 1 mL urine sample was mixed within the bulb of a transfer pipette containing lyophilized nucleic acid-silica adsorption buffer and silica-coated magnetic beads. After mixing, the sample was transferred from the pipette bulb to a small diameter tube, and captured biomarkers were concentrated using magnetic entrainment of beads through pre-arrayed wash solutions separated by small air gaps. Feasibility was tested using synthetic segments of the 140 bp tuberculosis IS6110 DNA sequence spiked into pooled human urine samples. DNA recovery was evaluated by qPCR. Despite the presence of spiked DNA, no DNA was detectable in unextracted urine samples, presumably due to the presence of PCR inhibitors. However, following extraction with the magnetic bead-based method, we found that ∼50% of spiked TB DNA was recovered from human urine containing roughly 5×10(3 to 5×10(8 copies of IS6110 DNA. In addition, the DNA was concentrated approximately ten-fold into water. The final concentration of DNA in the eluate was 5×10(6, 14×10(6, and 8×10(6 copies/µL for 1, 3, and 5 mL urine samples, respectively. Lyophilized and freshly prepared reagents within the transfer pipette produced similar results, suggesting that long-term storage without refrigeration is possible. DNA recovery increased with the length of the spiked DNA segments from 10±0.9% for a 75 bp DNA sequence to 42±4% for a 100 bp segment and 58±9% for a 140 bp segment. The estimated LOD was 77 copies of DNA/µL of urine. The strategy presented here provides a simple means to achieve high nucleic acid recovery from easily obtained urine samples, which does not contain inhibitors of PCR.

  17. Bilirubin - urine

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  18. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy

    2016-01-01

    to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...

  19. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer.

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Shahbaba, Babak; Uchio, Edward; Feddersen, Søren; Moylan, Donald; Wojno, Kirk; Shore, Neal

    2018-03-01

    Distinguishing between low- and high-grade prostate cancers (PCa) is important, but biopsy may underestimate the actual grade of cancer. We have previously shown that urine/plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers can predict high grade PCa. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied, designated a Gleason Score (GS) based on biopsy, and assigned to prostatectomy prior to participation in the study. The primary outcome measure was the urine/plasma test accuracy in predicting high grade PCa on prostatectomy compared with biopsy findings. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients. The urine/plasma assay confirmed a previous validation and was highly accurate in predicting the presence of high-grade PCa (Gleason ≥3 + 4) with sensitivity between 88% and 95% as verified by prostatectomy findings. GS was upgraded after prostatectomy in 27% of patients and downgraded in 12% of patients. This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Urine Cytology

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  1. Influence of Freezing and Storage Procedure on Human Urine Samples in NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Rist, Manuela; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Görling, Benjamin; Bub, Achim; Heissler, Stefan; Watzl, Bernhard; Luy, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    It is consensus in the metabolomics community that standardized protocols should be followed for sample handling, storage and analysis, as it is of utmost importance to maintain constant measurement conditions to identify subtle biological differences. The aim of this work, therefore, was to systematically investigate the influence of freezing procedures and storage temperatures and their effect on NMR spectra as a potentially disturbing aspect for NMR-based metabolomics studies. Urine sample...

  2. Urine culture

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  3. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  4. Reconfigurable Nano-Plasmonics Holography

    2013-04-01

    conventional copper interconnects will no longer support increased clock speeds and the industry will enter a new regime of electronic interconnect... flotation ; 2) an in- coupler grating on one side of the beams, also in the top layer and also with the in- sulator removed beneath; 3) an out-coupler slit

  5. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars

    2018-01-01

    standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients....... CONCLUSIONS: This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%....... of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. METHODS: This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied...

  6. Reusable urine glucose sensor based on functionalized graphene oxide conjugated Au electrode with protective layers

    Hye Youn Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical based system with multiple layers coated on a functionalized graphene oxide Au electrode was developed to measure glucose concentration in urine in a more stable way. Two types of gold printed circuit boards were fabricated and graphene oxide was immobilized on their surface by chemical adsorption. Multiple layers, composed of a couple of polymers, were uniformly coated on the surface electrode. This device exhibited higher electrochemical responses against glucose, a greater resistivity in the presence of interferential substances in urine, and durable stabilities for longer periods of time than conventional units. The efficiency in current level according to the order and ratio of solution was evaluated during the immobilization of the layer. The fabricated electrodes were then also evaluated using hyperglycemic clinical samples and compared with the patterns of blood glucose measured with commercially available glucose meters. Our findings show that not only was their pattern similar but this similarity is well correlated.

  7. Influence of Freezing and Storage Procedure on Human Urine Samples in NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Burkhard Luy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is consensus in the metabolomics community that standardized protocols should be followed for sample handling, storage and analysis, as it is of utmost importance to maintain constant measurement conditions to identify subtle biological differences. The aim of this work, therefore, was to systematically investigate the influence of freezing procedures and storage temperatures and their effect on NMR spectra as a potentially disturbing aspect for NMR-based metabolomics studies. Urine samples were collected from two healthy volunteers, centrifuged and divided into aliquots. Urine aliquots were frozen either at −20 °C, on dry ice, at −80 °C or in liquid nitrogen and then stored at −20 °C, −80 °C or in liquid nitrogen vapor phase for 1–5 weeks before NMR analysis. Results show spectral changes depending on the freezing procedure, with samples frozen on dry ice showing the largest deviations. The effect was found to be based on pH differences, which were caused by variations in CO2 concentrations introduced by the freezing procedure. Thus, we recommend that urine samples should be frozen at −20 °C and transferred to lower storage temperatures within one week and that freezing procedures should be part of the publication protocol.

  8. Influence of Freezing and Storage Procedure on Human Urine Samples in NMR-Based Metabolomics.

    Rist, Manuela J; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Görling, Benjamin; Bub, Achim; Heissler, Stefan; Watzl, Bernhard; Luy, Burkhard

    2013-04-09

    It is consensus in the metabolomics community that standardized protocols should be followed for sample handling, storage and analysis, as it is of utmost importance to maintain constant measurement conditions to identify subtle biological differences. The aim of this work, therefore, was to systematically investigate the influence of freezing procedures and storage temperatures and their effect on NMR spectra as a potentially disturbing aspect for NMR-based metabolomics studies. Urine samples were collected from two healthy volunteers, centrifuged and divided into aliquots. Urine aliquots were frozen either at -20 °C, on dry ice, at -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen and then stored at -20 °C, -80 °C or in liquid nitrogen vapor phase for 1-5 weeks before NMR analysis. Results show spectral changes depending on the freezing procedure, with samples frozen on dry ice showing the largest deviations. The effect was found to be based on pH differences, which were caused by variations in CO2 concentrations introduced by the freezing procedure. Thus, we recommend that urine samples should be frozen at -20 °C and transferred to lower storage temperatures within one week and that freezing procedures should be part of the publication protocol.

  9. Modelling the acid/base 1H NMR chemical shift limits of metabolites in human urine.

    Tredwell, Gregory D; Bundy, Jacob G; De Iorio, Maria; Ebbels, Timothy M D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the use of buffering agents the 1 H NMR spectra of biofluid samples in metabolic profiling investigations typically suffer from extensive peak frequency shifting between spectra. These chemical shift changes are mainly due to differences in pH and divalent metal ion concentrations between the samples. This frequency shifting results in a correspondence problem: it can be hard to register the same peak as belonging to the same molecule across multiple samples. The problem is especially acute for urine, which can have a wide range of ionic concentrations between different samples. To investigate the acid, base and metal ion dependent 1 H NMR chemical shift variations and limits of the main metabolites in a complex biological mixture. Urine samples from five different individuals were collected and pooled, and pre-treated with Chelex-100 ion exchange resin. Urine samples were either treated with either HCl or NaOH, or were supplemented with various concentrations of CaCl 2 , MgCl 2 , NaCl or KCl, and their 1 H NMR spectra were acquired. Nonlinear fitting was used to derive acid dissociation constants and acid and base chemical shift limits for peaks from 33 identified metabolites. Peak pH titration curves for a further 65 unidentified peaks were also obtained for future reference. Furthermore, the peak variations induced by the main metal ions present in urine, Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , were also measured. These data will be a valuable resource for 1 H NMR metabolite profiling experiments and for the development of automated metabolite alignment and identification algorithms for 1 H NMR spectra.

  10. Two low-cost digital camera-based platforms for quantitative creatinine analysis in urine.

    Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Yaroshenko, Irina; Sidorova, Alla; Piven, Alena; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    In clinical analysis creatinine is a routine biomarker for the assessment of renal and muscular dysfunctions. Although several techniques have been proposed for a fast and accurate quantification of creatinine in human serum or urine, most of them require expensive or complex apparatus, advanced sample preparation or skilled operators. To circumvent these issues, we propose two home-made platforms based on a CD Spectroscope (CDS) and Computer Screen Photo-assisted Technique (CSPT) for the rapid assessment of creatinine level in human urine. Both systems display a linear range (r(2) = 0.9967 and 0.9972, respectively) from 160 μmol L(-1) to 1.6 mmol L(-1) for standard creatinine solutions (n = 15) with respective detection limits of 89 μmol L(-1) and 111 μmol L(-1). Good repeatability was observed for intra-day (1.7-2.9%) and inter-day (3.6-6.5%) measurements evaluated on three consecutive days. The performance of CDS and CSPT was also validated in real human urine samples (n = 26) using capillary electrophoresis data as reference. Corresponding Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression models provided for mean relative errors below 10% in creatinine quantification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Diclofenac removal in urine using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins.

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-11-01

    One of the major sources of pharmaceuticals in the environment is wastewater effluent of which human urine contributes the majority of pharmaceuticals. Urine source separation has the potential to isolate pharmaceuticals at a higher concentration for efficient removal as well as produce a nutrient byproduct. This research investigated the efficacy of using strong-base anion exchange polymer resins to remove the widely detected and abundant pharmaceutical, diclofenac, from synthetic human urine under fresh and ureolyzed conditions. The majority of experiments were conducted using a strong-base, macroporous, polystyrene resin (Purolite A520E). Ion-exchange followed a two-step removal rate with rapid removal in 1 h and equilibrium removal in 24 h. Diclofenac removal was >90% at a resin dose of 8 mL/L in both fresh and ureolyzed urine. Sorption of diclofenac onto A520E resin was concurrent with desorption of an equivalent amount of chloride, which indicates the ion-exchange mechanism is occurring. The presence of competing ions such as phosphate and citrate did not significantly impact diclofenac removal. Comparisons of three polystyrene resins (A520E, Dowex 22, Dowex Marathon 11) as well as one polyacrylic resin (IRA958) were conducted to determine the major interactions between anion exchange resin and diclofenac. The results showed that polystyrene resins provide the highest level of diclofenac removal due to electrostatic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional groups of resin and carboxylic acid of diclofenac and non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings of diclofenac. Diclofenac was effectively desorbed from A520E resin using a regeneration solution that contained 4.5% (m/m) NaCl in an equal-volume mixture of methanol and water. The greater regeneration efficiency of the NaCl/methanol-water mixture over the aqueous NaCl solution supports the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between resin matrix and benzene rings

  12. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (4×40 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting the accuracy of urine-based biomarkers of BSE

    Ruddat Viola

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy diseases are untreatable, uniformly fatal degenerative syndromes of the central nervous system that can be transmitted both within as well as between species. The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic and the emergence of a new human variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, have profoundly influenced beef production processes as well as blood donation and surgical procedures. Simple, robust and cost effective diagnostic screening and surveillance tools are needed for both the preclinical and clinical stages of TSE disease in order to minimize both the economic costs and zoonotic risk of BSE and to further reduce the risk of secondary vCJD. Objective Urine is well suited as the matrix for an ante-mortem test for TSE diseases because it would permit non-invasive and repeated sampling. In this study urine samples collected from BSE infected and age matched control cattle were screened for the presence of individual proteins that exhibited disease specific changes in abundance in response to BSE infection that might form the basis of such an ante-mortem test. Results Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE was used to identify proteins exhibiting differential abundance in two sets of cattle. The known set consisted of BSE infected steers and age matched controls throughout the course of the disease. The blinded unknown set was composed of BSE infected and control samples of both genders, a wide range of ages and two different breeds. Multivariate analyses of individual protein abundance data generated classifiers comprised of the proteins best able to discriminate between the samples based on disease state, breed, age and gender. Conclusion Despite the presence of confounding factors, the disease specific changes in abundance exhibited by a panel of urine proteins permitted the creation of classifiers able to discriminate between control and infected cattle

  14. Myoglobin urine test

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  15. FRET-based modified graphene quantum dots for direct trypsin quantification in urine

    Poon, Chung-Yan; Li, Qinghua [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Zhang, Jiali; Li, Zhongping [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Dong, Chuan [Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Lee, Albert Wai-Ming; Chan, Wing-Hong [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Li, Hung-Wing, E-mail: hwli@hkbu.edu.hk [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2016-04-21

    A versatile nanoprobe was developed for trypsin quantification with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Here, fluorescence graphene quantum dot is utilized as a donor while a well-designed coumarin derivative, CMR2, as an acceptor. Moreover, bovine serum albumin (BSA), as a protein model, is not only served as a linker for the FRET pair, but also a fluorescence enhancer of the quantum dots and CMR2. In the presence of trypsin, the FRET system would be destroyed when the BSA is digested by trypsin. Thus, the emission peak of the donor is regenerated and the ratio of emission peak of donor/emission peak of acceptor increased. By the ratiometric measurement of these two emission peaks, trypsin content could be determined. The detection limit of trypsin was found to be 0.7 μg/mL, which is 0.008-fold of the average trypsin level in acute pancreatitis patient's urine suggesting a high potential for fast and low cost clinical screening. - Highlights: • A FRET-based biosensor was developed for direct quantification of trypsin. • Fast and sensitive screening of pancreatic disease was facilitated. • The direct quantification of trypsin in urine samples was demonstrated.

  16. Human urine as test material in 1H NMR-based metabonomics: recommendations for sample preparation and storage.

    Lauridsen, Michael; Hansen, Steen H; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Cornett, Claus

    2007-02-01

    Metabonomic approaches are believed to have the capability of revolutionizing diagnosis of diseases and assessment of patient conditions after medical interventions. In order to ensure comparability of metabonomic 1H NMR data from different studies, we suggest validated sample preparation guidelines for human urine based on a stability study that evaluates effects of storage time and temperature, freeze-drying, and the presence of preservatives. The results indicated that human urine samples should be stored at or below -25 degrees C, as no changes in the 1H NMR fingerprints have been observed during storage at this temperature for 26 weeks. Formation of acetate, presumably due to microbial contamination, was occasionally observed in samples stored at 4 degrees C without addition of a preservative. Addition of a preserving agent is not mandatory provided that the samples are stored at -25 degrees C. Thus, no differences were observed between 1H NMR spectra of nonpreserved urines and urines with added sodium azide and stored at -25 degrees C, whereas the presence of sodium fluoride caused a shift of especially citrate resonances. Freeze-drying of urine and reconstitution in D2O at pH 7.4 resulted in the disappearance of the creatinine CH2 signal at delta 4.06 due to deuteration. A study evaluating the effects of phosphate buffer concentration on signal variability and assessment of the probability of citrate or creatinine resonances crossing bucket border (a boundary between adjacent integrated regions) led to the conclusion that a minimum buffer concentration of 0.3 M is adequate for normal urines used in this study. However, final buffer concentration of 1 M will be required for very concentrated urines.

  17. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study

    Seyed-Ali Sadjadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed-Ali Sadjadi1,2, Navin Jaipaul1,21Jerry L Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, 2Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01 in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS] and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001, and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02 and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and

  18. Critical Evaluation of Urine-Based PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis

    Rauter, Carolin; Mueller, Markus; Diterich, Isabel; Zeller, Sabine; Hassler, Dieter; Meergans, Thomas; Hartung, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Many approaches were made in recent years to establish urine PCR as a diagnostic tool for Lyme borreliosis, but results are contradictory. In the present study, a standardized protocol spiking urine from healthy donors with a defined amount of whole Borrelia or Borrelia DNA was established. The development of a nested real-time PCR targeting ospA enabled a highly sensitive and quantitative analysis of these samples. We show the following. (i) Storage of spiked urine samples for up to 6 months...

  19. Urine Odor

    ... doctor. Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  20. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P r = 0.99 (P r = 0.95 (P bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P 3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (r = 0.84; P r = 0.99 (P r = 0.92 (P bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  1. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  2. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Fertilisation du maïs (Zea mays L.) à base d'urines humaines ...

    maturité, les traitements à l'urine pour 90, 120 et 150 kg N/ha respectivement indiquent une production de biomasse sèche de 12 ... Mots clés : Toilette écologique, urine hygiénisée, fertilisation, biomasse sèche, rendement grain, maïs. Fertilization of the corn ...... and spring barley in organic farming. Skara series B Crops ...

  4. [A study of biomechanical method for urine test based on color difference estimation].

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Zhou, Fengkun

    2008-02-01

    The biochemical analysis of urine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospitals. The conventional method of urine analysis covers mainly colorimetric visual appraisement and automation detection, in which the colorimetric visual appraisement technique has been superseded basically, and the automation detection method is adopted in hospital; moreover, the price of urine biochemical analyzer on market is around twenty thousand RMB yuan (Y), which is hard to enter into ordinary families. It is known that computer vision system is not subject to the physiological and psychological influence of person, its appraisement standard is objective and steady. Therefore, according to the color theory, we have established a computer vision system, which can carry through collection, management, display, and appraisement of color difference between the color of standard threshold value and the color of urine test paper after reaction with urine liquid, and then the level of an illness can be judged accurately. In this paper, we introduce the Urine Test Biochemical Analysis method, which is new and can be popularized in families. Experimental result shows that this test method is easy-to-use and cost-effective. It can realize the monitoring of a whole course and can find extensive applications.

  5. High performance of a new PCR-based urine assay for HPV-DNA detection and genotyping.

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Silvia; Fasolo, Maria Michela; Frati, Elena R; Mazza, Francesca; Martinelli, Marianna; Colzani, Daniela; Beretta, Rosangela; Zappa, Alessandra; Orlando, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been proposed as a means of replacing or supporting conventional cervical screening (Pap test). However, both methods require the collection of cervical samples. Urine sample is easier and more acceptable to collect and could be helpful in facilitating cervical cancer screening. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of urine testing compared to conventional cervical smear testing using a PCR-based method with a new, designed specifically primer set. Paired cervical and first voided urine samples collected from 107 women infected with HIV were subjected to HPV-DNA detection and genotyping using a PCR-based assay and a restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were calculated using the McNemar's test for differences. Concordance between tests was assessed using the Cohen's unweighted Kappa (k). HPV DNA was detected in 64.5% (95% CI: 55.1-73.1%) of both cytobrush and urine samples. High concordance rates of HPV-DNA detection (k = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.90-1.0) and of high risk-clade and low-risk genotyping in paired samples (k = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67-0.92 and k = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.60-0.88, respectively) were observed. HPV-DNA detection in urine versus cervix testing revealed a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% CI: 93.1-99.9%) and a specificity of 97.4% (95% CI: 87.7-99.9%), with a very high NPV (97.4%; 95% CI: 87.7-99.9%). The PCR-based assay utilized in this study proved highly sensitive and specific for HPV-DNA detection and genotyping in urine samples. These data suggest that a urine-based assay would be a suitable and effective tool for epidemiological surveillance and, most of all, screening programs. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Detection of trace fluoride in serum and urine by online membrane-based distillation coupled with ion chromatography.

    Lou, Chaoyan; Guo, Dandan; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhang, Peimin; Zhu, Yan

    2017-06-02

    An online membrane-based distillation (MBD) coupled with ion chromatography (IC) method was proposed for automatic detection of trace fluoride (F - ) in serum and urine samples. The system consisted of a sample vessel, a lab-made membrane module and an ion chromatograph. Hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane was used in MBD which was directly performed in serum and urine samples to eliminate the matrix interferences and enrich fluoride, while enabling automation. The determination of fluoride in biological samples was carried out by IC with suppressed conductometric detection. The proposed method feasibly determined trace fluoride in serum and urine matrices with the optimized parameters, such as acid concentration, distillation temperature, and distillation time, etc. Fluoride exhibited satisfactory linearity in the range of 0.01-5.0mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N=10) were 0.78μg/L and 2.61μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak area and peak height were all less than 5.15%. The developed method was validated for the determination of fluoride in serum and urine with good spiked recoveries ranging between 97.1-101.9%. This method also can be proposed as a suitable alternative for the analysis of fluoride in other complex biological samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in paired serum and urine samples using polymerase chain reaction-based systems

    Camila Ximenes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Program for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF aims to eliminate this disease by the year 2020. However, the development of more specific and sensitive tests is important for the success of the GPELF. The present study aimed to standardise polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based systems for the diagnosis of filariasis in serum and urine. Twenty paired biological urine and serum samples from individuals already known to be positive for Wuchereria bancrofti were collected during the day. Conventional PCR and semi-nested PCR assays were optimised. The detection limit of the technique for purified W. bancrofti DNA extracted from adult worms was 10 fg for the internal systems (WbF/Wb2 and 0.1 fg by using semi-nested PCR. The specificity of the primers was confirmed experimentally by amplification of 1 ng of purified genomic DNA from other species of parasites. Evaluation of the paired urine and serum samples by the semi-nested PCR technique indicated only two of the 20 tested individuals were positive, whereas the simple internal PCR system (WbF/Wb2, which has highly promising performance, revealed that all the patients were positive using both samples. This study successfully demonstrated the possibility of using the PCR technique on urine for the diagnosis of W. bancrofti infection.

  8. Nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction combined with nanospray mass spectrometry for rapid and facile quantitation of ribonucleosides in human urine.

    Wan, Lingzhong; Zhu, Haijing; Guan, Yafeng; Huang, Guangming

    2017-07-01

    A rapid and facile analytical method for quantification of ribonucleosides in human urine was developed by the combination of nanocoating cellulose paper based microextraction and nanoelectrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nESI-MS/MS). Cellulose paper used for microextraction was modified by nano-precision deposition of uniform ultrathin zirconia gel film using a sol-gel process. Due to the large surface area of the cellulose paper and the strong affinity between zirconia and the cis-diol compounds, the target analytes were selectively extracted from the complex matrix. Thus, the detection sensitivity was greatly improved. Typically, the nanocoating cellulose paper was immersed into the diluted urine for selective extraction of target analytes, then the extracted analytes were subjected to nESI-MS/MS detection. The whole analytical procedure could be completed within 10min. The method was evaluated by the determination of ribonucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, uridine, guanosine) in urine sample. The signal intensities of the ribonuclesides extracted by the nanocoating cellulose paper were greatly enhanced by 136-459-folds compared with the one of the unmodified cellulose paper based microextraction. The limits of detection (LODs) and the limits of quantification (LOQs) of the four ribonucleosides were in the range of 0.0136-1.258μgL -1 and 0.0454-4.194μgL -1 , respectively. The recoveries of the target nucleosides from spiked human urine were in the range of 75.64-103.49% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 9.36%. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed method for rapid and facile determination of endogenous ribonucleosides in urine sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Internal Dosimetry Of I-131 For Radiation Workers Based On Analysis Of The Human Urine And Liquid Scintillation Counting

    Nguyen Van Hung; Pham Hung Thai; Le Van Ngoc

    2011-01-01

    Internal dosimetry of I-131 for radiation workers based on analysis of the human urine, measuring radioactivity by the liquid scintillation system, and dose calculation by the specialized code has been firstly studied at the Nuclear Research Institute. Urine samples from the subjects internally contaminated with I-131 through respiratory ways were collected, chemically processed, measured beta radioactivities of I-131 by the liquid scintillation system of ALOKA-LSC-6100, and then thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body were calculated by using the specialized code of LUDEP 2.0. Based on chemically separation procedure for I-131 in urine samples and the low background HPGe gamma spectrometer of Canberra for measuring radioactivity, efficiency for chemical separation was determined to be (86.1 ± 5.0)%. The experimental results for 9 subjects with urine samples to be collected during 4 operating courses of Dalat nuclear reactor with production of I-131 (from June to September, 2010) were shown that thyroid doses and effective ones for whole-body for each course of I-131 production were in ranges of from 0.11 to 13.00 mSv and from 0.01 to 0.71 mSv, respectively. Therefore, totally average doses per year for thyroid and whole-body were less than the correlative levels of permissible doses. Besides, the liquid scintillation method was also compared experimentally with the gamma spectrometry (measuring directly urine samples by the gamma spectrometer to be carried out at the Institute before) was shown that errors on dosimetric results between them were less than 12%. This was proved the dosimetry has had a confidence, and it could be applied for internal dosimetry for radiation workers contacting with unsealed sources of I-131 in radiation installations as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic patients in health ones. (author)

  10. Black Urine

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  11. Urine Preservative

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  12. Urine Color

    ... drugs can darken urine, including the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin ( ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  13. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    ... from an infant, you may need extra collection bags. How the Test will Feel The test involves ... urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  14. Extraction of domoic acid from seawater and urine using a resin based on 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid.

    Piletska, Elena V; Villoslada, Fernando Navarro; Chianella, Iva; Bossi, Alessandra; Karim, Kal; Whitcombe, Michael J; Piletsky, Sergey A; Doucette, Gregory J; Ramsdell, John S

    2008-03-03

    A new solid-phase extraction (SPE) matrix with high affinity for the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) was designed and tested. A computational modelling study led to the selection of 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid (TFMAA) as a functional monomer capable of imparting affinity towards domoic acid. Polymeric adsorbents containing TFMAA were synthesised and tested in high ionic strength solutions such as urine and seawater. The TFMAA-based polymers demonstrated excellent performance in solid-phase extraction of domoic acid, retaining the toxin while salts and other interfering compounds such as aspartic and glutamic acids were removed by washing and selective elution. It was shown that the TFMAA-based polymer provided the level of purification of domoic acid from urine and seawater acceptable for its quantification by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) without any additional pre-concentration and purification steps.

  15. Ketones urine test

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  16. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    Inés Lozano-Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9. The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs.When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species.To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches.

  17. A Preliminary Investigation of NSCL/P Plasma and Urine in Guizhou Province in China Using NMR-Based Metabonomics.

    Lei, Huang Guang; Hong, Luo; Kun, Song Ju; Hai, Yin Xin; Dong, Wang Ya; Ke, Zhao; Ping, Xu; Hao, Chen

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To assess the feasibility of metabonomics in clinical studies. This is a pilot study introducing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics to elucidate and compare the metabolism of patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) and children without orofacial clefts. Methods : High-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed on plasma and urine samples obtained from NSCL/P and healthy children. The (1)H NMR spectra were further analyzed with principal component analysis. Results : Compared to the control group, the level of low-molecular-weight metabolites in plasma such as asparagine was higher in NSCL/P patients, while arginine, lysine, acetate, lactate, proline, glutamine, pyruvate, creatinine, choline, and β-glucose were lower. The carnitine, citrate, and formate excretion in urine appeared to be higher in the healthy children, while the NSCL/P group excreted higher concentrations of aspartic acid and phenylalanine in urine. Conclusion : The present study clearly demonstrated the great potential of NMR-based metabonomics in elucidating NSCL/P plasma metabolism and the possible application of this technology in clinical diagnosis and screening.

  18. A prospective evaluation of conventional cystography for detection of urine leakage at the vesicourethral anastomosis site after radical prostatectomy based on computed tomography.

    Han, K S; Choi, H J; Jung, D C; Park, S; Cho, K S; Joung, J Y; Seo, H K; Chung, J; Lee, K H

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional cystography for the detection of urine leakage at the vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA) site after radical prostatectomy based on computed tomography (CT) cystography. Patients who underwent radical prostatectomies at a single tertiary cancer centre were prospectively enrolled. Conventional cystography was routinely performed on postoperative day 7. Non-enhanced pelvic CT images were obtained after retrograde instillation of the same contrast material for a reference standard of urine leakage at the VUA site. Urine leakage was classified as follows: none; a plication abnormality; mild; moderate; and excessive. One hundred and twenty consecutive patients were enrolled. Conventional cystography detected 14 urine leakages, but CT cystography detected 40 urine leakages, which consisted of 28 mild and 12 moderate urine leakages. When using CT cystography as the standard measurement, conventional cystography showed a diagnostic accuracy of 17.8% (5/28) for mild urine leakage and 75% (9/12) for moderate leakage. Of nine patients diagnosed with mild leakage on conventional cystography, four (44.4%) had complicated moderate urine leakages based on CT cystography, requiring prolonged catheterization. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of conventional cystography were 35, 100, 100, 75.4, and 78.3%, respectively. Conventional cystography is less accurate than CT cystography for diagnosing urine leakage at the VUA site after a radical prostatectomy. The present results suggest that CT cystography is a good choice for diagnostic imaging of urine leakage after radical prostatectomy. Copyright © 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabonomics-Based Study of Clinical Urine Samples in Suboptimal Health with Different Syndromes

    Hai-Zhen Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the urinary biochemistry features of syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM such as syndrome of stagnation of liver Qi, spleen deficiency, liver Qi stagnation, and spleen deficiency (LSSDS in sub-optimal health status (SHS. Methods. 12 cases for each syndrome group in SHS were selected, 12 subjects were used as a normal control group, and 1H NMR detection was, respectively, carried out, and the data was corrected by the orthogonal signal correction (OSC and then adopted a partial least squares (PLS method for discriminate analysis. Results. The OSC-PLS (ctr analysis results of the nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy (NOESY detection indicated that the syndromes in SHS could be differentiated, and there were significant differences in the levels of metabolites of the urine samples of the four groups; the biomarkers of LSSDS in SHS were found out. The contents of citric acid (2.54 and 2.66, trimethylamineoxide (3.26, and hippuric acid (3.98, 7.54, 7.58, 7.62, 7.66, 7.82, and 7.86 in the urine samples of LSSDS group were lower than that of the normal control group. Conclusion. There are differences in the 1H-NMR metabolic spectrum of the urine samples of the four groups, and the specific metabolic products of the LSSDS in SHS can be identified from metabonomics analysis.

  20. Direct analysis of δ2H and δ18O in natural and enriched human urine using laser-based, Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy

    Berman, Elena S.F.; Fortsona, Susan L.; Snaith, Steven P.; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S.; Chery, Isabelle; Blanc, Stephane; Melanson, Edward L.; Thomson, Peter J; Speakman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    The stable isotopes of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) in human urine are measured during studies of total energy expenditure by the doubly labeled water method, measurement of total body water, and measurement of insulin resistance by glucose disposal among other applications. An ultrasensitive laser absorption spectrometer based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy was demonstrated for simple and inexpensive measurement of stable isotopes in natural isotopic abundance and isotopically enriched human urine. Preparation of urine for analysis was simple and rapid (approx. 25 samples per hour), requiring no decolorizing or distillation steps. Analysis schemes were demonstrated to address sample-to-sample memory while still allowing analysis of 45 natural or 30 enriched urine samples per day. The instrument was linear over a wide range of water isotopes (δ2H = −454 to +1702 ‰ and δ18O= −58.3 to +265 ‰). Measurements of human urine were precise to better than 0.65 ‰ 1σ for δ2H and 0.09 ‰ 1σ for δ18O for natural urines, 1.1 ‰ 1σ for δ2H and 0.13 ‰ 1σ for δ18O for low enriched urines, and 1.0 ‰ 1σ for δ2H and 0.08 ‰ 1σ for δ18O for high enriched urines. Furthermore, the accuracy of the isotope measurements of human urines was verified to better than ±0.81 ‰ in δ2H and ±0.13 ‰ in δ18O (average deviation) against three independent IRMS laboratories. The ability to immediately and inexpensively measure the stable isotopes of water in human urine is expected to increase the number and variety of experiments which can be undertaken. PMID:23075099

  1. Calcium - urine

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  2. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  3. Standardizing the experimental conditions for using urine in NMR-based metabolomic studies with a particular focus on diagnostic studies: a review

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.

    2014-11-21

    The metabolic composition of human biofluids can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. Among the biofluids most commonly analyzed in metabolomic studies, urine appears to be particularly useful. It is abundant, readily available, easily stored and can be collected by simple, noninvasive techniques. Moreover, given its chemical complexity, urine is particularly rich in potential disease biomarkers. This makes it an ideal biofluid for detecting or monitoring disease processes. Among the metabolomic tools available for urine analysis, NMR spectroscopy has proven to be particularly well-suited, because the technique is highly reproducible and requires minimal sample handling. As it permits the identification and quantification of a wide range of compounds, independent of their chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy has been frequently used to detect or discover disease fingerprints and biomarkers in urine. Although protocols for NMR data acquisition and processing have been standardized, no consensus on protocols for urine sample selection, collection, storage and preparation in NMR-based metabolomic studies have been developed. This lack of consensus may be leading to spurious biomarkers being reported and may account for a general lack of reproducibility between laboratories. Here, we review a large number of published studies on NMR-based urine metabolic profiling with the aim of identifying key variables that may affect the results of metabolomics studies. From this survey, we identify a number of issues that require either standardization or careful accounting in experimental design and provide some recommendations for urine collection, sample preparation and data acquisition.

  4. Standardizing the experimental conditions for using urine in NMR-based metabolomic studies with a particular focus on diagnostic studies: a review.

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Luchinat, Claudio; Turano, Paola; Tenori, Leonardo; Roy, Raja; Salek, Reza M; Ryan, Danielle; Merzaban, Jasmeen S; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel; Wang, Yulan; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S

    The metabolic composition of human biofluids can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. Among the biofluids most commonly analyzed in metabolomic studies, urine appears to be particularly useful. It is abundant, readily available, easily stored and can be collected by simple, noninvasive techniques. Moreover, given its chemical complexity, urine is particularly rich in potential disease biomarkers. This makes it an ideal biofluid for detecting or monitoring disease processes. Among the metabolomic tools available for urine analysis, NMR spectroscopy has proven to be particularly well-suited, because the technique is highly reproducible and requires minimal sample handling. As it permits the identification and quantification of a wide range of compounds, independent of their chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy has been frequently used to detect or discover disease fingerprints and biomarkers in urine. Although protocols for NMR data acquisition and processing have been standardized, no consensus on protocols for urine sample selection, collection, storage and preparation in NMR-based metabolomic studies have been developed. This lack of consensus may be leading to spurious biomarkers being reported and may account for a general lack of reproducibility between laboratories. Here, we review a large number of published studies on NMR-based urine metabolic profiling with the aim of identifying key variables that may affect the results of metabolomics studies. From this survey, we identify a number of issues that require either standardization or careful accounting in experimental design and provide some recommendations for urine collection, sample preparation and data acquisition.

  5. Standardizing the experimental conditions for using urine in NMR-based metabolomic studies with a particular focus on diagnostic studies: a review

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Luchinat, Claudio; Turano, Paola; Tenori, Leonardo; Roy, Raja; Salek, Reza M.; Ryan, Danielle; Merzaban, Jasmeen; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Zeri, Ana Carolina; Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Raftery, Daniel; Wang, Yulan; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic composition of human biofluids can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. Among the biofluids most commonly analyzed in metabolomic studies, urine appears to be particularly useful. It is abundant, readily available, easily stored and can be collected by simple, noninvasive techniques. Moreover, given its chemical complexity, urine is particularly rich in potential disease biomarkers. This makes it an ideal biofluid for detecting or monitoring disease processes. Among the metabolomic tools available for urine analysis, NMR spectroscopy has proven to be particularly well-suited, because the technique is highly reproducible and requires minimal sample handling. As it permits the identification and quantification of a wide range of compounds, independent of their chemical properties, NMR spectroscopy has been frequently used to detect or discover disease fingerprints and biomarkers in urine. Although protocols for NMR data acquisition and processing have been standardized, no consensus on protocols for urine sample selection, collection, storage and preparation in NMR-based metabolomic studies have been developed. This lack of consensus may be leading to spurious biomarkers being reported and may account for a general lack of reproducibility between laboratories. Here, we review a large number of published studies on NMR-based urine metabolic profiling with the aim of identifying key variables that may affect the results of metabolomics studies. From this survey, we identify a number of issues that require either standardization or careful accounting in experimental design and provide some recommendations for urine collection, sample preparation and data acquisition.

  6. Simultaneous determination of renal function biomarkers in urine using a validated paper-based microfluidic analytical device.

    Rossini, Eduardo Luiz; Milani, Maria Izabel; Carrilho, Emanuel; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-01-02

    In this paper, we describe a validated paper-based microfluidic analytical device for the simultaneous quantification of two important biomarkers of renal function in urine. This paper platform provides an inexpensive, simple, and easy to use colorimetric method for the quantification of creatinine (CRN) and uric acid (UA) in urine samples. The microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) consists of a main channel with three identical arms, each containing a circular testing zone and a circular uptake zone. Creatinine detection is based on the Jaffé reaction, in which CRN reacts with picrate to form an orange-red product. Uric acid quantification is based on the reduction of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ by UA, which is detected in a colorimetric reaction using 1,10-phenanthroline. Under optimum conditions, obtained through chemometrics, the concentrations of the analytes showed good linear correlations with the effective intensities, and the method presented satisfactory repeatability. The limits of detection and the linear ranges, respectively, were 15.7 mg L -1 and 50-600 mg L -1 for CRN and 16.5 mg L -1 and 50-500 mg L -1 for UA. There were no statistically significant differences between the results obtained using the μPAD and a chromatographic comparative method (Student's t-test at 95% confidence level). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks: Highly selective adsorbents for removal of phosphate from water and urine

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew, E-mail: linky@nchu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Jochems, Andrew P. [New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources and New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Phosphate is one of the most concerning compounds in wastewater streams and a main nutrient that causes eutrophication. To eliminate the phosphate pollution, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are proposed in this study as adsorbents to remove phosphate from water. The zirconium-based MOF, UiO-66, was selected as representative MOF given its exceptional stability in water. To investigate the effect of an amine functional group, UiO-66-NH2 was also prepared using an amine-substituted ligand. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm reveal that UiO-66-NH2 exhibited higher adsorption capacities than UiO-66 possibly due to the amine group. However, the interaction between phosphate and zirconium sites of UiO MOFs might be the primary factor accounting for the phosphate adsorption to UiO MOFs. UiO MOFs also exhibited a high selectivity towards phosphate over other anions such as bromate, nitrite and nitrate. Furthermore, UiO MOFs were found to adsorb phosphate and to completely remove diluted phosphate in urine. We also found that UiO MOFs could be easily regenerated and re-used for phosphate adsorption. These findings suggest that UiO MOFs can be effective and selective adsorbents to remove phosphate from water as well as urine. - Highlights: • UiO-66 as the first type of MOFs was used to remove phosphate from water and urine. • The amine group in UiO MOFs was found to enhance the phosphate adsorption. • UiO-66 exhibited a high adsorption selectivity towards phosphate over other anions. • UiO-66 could be easily regenerated and re-used with 85% regeneration efficiency.

  8. Indications for ureteropyeloscopy based on radiographic findings and urine cytology in detection of upper urinary tract carcinoma

    Takao, Akira; Saika, Takashi; Uehara, Shinya; Monden, Koichi; Abarzua, F.; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the indication of diagnostic ureteropyeloscopy based on clinical features for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer with over 100 patients and over a 10-year series. From January 1997 to December 2008, consecutive 129 units in 124 patients underwent ureteropyeloscopy to obtain a definitive diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out a malignancy. Patients were divided into four subgroups based on voided urine cytology and preoperative radiographic findings: group A (n=8), positive urine cytology and positive radiographic findings; group B (n=4), positive cytology and negative radiographic findings; group C (n=55), negative cytology and positive radiographic findings and group D (n=62), gross hematuria originating from the upper urinary tract with negative cytology and negative radiographic findings. Ureteropyeloscopic findings were compared with radiographic and cytological results. Adverse effects were also investigated. In group A, all patients had confirmed cancer. In group B, one revealed small cancer and the remaining three confirmed carcinoma in situ by biopsy with ureteropyeloscopy. In groups C and D, 33 patients (60%) and four (6.5%) revealed cancer. Seventy-eight patients out of 80 (97.5%) in groups C and D were confirmed to have benign disease. No patient was found with malignancy during follow up after negative finding of ureteropyeloscopy. Ureteropyeloscopy can help in detecting upper urinary tract cancer or to rule out malignancy for patients with negative voiding cytology. However, ureteropyeloscopy is redundant for patients with positive radiographic findings and positive voiding cytology. (author)

  9. Rapid determination of recent cocaine use with magnetic particles-based enzyme immunoassays in serum, saliva, and urine fluids.

    Vidal, Juan C; Bertolín, Juan R; Bonel, Laura; Asturias, Laura; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia; Castillo, Juan R

    2016-06-05

    Cocaine is one of the most worldwide used illicit drugs. We report a magnetic particles-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (mpEIA) method for the rapid and sensitive determination of cocaine (COC) in saliva, urine and serum samples. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detections were 0.09ngmL(-1) (urine), 0.15ngmL(-1) (saliva), and 0.06ngmL(-1) COC (human serum). Sensitivities were in the range EC50=0.6-2.5ngmL(-1) COC. The cross-reactivity with the principal metabolite benzoylecgonine (BZE) was only 1.6%. Recovering percentages of doped samples (0, 10, 50, and 100ngmL(-1) of COC) ranged from about 86-111%. Some advantages of the developed mpEIA over conventional ELISA kits are faster incubations, improved reproducibility, and consumption of lower amounts of antibody and enzyme conjugates due to the use of magnetic beads. The reported method was validated following the guidelines on bioanalytical methods of the European Medicines Agency (2011). Unmetabolized COC detection has a great interest in pharmacological, pharmacokinetics, and toxicokinetics studies, and can be used to detect a very recent COC use (1-6h). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential effect of diaper and cotton ball contamination on NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies of urine from newborn babies.

    Goodpaster, Aaron M; Ramadas, Eshwar H; Kennedy, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) based metabonomics screening of urine has great potential for discovery of biomarkers for diseases that afflict newborn and preterm infants. However, urine collection from newborn infants presents a potential confounding problem due to the possibility that contaminants might leach from materials used for urine collection and influence statistical analysis of metabonomics data. In this manuscript, we have analyzed diaper and cotton ball contamination using synthetic urine to assess its potential to influence the outcome of NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies of human infant urine. Eight diaper brands were examined using the "diaper plus cotton ball" technique. Data were analyzed using conventional principal components analysis, as well as a statistical significance algorithm developed for, and applied to, NMR data. Results showed most diaper brands had distinct contaminant profiles that could potentially influence NMR- and LC/MS-based metabonomics studies. On the basis of this study, it is recommended that diaper and cotton ball brands be characterized using metabonomics methodologies prior to initiating a metabonomics study to ensure that contaminant profiles are minimal or manageable and that the same diaper and cotton ball brands be used throughout a study to minimize variation.

  11. Silver nanoparticles plasmon resonance-based method for the determination of uric acid in human plasma and urine samples

    Amjadi, M.; Rahimpour, E.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a simple and sensitive colorimetric procedure for the quantification of trace amounts of uric acid. It is based on the finding that uric acid in a medium containing ammonia and sodium hydroxide at 65 0 C can reduce silver ions to form yellow silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). These are stabilized in solution by using poly(vinyl alcohol) as a capping agent. The yellow color of the solution that results from the localized surface plasmon resonance of Ag NPs can be observed by the bare eye. The absorbance at 415 nm is proportional to the concentration of uric acid which therefore can be determined quantitatively. The calibration curve is linear in the concentration range from 10 to 200 nM, with a limit of detection of 3.3 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of uric acid in human plasma and urine samples. (author)

  12. Comparison among performances of a ligase chain reaction-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens from men with nongonococcal urethritis.

    Deguchi, T; Yasuda, M; Uno, M; Tada, K; Iwata, H; Komeda, H; Maeda, S; Latila, V; Saito, I; Kawada, Y

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the performances of a ligase chain reaction (LCR)-based assay and two enzyme immunoassays (Chlamydiazyme and IDEIA) in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine specimens. We compared the results of testing urine specimens by these assays with those of urethral swab culture by examining samples from 131 men with nongonococcal urethritis. Discrepant results were analyzed by testing urethral swab specimens for C. trachomatis by a PCR-based assay. After the resolution of discrepant results, the sensitivity of urethral swab culture was 85.3%, whereas those of the LCR assay, Chlamydiazyme, and IDEIA with urine specimens were 94.1, 82.4, and 94.1%, respectively. The LCR assay and IDEIA were more sensitive than was urethral swab culture. In addition, the LCR assay, with a sensitivity equal to that of IDEIA, was more specific. Overall, the LCR assay proved to be superior to the enzyme immunoassays in detecting C. trachomatis in urine specimens. Testing urine specimens by LCR assay should be a helpful alternative method for diagnosing C. trachomatis urethral infection in men with nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:8784574

  13. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. A urine-fuelled soil-based bioregenerative life support system for long-term and long-distance manned space missions

    Maggi, Federico; Tang, Fiona H. M.; Pallud, Céline; Gu, Chuanhui

    2018-05-01

    A soil-based cropping unit fuelled with human urine for long-term manned space missions was investigated with the aim to analyze whether a closed-loop nutrient cycle from human liquid wastes was achievable. Its ecohydrology and biogeochemistry were analysed in microgravity with the use of an advanced computational tool. Urine from the crew was used to supply primary (N, P, and K) and secondary (S, Ca and Mg) nutrients to wheat and soybean plants in the controlled cropping unit. Breakdown of urine compounds into primary and secondary nutrients as well as byproduct gases, adsorbed, and uptake fractions were tracked over a period of 20 years. Results suggested that human urine could satisfy the demand of at least 3 to 4 out of 6 nutrients with an offset in pH and salinity tolerable by plants. It was therefore inferred that a urine-fuelled life support system can introduce a number of advantages including: (1) recycling of liquids wastes and production of food; (2) forgiveness of neglect as compared to engineered electro-mechanical systems that may fail under unexpected or unplanned conditions; and (3) reduction of supply and waste loads during space missions.

  16. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description, validation and sensitivity analysis

    Móring, A; Vieno, M.; Doherty, R M

    2015-01-01

    models, as a necessary basis for assessing the effects of climate change on NH3 related atmospheric processes. GAG is capable of simulating the TAN (Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen) content, pH and the water content of the soil under a urine patch. To calculate the TAN budget, GAG takes into account urea......In this paper a new process-based, weather-driven model for ammonia (NH3) emission from a urine patch has been developed and its sensitivity to various factors assessed. This model, the GAG model (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing) was developed as a part of a suite of weather-driven NH3 exchange...... hydrolysis as a TAN input and NH3 volatilization as a loss. In the water budget, in addition to the water content of urine, precipitation and evaporation are also considered. In the pH module we assumed that the main regulating processes are the dissociation and dissolution equilibria related to the two...

  17. Effect of magnetic field strength on NMR-based metabonomic human urine data. Comparative study of 250, 400, 500, and 800 MHz

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Malmendal, Anders; Petersen, Bent O.

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomic analysis of urine utilizing high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and chemometric techniques has proven valuable in characterizing the biochemical response to an intervention. To assess the effect of magnetic field strength on information contained in NMR-based metabonomic data sets, 1H NMR...

  18. Parallel microscope-based fluorescence, absorbance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for high performance liquid chromatography and determination of glucosamine in urine.

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Qiong; Nie, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Ren-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    A parallel microscope-based laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved and used to determine glucosamine in urines. First, a reliable and convenient LIF detection was developed based on an inverted microscope and corresponding modulations. Parallel HPLC-LIF/UV/TOF-MS detection was developed by the combination of preceding Microscope-based LIF detection and HPLC coupled with UV and TOF-MS. The proposed setup, due to its parallel scheme, was free of the influence from photo bleaching in LIF detection. Rhodamine B, glutamic acid and glucosamine have been determined to evaluate its performance. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine the glucosamine in urines, and subsequent results suggested that glucosamine, which was widely used in the prevention of the bone arthritis, was metabolized to urines within 4h. Furthermore, its concentration in urines decreased to 5.4mM at 12h. Efficient glucosamine detection was achieved based on a sensitive quantification (LIF), a universal detection (UV) and structural characterizations (TOF-MS). This application indicated that the proposed strategy was sensitive, universal and versatile, and it was capable of improved analysis, especially for analytes with low concentrations in complex samples, compared with conventional HPLC-UV/TOF-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionophore-Based Potentiometric Sensors for the Flow-Injection Determination of Promethazine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulations and Human Urine

    Suad Mustafa Al-Araji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride-based membranes containing the ionophores (α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins (CD, dibenzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6 and dibenzo-30-crown-10 (DB30C10 were evaluated for their potentiometric response towards promethazine (PM in a flow injection analysis (FIA set-up. Good responses were obtained when β- and γ-CDs, and DB30C10 were used. The performance characteristics were further improved when tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl borate (KTPB was added to the membrane. The sensor based on β-CD, bis(2-ethylhexyl adipate (BEHA and KTPB exhibited the best performance among the eighteen sensor compositions that were tested. The response was linear from 1 x 10−5 to 1 x 10−2 M, slope was 61.3 mV decade−1, the pH independent region ranged from 4.5 to 7.0, a limit of detection of 5.3 x 10−6 M was possible and a lifetime of more than a month was observed when used in the FIA system. Other plasticisers such as dioctyl phenylphosphonate and tributyl phosphate do not show significant improvements in the quality of the sensors. The promising sensors were further tested for the effects of foreign ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cr3+, Fe3+, glucose, fructose. FIA conditions (e.g., effects of flow rate, injection volume, pH of the carrier stream were also studied when the best sensor was used (based on β-CD. The sensor was applied to the determination of PM in four pharmaceutical preparations and human urine that were spiked with different levels of PM. Good agreement between the sensor and the manufacturer’s claimed values (for pharmaceutical preparations was obtained, while mean recoveries of 98.6% were obtained for spiked urine samples. The molecular recognition features of the sensors as revealed by molecular modelling were rationalised by the nature of the interactions and complexation energies between the host and guest molecules.

  20. Comparative Study of Seven Commercial Kits for Human DNA Extraction from Urine Samples Suitable for DNA Biomarker-Based Public Health Studies

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H. C.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at −20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies. PMID:25365790

  1. Comparative study of seven commercial kits for human DNA extraction from urine samples suitable for DNA biomarker-based public health studies.

    El Bali, Latifa; Diman, Aurélie; Bernard, Alfred; Roosens, Nancy H C; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2014-12-01

    Human genomic DNA extracted from urine could be an interesting tool for large-scale public health studies involving characterization of genetic variations or DNA biomarkers as a result of the simple and noninvasive collection method. These studies, involving many samples, require a rapid, easy, and standardized extraction protocol. Moreover, for practicability, there is a necessity to collect urine at a moment different from the first void and to store it appropriately until analysis. The present study compared seven commercial kits to select the most appropriate urinary human DNA extraction procedure for epidemiological studies. DNA yield has been determined using different quantification methods: two classical, i.e., NanoDrop and PicoGreen, and two species-specific real-time quantitative (q)PCR assays, as DNA extracted from urine contains, besides human, microbial DNA also, which largely contributes to the total DNA yield. In addition, the kits giving a good yield were also tested for the presence of PCR inhibitors. Further comparisons were performed regarding the sampling time and the storage conditions. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, an important gene related to smoking has been genotyped using the developed tools. We could select one well-performing kit for the human DNA extraction from urine suitable for molecular diagnostic real-time qPCR-based assays targeting genetic variations, applicable to large-scale studies. In addition, successful genotyping was possible using DNA extracted from urine stored at -20°C for several months, and an acceptable yield could also be obtained from urine collected at different moments during the day, which is particularly important for public health studies.

  2. The urine marker test

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  3. Quantification of menadione from plasma and urine by a novel cysteamine-derivatization based UPLC-MS/MS method.

    Yuan, Teng-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ting; Li, Yan

    2017-09-15

    Menadione, as the crucial component of vitamin Ks, possessed significant nutritional and clinical values. However, there was still lack of favourable quantification strategies for it to date. For improvement, a novel cysteamine derivatization based UPLC-MS/MS method was presented in this work. The derivatizating reaction was proved non-toxic, easy-handling and high-efficient, which realized the MS detection of menadione under positive mode. Benefitting from the excellent sensitivity of the derivatizating product as well as the introduction of the stable isotope dilution technique, the quantification could be achieved in the range of 0.05-50.0ng/mL for plasma and urine matrixes with satisfied accuracy and precision. After analysis of the samples from healthy volunteers after oral administration of menadione sodium bisulfite tablets, the urinary free menadione was quantified for the very first time. We believe the progress in this work could largely promote the exploration of the metabolic mechanism of vitamin K in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrochemical determination of serotonin in urine samples based on metal oxide nanoparticles/MWCNT on modified glassy carbon electrode

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE at physiological pH 7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98 × 10−3 μM to 62.8 μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166 nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors were found to be electrochemically stable, reusable, economically effective due to their extremely low operational cost, and have demonstrated good limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity towards serotonin determination in urine samples. Keywords: Metal oxides nanoparticles, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Glassy carbon electrode, Serotonin, Cyclic voltammetry, Square wave voltammetry

  5. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS based metabolomic profiling of serum and urine of hyperlipidemic rats induced by high fat diet

    Qiong Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is considered to be a high lipid level in blood, can induce metabolic disorders and dysfunctions of the body, and results in some severe complications. Therefore, hunting for some metabolite markers and clarifying the metabolic pathways in vivo will be an important strategy in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemia. In this study, a rat model of hyperlipidemia was constructed according to histopathological data and biochemical parameters, and the metabolites of serum and urine were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Combining pattern recognition and statistical analysis, 19 candidate biomarkers were screened and identified. These changed metabolites indicated that during the development and progression of hyperlipidemia, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism and nucleotide metabolism were mainly disturbed, which are reported to be closely related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. This study demonstrated that a UPLC-Q-TOF/MS based metabolomic approach is useful to profile the alternation of endogenous metabolites of hyperlipidemia. Keywords: UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, Hyperlipidemia, Metabolomic, Pattern recognition

  6. Strong ion difference in urine: new perspectives in acid-base assessment.

    Gattinoni, L.; Carlesso, E.; Cadringher, P.; Caironi, P.

    2006-01-01

    The plasmatic strong ion difference (SID) is the difference between positively and negatively charged strong ions. At pH 7.4, temperature 37°C and partial carbon dioxide tension 40 mmHg, the ideal value of SID is 42 mEq/l. The buffer base is the sum of negatively charged weak acids ([HCO3 -], [A-], [H2PO4 -]) and its normal value is 42 mEq/l. According to the law of electroneutrality, the amount of positive and negative charges must be equal, and therefore the SID value is equal to the buffer...

  7. Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples.

    Demerdash, Zeinab; Mohamed, Salwa; Hendawy, Mohamed; Rabia, Ibrahim; Attia, Mohy; Shaker, Zeinab; Diab, Tarek M

    2013-02-01

    A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies.

  8. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth; Larsen, Louise K; Guldberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM). In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%), including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%). In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%). Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  9. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer.

    Elin Andersson

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance of the device was further evaluated by DNA-based analysis of urinary cells collected from 57 patients subjected to transurethral resection following flexible cystoscopy indicating the presence of a tumor. All samples were tested for FGFR3 mutations and seven DNA methylation markers (BCL2, CCNA1, EOMES, HOXA9, POU4F2, SALL3 and VIM. In the group of patients where a transitional cell tumor was confirmed at histopathological evaluation, urine DNA was positive for one or more markers in 29 out of 31 cases (94%, including 19 with FGFR3 mutation (61%. In the group of patients with benign histopathology, urine DNA was positive for methylation markers in 13 out of 26 cases (50%. Only one patient in this group was positive for a FGFR3 mutation. This patient had a stage Ta tumor resected 6 months later. The ability to easily collect, store and ship diagnostic cells from urine using the presented device may facilitate non-invasive testing for bladder cancer.

  10. Toxicological effects of cinnabar in rats by NMR-based metabolic profiling of urine and serum

    Wei Lai; Liao Peiqiu; Wu Huifeng; Li Xiaojing; Pei Fengkui; Li Weisheng; Wu Yijie

    2008-01-01

    Cinnabar, an important traditional Chinese mineral medicine, has been widely used as a Chinese patent medicine ingredient for sedative therapy. However, the pharmaceutical and toxicological effects of cinnabar, especially in the whole organism, were subjected to few investigations. In this study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach has been applied to investigate the toxicological effects of cinnabar after intragastrical administration (dosed at 0.5, 2 and 5 g/kg body weight) on male Wistar rats. Liver and kidney histopathology examinations and serum clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. The 1 H NMR spectra were analyzed using multivariate pattern recognition techniques to show the time- and dose-dependent biochemical variations induced by cinnabar. The metabolic signature of urinalysis from cinnabar-treated animals exhibited an increase in the levels of creatinine, acetate, acetoacetate, taurine, hippurate and phenylacetylglycine, together with a decrease in the levels of trimethyl-N-oxide, dimethylglycine and Kreb's cycle intermediates (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate and succinate). The metabolomics analyses of serum showed elevated concentrations of ketone bodies (3-D-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate), branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine), choline and creatine as well as decreased glucose, lipids and lipoproteins from cinnabar-treated animals. These findings indicated cinnabar induced disturbance in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and gut microflora environment as well as slight injury in liver and kidney, which might indirectly result from cinnabar induced oxidative stress. This work illustrated the high reliability of NMR-based metabolomic approach on the study of the biochemical effects induced by traditional Chinese medicine

  11. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  12. Urine specific gravity test

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  13. Maple syrup urine disease

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000373.htm Maple syrup urine disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder in ...

  14. Urine drug screen

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  15. A novel screen-printed microfluidic paper-based electrochemical device for detection of glucose and uric acid in urine.

    Yao, Yong; Zhang, Chunsun

    2016-10-01

    A novel screen-printed microfluidic paper-based analytical device with all-carbon electrode-enabled electrochemical assay (SP-ACE-EC-μPAD) has been developed. The fabrication of these devices involved wax screen-printing, which was simple, low-cost and energy-efficient. The working, counter and reference electrodes were screen-printed using carbon ink on the patterned paper devices. Different wax screen-printing processes were examined and optimized, which led to an improved method with a shorter heating time (~5 s) and a lower heating temperature (75 °C). Different printing screens were examined, with a 300-mesh polyester screen yielding the highest quality wax screen-prints. The carbon electrodes were screen-printed on the μPADs and then examined using cyclic voltammetry. The analytical performance of the SP-ACE-EC-μPADs for the detection of glucose and uric acid in standard solutions was investigated. The results were reproducible, with a linear relationship [R(2) = 0.9987 (glucose) or 0.9997 (uric acid)] within the concentration range of interest, and with detection limits as low as 0.35 mM (glucose) and 0.08 mM (uric acid). To determine the clinical utility of the μPADs, chronoamperometry was used to analyze glucose and uric acid in real urine samples using the standard addition method. Our devices were able to detect the analytes of interest in complex real-world biological samples, and have the potential for use in a wide variety of applications.

  16. Graphene-based biomimetic materials targeting urine metabolite as potential cancer biomarker: application over different conductive materials for potentiometric transduction

    Truta, Liliana A.A.N.A.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2015-01-01

    This works presents a novel surface Smart Polymer Antibody Material (SPAM) for Carnitine (CRT, a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer), tested for the first time as ionophore in potentiometric electrodes of unconventional configuration. The SPAM material consisted of a 3D polymeric network created by surface imprinting on graphene layers. The polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of (vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride and 4-styrenesulfonic acid (signaling the binding sites), and vinyl pivalate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (surroundings). Non-imprinted material (NIM) was prepared as control, by excluding the template from the procedure. These materials were then used to produce several plasticized PVC membranes, testing the relevance of including the SPAM as ionophore, and the need for a charged lipophilic additive. The membranes were casted over solid conductive supports of graphite or ITO/FTO. The effect of pH upon the potentiometric response was evaluated for different pHs (2-9) with different buffer compositions. Overall, the best performance was achieved for membranes with SPAM ionophore, having a cationic lipophilic additive and tested in HEPES (4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid) buffer, pH 5.1. Better slopes were achieved when the membrane was casted on conductive glass (−57.4mV/decade), while the best detection limits were obtained for graphite-based conductive supports (3.6×10−5mol/L). Good selectivity was observed against BSA, ascorbic acid, glucose, creatinine and urea, tested for concentrations up to their normal physiologic levels in urine. The application of the devices to the analysis of spiked samples showed recoveries ranging from 91% (± 6.8%) to 118% (± 11.2%). Overall, the combination of the SPAM sensory material with a suitable selective membrane composition and electrode design has lead to a promising tool for point-of-care applications. PMID:26456975

  17. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  18. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    ... the urine sample. In certain situations, a sterile bag can be placed around a baby’s diaper area to collect a urine sample. If you have any questions about urine tests, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD ...

  19. Experimental and analytical variation in human urine in 1H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolic phenotyping studies.

    Maher, Anthony D; Zirah, Séverine F M; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2007-07-15

    1H NMR spectroscopy potentially provides a robust approach for high-throughput metabolic screening of biofluids such as urine and plasma, but sample handling and preparation need careful optimization to ensure that spectra accurately report biological status or disease state. We have investigated the effects of storage temperature and time on the 1H NMR spectral profiles of human urine from two participants, collected three times a day on four different days. These were analyzed using modern chemometric methods. Analytical and preparation variation (tested between -40 degrees C and room temperature) and time of storage (to 24 h) were found to be much less influential than biological variation in sample classification. Statistical total correlation spectroscopy and discriminant function methods were used to identify the specific metabolites that were hypervariable due to preparation and biology. Significant intraindividual variation in metabolite profiles were observed even for urine collected on the same day and after at least 6 h fasting. The effect of long-term storage at different temperatures was also investigated, showing urine is stable if frozen for at least 3 months and that storage at room temperature for long periods (1-3 months) results in a metabolic profile explained by bacterial activity. Presampling (e.g., previous day) intake of food and medicine can also strongly influence the urinary metabolic profiles indicating that collective detailed participant historical meta data are important for interpretation of metabolic phenotypes and for avoiding false biomarker discovery.

  20. Evaluation of three 5' exonuclease-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of pathogenic Leptospira species in canine urine.

    Fink, Jamie M; Moore, George E; Landau, Ruth; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by several pathogenic Leptospira species, and is an important infectious disease of dogs. Early detection of infection is crucial for an effective antibiotic treatment of the disease. Though different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been developed for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp., thorough evaluation of the performance of these assays using dog urine samples has not been carried out. In the current study, the performance of 3 real-time PCR (qPCR) assays was assessed, 1 targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and the other 2 targeting the lipL32 gene, a gene for the LipL32 outer membrane protein. With DNA extracted from laboratory-cultured pathogenic Leptospira spp., all 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity and had identical lower limits of detection. Compared to a conventional, gel-based PCR assay, all 3 qPCR assays were 100-fold more sensitive. There was a 100% agreement in the results of the 3 assays when tested on urine samples collected aseptically from 30 dogs suspected for leptospirosis. However, when tested on 30 urine samples that were collected by the free-catch method, the 16S rRNA-based assay falsely detected 13.3% of the samples as positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified DNA fragments showed that the assay resulted in false positives because of unrelated bacteria. All urine samples collected from 100 apparently healthy dogs at a local animal shelter tested negative for pathogenic Leptospira spp. These results highlight the importance of sample-specific validation of PCR-based diagnostic assays and the application of appropriately validated assays for more reliable pathogen detection. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Filtration Device for On-Site Collection, Storage and Shipment of Cells from Urine and Its Application to DNA-Based Detection of Bladder Cancer

    Andersson, Elin; Dahmcke, Christina M; Steven, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Molecular analysis of cells from urine provides a convenient approach to non-invasive detection of bladder cancer. The practical use of urinary cell-based tests is often hampered by difficulties in handling and analyzing large sample volumes, the need for rapid sample processing to avoid...... filter, which after filtration of urine can be transferred to a storage unit containing an appropriate preserving solution. In spiking experiments, the use of this device provided efficient recovery of bladder cancer cells with elimination of >99% of excess smaller-sized cells. The performance...... degradation of cellular content, and low sensitivity due to a high background of normal cells. We present a filtration device, designed for home or point-of-care use, which enables collection, storage and shipment of urinary cells. A special feature of this device is a removable cartridge housing a membrane...

  2. Human urine-based therapeutics in Spain from the early 20th century to the present: a historical literature overview and a present-day case study.

    Vallejo, José Ramón; Aparicio Mena, Alfonso J; González, José Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Human urine is currently the subject of biomedical investigations as a potential therapeutic resource and it continues to be used in remedies in different cultures and societies, including the Spanish culture. In this study we gather etnomedical knowledge about urotherapy and determine their associated symbolisms in Spain. A literature overview and a case study were carried out to compile urine-based remedies and as a direct analysis of symbolic systems. Urotherapy is widespread in Spanish folk medicine. Among the 204 collected remedies, those related to treatment of diseases or skin conditions predominate (63%). Remedies have been reported for the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema, chloasma, alopecia, etc. to treat or alleviate burns, chilblains, wounds or skin chapping, and as a treatment of venomous bites. Most of the collected remedies have an associated naturalist symbolism, based on local traditions and the transmission of empirical initial knowledge. The use of urine in Spain is a result of the interaction of two types of practice: a local and traditional urotherapy, rural and with a utilitarian purpose, and a technical urotherapy, limited to an urban environment and a naturopathic medicine.

  3. Genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine using PCR-based amplification: effects of sample volume, storage temperature, preservatives, and aging on DNA extraction and typing.

    Vu, N T; Chaturvedi, A K; Canfield, D V

    1999-05-31

    Urine is often the sample of choice for drug screening in aviation/general forensic toxicology and in workplace drug testing. In some instances, the origin of the submitted samples may be challenged because of the medicolegal and socioeconomic consequences of a positive drug test. Methods for individualization of biological samples have reached a new boundary with the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA profiling, but a successful characterization of the urine specimens depends on the quantity and quality of DNA present in the samples. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of storage conditions, sample volume, concentration modes, extraction procedures, and chemical preservations on the quantity of DNA recovered, as well as the success rate of PCR-based genotyping for DQA1 and PM loci in urine. Urine specimens from male and female volunteers were divided and stored at various temperatures for up to 30 days. The results suggested that sample purification by dialfiltration, using 3000-100,000 molecular weight cut-off filters, did not enhance DNA recovery and typing rate as compared with simple centrifugation procedures. Extraction of urinary DNA by the organic method and by the resin method gave comparable typing results. Larger sample volume yielded a higher amount of DNA, but the typing rates were not affected for sample volumes between 1 and 5 ml. The quantifiable amounts of DNA present were found to be greater in female (14-200 ng/ml) than in male (4-60 ng/ml) samples and decreased with the elapsed time under both room temperature (RT) and frozen storage. Typing of the male samples also demonstrated that RT storage samples produced significantly higher success rates than that of frozen samples, while there was only marginal difference in the DNA typing rates among the conditions tested using female samples. Successful assignment of DQA1 + PM genotype was achieved for all samples of fresh urine, independent of gender

  4. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO_2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770 mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660 mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO_2. The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645 mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10–160 nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25 nM (based on 3S_b/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Graphical abstract: A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A composite electrode was prepared using nanoparticles of ZrO_2 and MWCNTs. • The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of terbutaline • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 2.25 nM. • The proposed electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long

  5. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  6. Efficient sample preparation method based on solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction for the trace detection of butachlor in urine and waste water samples.

    Aladaghlo, Zolfaghar; Fakhari, Alireza; Behbahani, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    In this work, an efficient sample preparation method termed solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was applied. The used sample preparation method was based on the dispersion of the sorbent (benzophenone) into the aqueous sample to maximize the interaction surface. In this approach, the dispersion of the sorbent at a very low milligram level was achieved by inserting a solution of the sorbent and disperser solvent into the aqueous sample. The cloudy solution created from the dispersion of the sorbent in the bulk aqueous sample. After pre-concentration of the butachlor, the cloudy solution was centrifuged and butachlor in the sediment phase dissolved in ethanol and determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Under the optimized conditions (solution pH = 7.0, sorbent: benzophenone, 2%, disperser solvent: ethanol, 500 μL, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 3 min), the method detection limit for butachlor was 2, 3 and 3 μg/L for distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Furthermore, the preconcentration factor was 198.8, 175.0, and 174.2 in distilled water, waste water, and urine sample, respectively. Solvent-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction was successfully used for the trace monitoring of butachlor in urine and waste water samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The utility of biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma: review of urine-based 1H-NMR studies – what the clinician needs to know

    Cartlidge CR

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Caroline R Cartlidge,1 M R Abellona U,2 Alzhraa M A Alkhatib,2 Simon D Taylor-Robinson1 1Department of Surgery and Cancer, Liver Unit, Division of Digestive Health, 2Department of Surgery and Cancer, Division of Computational and Systems Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common malignancy, the third most common cause of cancer death, and the most common primary liver cancer. Overall, there is a need for more reliable biomarkers for HCC, as those currently available lack sensitivity and specificity. For example, the current gold-standard biomarker, serum alpha-fetoprotein, has a sensitivity of roughly only 70%. Cancer cells have different characteristic metabolic signatures in biofluids, compared to healthy cells; therefore, metabolite analysis in blood or urine should lead to the detection of suitable candidates for the detection of HCC. With the advent of metabonomics, this has increased the potential for new biomarker discovery. In this article, we look at approaches used to identify biomarkers of HCC using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy of urine samples. The various multivariate statistical analysis techniques used are explained, and the process of biomarker identification is discussed, with a view to simplifying the knowledge base for the average clinician. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, biomarkers, metabonomics, urine, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 1H-NMR 

  8. Biological characteristics of human-urine-derived stem cells: potential for cell-based therapy in neurology.

    Guan, Jun-Jie; Niu, Xin; Gong, Fei-Xiang; Hu, Bin; Guo, Shang-Chun; Lou, Yuan-Lei; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Deng, Zhi-Feng; Wang, Yang

    2014-07-01

    Stem cells in human urine have gained attention in recent years; however, urine-derived stem cells (USCs) are far from being well elucidated. In this study, we compared the biological characteristics of USCs with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and investigated whether USCs could serve as a potential cell source for neural tissue engineering. USCs were isolated from voided urine with a modified culture medium. Through a series of experiments, we examined the growth rate, surface antigens, and differentiation potential of USCs, and compared them with ASCs. USCs showed robust proliferation ability. After serial propagation, USCs retained normal karyotypes. Cell surface antigen expression of USCs was similar to ASCs. With lineage-specific induction factors, USCs could differentiate toward the osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic lineages. To assess the ability of USCs to survive, differentiate, and migrate, they were seeded onto hydrogel scaffold and transplanted into rat brain. The results showed that USCs were able to survive in the lesion site, migrate to other areas, and express proteins that were associated with neural phenotypes. The results of our study demonstrate that USCs possess similar biological characteristics with ASCs and have multilineage differentiation potential. Moreover USCs can differentiate to neuron-like cells in rat brain. The present study shows that USCs are a promising cell source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  9. Effect of citrus-based products on urine profile: A systematic review and meta-analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Fakhri Rahman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urolithiasis is a disease with high recurrence rate, 30-50% within 5 years. The aim of the present study was to learn the effects of citrus-based products on the urine profile in healthy persons and people with urolithiasis compared to control diet and potassium citrate. Methods. A systematic review was performed, which included interventional, prospective observational and retrospective studies, comparing citrus-based therapy with standard diet therapy, mineral water, or potassium citrate. A literature search was conducted using PUBMED, COCHRANE, and Google Scholar with “citrus or lemonade or orange or grapefruit or lime or juice” and “urolithiasis” as search terms. For statistical analysis, a fixed-effects model was conducted when p > 0.05, and random-effects model was conducted when p < 0.05. Results. In total, 135 citations were found through database searching with 10 studies found to be consistent with our selection criteria. However, only 8 studies were included in quantitative analysis, due to data availability. The present study showed a higher increased in urine pH for citrus-based products (mean difference, 0.16; 95% CI 0.01-0.32 and urinary citrate (mean difference, 124.49; 95% CI 80.24-168.74 compared with a control group. However, no differences were found in urine volume, urinary calcium, urinary oxalate, and urinary uric acid. From subgroup analysis, we found that citrus-based products consistently increased urinary citrate level higher than controls in both healthy and urolithiasis populations. Furthermore, there was lower urinary calcium level among people with urolithiasis. Conclusions. Citrus-based products could increase urinary citrate level significantly higher than control. These results should encourage further research to explore citrus-based products as a urolithiasis treatment.

  10. Calcium in Urine Test

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  11. Temporal variability in urinary phthalate metabolite excretion based on spot, morning, and 24-h urine samples: Considerations for epidemiological studies

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Kranich, Selma K.; Jørgensen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    of exposures for these two phthalates in population studies and hence an attenuation of the power to detect possible exposure-outcome associations. The only slightly higher ICCs for 24-h pools compared to first-morning and spot urine samples does not seem to justify the extra effort needed to collect 24-h......Urinary phthalate excretion is used as marker of phthalate exposure in epidemiological studies. Here we examine the reliability of urinary phthalate levels in exposure classification by comparing the inter- and intrasubject variation of urinary phthalate metabolite levels. Thirty-three young...

  12. Preparation of a molecularly imprinted sensor based on quartz crystal microbalance for specific recognition of sialic acid in human urine.

    Qiu, Xiuzhen; Xu, Xian-Yan; Chen, Xuncai; Wu, Yiyong; Guo, Huishi

    2018-05-08

    A novel molecularly imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was successfully prepared for selective determination of sialic acid (SA) in human urine samples. To obtain the QCM sensor, we first modified the gold surface of the QCM chip by self-assembling of allylmercaptane to introduce polymerizable double bonds on the chip surface. Then, SA molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofilm was attached to the modified QCM chip surface. For comparison, we have also characterized the nonmodified and improved surfaces of the QCM sensor by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We then tested the selectivity and detection limit of the imprinted QCM sensor via a series of adsorption experiments. The results show a linear response in the range of 0.025-0.50 μmol L -1 for sialic acid. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) of the prepared imprinted QCM sensor was found to be 1.0 nmol L -1 for sialic acid, and high recovery values range from 87.6 to 108.5% with RSD sensor was developed and used to detect sialic acid in human urine samples. Graphical abstract Specific recognition of sialic acid by the MIP-QCM sensor system.

  13. Cyclodextrin-modified nanodiamond for the sensitive fluorometric determination of doxorubicin in urine based on its differential affinity towards β/γ-cyclodextrins.

    Laura Soriano, M; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2018-01-15

    The manuscript reports on the preparation of β-cyclodextrin-modified nanodiamonds (βCD-ND) for the extraction and preconcentration of the fluorescent anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) from biological samples. The inclusion of DOX into the cavities of β- and γ-cyclodextrin (CD) confirms their utility for selective extraction and elution of the drug based on its good fit to the cyclodextrin cavity. Although both larger cyclodextrins (βCD and γCD) accommodate DOX, DOX clearly prefers the bigger γCD cavities. Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction using βCD-ND as sorbent enables the inclusion complexation of DOX. The elution of DOX from βCD-ND cavities occurs with a basic solution of γCD containing 10% acetonitrile owing to the preferential affinity (i.e. optimal fit) of DOX into the larger γCD cavity. DOX is quantified by monitoring its intrinsic fluorescence (exc/em = 475/595 nm). The method can determine DOX in urine with a limit of detection of 18 ng·mL -1 . Recoveries (93.2% and 94.0%) and precision (RSDs of 5.9% and 4.7%) at 100 and 400 ng·mL -1 DOX levels in urine are satisfactory. The matrix effect is negligible even when working with undiluted urine samples. Graphical abstract Nanodiamonds functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (βCD-ND) were used as sorbent for the determination of nanomolar levels of doxorubicin (DOX). It is based on host:guest interactions ruled by different stabilities of DOX within cyclodextrin (CD) cavity-size: βCD/γCD.

  14. Pink urine syndrome

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  15. Determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine by carrier-mediated liquid-phase microextraction based on solidification of stripping phase.

    Jiang, Liwei; Chen, Yibang; Chen, Yejun; Ma, Ming; Tan, Yueming; Tang, Hao; Chen, Bo

    2015-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of monoamine neurotransmitters (MNTs) in human urine by carrier-mediated liquid-phase microextraction based on solidification of stripping phase method (CM-LPME-SSP) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD). By adding an appropriate carrier in organic phase, simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic analytes, MNTs, with high enrichment factors (22.6-36.1 folds) and excellent sample cleanup was achieved. A new strategy, solidifying the aqueous stripping phase in the back-extraction process, was developed to facilitate the collection of the stripping phase as small as a few microliters. Combined with HPLC-ECD analysis, the linear ranges of the established method were 0.015-2.0 μg/mL for NE, E, DA, and 0.020-2.0 μg/mL for 5-HT. The limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 5.5-10.8 ng/mL and 15-20 ng/mL, respectively. The relative recoveries were in the range of 87-108%, with intraday and interday relative standard deviations lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to analysis of MNTs in real urine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Creatinine urine test

    Urine creatinine test ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body entirely by the ...

  17. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  18. Uric acid - urine

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  19. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    sudden onset, progressive left sided weakness involving both upper and ... computed tomography of the brain showed right ... included a complete blood count, renal functions which were ... Urine culture had a significant growth of Klebsiella.

  20. A (1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of Time-Related Metabolic Trajectories of the Plasma, Urine and Liver Extracts of Hyperlipidemic Hamsters.

    Chun-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The hamster has been previously found to be a suitable model to study the changes associated with diet-induced hyperlipidemia in humans. Traditionally, studies of hyperlipidemia utilize serum- or plasma-based biochemical assays and histopathological evaluation. However, unbiased metabonomic technologies have the potential to identify novel biomarkers of disease. Thus, to obtain a better understanding of the progression of hyperlipidemia and discover potential biomarkers, we have used a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-NMR-based metabonomics approach to study the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma, urine and liver extracts of hamsters fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Samples were collected at different time points during the progression of hyperlipidemia, and individual proton NMR spectra were visually and statistically assessed using two multivariate analyses (MVA: principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Using the commercial software package Chenomx NMR suite, 40 endogenous metabolites in the plasma, 80 in the urine and 60 in the water-soluble fraction of liver extracts were quantified. NMR analysis of all samples showed a time-dependent transition from a physiological to a pathophysiological state during the progression of hyperlipidemia. Analysis of the identified biomarkers of hyperlipidemia suggests that significant perturbations of lipid and amino acid metabolism, as well as inflammation, oxidative stress and changes in gut microbiota metabolites, occurred following cholesterol overloading. The results of this study substantially broaden the metabonomic coverage of hyperlipidemia, enhance our understanding of the mechanism of hyperlipidemia and demonstrate the effectiveness of the NMR-based metabonomics approach to study a complex disease.

  1. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  2. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vargas, Gonzalo García [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Coahuila, Coahuila, México (Mexico); Silbergeld, Ellen K. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rothenberg, Stephen J. [Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fadrowski, Jeffrey J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rubio-Andrade, Marisela [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  3. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed

  4. A process-based model for ammonia emission from urine patches, GAG (Generation of Ammonia from Grazing): description and sensitivity analysis

    Móring, Andrea; Vieno, Massimo; M. Doherty, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    content of the soil under a urine patch and also soil pH dynamics. The model tests suggest that ammonia volatilization from a urine patch can be affected by the possible restart of urea hydrolysis after a rain event as well as CO2 emission from the soil. The vital role of temperature in NH3 exchange...

  5. Orbitrap technology for comprehensive metabolite-based liquid chromatographic–high resolution-tandem mass spectrometric urine drug screening – Exemplified for cardiovascular drugs

    Helfer, Andreas G.; Michely, Julian A.; Weber, Armin A.; Meyer, Markus R.; Maurer, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    LC–high resolution (HR)-MS well established in proteomics has become more and more important in bioanalysis of small molecules over the last few years. Its high selectivity and specificity provide best prerequisites for its use in broad screening approaches. Therefore, Orbitrap technology was tested for developing a general metabolite-based LC–HR-MS/MS screening approach for urinalysis of drugs necessary in clinical and forensic toxicology. After simple urine precipitation, the drugs and their metabolites were separated within 10 min and detected by a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full scan with positive/negative switching, and subsequent data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Identification criteria were the presence of accurate precursor ions, isotopic patterns, five most intense fragment ions, and comparison with full HR-MS/MS library spectra. The current library contains over 1900 parent drugs and 1200 metabolites. The method was validated for typical drug representatives and metabolites concerning recovery, matrix effects, process efficiency, and limits showed acceptable results. The applicability was tested first for cardiovascular drugs, which should be screened for in poisoning cases and for medication adherence of hypertension patients. The novel LC–HR-MS/MS method allowed fast, simple, and robust urine screening, particularly for cardiovascular drugs showing the usefulness of Orbitrap technology for drug testing. - Highlights: • First study on the application of Orbitrap technology for comprehensive drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology. • Simple workup, sufficient separation, and powerful screening and identification using modern high resolution MS. • Validation of the assay according to guidelines for qualitative approaches. • Elucidation of the power of new data evaluation software in combination with a new reference drug and metabolite library. • Great relevance for science and practice in clinical and forensic

  6. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method development based on ultravioletvisible detector for the analysis of 1-hydroxypyrene (PAH biomarker) in human urine.

    Kamal, Atif; Gulfraz, Mohammad; Anwar, Mohammad Asad; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-01-01

    1-hydroxypyrene is an important biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which appears in the urine of exposed human subjects. In developing countries, where advanced instruments are not available, the importance of this biomarker demands convenient and sensitive methods for determination purposes. This study aimed at developing a methodology to quantify 1-hydroxypyrene (a biomarker of PAHs exposure) based on the UV-visible detector in the reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 20 μl injection of sample was used for manual injection into the HPLC Shimadzu, equipped with the SPD-20 A UV-visible detector, the LC-20AT pump and the DGU-20A5 degasser. The C-18 column was used for the purpose of the analysis. The method showed a good linearity (the range: R2 = 0.979-0.989), and high detectability up to the nmol level. The average retention was 6.37, with the accuracy of 2%, and the percentage of recovery remained 108%. The overall performance of this method was comparable (in terms of detection sensitivity) and relatively better than previously reported studies using the HPLC system equipped with the UV-detector. This method is suitable and reliable for the detection/quantification of the 1-OHP in human urine samples, using the UV-detector, however, it is less sensitive as compared to the results of a florescence detector. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Orbitrap technology for comprehensive metabolite-based liquid chromatographic–high resolution-tandem mass spectrometric urine drug screening – Exemplified for cardiovascular drugs

    Helfer, Andreas G.; Michely, Julian A.; Weber, Armin A.; Meyer, Markus R.; Maurer, Hans H., E-mail: hans.maurer@uks.eu

    2015-09-03

    LC–high resolution (HR)-MS well established in proteomics has become more and more important in bioanalysis of small molecules over the last few years. Its high selectivity and specificity provide best prerequisites for its use in broad screening approaches. Therefore, Orbitrap technology was tested for developing a general metabolite-based LC–HR-MS/MS screening approach for urinalysis of drugs necessary in clinical and forensic toxicology. After simple urine precipitation, the drugs and their metabolites were separated within 10 min and detected by a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer in full scan with positive/negative switching, and subsequent data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Identification criteria were the presence of accurate precursor ions, isotopic patterns, five most intense fragment ions, and comparison with full HR-MS/MS library spectra. The current library contains over 1900 parent drugs and 1200 metabolites. The method was validated for typical drug representatives and metabolites concerning recovery, matrix effects, process efficiency, and limits showed acceptable results. The applicability was tested first for cardiovascular drugs, which should be screened for in poisoning cases and for medication adherence of hypertension patients. The novel LC–HR-MS/MS method allowed fast, simple, and robust urine screening, particularly for cardiovascular drugs showing the usefulness of Orbitrap technology for drug testing. - Highlights: • First study on the application of Orbitrap technology for comprehensive drug screening in clinical and forensic toxicology. • Simple workup, sufficient separation, and powerful screening and identification using modern high resolution MS. • Validation of the assay according to guidelines for qualitative approaches. • Elucidation of the power of new data evaluation software in combination with a new reference drug and metabolite library. • Great relevance for science and practice in clinical and forensic

  8. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  9. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  10. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  11. 24-hour urine protein

    ... your provider may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test ... Abnormal results may be due to: A group ...

  12. Citric acid urine test

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  13. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  14. Urine pH test

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  15. EPOR-Based Purification and Analysis of Erythropoietin Mimetic Peptides from Human Urine by Cys-Specific Cleavage and LC/MS/MS

    Vogel, Matthias; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-09-01

    The development of a new class of erythropoietin mimetic agents (EMA) for treating anemic conditions has been initiated with the discovery of oligopeptides capable of dimerizing the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and thus stimulating erythropoiesis. The most promising amino acid sequences have been mounted on various different polymeric structures or carrier molecules to obtain highly active EPO-like drugs exhibiting beneficial and desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. Concomitant with creating new therapeutic options, erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP)-based drug candidates represent means to artificially enhance endurance performance and necessitate coverage by sports drug testing methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a strategy for the comprehensive detection of EMPs in doping controls, which can be used complementary to existing protocols. Three model EMPs were used to provide proof-of-concept data. Following EPO receptor-facilitated purification of target analytes from human urine, the common presence of the cysteine-flanked core structure of EMPs was exploited to generate diagnostic peptides with the aid of a nonenzymatic cleavage procedure. Sensitive detection was accomplished by targeted-SIM/data-dependent MS2 analysis. Method characterization was conducted for the EMP-based drug peginesatide concerning specificity, linearity, precision, recovery, stability, ion suppression/enhancement, and limit of detection (LOD, 0.25 ng/mL). Additionally, first data for the identification of the erythropoietin mimetic peptides EMP1 and BB68 were generated, demonstrating the multi-analyte testing capability of the presented approach.

  16. The point-of-care colorimetric detection of the biomarker of phenylamine in the human urine based on Tb3+ functionalized metal-organic framework.

    Qin, Si-Jia; Yan, Bing

    2018-07-05

    Phenylamine has been recognized as one of the most important industrially relevant ingredient and a crucial intermediate in chemical products. Yet, its internal exposure detection in human remains largely elusive due to the lack of potent monitoring method. Hereby this issue is addressed with a probe based on lanthanide functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid material Al(OH)(bpydc) (1) through post-synthetically modified metal-organic framework. The as-synthesized Tb 3+ @1 exhibits the strong luminescence of Tb 3+ originated from efficient energy transfer from the ligand, which can sense the biological metabolite p-aminophenol (PAP) of the phenylamine in the human urine. Linear correlation between the integrated fluorescence intensity and the concentration of PAP was investigated, enabling quantitative analysis of PAP in physiologically ranges (0.005-5 mg mL -1 ) with low detection limit (5 μg mL -1 ). This probe demonstrates excellent sensitivity, high selectivity, good reusability and quick response to PAP. Furthermore, a simple and rapid smartphone-based medical portable test paper was developed, whose quantitative color change can be easily distinguished visually. Hence, the PAP sensing platform can serve as a potential diagnostic tool for home monitoring of PAP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation on a Sensitive Chemiluminescence System Based on Ni(IV Complex to Determine Two β2-Agonist Drugs in Urine and Swine Feed and Their Mechanism

    Xiao Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary drug residues, particularly traces of β2-agonists, can cause various kinds of harmful impact to the environment and public health. Here, a sensitive chemiluminescence (CL method incorporated with a flow injection analysis is developed for the determination of two β2-agonists [i.e., salbutamol (SAL and terbutaline (TEB]. The system is based on the CL reaction of Ni(IV complex with luminol in alkaline solutions, whereas SAL and TEB can significantly enhance CL intensities. Under optimum conditions, CL intensities are proportional to the SAL and TEB concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10−9 M to 5.0 × 10−7 M and 1.0 × 10−9 M to 1.0 × 10−7 M, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ are 1.0 × 10−11 M for TEB, and 1.3 × 10−11 for SAL respectively. Relative standard deviations (n = 11 are less than 2% for 5.0 × 10−8 M SAL and TEB. Possible reaction mechanisms for the CL system are suggested based on the CL system spectra, Ni(IV complex oxidation characteristics, and electron spin resonance (ESR techniques. The proposed method has been applied to the analysis of urine and swine feed samples with satisfactory results.

  18. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high-fibre rye bread

    Bertram, Hanne C; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  19. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    could be ascribed to differences in the content of betaine and creatine/creatinine between the two diets, and LC-MS analyses verified a significantly lower content of creatinine in WGD urine samples compared with NWD urine samples. In conclusion, using an explorative approach, the present studies...... disclosed biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet on plasma betaine content and excretion of betaine and creatinine....

  20. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  1. Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts

    Wang Quanjun; Jiang Ying; Wu Chunqi; Zhao Jianyu; Yu Shouzhong; Yuan Benli; Yan Xianzhong; Liao Mingyang

    2006-01-01

    Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[( 1 H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of 1 H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The 1 H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the 1 H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the

  2. Switch-on fluorescent strategy based on crystal violet-functionalized CdTe quantum dots for detecting L-cysteine and glutathione in water and urine.

    Sheng, Zhen; Chen, Ligang

    2017-10-01

    The concentration of L-cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH) is closely related to the critical risk of various diseases. In our study, a new rapid method for the determination of Cys and GSH in water and urine samples has been developed using a fluorescent probe technique, which was based on crystal violet (CV)-functionalized CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The original QDs emitted fluorescence light, which was turned off upon adding CV. This conjugation of CV and QDs could be attributed to electrostatic interaction between COO - of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on the surface of QDs and N + of CV in aqueous solution. In addition, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) also occurred between CdTe QDs and CV. After adding Cys or GSH to the solution, Cys or GSH exhibited a stronger binding preference toward Cd 2+ than Cd 2+ -MPA, which disturbed the interaction between MPA and QDs. Thus, most MPA was able to be separated from the surface of QDs because of the participation of Cys or GSH. Then, the fluorescence intensity of the CdTe QDs was enhanced. Good linear relationships were obtained in the range of 0.02-40 μg mL -1 and 0.02-50 μg mL -1 , and the detection limits were calculated as 10.5 ng mL -1 and 8.2 ng mL -1 , for Cys and GSH, respectively. In addition, the concentrations of biological thiols in water and urine samples were determined by the standard addition method using Cys as the standard; the quantitative recoveries were in the range of 97.3-105.8%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 2.5 to 3.7%. The method had several unique properties, such as simplicity, lower cost, high sensitivity, and environmental acceptability. Graphical abstract Crystal violet-functionalized CdTe quantum dots for detecting L-cysteine and glutathione with switch-on fluorescent strategy.

  3. Calibration of gamma cameras for the evaluation of accidental intakes of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides by humans based on urine samples

    Degenhardt, A.L.; Lucena, E.A.; Reis, A.A. dos; Souza, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Dosimetria

    2017-07-01

    The prompt response to emergency situations involving suspicion of intakes of radionuclides requires the use of simple and rapid methods of internal monitoring of the exposed individuals. The use of gamma cameras to estimate intakes and committed doses was investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) of the USA in 2010.The present study aims to develop a calibration protocol for gamma cameras to be applied on internal monitoring based on urine samples to evaluate the incorporation of high-energy photon emitting radionuclides in emergency situations. A gamma camera available in a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro was calibrated using a standard liquid source of {sup 152}Eu supplied by the LNMRI of the IRD.'Efficiency vs Energy' curves at 10 and 30 cm were obtained. Calibration factors, Minimum Detectable Activities and Minimum Detectable Effective Doses of the gamma camera were calculated for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The gamma camera evaluated in this work presents enough sensitivity to detect activities of such radionuclides at dose levels suitable to assess suspected accidental intakes. (author)

  4. Preconcentration of valsartan by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic drop and its determination in urine sample: Central composite design.

    Pebdani, Arezou Amiri; Shabani, Ali Mohammad Haji; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Talebianpoor, Mohammad Sharif; Khodadoust, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a fast, easy, and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method based on solidification of floating organic drop followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was developed for the separation/preconcentration and determination of the drug valsartan. Experimental design was applied for the optimization of the effective variables (such as volume of extracting and dispersing solvents, ionic strength, and pH) on the extraction efficiency of valsartan from urine samples. The optimized values were 250.0 μL ethanol, 65.0 μL 1-dodecanol, 4.0% w/v NaCl, pH 3.8, 1.0 min extraction time, and 4.0 min centrifugation at 4000 rpm min(-1) . The linear response (r(2) = 0.997) was obtained in the range of 0.013-10.0 μg mL(-1) with a limit of detection of 4.0 ng mL(-1) and relative standard deviations of less than 5.0 % (n = 6). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Daily intake and hazard index of parabens based upon 24 h urine samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank from 1995 to 2012.

    Moos, Rebecca K; Apel, Petra; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Brüning, Thomas; Koch, Holger M

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, exposure to parabens has become more of a concern because of evidence of ubiquitous exposure in the general population, combined with evidence of their potency as endocrine disruptors. New human metabolism data from oral exposure experiments enable us to back calculate daily paraben intakes from urinary paraben levels. We report daily intakes (DIs) for six parabens based on 660 24 h urine samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank collected between 1995 and 2012. Median DI values ranged between 1.1 μg/kg bw/day for iso-butyl paraben and 47.5 μg/kg bw/day for methyl paraben. The calculated DIs were compared with acceptable levels of exposure to evaluate the hazard quotients (HQs) that indicate that acceptable exposure is exceeded for values of >1. Approximately 5% of our study population exceeded this threshold for individual paraben exposure. The hazard index (HI) that takes into account the cumulative risk of adverse estrogenic effects was 1.3 at the 95th percentile and 4.4 at maximum intakes, mainly driven by n-propyl paraben exposure. HI values of >1 indicate some level of concern. However, we have to point out that we applied most conservative assumptions in the HQ/HI calculations. Also, major exposure reduction measures were enacted in the European Union after 2012.

  6. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  7. New sample preparation method based on task-specific ionic liquids for extraction and determination of copper in urine and wastewater.

    Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Zdolšek, Nikola; Đorđević, Jelena; Tot, Aleksandar; Vraneš, Milan; Gadžurić, Slobodan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs) containing 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolim cation and either salicylate or chloride anions were synthetized and studied as new task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) suitable for aqueous biphasic system (ABS) formation and selective one-step extraction of copper(II). TSILs are designed so that the anion is responsible for forming the complex with metal(II) and preventing hydrolysis of metal cations at very strong alkaline pH, whereas the cation is responsible for selective extraction of metal(II)-salicylate complexes. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate could be used for selective extraction of Cu(II) in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) at very alkaline solution without metal hydroxide formation. It was assumed that formation of metal(II)-salicylate complexes prevents the hydrolysis of the metal ions in alkaline solutions. The determined stability constants for Cu(II)-salicylate complexes, where salicylate was derived from different ionic liquids, indicated that there was no significant influence of the cation of the ionic liquid on the stability of the complexes. The ABS based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate has been applied as the sample preparation step prior to voltammetric determination of Cu(II). The effect of volume of aqueous sample and IL and extraction time were investigated and optimum extraction conditions were determined. The obtained detection limits were 8 ng dm -3 . The optimized method was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in tap water, wastewater, and urine. The study indicated that application of the ABS based on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate ionic liquid could be successfully applied as the sample preparation method for the determination of Cu(II) from various environmental samples. Graphical abstract Aqueous biphasic system based on task-specific ionic liquid as a sample pretreatment for selective determination of Cu(II) in biological and

  8. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic trajectories based on 1H NMR spectra of urines from sheep exposed to nutritional challenges during prenatal and early postnatal life

    Nyberg, Nils; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2010-01-01

    1H NMR metabolic profiles of urine from sheep exposed to prenatal nutritional restriction (n = 19) and a control group with normal prenatal nutritional requirements (n = 19), followed by either conventional (n = 10 + 10) or high carbohydrate high fat postnatal diet (n = 9 + 9), were studied. Urine...... undernutrition followed by normal postnatal diet showed metabolic patters that are ahead in time on the metabolic trajectory relative to the prenatal control group. No long-term effects of fetal undernutrition, alone or in combination with postnatal hypernutrition were observed....... amount of glucose, indicative of monogastric-like metabolism, and exhibiting concomitant increase of metabolites related to rumen microflora (mainly glycine conjugates of benzoic and phenylacetic acid) as the ruminal metabolism developed. Urines from young (2-month-old) animals exposed to prenatal...

  10. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) monolith and its application in sensitive determination of β-agonists in milk and swine urine samples

    Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Linli; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A new poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) monolith was first prepared. • The porous monolith was used as sorbent of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The new sorbent could extract β-agonists effectively by multiple interactions. • Method of determination of trace β-agonists in milk and urine samples was developed. -- Abstract: In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) based on poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) (VBADB) monolith was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions of monolith on extraction efficiencies was investigated in detail. Several characteristic techniques, such as elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the monolithic material. The combination of SCSE-VBADB with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) detection was developed for sensitive determination of ultra-trace β-agonists in milk and swine urine samples. In order to obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE-VBADB for β-agonists, several extractive parameters, including pH values and ionic strength in sample matrix, extraction and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the target analytes were 0.007–0.030 μg/L in milk and 0.002–0.011 μg/L in swine urine, respectively. Excellent method reproducibility was achieved in terms of intraday and interday precisions, indicated by the RSDs of both <10.0%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect β-agonists in different milk and swine urines samples. Acceptable recoveries ranged from 50.3% to 113% and 50.1% to 92.2% for milk and swine urine samples, respectively; and the RSDs for reproducibility were less than 8.0% for target analytes in all real samples.

  11. Preservation of urine free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites with citric acid as an alternative to hydrochloric acid for LC-MS/MS-based analyses.

    Peitzsch, Mirko; Pelzel, Daniela; Lattke, Peter; Siegert, Gabriele; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of urinary fractionated metadrenalines provide a useful screening test to diagnose phaeochromocytoma. Stability of these compounds and their parent catecholamines during and after urine collection is crucial to ensure accuracy of the measurements. Stabilisation with hydrochloric acid (HCl) can promote deconjugation of sulphate-conjugated metadrenalines, indicating a need for alternative preservatives. Urine samples with an intrinsically acidic or alkaline pH (5.5-6.9 or 7.1-8.7, respectively) were used to assess stability of free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites over 7 days of room temperature storage. Stabilisation with HCl was compared with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/metabisulphite and monobasic citric acid. Catecholamines and metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Free catecholamines and their O-methylated metabolites were stable in acidic urine samples over 7 days of room temperature storage, independent of the presence or absence of any stabilisation method. In contrast, free catecholamines, but not the free O-methylated metabolites, showed rapid degradation within 24 h and continuing degradation over 7 days in urine samples with an alkaline pH. Adjustment of alkaline urine samples to a pH of 3-5 with HCl or 4.8-5.4 with citric acid completely blocked degradation of catecholamines. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid/metabisulphite, although reducing the extent of degradation of catecholamines in alkaline urine, was largely ineffectual as a stabiliser. Citric acid is equally effective as HCl for stabilisation of urinary free catecholamines and minimises hazards associated with use of strong inorganic acids while avoiding deconjugation of sulphate-conjugated metabolites during simultaneous LC-MS/MS measurements of free catecholamines and their free O-methylated metabolites.

  12. Sensitive and simple determination of zwitterionic morphine in human urine based on liquid-liquid micro-extraction coupled with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Yu, Borong; Cao, Chentai; Li, Pan; Mao, Mei; Xie, Qiwen; Yang, Liangbao

    2018-08-15

    Morphine, a kind of illicit drugs, is also one of the main heroin metabolites. In consideration of a noninvasive way to monitor and identify drug abuse during forensic cases, the urine samples are usually detected. Here, colloidal gold nanorods (Au NRs) were introduced to act as active substrate, because of the strong optical extinction and spectral tunability of the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Thus, well surface-enhanced Raman spectra of morphine even at low concentrations could be obtained by portable Raman spectrometer. For the complex matrix environment of urine, liquid-liquid micro-extraction (LLME), a simple and inexpensive pretreatment, was employed to avoid the interferences. And then, the coupled surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can give full play to the advantages of high sensitivity and unique spectroscopic fingerprint. According to the zwitterionic structure and physicochemical parameters of morphine molecules, the pH value of urine sample was adjusted to about 9 by buffer solution (KOH/NaB 4 O 7 ) and the mixture of chloroform and isopropyl alcohol (V/V=9:1) was chosen as extractant. Moreover, such pretreatment was proved to be appropriate for separation and concentration of morphine from urine. The developed LLME-SERS method could provide a detection limit less than 1 ppm in the human urine environment and the whole process of detection just needed take 5-6 min. What's more, the results of urine samples from heroin users exhibited application value of the proposed technique. The excellent performance makes it promising to become a rapid, reliable, and on-spot analyzer, especially for public safety and healthcare. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine

    Jacobs, D.M.; Spiesser, L.; Garnier, M.; Roo, de N.; Dorsten, van F.; Hollebrands, B.; Velzen, van E.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    NMR-based metabolite profiling of urine is a fast and reproducible method for detection of numerous metabolites with diverse chemical properties. However, signal overlap in the (1)H NMR profiles of human urine may hamper quantification and identification of metabolites. Therefore, a new method has

  14. Evaluation of Temporal Changes in Urine-based Metabolomic and Kidney Injury Markers to Detect Compound Induced Acute Kidney Tubular Toxicity in Beagle Dogs.

    Wagoner, M P; Yang, Y; McDuffie, J E; Klapczynski, M; Buck, W; Cheatham, L; Eisinger, D; Sace, F; Lynch, K M; Sonee, M; Ma, J-Y; Chen, Y; Marshall, K; Damour, M; Stephen, L; Dragan, Y P; Fikes, J; Snook, S; Kinter, L B

    2017-01-01

    Urinary protein biomarkers and metabolomic markers have been leveraged to detect acute Drug Induced Kidney Injury (DIKI) in rats; however, the utility of these indicators to enable early detection of DIKI in canine models has not been well documented. Therefore, we evaluated temporal changes in biomarkers and metabolites in urine from male and female beagle dogs. Gentamicin- induced kidney lesions in male dogs were characterized by moderate to severe tubular epithelial cell degeneration/necrosis, epithelial cell regeneration and dilation; and a unique urinebased metabolomic fingerprint. These metabolite changes included time and treatment-dependent increases in lactate, taurine, glucose, lactate, alanine, and citrate as well as 9 other known metabolites. As early as 3 days post dose, gentamicin induced increases in urinary albumin, clusterin, neutrophil gelatinase associated protein (NGAL) and total protein concentrations. Urinary albumin, clusterin, and NGAL showed earlier and more robust elevations than traditional kidney safety biomarkers, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Elevations in urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) were less reliable for detection of gentamicin nephrotoxicity in dogs based on values generated utilizing multiple first-generation, canine-specific KIM-1 immunoassays. The metabolic fingerprint was further evaluated in male and female dogs that received Compound A which induced slightly reversible renal tubular alterations characterized as degeneration/necrosis and concurrent significant increases in urinary taurine amongst other markers. These data support further investigations to demonstrate the value of urinary metabolites, albumin, clusterin, NGAL and taurine as promising markers to enable early detection of DIKI in dogs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  16. UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS-Based Screening and Identification of Flavonoids and Derived Metabolites in Human Urine after Oral Administration of Exocarpium Citri Grandis Extract

    Xuan Zeng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Exocarpium Citri grandis (ECG is an important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for the treatment of cough and phlegm, and the flavonoids contained were considered the main effective components. To date, the systematic chemical profiling of these flavonoids and derived in vivo metabolites in human have not been well investigated. ECG was extracted using boiling water and then provided to volunteers for oral administration. Following the ingestion, urine samples were collected from volunteers over 48 h. The extract and urine samples were analyzed using ultra-fast liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS system to screen and identify flavonoids and derived in vivo metabolites. A total of 18 flavonoids were identified in the ECG extract, and 20 metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, were screened in urine samples collected post consumption. The overall excretion of naringenin metabolites corresponded to 5.45% of intake and occurred mainly within 4–12 h after the ingestion. Meanwhile, another 29 phenolic catabolites were detected in urine. Obtained data revealed that flavonoids were abundant in the ECG extract, and these components underwent extensive phase II metabolism in humans. These results provided valuable information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of action of ECG.

  17. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): a comparison of intakes based on urine versus autopsy data from Mayak workers using the Leggett systemic model for plutonium

    Birchall, A.; Dorrian, M.-D.; Suslova, K. G.; Sokolova, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013 (MWDS-2013) uses a model developed by Leggett and colleagues to represent the biokinetic behaviour of plutonium after uptake to blood. Of particular importance, with regard to estimating intakes (and doses), is the distribution of activity between urine and body organs (particularly liver and skeleton). In this study, measurement data (urine and autopsy) from around 500 Mayak workers have been used to validate use of this model. A robust method has been developed and used to estimate intakes from both urine and autopsy data separately, and the ratio of these estimates has been calculated for each worker. The geometric mean ratio has been shown to lie within a range of 0.92-1.14, depending on assumptions made. Since this range includes 1, the hypothesis that the model is unbiased with regard to estimating intakes either with urine or autopsy data cannot be rejected on the basis of these data. This lends weight to the argument for increasing the MWDS-2013 cohort to include an additional 500 workers for whom only autopsy data are available, and who have previously been excluded from the cohort. Future directions in which this work could be extended are also suggested. (authors)

  18. Urine-Based Nested PCR for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Comparative Study Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

    Jamshidi Makiani, Mahin; Davoodian, Parivash; Baghershiroodi, Mahnaz; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Fakkhar, Farideh; Zangeneh, Mehrangiz; Jahangiri, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) can be diagnosed by microscopy and culture, the sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining is variable and culture results require 4 - 8 weeks to be determined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its modifications, including nested PCR, might be promising methods for the rapid diagnosis of TB. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of nested PCR on urine samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative patients with different manifestations of clinical TB. In a prospective study, three early-morning urine samples from 100 patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) were evaluated using a molecular target with insertion element IS6110, specific to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and nested PCR was performed. The results were analyzed with SPSS version 22. A total of 100 patients, including 74 (74%) with PTB and 26 (26%) with EPTB, were enrolled. Positive smears were seen in 38 patients (38%). Lymph nodes were the most commonly involved organ in 14 of the 26 (53.8%) EPTB patients (13.5%). Seven (23.1%) of the EPTB patients were HIV-positive. Urine PCR was positive in only 28 patients (28%). Seven HIV-positive patients with PTB showed positive urine PCR results. Moreover, PCR results were positive in only one of the seven HIV-positive subjects with EPTB. Positive PCR results were found in 20 of the 73 HIV-negative patients (27.4%) and in 8 of the 27 HIV-positive patients (29.6%). Therefore, there was no significant difference between the HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients for urine PCR (sensitivity 29.6%, specificity 72.6%; positive and negative predictive values 28% and 72%, respectively; P = 0.138). Nested PCR showed the same sensitivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. It can be applied as a rapid technique for the diagnosis of TB.

  19. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  20. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  1. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  2. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1μg/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1μg/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8μg/ml and from 4.5 to 530μg/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual

  3. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  4. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  5. A simple method for estimation of phosphorous in urine

    Chaudhary, Seema; Gondane, Sonali; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Following internal contamination of 32 P, it is preferentially eliminated from the body in urine. It is estimated by in-situ precipitation of ammonium molybdo-phosphate (AMP) in urine followed by gross beta counting. The amount of AMP formed in-situ depends on the amount of stable phosphorous (P) present in the urine and hence, it was essential to generate information regarding urinary excretion of stable P. If amount of P excreted is significant then the amount of AMP formed would correspondingly increase leading to absorption of some of the β particles. The present study was taken up for the estimation of daily urinary excretion of P using the phospho-molybdate spectrophotometry method. Few urine samples received from radiation workers were analyzed and based on the observed range of stable P in urine; volume of sample required for 32 P estimation was finalized

  6. The first report: An analysis of bacterial flora of the first voided urine specimens of patients with male urethritis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method.

    You, Chunlin; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Hachisuga, Toru; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the bacterial flora of urine from patients with male urethritis using the clone library method. Urine specimens from patients with urethritis were used. The bacterial flora was analysed according to the 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based clone library method. In addition, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum or Ureaplasma parvum were detected by the conventional PCR methods (TMA or real-time PCR) and data from the clone library and conventional PCR methods were compared. Among 58 urine specimens, 38 were successfully analysed using the clone library method. From the specimens, 2427 clones were evaluated and 95 bacterial phylotypes were detected. N. gonorrhoeae was detected from 6 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 5 specimens. M. genitalium was detected from 5 specimens and as the predominant bacterial species in 3 specimens. C. trachomatis was detected from 15 specimens using the TMA method, but was detected from only 1 specimen using the clone library method. U. parvum was detected from only 2 specimens using the clone library method. In addition, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis were also detected in 8 and 1 specimens, respectively. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is a potential pathogen for bacterial vaginitis in women, was detected in 10 specimens. The clone library method can detect the occupancy rate of each bacteria species among the bacterial flora and may be a new method for bacterial analyses in male urethritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase diagnostic yield in children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.

    Ohara, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Tsugio

    2004-01-01

    The effects of dietary habits on mutagenic activity in urine were investigated using the umu test based on the use of the genetically engineered bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 pSK1002. Genotoxic effects in sample urine were detected by measuring the activation of the SOS response in the bacteria and recording the beta- galactosidase activity. Human subjects consisted of smokers and non-smokers. Urine from subjects who consumed fish showed the highest mutagenic activity, followed by the urine samples from subjects who ate pork or beef. Chicken induced a low level of mutagenic activity. When the subjects ate fried or roasted animal foods, the urine samples gave higher mutagenicity than the urine samples from the subject who consumed non-fried or non-roasted animal foods. When the subject ate vegetables along with a diet rich in animal foods, the activity in urine decreased. Herbs and spices gave the same tendency toward decline as vegetables. Non-smoker urine shower mutagenic activity than samples from smokers.

  9. Survival of enteric bacteria in source-separated human urine used ...

    MAKAYA

    Urine in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Cultivation. Agric. Food Sci. 18:57-68. Pronk W, Koné D (2010). Options for urine treatment in developing countries. Desalination 251:360-368. Schönning C, Leeming R, Stenström TA (2002). Faecal contamination of source-separated human urine based on the content of faecal sterols ...

  10. Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.; Bendahl, L.

    2001-01-01

    Urine samples were extracted by benzo-15-crown-5-ether to remove sodium and potassium. More than 90% of the sodium and potassium content of the urine was removed with this extraction. In a cation-exchange system based on oxalic acid at pH 3, chromatography of an untreated urine pool resulted...

  11. Application of {sup 1}H-NMR-based metabolomics for detecting injury induced by long-term microwave exposure in Wistar rats' urine

    Wang, Li-Feng; Peng, Rui-Yun; Wang, Shui-Ming; Gao, Ya-Bing; Dong, Ji; Zhao, Li; Li, Xiang; Zuo, Hong-Yan; Wang, Chang-Zhen [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Laboratory of Pathology, Beijing (China); Hu, Xiang-Jun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Gao, Rong-Lian [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Laser Medicine, Beijing (China); Su, Zhen-Tao [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Radiation Protection, Beijing (China); Feng, Xin-Xing [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Endocrine and Cardiovascular Center, Fuwai Hospital and Cardiovascular Institute, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    There has been growing public concern regarding exposure to microwave fields as a potential human health hazard. This study aimed to identify sensitive biochemical indexes for the detection of injury induced by microwave exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to microwaves for 6 min per day, 5 days per week over a period of 1 month at an average power density of 5 mW/cm{sup 2} (specific absorption rate of 2.1 W/kg). Urine specimens were collected over 24 h in metabolic cages at 7 days, 21 days, 2 months, and 6 months after exposure. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy data were analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Urine metabolic profiles of rats after long-term microwave exposure were significantly differentiated from those of sham-treated controls using principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis. Significant differences in low molecular weight metabolites (acetate, succinate, citrate, ketoglutarate, glucose, taurine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and hippurate) were identified in the 5 mW/cm{sup 2} microwave exposure group compared with the sham-treated controls at 7 days, 21 days, and 2 months. Metabolites returned to normal levels by 6 months after exposure. These data indicated that these metabolites were related to the perturbations of energy metabolism particularly in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the metabolism of amino acids, monoamines, and choline in urine represent potential indexes for the detection of injury induced by long-term microwave exposure. (orig.)

  12. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  13. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  14. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  15. Preferential flow, nitrogen transformations and 15N balance under urine-affected areas of irrigated and non-irrigated clover-based pastures

    Pakro, Naser; Dillon, Peter

    1995-12-01

    Urine-affected areas can lead to considerable losses of N by leaching, ammonia volatilisation and denitrification from dairy pastures in the southeast of South Australia. Potable groundwater supplies are considered to have become contaminated by nitrate as a result of leaching from these leguminous pastures. Dairy cow urine, labelled with 15N urea, was applied to micro-plots and mini-lysimeters installed in two adjacent irrigated (white clover-rye grass) and non-irrigated (subterranean clover-annual grasses) paddocks of a dairy farm on four occasions representing different seasonal conditions. These experiments allowed measurement of nitrogen transformations, recovery of 15N in the pasture and soil, and leaching below various depths. Gaseous losses were calculated from the nitrogen balance. The results of the four experiments showed that within a day of urine application up to 40% of the applied urinary-N was leached below a depth of 150 mm as a result of macropore flow in the irrigated paddock, and up to 24% in the non-irrigated one. After application to the irrigated paddock 17% of the urinary-N moved immediately below 300 mm but only 2% below the 450-mm depth. The urinary-N remaining in the soil was converted from urea to ammonium within a day regardless of season. Within the first 7 days of application six times more nitrate was produced in summer than in winter. This has obvious implications for leaching potential. Leaching of 15N from the top 150 mm of soil, following urine applications in all seasons, was between 41% and 62% of the applied 15N in the irrigated paddock and 25-51% in the non-irrigated paddock. However, leaching losses measured at depths of 300 or 450 mm were smaller by a factor of 2-4. The leaching loss of 15N applied in spring in both paddocks was 41% below 150 mm and 12% below 450 mm. Recovery of 15N from the soil-plant system in the 450-nm deep lysimeters was ˜60% of that applied. Estimated ammonia was ˜9% of applied 15N with no paddock

  16. Use of Urine Testing in Outpatients Treated for Urinary Tract Infection

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Smith, Alexandria; Hanley, Janet; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize urine test use in ambulatory, antibiotic-treated pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: We studied children UTI and a temporally associated antibiotic prescription from 2002 through 2007 by using a large claims database, Innovus i3. We evaluated urine-testing trends and performed multivariable logistic regression to assess for factors associated with urine culture use. RESULTS: Of 40 603 treated UTI episodes in 28 678 children, urinalysis was performed in 76%, and urine culture in 57%; 32% of children UTI episode. Urine culture use decreased during the study period from 60% to 54% (P UTI and urologic anomalies were not. CONCLUSIONS: Providers often do not obtain urine tests when prescribing antibiotics for outpatient pediatric UTI. Variation in urine culture use was observed based on age, gender, and physician specialty. Additional research is necessary to determine the implications of empirical antibiotic prescription for pediatric UTI without confirmatory urine testing. PMID:23918886

  17. A competitive immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Hg(2+) in water, human serum and urine samples using immunochromatographic test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    She, Pei; Chu, Yanxin; Liu, Chunwei; Guo, Xun; Zhao, Kang; Li, Jianguo; Du, Haijing; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Deng, Anping

    2016-02-04

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT) strip was developed for ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay of Hg(2+). This strategy was achieved by combining the easy-operation and rapidity of ICT with the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Hg(2+) and Raman active substance 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared as an immunoprobe. The Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICT strip was measured for quantitative determination of Hg(2+). The ICT was able to directly detect Hg(2+) without complexing due to the specific recognition of the mAb with Hg(2+). The IC50 and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for Hg(2+) detection were 0.12 ng mL(-1) and 0.45 pg mL(-1), respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other nineteen ions and the ICT strips could be kept for 5 weeks without loss of activity. The recoveries of the assay for water, human serum and urine samples spiked with Hg(2+) were in range of 88.3-107.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.5-9.5% (n = 3). The proposed ICT was used for the detection of Hg(2+) in urine samples collected from Occupational Disease Hospital and the results were confirmed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS). The assay exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, precision and accuracy, demonstrating a promising method for the detection of trace amount of Hg(2+) in environmental water samples and biological serum and urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A competitive immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Hg"2"+ in water, human serum and urine samples using immunochromatographic test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    She, Pei; Chu, Yanxin; Liu, Chunwei; Guo, Xun; Zhao, Kang; Li, Jianguo; Du, Haijing; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Deng, Anping

    2016-01-01

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT) strip was developed for ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay of Hg"2"+. This strategy was achieved by combining the easy-operation and rapidity of ICT with the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Hg"2"+ and Raman active substance 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared as an immunoprobe. The Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICT strip was measured for quantitative determination of Hg"2"+. The ICT was able to directly detect Hg"2"+ without complexing due to the specific recognition of the mAb with Hg"2"+. The IC_5_0 and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for Hg"2"+ detection were 0.12 ng mL"−"1 and 0.45 pg mL"−"1, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other nineteen ions and the ICT strips could be kept for 5 weeks without loss of activity. The recoveries of the assay for water, human serum and urine samples spiked with Hg"2"+ were in range of 88.3–107.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.5–9.5% (n = 3). The proposed ICT was used for the detection of Hg"2"+ in urine samples collected from Occupational Disease Hospital and the results were confirmed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS). The assay exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, precision and accuracy, demonstrating a promising method for the detection of trace amount of Hg"2"+ in environmental water samples and biological serum and urine samples. - Highlights: • The proposed ICT was able to directly detect Hg"2"+ without formation of Hg"2"+-ligand complex. • The proposed ICT exhibited high sensitivity, specificity, stability, precision and accuracy for Hg"2"+ detection. • The proposed ICT was applicable for the detection of trace amount of Hg"2"+ in water, human serum and urine samples.

  19. Increasing the spatial scale of process-based agricultural systems models by representing heterogeneity: The case of urine patches in grazed pastures

    Snow, Val O.; Cichota, R; McAuliffe, John

    2017-01-01

    -paddock simulation. It explicitly preserves the soil carbon and nitrogen heterogeneity but does not require independent simulation of soil water and plant processes and is temporal in that the patches of heterogeneity can appear and disappear during the simulation. The approach was tested through comparison...... to simulations that more-closely represented field conditions and which contained independent urine patches. The testing was successful, reducing substantial error in the simulation of pasture grazed and leaching for modest increases in simulation execution time but we recommend additional testing under very low...

  20. A competitive immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Hg{sup 2+} in water, human serum and urine samples using immunochromatographic test based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    She, Pei; Chu, Yanxin [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Chunwei; Guo, Xun [OptoTrace (Suzhou) Technologies, Inc., STE 316, Building 4, No. 218, Xinghu Street, bioBAY, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Kang [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: lijgsd@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Du, Haijing; Zhang, Xiang [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Hong [OptoTrace (Suzhou) Technologies, Inc., STE 316, Building 4, No. 218, Xinghu Street, bioBAY, Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou 215123 (China); Deng, Anping, E-mail: denganping@suda.edu.cn [The Key Lab of Health Chemistry & Molecular Diagnosis of Suzhou, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Materials Science, Soochow University, Renai Road 199, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2016-02-04

    An immunochromatographic test (ICT) strip was developed for ultrasensitive competitive immunoassay of Hg{sup 2+}. This strategy was achieved by combining the easy-operation and rapidity of ICT with the high sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Monoclonal antibody (mAb) against Hg{sup 2+} and Raman active substance 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) dual labelled gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared as an immunoprobe. The Raman scattering intensity of MBA on the test line of the ICT strip was measured for quantitative determination of Hg{sup 2+}. The ICT was able to directly detect Hg{sup 2+} without complexing due to the specific recognition of the mAb with Hg{sup 2+}. The IC{sub 50} and limit of detection (LOD) of the assay for Hg{sup 2+} detection were 0.12 ng mL{sup −1} and 0.45 pg mL{sup −1}, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity (CR) of the assay with other nineteen ions and the ICT strips could be kept for 5 weeks without loss of activity. The recoveries of the assay for water, human serum and urine samples spiked with Hg{sup 2+} were in range of 88.3–107.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.5–9.5% (n = 3). The proposed ICT was used for the detection of Hg{sup 2+} in urine samples collected from Occupational Disease Hospital and the results were confirmed by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CV-AFS). The assay exhibited high sensitivity, selectivity, stability, precision and accuracy, demonstrating a promising method for the detection of trace amount of Hg{sup 2+} in environmental water samples and biological serum and urine samples. - Highlights: • The proposed ICT was able to directly detect Hg{sup 2+} without formation of Hg{sup 2+}-ligand complex. • The proposed ICT exhibited high sensitivity, specificity, stability, precision and accuracy for Hg{sup 2+} detection. • The proposed ICT was applicable for the detection of trace amount of Hg{sup 2+} in water, human serum and urine samples.

  1. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism . After completing their actions, catecholamines are metabolized to ...

  2. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitr...

  3. UPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based urine and plasma metabonomics study on the ameliorative effects of aspirin eugenol ester in hyperlipidemia rats.

    Ma, Ning; Karam, Isam; Liu, Xi-Wang; Kong, Xiao-Jun; Qin, Zhe; Li, Shi-Hong; Jiao, Zeng-Hua; Dong, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of aspirin eugenol ester (AEE) in hyperlipidemic rat. After five-week oral administration of AEE in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats, the impact of AEE on plasma and urine metabonomics was investigated to explore the underlying mechanism by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS analysis. Blood lipid levels and histopathological changes of liver, stomach and duodenum were also evaluated after AEE treatment. Without obvious gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, AEE significantly relieved fatty degeneration of liver and reduced triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol (TCH) (P<0.01). Clear separations of metabolic profiles were observed among control, model and AEE groups by using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). 16 endogenous metabolites in plasma and 18 endogenous metabolites in urine involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation, amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle, sphingolipid metabolism, gut microflora and pyrimidine metabolism were considered as potential biomarkers of hyperlipidemia and be regulated by AEE administration. It might be concluded that AEE was a promising drug candidate for hyperlipidemia treatment. These findings could contribute to the understanding of action mechanisms of AEE and provide evidence for further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Online micro-solid-phase extraction based on boronate affinity monolithic column coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine.

    Yang, Xiaoting; Hu, Yufei; Li, Gongke

    2014-05-16

    Quantification of monoamine neurotransmitters is very important in diagnosing and monitoring of patients with neurological disorders. We developed an online analytical method to selectively determine urinary monoamine neurotransmitters, which coupled the boronate affinity monolithic column micro-solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared by in situ polymerization of vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) in a stainless capillary column. The prepared monolithic column showed good permeability, high extraction selectivity and capacity. The column-to-column reproducibility was satisfactory and the enrichment factors were 17-243 for four monoamine neurotransmitters. Parameters that influence the online extraction efficiency, including pH of sample solution, flow rate of extraction and desorption, extraction volume and desorption volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method exhibited low limit of detection (0.06-0.80μg/L), good linearity (with R(2) between 0.9979 and 0.9993). The recoveries in urine samples were 81.0-105.5% for four monoamine neurotransmitters with intra- and inter-day RSDs of 2.1-8.2% and 3.7-10.6%, respectively. The online analytical method was sensitive, accurate, selective, reliable and applicable to analysis of trace monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Women with symptoms of a urinary tract infection but a negative urine culture: PCR-based quantification of Escherichia coli suggests infection in most cases.

    Heytens, S; De Sutter, A; Coorevits, L; Cools, P; Boelens, J; Van Simaey, L; Christiaens, T; Vaneechoutte, M; Claeys, G

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to examine whether or not women with symptoms of a urinary tract infection but with a negative culture (20%-30%) do have an infection. We performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, on top of a standard culture, in urine samples from 220 women with dysuria and/or frequency and/or urgency and from 86 women without symptoms. For symptomatic women, qPCR was also carried out for four sexually transmitted agents. In the symptomatic group, 80.9% (178/220) of the urine cultures were positive for any uropathogen and 95.9% (211/220) were E. coli qPCR-positive. For the control group, cultures for E. coli and E. coli qPCR were positive in, respectively, 10.5% (9/86) and 11.6% (10/86). In the symptomatic group, qPCR yielded 19 positive samples for S. saprophyticus qPCR, one positive sample for Mycoplasma genitalium and one for Trichomonas vaginalis. These findings suggest that almost all women with typical urinary complaints and a negative culture still have an infection with E. coli. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Cutoff Level for Urine Protein in Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis.

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Curek, Gulten; Eren, Esin; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) maintains its importance in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathies. In particular, urine IFE detects free light chains (FLC) in urine samples even at low concentrations and offers higher sensitivity compared to serum electrophoresis and serum IFE. The aim of the present study was to determine the place and significance of quantitative urinary protein measurement before IFE in interpreting the results of subsequent IFE and to determine the most appropriate protein concentrations for the appearance of bands. The records of a total of 600 patients, who underwent screening for Bence Jones proteinuria using IFE on 24-hour urine, were retrospectively reviewed. Urine IFE was performed using Helena SAS-I and SAS-I devices. The total protein concentration in the urine was quantitatively determined by the Pyrogallol red method, and the urine albumin level was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. These analyses were measured on an Olympus/Beckmann AU5800. The evaluation of IFE results revealed that 311 patients had normal results, 108 patients had monoclonal bands, five patients had biclonal bands, 28 had polyclonal bands, and 148 patients had various degrees of proteinuria. ROC curves were created in order to determine the most appropriate urinary protein and albumin levels to observe bands in IFE. Accordingly, urine baseline protein level (mg/dL) showed the highest AUC value (cutoff value: 19.4 mg/dL, sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 98.2%, AUC: 0.972). The present study showed that quantitative protein measurement before IFE eliminated the disadvantages associated with the IFE method and its interpretation.

  7. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  8. A comprehensive procedure based on gas chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrometry following high performance liquid chromatography purification for the analysis of underivatized testosterone and its analogues in human urine

    Torre, Xavier de la; Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Molaioni, Francesco; Botrè, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overall approach for urine samples purification by HPLC for subsequent GC/C/IRMS analysis in doping control. ► Detection of pseudo-endogenous androgenic steroids (i.e. testosterone, androstenedione) misuse in sports. ► Routine analysis of steroids by GC/C/IRMS in sports drug testing. - Abstract: The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC–IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3 ‰ 13 C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6 ‰ 13 C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.

  9. A comprehensive procedure based on gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry following high performance liquid chromatography purification for the analysis of underivatized testosterone and its analogues in human urine

    Torre, Xavier de la, E-mail: xavier.delatorre@gmail.com [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Molaioni, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Botre, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Management, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall approach for urine samples purification by HPLC for subsequent GC/C/IRMS analysis in doping control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of pseudo-endogenous androgenic steroids (i.e. testosterone, androstenedione) misuse in sports. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routine analysis of steroids by GC/C/IRMS in sports drug testing. - Abstract: The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC-IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.

  10. In-tube solid-phase microextraction based on NH2-MIL-53(Al)-polymer monolithic column for online coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography for directly sensitive analysis of estrogens in human urine.

    Luo, Xialin; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a novel NH 2 -MIL-53(Al) incorporated poly(styrene-divinylbenzene-methacrylic acid) (poly(St-DVB-MAA)) monolith was prepared via chemical fabrication. Moreover, it has been efficiently applied to the in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for online coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to the direct determination of five estrogens in human urine samples. The NH 2 -MIL-53(Al)-polymer monolith was suitable for in-tube SPME owing to its good permeability, high extraction efficiency, chemical stability, good reproducibility and long lifetime. The extraction conditions including extraction solvent, pH of sample solution, flow rate of extraction and desorption, and desorption volume were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors were 180-304 and saturated amounts of extraction were 2326-21393 pmol for estriol, 17β-estradiol, estrone, ethinyl estradiol and progesterone, respectively. The adsorption mechanism was also explored which contributed to its strong extraction to target compounds. The proposed method had low limit of detection (2.0-40ng/L) and good linearity (with R 2 between 0.9908 and 0.9978). Four endogenous estrogens were detected in urine samples and the recoveries of all five analytes were ranged from 75.1-120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 8.7%. The results showed that the proposed online SPME-HPLC method based on NH 2 -MIL-53(Al)-polymer monolithic column was highly sensitive for directly monitoring trace amount of estrogens in human urine sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  12. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    in infection rate between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples. Conclusions: At present, no evidence suggests that sampling technique affects the accuracy of the microbiological diagnosis in non-pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. However......Background: Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection...... a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. Results: We included...

  13. The effects of gliadin on urine metabolome in mice

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Zhang, Li; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    Gliadin, a proline-rich protein of gluten, is thought to modulate the gut microbiota and affect the intestinal permeability and immune system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of gliadin on the host and microbial metabolism. To study this, we compared the urine metabolome of two...... groups of mice, which were on a high fat diet with and without gliadin, respectively, for 23 weeks. Using liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (MS) followed by multivariate analyses we were able to show a clear separation of the two groups of mice based on their urine metabolome. Discriminating...... in the gliadin mice. Also, Maillard reaction products and β-oxidized tocopherols were observed in higher levels in the urine of gliadin mice, suggesting increased oxidative stress in the gliadin mice. Indisputably, gliadin affected the urine metabolome. However, the mechanisms behind the observed metabolite...

  14. Proton NMR-based metabolite analyses of archived serial paired serum and urine samples from myeloma patients at different stages of disease activity identifies acetylcarnitine as a novel marker of active disease.

    Alessia Lodi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomarker identification is becoming increasingly important for the development of personalized or stratified therapies. Metabolomics yields biomarkers indicative of phenotype that can be used to characterize transitions between health and disease, disease progression and therapeutic responses. The desire to reproducibly detect ever greater numbers of metabolites at ever diminishing levels has naturally nurtured advances in best practice for sample procurement, storage and analysis. Reciprocally, since many of the available extensive clinical archives were established prior to the metabolomics era and were not processed in such an 'ideal' fashion, considerable scepticism has arisen as to their value for metabolomic analysis. Here we have challenged that paradigm. METHODS: We performed proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomics on blood serum and urine samples from 32 patients representative of a total cohort of 1970 multiple myeloma patients entered into the United Kingdom Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial. FINDINGS: Using serial paired blood and urine samples we detected metabolite profiles that associated with diagnosis, post-treatment remission and disease progression. These studies identified carnitine and acetylcarnitine as novel potential biomarkers of active disease both at diagnosis and relapse and as a mediator of disease associated pathologies. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that samples conventionally processed and archived can provide useful metabolomic information that has important implications for understanding the biology of myeloma, discovering new therapies and identifying biomarkers potentially useful in deciding the choice and application of therapy.

  15. Urine Sodium in 3 Consecutive Days Urine collected from ...

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that salt sensitivity, which is a heritable trait, is a hallmark to hypertension in blacks. Previous studies on twenty-four hour urinary sodium were either incomplete or yielded contradictory results possibly from incomplete urine collection. This study attempted complete ...

  16. The migration of drugs-of-abuse from Europe to Denmark – Analysis of pooled anonymous urine from urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christiansen, Cecilie; Soe, Jesper

    or through police seizures [2]. We carried out a cross-sectional study of collected pooled anonymous urine, sampled from urinals at the biggest music festival during the year, Roskilde Festival, with the aim to detect classic recreational drugs and NPS. The aim of this study was to identify recreational...... drugs currently used and predict the emergence of NPS by comparing study data with seizure data from the previous year published by EMCDDA [1]. Methods: In total 44 urine samples were collected from three urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016. Two urinals were placed at music stages with late-night concerts...... drugs were identified in pooled urine samples. While the widespread use of these drugs at the festival was confirmed, the prevalence of NPS was not as comprehensive as expected based on the EMCDDA report [1] and the Danish report on illegal drugs [2]. The limited use of NPS and the substantial dilution...

  17. Validation of a new test for Schistosoma haematobium based on detection of Dra1 DNA fragments in urine: evaluation through latent class analysis.

    Olufunmilola Ibironke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in chronically infected adults is challenging but important, especially because long term infection of the bladder and urinary tract can have dire consequences. We evaluated three tests for viable infection: detection of parasite specific DNA Dra1 fragments, haematuria and presence of parasite eggs for sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp.Over 400 urine specimens collected from adult volunteers in an endemic area in Western Nigeria were assessed for haematuria then filtered in the field, the filter papers dried and later examined for eggs and DNA. The results were stratified according to sex and age and subjected to Latent Class analysis.Presence of Dra1 in males (Se=100%; Sp=100% exceeded haematuria (Se=87.6%: Sp=34.7% and detection of eggs (Se=70.1%; Sp=100%. In females presence of Dra1 was Se=100%: Sp=100%, exceeding haematuria (Se=86.7%: Sp=77.0% and eggs (Se=70.1%; Sp=100%. Dra1 became undetectable 2 weeks after praziquantel treatment. We conclude detection of Dra1 fragment is a definitive test for the presence of Schistosoma haematobium infection.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer based quartz crystal microbalance sensor system for sensitive and label-free detection of synthetic cannabinoids in urine.

    Battal, Dilek; Akgönüllü, Semra; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yavuz, Handan; Denizli, Adil

    2018-07-15

    Herein, we prepared a novel quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-073, JWH-073 butanoic acid, JWH-018 and JWH-018 pentanoic acid,) detection. Firstly, the synthetic cannabinoid (SCs) imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) nanoparticles were synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization system. The SCs-imprinted nanoparticles were first characterized by SEM, TEM, zeta-size and FTIR-ATR analysis and then were dropped onto the gold QCM surface. The SCs-imprinted QCM sensor was characterized by an ellipsometer, contact angle, and AFM. The limit of detection was found as 0.3, 0.45, 0.4, 0.2 pg/mL JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-018 pentanoic acid and JWH-073 butanoic acid, respectively. The selectivity of the SCs-imprinted QCM sensor was shown by using JWH-018, JWH-018 pentanoic acid, JWH-073 and JWH-073 butanoic acid. According to the results, the SCs-imprinted QCM sensors show highly selective and sensitive in a broad range of synthetic cannabinoid concentrations (0.0005-1.0 ng/mL) in both aqueous and synthetic urine solutions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Personalized Urination Recognition Technology Using Smart Bands

    Sung-Jong Eun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study collected and analyzed activity data sensed through smart bands worn by patients in order to resolve the clinical issues posed by using voiding charts. By developing a smart band-based algorithm for recognizing urination activity in patients, this study aimed to explore the feasibility of urination monitoring systems. Methods This study aimed to develop an algorithm that recognizes urination based on a patient’s posture and changes in posture. Motion data was obtained from a smart band on the arm. An algorithm that recognizes the 3 stages of urination (forward movement, urination, backward movement was developed based on data collected from a 3-axis accelerometer and from tilt angle data. Real-time data were acquired from the smart band, and for data corresponding to a certain duration, the absolute value of the signals was calculated and then compared with the set threshold value to determine the occurrence of vibration signals. In feature extraction, the most essential information describing each pattern was identified after analyzing the characteristics of the data. The results of the feature extraction process were sorted using a classifier to detect urination. Results An experiment was carried out to assess the performance of the recognition technology proposed in this study. The final accuracy of the algorithm was calculated based on clinical guidelines for urologists. The experiment showed a high average accuracy of 90.4%, proving the robustness of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions The proposed urination recognition technology draws on acceleration data and tilt angle data collected via a smart band; these data were then analyzed using a classifier after comparative analyses with standardized feature patterns.

  20. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  1. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  2. Urine Proteomics in the Era of Mass Spectrometry

    Ashley Beasley-Green

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the technological advances of mass spectrometry (MS-based platforms, clinical proteomics is one of the most rapidly growing areas in biomedical research. Urine proteomics has become a popular subdiscipline of clinical proteomics because it is an ideal source for the discovery of noninvasive disease biomarkers. The urine proteome offers a comprehensive view of the local and systemic physiology since the proteome is primarily composed of proteins/peptides from the kidneys and plasma. The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as prominent bioanalytical tools in clinical applications has enhanced the identification of protein-based urinary biomarkers. This review highlights the characteristics of urine that make it an attractive biofluid for biomarker discovery and the impact of MS-based technologies on the clinical assessment of urinary protein biomarkers.

  3. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    relation to recovery, performance, and self-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Furthermore, a scale developed especially for the close description and measurement of PURD is presented. A questionnaire was used for measuring paruresis. The results are based on two online and one paper...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self-perception...

  4. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  5. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  6. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  7. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.

    1993-03-01

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  8. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    Trivedi, A; Duong, T

    1993-03-01

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  10. Determination of americium in urine

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  11. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  12. [Estimation of mercury in the urine of cigarette smokers].

    Kulikowska-Karpińska, Elżbieta; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, Małgorzata

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common habits of the modern world. According to a NATPOL PLU study, every third adult Pole is dependent on nicotine. Tobacco smoke contains about 5,000 components, of which over 1,000 are very toxic chemical substances (3,4-benzopyrene, heavy metals, free radicals, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides and N-nitrosamines). Exposure to tobacco smoke is an example of a complex, with a significant number of interactions. To assess the concentration of copper in the urine of smokers. Based on the results, an attempt was made to determine whether smoking can affect the level of copper in the body. The study involved 170 healthy volunteers, 99 smokers and 71 non-smokers (control group). The age of patients in both groups were in the range of 20-60 years. The mean age for men and women was 41 years. The average length of cigarette smoking was 18 years for women and 21 years for men, and the number of cigarettes smoked 1-40 ⁄ 24. The urine concentrations of Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and serum creatinine kinetic method using a set of BIOLAB. Cu concentration in urine was expressed in mg / g creatinine. Smokers were found to have reduced levels of copper in the urine, depending on sex, age and brand of cigarettes. In male smokers, copper concentration in the urine was dependent on age and time of smoking, whereas among women this relationship was not observed. Cigarette smoking significantly influences the level of copper in the urine. Both female and male smokers showed reduced levels of copper in the urine, which may indicate its increased accumulation in the body. Excessive accumulation of copper is very dangerous since it may exhibit toxic effects towards many organs and systems.

  13. Optimizing Urine Processing Protocols for Protein and Metabolite Detection.

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; DuBois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Will, Thompson J; Grenier, Carole; Burke, Emily; Fraser, Matthew O; Amundsen, Cindy L; Murphy, Susan K

    In urine, factors such as timing of voids, and duration at room temperature (RT) may affect the quality of recovered protein and metabolite data. Additives may aid with detection, but can add more complexity in sample collection or analysis. We aimed to identify the optimal urine processing protocol for clinically-obtained urine samples that allows for the highest protein and metabolite yields with minimal degradation. Healthy women provided multiple urine samples during the same day. Women collected their first morning (1 st AM) void and another "random void". Random voids were aliquotted with: 1) no additive; 2) boric acid (BA); 3) protease inhibitor (PI); or 4) both BA + PI. Of these aliquots, some were immediately stored at 4°C, and some were left at RT for 4 hours. Proteins and individual metabolites were quantified, normalized to creatinine concentrations, and compared across processing conditions. Sample pools corresponding to each processing condition were analyzed using mass spectrometry to assess protein degradation. Ten Caucasian women between 35-65 years of age provided paired 1 st morning and random voided urine samples. Normalized protein concentrations were slightly higher in 1 st AM compared to random "spot" voids. The addition of BA did not significantly change proteins, while PI significantly improved normalized protein concentrations, regardless of whether samples were immediately cooled or left at RT for 4 hours. In pooled samples, there were minimal differences in protein degradation under the various conditions we tested. In metabolite analyses, there were significant differences in individual amino acids based on the timing of the void. For comparative translational research using urine, information about void timing should be collected and standardized. For urine samples processed in the same day, BA does not appear to be necessary while the addition of PI enhances protein yields, regardless of 4°C or RT storage temperature.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  16. Detection and quantification of rituximab in the human urine.

    Jacobs, Roland; Langer-Jacobus, Thais; Duong, Michelle; Stahl, Klaus; Haller, Hermann; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-12-01

    B cell depletion by rituximab treatment might be inefficient in patients suffering from nephrotic syndrome. Due to the impaired glomerular filtration barrier a significant portion of the therapeutic antibody might be lost into the urinary space. In order to determine the amount of rituximab in the urine of such patients, CD20+ Daudi cells were stained with the patients' urine followed by a fluorochrome-labeled secondary antibody. Mean fluorescence intensity of that way labeled Daudi cells was determined by flow cytometry. Control samples with defined rituximab concentrations were used to create standard curves. The analyses revealed that all nephelometric IgG+ urine samples tested also manifested rituximab at concentrations between 100 and 46,707μg/L. The flow cytometry-based approach is an easy and reliable method to assess rituximab in patients' urine samples for monitoring individual rituximab treatment courses in all patients co-presenting impaired renal filtration. Presence of such antibodies in the urine could be considered as criteria to modify the formulation or modality of rituximab delivery in order to prevent the loss of the therapeutic antibodies and thereby ensuring efficacy of the therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Urine Flow in Three Different Ureter Models

    Kyung-Wuk Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ureter provides a way for urine to flow from the kidney to the bladder. Peristalsis in the ureter partially forces the urine flow, along with hydrostatic pressure. Ureteral diseases and a double J stent, which is commonly inserted in a ureteral stenosis or occlusion, disturb normal peristalsis. Ineffective or no peristalsis could make the contour of the ureter a tube, a funnel, or a combination of the two. In this study, we investigated urine flow in the abnormal situation. We made three different, curved tubular, funnel-shaped, and undulated ureter models that were based on human anatomy. A numerical analysis of the urine flow rate and pattern in the ureter was performed for a combination of the three different ureters, with and without a ureteral stenosis and with four different types of double J stents. The three ureters showed a difference in urine flow rate and pattern. Luminal flow rate was affected by ureter shape. The side holes of a double J stent played a different role in detour, which depended on ureter geometry.

  18. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  19. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.

    Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates.

  1. An approach to standardization of urine sediment analysis via suggestion of a common manual protocol.

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Sollip; Cho, Eun-Jung; Lee, Woochang; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The results of urine sediment analysis have been reported semiquantitatively. However, as recent guidelines recommend quantitative reporting of urine sediment, and with the development of automated urine sediment analyzers, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of urine sediment. Here, we developed a protocol for urine sediment analysis and quantified the results. Based on questionnaires, various reports, guidelines, and experimental results, we developed a protocol for urine sediment analysis. The results of this new protocol were compared with those obtained with a standardized chamber and an automated sediment analyzer. Reference intervals were also estimated using new protocol. We developed a protocol with centrifugation at 400 g for 5 min, with the average concentration factor of 30. The correlation between quantitative results of urine sediment analysis, the standardized chamber, and the automated sediment analyzer were generally good. The conversion factor derived from the new protocol showed a better fit with the results of manual count than the default conversion factor in the automated sediment analyzer. We developed a protocol for manual urine sediment analysis to quantitatively report the results. This protocol may provide a mean for standardization of urine sediment analysis.

  2. Bio-dispersive liquid liquid microextraction based on nano rhaminolipid aggregates combined with magnetic solid phase extraction using Fe3O4@PPy magnetic nanoparticles for the determination of methamphetamine in human urine.

    Haeri, Seyed Ammar; Abbasi, Shahryar; Sajjadifar, Sami

    2017-09-15

    In the present investigation, extraction and preconcentration of methamphetamine in human urine samples was carried out using a novel bio-dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (Bio-DLLME) technique coupled with magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE). Bio-DLLME is a kind of microextraction technique based nano-materials which have potential capabilities in many application fields. Bio-DLLME is based on the use of a binary part system consisting of methanol and nano rhaminolipid biosurfactant. Use of this binary mixture is ecologically accepted due to their specificity, biocompatibility and biodegradable nature. The potential of nano rhaminolipid biosurfactant as a biological agent in the extraction of organic compounds has been investigated in recent years. They are able to partition at the oil/water interfaces and reduce the interfacial tension in order to increase solubility of hydrocarbons. The properties of the prepared Fe 3 O 4 @PPy magnetic nanoparticles were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods The influences of the experimental parameters on the quantitative recovery of analyte were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the enrichment factor was 310, the calibration graph was linear in the methamphetamine concentration range from 1 to 60μgL -1 , with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The relative standard deviations for six replicate measurements was 5.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct Agglutination Test and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Urine Samples for the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishma-niasis

    Sarkari B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or Kala azar is an infectious disease caused by various species of Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to detect and compare the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies in the urine of vis-ceral leishmaniasis patients using ELISA and DAT methods."nMethods: A total of 30 urine samples were collected from VL patients referred to Shiraz (southeast of Iran hospitals. Moreover 31 urine samples were collected from healthy individuals and patients with other diseases such as malaria, brucellosis, hydatidosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Collected samples were examined to detect anti-Leishmania antibod-ies in urine, using ELISA and DAT."nResults: Anti-Leishmania antibody was detected in urine of 18 out of 30 (60% VL patients by DAT while ELISA detected anti-Leishmania antibodies in urine of 28 out of 30 (93.3% of VL cases. Sensitivity and specificity of urine-based DAT was 60% and 83.9%, respectively while sensitivity and specificity of urine-based ELISA were 93.3% and 93.5%, corre-spondingly. "nConclusion: Urine-based DAT and ELISA have a reasonable specificity and sensitivity in diagnosis of VL. Accordingly, urine-based ELISA might be a suitable alternative for serum based assays for diagnosis of VL.

  4. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  5. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    Kosowicz, J.; Gembicki, M.; Schneider, E.; Eder, M.

    1977-01-01

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T 3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T 3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T 3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T 3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T 3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  6. Lateral spread affects nitrogen leaching from urine patches.

    Cichota, Rogerio; Vogeler, Iris; Snow, Val; Shepherd, Mark; McAuliffe, Russell; Welten, Brendon

    2018-09-01

    Nitrate leaching from urine deposited by grazing animals is a critical constraint for sustainable dairy farming in New Zealand. While considerable progress has been made to understand the fate of nitrogen (N) under urine patches, little consideration has been given to the spread of urinary N beyond the wetted area. In this study, we modelled the lateral spread of nitrogen from the wetted area of a urine patch to the soil outside the patch using a combination of two process-based models (HYDRUS and APSIM). The simulations provided insights on the extent and temporal pattern for the redistribution of N in the soil following a urine deposition and enabled investigating the effect of lateral spread of urinary N on plant growth and N leaching. The APSIM simulation, using an implementation of a dispersion-diffusion function, was tested against experimental data from a field experiment conducted in spring on a well-drained soil. Depending on the geometry considered for the dispersion-diffusion function (plate or cylindrical) the area-averaged N leaching decreased by 8 and 37% compared with simulations without lateral N spread; this was due to additional N uptake from pasture on the edge area. A sensitivity analysis showed that area-averaged pasture growth was not greatly affected by the value of the dispersion factor used in the model, whereas N leaching was very sensitive. Thus, the need to account for the edge effect may depend on the objective of the simulations. The modelling results also showed that considering lateral spread of urinary N was sufficient to describe the experimental data, but plant root uptake across urine patch zones may still be relevant in other conditions. Although further work is needed for improving accuracy, the simulated and experimental results demonstrate that accounting for the edge effect is important for determining N leaching from urine-affected areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Do Mixed-Flora Preoperative Urine Cultures Matter?

    Polin, Michael R; Kawasaki, Amie; Amundsen, Cindy L; Weidner, Alison C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether mixed-flora preoperative urine cultures, as compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, are associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was a retrospective cohort study. Women who underwent urogynecologic surgery were included if their preoperative clean-catch urine culture result was mixed flora or no growth. Women were excluded if they received postoperative antibiotics for reasons other than treatment of a UTI. Women were divided into two cohorts based on preoperative urine culture results-mixed flora or no growth; the prevalence of postoperative UTI was compared between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ 2 or Student t tests. A logistic regression analysis then was performed. We included 282 women who were predominantly postmenopausal, white, and overweight. There were many concomitant procedures; 46% underwent a midurethral sling procedure and 68% underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Preoperative urine cultures resulted as mixed flora in 192 (68%) and no growth in 90 (32%) patients. Overall, 14% were treated for a UTI postoperatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients treated for a postoperative UTI between the two cohorts (25 mixed flora vs 13 no growth, P = 0.77). These results remained when controlling for potentially confounding variables in a logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.96). In women with mixed-flora compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, there were no differences in the prevalence of postoperative UTI. The clinical practice of interpreting mixed-flora cultures as negative is appropriate.

  8. Diagnostic and Prognostic MicroRNA Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer in Cell-free Urine

    Fredsøe, Jacob Christian; Rasmussen, Anne Karin; Thomsen, Anni Rønfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing for prostate cancer (PC) detection has led to extensive overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Urine-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers could be useful in PC diagnosis and prognosis. Objective: To train and validate urine-based micro......RNA (miRNA) biomarkers that may assist in PC diagnosis and prognosis. Design, setting, and participants: We profiled the expression levels of 92 miRNAs via reverse transcriptase–poymerase chain reaction in cell-free urine samples from 29 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 215 patients...... could help in primary diagnosis of PC and guide treatment decisions. Further validation studies are warranted. Patient summary: Using two large patient cohorts, we searched for novel prostate cancer biomarkers in urine. We found two new sets of microRNA biomarkers in urine that could accurately predict...

  9. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  10. NMR-based metabonomic studies reveal changes in the biochemical profile of plasma and urine from pigs fed high fibre rye bread

    Bertram, Hanne C.; Bach Knudsen, Knud E.; Serena, Anja

    2006-01-01

    This study presents an NMR-based metabonomic approach to elucidate the overall endogenous biochemical effects of a wholegrain diet. Two diets with similar levels of dietary fibre and macronutrients, but with contrasting levels of wholegrain ingredients, were prepared from wholegrain rye (wholegrain...... diet (WGD)) and non-wholegrain wheat (non-wholegrain diet (NWD)) and fed to four pigs in a crossover design. Plasma samples were collected after 7 d on each diet, and 1H NMR spectra were acquired on these. Partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) on spectra obtained for plasma...

  11. Population-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Using Discarded, Deidentified Urine Specimens Previously Collected for Drug Testing (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    2017-10-24

    trichomonas vaginalis testing, Melinda Balansay-ames, chris Myers and gary Brice for Pcr- based sex determination testing, and Kimberly De Vera for...2017-053355 rEFErEnCEs 1 torrone e , Papp J, Weinstock H. centers for Disease control and Prevention (cDc). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital...infection among persons aged 14-39 years-United States, 2007-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014;63:834–7. 2 rietmeijer ca, Hopkins e , geisler WM

  12. Study of nominal daily output of urine from workers

    Lima, Marina F.; Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Todo, Alberto S.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study of the 24-hour urine volumes from workers selected for the internal individual monitoring compares the average volume collected by sample and the average volume per individual with the nominal daily output of urine from 'Reference Man'. This work considers 134 registers of urine samples from 18 male workers, with semester routine sampling, between the years of 2000 and 2005. For this group, the average volume per collection was (971±371)mL and (962±376)mL per individual. In a cohort group of 9 male workers, which supplied at least 10 samples in this period, it was observed that the average volume per collection decreased to (955±308)mL and the average volume per individual increased to (1027±400)mL. For the female group, composed by 11 individuals, the 29 urine samples supplied between 1999 and 2005 were considered. The average volume per sampling and for worker was, respectively, (1122±337)mL and (1105±337)mL. Another cohort group of only 4 female workers with at least one annual collection during five years, of the seven years considered, the values decreased to (1112±336)mL per collection and the average volume per individual was maintained. The major variability of the volume among all the individuals was 927%, and for the same individual was 562%. This difference can be indicative of the individual differences of retention and excretion, alimentary diet interferences and for lack of awareness by the individual to collect urine during a period of 24-hour. The radionuclides clearance does not occur in constant rates and for the purpose of assessing intakes, in our routine analysis, the total volume of urine from worker is corrected for 1,4 L. Based in the results obtained over the years, and to minimize the errors of the nominal daily excretion rate in urine, actions about the aware of the individual in carrying out an accurately sampling and/or the implementation of the measurements of creatinine levels in urine are suggested

  13. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  14. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  15. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test ( ...

  16. The determination of 210Po in urine

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  17. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español ...

  18. Biologically Pre-Treated Habitation Waste Water as a Sustainable Green Urine Pre-Treat Solution

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Thompson, Bret; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Morse, Audra; Meyer, Caitlin; Callahan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recover water from urine and flush water is a critical process to allow long term sustainable human habitation in space or bases on the moon or mars. Organic N present as urea or similar compounds can hydrolyze producing free ammonia. This reaction results in an increase in the pH converting ammonium to ammonia which is volatile and not removed by distillation. The increase in pH will also cause precipitation reactions to occur. In order to prevent this, urine on ISS is combined with a pretreat solution. While use of a pretreatment solution has been successful, there are numerous draw backs including: storage and use of highly hazardous solutions, limitations on water recovery (less than 85%), and production of brine with pore dewatering characteristics. We evaluated the use of biologically treated habitation wastewaters (ISS and early planetary base) to replace the current pretreat solution. We evaluated both amended and un-amended bioreactor effluent. For the amended effluent, we evaluated "green" pretreat chemicals including citric acid and citric acid amended with benzoic acid. We used a mock urine/air separator modeled after the urine collection assembly on ISS. The urine/air separator was challenged continually for >6 months. Depending on the test point, the separator was challenged daily with donated urine and flushed with amended or un-amended reactor effluent. We monitored the pH of the urine, flush solution and residual pH in the urine/air separator after each urine event. We also evaluated solids production and biological growth. Our results support the use of both un-amended and amended bioreactor effluent to maintain the operability of the urine /air separator. The ability to use bioreactor effluent could decrease consumable cost, reduce hazards associated with current pre-treat chemicals, allow other membrane based desalination processes to be utilized, and improve brine characteristics.

  19. Use of a midstream clean catch mobile application did not lower urine contamination rates in an ED.

    Jacob, Mary S; Kulie, Paige; Benedict, Cameron; Ordoobadi, Alexander J; Sikka, Neal; Steinmetz, Erika; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2018-01-01

    Urine microscopy is a common test performed in emergency departments (EDs). Urine specimens can easily become contaminated by different factors, including the collection method. The midstream clean-catch (MSCC) collection technique is commonly used to reduce urine contamination. The urine culture contamination rate from specimens collected in our ED is 30%. We developed an instructional application (app) to show ED patients how to provide a MSCC urine sample. We hypothesized that ED patients who viewed our instructional app would have significantly lower urine contamination rates compared to patients who did not. We prospectively enrolled 257 subjects with a urinalysis and/or urine culture test ordered in the ED and asked them to watch our MSCC instructional app. After prospective enrollment was complete, we retrospectively matched each enrolled subject to an ED patient who did not watch the instructional app. Controls were matched to cases based on gender, type of urine specimen provided, ED visit date and shift. Urinalysis and urine culture contamination results were compared between the matched pairs using McNemar's test. The overall urine culture contamination rate of the 514 subjects was 38%. The majority of the matched pairs had a urinalysis (63%) or urinalysis plus urine culture (35%) test done. There were no significant differences in our urine contamination rates between the matched pairs overall or when stratified by gender, by prior knowledge of the clean catch process or by type of urine specimen. We did not see a lower contamination rate for patients who viewed our instructional app compared to patients who did not. It is possible that MSCC is not effective for decreasing urine specimen contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on urine treatment by biological purification using Azolla and UV photocatalytic oxidation

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Min; Bian, Zuliang; Liu, Chung-Chu

    The amount of water consumed in space station operations is very large. In order to reduce the amount of water which must be resupplied from Earth, the space station needs to resolve the problems of water supply. For this reason, the recovery, regeneration and utilization of urine of astronauts are of key importance. Many investigations on this subject have been reported. Our research is based on biological absorption and, purification using UV photocatalytic oxidation techniques to achieve comprehensive treatment for urine. In the treatment apparatus we created, the urine solution is used as part of the nutrient solution for the biological components in our bioregenerative life support system. After being absorbed, the nutrients from the urine were then decomposed, metabolized and purified which creates a favorable condition for the follow-up oxidation treatment by UV photocatalytic oxidation. After these two processes, the treated urine solution reached Chinese national standards for drinking water quality (GB5749-1985).

  1. Use of urine testing in outpatients treated for urinary tract infection.

    Copp, Hillary L; Yiee, Jenny H; Smith, Alexandria; Hanley, Janet; Saigal, Christopher S

    2013-09-01

    To characterize urine test use in ambulatory, antibiotic-treated pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). We studied children pediatrics: OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.5-2.8; emergency medicine, OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3; urology: OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6, compared with family/internal medicine). Recent antibiotic exposure (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) and empirical broad-spectrum prescription (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2) were associated with urine culture use, whereas previous UTI and urologic anomalies were not. Providers often do not obtain urine tests when prescribing antibiotics for outpatient pediatric UTI. Variation in urine culture use was observed based on age, gender, and physician specialty. Additional research is necessary to determine the implications of empirical antibiotic prescription for pediatric UTI without confirmatory urine testing.

  2. Urine management after treatment with ''153 Sm-EDTMP (QUADRAMET)

    Delgado, A.; Diaz, J. P.; Carrasco, J. L.; Jimenez-Hoyuela, J. M.; Rebollo, A. C.; Martinez del Valle, M. D.; Ortega, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose was to establish and to evaluate a new protocol of individualized treatment of patient urine after ''153 Sm-EDTMP injection, with a more efficient management of the wastes. Excreted urine was collected in an appropriate container form which, previous to sealing it, an aliquot of 10 ml was obtained. Experimental half-life (t1/2) of the isotope was then determined by measuring the activity at different times, besides the minimum time necessary for disposing of the radioactive wastes as regular trash. The measured half-life adjusted well to the theoretical value of the isotope. The time of considered storage oscillated between 19 and 26 days, based on the activity excreted by each patient. The main idea is the consideration of the set container-urine as solid waste: the evaluation of the minimum storage time necessary to its elimination is made in terms of legal limitation of specific activity by mass unit. The immediate advantages ares: the elimination of disagreeable scents by the storage of urine, it is not necessary a liquid waste disposal to eliminate it, and a more accurate knowledge of the specific activity at the moment of the elimination (dilution factor is not used). (Author) 10 refs

  3. Microbial ureolysis in the seawater-catalysed urine phosphorus recovery system: Kinetic study and reactor verification.

    Tang, Wen-Tao; Dai, Ji; Liu, Rulong; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-12-15

    Our previous study has confirmed the feasibility of using seawater as an economical precipitant for urine phosphorus (P) precipitation. However, we still understand very little about the ureolysis in the Seawater-based Urine Phosphorus Recovery (SUPR) system despite its being a crucial step for urine P recovery. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the kinetics of microbial ureolysis in the seawater-urine system. Indigenous bacteria from urine and seawater exhibited relatively low ureolytic activity, but they adapted quickly to the urine-seawater mixture during batch cultivation. During cultivation, both the abundance and specific ureolysis rate of the indigenous bacteria were greatly enhanced as confirmed by a biomass-dependent Michaelis-Menten model. The period for fully ureolysis was decreased from 180 h to 2.5 h after four cycles of cultivation. Based on the successful cultivation, a lab-scale SUPR reactor was set up to verify the fast ureolysis and efficient P recovery in the SUPR system. Nearly complete urine P removal was achieved in the reactor in 6 h without adding any chemicals. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis revealed that the predominant groups of bacteria in the SUPR reactor likely originated from seawater rather than urine. Moreover, batch tests confirmed the high ureolysis rates and high phosphorus removal efficiency induced by cultivated bacteria in the SUPR reactor under seawater-to-urine mixing ratios ranging from 1:1 to 9:1. This study has proved that the enrichment of indigenous bacteria in the SUPR system can lead to sufficient ureolytic activity for phosphate precipitation, thus providing an efficient and economical method for urine P recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Urine Drug Testing in the Current Opioid Epidemic.

    Mahajan, Gagan

    2017-12-01

    While the evidence for urine drug testing for patients on chronic opioid therapy is weak, the guidelines created by numerous medical societies and state and federal regulatory agencies recommend that it be included as one of the tools used to monitor patients for compliance with chronic opioid therapy. To get the most comprehensive results, clinicians should order both an immunoassay screen and confirmatory urine drug test. The immunoassay screen, which can be performed as an in-office point-of-care test or as a laboratory-based test, is a cheap and convenient study to order. Limitations of an immunoassay screen, however, include having a high threshold of detectability and only providing qualitative information about a select number of drug classes. Because of these restrictions, clinicians should understand that immunoassay screens have high false-positive and false-negative rates. Despite these limitations, though, the results can assist the clinician with making preliminary treatment decisions. In comparison, a confirmatory urine drug test, which can only be performed as a laboratory-based test, has a lower threshold of detectability and provides both qualitative and quantitative information. A urine drug test's greater degree of specificity allows for a relatively low false-negative and false-positive rate in contrast to an immunoassay screen. Like any other diagnostic test, an immunoassay screen and a confirmatory urine drug test both possess limitations. Clinicians must keep this in mind when interpreting an unexpected test result and consult with their laboratory when in doubt about the meaning of the test result to avoid making erroneous decisions that negatively impact both the patient and clinician.

  5. Protein in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/proteininurine.html Protein in Urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Protein in Urine Test? A protein in urine test ...

  6. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  7. Metabolic Acidosis or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation of a Low Plasma Bicarbonate Using the Urine Anion Gap.

    Batlle, Daniel; Chin-Theodorou, Jamie; Tucker, Bryan M

    2017-09-01

    Hypobicarbonatemia, or a reduced bicarbonate concentration in plasma, is a finding seen in 3 acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis, chronic respiratory alkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. Hypobicarbonatemia due to chronic respiratory alkalosis is often misdiagnosed as a metabolic acidosis and mistreated with the administration of alkali therapy. Proper diagnosis of the cause of hypobicarbonatemia requires integration of the laboratory values, arterial blood gas, and clinical history. The information derived from the urinary response to the prevailing acid-base disorder is useful to arrive at the correct diagnosis. We discuss the use of urine anion gap, as a surrogate marker of urine ammonium excretion, in the evaluation of a patient with low plasma bicarbonate concentration to differentiate between metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. The interpretation and limitations of urine acid-base indexes at bedside (urine pH, urine bicarbonate, and urine anion gap) to evaluate urine acidification are discussed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  10. Life cycle assessment and costing of urine source separation: Focus on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug removal.

    Landry, Kelly A; Boyer, Treavor H

    2016-11-15

    Urine source separation has the potential to reduce pharmaceutical loading to the environment, while enhancing nutrient recovery. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) was to evaluate the environmental impacts and economic costs to manage nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (i.e., diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) and nutrients in human urine. Urine source separation was compared with centralized wastewater treatment (WWT) (biological or upgraded with ozonation). The current treatment method (i.e., centralized biological WWT) was compared with hypothetical treatment scenarios (i.e., centralized biological WWT upgraded with ozonation, and urine source separation). Alternative urine source separation scenarios included varying collection and handling methods (i.e., collection by vacuum truck, vacuum sewer, or decentralized treatment), pharmaceuticals removal by ion-exchange, and struvite precipitation. Urine source separation scenarios had 90% lower environmental impact (based on the TRACI impact assessment method) compared with the centralized wastewater scenarios due to reduced potable water production for flush water, reduced electricity use at the wastewater treatment plant, and nutrient offsets from struvite precipitation. Despite the greatest reduction of pharmaceutical toxicity, centralized treatment upgraded with ozone had the greatest ecotoxicity impacts due to ozonation operation and infrastructure. Among urine source separation scenarios, decentralized treatment of urine and centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum truck had negligible cost differences compared with centralized wastewater treatment. Centralized treatment of urine collected by vacuum sewer and centralized treatment with ozone cost 30% more compared with conventional wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feline urine metabolomic signature: characterization of low-molecular-weight substances in urine from domestic cats.

    Rivera-Vélez, Sol-Maiam; Villarino, Nicolas F

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats. These molecules are key components of at least 100 metabolic pathways. Feline urine appears to be dominated by carbohydrates, carbohydrate conjugates, organic acid and derivatives, and amino acids and analogs. The five most abundant molecules were phenaceturic acid, hippuric acid, pseudouridine phosphate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Conclusions and relevance This study is the first to characterize the feline urine metabolome. The results of this study revealed the presence of multiple low-molecular-weight substances that were not known to be present in feline urine. As expected, the origin of the metabolites detected in urine was diverse, including endogenous compounds and molecules biosynthesized by microbes. Also, the diet seemed to have had a relevant role on the urine metabolome. Further exploration of the urine metabolic phenotype will open a window for discovering unknown, or poorly understood, metabolic pathways. In turn, this will advance our understanding of feline biology and lead to new insights in feline physiology, nutrition and medicine.

  12. [Development of automatic urine monitoring system].

    Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application.

  13. [Delayed testing for the diagnosis of fungi in the urines. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes for the storage of urine samples at room temperature].

    Baixench, M T; Al-Sheikh, M; Paugam, A

    2005-01-01

    The study included 37 urine samples which have been artificially infected with low levels (10(3) CFU/mL) of various fungi strains. We compared the effects of sample storage, up to 48 hours, at room temperature, in a urine evacuated tube containing specific additives with storage at + 4 degrees C, for the same length of time, in a urine evacuated tube without any additives. There have been no differences of results (speed of growth and colony size) between the 2 modes of storage. However, the experience has shown that samples needed a careful mixing before seeding to avoid underdetection of the strains. Based on the study results, the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes are suitable for delayed testing for the diagnosis of urine fungal infection.

  14. Voltammetric Determination of Thiodiglycolic Acid in Urine

    Dlasková, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Heyrovský, Michael; Pelclová, D.; Novotný, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 375, - (2003), s. 164-168 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : urine * thioglycolic acid * voltammetry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2003

  15. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS), Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  16. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  17. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  18. Occurrence of riboflavinyl glucoside in rat urine

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the metabolism of riboflavin, [2- 14 C]-riboflavin was administered orally to a rat. The urine pooled for 24 h after administration was fractionated by paper and silica gel thin layer chromatographies using various solvent systems. Among the radioactive metabolites, riboflavinyl glucoside was found along with 7-carboxy lumichrome and 8-carboxy lumichrome. The radioactivity of riboflavinyl glucoside comprised about 6 % of the total radioactivity excreted in the urine during 24 h. (author)

  19. Cause-Specific Mortality According to Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio in the General Population

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine albumin creatinine ratio, UACR, is positively associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in observational studies. Whether a high UACR is also associated with other causes of death is unclear. We investigated the association between UACR and cause......-specific mortality. METHODS: We included a total of 9,125 individuals from two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, conducted in 1993-94 and 1999-2001, respectively. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was measured from spot urine samples by standard methods. Information on causes of death was obtained from...

  20. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were...... be detected besides several therapeutic drugs: cocaine (9), MDMA (7), sildenafil (2), ketamine (1), amphetamine (1), and oxycodone (1). Conclusions: NPS were detected neither in urine nor in soil samples. This might be due to low concentrations based on their negligible consumption at the studied festival...

  1. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  2. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  3. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  4. Evaluation of urine mercury level of dentists in Tehran and its influencial factors

    Tabatabaei M.

    2006-08-01

    triturated amalgam, storage method of residual amalgam, method of storing mercury and office ventilation. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the mean urine mercury content of dentists of Tehran was below the international TLV. The use of precapsulated amalgams had significant effect on the urine mercury. Most of the dentists were working in public or semiprivate clinics, so it is concluded that the level of general hygiene and specially mercury hygiene in these centers seems to be acceptable.

  5. Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus

    Jan G. Myburgh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Urine samples can be a very useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of animal health. In this article, a simple technique to collect urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus was described, based on a similar unpublished technique developed for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis using a canine urinary catheter. With this technique, it was possible to collect relatively clean urine samples from Nile crocodiles of different sizes using canine urinary catheters or small diameter stomach tubes. Based on the gross anatomical features of the cloaca of the Nile crocodile, it was confirmed that urine accumulates in a chamber consisting of the urodeum and coprodeum. Faecal material is stored temporarily in the very short rectum, which is separated from the urinary chamber by the rectocoprodeal sphincter.

  6. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    highest {sup 210}Po content in recent products. The use of urine to monitor a population critical group after a hypothetical terrorist act that involving possible {sup 210}Po making inadvertent ingestion or inhalation requires in practice the choice of a reference threshold that allows discrimination between the existing natural {sup 210}Po in urine under study and the possible contribution of {sup 210}Po anthropogenic. The high variability observed by us naturally {sup 210}Po concentrations in urine makes it not far from trivial to set that threshold value, being moreover obvious that its value should not be set based on the choice made in other countries because their dietary habits and lifestyle can be very different. We consider it essential to create a database nationwide {sup 210}Po activity concentration in urine associated information in each case on donor diets and lifestyle. This database must contain a statistically representative number of data enough to get them the information necessary for an appropriate choice of the threshold mentioned regional or national scale in possible emergency cases. (authors)

  7. Improvement of HbA1c and stable weight loss 2 years after an outpatient treatment and teaching program for patients with type 2 diabetes without insulin therapy based on urine glucose self-monitoring

    Müller N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicolle Müller1, Daniela Stengel2, Christof Kloos1, Michael Ristow2, Gunter Wolf1, Ulrich A Müller11University Hospital of Jena, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena, Germany; 2Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Institute of Nutrition, Department of Human Nutrition, Jena, GermanyObjective: Long-term outcomes after participation in a structured diabetes treatment and teaching program (DTTP for patients with diabetes without insulin use, primarily based upon postprandial urine glucose self-monitoring (UGSM.Methods: A total of 126 patients took part in the DTTP in a university outpatient department in 2004–2005. We re-evaluated 119 (94.4% at baseline and at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c was DCCT adjusted.Results: HbA1c decreased significantly 6 months after education from 7.33% (±1.59% to 6.89% (±0.98%; P = 0.001 versus baseline and was maintained for up to 12 months (7.02% ± 1.07%; P = 0.017 versus baseline as well as up to 24 months (6.96% ± 1.06%; P = 0.005 versus baseline. Weight decreased from 92.5 kg at baseline to 90.3 kg at 24 months (P = 0.014. A total of 36.5% of patients not on insulin therapy preferred UGSM, whereas 23.5% preferred blood glucose monitoring, at 24 months. Glucose control was similar in both groups at 24 months (HbA1c UGSM 7.03 versus blood glucose monitoring 6.97%; P = 0.807.Conclusion: Participation in the DTTP resulted in long-term behavior modification. HbA1c of patients without insulin met the target 24 months after the DTTP, irrespective of the type of glucose self-monitoring.Keywords: diabetes mellitus type 2, treatment and teaching program, patient education, HbA1c, body weight

  8. Magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction based on modified magnetic nanoparticles for the detection of cocaine and cocaine metabolites in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Yang, Feiyu; Zou, Yun; Ni, Chunfang; Wang, Rong; Wu, Min; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Jiabin; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Liu, Wenbin

    2017-11-01

    An easy-to-handle magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction procedure was developed for preconcentration and extraction of cocaine and cocaine metabolites in human urine. Divinyl benzene and vinyl pyrrolidone functionalized silanized Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were synthesized and used as adsorbents in this procedure. Scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and infrared spectroscopy were employed to characterize the modified adsorbents. A high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry method for determination of cocaine and its metabolites in human urine sample has been developed with pretreatment of the samples by magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction. The obtained results demonstrated the higher extraction capacity of the prepared nanoparticles with recoveries between 75.1 to 105.7% and correlation coefficients higher than 0.9971. The limits of detection for the cocaine and cocaine metabolites were 0.09-1.10 ng/mL. The proposed magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction method provided a rapid, environmentally friendly and magnetic stuff recyclable approach and it was confirmed that the prepared adsorbents material was a kind of highly effective extraction materials for the trace cocaine and cocaine metabolites analyses in human urine. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Antibiotic prescribing practices for catheter urine culture results.

    Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient's treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient

  10. Method for routine determination of fluoride in urine by selective ion- electrode

    Pires, M.A.F.; Bellintani, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive method is outlined for determining fluoride in urine of workers who handle fluoride compounds. The determination is based on the measurement of fluoride by ion selective electrode. Cationic interferents like Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe +++ and Al +++ are complexed by EDTA and citric acid. Common anions present in urine, such as Cl - , PO --- 4 and SO -- 4 do not interfere in the method. (Author) [pt

  11. Determination of the-230 on urine by means of alpha spectrometry

    1992-01-01

    The measurements of activity on urine samples are data very important to evaluation the internal doses. We have developed a radiochemistry method with the measure of Th-230 in urine. The method is based in the coprecipitation of the like phosphate the activity of sample is determined by alpha spectrometry. We use like tracer Th-234. The results show a recuperation between 65%-85%

  12. Estimation of creatinine in Urine sample by Jaffe's method

    Wankhede, Sonal; Arunkumar, Suja; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    In-vitro bioassay monitoring is based on the determination of activity concentrations in biological samples excreted from the body and is most suitable for alpha and beta emitters. A truly representative bioassay sample is the one having all the voids collected during a 24-h period however, this being technically difficult, overnight urine samples collected by the workers are analyzed. These overnight urine samples are collected for 10-16 h, however in the absence of any specific information, 12 h duration is assumed and the observed results are then corrected accordingly obtain the daily excretion rate. To reduce the uncertainty due to unknown duration of sample collection, IAEA has recommended two methods viz., measurement of specific gravity and creatinine excretion rate in urine sample. Creatinine is a final metabolic product creatinine phosphate in the body and is excreted at a steady rate for people with normally functioning kidneys. It is, therefore, often used as a normalization factor for estimation of duration of sample collection. The present study reports the chemical procedure standardized and its application for the estimation of creatinine in urine samples collected from occupational workers. Chemical procedure for estimation of creatinine in bioassay samples was standardized and applied successfully for its estimation in bioassay samples collected from the workers. The creatinine excretion rate observed for these workers is lower than observed in literature. Further, work is in progress to generate a data bank of creatinine excretion rate for most of the workers and also to study the variability in creatinine coefficient for the same individual based on the analysis of samples collected for different duration

  13. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  14. Predicting Patients with Inadequate 24- or 48-Hour Urine Collections at Time of Metabolic Stone Evaluation.

    McGuire, Barry B; Bhanji, Yasin; Sharma, Vidit; Frainey, Brendan T; McClean, Megan; Dong, Caroline; Rimar, Kalen; Perry, Kent T; Nadler, Robert B

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to understand the characteristics of patients who are less likely to submit adequate urine collections at metabolic stone evaluation. Inadequate urine collection was defined using two definitions: (1) Reference ranges for 24-hour creatinine/kilogram (Cr/24) and (2) discrepancy in total 24-hour urine Cr between 24-hour urine collections. There were 1502 patients with ≥1 kidney stone between 1998 and 2014 who performed a 24- or 48-hour urine collection at Northwestern Memorial Hospital and who were identified retrospectively. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze predictor variables for adequate urine collection. A total of 2852 urine collections were analyzed. Mean age for males was 54.4 years (range 17-86), and for females was 50.2 years (range 8-90). One patient in the study was younger than 17 years old. (1) Analysis based on the Cr 24/kg definition: There were 50.7% of patients who supplied an inadequate sample. Females were nearly 50% less likely to supply an adequate sample compared with men, Pcollections were achieved in 82.8%, 66.9%, 51.7%, 38.5%, and 26.4% of patients, respectively. Statistical significance was observed based on differences of ≥40%, and this was defined as the threshold for an inadequate sample. Female sex (OR 0.73 [0.54-0.98], P=0.037) predicted supplying inadequate samples. Adequate collections were more likely to be received on a Sunday (OR 1.6 [1.03-2.58], P=0.038) and by sedentary workers (OR 2.3 [1.12-4.72], P=0.023). Urine collections from patients during metabolic evaluation for nephrolithiasis may be considered inadequate based on two commonly used clinical definitions. This may have therapeutic or economic ramifications and the propensity for females to supply inadequate samples should be investigated further.

  15. Estimating mean change in population salt intake using spot urine samples.

    Petersen, Kristina S; Wu, Jason H Y; Webster, Jacqui; Grimes, Carley; Woodward, Mark; Nowson, Caryl A; Neal, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Spot urine samples are easier to collect than 24-h urine samples and have been used with estimating equations to derive the mean daily salt intake of a population. Whether equations using data from spot urine samples can also be used to estimate change in mean daily population salt intake over time is unknown. We compared estimates of change in mean daily population salt intake based upon 24-h urine collections with estimates derived using equations based on spot urine samples. Paired and unpaired 24-h urine samples and spot urine samples were collected from individuals in two Australian populations, in 2011 and 2014. Estimates of change in daily mean population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 were obtained directly from the 24-h urine samples and by applying established estimating equations (Kawasaki, Tanaka, Mage, Toft, INTERSALT) to the data from spot urine samples. Differences between 2011 and 2014 were calculated using mixed models. A total of 1000 participants provided a 24-h urine sample and a spot urine sample in 2011, and 1012 did so in 2014 (paired samples n = 870; unpaired samples n = 1142). The participants were community-dwelling individuals living in the State of Victoria or the town of Lithgow in the State of New South Wales, Australia, with a mean age of 55 years in 2011. The mean (95% confidence interval) difference in population salt intake between 2011 and 2014 determined from the 24-h urine samples was -0.48g/day (-0.74 to -0.21; P spot urine samples was -0.24 g/day (-0.42 to -0.06; P = 0.01) using the Tanaka equation, -0.42 g/day (-0.70 to -0.13; p = 0.004) using the Kawasaki equation, -0.51 g/day (-1.00 to -0.01; P = 0.046) using the Mage equation, -0.26 g/day (-0.42 to -0.10; P = 0.001) using the Toft equation, -0.20 g/day (-0.32 to -0.09; P = 0.001) using the INTERSALT equation and -0.27 g/day (-0.39 to -0.15; P  0.058). Separate analysis of the unpaired and paired data showed that detection of

  16. Investigating consumer attitudes towards the new technology of urine separation.

    Pahl-Wostl, C; Schönborn, A; Willi, N; Muncke, J; Larsen, T A

    2003-01-01

    The technology of urine separation and the recycling of anthropogenic nutrients as fertilizer in agriculture are considered as major innovations to improve the sustainability of today's urban wastewater management. The acceptance of consumers will be key for the introduction of the new technology. Citizens will have to make important decisions in their role as tenants and owners of houses and as consumers buying products fertilized with urine. Consumer attitudes towards the new technology were explored in a number of citizen focus groups in Switzerland. Focus groups are deliberate, moderated group discussions with informed citizens on a certain topic. The information was provided by a computer based information system specifically designed for this purpose. The acceptance of individual citizens for the new technology proved to be quite high. The majority of the citizens expressed their willingness to move into an apartment with NoMix toilets and to buy food fertilized with urine. However, they were not willing to accept additional financial costs or efforts. Arguments related to long-term sustainability (closing nutrient cycles) were of less importance than arguments that relate directly to the effects of micropollutants on human and ecosystem health. For the introduction of the new technology on a wide scale it will thus be crucial to explore the fate and effects of micropollutants.

  17. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  18. Determination of 131I and thorium in urine

    Tomida, Rute Miwa

    1978-01-01

    Methods for the determination of 131 I and Thorium in urine have been developed taking into account the monitoring needs for people who handle with these radioisotopes. The method for determining 131 I is based in the use of silver chloride to separate iodine by precipitation from the sample; the detection was carried out in a Nal (Tl) well type scintillator connected to a single channel analyser. This method has the following advantages; it is easy and relatively fast as well as selective, showing a separation yield higher than 80%. Thorium in urine was determined by colorimetry after the mineralization of the sample using nitric acid, and sulphuric acid, and then oxygen peroxide. The chromophore reagent used was Thoron (disodium salt of 2-(2-hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-l-naphthylazo) benzenearsonic acid).The absorbance was measured in a spectro colorimeter at a fixed wavelength (530 nm). The method proved to be simple allowing a separation yield of about 80%. The most representative sample for a monitoring program in a 131 I production laboratory has been established. The 131 I concentration in urine of individuals with chronic contamination have also been measured; an interpretation of these results is discussed. (author)

  19. Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer

    Wakelam Michael JO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome ( Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20 or ELISA (β2-microglobulin. Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  20. Peptidomics of urine and other biofluids for cancer diagnostics.

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of most current cancer biomarkers make early cancer diagnosis a challenging task. The comprehensive study of peptides and small proteins in a living system, known as "peptidomics," represents an alternative technological approach to the discovery of potential biomarkers for the assessment of a wide variety of pathologies. This review examines the current status of peptidomics for several body fluids, with a focus on urine, for cancer diagnostics applications. Several studies have used high-throughput technologies to characterize the peptide content of different body fluids. Because of its noninvasive collection and high stability, urine is a valuable source of candidate cancer biomarkers. A wide variety of preanalytical issues concerning patient selection and sample handling need to be considered, because not doing so can affect the quality of the results by introducing bias and artifacts. Optimization of both the analytical strategies and the processing of bioinformatics data is also essential to minimize the false-discovery rate. Peptidomics-based studies of urine and other body fluids have yielded a number of biomolecules and peptide panels with potential for diagnosing different types of cancer, especially of the ovary, prostate, and bladder. Large-scale studies are needed to validate these molecules as cancer biomarkers. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Estimated net acid excretion inversely correlates with urine pH in vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores.

    Ausman, Lynne M; Oliver, Lauren M; Goldin, Barry R; Woods, Margo N; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2008-09-01

    Diet affects urine pH and acid-base balance. Both excess acid/alkaline ash (EAA) and estimated net acid excretion (NAE) calculations have been used to estimate the effects of diet on urine pH. This study's goal was to determine if free-living vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, and omnivores have increasingly acidic urine, and to assess the ability of EAA and estimated NAE calculations to predict urine pH. This study used a cross-sectional design. This study assessed urine samples of 10 vegan, 16 lacto-ovo vegetarian, and 16 healthy omnivorous women in the Boston metropolitan area. Six 3-day food records from each dietary group were analyzed for EAA content and estimated NAE, and correlations with measured urine pH were calculated. The mean (+/- SD) urine pH was 6.15 +/- 0.40 for vegans, 5.90 +/- 0.36 for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 5.74 +/- 0.21 for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .013). Calculated EAA values were not significantly different among the three groups, whereas mean estimated NAE values were significantly different: 17.3 +/- 14.5 mEq/day for vegans, 31.3 +/- 8.5 mEq/day for lacto-ovo vegetarians, and 42.6 +/- 13.2 mEq/day for omnivores (analysis of variance, P = .01). The average deattenuated correlation between urine pH and EAA was 0.333; this value was -0.768 for estimated NAE and urine pH, with a regression equation of pH = 6.33 - 0.014 NAE (P = .02, r = -0.54). Habitual diet and estimated NAE calculations indicate the probable ranking of urine pH by dietary groups, and may be used to determine the likely acid-base status of an individual; EAA calculations were not predictive of urine pH.

  2. Determination of uranium isotopes in urine

    Lellis, I.R.; Silva, D.V.F.M. Rey; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    Variable concentrations of uranium occur naturally in waters, plant products and soils. Small amounts of this element are routinely incorporated by man. Occupationally exposed individuals (IOEs) are subject to the incorporation of higher amounts of uranium into their work routines. The effects on human health resulting from the incorporation of uranium in environmental doses are not very well established and are currently recognized as of little relevance. The incorporation resulting from occupational activities, where higher doses can be found, represents a health risk resulting from chemical damages to the kidneys. Considering that uranium is eliminated from the human body through urine and feces, and that the concentration in the urine can be obtained by means of radiochemical analyzes, this can be considered an efficient indirect method to verify the incorporation of this element. In the work the isotopes of 234 U, 235 U and 238 U were analyzed in urine samples of IOEs and the rate of uranium present in them was verified

  3. Measurement of menadione in urine by HPLC.

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Peterson, James; Choi, Sang-Woon; Suttie, John; Barakat, Susan; Booth, Sarah L

    2010-09-15

    Menadione is a metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a C(30) column, post-column zinc reduction and fluorescence detection was developed to measure urinary menadione. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol with 0.55% aqueous solution and 5% DI H(2)O. Menaquinone-2 (MK-2) was used as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.999 for both menadione and MK-2. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.3pmole menadione/mL urine. Sample preparation involved hydrolysis of menadiol conjugates and oxidizing the released menadiol to menadione. Using this method, urinary menadione was shown to increase in response to 3 years of phylloquinone supplementation. This HPLC method is a sensitive and reproducible way to detect menadione in urine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    Kramer, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  5. Simultaneous extraction and determination of monoamine neurotransmitters in human urine for clinical routine testing based on a dual functional solid phase extraction assisted by phenylboronic acid coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Li, Xiaoguang Sunny; Li, Shu; Kellermann, Gottfried

    2017-04-01

    The major monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamines (i.e., norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA)), are critical to the nervous system function, and imbalances of the neurotransmitters have been connected to a variety of diseases, making their measurement useful in a clinical setting. A simple, rapid, robust, sensitive, and specific LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of urinary serotonin and catecholamines with low cost, which is ideal for routine clinical applications. A simple extraction from complex urine was accomplished using tailored solid phase extraction incorporating phenylboronic acid complexation on a 96-well HLB microplate for the sample extraction and resulted in significantly improved throughput, selectivity, and extraction recovery. Compared to 1-10 mL of urine typically used, this method required only 10 μL. A rapid chromatographic elution with a total cycle time of 6 min per sample compared to reported run times of 19-75 min was achieved on a PFP column. The sensitivity of l and 2 ng mL -1 for the detection of low abundant E and NE combined with the high coverage of 1024 ng mL -1 for DA enabled the multi-analyte detection of these biogenic amines in a single run. Good linearity (2.0-512, 1.0-512, 4.0-1024, and 4.0-1024 ng mL -1 for NE, E, DA, and 5-HT, respectively), accuracy (87.6-104.0%), precision (≤8.0%), extraction recovery (69.6-103.7%), and matrix effect (87.1-113.1% for catecholamines and 63.6-71.4% for 5-HT) were obtained. No autosampler carryover was observed. The analytes were stable for 5 days at 20 °C, 14 days at 4 °C, and 30 days at -20 °C and five freeze-thaw cycles. The easy sample preparation, rapid LC, and multi-analyte MS detection allow two 96-well plates of samples to be extracted within 2 h and analyzed on an LC-MS/MS system within 24 h. The applicability and reliability of the assay were demonstrated by assessment

  6. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease.

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-02-15

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated.

  7. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  8. An attempt to understand kidney's protein handling function by comparing plasma and urine proteomes.

    Lulu Jia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the help of proteomics technology, the human plasma and urine proteomes, which closely represent the protein compositions of the input and output of the kidney, respectively, have been profiled in much greater detail by different research teams. Many datasets have been accumulated to form "reference profiles" of the plasma and urine proteomes. Comparing these two proteomes may help us understand the protein handling aspect of kidney function in a way, however, which has been unavailable until the recent advances in proteomics technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After removing secreted proteins downstream of the kidney, 2611 proteins in plasma and 1522 in urine were identified with high confidence and compared based on available proteomic data to generate three subproteomes, the plasma-only subproteome, the plasma-and-urine subproteome, and the urine-only subproteome, and they correspond to three groups of proteins that are handled in three different ways by the kidney. The available experimental molecular weights of the proteins in the three subproteomes were collected and analyzed. Since the functions of the overrepresented proteins in the plasma-and-urine subproteome are probably the major functions that can be routinely regulated by excretion from the kidney in physiological conditions, Gene Ontology term enrichment in the plasma-and-urine subproteome versus the whole plasma proteome was analyzed. Protease activity, calcium and growth factor binding proteins, and coagulation and immune response-related proteins were found to be enriched. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The comparison method described in this paper provides an illustration of a new approach for studying organ functions with a proteomics methodology. Because of its distinctive input (plasma and output (urine, it is reasonable to predict that the kidney will be the first organ whose functions are further elucidated by proteomic methods in the near future. It

  9. [Identification of Methamphetamine Abuse and Selegiline Use: Chiral Analysis of Methamphetamine and Amphetamine in Urine].

    Xiang, P; Bu, J; Qiao, Z; Zhuo, X Y; Wu, H J; Shen, M

    2017-12-01

    To study the content variation of selegiline and its metabolites in urine, and based on actual cases, to explore the feasibility for the identification of methamphetamine abuse and selegiline use by chiral analysis. The urine samples were tested by chiral separation and LC-MS/MS method using CHIROBIOTIC™ V2 chiral liquid chromatography column. The chiral analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine were performed on the urine samples from volunteers of selegiline use and drug addicts whom suspected taking selegiline. After 5 mg oral administration, the positive test time of selegiline in urine was less than 7 h. The mass concentrations of R(-)-methamphetamine and R(-)-amphetamine in urine peaked at 7 h which were 0.86 μg/mL and 0.18 μg/mL and couldn't be detected after 80 h and 168 h, respectively. The sources of methamphetamine and amphetamine in the urine from the drug addicts whom suspected taking selegiline were analysed successfully by present method. The chiral analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine, and the determination of selegiline's metabolites can be used to distinguish methamphetamine abuse from selegiline use. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  10. Level of 90Sr in the urine of a small group of Finnish people

    Puhakainen, M.; Suomela, M.; Rahola, T.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test the feasibility of the applied analysis method for 90 Sr and if possible to estimate the current level of the 90 Sr concentration in the urine. Urine samples were collected from seven Finnish volunteers in connection with studies of 137 Cs body burdens. The activity measurements of urine samples were performed 14 - 18 days after chemical separation of 90 Sr to allow ingrowing of 90 Y. The 90 Sr and 90 Y activities were measured simultaneously using a Quantulus liquid scintillation spectrometer. The detection limit for 90 Sr was 0.0033 Bq per sample, or 0.0007-0.0015 Bq 1 -1 . The 90 Sr activities in urine varied between 0.006 and 0.046 Bq 1 1 . The daily urinary excretion was found to be 0.007-0.018 Bq for the five volunteers that collected three-day urine samples. Assuming that the daily 90 Sr intake was constant and that 18% of the ingested activity was excreted in urine, the mean intake in the investigated group would vary between 0.039 and 0.1 Bq d -1 . Based on these estimated intake values the respective annual effective internal doses from 90 Sr and 90 Y varied from 0.4 to 1 Sv during the sampling period. (au)

  11. Radioimmunoassay of bleomycin in plasma and urine

    Teale, J.D.; Clough, J.M.; Marks, V.

    1977-01-01

    Antibodies to bleomycin were raised by immunization of sheep and rabbits with bleomycin-albumin conjugates. The combination of a high-titre, high-avidity sheep antiserum and iodinated bleomycin produced a radioimmunoassay sensitive to 8 ng of bleomycin per ml of plasma or urine. Untreated specimens (100 μl) of plasma or urine could be added directly to the assay tubes. The anti-serum was specific for bleomycin and showed no cross-reaction with other anti-cancer agents used in combination chemotherapy. Over a concentration range of 20 to 100 ng/ml. recovery of bleomycin from plasma was 110% and from urine, 93%. Repeated assay of plasma samples showed a decrease in bleomycin levels unless the samples were kept at 4 0 C or below. Assay of bleomycin levels in plasma and urine from patients under treatment with bleomycin showed similarities with results reported using a microbiological assay. The radioimmunoassay offers a more reliable, rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of bleomycin. (author)

  12. Potentiometric determination of iodides in urine

    Gikolaev, B.A.; Primakova, L.N.; Rakhman'ko, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Variants of potentiometric method: determination using a calibrations plot, the Gran method, and the double addition method are considered. The method of double additions of the test solution to the reference one is suggested as the most favorable method of determining iodides in urine under clinical laboratory conditions. Refs. 5, tabs. 2

  13. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  14. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  15. Determination of natural thorium in urines

    Jeanmaire, L.; Jammet, H.

    1959-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 γ of thorium in the sample. (author) [fr

  16. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    boaz

    Background: Urine culture contamination is a significant cause of delay in treatment of patients being investigated for urinary tract infection. ... Lowest contamination rates were in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) and intensive ... The female gender was found to be the most significant predictor of higher contamination rate.

  17. The urine metabolome differs between lean and overweight Labrador Retriever dogs during a feed-challenge.

    Josefin Söder

    Full Text Available Obesity in dogs is an increasing problem and better knowledge of the metabolism of overweight dogs is needed. Identification of molecular changes related to overweight may lead to new methods to improve obesity prevention and treatment. The aim of the study was firstly to investigate whether Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR based metabolomics could be used to differentiate postprandial from fasting urine in dogs, and secondly to investigate whether metabolite profiles differ between lean and overweight dogs in fasting and postprandial urine, respectively. Twenty-eight healthy intact male Labrador Retrievers were included, 12 of which were classified as lean (body condition score (BCS 4-5 on a 9-point scale and 16 as overweight (BCS 6-8. After overnight fasting, a voided morning urine sample was collected. Dogs were then fed a high-fat mixed meal and postprandial urine was collected after 3 hours. Metabolic profiles were generated using NMR and 45 metabolites identified from the spectral data were evaluated using multivariate data analysis. The results revealed that fasting and postprandial urine differed in relative metabolite concentration (partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.4, Q2Y = 0.32; cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.00006. Univariate analyses of discriminant metabolites showed that taurine and citrate concentrations were elevated in postprandial urine, while allantoin concentration had decreased. Interestingly, lean and overweight dogs differed in terms of relative metabolite concentrations in postprandial urine (PLS-DA 1 comp: R2Y = 0.5, Q2Y = 0.36, cross-validated ANOVA: P = 0.005 but not in fasting urine. Overweight dogs had lower postprandial taurine and a trend of higher allantoin concentrations compared with lean dogs. These findings demonstrate that metabolomics can differentiate 3-hour postprandial urine from fasting urine in dogs, and that postprandial urine metabolites may be more useful than fasting

  18. How farmers in Switzerland perceive fertilizers from recycled anthropogenic nutrients (urine).

    Lienert, J; Haller, M; Berner, A; Stauffacher, M; Larsen, T A

    2003-01-01

    We studied acceptance of a urine-based fertilizer product using a mail survey of 467 Swiss farmers. We distinguished among four production types: organic or IP farming, and with or without vegetable production. Considering that the idea of urine-based fertilizers is new, acceptance among the answering farmers was surprisingly high, with 57% explicitly stating that they thought it was a good or very good idea, and 42% willing to purchase such a product. The farmers of different production types did not differ strongly in their attitude towards urine-based fertilizers. Especially IP and vegetable farmers, who purchased additional fertilizers anyway, seem willing to accept urine-based fertilizers, hereby preferring a grainy, odorless ammonium nitrate fertilizer. Absolutely essential is a hazard-free product: 30% of all farmers had concerns regarding micropollutants. Based on fertilizer data, we demonstrate an existing demand for the nutrients N, P, and K in Switzerland, which could be partially substituted by a recycled urine product. Finally, we discuss methodological requirements of social science surveys. To obtain representative data on an entire population in a mail survey, multiple contacts with respondents are necessary. We argue that information and participation of stakeholders at an early stage is essential for successful technology transfer.

  19. Stability of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine.

    Glicksberg, Lindsay; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    In this report, we evaluate the concentration, pH, temperature and analyte-dependent effects on cathinone stability in preserved human urine. A total of 22 synthetic cathinones were evaluated at 100 ng/mL and 1,000 ng/mL in pH 4 and pH 8 urine over 6 months. Specimens were stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C and 32°C. The stability of synthetic cathinones was highly dependent on urine pH and storage temperature. Cathinones were considerably more stable in acidic urine (pH 4) at low temperature. In alkaline urine (pH 8) at 32°C, significant losses (>20%) were observed within hours for the majority of drugs. In contrast, all drugs were stable in frozen and refrigerated urine at pH 4 for the duration of the study. These results highlight the importance of sample storage and the potential for pre-analytical changes in concentration during routine shipping and handling of specimens. Significant structural influence was also observed. Cathinones bearing a tertiary amine (pyrrolidine group) were significantly more stable than their secondary amine counterparts. The methylenedioxy group also exerted a significant stabilizing effect on both the tertiary and secondary amines. In the absence of the methylenedioxy group, no significant differences in stability were observed between the unsubstituted and ring substituted secondary amines. Half-lives at ambient temperature in pH 8 urine ranged from 9 h (3-fluoromethcathinone) to 4.3 months (methylenedioxypyrovalerone and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone), demonstrating the importance of analyte dependence, and the dual stabilizing effect of both the pyrollidine and methylenedioxy groups. Biological evidence may be subjected to a variety of environmental conditions prior to, and during transport to the forensic laboratory. These findings demonstrate the inherent instability of certain cathinone species in biological evidence under some conditions. Moreover, this study highlights the need for quantitative drug findings in

  20. CW all optical self switching in nonlinear chalcogenide nano plasmonic directional coupler

    Motamed-Jahromi, Leila; Hatami, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we obtain the coupling coefficient of plasmonic directional coupler (PDC) made up of two parallel monolayer waveguides filled with high nonlinear chalcogenide material for TM mode in continues wave (CW) regime. In addition, we assume each waveguides acts as a perturbation to other waveguide. Four nonlinear-coupled equations are derived. Transfer distances are numerically calculated and used for deriving length of all optical switch. The length of designed switch is in the range of 10-1000 μm, and the switching power is in the range of 1-100 W/m. Obtained values are suitable for designing all optical elements in the integrated optical circuits.

  1. Controlling the emission and propagation of light with nano-plasmonic metamaterials and metasurfaces

    Ni, Xingjie

    Metamaterials---artificially structured materials with engineered electromagnetic properties---have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities. Metasurfaces are subwavelength thin metamaterial layers to introduce unusual properties do not exist in nature. They can play a fundamental role in generating synthetic scattering diagrams of macroscopic objects. Optical metamaterials and metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating light waves and producing new functionalities. We have studied various topics in this field, from designs to potential applications. We experimentally demonstrated the world's first optical metasurface which is capable of precisely manipulating light in arbitrary ways over a broad range of near-infrared light, which could make possible of many optical innovations such as more powerful microscopes, telecommunications and computers. We proposed the first hyperbolic metasurface, which consist of a highly anisotropic material layer and an isotropic material layer can support Dyakonov surface waves that have hyperbolic dispersion. This type of metasurfaces support a broadband singularity in the photonic density of states, which opens up another possibility to engineer the spontaneous emission efficiency. We also developed a set of parallel simulation tools which can handle a variety of problems in nanophotonics and plasmonics. Especially, we established an on-line research environment for the research community with six tools, which deliver a cloud computing service with no demand for either any powerful computational hardware or any additional software installations and cover a range of tasks including the design and simulation of complex transformation optics devices and optical metamaterials.

  2. Modeling, design and analysis of a stand-alone hybrid power generation system using solar/urine

    Wu, Wei; Zhou, Ya-Yan; Lin, Mu-Hsuan; Hwang, Jenn-Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The stand-alone hybrid power system is presented. • The urine-to-hydrogen processor is proposed. • Scenario analysis of the hybrid power dispatching and the urine/solar demands is investigated. • The design, modeling and optimization of the hybrid power system is addressed by Aspen Plus and Matlab. - Abstract: The urine turned to hydrogen as an energy conversion process is integrated into a stand-alone hybrid (PV/FC/battery) power generation system. The optimization and simulation of a new urine-to-hydrogen processor is evaluated in Aspen Plus environment. In our approach, the PV generator aims to reduce urine consumption and the lithium-ion battery can compensate the power gap due to the fuel processing delay. Based on prescribed patterns of solar irradiation and the daily load demand of a 30-persons classroom, scenario analyses of the hybrid power dispatching and operational feasibility is addressed

  3. A study on the migration and transformation law of nitrogen in urine in municipal wastewater transportation and treatment.

    Wuang, Ren; Pengkang, Jin; Chenggang, Liang; Xiaochang, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that the total nitrogen (TN) in urine is around 9,000 mg/L and about 80% of nitrogen in municipal wastewater comes from urine, because nitrogen mainly occurs in the form of urea in fresh human urine. Based on this fact, the study on the migration and transformation law of nitrogen in urine and its influencing factors was carried out. It can be seen from the experimental results that the transformation rate of urea in urine into ammonia nitrogen after standing for 20 days is only about 18.2%, but the urea in urine can be hydrolyzed into ammonia nitrogen rapidly after it is catalyzed directly with free urease or indirectly with microorganism. Adding respectively a certain amount of urease, activated sludge and septic-tank sludge to urine samples can make the maximum transformation rate achieve 85% after 1 day, 2 days and 6 days, respectively. In combination with some corresponding treatment methods, recycling of nitrogen in urine can be achieved. The results are of great significance in guiding denitrification in municipal wastewater treatment.

  4. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  5. Uncertainty estimation of uranium determination in urine by fluorometry

    Shakhashiro, A.; Al-Khateeb, S.

    2003-11-01

    In this study an applicable mathematical model is proposed for the estimation of uncertainty in uranium determination by fluorometry in urine sample. The study based on EURACHEM guide for uncertainty estimation. This model was tested on a sample containing 0.02 μg/ml uranium, where calculated uncertainty was 0.007 μg/ml. The sources of uncertainty were shown on fish-bone plane as the following: In addition, the weight of each uncertainty parameter was shown in a histogram: Finally, it was found that the estimated uncertainty by the proposed model was 3 to 4 time more that the usually reported standard deviation. (author)

  6. Effect of blood contamination on results of dipstick evaluation and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio for urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Behrend, Ellen N; Welles, Elizabeth G; Chew, Dennis J; Gaillard, Philippe R; Busler, Jessica N; Lee, Hollie P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats. SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats. PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used. Comparisons were made between undiluted urine and spiked urine samples for individual colors. Repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare dipstick scores and UPCR results; χ 2 tests were used to compare proteinuria categorizations (nonproteinuric, borderline, or proteinuric). RESULTS Any blood in the urine resulted in significantly increased dipstick scores for blood. In both species, scores for bilirubin and ketones, pH, and SG were affected by visible blood contamination. No significant difference for the dipstick protein reagent results was evident until a sample was visibly hematuric. The UPCR was significantly increased in dark yellow samples of both species. Proteinuria categorizations differed significantly between undiluted urine and urine of all colors, except light yellow. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Any degree of blood contamination affected results of dipstick analysis. Effects depended on urine color and the variable measured. Microscopic blood contamination may affect the UPCR; thus, blood contamination may be a differential diagnosis for proteinuria in yellow urine samples.

  7. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  8. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  9. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Zava, Theodore T.; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R 2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R 2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  10. Development of a fast and simple gas chromatographic protocol based on the combined use of alkyl chloroformate and solid phase microextraction for the assay of polyamines in human urine.

    Naccarato, Attilio; Elliani, Rosangela; Cavaliere, Brunella; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2018-05-11

    Polyamines are aliphatic amines with low molecular weight that are widely recognized as one of the most important cancer biomarkers for early diagnosis and treatment. The goal of the work herein presented is the development of a rapid and simple method for the quantification of free polyamines (i.e., putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, spermine) and N-monoacetylated polyamines (i.e., N 1 -Acetylspermidine, N 8 -Acetylspermidine, and N 1 -Acetylspermine) in human urine. A preliminary derivatization with propyl chloroformate combined with the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed for an easy and automatable protocol involving minimal sample handling and no consumption of organic solvents. The affinity of the analytes toward five commercial SPME coatings was evaluated in univariate mode, and the best result in terms of analyte extraction was achieved using the divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber. The variables affecting the performance of SPME analysis were optimized by the multivariate approach of experimental design and, in particular, using a central composite design (CCD). The optimal working conditions in terms of response values are the following: extraction temperature 40 °C, extraction time of 15 min and no addition of NaCl. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition mode. The developed method was validated according to the guidelines issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The satisfactory performances reached in terms of linearity, sensitivity (LOQs between 0.01 and 0.1 μg/mL), matrix effect (68-121%), accuracy, and precision (inter-day values between -24% and +16% and in the range 3.3-28.4%, respectively) make the proposed protocol suitable to be adopted for quantification of these important biomarkers in urine samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M.

    1961-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [fr

  12. Radioimmunoassay of urine oxytocin in man

    Zebidi, A.; Geelen, G.; Allevard, A.M.; Sempore, B.; Jarsaillon, E.; Meunier, C.; Gharib, C.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for oxytocin (OT) in urine is described. 125 I-OT was prepared, and antibodies were raised in rabbits against OT coupled to bovine serumalbumine. This allowed us to set up a RIA for OT which limit of detection is 1.25 pg/tube (0.6 μU). The use of an extraction procedure using CG 50 Amberlite is essential. The recovery after extraction reaches 70.5 %. pH 5 is the optimum pH were urine samples must be stored. The superposition of the elution peak of endogenous OT on that of exogenous hormone is an argument in favour of the validity of such an extraction procedure. Daily urinary excretion of OT reaches 9.58 mU +- 3.48 in 18 healthy young men [fr

  13. Environmental heat stress enhances crystallization in urine

    Setyawan, H.; Pratiwi, Q. C.; Sjarifah, I.; Atmojo, T. B.; Khotijah

    2018-03-01

    Over the past several decades, agriculture and plantations have been used as the main livelihood of most of the Karanganyar residents. However, these two sources of living are now replaced by industrial areas that employ thousands of people in that district. The development of this industry triggers multiple environmental impacts, including ecosystem and temperature changes. In consequence, there is an increase in air temperature that can cause a variety of diseases, especially in the workplace. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) data in 2013, one worker dies every 15 second due to a work accident and 160 workers are suffering from the occupational disease. In Indonesia, the incidence of crystallization in urine is actually still unknown, but it is estimated that there are 170,000 cases annually. A high temperature or called heat stress is one among many factors causing this disease to appear. The workers in the textile industry, especially in the Finishing Department Kusumahadi Co. Ltd that exposed heat stress from the finishing machines and inadequate ventilation. This hot working climate causes the human body to adapt in the form of body cooling mechanism or called sweating This adaptation can cause an increase in sweat production and decrease the production of urine. If it is not followed by consuming the recommended amount of water intake, it can result in the precipitation of body salts that, in a long time, will cause crystallization in urine. The research used the analytic observational designs for a cross-sectional study. There were 34 samples collected from 57 finishing workers. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlation test. The results showed that heat stress (p=0,015) and water intake (p=0,034) has a significant correlation with crystallization in urine.

  14. Determination of uranium in urine by fluorometry

    Afsar, M.; Aziz, A.; Mubarak, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes fluorometric determination of traces of uranium in the urine of mine workers and persons handling uranium. After preliminary treatment uranium is extracted by solvent extraction with TBP:MIBK mixtures. An aliquot of the extracted solution is fused with high carbonate flux at 650 0 C in platinum dishes. The fluorescence of fused sample is measured using a fluorometer. Various fusion parameters are discussed. The procedure for the operation and calibration of fluorometer is also described

  15. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  16. Radioimmunological detection of vasopressin in urine extracts

    Buengner, R.

    1983-01-01

    After initial measures had been taken to ensure that ion exchange chromatography would yield a sufficiently high recovery of labelled and non-labelled hormone as well as to eliminate all intervening factors it was possible to use the described extraction procedure in connection with the RIA introduced by Freisenhausen et al. At the clinical level, the technique was employed to assess the post-operative release of AVP (argenine vasopressin) in 24-hour urine samples obtained from patients subjected to hypophysectomy. In a total of 10 patients, where hypophysectomy had been performed for different clinical reasons, the AVP values were seen to be significantly decreased for the first three hours after surgical intervention. They recovered slightly during the following three hours to remain at an average level of 2 pg / 400 μl urine. The extraction procedure described can be used to determine levels of AVP approaching the limit of detection - either due to large volumes of urine or very low concentrations of AVP. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  18. Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.

    Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-10-01

    Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Study of a dosimetric methodology for plutonium by means of radiotonicological analysis in urine

    Bellintani, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present study is mainly concerned with an internal individual monitoring program for workers dealing with 239 Pu, by measuring the 239 Pu content in their urine. General aspects related with the plutonium radiotoxicity and its chemical, physical and metabolic properties are discussed. The methodology chosen for the 239 Pu analyses in urine is based on the wet ashing of the urine sample, followed by the plutonium separation by precipitation with lanthanium nitrate and extraction with thenoyltrifluoroacetone. After the separation, the samples is electrodeposited and the activity measured by alpha spectrometry. The results were then analyzed by taking into account the couting efficiency obtained of 23.72%, the chemical recovery of 85.3% and the lower limit of detection of 1.1 x 10 -3 Bq. Finally, the bases for the establishment of reference levels for urinary excretion are discussed by considering the maximum permissible body burden (MPBB) and the annual limit of intake (ALI). (author) [pt

  20. Comparison of Depletion Strategies for the Enrichment of Low-Abundance Proteins in Urine.

    Filip, Szymon; Vougas, Konstantinos; Zoidakis, Jerome; Latosinska, Agnieszka; Mullen, William; Spasovski, Goce; Mischak, Harald; Vlahou, Antonia; Jankowski, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Proteome analysis of complex biological samples for biomarker identification remains challenging, among others due to the extended range of protein concentrations. High-abundance proteins like albumin or IgG of plasma and urine, may interfere with the detection of potential disease biomarkers. Currently, several options are available for the depletion of abundant proteins in plasma. However, the applicability of these methods in urine has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we compared different, commercially available immunodepletion and ion-exchange based approaches on urine samples from both healthy subjects and CKD patients, for their reproducibility and efficiency in protein depletion. A starting urine volume of 500 μL was used to simulate conditions of a multi-institutional biomarker discovery study. All depletion approaches showed satisfactory reproducibility (n=5) in protein identification as well as protein abundance. Comparison of the depletion efficiency between the unfractionated and fractionated samples and the different depletion strategies, showed efficient depletion in all cases, with the exception of the ion-exchange kit. The depletion efficiency was found slightly higher in normal than in CKD samples and normal samples yielded more protein identifications than CKD samples when using both initial as well as corresponding depleted fractions. Along these lines, decrease in the amount of albumin and other targets as applicable, following depletion, was observed. Nevertheless, these depletion strategies did not yield a higher number of identifications in neither the urine from normal nor CKD patients. Collectively, when analyzing urine in the context of CKD biomarker identification, no added value of depletion strategies can be observed and analysis of unfractionated starting urine appears to be preferable.

  1. Stability of cannabinoids in urine in three storage temperatures.

    Golding Fraga, S; Díaz-Flores Estévez, J; Díaz Romero, C

    1998-01-01

    Stability of cannabinoid compounds in urine samples were evaluated using several storage temperatures. Appreciable losses (> 22.4 percent) were observed in some urine samples, after being stored at room temperature for 10 days. Lower losses (8.1 percent) were observed when the urine samples were refrigerated for 4 weeks. The behavior of urine samples depended on the analyzed urine. This could be due to the different stability of the cannabinoids present in each urine sample. Important losses of 8.0 +/- 10.6, 15.8 +/- 4.2, and 19.6 +/- 6.7 percent were found when the urine samples were frozen during 40 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Average losses (> > 5 percent) can be observed after one day which could mainly be due to the decrease of the solubility of 11-nor-U9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) or adsorption process of cannabinoid molecules to the plastic storage containers.

  2. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of gonococcal antigens in urine by radioimmunoassay

    Thornley, M.J.; Wilson, D.V.; Hormaeche, R.D. de; Coombs, R.R.A.; Oates, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method of detecting gonococcal antigens by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with radioactively labelled antibody is described. A specificity test has been developed that enables this method to be used to detect gonococcal antigens in urine sediments. When sediments from samples of urine from male patients with gonorrhoea were tested, 31 (74%) of 42 gave positive results, clearly distinguishing them from sediments from urine samples from men with non-specific urethritis, none of which was positive. Ten of 14 urine sediments from urine samples from women with gonorrhoea gave positive results, as did 3 of 18 sediments from urine samples from women patients without gonorrhoea.These experiments demonstrate that gonococcal antigens can be detected in urine by radioimmunoassay; the method could be useful in diagnosis if, after refinement, its sensitivity and specificity were to be increased. (author)

  4. Urine metabolomics in rats after administration of ketamine

    Wen C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Wen,1 Meiling Zhang,2 Jianshe Ma,2 Lufeng Hu,3 Xianqin Wang,2 Guanyang Lin31Laboratory Animal Centre, 2Analytical and Testing Center, 3First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis revealed that ketamine (50 mg/kg induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, at day 7, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, glutamine, butanedioic, trimethylsiloxy, L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, cholesterol, acetamide, and oleic acid of the ketamine group was increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzene­acetic acid, threitol, ribitol, xylitol, and glycine decreased. At day 14, the level of alanine, ethanedioic acid, L-proline, glycerol, tetradecanoic acid, l-serine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, d-glucose, cholesterol, heptadecanoic acid, and acetamide in rat urine of the ketamine group was increased, while the 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, d-ribose, threitol, ribitol, glycine, pyrazine, and oleic acid levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate ketamine abuse, through the exploration of biomarkers.Keywords: GC-MS, abuse, biomarker, metabolite

  5. Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants.

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration. Retrospective cross-sectional study of infants aged UTI in the emergency department with paired urinalysis and urine culture. UTI was defined as ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL from catheterized specimens. Test characteristics were calculated across a range of WBC and leukocyte esterase (LE) cut-points, dichotomized into specific gravity groups (dilute UTI prevalence was 7.8%. Optimal WBC cut-points were 3 WBC/high-power field (HPF) in dilute urine (likelihood ratio positive [LR+] 9.9, likelihood ratio negative [LR‒] 0.15) and 6 WBC/HPF (LR+ 10.1, LR‒ 0.17) in concentrated urine. For dipstick analysis, positive LE has excellent test characteristics regardless of urine concentration (LR+ 22.1, LR‒ 0.12 in dilute urine; LR+ 31.6, LR‒ 0.22 in concentrated urine). Urine concentration should be incorporated into the interpretation of automated microscopic urinalysis in young infants. Pyuria thresholds of 3 WBC/HPF in dilute urine and 6 WBC/HPF in concentrated urine are recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of UTI. Without correction of specific gravity, positive LE by automated dipstick is a reliably strong indicator of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. The interactive effects of various nitrogen fertiliser formulations applied to urine patches on nitrous oxide emissions in grassland

    Krol D.J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based livestock agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG nitrous oxide (N2O. Although a body of research is available on the effect of urine patch N or fertiliser N on N2O emissions, limited data is available on the effect of fertiliser N applied to patches of urinary N, which can cover up to a fifth of the yearly grazed area. This study investigated whether the sum of N2O emissions from urine and a range of N fertilisers, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN or urea ± urease inhibitor ± nitrification inhibitor, applied alone (disaggregated and re-aggregated approximated the N2O emission of urine and fertiliser N applied together (aggregated. Application of fertiliser to urine patches did not significantly increase either the cumulative yearly N2O emissions or the N2O emission factor in comparison to urine and fertiliser applied separately with the emissions re-aggregated. However, there was a consistent trend for approximately 20% underestimation of N2O loss generated from fertiliser and urine applied separately when compared to figures generated when urine and fertiliser were applied together. N2O emission factors from fertilisers were 0.02%, 0.06%, 0.17% and 0.25% from urea ± dicyandiamide (DCD, urea + N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT + DCD, urea + NBPT and urea, respectively, while the emission factor for urine alone was 0.33%. Calcium ammonium nitrate and urea did not interact differently with urine even when the urea included DCD. N2O losses could be reduced by switching from CAN to urea-based fertilisers.

  7. Long-term frozen storage of urine samples: a trouble to get PCR results in Schistosoma spp. DNA detection?

    Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Velasco Tirado, Virginia; Carranza Rodríguez, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Muro, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples' storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patients urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA method of extraction used.

  8. Long-term frozen storage of urine samples: a trouble to get PCR results in Schistosoma spp. DNA detection?

    Pedro Fernández-Soto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis remains a serious worldwide public health problem. At present, a sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection is not yet available. The potential for detecting schistosome-derived DNA by PCR-based methods in human clinical samples is currently being investigated as a diagnostic tool with potential application in routine schistosomiasis diagnosis. Collection of diagnostic samples such as stool or blood is usually difficult in some populations. However, urine is a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive method, easy to get from people of all ages and easy in management, but as a sample for PCR diagnosis is still not widely used. This could be due to the high variability in the reported efficiency of detection as a result of the high variation in urine samples' storage or conditions for handling and DNA preservation and extraction methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluate different commercial DNA extraction methods from a series of long-term frozen storage human urine samples from patients with parasitological confirmed schistosomiasis in order to assess the PCR effectiveness for Schistosoma spp. detection. Patients urine samples were frozen for 18 months up to 7 years until use. Results were compared with those obtained in PCR assays using fresh healthy human urine artificially contaminated with Schistosoma mansoni DNA and urine samples from mice experimentally infected with S. mansoni cercariae stored frozen for at least 12 months before use. PCR results in fresh human artificial urine samples using different DNA based extraction methods were much more effective than those obtained when long-term frozen human urine samples were used as the source of DNA template. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term frozen human urine samples are probably not a good source for DNA extraction for use as a template in PCR detection of Schistosoma spp., regardless of the DNA

  9. The role of cow urine in the oviposition site preference of culicine and Anopheles mosquitoes

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical and behavioural ecology of mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of chemical cue based vector control. To date, studies available have focused on evaluating mosquito attractants and repellents of synthetic and human origins. This study, however, was aimed at seasonal evaluation of the efficiency of cow urine in producing oviposition cues to Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Culex quinquefasciatus in both laboratory and field conditions. Methods Oviposition response evaluation in laboratory conditions was carried out in mosquito rearing cages. The oviposition substrates were located in parallel or in diagonal positions inside the cage. Urine evaluation against gravid females of An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out at Day 1, Day 3 and Day 7. Five millilitres (mls of cow urine was added to oviposition substrate while de-chlorinated water was used as a control. In field experiments, 500 mls of cow urine was added in artificial habitats with 2500 mls of de-chlorinated water and 2 kgs of soil. The experiment was monitored for thirty consecutive days, eggs were collected daily from the habitats at 7.00 hrs. Data analysis was performed using parametric and non-parametric tests for treatments and controls while attraction of the oviposition substrate in each species was presented using Oviposition Activity Index (OAI. Results The OAI was positive with ageing of cattle urine in culicine species in both laboratory and field experiments. The OAI for anopheline species was positive with fresh urine. The OAI during the rainy season was positive for all species tested while in the dry season the OAI for culicine spp and Anopheles gambiae s.l., changed with time from positive to negative values. Based on linear model analysis, seasons and treatments had a significant effect on the number of eggs laid in habitats, even though the number of days had no effect. Conclusion Oviposition substrates treated with

  10. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  11. Detection of Leptospiral DNA in the Urine of Donkeys on the Caribbean Island of Saint Kitts

    Bernard Grevemeyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in direct contact with a reservoir or infected animals or by exposure to environmental surface water or soil that is contaminated with their urine. In this study, urine samples from a herd of donkeys on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts were screened using a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR targeting a pathogen-specific leptospiral gene, lipl32. Out of 124 clinically normal donkeys, 22 (18% tested positive for leptospiral DNA in their urine. Water samples from two water troughs used by the donkeys were also tested, but were found to be free from leptospiral contamination. Detection of leptospiral DNA in the urine of clinically healthy donkeys may point to a role that these animals play in the maintenance of the bacteria on St. Kitts.

  12. Detection of Leptospiral DNA in the Urine of Donkeys on the Caribbean Island of Saint Kitts

    Grevemeyer, Bernard; Vandenplas, Michel; Beigel, Brittney; Cho, Ellen; Willingham, Arve Lee; Verma, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonosis caused by pathogenic spirochetes classified within the genus Leptospira. Leptospires live in the proximal renal tubules of reservoir or chronic carrier animals, and are shed in the urine. Naïve animals acquire infection either when they come in direct contact with a reservoir or infected animals or by exposure to environmental surface water or soil that is contaminated with their urine. In this study, urine samples from a herd of donkeys on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts were screened using a TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting a pathogen-specific leptospiral gene, lipl32. Out of 124 clinically normal donkeys, 22 (18%) tested positive for leptospiral DNA in their urine. Water samples from two water troughs used by the donkeys were also tested, but were found to be free from leptospiral contamination. Detection of leptospiral DNA in the urine of clinically healthy donkeys may point to a role that these animals play in the maintenance of the bacteria on St. Kitts. PMID:29056661

  13. Determination of radium in urine; Dosage du radium dans l'urine

    Fourniguet, H; Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of radium in urine is described. The radium is carried by a barium sulfate precipitate. The precipitate is mixed with zinc sulfide and the activity measured by scintillation counting. It is thus possible to detect an amount of radium less than 1 pico-curie in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du radium dans l'urine. Le radium entraine par un precipite de sulfate de baryum est compte par scintillation apres melange du precipite avec du sulfure de zinc. Cette methode permet de deceler moins de 1 picocurie de radium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  14. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  15. Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth

    Aubron Cecile

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications.

  16. Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue

    2012-01-01

    19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ≥8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is the first time that all NAED and nandrolone detected in

  17. Pilot Study: Colostomy and Urine Collection Protocol for Investigating Potential Inciting Causes of Hen Diuresis Syndrome.

    Jones, Kelli; Turner, Bradley; Brandão, João; Hubbard, Sue Ann; Magee, Danny; Baughman, Brittany; Wills, Robert; Tully, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Hen diuresis syndrome has emerged over the past 5 yr as a significant cause of mortality in the U.S. broiler breeder industry. The condition affects hens in production and is characterized by transient muscle weakness in the vent region, transient diuresis, and often urate deposits on the skin below the vent. Affected hens are often seen straining to lay an egg, which suggests oviduct contraction is also impaired. Related hen mortality, often reaching 1% or more a week, is believed to be primarily the result of male aggression of the vent region (Turner et al., "Investigating Causes of Excessive Urate Production in Broiler Breeder Hens Associated with Peritonitis and Cannibalism Mortality," Oral Presentation at The American Association of Avian Pathologists Annual Meeting, p. 139, 2010). The exact association between the cause of mortality and this syndrome is unknown, but it may be the consequence of transient partial to full oviduct prolapse, which predisposes or stimulates cannibalism and aggression. Based on unpublished work done prior to this study (Turner et al., ibid.), the evidence suggests the underlying problem is metabolic. We feel that urine collection and analysis is an essential component to understanding this condition. This study serves as a pilot study for future investigations that attempt to identify the nature and cause of the metabolic disturbance through paired urine and serum collection and analysis. For the purpose of this study, a small sample of 10 affected and 10 unaffected birds was used for sample collection. In order to collect pure urine, the birds were surgically colostomized. Colostomy did prove to be a useful means of collecting urine free of feces, and for the purposes of our study it yielded adequate urine samples for analysis. There were statistically relevant urine values observed. Affected birds had a higher presence of blood in the urine, a lower uric acid excretion rate (mg/hr), higher concentration (mEq/L) of urine Na+, and

  18. Detection of West Nile virus lineage 2 in the urine of acute human infections.

    Papa, Anna; Testa, Theodolinda; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2014-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 emerged in Greece in 2010 and since then outbreaks in humans have been reported for four consecutive years. Laboratory diagnosis is based mainly on serology. A real-time RT-PCR was applied on urine samples obtained from 35 patients with acute WNV infection. WNV RNA was detected in 40% of the samples with cycle threshold (CT) values ranging from 26.95 to 39.89 (mean 33.11). WNV was isolated from two of four urine samples with low CT (sample shipment and storage conditions are very important for virus detection and isolation. The usefulness of the WNV RNA detection in urine as a diagnostic tool of acute WNV infections is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Requirements for radiation emergency urine bioassay techniques for the public and first responders.

    Li, Chunsheng; Vlahovich, Slavica; Dai, Xiongxin; Richardson, Richard B; Daka, Joseph N; Kramer, Gary H

    2010-11-01

    Following a radiation emergency, the affected public and the first responders may need to be quickly assessed for internal contamination by the radionuclides involved. Urine bioassay is one of the most commonly used methods for assessing radionuclide intake and radiation dose. This paper attempts to derive the sensitivity requirements (from inhalation exposure) for the urine bioassay techniques for the top 10 high-risk radionuclides that might be used in a terrorist attack. The requirements are based on a proposed reference dose to adults of 0.1 Sv (CED, committed effective dose). In addition, requirements related to sample turnaround time and field deployability of the assay techniques are also discussed. A review of currently available assay techniques summarized in this paper reveals that method development for ²⁴¹Am, ²²⁶Ra, ²³⁸Pu, and ⁹⁰Sr urine bioassay is needed.

  20. Direct radioimmunoassay for the detection of barbiturates in blood and urine

    Mason, P.A.; Law, B.; Pocock, K.; Moffat, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the detection of barbiturates in blood and urine without any pre-treatment of the sample. It is based on a radioiodinated derivative of 4-hydroxyphenobarbitone which allows use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect therapeutic levels of barbiturates in very small amounts (50 μl) of blood and urine samples. It is cheap, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the barbiturate class of drugs to the exclusion of related drugs. The assay is, therefore, very well suited to the task of screening large numbers of samples for the presence of barbiturates. (author)

  1. Identification of urine metabolites associated with 5-year changes in biomarkers of glucose homoeostasis

    Friedrich, N.; Skaaby, T.; Pietzner, M.

    2017-01-01

    of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index values. Methods: Urine metabolites in 3986 participants at both baseline and 5-year follow-up of the population-based Inter99 study were analyzed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Linear regression and analyses of covariance models were used to detect associations between urine...... associated with a decrease in HbA1c over time. Analyses of 5-year changes in fasting glucose and HOMA-IR index showed similar findings, with high baseline levels of lactic acid, beta-d-glucose, creatinine, alanine and 1-methylnicotinamide associated with increases in both parameters. Conclusion: Several...

  2. TRH radioimmunoassay for unextracted human urine

    Mitsuma, Terunori; Hirooka, Yoshibumi; Nihei, Noriyuki

    1975-01-01

    The authors developed a TRH radioimmunoassay for unextracted human urine using anti-TRH antibody produced by immunization of rabbits with a TRH-bis-diazotized-bovine serum albumin conjugate. The antibody had no crossreactivity with TRH analogues, amino acids or pituitary hormones, but with L or DL-Aze3-TRH. TRH was radioiodinized by Greenwood-Hunter's method, followed by purification on Sephadex G-10. Inactivation of TRH by serum was well documented. The authors found however that this inactivation of TRH could be prevented by adjusting the pH to 3.0 or by keeping the temperature between 4 0 C and -20 0 C. All assay procedures were performed in 0.01 M phosphate buffer with 0.15 M NaCl (pH 7.5) at 4 0 C. Free and bound forms were separated with a second antibody system. In this system, sensitivity was 0.01 ng/tube, recovery was approximately 100%, intrassay reproducibility was 3.2% and interassay variation was 9.8%. TRH levels in urine measured with this system were undetectable to 9.0 ng/ml in normal subjects, undetectable in hyperthyroid patients or a tertiary hypothyroid patient and 13 to 24 ng/ml in primary hypothyroid patients. Approximately 6 percent of the intravenously administered TRH was excreted into the urine within 12 hours following administration in a normal subject. As a result this assay system is quite attractive for clinical determination as well as research application. (Evans, J.)

  3. Urine drug screening in the medical setting.

    Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Cannon, Donald J

    2002-01-01

    The term drug screen is a misnomer since it implies screening for all drugs, which is not possible. Current practice is to limit the testing to the examination of serum for several drugs such as ethanol, acetaminophen, salicylate, and of urine for several specific drugs or classes of drugs. In the emergency setting the screen should be performed in less than one hour. Controversies continue to exist regarding the value of urine drug testing in the medical setting. The reasons for these include the drugs involved, the sample, the methods utilized to perform the tests, and the level of understanding of the physician using the data, all of which are closely related to the other. Current automated methods provide rapid results demanded in emergency situations, but are often designed for, or adapted from, workplace testing and are not necessarily optimized for clinical applications. Furthermore, the use of these methods without consideration of the frequency in which the drugs are found in a given area is not cost-effective. The laboratory must understand the limitations of the assays used and provide this information to the physician. Additionally, the laboratory and the physicians using the data must cooperate to determine which drugs are appropriate and necessary to measure for their institution and clinical setting. In doing so it should be remembered that for many drugs, the sample, urine, contains the end product(s) of drug metabolism, not the parent drug. Furthermore, it is necessary to understand the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug of interest when interpreting data. Finally, while testing for some drugs may not appear cost-effective, the prevention or reduction of morbidity and mortality may offset any laboratory costs. While the literature is replete with studies concerning new methods and a few regarding physician understanding, there are none that we could find that thoroughly, objectively, and fully addressed the issues of utility and cost-effectiveness.

  4. Absence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with and without lower urinary tract disease.

    Lund, Heidi Sjetne; Skogtun, Gaute; Sørum, Henning; Eggertsdóttir, Anna Vigdís

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of bacterial cystitis commonly relies on a positive microbiological culture demonstrating the presence of a significant number of colony-forming units/ml urine, as urine within the upper urinary tract, bladder and proximal urethra generally is considered sterile. Recent studies from human and veterinary medicine indicate the presence of non-culturable bacteria in culture-negative urine samples. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine samples from cats with signs of feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) and healthy control cats by 16S ribosomal DNA PCR and subsequent sequencing. The study sample included 38 culture-negative urine samples from cats with FLUTD and 43 culture-negative samples from control cats. Eight culture-positive urine samples from cats with FLUTD were included as external positive controls in addition to negative reaction controls. Of possible methodological limitations, degradation of DNA due to storage, the use of non-sedimented urine for DNA isolation and lack of internal positive reaction controls should be mentioned. The positive controls were recognised, but occurrence of bacterial DNA in culture-negative urine from cats with or without signs of lower urinary tract disease was not demonstrated. However, considering the possible methodological limitations, the presence of bacterial DNA in the urine of culture-negative FLUTD cats cannot be excluded based on the present results alone. Therefore, a prospective study reducing the possibility of degradation of DNA due to storage, in combination with modifications enhancing the chance of detecting even lower levels of bacterial DNA in culture-negative samples, seems warranted. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  5. Inventing urine incontinence devices for women.

    Pieper, B; Cleland, V; Johnson, D E; O'Reilly, J L

    1989-01-01

    Nurses have long been aware of the devastating effects of urinary incontinence on women. Although women may find diapers, pads and protective clothing valuable protection, there are few options for a continuous wear, external urine incontinence device (EUID). Inventors have attempted to develop an EUID since ancient times; the first United States patent for an EUID was awarded in 1949. The purpose of this paper is to review technological considerations for development of an external urinary incontinence device for women. Patents and products illustrate the considerations.

  6. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew; Ward, Malcolm; Thompson, Andrew; Chappell, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the ‘gold standard’ amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia. BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-aci...

  7. The radioimmunological determination of vasopressin in urine

    Horn, M.J. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which can be used for the quantitative measurement of the urinary excretion of the hormone in man during physiological and pathological conditions. The final RIA method, using approximately 5 pg 125 I-AVP diluted (1 : 50,000) antiserum 121 and charcoal-dextran separation of the antibody-bound and free fractions, is found to be specific for vasopressin and closely related substances; the sensitivity is 9 pg. The validity is demonstrated and the results of measurements of vasopressin excretion in urine from 39 normal subjects, including 4 children are presented. (Auth.)

  8. [Distribution of rubidium, cesium, beryllium, strontium, and barium in blood and urine in general Chinese population].

    Ding, Chunguang; Pan, Yajuan; Zhang, Aihua; Zhu, Chun; Liu, Deye; Xu, Guang; Zheng, Yuxin; Yan, Huifang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), beryllium (Be), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba) in blood and urine in general Chinese population. A total of 18 120 subjects aged 6~60 years were enrolled from 24 regions in 8 provinces in Eastern, Central, and Western China from 2009 to 2010 based on the method of cluster random sampling. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect the data on living environment and health status. Blood and urine samples were collected from these subjects, and the levels of Rb, Cs, Be, Sr, and Ba in these samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distribution of these elements in blood and urine in male or female subjects living in different regions was analyzed statistically. In the general Chinese population, the concentration of Be in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L); the geometric mean (GM) of Ba in the whole blood was below the detection limit (0.45 μg/L), with the 95th percentile (P95)of 1.37 μg/L; the GMs (95% CI)of Rb, Cs, and Sr in the whole blood were 2 374(2 357~2 392) μg/L, 2.01 (1.98~2.05) μg/L, and 23.5 (23.3~23.7) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of blood Rb, Cs, and Sr were 2 506 (2 478~2 533) μg/L and 2 248 (2 227~2 270) μg/L, 1.88 (1.83~1.94) μg/L and 2.16 (2.11~2.20) μg/L, and 23.4 (23.1~23.7) μg/L and 23.6 (23.3~23.9) μg/L, respectively(P0.05, and P>0.05). In the general Chinese population, the GM of urine Be was below the detection limit (0.06 μg/L), while the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 854 (836~873) μg/L, 3.65 (3.56~3.74) μg/L, 39.5 (38.4~40.6) μg/L, and 1.10 (1.07~1.12) μg/L, respectively; in males and females, the GMs (95%CI)of urine Rb, Cs, Sr, and Ba were 876 (849~904) μg/L and 832 (807~858) μg/L, 3.83 (3.70~3.96) μg/L and 3.47 (3.35~3.60) μg/L, 42.5 (40.9~44.2) μg/L and 36.6 (35.1~38.0) μg/L, and 1.15 (1.12~1.19) μg/L and 1.04 (1.01~1.07) μg/L, respectively (all P< 0

  9. Identification and testing of early indicators for N leaching from urine patches.

    Vogeler, Iris; Cichota, Rogerio; Snow, Val

    2013-11-30

    Nitrogen leaching from urine patches has been identified as a major source of nitrogen loss under intensive grazing dairy farming. Leaching is notoriously variable, influenced by management, soil type, year-to-year variation in climate and timing and rate of urine depositions. To identify early indicators for the risk of N leaching from urine patches for potential usage in a precision management system, we used the simulation model APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator) to produce an extensive N leaching dataset for the Waikato region of New Zealand. In total, nearly forty thousand simulation runs with different combinations of soil type and urine deposition times, in 33 different years, were done. The risk forecasting indicators were chosen based on their practicality: being readily measured on farm (soil water content, temperature and pasture growth) or that could be centrally supplied to farms (such as actual and forecast weather data). The thresholds of the early indicators that are used to forecast a period for high risk of N leaching were determined via classification and regression tree analysis. The most informative factors were soil temperature, pasture dry matter production, and average soil water content in the top soil over the two weeks prior to the urine N application event. Rainfall and air temperature for the two weeks following urine deposition were also important to fine-tune the predictions. The identified early indicators were then tested for their potential to predict the risk of N leaching in two typical soils from the Waikato region in New Zealand. The accuracy of the predictions varied with the number of indicators, the soil type and the risk level, and the number of correct predictions ranged from about 45 to over 90%. Further expansion and fine-tuning of the indicators and the development of a practical N risk tool based on these indicators is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Het ontwikkelen en valideren van een analysemethode voor arseen in urine

    Heerde E van; Ooik A van; Ritsema R; LAC

    1997-01-01

    The development and validation of a method for analyzing arsenic in urine samples of non specific exposed persons has been described. Measurements are performed by FIA-AAS based on reduction of inorganic arsenic to arsine. In this way only inorganic arsenic can be quantified. For total arsenic

  11. Group B streptococci cultured in urine during pregnancy associated with preterm delivery

    Khalil, Mohammed R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Møller, Jens K

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate an association between Group B streptococci (GBS) in urine culture during pregnancy and preterm delivery. METHODS: A population-based cohort consisted of all the pregnant women (n = 36,097) from the catchment area of Lillebaelt Hospital, Denmark, during the period Januar...

  12. Method for fluoride routine determination in urine of personnel exposed, by ion selective electrode

    Pires, M.A.F.; Bellintani, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    A simple, fast and sensible method is outlined for the determination of fluoride in urine of workers that handle fluorine compounds. The determination is based on the measurement of fluoride by ion selective electrode. Cationic interference like Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe +++ and Al +++ are complexed by EDTA and citric acid. (Author) [pt

  13. Post-void residual urine under 150 ml does not exclude voiding dysfunction in women

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: It has been claimed that post-void residual urine (PVR) below 150 ml rules out voiding dysfunction in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and provides license to perform sling surgery. The cut-off of 150 ml seems arbitrary, not evidence-based, and so we sough...

  14. The Association Between Urine Output, Creatinine Elevation, and Death.

    Engoren, Milo; Maile, Michael D; Heung, Michael; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Vahabzadeh, Christie; Haft, Jonathan W; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury can be defined by a fall in urine output, and urine output criteria may be more sensitive in identifying acute kidney injury than traditional serum creatinine criteria. However, as pointed out in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome guidelines, the association of urine output with subsequent creatinine elevations and death is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine what degrees of reduced urine output are associated with subsequent creatinine elevation and death. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients (age ≥18 years) cared for in a cardiovascular intensive care unit after undergoing cardiac operations in a tertiary care university medical center. All adult patients who underwent cardiac operations and were not receiving dialysis preoperatively were studied. The development of acute kidney injury was defined as an increase in creatinine of more than 0.3 mg/dL or by more than 50% above baseline by postoperative day 3. Acute kidney injury developed in 1,061 of 4,195 patients (25%). Urine output had moderate discrimination in predicting subsequent acute kidney injury (C statistic = .637 ± .054). Lower urine output and longer duration of low urine output were associated with greater odds of developing acute kidney injury and death. We found that there is similar accuracy in using urine output corrected for actual, ideal, or adjusted weight to discriminate future acute kidney injury by creatinine elevation and recommend using actual weight for its simplicity. We also found that low urine output is associated with subsequent acute kidney injury and that the association is greater for lower urine output and for low urine output of longer durations. Low urine output (creatinine elevation, is independently associated with mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of iodine in human milk and urine | Ayodele | Ife ...

    Physiological concentrations of iodine were determined in milk and urine. Recovery studies are reported along with results for the analysis of milk and urine samples. Iodine contents ranged from 10 - 110 (mean 52.88 ± 22.60mg/l) and 10 - 90 (mean 27.64 ±16.70) g/l in milk and urine respectively. A significant difference is ...

  16. Bisphenol A levels in human urine.

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Kunugita, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Isse, Toyohi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Foureman, Gary L; Morita, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in (italic)in vivo(/italic) studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999. Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levels were also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings. PMID:12515686

  17. Urine Exosomes: An Emerging Trove of Biomarkers.

    Street, J M; Koritzinsky, E H; Glispie, D M; Star, R A; Yuen, P S T

    Exosomes are released by most cells and can be isolated from all biofluids including urine. Exosomes are small vesicles formed as part of the endosomal pathway that contain cellular material surrounded by a lipid bilayer that can be traced to the plasma membrane. Exosomes are potentially a more targeted source of material for biomarker discovery than unfractionated urine, and provide diagnostic and pathophysiological information without an invasive tissue biopsy. Cytoplasmic contents including protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lipids have all been studied within the exosomal fraction. Many prospective urinary exosomal biomarkers have been successfully identified for a variety of kidney or genitourinary tract conditions; detection of systemic conditions may also be possible. Isolation and analysis of exosomes can be achieved by several approaches, although many require specialized equipment or involve lengthy protocols. The need for timely analysis in the clinical setting has driven considerable innovation with several promising options recently emerging. Consensus on exosome isolation, characterization, and normalization procedures would resolve critical clinical translational bottlenecks for existing candidate exosomal biomarkers and provide a template for additional discovery studies. 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Perkiraan Asupan Iodium dan Natrium Menggunakan Urin 24 Jam pada Anak dan Dewasa

    Djoko Kartono

    2015-01-01

    deficiency area but considerably high intake of sodium based on the analysis of a 24 hour urine collection. Keywords: adult, children, iodine, sodium, 24 hours urine.   ABSTRAK Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 mendapatkan angka hipertensi yang tinggi (31.7%. Pertanyaannya, masih relevankah program fortifikasi iodium dalam garam karena konsumsi garam berkorelasi dengan hipertensi. Tujuan penelitian ini menilai kadar iodium urin dan natrium urin serta perkiraan asupan natrium dan iodium. Disain studi potong lintang dengan sampel keluarga: bapak, ibu, anak 6-12 tahun. Lokasi di tiga desa di Kecamatan Getasan, Kabupaten Semarang. Sebanyak 99 keluarga menjadi sampel penelitian. Variabel dikumpulkan mencakup berat dan tinggi badan, kadar iodium   garam, volume urin 24 jam, kadar iodium urin dan natrium urin. Perkiraan asupan iodium dan natrium menggunakan nilai iodium dan natrium urin dan volume urin. Jenis garam yang dikonsumsi (97% bentuk bata, rerata kadar iodium 20.4 ppm dan konsumsi garam 8.0 ± 4.7 gram per orang per hari. Median dan rerata volume urin 1500 mL dan 1523 ± 623 mL. Median dan rerata ekskresi iodium urin (EIU 93 dan 105 ± 61 μg/L. Proporsi EIU subyek < 100 μg/L 55.6% dan EIU ≥ 300 μg/L 1%. Median dan rerata ekskresi natrium urin (ENU 2588 mg/L (ppm dan 2732 ± 986 mg/L. Proporsi ENU ≥ 2300 mg/L 62%. Frekuensi konsumsi sumber iodium dan natrium: 47.5% subyek mengonsumsi mi instan dan snack 1-2 kali seminggu, 98% mengonsumsi vetsin/kecap/saus ≥ 1 kali sehari. Frekuensi makan makanan asin: 53.9% subyek mengonsumsi 1-2 kali seminggu dan 26.9% mengonsumsi roti/biskuit/cake 1-2 kali seminggu. Median dan rerata asupan iodium (bapak, ibu, anak 113 μg/L dan 126 ± 73 μg/L. Median dan rerata asupan natrium (bapak, ibu, anak 3131 mg/L dan 3306 ± 1193 mg/L. Ringkasnya, garam merupakan sumber utama asupan iodium dan natrium walaupun kadar iodium dalam garam cukup rendah dibanding standar nasional industri. Lokasi penelitian merupakan daerah kekurangan

  19. Alpha spectrum analysis of 241Am in the urine

    Qiu Yongmei; Yang Yong

    2006-10-01

    With 241 Am as indicator, americium in the urine was concentrated by the method of codeposition, then it was purified by the method of anion exchange, at last, the americium was electroplated. 241 Am in the urine was analysed by six channel low level alpha measuring instrument and Alpha Spectrometer. The results show that the recovering ratio is beyond 60% under the condition that the indicator added to the urine is at the level of mBq. So, 241 Am in the urine can be quantitatively analysed by this method, uncertainty of the result is under 40%, detection limit of the instrument is under 10 -4 Bq. (authors)

  20. Ketones in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Ketones: Urine; p. 351. Joslin Diabetes ...

  1. Blood in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Hemoglobin, Urine; p. 325. Lab Tests ...

  2. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  3. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  4. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  5. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting

    Suratman; Purwanto; Sukarman-Aminjoyo

    1996-01-01

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 μg

  6. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.

    2012-01-01

    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  7. Lead Quantification in Urine Samples of Athletes by Coupling DLLME with UV-Vis Spectrophotometry.

    Faraji, Hakim; Helalizadeh, Masoumeh

    2017-04-01

    Urine lead level is one of the most employed measures of lead exposure and risk. The urine samples used in this study were obtained from ten healthy male cyclists. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry was utilized for preconcentration, extraction, and determination of lead in urine samples. Optimization of the independent variables was carried out based on chemometric methods in three steps. According to the screening and optimization study, 133 μL of CCl 4 (extracting solvent), 1.34 mL ethanol (dispersing solvent), pH 2.0, 0.00 % of salt, and 0.1 % O,O-diethyl dithiophosphoric (chelating agent) were used as the optimum independent variables for microextraction and determination of lead. Under the optimized conditions, R 2 was 0.9991, and linearity range was 0.01-100 μg L -1 . Precision was evaluated in terms of repeatability and intermediate precision, with relative standard deviations being <9.1 and <15.3 %, respectively. The accuracy was estimated using urine samples of cyclists as real samples and it was confirmed. The relative error of ≤5 % was considered significant in the method specificity study. The lead concentration mean for the cyclists was 3.79 μg L -1 in urine samples. As a result, the proposed method is a robust technique to quantify lead concentrations higher than 11.6 ng L -1 in urine samples.

  8. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?

    Cesare Altavilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge (33.26 % ± SD 12.59 and meagre hydration knowledge (28.61 % ± SD 28.59. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold (1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg ± SD 0.31. Sweat loss (2.67 g/min ± SD 3.23 and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % ± SD 0.59 were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.

  9. Impact of urine preservation methods and duration of storage on measured levels of environmental contaminants.

    Hoppin, Jane A; Ulmer, Ross; Calafat, Antonia M; Barr, Dana B; Baker, Susan V; Meltzer, Helle M; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2006-01-01

    Collection of urine samples in human studies involves choices regarding shipping, sample preservation, and storage that may ultimately influence future analysis. As more studies collect and archive urine samples to evaluate environmental exposures in the future, we were interested in assessing the impact of urine preservative, storage temperature, and time since collection on nonpersistent contaminants in urine samples. In spiked urine samples stored in three types of urine vacutainers (no preservative, boric acid, and chlorhexidine), we measured five groups of contaminants to assess the levels of these analytes at five time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h, and 1 week) and at two temperatures (room temperature and 4 degrees C). The target chemicals were bisphenol A (BPA), metabolites of organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, chlorinated phenols, and phthalate monoesters, and were measured using five different mass spectrometry-based methods. Three samples were analyzed at each time point, with the exception of BPA. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate effects of storage time, temperature, and preservative. Stability was summarized with percent change in mean concentration from time 0. In general, most analytes were stable under all conditions with changes in mean concentration over time, temperature, and preservative being generally less than 20%, with the exception of the OP metabolites in the presence of boric acid. The effect of storage temperature was less important than time since collection. The precision of the laboratory measurements was high allowing us to observe small differences, which may not be important when categorizing individuals into broader exposure groups.

  10. Voided urine versus bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: which is better?

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard

    2017-08-01

    Cytology is recommended as part of the follow-up of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, currently there are no solid guideline recommendations regarding the use of voided urine versus bladder washing for cytology as part of the diagnosis or follow-up of NMIBC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cytological outcome was equal regarding the two techniques. The authors reviewed all outpatient flexible cystoscopies carried out in their department in 2013. Patient records in the registry of pathology were examined and those with simultaneous urine and bladder washing cytology were included. Previous urothelial disease and positive histology within 3 months after the cystoscopy were registered. A total of 1458 patients had both voided urine and bladder washing cytology and were included in the study, of whom 643 (44%) had a history of urothelial disease. An equal outcome of urine and bladder washing cytology was found in 1447 patients (99.2%). For the remaining 11 patients, only four patients underwent further examinations based on cytology findings in addition to what had already been planned after cystoscopy. Of the included patients, 100 (6.9%) had a positive histological outcome within 3 months. In most patients, no relevant difference between voided urine and bladder washing cytology was observed. Therefore, if cytology is indicated, it is recommended to use the test that is most readily available locally. The additional gain in using both urine and bladder wash is minimal, and can therefore be discarded.

  11. Determination of Cd in urine by cloud point extraction-tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Donati, George L; Pharr, Kathryn E; Calloway, Clifton P; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Jones, Bradley T

    2008-09-15

    Cadmium concentrations in human urine are typically at or below the 1 microgL(-1) level, so only a handful of techniques may be appropriate for this application. These include sophisticated methods such as graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. While tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometry is a simpler and less expensive technique, its practical detection limits often prohibit the detection of Cd in normal urine samples. In addition, the nature of the urine matrix often necessitates accurate background correction techniques, which would add expense and complexity to the tungsten coil instrument. This manuscript describes a cloud point extraction method that reduces matrix interference while preconcentrating Cd by a factor of 15. Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and Triton X-114 are used as complexing agent and surfactant, respectively, in the extraction procedure. Triton X-114 forms an extractant coacervate surfactant-rich phase that is denser than water, so the aqueous supernatant is easily removed leaving the metal-containing surfactant layer intact. A 25 microL aliquot of this preconcentrated sample is placed directly onto the tungsten coil for analysis. The cloud point extraction procedure allows for simple background correction based either on the measurement of absorption at a nearby wavelength, or measurement of absorption at a time in the atomization step immediately prior to the onset of the Cd signal. Seven human urine samples are analyzed by this technique and the results are compared to those found by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of the same samples performed at a different institution. The limit of detection for Cd in urine is 5 ngL(-1) for cloud point extraction tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometry. The accuracy of the method is determined with a standard reference material (toxic metals in freeze-dried urine) and the determined values agree with

  12. Copper Is a Host Effector Mobilized to Urine during Urinary Tract Infection To Impair Bacterial Colonization

    Hyre, Amanda N.; Kavanagh, Kylie; Kock, Nancy D.; Donati, George L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a major global infectious disease affecting millions of people annually. Human urinary copper (Cu) content is elevated during UTI caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC upregulates the expression of Cu efflux genes during clinical UTI in patients as an adaptive response to host-derived Cu. Whether Cu is mobilized to urine as a host response to UTI and its role in protection against UTI remain unresolved. To address these questions, we tested the hypothesis that Cu is a host effector mobilized to urine during UTI to limit bacterial growth. Our results reveal that Cu is mobilized to urine during UTI caused by the major uropathogens Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, in addition to UPEC, in humans. Ceruloplasmin, a Cu-containing ferroxidase, is found at higher levels in UTI urine than in healthy control urine and serves as the molecular source of urinary Cu during UTI. Our results demonstrate that ceruloplasmin decreases the bioavailability of iron in urine by a transferrin-dependent mechanism. Experimental UTI with UPEC in nonhuman primates recapitulates the increased urinary Cu content observed during clinical UTI. Furthermore, Cu-deficient mice are highly colonized by UPEC, indicating that Cu is involved in the limiting of bacterial growth within the urinary tract. Collectively, our results indicate that Cu is a host effector that is involved in protection against pathogen colonization of the urinary tract. Because urinary Cu levels are amenable to modulation, augmentation of the Cu-based host defense against UTI represents a novel approach to limiting bacterial colonization during UTI. PMID:28031261

  13. Urine Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction in Neonatal Septicemia.

    Das, B K; Suri, Shipra; Nath, Gopal; Prasad, Rajniti

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study was done to evaluate diagnostic efficacy of urine nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using broad-range 16SrDNA PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction analysis and sequencing in neonatal septicemia. The study included 50 babies; 48% had vaginal delivery, 46% were preterm, 20% had a history of prolonged rupture of membranes and 56% were low birth weight (≤2500 g). Clinical presentations were lethargy (96%), respiratory distress (80%) and bleeding diathesis (16%). Absolute neutrophil count value, negative predictive value and accuracy of nested PCR were 100, 60, 78.9, 100 and 84%, respectively, compared with blood culture. Nested PCR can detect most bacteria in single assay and identify unusual and unexpected causal agents. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting; Metoda Bioassay Uranium dalam urin dengan pencacahan Netron Kasip

    Suratman,; Purwanto,; Sukarman-Aminjoyo, [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 {mu}g.

  15. Uranium analysis in urine by inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry

    Ejnik, John W. [Northern Michigan University, Chemistry Department, Marquette, MI (United States); Todorov, Todor I.; Mullick, Florabel G.; Centeno, Jose A. [Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Division of Biophysical Toxicology, Washington, DC (United States); Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A. [University of Maryland, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Urine uranium concentrations are the best biological indicator for identifying exposure to depleted uranium (DU). Internal exposure to DU causes an increased amount of urine uranium and a decreased ratio of {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U in urine samples, resulting in measurements that vary between 0.00725 and 0.002 (i.e., natural and depleted uranium's {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios, respectively). A method based on inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) was utilized to identify DU in urine by measuring the quantity of total U and the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio. The quantitative analysis was achieved using {sup 233}U as an internal standard. The analysis was performed both with and without the reaction gas oxygen. The reaction gas converted ionized {sup 235}U{sup +} and {sup 238}U{sup +} into {sup 235}UO{sub 2}{sup +} (m/z=267) and {sup 238}UO{sub 2}{sup +} (m/z=270). This conversion was determined to be over 90% efficient. A polyatomic interference at m/z 234.8 was successfully removed from the {sup 235}U signal under either DRC operating conditions (with or without oxygen as a reaction gas). The method was validated with 15 urine samples of known uranium compositions. The method detection limit for quantification was determined to be 0.1 pg U mL{sup -1} urine and an average coefficient of variation (CV) of 1-2% within the sample measurements. The method detection limit for determining {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio was 3.0 pg U mL{sup -1} urine. An additional 21 patient samples were analyzed with no information about medical history. The measured {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio within the urine samples correctly identified the presence or absence of internal DU exposure in all 21 patients. (orig.)

  16. Radio-toxicological analysis of urine

    Jeanmaire, L.; Jammet, H.

    1959-01-01

    The article is divided into two parts: general and technical. In the general part, a study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the organism shows the hazards of internal contamination. In addition, the principle of the different methods for the estimation of this contamination is indicated. The second part, which is purely technical, describes some of the methods for urine analysis used in the S.H.A.R.P. radiotoxicology laboratory at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. The techniques relate to 239 Pu, 226 Ra, 90 Sr, natural Th, natural U and 233 U. Reprint of a paper published in Annales de Radiologie, Vol. 2, no. 9-10, p. 703-722, 1959 [fr

  17. Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

  18. Metabolomic analysis of urine samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS: Impact of normalization strategies.

    Gagnebin, Yoric; Tonoli, David; Lescuyer, Pierre; Ponte, Belen; de Seigneux, Sophie; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Schappler, Julie; Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge

    2017-02-22

    Among the various biological matrices used in metabolomics, urine is a biofluid of major interest because of its non-invasive collection and its availability in large quantities. However, significant sources of variability in urine metabolomics based on UHPLC-MS are related to the analytical drift and variation of the sample concentration, thus requiring normalization. A sequential normalization strategy was developed to remove these detrimental effects, including: (i) pre-acquisition sample normalization by individual dilution factors to narrow the concentration range and to standardize the analytical conditions, (ii) post-acquisition data normalization by quality control-based robust LOESS signal correction (QC-RLSC) to correct for potential analytical drift, and (iii) post-acquisition data normalization by MS total useful signal (MSTUS) or probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN) to prevent the impact of concentration variability. This generic strategy was performed with urine samples from healthy individuals and was further implemented in the context of a clinical study to detect alterations in urine metabolomic profiles due to kidney failure. In the case of kidney failure, the relation between creatinine/osmolality and the sample concentration is modified, and relying only on these measurements for normalization could be highly detrimental. The sequential normalization strategy was demonstrated to significantly improve patient stratification by decreasing the unwanted variability and thus enhancing data quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Taking the Piss : Urine in Early Modern Europe

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    As long as there have been humans, urine has been regularly discharged. You may not consider your urine very interesting. In fact, you may be very eager to leave your messy and leaky excretion behind in the bathroom. But have we always looked at this fluid with a feeling of disgust? What did people

  20. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  1. Exorphin Peptides in Urine with HPLC-MS/MS Detection

    2015-01-01

    Exorphins have been found in urine from individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders by HPLC techniques. However, several studies, using sophisticated analytical techniques , have reported negative findings. This made it necessary to improve our methods. The sample stability during transport and storage and the pre -analytical treatment of urines was improved by peptidase inhibition and solid ...

  2. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of ...

  3. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    E.M.T. Yenli

    A complete work-up to establish the cause of urine ... acute or chronic urine retention was caused mainly by bladder cancer and neurogenic bladder. Initial and ... associated with a significantly impaired quality of life, stigmatiza- tion and a ..... to ensure that they remained healthy and did not have any infection connected with ...

  4. effects of artemether on the plasma and urine concentrations of ...

    Dr Komolafe

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... degeneration of the renal tissue of rats, inability of the damaged kidneys to concentrate urine, which manifested as excessive water loss and electrolyte depletion. Key words: Artemether, electrolytes in plasma, urine concentrations, rats. INTRODUCTION. Artemether, one of the derivatives of artemisinin, is.

  5. Value of urine cytology in screening patients with prostatitis syndromes

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Hubregtse, M. R.; Wiersma, A. M.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the results of urine cytology examination of 206 patients with a diagnosis of prostatitis syndromes in the period 1985-1991. The urine samples showed an incidence of 20.4% for slight to moderate atypia and 6.3% for severe atypia. In these patients, cystoscopy, bladder biopsies and

  6. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  7. Effectiveness of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine ...

    The stored cat urine was then thawed and mixed with maize starch to form a thick dough and then granulated and dried at room temperature before being packed in a hermetically closed jar. Initially, rodent foot marks on tracking soot coat tiles were used to estimate the rat population before the cat urine extracts application.

  8. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    Kuenen, J. Gijs; Konings, Wil N.

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling

  9. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  10. The role of uncentrifuged urine microscopy in the diagnosis of ...

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common nosocomial bacterial infections prevalent in both males and females. UTI is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, microscopy and culture of urine. This study was done to establish the role of the routine uncentrifuged urine microscopy using culture ...

  11. Polyglycolic acid (Dexon) sutures in Escherichia coli infected urine

    Hovendal, C P; Schwartz, W

    1979-01-01

    The tensile strength, knot strength and stretch of polyglycolic acid (Dexon) was studied after emersion in physiological saline, sterile urine and infected urine. Tests were made each day under controlled conditions over a 10 day period. The results are compared with those of other earlier studie...

  12. Effect Of Instructions About The Method Of Urine Collection And ...

    Despite the explanation, 15(23.1%) of the patients collected the urine samples wrongly and 44(67.7%) stored the samples for longer than one hour. Significant bacteriuria was more prevalent in 74.2% of patients who submitted their urine samples more than one hour after collection. Communication skill is important and ...

  13. Determination of natural thorium in urines; Dosage du thorium dans les urines

    Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 {gamma} of thorium in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du thorium dans l'urine. Apres precipitation par l'ammoniaque, remise en solution, extraction a pH 4-4,2 par le cupferron en solution chloroformique et mineralisation, le thorium est dose par colorimetrie avec le thorin. Cette methode permet de deceler environ 2 {gamma} de thorium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  14. Multiplexed Microsphere Suspension-Array Assay for Urine Mitochondrial DNA Typing by C-Stretch Length in Hypervariable Regions.

    Aoki, Kimiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Takashi

    2018-07-01

    The standard method for personal identification and verification of urine samples in doping control is short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using nuclear DNA (nDNA). The DNA concentration of urine is very low and decreases under most conditions used for sample storage; therefore, the amount of DNA from cryopreserved urine samples may be insufficient for STR analysis. We aimed to establish a multiplexed assay for urine mitochondrial DNA typing containing only trace amounts of DNA, particularly for Japanese populations. A multiplexed suspension-array assay using oligo-tagged microspheres (Luminex MagPlex-TAG) was developed to measure C-stretch length in hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2), five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and one polymorphic indel. Based on these SNPs and the indel, the Japanese population can be classified into five major haplogroups (D4, B, M7a, A, D5). The assay was applied to DNA samples from urine cryopreserved for 1 - 1.5 years (n = 63) and fresh blood (n = 150). The assay with blood DNA enabled Japanese subjects to be categorized into 62 types, exhibiting a discriminatory power of 0.960. The detection limit for cryopreserved urine was 0.005 ng of nDNA. Profiling of blood and urine pairs revealed that 5 of 63 pairs showed different C-stretch patterns in HV1 or HV2. The assay described here yields valuable information in terms of the verification of urine sample sources employing only trace amounts of recovered DNA. However, blood cannot be used as a reference sample.

  15. Natural radionuclides in urine- and faeces samples; Natuerliche Radionuklide in Urin- und Stuhlproben

    Froning, M.; Burow, M.; Ennen, R.; Hoelters, A.; Laumen-Sentis, S.; Zoriy, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    In interpreting of measurement data for incorporation monitoring by excretion samples a clear distinction between the natural intake and the fraction subjected due to occupational exposure should be performed. At the present only a few data about an excretion of primordial elements such as {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th are available in the literature. In the following study actual data measured in urine and faeces will be presented and discussed.

  16. Urine Creatinine Concentrations in Drug Monitoring Participants and Hospitalized Patients.

    Love, Sara A; Seegmiller, Jesse C; Kloss, Julie; Apple, Fred S

    2016-10-01

    Urine drug testing is commonly performed in both clinical and forensic arenas for screening, monitoring and compliance purposes. We sought to determine if urine creatinine concentrations in monitoring program participants were significantly different from hospital in-patients and out-patients undergoing urine drug testing. We retrospectively reviewed urine creatinine submitted in June through December 2015 for all specimens undergoing urine drug testing. The 20,479 creatinine results were categorized as hospitalized patients (H) and monitoring/compliance groups for pain management (P), legal (L) or recovery (R). Median creatinine concentrations (interquartile range, mg/dL) were significantly different (P creatinine concentrations were significantly lower in the R vs. L group (Pcreatinine concentration and may indicate participants' attempts to tamper with their drug test results through dilution means. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Bioassay techniques for {sup 55}Fe in urine samples

    Cregan, S P; Leon, J W; Linauskas, S H

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for {sup 55}Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH){sub 3}. precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    Cregan, S.P.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55 Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH) 3 . precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  19. Analysis of Urine as Indicators of Specific Body Conditions

    Dey, Souradeep; Saha, Triya; Narendrakumar, Uttamchand

    2017-11-01

    Urinalysis can be defined as a procedure for examining various factors of urine, which include physical properties, particulate matter, cells, casts, crystals, organisms and solutes. Urinalysis is recommended to be a part of the initial examination of all patients as its cheap, feasible and gives productive results. This paper focuses on the analysis of urine collected at specific body conditions. Here we illustrate the urine profile of different persons having various body conditions, which include, having urinary tract infection, undergoing strenuous exercise, having back pain regularly, having very low urine output and a person who is on 24 hours of diet. Examination of urine collected from different persons having specific body conditions usually helps us in the diagnosis of various diseases, which it indicates.

  20. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  1. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of urine cofilin-1 level in acute kidney injury using a high-throughput localized surface plasmon-coupled fluorescence biosensor

    Chang, Ying-Feng; Chao, Cheng-Han; Lin, Lih-Yuan; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Chou, Chien; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2014-01-01

    The actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family has been reported to be associated with ischemia-induced renal disorders. We examine whether cofilin-1 is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) using human urine samples. We exploited a 96-well based high-throughput biosensor that uses gold nanoparticles and a sandwich immunoassay to detect the urine cofilin-1 level of AKI patients. The mean urine cofilin-1 level of the AKI patients (n=37 from 47 cases analyzed) was twofold higher than that of healthy adults (n=21 from 29 cases analyzed). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that cofilin-1 was acceptable for discriminating AKI patients from healthy adults. However, an increase of the sample size is required to conclude the importance of urine cofilin-1 on AKI diagnosis, and the high-throughput ultrasensitive biosensor used in this study would greatly accelerate the measurement of urine cofilin-1 in an increased sample size.

  3. [Clinical usefulness of urine-formed elements' information obtained from bacteria detection by flow cytometry method that uses nucleic acid staining].

    Nakagawa, Hiroko; Yuno, Tomoji; Itho, Kiichi

    2009-03-01

    Recently, specific detection method for Bacteria, by flow cytometry method using nucleic acid staining, was developed as a function of automated urine formed elements analyzer for routine urine testing. Here, we performed a basic study on this bacteria analysis method. In addition, we also have a comparison among urine sediment analysis, urine Gram staining and urine quantitative cultivation, the conventional methods performed up to now. As a result, the bacteria analysis with flow cytometry method that uses nucleic acid staining was excellent in reproducibility, and higher sensitivity compared with microscopic urinary sediment analysis. Based on the ROC curve analysis, which settled urine culture method as standard, cut-off level of 120/microL was defined and its sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 88.2%. In the analysis of scattergram, accompanied with urine culture method, among 90% of rod positive samples, 80% of dots were appeared in the area of 30 degrees from axis X. In addition, one case even indicated that analysis of bacteria by flow cytometry and scattergram of time series analysis might be helpful to trace the progress of causative bacteria therefore the information supposed to be clinically significant. Reporting bacteria information with nucleic acid staining flow cytometry method is expected to contribute to a rapid diagnostics and treatment of urinary tract infections. Besides, the contribution to screening examination of microbiology and clinical chemistry, will deliver a more efficient solution to urine analysis.

  4. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly

    Mitchell, Julie; Broyan, James; Pickering, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The urine processor assembly (UPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) recovers water from urine via a vacuum distillation process. The distillation occurs in a rotating distillation assembly (DA) where the urine is heated and subjected to sub-ambient pressure. As water is removed, the original organics, salts, and minerals in the urine become more concentrated and result in urine brine. Eventually, water removal will concentrate the urine brine to super saturation of individual constituents, and precipitation occurs. Under typical UPA DA operating conditions, calcium sulfate or gypsum is the first chemical to precipitate in substantial quantity. During preflight testing with ground urine, the UPA achieved 85% water recovery without precipitation. However, on ISS, it is possible that crewmember urine can be significantly more concentrated relative to urine from ground donors. As a result, gypsum precipitated in the DA when operating at water recovery rates at or near 85%, causing the failure and subsequent re14 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 placement of the DA. Later investigations have demonstrated that an excess of calcium and sulfate will cause precipitation at water recovery rates greater than 70%. The source of the excess calcium is likely physiological in nature, via crewmembers' bone loss, while the excess sulfate is primarily due to the sulfuric acid component of the urine pretreatment. To prevent gypsum precipitation in the UPA, the Precipitation Prevention Project (PPP) team has focused on removing the calcium ion from pretreated urine, using ion exchange resins as calcium removal agents. The selectivity and effectiveness of ion exchange resins are determined by such factors as the mobility of the liquid phase through the polymer matrix, the density of functional groups, type of functional groups bound to the matrix, and the chemical characteristics of the liquid phase (pH, oxidation potential, and ionic strength). Previous experience with ion

  5. Assessment of radioactivity for 24 hours urine sample depending on correction factor by using creatinine

    Kharita, M. H.; Maghrabi, M.

    2006-09-01

    Assessment of intake and internal does requires knowing the amount of radioactivity in 24 hours urine sample, sometimes it is difficult to get 24 hour sample because this method is not comfortable and in most cases the workers refuse to collect this amount of urine. This work focuses on finding correction factor of 24 hour sample depending on knowing the amount of creatinine in the sample whatever the size of this sample. Then the 24 hours excretion of radionuclide is calculated assuming the average creatinine excretion rate is 1.7 g per 24 hours, based on the amount of activity and creatinine in the urine sample. Several urine sample were collected from occupationally exposed workers the amount and ratios of creatinine and activity in these samples were determined, then normalized to 24 excretion of radionuclide. The average chemical recovery was 77%. It should be emphasized that this method should only be used if a 24 hours sample was not possible to collect. (author)

  6. The Determination of Thorium Contents in Urine With Neutron Activation Analysis and Alpha Spectrometry

    Mukh-Syaifudin

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by a radionuclide that entered into body through inhalation is most conveniently determined by using urine as sample. The aim of this research was developing a fast and simple method to determine thorium content in urine. The method was based on comparison of the activities between the sample added with and without standard thorium. Urine sample was divided into two parts, one of which was added with Th-232 standard, and then both were simultaneously proceed which was consist of decomposition of organic materials, precipitation of thorium by adding ammonium hydroxide, wash with aquadest, and then dissolution in nitric acid. The solution was then activated for 15 minutes with neutron flux of 10 12 ncm -2 second -1 and the activated product was co-precipitated two times with lanthanum carrier and sodium chloride by addition of ammonium hydroxide. Finally, the precipitate was dissolved in nitric acid and the gamma emission of Th-233 was analyzed with gamma spectrometry. The results of analysis showed that the concentration of four urine samples analyzed was below detection limit (BDL); 200.40; 273.88 and 22.03 pg/l, respectively. With the simple procedure, neutron activation analysis can be used in the determining the actinide contents in several types of biological sample. (author)

  7. Mass spectral analysis of urine proteomic profiles of dairy cows suffering from clinical ketosis.

    Xu, Chuang; Shu, Shi; Xia, Cheng; Wang, Pengxian; Sun, Yuhang; Xu, Chuchu; Li, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Ketosis is an important metabolic disorder in dairy cows during the transition period. The urine proteomics of ketosis has not been investigated using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). The aim is to determine differences between urine proteomic profiles of healthy cows and those with clinical ketosis, and facilitate studies of the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms that lead to liver pathology in ketosis. We analyzed the urine samples of 20 cows with clinical ketosis (group 1) and 20 control cows (group 2) using SELDI-TOF-MS. Thirty-nine peptide peaks differed between both groups. Polypeptides corresponding to 26 of these differential peptide peaks were identified using the SWISS-PROT protein database. We found that the peaks of 11 distinct polypeptides from the urine samples of the ketosis group were significantly reduced, compared with those of the control group as based on the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Among these were VGF (non-acronymic) protein, amyloid precursor protein, serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, C1INH, apolipoprotein C-III, cystatin C, transthyretin, hepcidin, human neutrophil peptides, and osteopontin. These proteins may represent novel biomarkers of the metabolic changes that occur in dairy cows with ketosis. Our results will help to better understand the physiological changes and pathogenesis observed in cows with ketosis. The SELDI-TOF-MS can be used to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of ketosis and identify biomarkers of the disease.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and biomarkers of serum and urine wile diagnostics of kidney cancer

    Nickolsky Yu.Ye.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improvement of differential diagnostics of benign and malignant renal tumors basing on complex estimation of the results of MRTand the level of such biomarkers as vascular endothelial growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood serum and urine. Material and Methods. A total of 106 patients including the main group of 60 patients with renal cancer (RC, the group of comparison of 16 patients with benign renal tumors and the control group of 30 practically healthy persons were examined. ELISA was employed for detection of the biomarkers in blood serum and urine. The tumors were diagnosed by MRT Results. The increase of the level of the biomarkers in blood serum and urine was registered independently of the character of neoplastic process; more significant increase was observed in patients with RC, especially at the early stages of the disease. Some peculiarities of changing of the level of the biomarkers depending on the dimensions of malignant tumors were found. Conclusion. At the early stages of RC complex detection of the abovementioned biomarkers in blood serum and urine can serve an additional clinical diagnostic and prognostic criterion.

  9. Evaluation of a nested-PCR for mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples.

    da Cruz, Heidi Lacerda Alves; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Rosana; de Araújo Lima, Juliana Falcão; da Rocha Poroca, Diogo; da Costa Lima, Juliana Figueirêdo; Maria Lapa Montenegro, Lílian; Crovella, Sergio; Charifker Schindler, Haiana

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine) when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine), regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  10. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  11. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    Reischies, Frederike M. J.; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with...

  12. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  13. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  14. Urine Trefoil Factors as Prognostic Biomarkers in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Yamanari, Toshio; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Onishi, Akifumi; Ogawa-Akiyama, Ayu; Kano, Yuzuki; Mise, Koki; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Shikata, Kenichi; Wada, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are increased in serum and urine in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether the levels of TFF predict the progression of CKD remains to be elucidated. We determined the TFF levels using peptide-specific ELISA in spot urine samples and performed a prospective cohort study. The association between the levels of urine TFFs and other urine biomarkers as well as the renal prognosis was analyzed in 216 CKD patients (mean age: 53.7 years, 47.7% female, 56.9% with chronic glomerulonephritis, and mean eGFR: 58.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ). The urine TFF1 and TFF3 levels significantly increased with the progression of CKD stages, but not the urine TFF2 levels. The TFF1 and TFF3 peptide levels predicted the progression of CKD ≥ stage 3b by ROC analysis (AUC 0.750 and 0.879, resp.); however, TFF3 alone predicted CKD progression in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 3.854, 95% confidence interval 1.316-11.55). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that patients with a higher TFF1 and TFF3 alone, or in combination with macroalbuminuria, had a significantly worse renal prognosis. The data suggested that urine TFF peptides are associated with renal progression and the outcomes in patients with CKD.

  15. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  16. Metabolites of cannabidiol identified in human urine.

    Harvey, D J; Mechoulam, R

    1990-03-01

    1. Urine from a dystonic patient treated with cannabidiol (CBD) was examined by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry for CBD metabolites. Metabolites were identified as their trimethylsilyl (TMS), [2H9]TMS, and methyl ester/TMS derivatives and as the TMS derivatives of the product of lithium aluminium deuteride reduction. 2. Thirty-three metabolites were identified in addition to unmetabolized CBD, and a further four metabolites were partially characterized. 3. The major metabolic route was hydroxylation and oxidation at C-7 followed by further hydroxylation in the pentyl and propenyl groups to give 1"-, 2"-, 3"-, 4"- and 10-hydroxy derivatives of CBD-7-oic acid. Other metabolites, mainly acids, were formed by beta-oxidation and related biotransformations from the pentyl side-chain and these were also hydroxylated at C-6 or C-7. The major oxidized metabolite was CBD-7-oic acid containing a hydroxyethyl side-chain. 4. Two 8,9-dihydroxy compounds, presumably derived from the corresponding epoxide were identified. 5. Also present were several cyclized cannabinoids including delta-6- and delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. 6. This is the first metabolic study of CBD in humans; most observed metabolic routes were typical of those found for CBD and related cannabinoids in other species.

  17. Ammonia volatilization from artificial dung and urine patches measured by the equilibrium concentration technique (JTI method)

    Saarijärvi, K.; Mattila, P. K.; Virkajärvi, P.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of ammonia (NH 3) volatilization from intensively managed pastures on a soil type typical of the dairy production area in Finland and to clarify the effect of rainfall on NH 3 volatilization. The study included two experiments. In Experiment 1 the total amount of NH 3-N emitted was calculated based on the annual surface coverage of dung (4%) and urine (17%). The application rate of total N in the simulated dung and urine patches was approximately 47 g N m -2 and 113 g N m -2, respectively. In Experiment 1 the general level of NH 3 emissions from the urine patches was high and the peak volatilization rate was 0.54 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. As expected, emissions from the dung pats were clearly lower with a maximum rate of 0.10 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1. The total emission calculated for the whole pasture area (stocking rate four cows ha -1 y -1, urine coverage 17% and dung coverage 4%) was 16.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1. Approximately 96% of the total emission originated from urine. In Experiment 2 we measured the emissions from urine only and the treatments on the urine patches were: (1) no irrigation, (2) 5+5 mm and (3) 20 mm irrigation. The peak emission rates were 0.13, 0.09 and 0.04 g NH 3-N m -2 h -1 and the total emissions were 6.9, 3.0 and 1.7 kg NH 3-N ha -1, for treatments (1), (2) and (3), respectively. In both measurements over 80% of the total emission occurred during the first 48 h and there was a clear diurnal rhythm. Increasing rainfall markedly decreased NH 3 emission. Volatilization was highest with dry and warm soil. The JTI method appeared to be suitable for measuring NH 3 volatilization in this kind of experiment. According to our results, the importance of pastures as a source of NH 3 emission in Finland is minor.

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes as a sorbent material for the solid phase extraction of lead from urine and subsequent determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Peña Crecente, Rosa M.; Lovera, Carlha Gutiérrez; García, Julia Barciela; Méndez, Jennifer Álvarez; Martín, Sagrario García; Latorre, Carlos Herrero, E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es

    2014-11-01

    The determination of lead in urine is a way of monitoring the chemical exposure to this metal. In the present paper, a new method for the Pb determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) in urine at low levels has been developed. Lead was separated from the undesirable urine matrix by means of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used as a sorbent material. Lead from urine was retained at pH 4.0 and was quantitatively eluted using a 0.7 M nitric acid solution and was subsequently measured by ETAAS. The effects of parameters that influence the adsorption–elution process (such as pH, eluent volume and concentration, sampling and elution flow rates) and the atomic spectrometry conditions have been studied by means of different factorial design strategies. Under the optimized conditions, the detection and quantification limits obtained were 0.08 and 0.26 μg Pb L{sup −1}, respectively. The results demonstrate the absence of a urine matrix effect and this is the consequence of the SPE process carried out. Therefore, the developed method is useful for the analysis of Pb at low levels in real samples without the influence of other urine components. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lead in urine samples of unexposed healthy people and satisfactory results were obtained (in the range 3.64–22.9 μg Pb L{sup −1}). - Highlights: • Lead determination in urine using a solid phase extraction procedure followed by ETAAS • Carbon nanotubes as SPE adsorbent for Pb in urine • Matrix elimination for the Pb determination in urine by using SPE based on carbon nanotubes • The detection limit was 0.08 μg Pb L{sup −1}.

  19. Low urine pH and acid excretion do not predict bone fractures or the loss of bone mineral density: a prospective cohort study

    Lyon Andrew W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acid-ash hypothesis, the alkaline diet, and related products are marketed to the general public. Websites, lay literature, and direct mail marketing encourage people to measure their urine pH to assess their health status and their risk of osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1 low urine pH, or 2 acid excretion in urine [sulfate + chloride + 1.8x phosphate + organic acids] minus [sodium + potassium + 2x calcium + 2x magnesium mEq] in fasting morning urine predict: a fragility fractures; and b five-year change of bone mineral density (BMD in adults. Methods Design: Cohort study: the prospective population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion (urine pH and urine acid excretion in fasting morning with the incidence of fractures (6804 person years. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between acid excretion with changes in BMD over 5-years at three sites: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip (n = 651. Potential confounders controlled included: age, gender, family history of osteoporosis, physical activity, smoking, calcium intake, vitamin D status, estrogen status, medications, renal function, urine creatinine, body mass index, and change of body mass index. Results There were no associations between either urine pH or acid excretion and either the incidence of fractures or change of BMD after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Urine pH and urine acid excretion do not predict osteoporosis risk.

  20. The influence of storage time and temperature on the measurement of serum, plasma and urine osmolality.

    Bezuidenhout, Karla; Rensburg, Megan A; Hudson, Careen L; Essack, Younus; Davids, M Razeen

    2016-07-01

    Many clinical laboratories require that specimens for serum and urine osmolality determination be processed within 3 h of sampling or need to arrive at the laboratory on ice. This protocol is based on the World Health Organization report on sample storage and stability, but the recommendation lacks good supporting data. We studied the effect of storage temperature and time on osmolality measurements. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 16 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. Baseline serum, plasma and urine osmolality measurements were performed within 30 min. Measurements were then made at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h on samples stored at 4-8℃ and room temperature. We compared baseline values with subsequent measurements and used difference plots to illustrate changes in osmolality. At 4-8℃, serum and plasma osmolality were stable for up to 36 h. At room temperature, serum and plasma osmolality were very stable for up to 12 h. At 24 and 36 h, changes from baseline osmolality were statistically significant and exceeded the total allowable error of 1.5% but not the reference change value of 4.1%. Urine osmolality was extremely stable at room temperature with a mean change of less than 1 mosmol/kg at 36 h. Serum and plasma samples can be stored at room temperature for up to 36 h before measuring osmolality. Cooling samples to 4-8℃ may be useful when delays in measurement beyond 12 h are anticipated. Urine osmolality is extremely stable for up to 36 h at room temperature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. A new method for quasi-reagent-free biomonitoring of mercury in human urine.

    Schlathauer, Maria; Reitsam, Verena; Schierl, Rudolf; Leopold, Kerstin

    2017-05-01

    A novel analytical method for sampling and extraction of mercury (Hg) from human urine is presented in this work. The method is based on selective accumulation and separation of Hg from fresh urine sample onto active nanogold-coated silica material by highly efficient solid-phase extraction. After thermal desorption of Hg from the extractant, detection is performed by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The feasibility and validity of the optimized, quasi-reagent-free approach was confirmed by recovery experiments in spiked real urine (recovery rate 96.13 ± 5.34%) and by comparison of found Hg concentrations in real urine samples - originating from occupationally exposed persons - with values obtained from reference methods cold vapor - atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) and cold vapor - atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). A very good agreement of the found values reveals the validity of the proposed approach. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be as low as 0.004 μg Hg L -1 and a high reproducibility with a relative standard deviations ≤4.2% (n = 6) is given. Moreover, storage of the samples for up to one week at an ambient temperature of 30 °C reveals no analyte losses or contamination. In conclusion, the proposed method enables easy-to-handle on-site extraction of total Hg from human urine ensuring at the same time reagent-free sample stabilization, providing quick and safe sampling, which can be performed by untrained persons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urine Collection in the Emergency Department: What Really Happens in There?

    Harrison Alter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In women with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI, a non-contaminated voidedspecimen is considered important for valid urinalysis and culture results. We assess whethermidstream parted-labia catch (MSPC instructions were provided by nurses, understood, andperformed correctly, according to the patient.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of English- and Spanish-speaking female patientssubmitting voided urine samples for urinalysis for suspected UTI. The survey was conducted in apublic teaching hospital emergency department (ED from June to December 2010, beginning 2months after development and dissemination of a nursing MSPC instructions protocol. Researchassistants administered the survey within 2 hours of urine collection. Nurses were unaware of thestudy purpose.Results: Of 129 patients approached, 74 (57% consented and were included in the analysis.Median age was 35; 44% were Latino. Regarding instructions from nurses, patients reported thefollowing: 45 (61%; 95% CI 50-72% received any instructions; of whom 37 (82%; 95% CI 71-93%understood them completely. Sixteen (36%; 95% CI 22-51% were instructed to collect midstream;and 7 (16%; 95% CI 6-29% to part the labia. Regardless of receiving or understanding instructions,33 (45%; 95% CI 33-57% reported actually collecting midstream, and 11 (15%, 95% CI 8-25%parting the labia.Conclusion: In this ED, instructions for MSPC urine collection frequently were not given, despite anursing protocol, and patients rarely performed the essential steps. An evidence-based approachto urine testing in the ED that considers urine collection technique, is needed.

  3. Assessment of uranium exposure from total activity and 234U:238U activity ratios in urine

    Nicholas, T.; Bingham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation workers at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are monitored for uranium exposure by routine bioassay sampling (primarily urine sampling). However, the interpretation of uranium in urine and faecal results in terms of occupational intakes is difficult because of the presence of uranium due to intakes from environmental (dietary) sources. For uranium in urine data obtained using current analytical techniques at AWE, the mean, median and standard deviation of excreted uranium concentrations were 0.006, 0.002 and 0.012 μg per g creatinine, respectively. These values are consistent with what might be expected from local dietary intakes and the knowledge that occupational exposures at AWE are likely to be very low. However, some samples do exceed derived investigation levels (DILs), which have been set up taking account of the likely contribution from environmental sources. We investigate how the activity and isotopic composition of uranium in the diet affects the sensitivity of uranium in urine monitoring for occupational exposures. We conclude that DILs based on both total uranium in urine activity and also 234 U: 238 U ratios are useful given the likely variation in dietary contribution for AWE workers. Assuming a background excretion rate and that the enrichment of the likely exposure is known, it is possible to assess exposures using 234 U: 238 U ratios and/or total uranium activity. The health implications of internalised uranium, enriched to 235 U, centre on its nephrotoxicity; the DILs for bioassay samples at AWE are an order of magnitude below the conservative recommendations made by the literature. (authors)

  4. MCP-1 in urine as biomarker of disease activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Barbado, Julia; Martin, Debora; Vega, Luisa; Almansa, Raquel; Gonçalves, Lisbeth; Nocito, Mercedes; Jimeno, Antonio; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F

    2012-11-01

    Conventional clinical parameters are not sensitive or specific enough for detecting ongoing disease activity in the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Measurement of cytokines in urine is an encouraging approach to detection of early flares in this disease. Here we have profiled 27 different cytokines, chemokines and celular growth factors in the urine of 48 patients previously diagnosed of SLE as potential biomarkers of disease activity. Correlation analysis with Bonferroni correction showed that MCP-1 was the only immune mediator which levels in urine correlated directly with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) score (correlation coefficient, p): MCP-1 (0.45,0.003). MCP-1 correlated inversely with levels of C3 complement protein in serum (-0.50,0.001). MCP-1 showed significant higher levels in patients with severe disease activity in comparison with those exhibiting mild activity. Levels of this chemokine were also higher in patients with severe disease activity in comparison with patients with inactive disease and healthy controls. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for detection of severe disease (SLEDAI⩾8) was as follows for MCP-1: [AUROC, (IC95%), p]: [0.81 (0.65-0.96) 0.003]. In addition, MCP-1 showed a good result in the AUROC analysis for detecting renal involvement [0.70 (0.52-0.87) 0.050]. When correlation analysis were repeated excluding those patients with active renal disease (n=14), levels of MCP-1 in urine kept on showing a significant positive association with SLEDAI-2K score. In conclusion, multiplex-based cytokine profiling in urine demonstrated the superiority of MCP-1 over a wide range of cytokines as biomarker of disease activity in SLE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of natural and depleted uranium in urine at the ppt level: an interlaboratory analytical exercise

    D'Agostino, P.A.; Ough, E.A.; Glover, S.E.; Vallerand, A.L.

    2002-10-01

    An analytical exercise was initiated in order to determine those analytical procedures with the capacity to measure uranium isotope ratios ( 238 U/ 235 U) in urine samples containing less that 1μ uranium /L urine. A host laboratory was tasked with the preparation of six sets (12 samples per set) of synthetic urine samples spiked with varying amounts of natural and depleted (0.2% 235 U) uranium. The sets of samples contained total uranium in the range 25 ng U/L urine to 770 ng U/L urine, with isotope ratios ( 238 U/ 235 U) from 137.9 (natural uranium) to 215 (∼50% depleted uranium). Sets of samples were shipped to five testing laboratories (four Canadian and one European) for total and isotopic assay. The techniques employed in the analyses included sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-SF-MS), quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-Q-MS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). Full results were obtained from three testing labs (ICP-SF-MS, ICP-Q-MS and TIMS). Their results, plus partial results from the NAA lab, have been included in this report. Total uranium and isotope ratio results obtained from ICP-SF-MS and ICP-Q-MS were in good agreement with the host lab values. Neutron activation analysis and TIMS reported total uranium concentrations that differed from the host lab. An incomplete set of isotopic ratios was obtained from the NAA lab with some results reporting enriched uranium (% 235 U > 0.7). Based on the reported results, the four analytical procedures were ranked: ICP-SF-MS (1), ICP-Q-MS (2), TIMS (3) and NAA (4). (author)

  6. First-void urine: A potential biomarker source for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus infected women.

    Van Keer, Severien; Pattyn, Jade; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Van Ostade, Xaveer; Ieven, Margareta; Van Damme, Pierre; Vorsters, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Great interest has been directed towards the use of first-void urine as a liquid biopsy for high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing. Despite the high correlations established between urinary and cervical infections, human papillomavirus testing is unable to distinguish between productive and transforming high-risk infections that have the tendency to progress to cervical cancer. Thus far, investigations have been primarily confined to the identification of biomarkers for triage of high-risk human papillomavirus-positive women in cervicovaginal specimens and tissue biopsies. This paper reviews urinary biomarkers for cervical cancer and triage of high-risk human papillomavirus infections and elaborates on the opportunities and challenges that have emerged regarding the use of first-void urine as a liquid biopsy for the analysis of both morphological- (conventional cytology and novel immunohistochemical techniques) and molecular-based (HPV16/18 genotyping, host/viral gene methylation, RNA, and proteins) biomarkers. A literature search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science for studies investigating the use of urine as a biomarker source for cervical cancer screening. Five studies were identified reporting on biomarkers that are still in preclinical exploratory or clinical assay development phases and on assessments of non-invasive (urine) samples. Although large-scale validation studies are still needed, we conclude that methylation of both host and viral genes in urine has been proven feasible for use as a molecular cervical cancer triage and screening biomarker in phase two studies. This is especially promising and underscores our hypothesis that human papillomavirus DNA and candidate human and viral biomarkers are washed away with the initial, first-void urine, together with exfoliated cells, debris and impurities that line the urethra opening. Similar to the limitations of self-collected cervicovaginal samples, first-void urine will likely not fulfil the

  7. Reassessing the utility of routine urine culture with urodynamics: UTI incidence and risk factors.

    Snow-Lisy, Devon C; Halline, Christopher; Johnson, Emilie K; Diaz-Saldano, Dawn; Meyer, Theresa; Yerkes, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding use of periprocedural antibiotics or routine urine cultures during urodynamics study (UDS) in children. At our hospital, we historically have obtained urine cultures during UDS. However, even with positive cultures, few patients require treatment. Most are successfully managed with increased hydration and frequent bladder emptying. To evaluate clinical characteristics, antibiotic treatment, and outcomes in patients undergoing UDS to identify (1) risk factors for urinary tract infection (UTI) after UDS, and (2) patients who may benefit from routine urine culture. Retrospective review of 769 patients who underwent 1057 UDS between January 2013 and January 2015. Positive urine culture was defined as ≥10 4 colony forming units/ml. Afebrile UTI was defined as new symptoms within 7 days. Febrile UTI was new symptoms with fever (≥38.5 °C). Fisher's exact test was used for comparative analyses. Nearly all patients had a urine culture taken immediately prior to UDS (94%, 993/1057). Patients on clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) were more likely to be on pre-UDS antibiotics, 22.8% (106/464) vs. 17.9% of those not on CIC (106/593) (p = 0.04). Of patients who had a urine culture, it was positive in 40% (402/993) with more positive cultures in patients on CIC vs. not (72.0%, 316/439 vs. 15.5%, 86/554, p UTI included clinical UTI within 30 days before UDS, immunosuppression, overnight Foley catheter use, febrile UTI as indication, and symptoms on day of procedure (Table). Fifteen patients (1.4%, 95% confidence interval 0.7-2.1%) developed a clinical/possible post-UDS UTI, of which 40% (6/15) were febrile, with one requiring hospitalization. Of patients with post-UDS UTIs, 33% (5/15) had negative cultures at the time of UDS. If urine cultures were obtained selectively based on our study findings, 78% of pre-UDS urine cultures could be eliminated, while "missing" clinically relevant cultures in only 0.4% (4/1057). Study limitations

  8. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David

    2014-01-01

    treatment. METHODOLOGY: Previously collected urine samples (N = 390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment day......, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic...

  9. Preliminary study on application of urine amino acids profiling for monitoring of renal tubular injury using GLC-MS

    Maja Kazubek-Zemke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of the nephrotoxic effect of xenobiotics and drugs is still an unsolved problem. Recent studies suggest a correlation between the nephrotoxic activity of xenobiotics and increased concentration of amino acids in urine. The presented study was focused on the application of GLC-MS method for amino acids profiling in human urine as a noninvasive method for monitoring of kidney condition and tubular injury level.The analytic method is based on the conversion of the amino acids present in the sample to tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS derivatives and their analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The procedure of urine sample preparation for chromatographic analysis was optimized.The presence of 12 amino acids in most of the tested healthy human urine samples was detected. The significant differences in the levels of particular amino acids between patients with tubular injury and healthy controls were found, especially for lysine, valine, serine, alanine and leucine (on average 30.0, 7.5, 3.6, 2.9 and 0.5 fold respectively.We found that this approach based on GLC-MS detection can be used in nephrotoxicity studies for urine amino acids monitoring in exposure to xenobiotics and drugs.

  10. Preliminary study on application of urine amino acids profiling for monitoring of renal tubular injury using GLC-MS.

    Kazubek-Zemke, Maja; Rybka, Jacek; Marchewka, Zofia; Rybka, Wojciech; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Długosz, Anna

    2014-11-14

    The early diagnosis of the nephrotoxic effect of xenobiotics and drugs is still an unsolved problem. Recent studies suggest a correlation between the nephrotoxic activity of xenobiotics and increased concentration of amino acids in urine. The presented study was focused on the application of GLC-MS method for amino acids profiling in human urine as a noninvasive method for monitoring of kidney condition and tubular injury level. The analytic method is based on the conversion of the amino acids present in the sample to tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives and their analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). The procedure of urine sample preparation for chromatographic analysis was optimized. The presence of 12 amino acids in most of the tested healthy human urine samples was detected. The significant differences in the levels of particular amino acids between patients with tubular injury and healthy controls were found, especially for lysine, valine, serine, alanine and leucine (on average 30.0, 7.5, 3.6, 2.9 and 0.5 fold respectively). We found that this approach based on GLC-MS detection can be used in nephrotoxicity studies for urine amino acids monitoring in exposure to xenobiotics and drugs.

  11. Determinations of tritium levels in urine and blood samples, medical checkups of persons employed at RC Seibersdorf

    Irlweck, K.; Teherani, D.K.

    1975-07-01

    Tritium determinations in urine and blood samples were performed with a liquid scintillation counter (Tri Carb No. 3375, PACKARD). In urine samples tritiated water (HTO) was measured after separation of organic substances by adsorption with activated charcoal and following distillation to dryness. In some urine and blood samples total Tritium content was determinated by conbustion in a sample Oxidizer (Mod. 306, PACKARD). Detection limits for HTO and total Tritium measurements were 2,5 pCi/ml and 7 or 15 pCi/ml respectively, taking 2 sigma of statistical error of background values. Tritiumconcentrations in daily urine of occupational exposed persons, employed in RC Seibersdorf occurred up to 8 pCi HTO/ml. An arithmetic mean was 3,85+-2,11 pCi/ml from investigations on 16 persons. Tritiumcontent in urine samples of occupational non exposed persons were about the same level up to 10 pCi HTO/ml. An arithmetic mean was 3,70+-2,65 pCi/ml from measurements on 20 persons. Statistical error of single values was sigma=+-1,85 pCi/ml. There was found no significantly higher concentration in urine of occupational exposed persons compared with a group of non exposed ones. Total Tritium content in urine samples seemed to be somewhat higher than HTO concentrations, also for occupational non exposed persons. Tritium levels in blood were notably higher than have to be expected assuming homogeneous distribution of HTO in body fluids. For occupational exposed persons in RC Seibersdorf Tritium concentrations between 26-58 pCi/ml were found. An estimation about Tritium intake based on such results showed no more than 0,5% of maximum permissible intake for occupational exposed persons in the most unfavorable case. For occupational non exposed persons total Tritium levels in blood were only about 10,7+-5,8 pCi/ml (arithmetic mean of measurements on 15 persons). (author)

  12. Measurement of organically bound tritium in urine and feces

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    A bioassay method was developed for directly measuring organically bound tritium (OBT) in urine and feces. Samples first undergo low-temperature distillation and vacuum separation to isolate tritiated water (HTO) and exchangeable tritium. This is followed by converting the non-exchangeable tritium (i.e., OBT) into HTO through oxygen combustion. The method was investigated to: optimise the sample preparation procedures; establish OBT recovery (64% ± 7% for urine and 71% ± 8% for feces); and, determine the detection limit for OBT in urine (0.3 Bq · g -1 ) and feces (5 Bq · g -1 ). The method was evaluated for error sources that are associated with the exchange between HTO and OBT. It is concluded that this bioassay method can reliably measure OBT in urine and feces within the range of ± 10%

  13. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  14. Bilirubin in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Bilirubin (Urine); 86–87 p. Lab ...

  15. Isolation and identification of two galangin metabolites from rat urine ...

    Isolation and identification of two galangin metabolites from rat urine and determination of their in vitro hypolipidemic activity. Xuguang Zhang, Shouqian Cheng, Hailong Li, Xiaopo Zhang, Feng Chen, Youbin Li, Junqing Zhang, Yinfeng Tan ...

  16. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  17. European guidelines for workplace drug testing in urine.

    Taskinen, Sanna; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Brcak, Michaela; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. Since then, the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014, the EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published a new version of the urine guidelines in 2015. Here we represent this updated version of the urine guidelines. The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mest en urine: van afval naar waardevol product

    Bos, A.P.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    Het gescheiden houden van mest en urine in de veehouderij belooft een reeks positieve effecten te geven, waarmee de veehouderij én de akkerbouw een duurzaamheidssprong kunnen maken. Maar dat lukt alleen als er veel praktijken tegelijkertijd veranderen.

  19. Mucus in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    ... is normal. An excess amount may indicate a urinary tract infection (UTI) or other medical condition. A test called urinalysis ... your urinalysis if you have symptoms of a UTI. These include: Frequent urge to urinate, but little ...

  20. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  1. Effectiveness of Preanalytic Practices on Contamination and Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Cultures: a Laboratory Medicine Best Practices Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Franek, Jacob; Leibach, Elizabeth K.; Weissfeld, Alice S.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Sautter, Robert L.; Baselski, Vickie; Rodahl, Debra; Peterson, Edward J.; Cornish, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background. Urinary tract infection (UTI) in the United States is the most common bacterial infection, and urine cultures often make up the largest portion of workload for a hospital-based microbiology laboratory. Appropriately managing the factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture contributes significantly to the generation of meaningful culture results that ultimately affect patient diagnosis and management. Urine culture contamination can be reduced with proper techniques for urine collection, preservation, storage, and transport, the major factors affecting the preanalytic phase of urine culture. Objectives. The purposes of this review were to identify and evaluate preanalytic practices associated with urine specimens and to assess their impact on the accuracy of urine culture microbiology. Specific practices included collection methods for men, women, and children; preservation of urine samples in boric acid solutions; and the effect of refrigeration on stored urine. Practice efficacy and effectiveness were measured by two parameters: reduction of urine culture contamination and increased accuracy of patient diagnosis. The CDC Laboratory Medicine Best Practices (LMBP) initiative's systematic review method for assessment of quality improvement (QI) practices was employed. Results were then translated into evidence-based practice guidelines. Search strategy. A search of three electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, and CINAHL), as well as hand searching of bibliographies from relevant information sources, for English-language articles published between 1965 and 2014 was conducted. Selection criteria. The search contained the following medical subject headings and key text words: urinary tract infections, UTI, urine/analysis, urine/microbiology, urinalysis, specimen handling, preservation, biological, preservation, boric acid, boric acid/borate, refrigeration, storage, time factors, transportation, transport time, time delay

  2. Determination of uranium and plutonium in urine of people working with regenerated uranium

    Golutvina, M.M.; Ryzhova, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Method of determining uranium and plutonium content in urine with their combined presence up to α-activity ratio Pu:U=1:100 is developed. The method is based on extraction chromatographic separation of nuclides using trimethyloctylammonium nitrate and their subsequent α-spectrometric determination. The coefficient of plutonium purification from uranium makes up 750. Chemical yield of Pu is 72±6%, U-76±8%. The method sensitivity is 0.2 decompositions per minute for a sample

  3. Validation the quantification of beta emitters activity in urine by scintillation spectrometry in the liquid phase

    Sierra, I.; Hernandez, C.; Benito, P.; Lopez, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the methodology used in the validation of the technique for quantifying activity of some beta emitters in urine ( 3 H, 1 4C, 3 5S, 3 2P and 9 0Sr) by scintillation spectrometry Liquid Phase (Liquid Scintillation Counting, LSC) is described in bio elimination Laboratory Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry accredited since last year for carrying out assays measure radiation dose based on ISO forth above. (Author)

  4. Detection of residual rifampicin in urine via fluorescence quenching of gold nanoclusters on paper.

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Kuo, Chiung Wen; Chen, Ann; Chen, Peilin

    2015-06-26

    Rifampicin or rifampin (R) is a common drug used to treat inactive meningitis, cholestatic pruritus and tuberculosis (TB), and it is generally prescribed for long-term administration under regulated dosages. Constant monitoring of rifampicin is important for controlling the side effects and preventing overdose caused by chronic medication. In this study, we present an easy to use, effective and less costly method for detecting residual rifampicin in urine samples using protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA)-stabilized gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) adsorbed on a paper substrate in which the concentration of rifampicin in urine can be detected via fluorescence quenching. The intensity of the colorimetric assay performed on the paper-based platforms can be easily captured using a digital camera and subsequently analyzed. The decreased fluorescence intensity of BSA-Au NCs in the presence of rifampicin allows for the sensitive detection of rifampicin in a range from 0.5 to 823 µg/mL. The detection limit for rifampicin was measured as 70 ng/mL. The BSA-Au NCs were immobilized on a wax-printed paper-based platform and used to conduct real-time monitoring of rifampicin in urine. We have developed a robust, cost-effective, and portable point-of-care medical diagnostic platform for the detection of rifampicin in urine based on the ability of rifampicin to quench the fluorescence of immobilized BSA-Au NCs on wax-printed papers. The paper-based assay can be further used for the detection of other specific analytes via surface modification of the BSA in BSA-Au NCs and offers a useful tool for monitoring other diseases.

  5. Sample handling for mass spectrometric proteomic investigations of human urine.

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Høgdall, Claus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; T'jampens, Davy; Hellmann, Marja-Leena; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Fung, Eric T; Høgdall, Estrid

    2008-09-01

    Because of its non-invasive sample collection method, human urine is an attractive biological material both for discovering biomarkers and for use in future screening trials for different diseases. Before urine can be used for these applications, standardized protocols for sample handling that optimize protein stability are required. In this explorative study, we examine the influence of different urine collection methods, storage temperatures, storage times, and repetitive freeze-thaw procedures on the protein profiles obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Prospectively collected urine samples from 11 women were collected as either morning or midday specimens. The effects of storage temperature, time to freezing, and freeze-thaw cycles were assessed by calculating the number, intensity, and reproducibility of peaks visualized by SELDI-TOF-MS. On the CM10 array, 122 peaks were detected and 28 peaks were found to be significantly different between urine types, storage temperature and time to freezing. On the IMAC-Cu array, 65 peaks were detected and 1 peak was found to be significantly different according to time to freezing. No significant differences were demonstrated for freeze-thaw cycles. Optimal handling and storage conditions are necessary in clinical urine proteomic investigations. Collection of urine with a single and consistently performed protocol is needed to reduce analytical bias. Collecting only one urine type, which is stored for a limited period at 4°C until freezing at -80°C prior to analysis will provide the most stable profiles. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Direct measurement of tritium in urine by liquid scintillation method

    Zhang Caihong; Wen Qinghua; Chen Kefei; Li Huaixin

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the method for direct measurement of tritium concentration in urine using liquid scintillation. Effects of sampling containers, store patterns and storage time are studied. Meanwhile, results of two methods are compared with direct measurement method and oxidation distillation method. The results shows that direct measurement method is a economic and simple method, which can meet the need of determination of urine tritium for NPP workers. There is no significant difference compared with the data obtained by oxidation distillation method

  7. Stability studies of amphetamine and ephedrine derivatives in urine.

    Jiménez, C; de la Torre, R; Ventura, M; Segura, J; Ventura, R

    2006-10-20

    Knowledge of the stability of drugs in biological specimens is a critical consideration for the interpretation of analytical results. Identification of proper storage conditions has been a matter of concern for most toxicology laboratories (both clinical and forensic), and the stability of drugs of abuse has been extensively studied. This concern should be extended to other areas of analytical chemistry like antidoping control. In this work, the stability of ephedrine derivatives (ephedrine, norephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine), and amphetamine derivatives (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) in urine has been studied. Spiked urine samples were prepared for stability testing. Urine samples were quantified by GC/NPD or GC/MS. The homogeneity of each batch of sample was verified before starting the stability study. The stability of analytes was evaluated in sterilized and non-sterilized urine samples at different storage conditions. For long-term stability testing, analyte concentration in urine stored at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C was determined at different time intervals for 24 months for sterile urine samples, and for 6 months for non-sterile samples. For short-term stability testing, analyte concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing (at room temperature) was also studied in sterile urine for up to three cycles. No significant loss of the analytes under study was observed at any of the investigated conditions. These results show the feasibility of preparing reference materials containing ephedrine and amphetamine derivatives to be used for quality control purposes.

  8. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  10. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing.

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-09-01

    To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Analysis of uranium in urine of persons occupationaly exposed

    Nunes, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A technique of uranium analysis in urine of persons occupationaly exposed, using the fluorimetric method is proposed. Two procedures for the determination are presented: the first employs platinum dishes, obtaining a detection limit of 1 ppb and the second one, using aluminium dishes, shows a detection limit of 100 ppb. Uranium and urine physico-chemical characteristics are described, as well as norms for the exposition of workers to uranium. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Fluorimetric routine determination of uranium in urine samples

    Widua, L.; Schieferdecker, H.; Hezel, U.

    With a modified RA 2 reflectance accessory for the Zeiss PMQII/PMQ3 spectrophotometer, uranium in urine was detected with higher sensitivity. A quick method is now available with a detection limit of <2 μg U/1 urine for the determination of possible uranium incorporations, whose sensitivity meets the requirements of radiation protection. Compared with other extraction methods, the instrument outlay and the required working time are small. The total error of the method is below 5 percent

  13. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data.

  14. Metabolomic biomarkers in serum and urine in women with preeclampsia.

    Marie Austdal

    Full Text Available To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis.Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10, normal pregnancies (n = 10 and non-pregnant women (n = 10 matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared between groups.Urine and serum samples revealed clear differences between women with preeclampsia and both control groups (normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. Nine urine metabolites were significantly different between preeclampsia and the normal pregnant group. Urine samples from women with early onset preeclampsia clustered together in the multivariate analysis. The preeclampsia serum spectra showed higher levels of low and very-low density lipoproteins and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins when compared to both non-pregnant and normal pregnant women.The MR determined metabolic profiles in urine and serum from women with preeclampsia are clearly different from normal pregnant women. The observed differences represent a potential to examine mechanisms underlying different preeclampsia phenotypes in urine and serum samples in larger studies. In addition, similarities between preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in metabolomics are demonstrated.

  15. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    When [2- 14 C] riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with 14 C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 μg riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of 14 C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin

  16. Comparison of urine analysis using manual and sedimentation methods.

    Kurup, R; Leich, M

    2012-06-01

    Microscopic examination of urine sediment is an essential part in the evaluation of renal and urinary tract diseases. Traditionally, urine sediments are assessed by microscopic examination of centrifuged urine. However the current method used by the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation Medical Laboratory involves uncentrifuged urine. To encourage high level of care, the results provided to the physician must be accurate and reliable for proper diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether the centrifuge method is more clinically significant than the uncentrifuged method. In this study, a comparison between the results obtained from centrifuged and uncentrifuged methods were performed. A total of 167 urine samples were randomly collected and analysed during the period April-May 2010 at the Medical Laboratory, Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation. The urine samples were first analysed microscopically by the uncentrifuged, and then by the centrifuged method. The results obtained from both methods were recorded in a log book. These results were then entered into a database created in Microsoft Excel, and analysed for differences and similarities using this application. Analysis was further done in SPSS software to compare the results using Pearson ' correlation. When compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis, both methods showed a good correlation between urinary sediments with the exception of white bloods cells. The centrifuged method had a slightly higher identification rate for all of the parameters. There is substantial agreement between the centrifuged and uncentrifuged methods. However the uncentrifuged method provides for a rapid turnaround time.

  17. Halogenated Anesthetics Determination in Urine by SPME/GC/MS and Urine Levels Relationship Evaluation with Surgical Theatres Contamination

    Serena Indelicato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new sensitive analytical method has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the most commonly used gaseous anesthetics, desflurane, sevoflurane, and this latter’s hepatic metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP in the urine. In addition, an evaluation of anesthetics exposition on the urine levels of a small population of surgical operators has been performed and results are briefly discussed.

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture.

    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-11-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming. Screening methods may be useful in detecting high-risk pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the present study was to compare urine analysis as a rapid screening test to urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. A total of 123 pregnant women attending the obstetrics clinic of Boo-Ali hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 2013 to September 2014 were included in the present diagnostic cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty three mid-stream urine samples were inoculated into cultures and were processed by dipstick (nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test) and microscopic pus cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test and microscopic pus cell count were compared with urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using SPSS version 19. Of 123 urine samples, significant asymptomatic bacteriuria (≥10 4 cfu/Ml) was detected in 8 (6.5%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of nitrite test were 37% and 100% respectively. The sensitivity of pus cell count alone and leucocyte esterase test alone were 100% but the specificity of them were 64% and 65% respectively. We found high negative predictive value by Pus cell count and the leucocyte esterase test (100%) and low positive predictive value by them (16% and 17% respectively). Urine culture is the most useful test for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None of our screening tests had a sensitivity and

  19. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis

    ?nce, Fatma Demet; Ellida?, Hamit Ya?ar; Koseo?lu, Mehmet; ?im?ek, Ne?e; Yal??n, H?lya; Zengin, Mustafa Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. Design and methods: 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (Ä°ris Diagnostics, USA), Dirui...

  20. Diagnostic usefulness of CT attenuation coefficients of urine after enteral administration of iodinated water (iohexol) in neonates with NEC

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Yun, Eun Joo; Yoon, Dae Young

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an increased computed tomography attenuation coefficient (CTAC) of urine after the oral administration of iohexol in neonates who are suspected of suffering with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). During a recent 1 year-period, seventeen neonates were admitted for suspected NEC, and they were divided into the suspected and definite groups based on their clinical signs and radiographic findings; we also included ten normal neonates as the control group. Diluted iohexol was administered and the CTACs of collected urine samples at 8-12 hour intervals were measured. Comparative analysis of the three groups was done and statistical significance was determined by the Scheffe test. Among 17 neonates, there were 13 neonates in the suspect group and 4 neonates in the definite group. The mean CTACs of urine in each group were 2711 HU (control group), 3411 HU (suspected group), and 7625 HU (definite group), respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean CTAC of the definite group and that of the control or suspected groups (Scheffe t >2.65). However, no statistically significant difference was seen between the suspected and control groups (Scheffe t=1.14). Although measurements of the CTAC of urine showed no significant diagnostic efficacy in the suspected group, the CTAC of urine, which reflects the correlated degree of bowel mucosal injury, can be a useful aid for determining the severity and progression of NEC

  1. Long-term urine biobanking: storage stability of clinical chemical parameters under moderate freezing conditions without use of preservatives.

    Remer, Thomas; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Shi, Lijie

    2014-12-01

    To examine the long-term stability and validity of analyte concentrations of 21 clinical biochemistry parameters in 24-h urine samples stored for 12 or 15 yr at -22°C and preservative free. Healthy children's 24-h urine samples in which the respective analytes had been measured shortly after sample collection (baseline) were reanalyzed. Second measurement was performed after 12 yr (organic acids) and 15 yr (creatinine, urea, osmolality, iodine, nitrogen, anions, cations, acid-base parameters) with the same analytical methodology. Paired comparisons and correlations between the baseline and repeated measurements were done. Recovery rates were calculated. More than half of the analytes (creatinine, urea, iodine, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, bicarbonate, citric & uric acid) showed measurement values after >10 yr of storage not significantly different from baseline. 15 of the 21 parameters were highly correlated (r=0.99) between baseline and second measurement. Poorest correlation was r=0.77 for oxalate. Recovery ranged from 73% (oxalate) to 105% (phosphate). Our results suggest high long-term stability and measurement validity for numerous clinical chemistry parameters stored at -22°C without addition of any urine preservative. Prospective storage of urine aliquots at -22°C for periods even exceeding 10 yr, appears to be an acceptable and valid tool in epidemiological settings for later quantification of several urine analytes. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selenium speciation in urine by ion-pairing chromatography with perfluorinated carboxylic acids and ICP-MS detection

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Bendahl, L.; Sidenius, U.

    2002-01-01

    Five aqueous standards, selenomethionine (SeMet), methylselenomethionine (MeSeMet), methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), selenogammaaminobutyric acid (SeGaba) and the trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe), were separated in ion-pairing chromatographic systems based on perfluorinated carboxylic acids in metha...... were major compounds in urine samples-even after massive consumption of selenium-containing supplements. The selenium species in the urine samples showed a limited stability, as they changed during storage at +4 degreesC as well as -18 degreesC...... of between 2.3 and 5.1 pg. Urine samples from different individuals before and during supplementation with selenomethionine were analysed. Several species were separated in the different urine samples. A major component eluting at the beginning of the chromatogram was predominant in many samples, especially...... after selenium consumption. This species was not identified and solid phase extraction experiments suggested that it was neutral. When different urine samples were spiked with the available standards, co-elution of species with TMSe, MeSeMet or SeMet was observed in some samples. None of these species...

  3. An innovative HIV testing service using the internet: Anonymous urine delivery testing service at drugstores in Beijing, China.

    Xiaoxia He

    Full Text Available Innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing services will be needed to achieve the first 90 (90% of HIV-positive persons aware of their infection status of the 90-90-90 target in China. Here, we describe an internet-based urine delivery testing service delivered through three pilot drugstores in Beijing that send specimens to a designated laboratory for HIV. From May 2016 to January 2017, we provided 500 HIV urine-testing service packs for display at the drugstores, and a total of 430 (86.0% urine specimens were mailed back. All of the 430 urine specimens were of good quality and were tested. 70 urine specimens were HIV positive, showing a 16.3% (70/430 positivity rate. A total of 94.3% (66/70 of the HIV-positive participants obtained their test results through the internet, and 69.7% (46/66 of these participants received follow-up care. A total of 40 out of 46 (87.0% participants agreed to have their results confirmed by a blood test, and 39 out of 40 (97.5% participants were confirmed as HIV-1 positive, including two individuals that were previously diagnosed. Lastly, 28 out of 37 (75.7% of the study participants were referred to the hospital and provided free antiviral treatment. Our data indicate that this innovative HIV testing service is effective and play an important role in HIV testing and surveillance.

  4. An innovative HIV testing service using the internet: Anonymous urine delivery testing service at drugstores in Beijing, China.

    He, Xiaoxia; Liu, Guowu; Xia, Dongyan; Feng, Xia; Lv, Yi; Cheng, Huanyi; Wang, Yuehua; Lu, Hongyan; Jiang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Innovative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing services will be needed to achieve the first 90 (90% of HIV-positive persons aware of their infection status) of the 90-90-90 target in China. Here, we describe an internet-based urine delivery testing service delivered through three pilot drugstores in Beijing that send specimens to a designated laboratory for HIV. From May 2016 to January 2017, we provided 500 HIV urine-testing service packs for display at the drugstores, and a total of 430 (86.0%) urine specimens were mailed back. All of the 430 urine specimens were of good quality and were tested. 70 urine specimens were HIV positive, showing a 16.3% (70/430) positivity rate. A total of 94.3% (66/70) of the HIV-positive participants obtained their test results through the internet, and 69.7% (46/66) of these participants received follow-up care. A total of 40 out of 46 (87.0%) participants agreed to have their results confirmed by a blood test, and 39 out of 40 (97.5%) participants were confirmed as HIV-1 positive, including two individuals that were previously diagnosed. Lastly, 28 out of 37 (75.7%) of the study participants were referred to the hospital and provided free antiviral treatment. Our data indicate that this innovative HIV testing service is effective and play an important role in HIV testing and surveillance.

  5. Measurement of 239Pu in urine samples at ultra-trace levels using a 1 MV compact AMS system

    Hernandez-Mendoza, H.; Chamizo, E.; Yllera, A.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    Routine bioassay monitoring of Pu intake in exposed workers of research and nuclear industry is usually performed by alpha spectrometry. This technique involves large sample volumes of urine and time-consuming preparative and counting protocols. Compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facilities make feasible the determination of ultra low-level Pu activity concentrations and Pu isotopic ratios in biological samples (blood, urine and feces), being a rapid and cost-effective measurement technique. The plutonium results in urine samples presented here have been obtained on the 1 MV compact AMS system sited at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), in Seville, Spain. In this work, a different methodological approach has been developed alternative to the 'classical' preparation of urine samples for alpha spectrometry. The procedure avoids the Pu precipitation step, and involves acid sample evaporation and acid digestion in a microwave oven. Finally, purification of plutonium was achieved by using chromatography columns filled up with BioRad AG1X2 anion exchange resin (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.). The total time needed for analysis is about 10 h, unlike the 'classical' methods based on alpha spectrometry which need about 1 week. At present, it has been demonstrated that this method allows quantifying 239 Pu activity concentrations in urine of, at least, 30 μBq (13 fg 239 Pu). We can conclude that the procedure would be suitable to perform in vitro routine bioassay measurements. Moreover, the innovative application of AMS opens new and interesting analytical alternatives in this field.

  6. Nappy pad urine samples for investigation and treatment of UTI in young children: the 'DUTY' prospective diagnostic cohort study.

    Butler, Christopher C; Sterne, Jonathan Ac; Lawton, Michael; O'Brien, Kathryn; Wootton, Mandy; Hood, Kerenza; Hollingworth, William; Little, Paul; Delaney, Brendan C; van der Voort, Judith; Dudley, Jan; Birnie, Kate; Pickles, Timothy; Waldron, Cherry-Ann; Downing, Harriet; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Lisles, Catherine; Rumsby, Kate; Durbaba, Stevo; Whiting, Penny; Harman, Kim; Howe, Robin; MacGowan, Alasdair; Fletcher, Margaret; Hay, Alastair D

    2016-07-01

    The added diagnostic utility of nappy pad urine samples and the proportion that are contaminated is unknown. To develop a clinical prediction rule for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) based on sampling using the nappy pad method. Acutely unwell children UTI; diagnostic utility quantified as area under the receiver operator curves (AUROC). Nappy pad rule characteristics, AUROC, and contamination, compared with findings from clean-catch samples. Nappy pad samples were obtained from 3205 children (82% aged UTI on culture. Female sex, smelly urine, darker urine, and the absence of nappy rash were independently associated with a UTI, with an internally-validated, coefficient model AUROC of 0.81 (0.87 for clean-catch), which increased to 0.87 (0.90 for clean-catch) with the addition of dipstick results. GPs' 'working diagnosis' had an AUROC 0.63 (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 0.53 to 0.72). A total of 12.2% of nappy pad and 1.8% of clean-catch samples were 'frankly contaminated' (risk ratio 6.66; 95% CI = 4.95 to 8.96; P<0.001). Nappy pad urine culture results, with features that can be reported by parents and dipstick tests, can be clinically useful, but are less accurate and more often contaminated compared with clean-catch urine culture. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  7. The examination of urine samples for pathogenic microbes by the luciferase assay for ATP. 1: The effect of the presence of fungi, fungal like bacteria and kidney cells in urine samples

    Bush, V. N.

    1973-01-01

    A method for accurately determining urinary tract infections in man is introduced. The method is based on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration in urine samples after removing nonbacterial ATP. Adenosine triphosphate concentration is measured from the bioluminescent reaction of luciferase when mixed with ATP. An examination was also made of the effectiveness of rupturing agents on monkey kidney cells Candia albicans, a Rhodotorula species, and a Streptomyces species in determining whether these cells could contribute ATP to the bacterial ATP value of a urine sample.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of metformin in pharmaceutical preparations, serum and urine using benzoin as derivatizing reagent

    Alamgir, M.; Hayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and selective spectrophotometric procedure is described for the determination of Metformin based on derivatization with benzoin. The Beers law was obeyed with 2.50-12.50 meu mol L-1 at 290 nm with coefficient of determination (r2) 0.997. The experimental conditions in term of pH, reaction time and temperature, and addition of derivatizing reagent were examined. The pure metformin-benzoin derivative was prepared and characterized by FT-IR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The method was applied for the determination of metformin from pharmaceutical preparations and serum and urine of volunteers after spiking with metformin. The results were checked by standard addition method. A number of pharmaceutical additives and serum or urine matrix did not affect the determination of metformin. (author)

  9. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...

  10. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of Ethamsylate in urine and tablets.

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Nassar, Mohammad Wafaa; Attia, Khalid Abdel-Salam; Abu-Seada, Hamed Hamed; El-Ghandour, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    A simple, selective, sensitive, accurate, and precise method was developed for determination of ethamsylate (ET) in human urine and in ET tablets using RP-HPLC. The method uses a C18 (5 pm particle size) column at ambient temperature with the mobile phase 14.7 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 4.6)-8.15 mM tetraheptylammonium bromide in acetonitrile (50 + 50, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 300 nm, based on peak area with a linear calibration curve in the concentration range of 0.1-100 microg/mL. The proposed method was applied for the determination of the urinary excretion pattern of ET as the cumulative amounts excreted have been calculated without pretreatment of urine samples. The proposed method was completely validated according to U.S. Food and Drug administration guidelines.

  11. Iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

    Goddard, C.P.; Stead, A.H.; Mason, P.A.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.; McBrien, M.; Cosby, S.

    1986-05-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and an easily synthesised radio-iodinated derivative of clonazepam that allows the use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect low therapeutic levels of all of the benzodiazepines currently available in the UK in 50-..mu..l samples of blood and urine (1-50 ng ml/sup -1/, depending on the drug); no prior sample preparation is required. It is inexpensive, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The assay offers a most suitable means of screening large numbers of samples of forensic interest for the presence of the benzodiazepines.

  12. Rapid bioassay method for estimation of 90Sr in urine samples by liquid scintillation counting

    Wankhede, Sonal; Chaudhary, Seema; Sawant, Pramilla D.

    2018-01-01

    Radiostrontium (Sr) is a by-product of the nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear reactors and is an important radionuclide in spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Rapid bioassay methods are required for estimating Sr in urine following internal contamination. Decision regarding medical intervention, if any can be based upon the results of urinalysis. The present method used at Bioassay Laboratory, Trombay is by Solid Extraction Chromatography (SEC) technique. The Sr separated from urine sample is precipitated as SrCO 3 and analyzed gravimetrically. However, gravimetric procedure is time consuming and therefore, in the present study, feasibility of Liquid Scintillation Counting for direct detection of radiostrontium in effluent was explored. The results obtained in the present study were compared with those obtained using gravimetric method

  13. An iodine-125 radioimmunoassay for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine

    Goddard, C.P.; Stead, A.H.; Mason, P.A.; Law, B.; Moffat, A.C.; McBrien, M.; Cosby, S.

    1986-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the direct detection of benzodiazepines in blood and urine is described. It is based on a commercially available antiserum and an easily synthesised radio-iodinated derivative of clonazepam that allows the use of relatively simple gamma-counting procedures. The assay can detect low therapeutic levels of all of the benzodiazepines currently available in the UK in 50-μl samples of blood and urine (1-50 ng ml -1 , depending on the drug); no prior sample preparation is required. It is inexpensive, rapid, simple to perform and is broadly specific for the benzodiazepine class of drugs. The assay offers a most suitable means of screening large numbers of samples of forensic interest for the presence of the benzodiazepines. (author)

  14. Urine sample used for detection of toxoplasma gondii infection by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Hu, Xin; Pan, Chang-Wang; Li, Ya-Fei; Wang, Han; Tan, Feng

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in mice infected with T. gondii PRU strain. This LAMP assay was based on the sequence of highly repetitive B1 gene. The detection limit of T. gondii LAMP assay was 1 pg of T. gondii DNA, which was evaluated using 10-fold serially diluted DNA of cultured parasites. The LAMP assay was also highly specific for T. gondii and able to detect T. gondii DNA in urine of mice treated with dexamethasone at 90 day post infection (p.i.), although this assay could not detect the DNA in mice urine 2-6 days p.i. These results demonstrated that LAMP is effective for evaluation of therapy effectiveness for T. gondii infection. The established LAMP assay may represent a useful and practical tool for the routine diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of human toxoplasmosis.

  15. Proteomic analysis of urine in rats chronically exposed to fluoride.

    Kobayashi, Claudia Ayumi Nakai; Leite, Aline de Lima; da Silva, Thelma Lopes; dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Nogueira, Fábio César Sousa; Santos, Keity Souza; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Palma, Mario Sérgio; Domont, Gilberto Barbosa; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Urine is an ideal source of materials to search for potential disease-related biomarkers as it is produced by the affected tissues and can be easily obtained by noninvasive methods. 2-DE-based proteomic approach was used to better understand the molecular mechanisms of injury induced by fluoride (F(-)) and define potential biomarkers of dental fluorosis. Three groups of weanling male Wistar rats were treated with drinking water containing 0 (control), 5, or 50 ppm F(-) for 60 days (n = 15/group). During the experimental period, the animals were kept individually in metabolic cages, to analyze the water and food consumption, as well as fecal and urinary F(-) excretion. Urinary proteome profiles were examined using 2-DE and Colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining. A dose-response regarding F(-) intake and excretion was detected. Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 8, 11, and 8 significantly altered proteins between control vs. 5 ppm F(-), control vs. 50 ppm F(-) and 5 ppm F(-) vs. 50 ppm F(-) groups, respectively. Two proteins regulated by androgens (androgen-regulated 20-KDa protein and α-2μ-globulin) and one related to detoxification (aflatoxin-B1-aldehyde-reductase) were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS. Thus, proteomic analysis can help to better understand the mechanisms underlying F(-) toxicity, even in low doses. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Radiographic determination of urinary bladder volume and residual urine volume

    Klumair, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long study the author has tested most of the methods for determination of urinary bladder volume. A radiographic method which can state bladder volume exactly in cc's is attainable only with great time and effort. In the author's experience, however, it is possible, by means of a pattern in connection with a IVP, to estimate residual urine volume from a post-void picture of the bladder with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. An account is given of the production of this pattern and of two relatively simple calculations for residual volume based on AP and lateral views of circular- and ellipsoid-shaped bladders. Also discussed is the radiation exposure which varies with the radiographic methods used. In male patients, the radiation exposure appears to be negligible, especially when the testicles are protected by a radiation shield. In female patients - which make up only a small fraction of all patients -, radiation exposure is higher but must be accepted. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol in Animal Urine Using Immunomagnetic Bead Treatment and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Cheng, Jie; Su, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Shi; Zhao, Yiping

    2016-09-01

    Combining surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of aggregated graphene oxide/gold nanoparticle hybrids with immunomagnetic bead sample preparation method, a highly sensitive strategy to determine the clenbuterol content in animal urine was developed. Based on a linear calibration curve of the SERS characteristic peak intensity of clenbuterol at Δv = 1474 cm-1 versus the spiked clenbuterol concentration in the range of 0.5-20 ng·mL-1, the quantity of clenbuterol in real animal urine samples can be determined and matches well with those determined by LC-MS/MS, while the detection time is significantly reduced to 15 min/sample. The limits of detection and quantification in the urine are 0.5 ng·mL-1 and 1 ng·mL-1, respectively, and the recovery clenbuterol rates are 82.8-92.4% with coefficients of variation farming.

  18. Assessments of urine cofilin-1 in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units with acute kidney injury

    Lee, Yi-Jang; Chao, Cheng-Han; Chang, Ying-Feng; Chou, Chien

    2013-02-01

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family has been reported to be associated with ischemia induced renal disorders. Here we examine if cofilin-1 is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). We exploited a 96-well based fiber-optic biosensor that uses conjugated gold nanoparticles and a sandwich immunoassay to detect the urine cofilin-1 level of AKI patients. The mean urine cofilin-1 level of the AKI patients was two-fold higher than that of healthy adults. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that cofilin-1 is a potential biomarker for discriminating AKI patients from healthy adults for intensive care patients.

  19. Study of acute biochemical effects of thallium toxicity in mouse urine by NMR spectroscopy.

    Tyagi, Ritu; Rana, Poonam; Khan, Ahmad Raza; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Devi, M Memita; Chaturvedi, Shubhra; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Khushu, Subash

    2011-10-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a toxic heavy metal and its exposure to the human body causes physiological and biochemical changes due to its interference with potassium-dependent biological reactions. A high-resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy based metabonomic approach has been applied for investigating acute biochemical effects caused by thallium sulfate (Tl(2)SO(4)). Male strain A mice were divided in three groups and received three doses of Tl(2)SO(4) (5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) b.w., i.p.). Urine samples collected at 3, 24, 72 and 96 h post-dose time points were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. NMR spectral data were processed and analyzed using principal components analysis to represent biochemical variations induced by Tl(2)SO(4). Results showed Tl-exposed mice urine to have distinct metabonomic phenotypes and revealed dose- and time-dependent clustering of treated groups. The metabolic signature of urine analysis from Tl(2)SO(4)-treated animals exhibited an increase in the levels of creatinine, taurine, hippurate and β-hydroxybutyrate along with a decrease in energy metabolites trimethylamine and choline. These findings revealed Tl-induced disturbed gut flora, membrane metabolite, energy and protein metabolism, representing physiological dysfunction of vital organs. The present study indicates the great potential of NMR-based metabonomics in mapping metabolic response for toxicology, which could ultimately lead to identification of potential markers for Tl toxicity. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Biophysical effects of water and synthetic urine on skin.

    Mayrovitz, H N; Sims, N

    2001-01-01

    Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to pressure-induced flow reductions was tested in this study. Pads saturated with water and with a water solution mixed with the main chemical constituents of urine (synthetic urine; s-urine) were applied to forearm skin of 10 healthy subjects for 5.5 hours. Skin hardness, blood flow change caused by 60 mm Hg of pressure, erythema, and temperature were compared among dry, water, and s-urine test sites. 10 healthy women. Research Center, Nova Southeastern University, Health Professions Division, Fort Lauderdale, FL. S-urine and water caused significant reductions in initial hardness and caused greater initial perfusion decreases during pressure load when compared with dry sites. Skin temperature and erythema were lower at wet sites when compared with dry sites. The findings of this study are consistent with the concept that sustained skin wetness increases vulnerability to pressure-induced blood flow reduction. The effect appears to be mainly dependent on wetness, but urine constituents may exacerbate the effect. In addition, wetness-related skin cooling may play a role. In the healthy subjects studied, the blood flow decrease was not sustained due to perfusion recovery under pressure. Skin wetness would likely have more sustained effects in patients with compromised recovery mechanisms. Measures to diminish skin exposure to wetness in these patients, whatever the wetness source, are an important consideration in a multifaceted strategy to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

  1. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  2. Astronaut Bones: Stable Calcium Isotopes in Urine as a Biomarker of Bone Mineral Balance

    Skulan, J.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.; Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S.

    2016-12-01

    Bone loss is a common health concern, in conditions ranging from osteoporosis to cancer. Bone loss due to unloading is also an important health issue for astronauts. We demonstrate stable calcium isotopes, a tool developed in geochemistry, are capable of detecting real-time quantitative changes in net bone mineral balance (BMB) using serum and urine [1]. We validated this technique by comparing with DEXA and biomarker data in subjects during bed rest, a ground-based analog of space flight effects [2-4]. We now apply this tool to assess changes in astronauts' BMB before, during and after 4-6 month space missions. There is stable isotope fractionation asymmetry between bone formation and resorption. During bone formation there is a mass-dependent preference for "lighter" calcium isotopes to be removed from serum and incorporated into bone mineral. During bone resorption, there is no measurable isotopic discrimination between serum and bone. Hence, when bone formation rates exceed that of resorption, serum and urine become isotopically "heavy" due to the sequestration of "light" calcium in bone. Conversely, when bone resorption exceeds bone formation, serum and urine become isotopically "light" due to the release of the sequestered light calcium from bone. We measured Ca isotopes in urine of thirty International Space Station astronauts. Average Ca isotope values in astronauts' urine shift isotopically lighter during microgravity, consistent with negative net BMB. Within a month of return to Earth, astronauts returned to within error of their δ44Ca value prior to departure. Urine samples from astronauts testing bone loss countermeasures showed bisphosphonates provide a viable pharmacological countermeasure. Some, but not all, individuals appear able to resist bone loss through diet and intensive resistive exercise alone. This is a promising new technique for monitoring BMB in astronauts, and hopefully someday on the way to/from Mars, this also has important clinical

  3. A micromethod for quantitation of debrisoquine and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine in urine by liquid chromatography

    Pereira V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new simple, selective and sensitive micromethod based on HPLC and fluorescence detection to measure debrisoquine (D and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine (4-OHD in urine for the investigation of xenobiotic metabolism by debrisoquine hydroxylase (CYP2D6. Four hundred µl of urine was required for the analysis of D and 4-OHD. Peaks were eluted at 8.3 min (4-OHD, 14.0 min (D and 16.6 min for the internal standard, metoprolol (20 µg/ml. The 5-µm CN-reverse-phase column (Shimpack, 250 x 4.6 mm was eluted with a mobile phase consisting of 0.25 M acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile (9:1, v/v at 0.7 ml/min with detection at lexcitation = 210 nm and lemission = 290 nm. The method, validated on the basis of measurements of spiked urine, presented 3 ng/ml (D and 6 ng/ml (4-OHD sensitivity, 390-6240 ng/ml (D and 750-12000 ng/ml (4-OHD linearity, and 5.7/8.2% (D and 5.3/8.2% (4-OHD intra/interassay precision. The method was validated using urine of a healthy Caucasian volunteer who received one 10-mg tablet of Declinax®, po, in the morning after an overnight fast. Urine samples (diuresis of 4 or 6 h were collected from zero to 24 h. The urinary excretion of D and 4-OHD, Fel (0-24 h, i.e., fraction of dose administered and excreted into urine, was 6.4% and 31.9%, respectively. The hydroxylation capacity index reported as metabolic ratio was 0.18 (D/4-OHD for the person investigated and can be compared to reference limits of >12.5 for poor metabolizers (PM and <12.5 for extensive metabolizers (EM. In parallel, the recovery ratio (RR, another hydroxylation capacity index, was 0.85 (4-OHD: SD + 4-OHD versus reference limits of RR <0.12 for PM and RR >0.12 for EM. The healthy volunteer was considered to be an extensive metabolizer on the basis of the debrisoquine test.

  4. Excreção urinária de iodo em lactentes segundo as características pós parto

    Livia Fernandes de LIMA; Anderson Marliere NAVARRO

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the concentration of iodine in the urine of infants (ioduria) and its possible relation to the postpartum characteristics of the newborn infant, and to assess the concentration of iodine in table salt, since this is the food with the highest content of this micronutrient ingested by the population, Methods: 32 infants under 6 months of age participated, The analysis of iodine in urine was based on the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction (1937) and that in salt on the...

  5. Detection of low frequency FGFR3 mutations in the urine of bladder cancer patients using next-generation deep sequencing

    Millholl

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available John M Millholland, Shuqiang Li, Cecilia A Fernandez, Anthony P ShuberPredictive Biosciences Inc, Lexington, MA, USAAbstract: Biological fluid-based noninvasive biomarker assays for monitoring and diagnosing disease are clinically powerful. A major technical hurdle for developing these assays is the requirement of high analytical sensitivity so that biomarkers present at very low levels can be consistently detected. In the case of biological fluid-based cancer diagnostic assays, sensitivities similar to those of tissue-based assays are difficult to achieve with DNA markers due to the high abundance of normal DNA background present in the sample. Here we describe a new urine-based assay that uses ultradeep sequencing technology to detect single mutant molecules of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 DNA that are indicative of bladder cancer. Detection of FGFR3 mutations in urine would provide clinicians with a noninvasive means of diagnosing early-stage bladder cancer. The single-molecule assay detects FGFR3 mutant DNA when present at as low as 0.02% of total urine DNA and results in 91% concordance with the frequency that FGFR3 mutations are detected in bladder cancer tumors, significantly improving diagnostic performance. To our knowledge, this is the first practical application of next-generation sequencing technology for noninvasive cancer diagnostics.Keywords: FGFR3, mutation, urine, single molecule, sequencing, bladder cancer

  6. Activation analysis of thallium in urine using the 203Tl(n,2n) 202Tl reaction

    Korob, R.O.; Cohen, I.M.; Lage, M.; Baro, G.B.

    1976-04-01

    The method developed by the authors of thallium determination in human urine, based on the 203 Tl(n,2n) 202 Tl reaction followed by chemical separation and measurement of the produced 202 Tl by gamma spectrometry, is described. Its application in some cases of intoxication by thallium is reported. The advantages and limitations of the described technique are discussed. (author) [es

  7. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  10. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  11. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  12. MICROBIOTA URINE BEFORE AND AFTER LITHOTRIPSY FOR RENAL STONES

    Y. L. Naboka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL in spite of the low invasiveness and high efficiency is accompanied by an infectious- inflammatory complications and renal parenchymal injury . Dynamics of microbial spectrum urine and the impact of postoperative antibiotic therapy currently remains unexplored. The study included 30 patients subjected to ESWL. Bacteriological study was midstream morning urine before ESWL, 1, 3 days after ESWL, and midstream urine in the first urination after ESWL. All patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I consisted of patients (46.7% with antibiotic therapy . Group II patients (53.3 % antibiotic therapy was performed. In most cases (97.8 % were bacteriuria , while in 75% of cases highlighted in the various options bacterial associations representation aerobic- anaerobic mixed infection, among which was dominated by non-clostridial anaerobic bacteria in all samples. Revealed that after ESWL microbial spectrum urine does not change in any case within 3 days , except for Enterobacteriaceae, but the frequency of occurrence and level of bacteriuria vary for different periods after surgery and fees or absence of antibiotic therapy.

  13. Misclassification of iodine intake level from morning spot urine samples with high iodine excretion among Inuit and non-Inuit in Greenland.

    Andersen, Stig; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Laurberg, Peter

    2015-05-14

    Iodine nutrition is commonly assessed from iodine excretion in urine. A 24 h urine sample is ideal, but it is cumbersome and inconvenient. Hence, spot urine samples with creatinine to adjust for differences in void volume are widely used. Still, the importance of ethnicity and the timing of spot urine samples need to be settled. We, thus, collected 104 early morning spot urine samples and 24 h urine samples from Inuit and non-Inuit living in Greenland. Diet was assessed by a FFQ. Demographic data were collected from the national registry and by questionnaires. Iodine was measured using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, creatinine using the Jaffe method and para-amino benzoic acid by the HPLC method for the estimation of completeness of urine sampling and compensation of incomplete urine samples to 24 h excretion. A population-based recruitment was done from the capital city, a major town and a settlement (n 36/48/20). Participants were seventy-eight Inuit and twenty-six non-Inuit. The median 24 h iodine excretion was 138 (25th-75th percentile 89-225) μg/97 (25th-75th percentile 72-124) μg in Inuit/non-Inuit (P= 0.030), and 153 (25th-75th percentile 97-251) μg/102 (25th-75th percentile 73-138) μg (P= 0.026) when including compensated iodine excretion. Iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples increased with a rising intake of traditional Inuit foods (P= 0.005). Iodine excretion was lower in morning spot urine samples than in 24 h urine samples (P< 0.001). This difference was associated with iodine intake levels (P< 0.001), and was statistically significant when the iodine excretion level was above 150 μg/24 h. In conclusion, the iodine intake level was underestimated from morning spot urine samples if iodine excretion was above the recommended level.

  14. Classification of urine sediment based on convolution neural network

    Pan, Jingjing; Jiang, Cunbo; Zhu, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    By designing a new convolution neural network framework, this paper breaks the constraints of the original convolution neural network framework requiring large training samples and samples of the same size. Move and cropping the input images, generate the same size of the sub-graph. And then, the generated sub-graph uses the method of dropout, increasing the diversity of samples and preventing the fitting generation. Randomly select some proper subset in the sub-graphic set and ensure that the number of elements in the proper subset is same and the proper subset is not the same. The proper subsets are used as input layers for the convolution neural network. Through the convolution layer, the pooling, the full connection layer and output layer, we can obtained the classification loss rate of test set and training set. In the red blood cells, white blood cells, calcium oxalate crystallization classification experiment, the classification accuracy rate of 97% or more.

  15. Development and validation of a sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cilazapril of human plasma, urine, in pure and pharmaceutical preparations

    Karasakal, A.

    2015-08-01

    A selective and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed and validated for the determination of cilazapril in human plasma urine, in pure and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method is based on derivatization using 1-dimethylaminonaphthalene-5-sulphonyl chloride (dansyl chloride) as fluorogenic agent and measuring the fluorescence of the products at emission wavelengths of 503 nm after excitation at 374 nm. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, recovery. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 100-500 and 50-250 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The limits of detection were calculated to be 0.26 and 31.59 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The proposed method was applied to study of cilazapril in pure, human plasma, urine, and pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality in different storage conditions: Relevance of temperature and centrifugation.

    Sureda-Vives, Macià; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Rubio-Alaejos, Ana; Valiña, Laura; Robles, Juan; Bauça, Josep Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Osmolality reflects the concentration of all dissolved particles in a body fluid, and its measurement is routinely performed in clinical laboratories for the differential diagnosis of disorders related with the hydrolytic balance regulation, the renal function and in small-molecule poisonings. The aim of the study was to assess the stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality through time and under different common storage conditions, including delayed centrifugation. Blood and urine samples were collected, and classified into different groups according to several preanalytical variables: serum or plasma lithium-heparin tubes; spun or unspun; stored at room temperature (RT), at 4°C or frozen at -21°C. Aliquots from each group were assayed over time, for up to 14days. Statistical differences were based on three different international performance criteria. Whole blood stability was higher in the presence of anticoagulant. Serum osmolality was stable for 2days at RT and 8days at 4°C, while plasma was less stable when refrigerated. Urine stability was 5days at RT, 4days at 4°C and >14days when frozen. Osmolality may be of great interest for the management of several conditions, such as in case of a delay in the clinical suspicion, or in case of problems in sample collection or processing. The ability to obtain reliable results for samples kept up to 14days also offers the possibility to retrospectively assess baseline values for patients which may require it. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Determination of urine metabolites containing radioactivatable elements by molecular neutron activation analysis

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    As urine is a final stage for the metabolic pathways of essential trace elements or chemical toxins, it is becoming increasingly important to not only report levels of trace elements but to determine the molecular or ionic identity of these trace elements. For a biological system such as urine, a molecular neutron activation analysis (MONAA) approach must involve a deproteinization step, where necessary, to ensure that metabolites such as amino acids, bases, r nucleosides are not protein bound prior to chemical separation. This can involve the simple application of ammonia or acid hydrolysis. All separations for the metabolites containing the radioactivatable element must be performed prior to neutron irradiation and subsequent radioassay for the metabolite. Separation procedures can include high-pressure liquid chromotography (HPLC), ion-exchange chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, solvent extraction, and/or gas chromatography. After separation, the separated metabolite is neutron irradiated and and radioassayed for the radioactivity in the metabolite. A review of previous work involving the determination of hormonal iodine, iodoamino acids, chlorinated pesticides, trimethyl-selenonium, and selenoamino acids in urine is discussed

  18. Comparative miRNA Analysis of Urine Extracellular Vesicles Isolated through Five Different Methods

    Felix Royo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Urine extracellular vesicles are a valuable low-invasive source of information, especially for the cells of the genitourinary tract. In the search for biomarkers, different techniques have been developed to isolate and characterize the cargo of these vesicles. In the present work, we compare five of these different isolation methods (three commercial isolation kits, ultracentrifugation, and lectin-based purification and perform miRNA profiling using a multiplex miRNA assay. The results showed high correlation through all isolation techniques, and 48 out of 68 miRNAs were detected above the detection limit at least 10 times. The results obtained by multiplex assay were validated through Taqman qPCR. In addition, using this technique combined with a clinically friendly extracellular vesicle (uEV-enrichment method, we performed the analysis of selected miRNAs in urine from patients affected with bladder cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia, or prostate cancer. Importantly, we found that those miRNAs could be detected in almost 100% of the samples, and no significant differences were observed between groups. Our results support the feasibility of analyzing exosomes-associated miRNAs using a methodology that requires a small volume of urine and is compatible with a clinical environment and high-throughput analysis.

  19. Simultaneous determination of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemiluminescence detection.

    Li, Jianguo; Ju, Huangxian

    2006-09-01

    Ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine, partly excreted by the kidney, are generally used as hemostatic, analgesic and local anesthetic in surgery. We developed a simple and sensitive method for their simultaneous monitoring in human urine based on CE coupled with electrochemiluminescence detection by end-column mode. Under optimized conditions the proposed method yielded linear ranges from 5.0 x 10(-8) to 5.0 x 10(-5), 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-4) and 1.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-4) M with LODs of 8.0 x 10(-9) M (36 amol), 1.6 x 10(-8) M (72 amol) and 1.0 x 10(-8) M (45 amol) (S/N = 3) for ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine, respectively. The RSD for their simultaneous detection at 1.0 x 10(-6) M was 2.1, 2.8 and 3.2% (n = 7), respectively. For practical application an extraction step with ethyl acetate at pH 11 was performed to eliminate the influence of the sample ionic strength. The recoveries of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine at different levels in human urine were between 87 and 95%. This method was used for simultaneous detection of ethamsylate, tramadol and lidocaine in clinic urine samples from two medicated patients. It was valuable in clinical and biochemical laboratories for monitoring these drugs for various purposes.

  20. Quality Control Samples for the Radiological Determination of Tritium in Urine Samples

    Ost'pezuk, P.; Froning, M.; Laumen, S.; Richert, I.; Hill, P.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive decay product of tritium is a low energy beta that cannot penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin. Therefore , the main hazard associated with tritium is internal exposure. In addition, due to the relatively long half life and short biological half life, tritium must be ingested in large amounts to pose a significant health risk. On the other hand, the internal exposure should be kept as low as practical. For incorporation monitoring of professional radiation workers the quality control is of utmost importance. In the Research Centre Juelich GmbH (FZJ) a considerable fraction of monitoring by excretion analysis relates to the isotope Tritium. Usually an aliquot of an urine sample is mixed with a liquid scintillator and measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Quality control samples in the form of three kind of internal reference samples (blank, reference samples with low activity and reference sample with elevated activity) were prepared from a mixed, Tritium (free) urine samples. 1 ml of these samples were pipetted into a liquid scintillation vial. In the part of theses vials a known amounts of Tritium were added. All these samples were stored at 20 degrees. Based on long term use of all these reference samples it was possible to construct appropriate control charts with the upper and lower alarm limits. Daily use of these reference samples decrease significantly the risk for false results in original urine with no significant increase of the determination time. (Author) 2 refs