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Sample records for nano-kelvin resolution thermometer

  1. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  2. A High-Resolution Thermometer for the Range 0.75-1.0 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, J.; Nash, A.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a new high-resolution thermometer (HRT) for use near the tricritical point in 3He-4He mixtures. It is based on an existing HRT design that uses a DC-SQUID to detect the magnetization of a paramagnetic sensing element.

  3. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  4. Ion thermometers - nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkranz, J.; Jakes, D.

    The principle is briefly described of ion thermometers and the effects are reported of radiation on the ion crystal properties. The results show that ion thermometers are applicable for in-core measurements. (J.P.)

  5. Galileo Chain Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucke, C.; Schlichting, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This relatively rare thermometer has a rather unusual display: lower temperatures are located at the top of the scale, higher ones at the bottom. A sphere on a chain floats in a suitable liquid, sinking at high temperatures when the density of the liquid decreases and rising in the increased density at low temperatures. With reasonable effort and…

  6. The gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraud, G.; Hourtoulle, F.

    1983-01-01

    The search for a detecting element capable of permanently measuring localised nuclear output which would also be robust straightforward and reliable led EDF to begin development work on a new type of detector in 1976: the gamma thermometer (THG). After briefly summarising the history of the project this article goes on to describe the principle and structure of the equipment used in EDF's PWR reactors. As a result of the extensive test programme carried out it has been possible to qualify analytical and calibration methods together with the thermal and nuclear models. In conclusion, the development prospects and future of such a detecting device are outlined [fr

  7. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  8. Cryogenic particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferger, P.; Colling, P.; Bucci, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Buehler, M.; Cooper, S.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Forster, G.; Gabutti, A.; Hoehne, J.; Igalson, J.; Kellner, E.; Loidl, M.; Meier, O.; Nagel, U.; Proebst, F.; Rulofs, A.; Schanda, U.; Seidel, W.; Sisti, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Stolovich, A.; Zerle, L.

    1996-01-01

    A tungsten superconducting phase transition thermometer on a 32 g sapphire crystal has given an energy resolution of 100 eV (FWHM) for 1.5 keV X-rays, increasing to 440 eV at 14 keV. A possibility to obtain similar resolution in much larger crystals by using Al films as phonon collectors is presented. (orig.)

  9. Ion thermometers in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakesh, D.; Kott, J.; Strnad, M.

    1980-01-01

    The width of the temperature discontinuity and the thermometric stability of the sensors are constant up to very high flux values. The immediate influence of irradiation is reduced to a decrease in the hysteresis of the conduction curve at the phase transition. When the readings of the ion thermometers are compared with the reading of Chromel-Alumel thermocouples, it is observed that the temperature difference amounts to approximately 7/degree/C in the case of thermocouples placed at the sensor socket; the temperature difference decreases to 2/degree/C in the case of the thermocouple junction situated between the electrodes. The good results obtained in the testing of the ion thermometers in nuclear reactors lead to the conclusion that these temperature sensors are promising for checking thermocouples in the core of nuclear power stations

  10. Intraoperative body temperature control: esophageal thermometer versus infrared tympanic thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Vanessa de Brito; Nascimento, Ariane de Souza

    2016-01-01

    To verify the correlation between temperature measurements performed using an infrared tympanic thermometer and an esophageal thermometer during the intraoperative period. A longitudinal study of repeated measures was performed including subjects aged 18 years or older undergoing elective oncologic surgery of the digestive system, with anesthesia duration of at least 1 hour. Temperature measurements were performed simultaneously by a calibrated esophageal thermometer and by a calibrated infrared tympanic thermometer, with laboratory reading precision of ±0.2ºC. The operating room temperature remained between 19 and 21ºC. The study included 51 patients, mostly men (51%), white (80.4%). All patients were kept warm by a forced-air heating system, for an average of 264.14 minutes (SD = 87.7). The two temperature measurements showed no different behavior over time (p = 0.2205), however, tympanic measurements were consistently 1.24°C lower (ptemperatura realizadas por meio de um termômetro timpânico por infravermelho e por um termômetro esofágico, durante o período intraoperatório. Realizou-se um estudo longitudinal, de medidas repetidas, incluindo sujeitos com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, submetidos à cirurgia oncológica eletiva do sistema digestório, com duração da anestesia de, no mínimo, 1 hora. As medidas de temperatura eram realizadas, ao mesmo tempo, por meio de um termômetro esofágico calibrado e por termômetro timpânico por infravermelho calibrado, com precisão de leitura em laboratório de ±0,2ºC. A temperatura da sala operatória permaneceu entre 19 e 21ºC. Foram incluídos 51 pacientes, em sua maioria homens (51%), brancos (80,4%). Todos os pacientes foram aquecidos com o sistema de ar forçado aquecido, em média por 264,14 minutos (DP = 87,7). As duas medidas de temperatura não tiveram comportamento diferente ao longo do tempo (p = 0,2205), mas a medida timpânica foi consistentemente menor em 1,24°C (p temperaturas mais

  11. Validation of Calculations in a Digital Thermometer Firmware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batagelj, V.; Miklavec, A.; Bojkovski, J.

    2014-04-01

    State-of-the-art digital thermometers are arguably remarkable measurement instruments, measuring outputs from resistance thermometers and/or thermocouples. Not only that they can readily achieve measuring accuracies in the parts-per-million range, but they also incorporate sophisticated algorithms for the transformation calculation of the measured resistance or voltage to temperature. These algorithms often include high-order polynomials, exponentials and logarithms, and must be performed using both standard coefficients and particular calibration coefficients. The numerical accuracy of these calculations and the associated uncertainty component must be much better than the accuracy of the raw measurement in order to be negligible in the total measurement uncertainty. In order for the end-user to gain confidence in these calculations as well as to conform to formal requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 and other standards, a way of validation of these numerical procedures performed in the firmware of the instrument is required. A software architecture which allows a simple validation of internal measuring instrument calculations is suggested. The digital thermometer should be able to expose all its internal calculation functions to the communication interface, so the end-user can compare the results of the internal measuring instrument calculation with reference results. The method can be regarded as a variation of the black-box software validation. Validation results on a thermometer prototype with implemented validation ability show that the calculation error of basic arithmetic operations is within the expected rounding error. For conversion functions, the calculation error is at least ten times smaller than the thermometer effective resolution for the particular probe type.

  12. Very high temperature ultrasonic thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorzik, E.

    1983-01-01

    An ultrasonic thermometer comprises an electric pulse transducer head, a pulse transmission line, a notched sensor wire attached to and extending along the axis of said transmission line and a sheath enclosing the transmission line and the sensor wire, a portion of the interior face of the sheath being covered by a stuffing material along at least the length of the notched part of the sensor wire, such that contact between the sensor wire and the stuffing material does not substantially give rise to reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the point of contact. (author)

  13. Model for cryogenic particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proebst, F.; Frank, M.; Cooper, S.; Colling, P.; Dummer, D.; Ferger, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.

    1994-09-01

    We present data on a detector composed of an 18 g Si crystal and a superconducting phase transition thermometer which could be operated over a wide temperature range. An energy resolution of 1 keV (FWHM) has been obtained for 60 keV photons. The signals consist of two components: A fast one and a slow one, with decay times of 1.5 ms and 30-60 ms, respectively. In this paper we present a simple model which takes thermal and non-thermal phonon processes into account and provides a description of the observed temperature dependence of the pulse shape. The fast component, which completely dominates the signal at low temperatures, is due to high-frequency non-thermal phonons being absorbed in the thermometer. Thermalization of these phonons then leads to a temperature rise of the absorber, which causes the slow thermal component. At the highest operating temperatures (T∼80 mK) the amplitude of the slow component is roughly as expected from the heat capacity of the absorber. The strong suppression of the slow component at low temperatures is explained mostly as a consequence of the weak thermal coupling between electrons and phonons in the thermometer at low temperatures. (orig.)

  14. Low-energy X-ray detection in cryogenic detectors with tungsten thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colling, P.; Nucciotti, A.; Bucci, C.; Cooper, S.; Ferger, P.; Frank, M.; Nagel, U.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1994-08-01

    In the course of our development of calorimetric particle detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers, we have succeeded in depositing epitaxial α-tungsten films on sapphire which have critical temperatures T c near 15 mK. To our knowledge this is the first time that the T c of bulk tungsten has been observed in thin films. Such films used as thermometers are very sensitive and provide good energy resolution: with 4 g and 32 g sapphire crystals energy resolutions of better than 100eV (FWHM) for 1.5 KeV X-rays have been achieved. (orig.)

  15. Cryogenic Thermometer Calibration Facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, C; Thermeau, J P

    1998-01-01

    A cryogenic thermometer calibration facility has been designed and is being commissioned in preparation for the very stringent requirements on the temperature control of the LHC superconducting magnets. The temperature is traceable in the 1.5 to 30 K range to standards maintained in a national metrological laboratory by using a set of Rhodium-Iron temperature sensors of metrological quality. The calibration facility is designed for calibrating simultaneously 60 industrial cryogenic thermometers in the 1.5 K to 300 K temperature range, a thermometer being a device that includes both a temperature sensor and the wires heat-intercept. The thermometers can be calibrated in good and degraded vacuum or immersed in the surrounding fluid and at different Joule self-heating conditions that match those imposed by signal conditioners used in large cryogenic machinery. The calibration facility can be operated in an automatic mode and all the control and safety routines are handled by a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)...

  16. Thermal Conductivity and Liquid Crystal Thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Describes using stock liquid crystal postcards as inexpensive classroom thermometers. Also suggests using these postcards as a good visual temperature indicator for classroom demonstrations such as temperature gradients. One such activity is provided. (MVL)

  17. A silicon nanowire heater and thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingyan; Dan, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    In the thermal conductivity measurements of thermoelectric materials, heaters and thermometers made of the same semiconducting materials under test, forming a homogeneous system, will significantly simplify fabrication and integration. In this work, we demonstrate a high-performance heater and thermometer made of single silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The SiNWs are patterned out of a silicon-on-insulator wafer by CMOS-compatible fabrication processes. The electronic properties of the nanowires are characterized by four-probe and low temperature Hall effect measurements. The I-V curves of the nanowires are linear at small voltage bias. The temperature dependence of the nanowire resistance allows the nanowire to be used as a highly sensitive thermometer. At high voltage bias, the I-V curves of the nanowire become nonlinear due to the effect of Joule heating. The temperature of the nanowire heater can be accurately monitored by the nanowire itself as a thermometer.

  18. Silicon photonic thermometer operating on multiple polarizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively.......A silicon photonics optical thermometer simultaneously operating on the multiple polarizations is designed and experimentally demonstrated. Measured sensitivities are 86pm/°C and 48pm/°C for the transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarizations, respectively....

  19. Design of a Toolbox of RNA Thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Shaunak; Apurva, Divyansh; Satija, Rohit; Siegal, Dan; Murray, Richard M

    2017-08-18

    Biomolecular temperature sensors can be used for efficient control of large-volume bioreactors, for spatiotemporal imaging and control of gene expression, and to engineer robustness to temperature in biomolecular circuit design. Although RNA-based sensors, called "thermometers", have been investigated in both natural and synthetic contexts, an important challenge is to design diverse responses to temperature differing in sensitivity and threshold. We address this issue by constructing a library of RNA thermometers based on thermodynamic computations and experimentally measuring their activities in cell-free biomolecular "breadboards". Using free energies of the minimum free energy structures as well as melt profile computations, we estimated that a diverse set of temperature responses were possible. We experimentally found a wide range of responses to temperature in the range 29-37 °C with fold-changes varying over 3-fold around the starting thermometer. The sensitivities of these responses ranged over 10-fold around the starting thermometer. We correlated these measurements with computational expectations, finding that although there was no strong correlation for the individual thermometers, overall trends of diversity, fold-changes, and sensitivities were similar. These results present a toolbox of RNA-based circuit elements with diverse temperature responses.

  20. Construction and test of a superconducting phase-transition thermometer for bolometric cryodetectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, H.J.

    1990-10-01

    In the framework of a project for the study of bolometric cryodetectors for the detection of heavy ions a superconducting phase-transition thermometer for the detection of heavy ions was constructed and tested with α particles. The thermometer consists of a 10 nm thick aluminium film, which was evaporated on a sapphire absorber with a typical magnitude of 2.5x2.5 x 0.33 mm 3 . By the method of photolithography the aluminium film was structured in form of a meander. By this at the working point of the thermometer resistances of up to 60 kΩ resulted, so that the signal acquisition was possible with usual readout electronics. Several of these thermometers were constructed, characterized in their properties, and tested. For the study of the detector properties of the thermometers in characterization measurements the width of the phase transitions dT ≅ 2 mK, the temperature dependence of the resistance to dR/dT ≅ 10MΩ/K, the thermal conductivity of the thermal coupling to the cooling bath, and the heat capacity of the bolometers to C ≅ 2 nJ/K were determined.The best energy resolution, which was reached with one of the superconducting phase-transition thermometers, amounts to 50 keV for 5.5 MeV α particles, which corresponds to a relative resolution of 0,9%. By this in the order of magnitude the quality of semiconductor detectors was reached. The best temperature resolution amounts to about 1 μK. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. 21 CFR 880.2920 - Clinical mercury thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical mercury thermometer. 880.2920 Section 880... Devices § 880.2920 Clinical mercury thermometer. (a) Identification. A clinical mercury thermometer is a... mercury. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket...

  2. Performance of Magnetic Penetration Thermometers for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. C.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Hsieh, W. T.; Kelly, D. P.; Porst, J. P.; Sadleir, J. E.; Seidel, G. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The ideal X-ray camera for astrophysics would have more than a million pixels and provide an energy resolution of better than leV FWHM for energies up to 10 keY. We have microfabricated and characterized thin-film magnetic penetration thermometers (MPTs) that show great promise towards meeting these capabilities. MPTs operate in similar fashion to metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), except that a superconducting sensor takes the place of a paramagnetic sensor and it is the temperature dependence of the superconductor's diamagnetic response that provides the temperature sensitivity. We present a description of the design and performance of our prototype thin-film MPTs with MoAu bilayer sensors, which have demonstrated an energy resolution of approx 2 eV FWHM at 1.5 keY and 4.3 eV FWHM at 5.9 keY.

  3. Process for constructing a gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbet, M.J.P.; Cohen, B.S.; Robillard, M.

    1982-01-01

    A process is described for constructing a gamma thermometer having a substance absorbing the radiation and a set of thermocouples for measuring the local power in a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor. A claim is particularly made for the preparation of the tube containing it and for its filling with an inert gas [fr

  4. Controlling mercury spills in laboratories with a thermometer exchange program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLouth, Lawrence D.

    2002-03-25

    This paper presents a case for replacing mercury thermometers with their organic-liquid-filled counterparts. A review of liquid-in glass-thermometers is given. In addition, a brief summary of mercury's health effects and exposure limits is presented. Spill cleanup methods and some lessons learned from our experience are offered as well. Finally, an overview of the mercury thermometer exchange program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is presented.

  5. The constitution of the heat density of a gamma thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantouche, C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper's aim is to present the nuclear transfer function of the signal of the γ thermometer used in a PWR reactor. The nuclear transfer function between the linear nuclear power and the γ thermometer heat density has been established. The corresponding computation code has been built up. The results concerning the environment behaviour of the γ thermometer, the heat density axial and radial repartitions, the control rods and the grids' influences are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  6. A gas thermometer for vapor pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, A. D.

    2008-08-01

    The pressure of an inert gas over the range 400 1000 K was measured on a tensimetric unit with a quartz membrane pressure gauge of enhanced sensitivity. It was shown that a reactor with a membrane null gauge could be used as a gas thermometer. The experimental confidence pressure and temperature intervals were 0.07 torr and 0.1 K at a significance level of 0.05. A Pt-Pt/10% Rh thermocouple was calibrated; the results were approximated by a polynomial of degree five. The error in temperature calculations was 0.25 K.

  7. Influence of Thermal Cycling on Cryogenic Thermometers

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, C; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Suraci, A; Togny, F; Vauthier, N

    1999-01-01

    The stringent requirements on temperature control of the superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), impose that the cryogenic temperature sensors meet compelling demands such as long-term stability, radiation hardness, readout accuracy better than 5 mK at 1.8 K and compatibility with industrial control equipment. This paper presents the results concerning long-term stability of resistance temperature sensors submitted to cryogenic thermal cycles. For this task a simple test facility has been designed, constructed and put into operation for cycling simultaneously 115 cryogenic thermometers between 300 K and 4.2 K. A thermal cycle is set to last 71/4 hours: 3 hours for either cooling down or warming up the sensors and 1 respectively 1/4 hour at steady temperature conditions at each end of the temperature cycle. A Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) drives automatically this operation by reading 2 thermometers and actuating on 3 valves and 1 heater. The first thermal cycle was accomplished in a...

  8. Calibration of Cryogenic Thermometers for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Balle, Ch; Vauthier, N; Thermeau, JP

    2008-01-01

    6000 cryogenic temperature sensors of resistive type covering the range from room temperature down to 1.6 K are installed on the LHC machine. In order to meet the stringent requirements on temperature control of the superconducting magnets, each single sensor needs to be calibrated individually. In the framework of a special contribution, IPN (Institut de Physique Nucléaire) in Orsay, France built and operated a calibration facility with a throughput of 80 thermometers per week. After reception from the manufacturer, the thermometer is first assembled onto a support specific to the measurement environment, and then thermally cycled ten times and calibrated at least once from 1.6 to 300 K. The procedure for each of these interventions includes various measurements and the acquired data is recorded in an ORACLE®-database. Furthermore random calibrations on some samples are executed at CERN to crosscheck the coherence between the approximation data obtained by both IPN and CERN. In the range of 1.5 K to 30 K...

  9. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species.

  10. Reef coral δ18O thermometer in Hainan island waters, south China sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuexian; Peng Zicheng; Wang Zhaorong; Huo Weiguo; Tan Jun; Nie Baofu; Chen Tegu; Zhong Jinliang

    2000-01-01

    An 18-year-long (1981-1998) study was conducted in Hainan Island waters (22 degree 22'N, 110 degree 39'E) to determine the relationship between δ 18 O in skeletal aragonite carbonate and sea surface temperature (SST) in porites lutea of reef-building corals. δ 18 O values in skeletal aragonite carbonate were measured by means of mass spectrometry. Coral samples grew at 5 m depth at Longwan Bay. Monthly measurements of the SST from 1960 to 1998 were taken at Qinglan Bay adjacent to the place of the collected samples. The thermometer shows that SST = -4.16 δ 18 O PDB + 4.9 (r = 0.80) and dδ 18 O/dT = -0.24 per mil/degree C. The δ 18 O thermometer is strongly influenced by the rainfall and runoff. Using the thermometer, the SST in the past hundred years with monthly resolution will be reconstructed and the climatic change in the northern area of South China Sea will be hind cast

  11. THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THERMOMETER-WELL ASSEMBLIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    parameter models of the thermometric system were constructed and gave acceptable agreement with the experimental results. These models can be used to predict the dynamic behavior of any similar thermometer system. (Author)

  12. Investigation of the integrated effects of irradiating platinum resistance thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverov, V.A.; Revyakin, Yu.L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of nuclear energy imposes increased demands on the reliability and quality of the information obtained from primary transducers which monitor the basic parameters of current reactor devices. One of these parameters is the temperature of different modules. This is mainly measured by thermoelectric transducers. Resistance thermometers now being adopted into measurement practice. These provide an initial accuracy of better than plus or minus 273 degrees C and also a normalized systematic error component caused by the action of the temperature. However, a systematic error component resulting from the action of the reactor radiation remains undetermined, and this greatly hinders the extensive use of resistance thermometers in reactor devices. Investigations were made using platinum resistance thermometers of different constructions designs. Irradiation took place in sealed ampules. Each of these contained three thermometers. The fluence achieved was varied by placing the ampules at different heights relative to the central plane of the active zone of the reactor. The irradiation temperature was determined by calculation, taking into account the radiative energy release where the irradiation occurred and the helium gap between the thermometer casing and the walls of an SM-2 reactor channel. Following irradiation in the reactor, the resistance thermometers were calibrated in a special thermometric device providing the minimum contact resistance, uniform heating of the samples, and stabilization of the temperature regime

  13. Measuring Systems for Thermometer Calibration in Low-Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipiński, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Kowal, A.; Grykałowska, A.; Jancewicz, D.

    2011-12-01

    The national temperature standard for the low-temperature range between 13.8033 K and 273.16 K has been established in Poland at the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research (INTiBS). The standard consists of sealed cells for realization of six fixed points of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the low-temperature range, an adiabatic cryostat and Isotech water and mercury triple-point baths, capsule standard resistance thermometers (CSPRT), and AC and DC bridges with standard resistors for thermometers resistance measurements. INTiBS calibrates CSPRTs at the low-temperature fixed points with uncertainties less than 1 mK. In lower temperature range—between 2.5 K and about 25 K — rhodium-iron (RhFe) resistance thermometers are calibrated by comparison with a standard which participated in the EURAMET.T-K1.1 comparison. INTiBS offers a calibration service for industrial platinum resistance thermometers and for digital thermometers between 77 K and 273 K. These types of thermometers may be calibrated at INTiBS also in a higher temperature range up to 550°C. The Laboratory of Temperature Standard at INTiBS acquired an accreditation from the Polish Centre for Accreditation. A management system according to EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 was established at the Laboratory and presented on EURAMET QSM Forum.

  14. A calorimetric particle detector using an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, M.; Dummer, D.; Cooper, S.; Igalson, J.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1994-01-01

    We report on a calorimetric particles detector consisting of an 18.3 g silicon crystal and an iridium superconducting phase transition thermometer. The cryogenic calorimeter and the associated apparatus are described in detail. The pulses from irradiation with an α-particle source have a large unexpected overshoot in addition to the component expected from a naive thermal model. The pulse height spectrum displays an energy resolution of 1 percent FWHM at 6 MeV and good linearity. The noise, electrothermal feedback, and position dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Development of a superconducting transition edge thermometer for calorimetric detection of heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J; Boehmer, W; Egelhof, P; Henning, W; Kienlin, A v [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany) Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-10-01

    A low temperature bolometer for the calorimetric detection of heavy ions was constructed and tested. An aluminium thin-film microstrip, patterned in a meander-line structure by photolithographic techniques, serves as superconducting transition edge thermometer on a sapphire absorber. A transition width {delta}T of the thermometer of the order of some mK, and a resistance of up to R{sub c} = 60 k{Omega} at the working point (T{sub c} {approx equal} 1.5 K) is achieved. In tests with {alpha}-particles signals of typically 1 V pulseheight after the preamplifier and decaytimes around hundred {mu}s were observed. For 5.5 MeV {alpha}-particles the measured energy resolution is {Delta}E = 50 keV, corresponding to a temperature resolution of about 1 {mu}K. First measurements were performed with {sup 20}Ne ions (E = 116 MeV). The dependence of the pulseheight and the FWHM on the working point were investigated and qualitatively explained. The best energy resolution was {Delta}E = 2.6 MeV; most probably the present limitations are determined by the temperature stabilization. (orig.).

  16. Modified ultrafast thermometer UFT-M and temperature measurements during Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kumala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A modified UFT-M version of the ultrafast airborne thermometer UFT, aimed at in-cloud temperature measurements, was designed for the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST field campaign. Improvements in its construction resulted in the sensor's increased reliability, which provided valuable measurements in 15 of the 17 flights. Oversampling the data allowed for the effective correction of the artefacts resulting from the interference with electromagnetic transmissions from on-board avionic systems and the thermal noise resulting from the sensor construction. The UFT-M records, when averaged to the 1.4 and 55 m resolutions, compared to the similar records of a thermometer in a Rosemount housing, indicate that the housing distorts even low-resolution airborne temperature measurements. Data collected with the UFT-M during the course of POST characterise the thermal structure of stratocumulus and capping inversion with the maximum resolution of ~1 cm. In this paper, examples of UFT-M records are presented and discussed.

  17. An inexpensive high-temperature optical fiber thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Travis J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Tree, Dale R.; Allred, David D.

    2017-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose tip is coated with a highly conductive, opaque material. When heated, this sensing tip becomes an isothermal cavity that emits like a blackbody. This emission is used to predict the sensing tip temperature. In this work, analytical and experimental research has been conducted to further advance the development of optical fiber thermometry. An inexpensive optical fiber thermometer is developed by applying a thin coating of a high-temperature cement onto the tip of a silica optical fiber. An FTIR spectrometer is used to detect the spectral radiance exiting the fiber. A rigorous mathematical model of the irradiation incident on the detection system is developed. The optical fiber thermometer is calibrated using a blackbody radiator and inverse methods are used to predict the sensing tip temperature when exposed to various heat sources. - Highlights: • An inexpensive coating for an optical fiber thermometer sensing tip is tested. • Inverse heat transfer methods are used to estimate the sensing tip temperature. • An FTIR spectrometer is used as the detector to test the optical fiber thermometer using various heat sources.

  18. Adiabatic surface thermometer for improved production braze quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittbenner, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    An adiabatic surface thermometer was developed to control automatically the critical temperature-time cycle of a production vacuum-brazing process. Investigations revealed that optimum braze-joint strength required precise control of the brazing temperature. Spot-welded thermocouples could not be used because the spot welds cause surface damage. This thermometer touches the surface and uses a differential thermocouple and heater to measure surface temperature without heat flow, thereby eliminating large errors caused by conduction losses common to conventional spring-loaded thermocouples. Temperatures in air or vacuum are measured to 800 0 C with errors less than 5 0 C. This thermometer has minimized the rejection of production parts, resulting in a cost saving to the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration

  19. The carbon dioxide thermometer and the cause of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calder, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide in the air may be increasing because the world is warming. This possibility, which contradicts the hypothesis of an enhanced greenhouse warming driven by manmade emissions, is here pursued in two ways. First, increments in carbon dioxide are treated as readings of a natural thermometer that tracks global and hemispheric temperature deviations, as gauged by meteorologists' thermometers. Calibration of the carbon dioxide thermometer to conventional temperatures then leads to a history of carbon dioxide since 1856 that diverges from the ice-core record. Secondly, the increments of carbon dioxide can also be accounted for, without reference to temperature, by the combined effects of cosmic rays, El Nino and volcanoes. The most durable effect is due to cosmic rays. A solar wind history, used as a long-term proxy for the cosmic rays, gives a carbon dioxide history similar to that inferred from the global temperature deviations. (author)

  20. High speed infrared radiation thermometer, system, and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The high-speed radiation thermometer has an infrared measurement wavelength band that is matched to the infrared wavelength band of near-blackbody emittance of ceramic components and ceramic thermal barrier coatings used in turbine engines. It is comprised of a long wavelength infrared detector, a signal amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter, an optical system to collect radiation from the target, an optical filter, and an integral reference signal to maintain a calibrated response. A megahertz range electronic data acquisition system is connected to the radiation detector to operate on raw data obtained. Because the thermometer operates optimally at 8 to 12 .mu.m, where emittance is near-blackbody for ceramics, interferences to measurements performed in turbine engines are minimized. The method and apparatus are optimized to enable mapping of surface temperatures on fast moving ceramic elements, and the thermometer can provide microsecond response, with inherent self-diagnostic and calibration-correction features.

  1. Ultrafast Paper Thermometers Based on a Green Sensing Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xinglei; Jia, Hanyu; He, Yonglin; Liao, Shenglong; Wang, Yapei

    2017-03-24

    With the use of an ionic liquid as the ultrathermosensitive fluid, a paper thermometer is successfully developed with intrinsic ability of ultrafast response and high stability upon temperature change. The fluidic nature allows the ionic liquid to be easily deposited on paper by pen writing or inkjet printing, affording great promise for large-scale fabrication of low-cost paper sensors. Owing to the advantages of nonvolatilization, excellent continuity and deformability, the thermosensitive ink trapped within the cellulose fibers of paper matrix has no leakage or evaporation at open states, ensuring the excellent stability and repeatability of thermal sensing against arbitrary bending and folding operation. By shortening the heat exchange distance between ionic liquid and samples, it takes only 8 s for the thermometer to reach an electrical equilibrium at a given temperature. Moreover, the paper thermometer can be applied to remotely monitor temperature change with the combination of a wireless communication technology.

  2. Accuracy of the Danish version of the 'distress thermometer'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Short screening instruments have been suggested to improve the detection of psychological symptoms. We examined the accuracy of the Danish version of the 'Distress Thermometer'. Methods: Between October 2008 and October 2009, 426 women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer who were...... operated at the Breast Surgery Clinic of the Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, were eligible for this study. Of these, 357 participated (84%) and 333 completed a questionnaire. The distress thermometer was evaluated against the 'hospital anxiety and depression scale' (HADS). We also examined the women's wish...

  3. Measurement of body temperature by use of auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A Michelle; Mann, F A; Preziosi, Diane E; Meadows, Richard L; Wagner-Mann, Colette C

    2002-08-01

    To compare measurements of body temperature obtained with auricular thermometers versus rectal thermometers in dogs with otitis externa. Prospective study. 100 client-owned dogs: 50 with and 50 without clinical evidence of otitis externa. Dogs were evaluated for the presence of otitis externa on the basis of clinical signs, otoscopic examination, and cytologic evaluation of ear exudate. Auricular and rectal temperatures were obtained simultaneously in all dogs prior to and following ear examination. There was a high correlation between auricular and rectal temperatures in dogs with otitis externa both prior to and after ear manipulation. Significant differences were not detected in temperature measurements among dogs with different degrees of otitis externa. Auricular temperature readings obtained by use of an auricular thermometer in dogs with otitis externa are accurate measurements of body temperature, compared with rectal temperature measurements. Temperature measurements are reliable before and after examination of the ear canal.

  4. A low-temperature (4-300K) constant volume gas thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1976-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300K may be obtained. The principle is outlined, then the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are briefly described; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and a table shows the values obtained [fr

  5. A Non-Mercury Thermometer Alternative for Use in Older Melting Point Apparatuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongley, Lois K.; Kern, Clayton S.; Woods, Barry W.

    2008-01-01

    The State of Maine seeks to eliminate most mercury use. This includes removing mercury thermometers from secondary schools and discouraging Hg use in other educational institutions. Alternatives to mercury thermometers in chemical laboratory work include non-mercury thermometers, temperature probes, and thermocouples. In organic chemistry mercury…

  6. Fast IR diodes thermometer for tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbo

    2001-01-01

    A 30 channel fast IR pyrometry array has been constructed for tokamak, which has 0.5 μs time response, 10 mm diameter spatial resolution and 5 degree C temperature resolution. The temperature measuring range is from 250 degree C to 1200 degree C. The two dimensional temperature profiles of the first wall during both major and minor disruptions can be measured with an accuracy of about 1% measuring temperature, which is adequate for tokamak experiments. This gives a very useful tool for the disruption study, especially for the divertor physics and edge heat flux research on tokamak and other magnetic confinement devices

  7. 27 CFR 30.22 - Hydrometers and thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrometers and... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS GAUGING MANUAL Gauging Instruments § 30.22 Hydrometers and thermometers. The hydrometers used are graduated to read the proof of aqueous alcoholic solutions at 60 degrees...

  8. SQUID-based noise thermometer for sub-Millikelvin refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Marco; Beyer, Joern; Klemm, Monique [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Alivaliollahi, Sassan; Barthelmess, Henry [Magnicon GmbH, Barkhausenweg 11, 22339 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The magnetic field fluctuation thermometer (MFFT) is a high-accuracy SQUID-based noise thermometer suitable for sub-Kelvin thermometry. A highly sensitive low-Tc SQUID magnetometer detects inductively the magnetic field fluctuation above a metal surface. The fluctuations are generated by the thermal activated noise currents inside the metal body that is thermally anchored to the temperature stage to be measured. The spectral shape is independent of temperature as the electrical conductivity is constant and the geometry is fixed. The magnetic noise power spectral amplitudes at any frequencies are directly proportional to temperature. Hence, only one reference measurement at a known temperature is required for calibration. A complete MFFT thermometer system for the temperature range of ca. 4 K down to <10 mK is commercially available. We have now developed an integrated MFFT with an extended range of operation down to <1 mK. For this purpose the sensitivity of the SQUID sensor has been increased, the metal body geometry modified and the magnetic shielding of the MFFT module improved. These modifications make it possible to obtain a thermometer noise temperature of <10 μK. We discuss the rationale for our MFFT configuration and present numerical simulations and experimental results.

  9. The gamma thermometer as a measuring instrument of the nuclear power of a LWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantouche, C.

    1984-07-01

    After a presentation of the gamma thermometer and its environment, this thesis deals with the calibration of a gamma thermometer or determination of the thermal transfer ratio of the signal. Then, the acquisition systems for signals obtained from gamma thermometers installed in PWR nuclear power plants are presented. One deals also with the nuclear transfer function establishment and deconvolution. Then, one deals with the reconstruction of the axial power of an assembly provided with a gamma thermometer. Qualitative and quantitative studies of measurements obtained from this gamma thermometer are finally presented. 64 refs [fr

  10. Effect of on-chip filter on Coulomb blockade thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschier, L; Penttilä, J S; Gunnarsson, D; Prunnila, M; Meschke, M; Savin, A

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb Blockade Thermometer (CBT) is a primary thermometer based on electric conductance of normal tunnel junction arrays. One limitation for CBT use at the lowest temperatures has been due to environmental noise heating. To improve on this limitation, we have done measurements on CBT sensors fabricated with different on-chip filtering structures in a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 10 mK. The CBT sensors were produced with a wafer scale tunnel junction process. We present how the different on-chip filtering schemes affect the limiting saturation temperatures and show that CBT sensors with proper on-chip filtering work at temperatures below 20 mK and are tolerant to noisy environment.

  11. Investigations on perturbations of microwave dielectric resonator thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lili; Zhang, Guangming; Fernicola, V; Lu, Jinchuan

    2017-01-01

    Investigations of antenna probe length, antenna-dielectric distance, cavity filling and humidity on microwave resonator thermometer with respect to Q , spurious mode depression, coupling strength, accuracy, shock resistance or sensitivity were carried out in order to improve the dielectric resonator thermometer performance. Significant improvement of Q and depression of spurious mode coupling were obtained when the antenna length was reduced. It also turns out that the Q and spurious mode coupling strength vary with the distance between dielectric and antenna pin, as well under appropriate antenna length. Filling the cavity with nitrogen increases coupling strength but decrease frequency-temperature sensitivity compared to a vacuum-pumped cavity. Besides, preliminary results on the microwave resonator sensitivity to air humidity were obtained. (technical note)

  12. Thermo-Chromium: A Contactless Optical Molecular Thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Sven; Scholz, Norman; Behnke, Thomas; Resch-Genger, Ute; Heinze, Katja

    2017-09-07

    The unparalleled excited-state potential-energy landscape of the chromium(III)-based dye [1] 3+ ([Cr(ddpd) 2 ] 3+ ; ddpd=N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dipyridin-2-yl-pyridin-2,6-diamine) enables a strong dual emission in the near infrared region. The temperature dependence of this dual emission allows the use of [1] 3+ as an unprecedented molecular ratiometric thermometer in the 210-373 K temperature range in organic and in aqueous media. Incorporation of [1] 3+ in biocompatible nanocarriers, such as 100 nm-sized polystyrene nanoparticles and solutol micelles, provides nanodimensional thermometers operating under physiological conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Application of kinetic inductance thermometers to x-ray calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, Y.C.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    A kinetic inductance thermometer is applied to x-ray calorimetry, and its operation over a wide range of frequencies and geometries is discussed. Three amplifier configurations are described, one using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier, another incorporating an FET amplifier in an amplitude modulated system, and the third, using a tunnel diode frequency modulated oscillator circuit. The predicted performance of each configuration is presented. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Radiation Requirements and Testing of Cryogenic Thermometers for the Ilc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, T.; Filippov, Yu. P.; Filippova, E. Yu.; Mokhov, N. V.; Nakao, N.; Klebaner, A. L.; Korenev, S. A.; Theilacker, J. C.; Trenikhina, J.; Vaziri, K.

    2008-03-01

    Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumulated radiation dose in thermometers and its impact on performance are vital in establishing technical specification of cryogenic thermometry for the ILC. Realistic MARS15 computer simulations were performed to understand the ILC radiation environment. Simulation results were used to establish radiation dose requirements for commercially available cryogenic thermometers. Two types of thermometers, Cernox® and TVO, were calibrated prior to irradiation using different technique. The sensors were subjected then to up to 200 kGy electron beam irradiation with kinetic energy of 5 MeV, a representative of the situation at the ILC operation. A post-irradiation behavior of the sensors was studied. The paper describes the MARS15 model, simulation results, cryogenic test set-up, irradiation tests, and cryogenic test results.

  15. Radiation requirements and testing of cryogenic thermometers for the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.; Filippov, Yu.P.; Mokhov, N.V.; Nakao, N.; Klebaner, A.L.; Korenev, S.A.; Theilacker, J.C.; Trenikhina, J.; Vaziri, K.

    2007-01-01

    Large quantity of cryogenic temperature sensors will be used for operation of the International Linear Collider (ILC). Most of them will be subject to high radiation doses during the accelerator lifetime. Understanding of particle energy spectra, accumulated radiation dose in thermometers and its impact on performance are vital in establishing technical specification of cryogenic thermometry for the ILC. Realistic MARS15 computer simulations were performed to understand the ILC radiation environment. Simulation results were used to establish radiation dose requirements for commercially available cryogenic thermometers. Two types of thermometers, Cernox(reg s ign) and TVO, were calibrated prior to irradiation using different technique. The sensors were subjected then to up to 200 kGy electron beam irradiation with kinetic energy of 5 MeV, a representative of the situation at the ILC operation. A post-irradiation behavior of the sensors was studied. The paper describes the MARS15 model, simulation results, cryogenic test set-up, irradiation tests, and cryogenic test results

  16. Characteristics of infrared thermometers manufactured in Japan and calibration methods for sky radiant emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Machimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermometers to measure surface temperature have been increasingly adopted in recent years. The characteristics of the IR thermometer, however, are not well known.IR thermometers manufactured in Japan systematically adjust for ambient radiation based on the internal temperature of the thermometer. If, therefore, there is a large difference between the internal temperature of the IR thermometer and the apparent temperature associated with the surrounding radiation, a large error will be induced into the measured surface temperature.The purpose of our research was to determine the characteristics and measurement errors of IR thermometers. Experiments were performed with regard to the following items: (1) Measurement errors related to the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. (2) Linearity of the output signal of the IR thermometer. (3) Response of the output signal to changes in the emissivity setting. (4) Effect of sky radiant emittance on the measured surface temperature. (5) Calibration method for the terrestrial surface.The following is a summary of the results: Measurement error is affected by the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. Measurement accuracy is improved with a controlled internal temperature of 20-30°C. The measurement error becomes larger at emissivity settings under 0.7.The measurement error outdoors was not proportional to the downward longwave radiation, but to the sky radiant temperature measured by the IR thermometer. Calibration for sky radiant emittance was improved by using the difference between sky radiant temperature and air temperature.When the surface temperature measured by the infrared thermometer is plotted against the surface temperature measured by thermocouple, the sky radiant emittance error is obtained from the Y intercept. Additionally, the difference between true temperature and output of the IR thermometer for a reference plate was compared to that obtained for vegetation, and the RMS obtained was

  17. High-Temperature Compatible Nickel Silicide Thermometer And Heater For Catalytic Chemical Microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Quaade, U.J.; Hansen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Integration of heaters and thermometers is important for agile and accurate control and measurement of the thermal reaction conditions in microfabricated chemical reactors (microreactors). This paper describes development and operation of nickel silicide heaters and temperature sensors...... for temperatures exceeding 700 °C. The heaters and thermometers are integrated with chemical microreactors for heterogeneous catalytic conversion of gasses, and thermally activated catalytic conversion of CO to CO2 in the reactors is demonstrated. The heaters and thermometers are shown to be compatible...

  18. [Comparison of body temperatures in children measured using 3 different thermometers: tympanic, skin and digital axillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Ruiz-Paloalto, M Laura; Díaz-Guerrero, Rosalina; Olvera-Villanueva, Georgina; Maldonado, Angélica; Raygoza-Mendoza, María Del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To compare body temperature measurements using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. Hospitalized or outpatient children from the General Hospital Celaya, ISSSTE Hospital Clinic and General Hospital No. 4 IMSS, and the pediatric private service in Celaya, Guanajuato, from 1 day of life until 16 years old, were recruited over a one month period, after their parents signed the consent form. The order of each institution was selected by simple randomization. Body temperatures were measured in triplicate using tympanic, skin and digital axillary thermometers. The sample consisted of 554 children. The Pearson r between the tympanic and digital axillary thermometers was 0.57 to 0.65, with a positive linear relationship (P<.05); between the skin and the digital axillary thermometers, it was between 0.47 and 0.52 with a positive linearrelationship (P<.05). The intra-observer Kappa for the tympanic thermometer was 0.86, and for the inter-observer was 0.77; for the skin thermometer it was 0.82 and 0.67, respectively, and for the digital axillary thermometer it was 0.86 for intra-observer reliability and 0.78 for inter -observer reliability. Tympanic and axillary thermometers showed better precision in measuring the body temperature in children than skin thermometers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Lens transmission measurement for an absolute radiation thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Yuan, Z.; Lu, X.

    2013-01-01

    The lens transmission for the National Institute of Metrology of China absolute radiation thermometer is measured by a hybrid method. The results of the lens transmission measurements are 99.002% and 86.792% for filter radiometers with center wavelengths 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively. These results, after correcting for diffraction factors and the size-of-source effect when the lens is incorporated within the radiometer, can be used for measurement of thermodynamic temperature. The expanded uncertainty of the lens transmission measurement system has been evaluated. It is 1.3×10 −3 at 633 nm and 900 nm, respectively

  20. Gamma thermometer allowing absolute and differential temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottin, P.; Schley, R.

    1985-01-01

    The gamma thermometer comprises an external envelope containing a cylindrical rod with a central bore and, thick and thin parts defining insulating chambers, at least one thermocouple set in the said central bore; the thermocouple has three junctions connected to one of their end parts by a junction at the level of a thin part, while one at least of the wires comprises two elements made of different materials connected by a junction at the level of a thick part. The present invention applies more particularly for detecting level of the coolant in a nuclear reactor [fr

  1. Optical Fiber Thermometer Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Ekbal Bin; Mohd. Noor, Uzer

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating has generated much interest in use as sensors to measure strain, temperature, and other physical parameters. It also the most common component used to develop this sensor with the advantages of simple, intrinsic sensing elements, electrically passive operation, EMI immunity, high sensitivity, compact size and potentially low cost [6]. This paper reports the design of an optical fiber thermometer based on fiber Bragg gratings. The system was developed for detecting temperature and strain by monitoring the shift of Bragg wavelength. The shifting of Bragg wavelength is used to indicate the temperature and strain due to the change in the surrounding temperature and strain. When the temperature and strain reach the exact wavelength level of the system, the temperature and strain value will display on the Arduino liquid crystal display (LCD). The optical fiber will provide the broadband light source and after passing the FBG the Bragg wavelength into the optical spectrum analyzer (OSA). The system is based on FBG as a physical quantity sensor. The temperatures measured is taken from the water bath and that of the strain is provided by amount of slotted mass used. The outcome of this project is to characterize the Bragg wavelength shifting from the fiber Bragg grating output. As the conclusion, this project provides an efficient optical fiber thermometer in measuring temperature and strain in order to replace the use of conventional electrical instruments.

  2. Demonstrating the Temperature Dependence of Density via Construction of a Galilean Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Marie A.; Padgett, Lea W.; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the construction of a Galilean thermometer out of common chemistry glassware is described. Students in a first-semester physical chemistry (thermodynamics) class can construct the Galilean thermometer as an investigation of the thermal expansivity of liquids and the temperature dependence of density. This is an excellent first…

  3. The Infrared Thermometer in School Science: Teaching Physics with Modern Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girwidz, Raimund; Ireson, Gren

    2011-01-01

    Infrared thermometers measure temperature from a distance, using the infrared radiation emitted by all objects. These so-called non-contact thermometers make a wide variety of temperature measurement and monitoring activities accessible to school-age students. Portable hand-held sensors also enable new or simplified investigations to be carried…

  4. 27 CFR 30.23 - Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrometers and thermometers. 30.23 Section 30.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Use of precision hydrometers and thermometers. Care should be exercised to obtain accurate hydrometer... entire quantity. The hydrometers should be kept clean and free of any oily substance. Immediately before...

  5. Reliability of an infrared forehead skin thermometer for core temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, J.A.; Hartog, E.A. den; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The SensorTouch thermometer performs an infrared measurement of the skin temperature above the Superficial Temporal Artery (STA). This study evaluates the validity and the accuracy of the SensorTouch thermometer. Two experiments were performed in which the body temperature was measured with a rectal

  6. Low-temperature thermometry. Use of a gas thermometer as a calibration standard between 4 and 300 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combarieu, A. de

    1978-01-01

    A constant volume gas thermometer was built to calibrate the various secondary thermometers used at low temperature. This gas thermometer is placed in a cryostat where any stable temperature between 4 and 300 K may be obtained. After some words about low temperature thermometry, the gas thermometer and its auxiliary equipment are described briefly; the corrections to be applied to the results are given and the article ends with a table showing the values obtained [fr

  7. Designing a TAC thermometer from a VHTR graphite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James A., E-mail: James.Smith@INL.gov; Kotter, Dale, E-mail: James.Smith@INL.gov [Fuel Performance and Design, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Garrett, Steven L.; Ali, Randall A. [Graduate Program in Acoustics, Penn State University, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The interior of a nuclear reactor presents a particularly harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to high temperatures and high fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles among the radioactive decay products. Very High Temperature Reactors are pushing the in core temperatures even higher. A unique sensing approach will be discussed to address the necessary high temperature measurements. Thermoacoustic thermometry exploits high temperatures and uses materials that are immune to the effects of ionizing radiation to create a temperature sensor that is self-powered and wireless. In addition, the form-factor for the Thermoacoustic Thermometer (TACT) can be designed to be integrated within common in-pile structures. There are no physical moving parts required for TACT and the sensor is self-powered, as it uses the nuclear fuel for its heat source. TACT data will be presented from a laboratory prototype mimicking the design necessary for a VHTR graphite structure.

  8. The distress thermometer in survivors of gynaecological cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette L.; Hansen, Merete K.; Hansson, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Unrecognised psychological distress among cancer survivors may be identified using short screening tools. We validated the accuracy of the distress thermometer (DT) to detect psychological distress on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) among early stage gynaecological cancer...... survivors and whether the women’s DT and HADS scores were associated with the need of an individualised supportive intervention. Methods: One hundred sixty-five gynaecological cancer survivors answered DT and HADS before randomisation in a trial testing a nurse-led, person-centred intervention using...... supportive conversations. The number of conversations was decided in the woman-nurse dyad based on the woman’s perceived need. Nurses were unaware of the women’s DT and HADS scores. We validated DT’s accuracy for screening using HADS as gold standard and receiver operating characteristic curves. Associations...

  9. Radiation stability of low-temperature resistance thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Petrusenko, Yu.T.; Sleptsov, A.N.; Logvinenko, S.P.; Mikhina, G.F.; Rossoshanskij, O.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of low temperature (∼ 5 and 11 K) irradiation with E=30 MeV electrons and the subsequent annealing at 180 and 300 K on gauge dependences R(T) of resistance thermometers (RT) on the basis of p-GaAs, Ni and In is investigated. For GaAs-RT the dependence of electroresistance R(4.2 K) on the irradiation fluence is shown to be non monotonic. The annealing at 180 and 300 K does not restore GaAs-RT thermometric characteristics but it leads to their further degradation. The annealing of Ni and In irradiated RT's at T>180 K leads to total restoring of their electrophysical properties. 16 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Subharmonic frequency locking in the resistive Josephson thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Veldhuizen, M.; Fowler, H.A.

    1985-01-01

    Phase-locked oscillatory solutions are examined as a basis for the dc impedance of the resistive superconducting quantum-interference device Josephson thermometer. The calculations are based on the resistively shunted junction model in the limit 2πL/sub s/I/sub c//Phi 0 > or =1, where L/sub s/ is the loop inductance and I/sub c/ is the junction critical current, and for a junction resistance large compared with the external shunt resistance. An algorithm for representing frequency entrainment in (kappa,ω) space (drive amplitude, frequency) leads to zones with rotation number p/q having the form of leaf-shaped regions joined and overlapping at their tips. High-resonance zones are very thin and locally similar. No chaotic behavior has been observed. The model can simulate the ''rising'' curves of dc impedance as a function of drive amplitude

  11. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration of thermometer well for JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kazunori; Tomita, Naoki

    1997-05-01

    Sodium leak accident of MONJU was caused high cycles fatigue damage of thermometer well by flow-induced vibration. It was due to the symmetric vortex shedding which was occurred rear flow of thermometer well. So, Thermometer wells installed in primary and secondary heat transport systems of JOYO were evaluated of flow-induced vibration. Evaluation of flow-induced vibration of thermometer well was done checking of flow-induced vibration base on authorized design report for JOYO, evaluation of summary flow-induced vibration by natural frequency of thermometer well in sodium as cantilever models, and evaluation based on small velocity rule of ASME Code Section III Appendix N-1300. By this result, thermometer wells (12B piping of secondary cooling system) were not satisfied requirement to avoid flow-induced vibration by small velocity rule. Therefore, Detailed vibration characteristic analysis, water flow-induced vibration test, dumping test and evaluation of structural integrity were carried out. These results, vibration amplitude of well on the tip was 0.13 mm (vibration non-dimensional amplitude of 0.015) and peak stress of 2.9 kg/mm 2 is occurred. Thermometer wells (12B piping of secondary cooling system) which occurred peak stress by flow vibration was confirmed enough to satisfy 5.3 kg/mm 2 of design fatigue limit. (author)

  12. Semiconductor resistance thermometer for the temperature range 300-0.3 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'eva, K.N.; Zarubin, L.I.; Nemish, I.Yu.; Vorobkalo, F.M.; Boldarev, S.T.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Poluprovodnikov)

    1979-01-01

    Thermometric characteristics of semiconductor resistor thermometers for the temperature range from 300 to 0.3 K and from 77 to 0.3 K are given. Temperature dependence of thermometer resistances in the 300-1.3 K range was measured in cryostats with pumping-out of N 2 , H 2 and 4 He. For measurements below 1.3 K use was made of a 3 H- 4 He dissolving cryostat. The accuracy of measuring temperatures in the 1.3-0.3 K range is not below +-0.003 K, the error in determining thermometer resistances does not exceed 1%. The analysis of obtained thermometric characteristics of several series of semiconductor resistance thermometers showed that observed insignificant spread of resistances of thermometers in one series and identity of characteristics allows them to be used without preliminary calibration for relatively coarse measurements in the range from 3O0 to 0.3 K. Besides, it has been found that in the 4.2-0.3 K range the thermometric characteristics represent a straight line in the lgR-Tsup(-n) coordinates, where R is the thermometer resistance, T is the temperature and n=0.5. Thus, the thermometers of the same series can be calibrated only in 2 or 3 reference point measurements

  13. Stability of High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers at High Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ; F. M. MEGAHED

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the stability of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers HTSPRTs has been carried out for two different designs thermometers (with nominal resistance 0.25 Ω and 2.5 Ω) from two different suppliers. The thermometers were heated for more than 160 hours at temperatures above 960 0C using a vertical furnace with a ceramic block. A study was made of the influence of the heat treatment on the stability of the resistance at the triple point of water, and on the...

  14. Cause elucidation of sodium leakage incident at `Monju` reactor. Vibration of thermometer due to fluid force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Koji; Wada, Yusaku; Morishita, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Ichimiya, Masakazu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of summarized results of investigation and analysis on fracture of thermometer which is direct reason of sodium leakage incident at the second main cooling system of fast breeder reactor `Monju`. Various surveys such as on various damage factors, on flowing power vibrational features containing flowing power vibrational test of thermometer, on evaluation of high cycle fatigue due to flowing power vibration and details on propagation of and fracture due to fatigue crack, on why only said thermometer damaged, and so forth were executed. As results of these examinations, a decision was arrived that high cycle fatigue due to vibration formed by fluid force (fluid force vibration) was a direct cause of the thermometer damage. (G.K.)

  15. Cryogenic thermometer calibration system using a helium cooling loop and a temperature controller [for LHC magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Chanzy, E; Thermeau, J P; Bühler, S; Joly, C; Casas-Cubillos, J; Balle, C

    1998-01-01

    The IPN-Orsay and CERN are designing in close collaboration a fully automated cryogenic thermometer calibration facility which will calibrate in 3 years 10,000 cryogenic thermometers required for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. A reduced-scale model of the calibration facility has been developed, which enables the calibration of ten thermometers by comparison with two rhodium-iron standard thermometers in the 1.8 K to 300 K temperature range under vacuum conditions. The particular design, based on a helium cooling loop and an electrical temperature controller, gives good dynamic performances. This paper describes the experimental set-up and the data acquisition system. Results of experimental runs are also presented along with the estimated global accuracy for the calibration. (3 refs).

  16. Evaluation of the Use of Optical Fiber Thermometers for Thermal Control of the Quench Module Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Farmer, Jeffrey T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Issues regarding the use of optical fiber thermometers to control heater settings in a microgravity vacuum furnace are addressed. It is desirable to use these probes in environments such as the International Space Station, because they can be operated without re-calibration for extended periods. However, the analysis presented in this paper shows that temperature readings obtained using optical fiber thermometers can be corrupted by emissions from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures.

  17. Development and psychometric testing of a new tool for detecting moral distress: the Moral Distress Thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wocial, Lucia D; Weaver, Michael T

    2013-01-01

    To report the development and psychometric testing of the Moral Distress Thermometer. The Moral Distress Thermometer is a new screening tool to measure moral distress in nurses who practise in the hospital setting. Moral distress occurs when one knows the ethically correct thing to do, but is prevented from acting on that perceived obligation. It is a well documented phenomenon with negative consequences that may be experienced by nurses. Creating an instrument to effectively and efficiently measure moral distress in a timely way has been identified as a priority for nursing. This study used a cross-sectional survey design. Data collection for this research occurred in 2009. Participants simultaneously completed either the adult or pediatric version of the Moral Distress Scale version 2009 and the Moral Distress Thermometer. A total of 529 participants from various clinical areas completed both tools. Coefficients alpha were adequate for both Adult (0·90) and Pediatric (0·92) Moral Distress Scale 2009 scales. Statistically significant Pearson correlations were found for the Moral Distress Thermometer with Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 and higher Moral Distress Thermometer, Adult Moral Distress Scale 2009 and Pediatric Moral Distress Scale 2009 means for participants who had left or who considered leaving a position because of moral distress. These findings provide support for the validity of the Moral Distress Thermometer. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, G.; Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G.

    2013-10-01

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  19. Gamma thermometer longevity test: Laguna Verde 2 instruments recent performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G. [Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A.; Calleros M, G., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@gnf.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verda, Carretera Veracruz-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    This paper is informative of the General Electric Hitachi and Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas are collaboration with Comision Federal de Electricidad in a longevity test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices. The test conclusions will serve for final engineering design in detailing the Automated Fixed In-core Probes for calibration of the Local Power Range Monitors (LPRMs) of the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. This paper introduces the collaboration description and some recent performance evaluation of the thermocouples that are sensitive to gamma radiation and are known generically as Gamma Thermometers (G T). The G Ts in Laguna Verde 2 are radially located inside six instrumentation tubes in the core and consist of seven thermocouples, four are aligned with the LPRM heights and three are axially located between LPRM heights. The Laguna Verde 2 G T test has become the longest test of thermocouples as power monitoring devices in a BWR industry history and confirms their reliability in terms of time-dependent small noise under steady state reactor conditions and good agreement against Traversing In-core Probes power measurements. (Author)

  20. Magnetic Criticality Enhanced Hybrid Nanodiamond Thermometer under Ambient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Liu, Gang-Qin; Leong, Weng-Hang; Zeng, Hualing; Feng, Xi; Li, Si-Hong; Dolde, Florian; Fedder, Helmut; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Cui, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Sen; Li, Quan; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2018-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are attractive as quantum sensors owing to their superb coherence under ambient conditions. However, the NV center spin resonances are relatively insensitive to some important parameters such as temperature and pressure. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid nanothermometer composed of NV centers and a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), in which the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the critical magnetization of the MNP near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature. The temperature susceptibility of the NV center spin resonance reaches 14 MHz /K , nearly 200 times larger than that of bare NV centers. The sensitivity of a hybrid nanothermometer composed of a Cu1 -xNix MNP and a nanodiamond is measured to be 11 mK /√{Hz } under ambient conditions. The working range of the hybrid thermometer can be designed from cryogenic temperature to about 600 K by tuning the chemical composition of the Cu1 -xNix MNP. We demonstrate in situ detection of the magnetic phase transition of a single magnetic nanoparticle using the hybrid nanothermometer. This hybrid nanothermometer provides a novel approach to studying a broad range of thermal processes at nanoscales such as nanoplasmonics, heat-stimulated subcellular processes, and thermodynamics of nanosystems.

  1. Magnetic Criticality Enhanced Hybrid Nanodiamond Thermometer under Ambient Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen-vacancy (NV centers in diamond are attractive as quantum sensors owing to their superb coherence under ambient conditions. However, the NV center spin resonances are relatively insensitive to some important parameters such as temperature and pressure. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid nanothermometer composed of NV centers and a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP, in which the temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the critical magnetization of the MNP near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition temperature. The temperature susceptibility of the NV center spin resonance reaches 14  MHz/K, nearly 200 times larger than that of bare NV centers. The sensitivity of a hybrid nanothermometer composed of a Cu_{1-x}Ni_{x} MNP and a nanodiamond is measured to be 11  mK/sqrt[Hz] under ambient conditions. The working range of the hybrid thermometer can be designed from cryogenic temperature to about 600 K by tuning the chemical composition of the Cu_{1-x}Ni_{x} MNP. We demonstrate in situ detection of the magnetic phase transition of a single magnetic nanoparticle using the hybrid nanothermometer. This hybrid nanothermometer provides a novel approach to studying a broad range of thermal processes at nanoscales such as nanoplasmonics, heat-stimulated subcellular processes, and thermodynamics of nanosystems.

  2. A Challenge to Improve High-Temperature Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y.; Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-05-01

    High-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs) are used to interpolate the international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90), especially for temperatures between the aluminum and the silver points. For this, long-term stability of the HTSPRT is essential. CHINO R800-3L type SPRT, which has a nominal resistance at the triple point of water (TPW) around 0.25 Ω , is the one developed earlier for the interpolation of the ITS-90 at this temperature range. Further development to this previous model has been carried out for the purpose of improving the thermal stability. The improvement was focused on reducing the effect coming from the difference in thermal expansion between platinum wire and the quartz frame on which the platinum wire is installed. New HTSPRTs were made by CHINO Corporation. Some series of tests were carried out at CHINO and at NMIJ. Initial tests after the HTSPRT fabrication were done at CHINO, where thermal cycles between 500°C and 980°C were applied to the HTSPRTs to see change in the resistances at the TPW (R_{TPW}) and at the gallium point (R_{Ga}). Repeated resistance measurements at the silver point (R_{Ag}) were performed after completing the thermal cycling test. Before and after every measurement at silver point, R_{TPW} was measured, while before and after every two silver point realization R_{Ga} were measured. After completing this test, the HTSPRTs were transported to NMIJ, where the same repeated measurements at the silver point were done at NMIJ. These were then repeated at CHINO and at NMIJ upon repeated transportation among the institutes, to evaluate some effect due to transportation. This paper reports the details of the above-mentioned tests, the results and the analysis.

  3. Stability of High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the stability of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers HTSPRTs has been carried out for two different designs thermometers (with nominal resistance 0.25 Ω and 2.5 Ω from two different suppliers. The thermometers were heated for more than 160 hours at temperatures above 960 0C using a vertical furnace with a ceramic block. A study was made of the influence of the heat treatment on the stability of the resistance at the triple point of water, and on the relative resistance W(Ga at the melting point of gallium. The thermometers showed a correlation between the drift note and the values of W(Ga. It was found also that the HTSPRT which has a sensor with strip shaped support and low nominal resistance is more stable than the HTSPRT which has a sensor in the form of a coil wound on silica cross. The 0.25 Ω thermometer has better stability @ 7x10-6 0C (at TPW after 40 hour. Factors affecting the stability and accuracy of HTSPRT also will be discussed.

  4. Spatial and Temporal Resolution of a Thin-Wire Resistance Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Højstrup, Jørgen

    1982-01-01

    Based on a discussion of the heat balance equation for a resistance wire sensor a frequency-wavenumber transfer function is derived, which includes the thermal inertia of the wire, the conduction losses to the prongs, and the spatial averaging of the sensor. Based on this transfer function...

  5. MEMS Tunneling Micro Thermometer Based onTip Deflection of Bimetallic Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrand K. Nezhadian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM technology promises to significantly reduce the size, weight and cost of a variety of sensor systems. In this article has been described a highly sensitive novel type of thermometer based on deflection of a “bimetallic” microbeam. The proposed thermometer converts the thermal changes of a cantilevered bimetallic beam of submillimeter size into an electrical signal through tunneling-current modulation. The governing thermo-mechanical equation of a bimetallic cantilever beam has been derived and solved analytically. The obtained results show that the proposed tunneling micro thermometer is very sensitive to temperature changes due to exponential increasing of tunneling current but because of small gap between metallic electrodes, measurable range of temperature changes is small.

  6. Towards a practical Johnson noise thermometer for long-term measurements in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenen, Adam; Pearce, Jonathan [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, TW11 0LW, (United Kingdom); Cruickshank, David; Bramley, Paul [Metrosol Limited, Plum Park Estate, Watling Street, Paulerspury, Northamptonshire, NN12 6LQ, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The impact of mechanical and chemical changes in conventional sensors such as thermocouples and resistance thermometers can be avoided by instead using temperature sensors based on fundamental thermometry. A prime example of this is Johnson noise thermometry, which is based on measurement of the fluctuations in the voltage of a resistor arising from thermal motion of charge carriers - i.e. the 'Johnson noise'. A Johnson noise thermometer never needs calibration and is insensitive to the condition of the sensor material. It is therefore ideally suited to long-term temperature measurements in harsh environments, such as nuclear reactor coolant circuits, in-pile measurements, nuclear waste management and storage, and severe accident monitoring. There have been a number of previous attempts to develop a Johnson noise thermometer for the nuclear industry, but none have reached commercial exploitation because of technical problems in practical implementation. The main challenge is to extract the tiny Johnson noise signal from ambient electrical noise influences, both from the internal amplification electronics, and from external electrical noise sources. Recent advances in electronics technology and digital signal processing techniques have opened up new possibilities for developing a viable, practical Johnson noise thermometer. We describe a project funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (now Innovate UK) 'Developing the nuclear supply chain' call, currently underway, to develop a practical Johnson noise thermometer that makes use of innovative electronics for ultralow noise amplification and signal processing. The new electronics technology has the potential to help overcome the problems encountered with previous attempts at constructing a practical Johnson noise thermometer. An outline of the new developments is presented, together with an overview of the current status of the project. (authors)

  7. Towards a practical Johnson noise thermometer for long-term measurements in harsh environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenen, Adam; Pearce, Jonathan; Cruickshank, David; Bramley, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The impact of mechanical and chemical changes in conventional sensors such as thermocouples and resistance thermometers can be avoided by instead using temperature sensors based on fundamental thermometry. A prime example of this is Johnson noise thermometry, which is based on measurement of the fluctuations in the voltage of a resistor arising from thermal motion of charge carriers - i.e. the 'Johnson noise'. A Johnson noise thermometer never needs calibration and is insensitive to the condition of the sensor material. It is therefore ideally suited to long-term temperature measurements in harsh environments, such as nuclear reactor coolant circuits, in-pile measurements, nuclear waste management and storage, and severe accident monitoring. There have been a number of previous attempts to develop a Johnson noise thermometer for the nuclear industry, but none have reached commercial exploitation because of technical problems in practical implementation. The main challenge is to extract the tiny Johnson noise signal from ambient electrical noise influences, both from the internal amplification electronics, and from external electrical noise sources. Recent advances in electronics technology and digital signal processing techniques have opened up new possibilities for developing a viable, practical Johnson noise thermometer. We describe a project funded by the UK Technology Strategy Board (now Innovate UK) 'Developing the nuclear supply chain' call, currently underway, to develop a practical Johnson noise thermometer that makes use of innovative electronics for ultralow noise amplification and signal processing. The new electronics technology has the potential to help overcome the problems encountered with previous attempts at constructing a practical Johnson noise thermometer. An outline of the new developments is presented, together with an overview of the current status of the project. (authors)

  8. Accuracy of peripheral thermometers for estimating temperature: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Daniel J; Gaudet, Jonathan E; Laupland, Kevin B; Mrklas, Kelly J; Roberts, Derek J; Stelfox, Henry Thomas

    2015-11-17

    Body temperature is commonly used to screen patients for infectious diseases, establish diagnoses, monitor therapy, and guide management decisions. To determine the accuracy of peripheral thermometers for estimating core body temperature in adults and children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL Plus from inception to July 2015. Prospective studies comparing the accuracy of peripheral (tympanic membrane, temporal artery, axillary, or oral) thermometers with central (pulmonary artery catheter, urinary bladder, esophageal, or rectal) thermometers. 2 reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes and assessed the quality of individual studies. 75 studies (8682 patients) were included. Most studies were at high or unclear risk of patient selection bias (74%) or index test bias (67%). Compared with central thermometers, peripheral thermometers had pooled 95% limits of agreement (random-effects meta-analysis) outside the predefined clinically acceptable range (± 0.5 °C), especially among patients with fever (-1.44 °C to 1.46 °C for adults; -1.49 °C to 0.43 °C for children) and hypothermia (-2.07 °C to 1.90 °C for adults; no data for children). For detection of fever (bivariate random-effects meta-analysis), sensitivity was low (64% [95% CI, 55% to 72%]; I2 = 95.7%; P temperature measurement techniques are limited. Pooled data are associated with interstudy heterogeneity that is not fully explained by stratified and metaregression analyses. Peripheral thermometers do not have clinically acceptable accuracy and should not be used when accurate measurement of body temperature will influence clinical decisions. None.

  9. The free electron gas primary thermometer using an ordinary bipolar junction transistor approaches ppm accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, it is demonstrated that the free electron gas primary thermometer based on a bipolar junction transistor is able to provide the temperature with an accuracy of a few parts per million. Its simple functioning principle exploits the behavior of the collector current when properly biased to extract the temperature. Using general purpose silicon transistors at the water triple point (273.16 K) and gallium melting point (302.9146), an accuracy of a few parts per million has been reached, constituting the simplest and the easiest to operate primary thermometer, that might be considered even for the redefinition of Kelvin.

  10. Infrared Thermometer: an accurate tool for temperature measurement during renal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scala Marchini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate infrared thermometer (IRT accuracy compared to standard digital thermometer in measuring kidney temperature during arterial clamping with and without renal cooling. Materials and Methods 20 pigs weighting 20Kg underwent selective right renal arterial clamping, 10 with (Group 1 - Cold Ischemia with ice slush and 10 without renal cooling (Group 2 - Warm Ischemia. Arterial clamping was performed without venous clamping. Renal temperature was serially measured following clamping of the main renal artery with the IRT and a digital contact thermometer (DT: immediate after clamping (T0, after 2 (T2, 5 (T5 and 10 minutes (T10. Temperature values were expressed in mean, standard deviation and range for each thermometer. We used the T student test to compare means and considered p < 0.05 to be statistically significant. Results In Group 1, mean DT surface temperature decrease was 12.6 ± 4.1°C (5-19°C while deep DT temperature decrease was 15.8 ± 1.5°C (15-18°C. For the IRT, mean temperature decrease was 9.1 ± 3.8°C (3-14°C. There was no statistically significant difference between thermometers. In Group 2, surface temperature decrease for DT was 2.7 ± 1.8°C (0-4°C and mean deep temperature decrease was 0.5 ± 1.0°C (0-3°C. For IRT, mean temperature decrease was 3.1 ± 1.9°C (0-6°C. No statistically significant difference between thermometers was found at any time point. conclusions IRT proved to be an accurate non-invasive precise device for renal temperature monitoring during kidney surgery. External ice slush cooling confirmed to be fast and effective at cooling the pig model. IRT = Infrared thermometer DT = Digital contact thermometer D:S = Distance-to-spot ratio

  11. Study on the KM capacitor base thermometers in the 42-273 K range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzganov, V.S.; Mats'ko, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Thermometric characteristics of the KM-5a-HZ0 monolithic capacitors in the 42-273 K temperature range are studied. Capacitors capacitance - temperature relation is considered in details. The data reproducibility after 5, 23, 34, 50, 51 and 57 days is studied, the accuracy of temperature measurements by the given thermometers is determined. Recommendations on selection of cpacitors, suitable for application as thermometer, are given. These capacitors permit temperature measurement in the 42-225 K range with the error of ± 0.5 K, and above 225 K the error is ± 1K. 8 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  12. In-situ calibration of nuclear-plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Methods for in situ calibration of reactor plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise measurements were tested in the laboratory and in two operating reactors: Diablo Canyon and Sequoyah. The Johnson noise methods provide an absolute measurement of the thermometer temperature and can be compared with the dc calibration of the thermometers to confirm their calibration without removing the thermometers from the plant coolant loops. Inaccuracies of less than 0.1% were obtained with these methods for ideal situations where the noise measuring equipment could be connected directly to the installed thermometer terminals. For measurements made at the ends of long extension cables, inaccuracies were 0.5 to 1.0%, at best. Extension cables must be optimized and well characterized electrically to achieve such accuracies. Other factors that affect the accuracy of these methods were evaluated

  13. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridib Debnath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT data of radio frequency based digital (RFD thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB thermometer in dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done. Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05 before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05 in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

  14. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  15. Ultrasensitive thermometer for atmospheric pressure operation based on a micromechanical resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Pini, V.; Tamayo, J.

    2014-01-01

    For highly integrated systems for bio and chemical analysis a precise and integrated measurement of temperature is of fundamental importance. We have developed an ultrasensitive thermometer based on a micromechanical resonator for operation in air. The high quality factor and the strong temperatu...

  16. Method for determining the outlet temperature of fuel assemblies unsupplied with thermometer in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miko, S.; Kalya, Z.; Hamvas, I.

    1987-09-01

    The paper outlines a method for the evaluation of the outlet temperatures of fuel assemblies unsupplied with thermometer in WWER-440 reactors. The process is based on interpolation of directly measured assembly temperatures. A quantitative comparison of the errors of described algorithm to those of standard plant-computer interpolation rutine is also presented. (author)

  17. Time-Lapse and Slow-Motion Tracking of Temperature Changes: Response Time of a Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-01-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure…

  18. Dissociation Pathways of Benzylpyridinium "Thermometer" Ions Depend on the Activation Regime: An IRMPD Spectroscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsa, D.; Gabelica, V.; Rosu, F.; Oomens, J.; De Pauw, E.

    2014-01-01

    The dissociation of benzylpyridinium "thermometer" ions is widely used to calibrate the internal energy of ions produced in mass spectrometry. The fragmentation mechanism is usually believed to yield a benzylium cation, although recent studies suggest the possibility of a rearrangement leading to

  19. Correction of the dynamic response of the ''Gamma thermometers'' using a digital filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J.P.; Lobert, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The ''gamma thermometer'' is a sensor used to measure on line the local power inside a PWR nuclear reactor. During transients, this sensor based on thermal exchanges, obes not give a fast response. This paper describes a microprocessor device that allows using a digital filtering technique, a correction of the dynamic response [fr

  20. Measurement time and statistics for a noise thermometer with a synthetic-noise reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. R.; Benz, S. P.; Labenski, J. R.; Nam, S. W.; Qu, J. F.; Rogalla, H.; Tew, W. L.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes methods for reducing the statistical uncertainty in measurements made by noise thermometers using digital cross-correlators and, in particular, for thermometers using pseudo-random noise for the reference signal. First, a discrete-frequency expression for the correlation bandwidth for conventional noise thermometers is derived. It is shown how an alternative frequency-domain computation can be used to eliminate the spectral response of the correlator and increase the correlation bandwidth. The corresponding expressions for the uncertainty in the measurement of pseudo-random noise in the presence of uncorrelated thermal noise are then derived. The measurement uncertainty in this case is less than that for true thermal-noise measurements. For pseudo-random sources generating a frequency comb, an additional small reduction in uncertainty is possible, but at the cost of increasing the thermometer's sensitivity to non-linearity errors. A procedure is described for allocating integration times to further reduce the total uncertainty in temperature measurements. Finally, an important systematic error arising from the calculation of ratios of statistical variables is described.

  1. A Phase-Locked Loop Continuous Wave Sonic Anemometer-Thermometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling; Weller, F. W.; Busings, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A continuous wake sonic anemometer-thermometer has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vertical velocity and temperature. The phase angle fluctuations are detected by means of a monolithic integrated phase-locked loop, the latter feature providing for inexpensive and accurate...

  2. Semi-transparent gold film as simultaneous surface heater and resistance thermometer for nucleate boiling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker, E.; Merte, H. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large (22 x 25 mm) semi-transparent thin film of gold, approximately 400 A in thickness, is deposited on a glass substrate for simultaneous use as a heat source and resistance thermometer. Construction techniques and calibration procedures are described, and a sample application to a transient boiling process is included with simultaneous high speed photographs taken through the thin film from beneath

  3. Measuring Total Column Water Vapor by Pointing an Infrared Thermometer at the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III; Chambers, Lin H.; Brooks, David R.

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year study affirms that the temperature (Tz) indicated by an inexpensive ($20 to $60) IR thermometer pointed at the cloud-free zenith sky provides an approximate indication of the total column water vapor (precipitable water or PW). PW was measured by a MICROTOPS II sun photometer. The coefficient of correlation (r2) of the PW and Tz was 0.90, and the rms difference was 3.2 mm. A comparison of the Tz data with the PW provided by a GPS site 31 km NNE yielded an r2 of 0.79, and an rms difference of 5.8 mm. An expanded study compared Tz from eight IR thermometers with PW at various times during the day and night from 17 May to 18 October 2010, mainly at the Texas site and 10 days at Hawaii's Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO). The best results of this comparison were provided by two IR thermometers models that yielded an r2 of 0.96 and an rms difference with the PW of 2.7 mm. The results of both the ongoing 2-year study and the 5-month instrument comparison show that IR thermometers can measure PW with an accuracy (rms difference/mean PW) approaching 10%, the accuracy typically ascribed to sun photometers.

  4. A Fluorescent Thermometer Based on a Pyrene-Labeled Thermoresponsive Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S. Schubert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive polymers that undergo a solubility transition by variation of the temperature are important materials for the development of ‘smart’ materials. In this contribution we exploit the solubility phase transition of poly(methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate, which is accompanied by a transition from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, for the development of a fluorescent thermometer. To translate the polymer phase transition into a fluorescent response, the polymer was functionalized with pyrene resulting in a change of the emission based on the microenvironment. This approach led to a soluble polymeric fluorescent thermometer with a temperature range from 11 °C to 21 °C. The polymer phase transition that occurs during sensing is studied in detail by dynamic light scattering.

  5. In situ calibration of nuclear plant resistance thermometers using Johnson noise. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Roberts, M.J.; Shepard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Methods have been demonstrated in operating nuclear plants for the in situ calibration of resistance thermometers with agreement between measured noise temperatures and dc calibration temperatures well within these required by the plant. A comparison of the results of Johnson noise power testing results and uncertainties, the requirements for accuracy, and PRT calibration tolerances is shown. The methods use Johnson noise measurements and provide an absolute calibration independent of the prior dc calibration. The methods include techniques for characterization of the installed extension cables and the quantitative determination of induced EMI and its effect on the calibration. The techniques are applicable to ordinary 4-wire platinum resistance thermometers operating over their entire design temperature range and to extension cables of about 100 ft length. Careful attention needs to be paid to the choice or cables, location of terminal boxes, and grounding and shielding practices in the plant installation to achieve comparable results

  6. New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Helen C.; Simpson, Robert; Machin, Graham

    2004-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers for monitoring patient health is widespread. However, studies into the performance of these thermometers have questioned their accuracy and repeatability. To give users confidence in these devices, and to provide credibility in the measurements, it is necessary for them to be tested using an accredited, standard blackbody source, with a calibration traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). To address this need the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, has recently set up a primary ear thermometer calibration (PET-C) source for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic (ear) thermometers over the range from 15 °C to 45 °C. The overall uncertainty of the PET-C source is estimated to be +/- 0.04 °C at k = 2. The PET-C source meets the requirements of the European Standard EN 12470-5: 2003 Clinical thermometers. It consists of a high emissivity blackbody cavity immersed in a bath of stirred liquid. The temperature of the blackbody is determined using an ITS-90 calibrated platinum resistance thermometer inserted close to the rear of the cavity. The temperature stability and uniformity of the PET-C source was evaluated and its performance validated. This paper provides a description of the PET-C along with the results of the validation measurements. To further confirm the performance of the PET-C source it was compared to the standard ear thermometer calibration sources of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The results of this comparison will also be briefly discussed. The PET-C source extends the capability for testing ear thermometers offered by the NPL body temperature fixed-point source, described previously. An update on the progress with the commercialisation of the fixed-point source will be given.

  7. Thermodynamics and historical relevance of a jetting thermometer made of Chinese zisha ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vincent; Attinger, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Following a recent trend of scientific studies on artwork, we study here the thermodynamics of a thermometer made of zisha ceramic, related to the Chinese tea culture. The thermometer represents a boy who “urinates” shortly after hot water is poured onto his head. Long jetting distance is said to indicate that the water temperature is hot enough to brew tea. Here, a thermodynamic model describes the jetting phenomenon of that pee-pee boy. The study demonstrates how thermal expansion of an interior air pocket causes jetting. A thermodynamic potential is shown to define maximum jetting velocity. Seven optimization criteria to maximize jetting distance are provided, including two dimensionless numbers. Predicted jetting distances, jet durations, and temperatures agree very well with infrared and optical measurements. Specifically, the study confirms that jetting distances are sensitive enough to measure water temperature in the context of tea brewing. Optimization results show that longer jets are produced by large individuals, with low body mass index, with a boyhood of medium size inclined at an angle π/4. The study ends by considering the possibility that ceramic jetting artifacts like the pee-pee boy might have been the first thermometers known to mankind, before Galileo Galilei’s thermoscope.

  8. Measurement of body temperature in 300 dogs with a novel noncontact infrared thermometer on the cornea in comparison to a standard rectal digital thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreissl, Hannah; Neiger, Reto

    2015-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of obtaining body temperatures in dogs with a noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) on the cornea compared with a rectal digital thermometer (RDT). Prospective single center study. University teaching hospital. Three hundred dogs presented with low, normal, or high body temperatures. Three body temperature readings were measured by an RDT and by an NCIT on the cornea of the left eye by 2 investigators (experienced and inexperienced). Results obtained by the 2 methods were compared. Median body temperature measured by the experienced investigator with the RDT and the NCIT were 38.3°C (range 35.5°C-41.1°C; 95% CI: 38.2-38.4°C) and 37.7°C (35.9°C-40.1°C; 95% CI: 37.7°C-37.9°C), respectively. Measurement of RDT as well as of NCIT correlated well between both investigators (rRDT = 0.94; rNCIT = 0.82; respectively, P temperature correlated poorly (r = 0.43; P temperature >39.0°C) showed an area under the curve of 0.76. Mean discomfort score was significantly lower using NCIT compared to RDT measurement (P temperatures obtained by RDT and NCIT. The corneal NCIT measurement tends to underrecognize hypothermic and hyperthermic conditions. Although the use of the NCIT yields faster results and is significantly more comfortable for the dog than the RDT measurement, it cannot be recommended in dogs at this time. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  9. Performance of Different Light Sources for the Absolute Calibration of Radiation Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M. J.; Mantilla, J. M.; del Campo, D.; Hernanz, M. L.; Pons, A.; Campos, J.

    2017-09-01

    The evolving mise en pratique for the definition of the kelvin (MeP-K) [1, 2] will, in its forthcoming edition, encourage the realization and dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature either directly (primary thermometry) or indirectly (relative primary thermometry) via fixed points with assigned reference thermodynamic temperatures. In the last years, the Centro Español de Metrología (CEM), in collaboration with the Instituto de Óptica of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IO-CSIC), has developed several setups for absolute calibration of standard radiation thermometers using the radiance method to allow CEM the direct dissemination of the thermodynamic temperature and the assignment of the thermodynamic temperatures to several fixed points. Different calibration facilities based on a monochromator and/or a laser and an integrating sphere have been developed to calibrate CEM's standard radiation thermometers (KE-LP2 and KE-LP4) and filter radiometer (FIRA2). This system is based on the one described in [3] placed in IO-CSIC. Different light sources have been tried and tested for measuring absolute spectral radiance responsivity: a Xe-Hg 500 W lamp, a supercontinuum laser NKT SuperK-EXR20 and a diode laser emitting at 6473 nm with a typical maximum power of 120 mW. Their advantages and disadvantages have been studied such as sensitivity to interferences generated by the laser inside the filter, flux stability generated by the radiant sources and so forth. This paper describes the setups used, the uncertainty budgets and the results obtained for the absolute temperatures of Cu, Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C fixed points, measured with the three thermometers with central wavelengths around 650 nm.

  10. Germanium thermometers in the temperature range .1000K to 4.20K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Sanchez, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The sensitivity characteristics of two germanium thermometers that proved to be convenient sensors in the temperature range from .100 0 K to 4.2 0 K, are described. Their resistances change from about 8 x 10 5 ohms at .100 0 K to about 100 ohms at 4.2 0 K. The calibration curves were fitted to natural spline functions of order 3 in the whole range of temperatures. These functions give less than half millidegree standard dispersion against 15 millidegree standard dispersion when usual polynomial interpolations are used. It is discussed what spline functions are, and compare the goodness of spline interpolation with polynomial methods [pt

  11. Determination of response time of resistance thermometers by in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, I.M.P.; Soares, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The loop-current-step-response test provides a mean for determining the time constant of resistance thermometers. The test consists in heating the sensor a few degrees above ambient temperature by causing a step perurbation in the electric current that flows through the sensor leads. The developed mathematical transformation permits to use data collected during the internal heating transient to predict the sensor response to perturbations in fluid temperature. Experimental data obtained show that time constant determined by this method is within 15 percent of the true value. (Author) [pt

  12. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Marlos G; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A; Aquino, Monally C C

    2011-04-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably.

  13. A monocrystal of 59Co as a nuclear orientation thermometer in neutron experiments with oriented targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, U.; Galeazzi, G.; Pavan, P.; Toniolo, D.; Zago, G.; Zannoni, R.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring temperatures in the millikelvin region is described based on the 'deformation effect' on fast neutron transmission through an aligned 59 Co monocrystal, employing a 252 Cf pill as the neutron source. A statistical accuracy of a few percent in a few minutes is obtainable with a heat input of some tens of pW. The apparatus is suitable in neutron experiments with oriented targets when the gamma-ray background hinders the use of gamma-ray anisotropy thermometers. In these and similar cases, in which the temperature must be held constant for long periods, the large heat capacity of the cobalt sample is not a drawback. (orig.)

  14. A massive cryogenic particle detector with good energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferger, P.; Colling, P.; Cooper, S.; Dummer, D.; Frank, M.; Nagel, U.; Nucciotti, A.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.

    1993-12-01

    Massive cryogenic particle detectors are being developed for use in a search for dark matter particles. Results with a 31 g sapphire crystal and a superconducting phase transition thermometer operated at 44 mK are presented. The observed signal includes a fast component which is significantly larger than the expected thermal pulse. The energy resolution is 210 eV (FWHM) for 6 keV X-rays. (orig.)

  15. Preliminary Results on New Prototypes of Precision Rh-0.5at%Fe Resistance Thermometers of Chinese Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, F.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Lipinski, L.; Manuszkiewicz, H.; Qiu, Ping; Zhang, Jin Tao; Lin, Peng; Li, Xing Wei

    2008-02-01

    Given the practical impossibility of obtaining new precision Rh-0.5at%Fe resistance thermometers in recent years, the possible re-starting of the production of such thermometers in Yunnan (China) was explored by Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM). Ten prototypes of the new production were made available in early 2006. The paper reports the preliminary data from the testing performed to date on these prototypes at National Institute of Metrology (NIM) and Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych (INTiBS). Although a problem with the alloy composition was detected, the reproducibility results on thermal cycling are very encouraging. Resistance-temperature ( R- T) characteristics below 30 K, though not identical with those of similar thermometers formerly available from Tinsley and VNIIFTRI, are still suitable for accurate metrology.

  16. Noise thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Brixy, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1996-03-01

    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs.

  17. Kitchen Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or in bird) 165 Eggs and Egg Dishes Eggs Cook until yolk and white are firm Egg dishes 160 Leftovers and Casseroles 165 *These temperatures are recommended for consumer cooking. They are not intended for processing, institutional, or ...

  18. Ionic thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strnad, M.

    1975-01-01

    An original method of temperature measurement based on conductivity changes near the phase transition point of ionic compounds and suitable for the range from 200 to 700 0 C according to the thermometric compound used, is given. By choosing between two approaches it is posible to evaluate either a discrete value of temperature or continuous measurement in a range to about 50 0 C below the phase transition point of thermometric compounds. The extreme nonlinearity of conductivity of the chosen group of ionic crystals used as well as the technical applications developed in the laboratories have not previously been published. The aim of the research is the application of this measuring method for temperature indication in nuclear reactors. Preliminary tests in radiation fields in an experimental reactor are yielding a real hope in this direction. (author)

  19. Noise thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Brixy, H.; Kakuta, Tsunemi.

    1996-03-01

    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs

  20. Use of infrared thermometer technique in irrigation scheduling of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm TEKELİOĞLU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to assess crop water stress index (CWSI and to determine irrigation schedule of pomegranate using infrared thermometer technique. Treatments with three replications were irrigated every three and six days intervals, as much as 0.50 (S1, 0.75 (S2, 1.00 (S3, and 1.25 (S4 of Class A pan evaporation. Additionally, an unirrigated plot was also formed. The equations obtained for non-water stress baseline is Tc-Ta=0.645VPD-4.338. The equation of full water stressed upper baseline obtained from data taken from branches of pomegranate plant cut in different days is given by Tc-Ta= 0.0489VPD+2.8734. According to the results obtained, it is concluded that infrared thermometer can be used for irrigation scheduling of the pomegranate plants in Antalya conditions. When using this technique in Antalya conditions, it is suggested to keep the seasonal mean CWSI value approximately 0.12 and the index value of 0.40 can be used to start the irrigation. Additionally, it is suggested that the amount of irrigation can be determined as much as the amount of evaporation measured until the index value reaches 0.40.

  1. Bilateral comparison for determining the dynamic characteristic values of contact thermometers in fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Augustin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In applicable standards and sets of rules (VDI/VDE, 2014; DIN, 2010, 2017, recommendations are made concerning the types of experiments for determining the dynamic parameters in fluids (flowing water and flowing air under well-defined conditions. In the data sheets of the thermometer manufacturers, quite different specifications can be found, such as time percentage values or time constants. Only a few thermometer manufacturers specify the medium and flow conditions under which these parameters have been determined. Above all, it is not common practice to indicate a measurement uncertainty for the dynamic parameters found. In Augustin et al. (2017, a first model for the indication of the measurement uncertainty of dynamic parameters in flowing air was presented.The present paper describes the results of a bilateral comparison made for the first time for determining dynamic parameters in the laboratories of the JUMO GmbH & Co. KG Fulda company and at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the TU Ilmenau. In doing so, two type-N thermocouples with different diameters were investigated in experimental facilities with flowing water and flowing air. Subsequently, the dynamic parameters found were compared with each other. The differences revealed mainly resulted from plant-specific parameters.

  2. Assessing the accuracy of globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrit, N. G.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Lahimer, A. A.; Elayeb, O. K.

    2017-11-01

    Assessing outdoor human thermal comfort and urban climate quality require experimental investigation of microclimatic conditions and their variations in open urban spaces. For this, it is essential to provide quantitative information on air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and mean radiant temperature. These parameters can be quantified directly except mean radiant temperature (Tmrt). The most accurate method to quantify Tmrt is integral radiation measurements (3-D shortwave and long-wave) which require using expensive radiometer instruments. To overcome this limitation the well-known globe thermometer method was suggested to calculate Tmrt. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using indoor globe thermometer method in predicting outdoor mean radiant temperature under Malaysia tropical microclimate. Globe thermometer method using small and large sizes of black-painted copper globes (50mm, 150mm) were used to estimate Tmrt and compare it with the reference Tmrt estimated by integral radiation method. The results revealed that the globe thermometer method considerably overestimated Tmrt during the middle of the day and slightly underestimated it in the morning and late evening. The difference between the two methods was obvious when the amount of incoming solar radiation was high. The results also showed that the effect of globe size on the estimated Tmrt is mostly small. Though, the estimated Tmrt by the small globe showed a relatively large amount of scattering caused by rapid changes in radiation and wind speed.

  3. Dual-sensing porphyrin-containing copolymer nanosensor as full-spectrum colorimeter and ultra-sensitive thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Yuan, Jinying; Kang, Yan; Cai, Zhinan; Zhou, Lilin; Yin, Yingwu

    2010-04-28

    A porphyrin-containing copolymer has dual-sensing in response to metal ions and temperature as a novel nanosensor. Triggered by ions, the sensor exhibits full-color tunable behavior as a cationic detector and colorimeter. Responding to temperature, the sensor displays an "isothermal" thermochromic point as an ultra-sensitive thermometer.

  4. Tympanic ear thermometer assessment of body temperature among patients with cognitive disturbances. An acceptable and ethically desirable alternative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadal, Lena; Fog, Lisbet; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of a possible relation between body temperature measurements by the current generation of tympanic ear and rectal thermometers. In Denmark, a national guideline recommends the rectal measurement. Subsequently, the rectal thermometers and tympanic ear devices are the most frequently used and first choice in Danish hospital wards. Cognitive changes constitute challenges with cooperating in rectal temperature assessments. With regard to diagnosing, ethics, safety and the patients' dignity, the tympanic ear thermometer might comprise a desirable alternative to rectal noninvasive measurement of body temperature during in-hospital-based neurorehabilitation. A prospective, descriptive cohort study. Consecutive inclusion of 27 patients. Linear regression models were used to analyse 284 simultaneous temperature measurements. Ethical approval for this study was granted by the Danish Data Protection Agency, and the study was completed in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration 2008. About 284 simultaneous rectal and ear temperature measurements on 27 patients were analysed. The patient-wise variability of measured temperatures was significantly higher for the ear measurements. Patient-wise linear regressions for the 25 patients with at least three pairs of simultaneous ear and rectal temperature measurements showed large interpatient variability of the association. A linear relationship between the rectal body temperature assessment and the temperature assessment employing the tympanic thermometer is weak. Both measuring methods reflect variance in temperature, but ear measurements showed larger variation. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saubamea, B.

    1998-12-01

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  6. Determination of mean molecular weights in organic reactor coolants. III. Differential cryoscopy with thermoelectric thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerro, E.; Carreira, M.

    1968-01-01

    The solubility problems raised by some components of the polymeric residue of irradiated polyphenolic coolants, which make it necessary to operate with very small samples, have been solved by means of a differential cryoscopic technique using a thermoelectric thermometer (thermal) as sensitive element. The method is based on the direct measurement of the difference between the freezing points of the investigated solution and of a reference solution whose concentration may be changed at will. The change of Δ V (mV) versus c(molal) is linear, the equivalent point being determined either analytically or graphically depending on the required accuracy. The method has been tested by measurements on pure polyphenyls, using diphenyl ether as solvent. It has been also applied to the main prospective coolants for the DON reactor. Working with 10 2 molal solutions the accuracy is better than ± 2 per cent. (Author) 2 refs

  7. Development of a platinum resistance thermometer on the silicon substrate for phase change studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qingjun; Chen, Ya-Chi; Tsai, Chialun; DeNatale, Jeffrey F

    2012-01-01

    Resistance temperature detectors are commonly used measurement sensors in heat transfer studies. In many resistance temperature detectors, the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) is chemically stable, has a wide temperature measurement range and possesses high measurement accuracy. In phase change studies of carbon nanotubes, bi-porous structures for microelectronic thermal management, 100 nm thick PRTs are developed on silicon substrates with 10 nm titanium adhesive to achieve precise and interface-free temperature measurements. After an annealing at 375 °C, the PRT samples are calibrated at a temperature range from 20 to 180 °C. Measurement hysteresis of temperature appears in thermal cycles. Electrical resistance tends to become low during all heating periods, which establishes the maximum measurement deviation of 10 °C. Experimental results from two different thin-film PRTs indicate that accurate and repeatable temperature measurements can be achieved by either reducing heating speed or using data in the cooling period. (paper)

  8. Magnetic Thermometer: Thermal effect on the Agglomeration of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Daeseong; Kim, Hackjin

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the agglomeration of magnetite nanoparticles in the aqueous solution under magnetic field by measuring temporal change of magnetic weight. The magnetic weight corresponds to the force due to the magnetization of magnetic materials. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized and used in this work. When the aqueous solution of magnetite nanoparticle is placed under magnetic field, the magnetic weight of the sample jumps instantaneously by Neel and Brown mechanisms and thereafter increases steadily following a stretched exponential function as the nanoparticles agglomerate, which results from the distribution of energy barriers involved in the dynamics. Thermal motions of nanoparticles in the agglomerate perturb the ordered structure of the agglomerate to reduce the magnetic weight. Fluctuation of the structural order of the agglomerate by temperature change is much faster than the formation of agglomerate and explained well with the Boltzmann distribution, which suggests that the magnetic weight of the agglomerate works as a magnetic thermometer.

  9. International comparison of resistance thermometers between NMIs from Spain, Mexico and Andean countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Ruiz, V. C.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-09-01

    An international comparison on semi-standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This paper shows the details of the comparison and the final results as they were presented in the approved final report of the comparison in September of 2005.

  10. Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, Jorman A.

    2000-01-01

    Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C

  11. Use of infrared radiation thermometers for temperature control of plastic and paper webs in electric infrared ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Using infrared radiation thermometers in conjunction with infrared heater systems requires special considerations to ensure that accuracy will be achieved. If the thermometer picks up infrared radiation from the heaters, faulty readings can occur. Two methods are generally employed to eliminate this interference. Sight tubes are used to block infrared rays from entering the sensor lens, and a thermometer is chosen which responds to a different wavelength than that being emitted from the infrared heaters. The main types of electric infrared heaters are: (a) screw-in bulbs (shortwave); (b) evacuated tungsten filament tubes (shortwave); (c) quartz tubes (medium wave); (d) quartz panel heaters (medium wave); (e) Ceramic heaters (medium-long wave); (f) metal sheath heaters (medium-long wave). Positioning of a sensor on a production line is dictated by the product being processed and the desired use of the temperature information. The most common location for a sensor is just after the infrared unit. The pyrometer information can be used for setting up the process, for quality control, for heater failure detection, and for control of the heaters. For wide web application in which uniformity across the web is essential, traversing sensors can be used to scan the web to ensure a uniform heating of the product. This information then can be used to control infrared profiling zones which are positioned across the web. In plastics applications, the thermometer most commonly is positioned also at the exit end of the infrared unit. Control functions are similar to those just listed. In some indexing machines, the plastic is sensed while still in the last index station, and the index an be initiated by the thermometer

  12. Reexamining age, race, site, and thermometer type as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults – A comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Linda S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the recent international vigilance regarding disease assessment, accurate measurement of body temperature has become increasingly important. Yet, trusted low-tech, portable mercury glass thermometers are no longer available. Thus, comparing accuracy of mercury-free thermometers with mercury devices is essential. Study purposes were 1 to examine age, race, site as variables affecting temperature measurement in adults, and 2 to compare clinical accuracy of low-tech Galinstan-in-glass device to mercury-in-glass at oral, axillary, groin, and rectal sites in adults. Methods Setting 176 bed accredited healthcare facility, rural northwest US Participants Convenience sample (N = 120 of hospitalized persons ≥ 18 years old. Instruments Temperatures (°F measured at oral, skin (simultaneous, immediately followed by rectal sites with four each mercury-glass (BD and Galinstan-glass (Geratherm thermometers; 10 minute dwell times. Results Participants averaged 61.6 years (SD 17.9, 188 pounds (SD 55.3; 61% female; race: 85% White, 8.3% Native Am., 4.2% Hispanic, 1.7 % Asian, 0.8% Black. For both mercury and Galinstan-glass thermometers, within-subject temperature readings were highest rectally; followed by oral, then skin sites. Galinstan assessments demonstrated rectal sites 0.91°F > oral and ≅ 1.3°F > skin sites. Devices strongly correlated between and across sites. Site difference scores between devices showed greatest variability at skin sites; least at rectal site. 95% confidence intervals of difference scores by site (°F: oral (0.142 – 0.265, axilla (0.167 – 0.339, groin (0.037 – 0.321, and rectal (-0.111 – 0.111. Race correlated with age, temperature readings each site and device. Conclusion Temperature readings varied by age, race. Mercury readings correlated with Galinstan thermometer readings at all sites. Site mean differences between devices were considered clinically insignificant. Still considered

  13. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, T.; Cornish, K.; Rinehart, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed. PMID:25922765

  14. Bilateral Comparison of Mercury and Gallium Fixed-Point Cells Using Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojkovski, J.; Veliki, T.; Zvizdić, D.; Drnovšek, J.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of project EURAMET 1127 (Bilateral comparison of triple point of mercury and melting point of gallium) in the field of thermometry is to compare realization of a triple point of mercury (-38.8344 °C) and melting point of gallium (29.7646 °C) between the Slovenian national laboratory MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and the Croatian national laboratory HMI/FSB-LPM using a long-stem 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). MIRS/UL/FE-LMK participated in a number of intercomparisons on the level of EURAMET. On the other hand, the HMI/LPM-FSB laboratory recently acquired new fixed-point cells which had to be evaluated in the process of intercomparisons. A quartz-sheathed SPRT has been selected and calibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB at the triple point of mercury, the melting point of gallium, and the water triple point. A second set of measurements was made at MIRS/UL/FE-LMK. After its return, the SPRT was again recalibrated at HMI/LPM-FSB. In the comparison, the W value of the SPRT has been used. Results of the bilateral intercomparison confirmed that the new gallium cell of the HMI/LPM-FSB has a value that is within uncertainty limits of both laboratories that participated in the exercise, while the mercury cell experienced problems. After further research, a small leakage in the mercury fixed-point cell has been found.

  15. Magnetic Nanoparticle Thermometer: An Investigation of Minimum Error Transmission Path and AC Bias Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhou Du

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission module of a magnetic nanoparticle thermometer (MNPT was established in this study to analyze the error sources introduced during the signal flow in the hardware system. The underlying error sources that significantly affected the precision of the MNPT were determined through mathematical modeling and simulation. A transfer module path with the minimum error in the hardware system was then proposed through the analysis of the variations of the system error caused by the significant error sources when the signal flew through the signal transmission module. In addition, a system parameter, named the signal-to-AC bias ratio (i.e., the ratio between the signal and AC bias, was identified as a direct determinant of the precision of the measured temperature. The temperature error was below 0.1 K when the signal-to-AC bias ratio was higher than 80 dB, and other system errors were not considered. The temperature error was below 0.1 K in the experiments with a commercial magnetic fluid (Sample SOR-10, Ocean Nanotechnology, Springdale, AR, USA when the hardware system of the MNPT was designed with the aforementioned method.

  16. The Distress Thermometer and its validity: a first psychometric study in Indonesian women with breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Iskandarsyah

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to translate the Distress Thermometer (DT into Indonesian, test its validity in Indonesian women with breast cancer and determine norm scores of the Indonesian DT for clinically relevant distress. METHODS: First, the original version of the DT was translated using a forward and backward translation procedure according to the guidelines. Next, a group of 120 breast cancer patients who were treated at the Outpatient Surgical Oncology Clinic in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Indonesia completed a standard socio-demographic form, the DT and the Problem List, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the WHO Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF. RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses identified an area under the curve = 0.81 when compared to the HADS cutoff score of 15. A cutoff score of 5 on the DT had the best sensitivity (0.81 and specificity (0.64. Patients who scored above this cutoff reported more problems in the practical, family, emotional, spiritual/religious and physical domains (30 out of 36 problems, p-value<0.05 than patients below the cutoff score. Patients at advanced stages of cancer experienced more emotional and physical problems. Patient's distress level was negatively correlated with overall quality of life, general health and all quality of life domains. CONCLUSIONS: The DT was found to be a valid tool for screening distress in Indonesian breast cancer patients. We recommend using a cutoff score of 5 in this population.

  17. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Song; Wenyuan, Li

    2014-06-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW.

  18. A 6-bit 4 GS/s pseudo-thermometer segmented CMOS DAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijun; Li Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    A 6-bit 4 GS/s, high-speed and power-efficient DAC for ultra-high-speed transceivers in 60 GHz band millimeter wave technology is presented. A novel pseudo-thermometer architecture is proposed to realize a good compromise between the fast conversion speed and the chip area. Symmetrical and compact floor planning and layout techniques including tree-like routing, cross-quading and common-centroid method are adopted to guarantee the chip is fully functional up to near-Nyquist frequency in a standard 0.18 μm CMOS process. Post simulation results corroborate the feasibility of the designed DAC, which canperform good static and dynamic linearity without calibration. DNL errors and INL errors can be controlled within ±0.28 LSB and ±0.26 LSB, respectively. SFDR at 4 GHz clock frequency for a 1.9 GHz near-Nyquist sinusoidal output signal is 40.83 dB and the power dissipation is less than 37 mW. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Design of a temperature measurement and feedback control system based on an improved magnetic nanoparticle thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhongzhou; Sun, Yi; Liu, Jie; Su, Rijian; Yang, Ming; Li, Nana; Gan, Yong; Ye, Na

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia, as a novel cancer treatment, requires precise temperature control at 315 K-319 K (42 °C-46 °C). However, the traditional temperature measurement method cannot obtain the real-time temperature in vivo, resulting in a lack of temperature feedback during the heating process. In this study, the feasibility of temperature measurement and feedback control using magnetic nanoparticles is proposed and demonstrated. This technique could be applied in hyperthermia. Specifically, the triangular-wave temperature measurement method is improved by reconstructing the original magnetization response of magnetic nanoparticles based on a digital phase-sensitive detection algorithm. The standard deviation of the temperature in the magnetic nanoparticle thermometer is about 0.1256 K. In experiments, the temperature fluctuation of the temperature measurement and feedback control system using magnetic nanoparticles is less than 0.5 K at the expected temperature of 315 K. This shows the feasibility of the temperature measurement method for temperature control. The method provides a new solution for temperature measurement and feedback control in hyperthermia.

  20. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  1. Application of radcal gamma thermometer assemblies for coolant monitoring in Ringhals W-PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Romslo, K.; Moen, Oe.

    1982-07-01

    A study has been carried out investigating how Radcal Gamma Thermometers (RGTs) can be used for coolant inventory and core cooling monitoring in the Ringhals Westinghouse PWRs. The study concludes that two types of RGT rods would be required to come up with a complete solution covering both coolant inventory and core cooling monitoring. Above-core RGT rods will be installed in the guide tubes housing the outlet thermocouples. The Above-Core RGT rod is designed with 8 sensors where 4 are located in the upper head and 4 in the plenum. This rod will give an early warning about loss of coolant or void formation in the space from top of fuel to the reactor lid. A ninth thermocouple in this rod will measure the core outlet temperature as did the thermocouple the RGT rod replaced. The Above-Core RGT rods will give an early warning about approach to Inadequate Core Cooling (ICC) by measuring the collapsed water level inside the thermocouple guide tube. Four such rods are recommended per reactor. In-Core RGT rods are inserted from the seal table. These rods will give the information required for intelligent accident management in case ICC has developed. The signals obtainable from the rods will give direct information about fuel decay heat, core heat transfer conditions, core temperature and core coolant water level. The In-Core RGT rods can be used for local power monitoring during normal operation. Such a system can be shown to be economically motivated from a reactor operation point of view due to increased sensor lifetime, more accurate local power measurements, simpler physics corrections to signals, lower exposure to maintenance personnel. The signal transmission to the control room has been discussed, and ways have been indicated for presenting the information available to the operators. (Authors)

  2. Accuracy of the Distress Thermometer for home care patients with palliative care needs in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüller, Johannes; Küttner, Stefanie; Foldenauer, Ann Christina; Rolke, Roman; Pastrana, Tania

    2017-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the accuracy of the German version of the Distress Thermometer (DT) compared with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with palliative care needs living at home. Ours was a 15-month cross-sectional study beginning in September of 2013 in Germany with consecutive patients cared for by a palliative home care service. The survey was implemented during the initial visit by a home care team. Patients were excluded if they were under 18 years of age, mentally or physically unable to complete the assessment questionnaires as judged by their healthcare worker, or unable to understand the German language. During the first encounter, the DT and HADS were applied, and sociodemographic and medical data were collected. A total of 89 persons completed both the HADS and DT questionnaires (response rate = 59.7%; mean age = 67 years; female = 55.1%; married = 65.2%; living home with relatives = 73.0%; oncological condition = 92.1%; Karnofsky Performance Scale [KPS] score: 0-40 = 30.3%, 50-70 = 57.3%, >80 = 6.7%). The mean DT score was 6.3 (±2.3), with 84.3% of participants scoring above the DT cutoff (≥4). The mean HADStotal score was 17.9 (±7.8), where 64% of participants had a total HADS score (HADStotal) ≥15, 51.7% reported anxiety (HADSanxiety ≥ 8), and 73% reported depression (HADSdepression ≥ 8). Using the HADS as a gold standard, a DT cutoff score ≥5 was optimal for identifying severe distress in patients with palliative care needs, with a sensitivity of 93.0%, a specificity of 34.4%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 73.3%, and likelihood ratios LR+ = 1.42 (home with palliative care needs in order to offer adequate support.

  3. The Distress Thermometer assessed in women at risk of developing hereditary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, S; Duivenvoorden, H J; Passchier, J; Bannink, M; Tan, M B M; Oldenmenger, W H; Seynaeve, C; van der Rijt, C C D

    2009-10-01

    The Distress Thermometer (DT) is a promising instrument to get insight into distress experienced by cancer patients. At our Family Cancer Clinic the DT, including an adapted problem list, was completed by 100 women at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer (mean age 45.2 years; SD: 10.5). Additionally, the women filled in either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as psychological component (n=48) or the somatic subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90 as somatic component (n=50) to identify associations with the DT-score. Further, the women filled in an evaluation form. The median score on the DT was 2 (range: 0-9). With regression analysis adjusted for age, the contribution of mood and somatic complaints, respectively, was investigated. The standardized regression coefficient for anxiety was 0.32 (ns), for depression 0.14 (ns) and for the somatic subscale 0.49 (pdepression was 16%, and for somatic complaints 24%. The differences between the coefficients were not significant. Evaluation forms were returned by 73 women. In 50% of the cases, the physician had discussed the DT/problem list, which was appreciated by the majority of these women (80%). Sixty-two percent of the women would recommend the use of the DT for other patients. The use of the DT/problem list seems promising for the current population, and was appreciated by the majority of the women. As mood and somatic complaints did not differ significantly in explaining the experienced distress, other candidate factors need to be examined.

  4. Thermal limits validation of gamma thermometer power adaption in CFE Laguna Verde 2 reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, G.; Banfield, J. [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC, Global Nuclear Fuel, Americas LLC, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmingtonm, North Carolina (United States); Avila N, A., E-mail: Gabriel.Cuevas-Vivas@ge.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Carretera Cardel-Nautla Km 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    This paper presents the status of GEH work on Gamma Thermometer (GT) validation using the signals of the instruments installed in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. The long-standing technical collaboration between Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas LLC (GNF) and GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GEH) is moving forward with solid steps to a final implementation of GTs in a nuclear reactor core. Each GT is integrated into a slightly modified Local Power Range Monitor (LPRM) assembly. Six instrumentation strings are equipped with two gamma field detectors for a total of twenty-four bundles whose calculated powers are adapted to the instrumentation readings in addition to their use as calibration instruments for LPRMs. Since November 2007, the six GT instrumentation strings have been operable with almost no degradation by the strong neutron and gamma fluxes in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. In this paper, the thermal limits, Critical Power Ratio (CPR) and maximum Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR), of bundles directly monitored by either Traverse In-core Probes (TIPs) or GTs are used to establish validation results that confirm the viability of TIP system replacement with automatic fixed in-core probes (AFIPs, GTs, in a Boiling Water Reactor. The new GNF steady-state reactor core simulator AETNA02 is used to obtain power and exposure distribution. Using this code with an updated methodology for GT power adaption, a reduced value of the GT interpolation uncertainty is obtained that is fed into the LHGR calculation. This new method achieves margin recovery for the adapted thermal limits for use in the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) or any other BWR in the future that employs a GT based AFIP system for local power measurements. (Author)

  5. The workings of a molecular thermometer: the vibrational excitation of carbon tetrachloride by a solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Polly B; Matus, Kira J M; Stratt, Richard M

    2004-09-15

    An intriguing energy-transfer experiment was recently carried out in methanol/carbon tetrachloride solutions. It turned out to be possible to watch vibrational energy accumulating in three of carbon tetrachloride's modes following initial excitation of O-H and C-H stretches in methanol, in effect making those CCl(4) modes "molecular thermometers" reporting on methanol's relaxation. In this paper, we use the example of a CCl(4) molecule dissolved in liquid argon to examine, on a microscopic level, just how this kind of thermal activation occurs in liquid solutions. The fact that even the lowest CCl(4) mode has a relatively high frequency compared to the intermolecular vibrational band of the solvent means that the only solute-solvent dynamics relevant to the vibrational energy transfer will be extraordinarily local, so much so that it is only the force between the instantaneously most prominent Cl and solvent atoms that will significantly contribute to the vibrational friction. We use this observation, within the context of a classical instantaneous-pair Landau-Teller calculation, to show that energy flows into CCl(4) primarily via one component of the nominally degenerate, lowest frequency, E mode and does so fast enough to make CCl(4) an excellent choice for monitoring methanol relaxation. Remarkably, within this theory, the different symmetries and appearances of the different CCl(4) modes have little bearing on how well they take up energy from their surroundings--it is only how high their vibrational frequencies are relative to the solvent intermolecular vibrational band edge that substantially favors one mode over another.

  6. Thermal limits validation of gamma thermometer power adaption in CFE Laguna Verde 2 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, G.; Banfield, J.; Avila N, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the status of GEH work on Gamma Thermometer (GT) validation using the signals of the instruments installed in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. The long-standing technical collaboration between Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Global Nuclear Fuel - Americas LLC (GNF) and GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Americas LLC (GEH) is moving forward with solid steps to a final implementation of GTs in a nuclear reactor core. Each GT is integrated into a slightly modified Local Power Range Monitor (LPRM) assembly. Six instrumentation strings are equipped with two gamma field detectors for a total of twenty-four bundles whose calculated powers are adapted to the instrumentation readings in addition to their use as calibration instruments for LPRMs. Since November 2007, the six GT instrumentation strings have been operable with almost no degradation by the strong neutron and gamma fluxes in the Laguna Verde Unit 2 reactor core. In this paper, the thermal limits, Critical Power Ratio (CPR) and maximum Linear Heat Generation Rate (LHGR), of bundles directly monitored by either Traverse In-core Probes (TIPs) or GTs are used to establish validation results that confirm the viability of TIP system replacement with automatic fixed in-core probes (AFIPs, GTs, in a Boiling Water Reactor. The new GNF steady-state reactor core simulator AETNA02 is used to obtain power and exposure distribution. Using this code with an updated methodology for GT power adaption, a reduced value of the GT interpolation uncertainty is obtained that is fed into the LHGR calculation. This new method achieves margin recovery for the adapted thermal limits for use in the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) or any other BWR in the future that employs a GT based AFIP system for local power measurements. (Author)

  7. A Field Assessment of a Prototype Meter for Measuring the Wet-Bulb Globe-Thermometer Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, J. D.

    1968-01-01

    A prototype electronic instrument for the direct measurement of the wet-bulb globe-thermometer index is described. An assessment is made of its accuracy, as compared with W.B.G.T. indices calculated from conventional thermometric data, and a comparison is made between W.B.G.T. values read from the meter and effective or corrected effective temperatures derived from separate thermometric and air velocity recording instruments in the same climates. The instrument proved to be reliable and accurate over a wide range of climates and is a useful self-contained device for use in habitability surveys and similar investigations. Images PMID:5663429

  8. Application of Monte Carlo Method for Evaluation of Uncertainties of ITS-90 by Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenčár, Rudolf; Sopkuliak, Peter; Palenčár, Jakub; Ďuriš, Stanislav; Suroviak, Emil; Halaj, Martin

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of uncertainties of the temperature measurement by standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrated at the defining fixed points according to ITS-90 is a problem that can be solved in different ways. The paper presents a procedure based on the propagation of distributions using the Monte Carlo method. The procedure employs generation of pseudo-random numbers for the input variables of resistances at the defining fixed points, supposing the multivariate Gaussian distribution for input quantities. This allows taking into account the correlations among resistances at the defining fixed points. Assumption of Gaussian probability density function is acceptable, with respect to the several sources of uncertainties of resistances. In the case of uncorrelated resistances at the defining fixed points, the method is applicable to any probability density function. Validation of the law of propagation of uncertainty using the Monte Carlo method is presented on the example of specific data for 25 Ω standard platinum resistance thermometer in the temperature range from 0 to 660 °C. Using this example, we demonstrate suitability of the method by validation of its results.

  9. Fabrication of a mini multi-fixed-point cell for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragay-Enot, Monalisa; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Yong-Gyoo

    2017-07-01

    A mini multi-fixed-point cell (length 118 mm, diameter 33 mm) containing three materials (In-Zn eutectic (mass fraction 3.8% Zn), Sn and Pb) in a single crucible was designed and fabricated for the easy and economical fixed-point calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs) for use in industrial temperature measurements. The melting and freezing behaviors of the metals were investigated and the phase transition temperatures were determined using a commercial dry-block calibrator. Results showed that the melting plateaus are generally easy to realize and are reproducible, flatter and of longer duration. On the other hand, the freezing process is generally difficult, especially for Sn, due to the high supercooling required to initiate freezing. The observed melting temperatures at optimum set conditions were 143.11 °C (In-Zn), 231.70 °C (Sn) and 327.15 °C (Pb) with expanded uncertainties (k  = 2) of 0.12 °C, 0.10 °C and 0.13 °C, respectively. This multi-fixed-point cell can be treated as a sole reference temperature-generating system. Based on the results, the realization of melting points of the mini multi-fixed-point cell can be recommended for the direct calibration of IPRTs in industrial applications without the need for a reference thermometer.

  10. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keawprasert, T. [National Institute of Metrology Thailand, Pathum thani (Thailand); Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-11

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody.

  11. A comparison of absolute calibrations of a radiation thermometer based on a monochromator and a tunable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keawprasert, T.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, D. R.; Sperling, A.; Schuster, M.; Nevas, S.

    2013-01-01

    An LP3 radiation thermometer was absolutely calibrated at a newly developed monochromator-based set-up and the TUneable Lasers in Photometry (TULIP) facility of PTB in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 1100 nm. At both facilities, the spectral radiation of the respective sources irradiates an integrating sphere, thus generating uniform radiance across its precision aperture. The spectral irradiance of the integrating sphere is determined via an effective area of a precision aperture and a Si trap detector, traceable to the primary cryogenic radiometer of PTB. Due to the limited output power from the monochromator, the absolute calibration was performed with the measurement uncertainty of 0.17 % (k= 1), while the respective uncertainty at the TULIP facility is 0.14 %. Calibration results obtained by the two facilities were compared in terms of spectral radiance responsivity, effective wavelength and integral responsivity. It was found that the measurement results in integral responsivity at the both facilities are in agreement within the expanded uncertainty (k= 2). To verify the calibration accuracy, the absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer was used to measure the thermodynamic freezing temperatures of the PTB gold fixed-point blackbody

  12. Thermometer by optical fiber for ampacity studies in overhead transmission lines; Termometro a fibra optica para estudo da ampacidade em linhas de transmissao aereas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, L.C.G.; Kawase, L.R.; Silva Filho, J.I. da; Silva, J.M.M. da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Igarashi, A.Y. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This article suggests the utilization of thermometers constructed from optical fibers technology in overhead power transmission lines. This will help the studies in progress about the electric power systems ampacity. It also presents the advantages of using optical fibers instead of conventional thermometers. As an example, the fact that the optical fibers are dielectric and make possible the remote monitoring. It is also shown a possibility of introducing such measuring system in electric junctions where OPGW cables are used 4 refs., 4 figs.; e-mail: liliana at fis.puc-rio.br

  13. A new garnet-orthopyroxene thermometer developed: method, results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotos, Spyros-Christos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-05-01

    The Fe-Mg exchange reaction between garnet and orthopyroxene is a robust geothermometer that has extensively been used to retrieve metamorphic temperatures from granulitic and peridotitic/pyroxenitic lithologies with important implications on the thermal state of the continental lithosphere. More than 800 experimental mineral pairs from both simple and complex systems were gleaned from the literature covering the P-T range 0.5-15 GPa / 800-1800°C. Grt was treated as a senary (Py, Alm, Grs, Sps, Kno and Uv), whereas Opx as a septenary (En, Fs, Di, Hd, FeTs, MgTs and MgCrTs) solid solution. For Opx, Al in the M1 site was calculated following Carswell (1991) and Fe/Mg equipartitioning between sites was assumed. A mixing on sites model was employed to calculate mole fractions of components for both minerals. With regard to the excess free energy of solution and activity coefficients the formalism of Mukhopadhyay et al. (1993) was adopted treating both minerals as symmetric regular solutions. Calibration was achieved in multiple steps; in each step ΔS was allowed to vary until the standard deviation of the differences between experimental and calculated temperature for all experiments was minimised. The experiment with the largest absolute relative deviation in temperature was then eliminated and the process was repeated. The new thermometer reproduces the experimental data to within 50°C and is independent of P-T-X variations within the bounds of the calibrant data set. Application of our new calibration to metamorphosed crustal and mantle rocks that occur both as massifs and xenoliths in volcanics suggested the following results. Granulite terranes have recorded differences in temperature between peak and re-equilibration conditions in the range 100-340°C, primarily depending on the mechanism and rate of exhumation. Several provinces retain memory of discrete cooling pulses (e.g. Palni Hills, South Harris, Adirondacks, E. Antarctic Belt, Aldan Shield) whereas

  14. Dealing with the size-of-source effect in the calibration of direct-reading radiation thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P. [Measurement Standards Laboratory of New Zealand, PO Box 31-310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-09-11

    The majority of general-purpose low-temperature handheld radiation thermometers are severely affected by the size-of-source effect (SSE). Calibration of these instruments is pointless unless the SSE is accounted for in the calibration process. Traditional SSE measurement techniques, however, are costly and time consuming, and because the instruments are direct-reading in temperature, traditional SSE results are not easily interpretable, particularly by the general user. This paper describes a simplified method for measuring the SSE, suitable for second-tier calibration laboratories and requiring no additional equipment, and proposes a means of reporting SSE results on a calibration certificate that should be easily understood by the non-specialist user.

  15. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  16. The Fast Alternative Cryogenic Experiment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Alfred; Holmes, Warren

    2000-01-01

    One of the challenges in the area of cryogenics for space exploration in the next millennium is providing the capability for inexpensive, frequent, access to space. Faced with this challenge during the International Space Station (ISS) build era, when other Space Shuttle manifesting opportunities are unavailable, a "proof of concept" cryostat has been developed to demonstrate the ability to accommodate low temperature science investigations within the constraints of the Hitchhiker siderail carrier. The Hitchhiker siderail carrier is available on a "mass available" basis during the ISS build era. In fact, several hitchhiker payloads flew with the deployment of the Unity module. Hitchhiker siderail carrier payloads have historically flown an average of about four times a year. A hybrid Solid Neon - Superfluid Helium cryostat has been developed with Janis Research Company to accommodate instruments of 16.5 cm diameter and 30 cm. length. This hybrid approach was taken in part to provide adequate on-orbit lifetime for instruments with high (conducted) heat loads from the instrumentation wiring. Mass, volume, lifetime and the launch hold scenario were all design drivers. In addition, with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, a multichannel VME architecture Germanium Resistance Thermometer (GRT) readout and heater control servo system has been developed. In a flight system, the cryostat and electronics payloads would be umbilically attached in a paired Hitchhiker siderail mount, and permit on-orbit command and telemetry capability. The results of performance tests of both the cryostat, and a helium sample instrument will be presented. The instrument features a self contained, miniaturized, nano-Kelvin resolution High Resolution Thermometer (HRT). This high level of thermal resolution is achieved through the utilization of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). Although developed for the Low Temperature Microgravity Fundamental Physics

  17. Temperature and other data were collected using thermometer and bottle casts in the Chukchi and Bering Sea from 1947-02-11 to 1949-07-26 (NODC Accession 9700081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, oxygen, and salinity data were collected using thermometer and bottle casts from the USS CACOPAN, USS NEREUS, and HMCS CEDARWOOD in the Chukchi...

  18. Prevalence and related factors of psychological distress among cancer inpatients using routine Distress Thermometer and Chinese Health Questionnaire screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou YJ

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jie Chiou,1 Nien-Mu Chiu,1 Liang-Jen Wang,2 Shau-Hsuan Li,3 Chun-Yi Lee,1 Ming-Kung Wu,1 Chien-Chih Chen,1 Yi-Shan Wu,1 Yu Lee1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3Department of Hematology-Oncology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Clinical practice guidelines suggest routine screening for distress among cancer patients for immediate early psychiatric care. However, previous studies focusing on routine screening for psychological distress among cancer inpatients in Taiwan are scant. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and related factors of psychological distress and mental illness among cancer inpatients in Taiwan. Patients and methods: This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review in a general hospital in southern Taiwan. Cancer inpatients were regularly screened by nursing staff using the Distress Thermometer and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire. Positive screening results on either instrument were followed by a non-commanded referral to psychiatrists for clinical psychiatric diagnosis and treatment. Results: Of the 810 participants in this study, 179 (22.1% were recognized as having psychological distress. Younger age (odds ratio [OR] =1.82, having head and neck cancer (OR =2.43, and having not received chemotherapy (OR =1.58 were significantly related to psychological distress. Among the 56 patients (31.3% with psychological distress who were referred to psychiatrists, the most common mental illness was adjustment disorder (n=22, 39.2%, followed by major depressive disorder (n=13, 23.2%, depressive disorder not otherwise specified (n=6, 10.7%, and anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (n=4, 7.1%. Conclusion: Our study indicated that cancer inpatients with psychological distress were more likely to be younger in age, have head and neck cancer, and have not

  19. Parent-Child Agreement Using the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and a Thermometer in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD experience high anxiety which often prompts clinical referral and requires intervention. This study aimed to compare parent and child reports on the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS and a child-reported “worry thermometer” in 88 children aged 8–13 years, 44 with ASD and 44 age, gender, and perceptual IQ matched typically developing children. There were no gender differences in child report on the SCAS and worry thermometers. Results indicated generally good correlations between parent and child self-reported SCAS symptoms for typically developing children but poor agreement in parent-child ASD dyads. The worry thermometer child-report did not reflect child or parent reports on the SCAS. Findings suggest 8–13-year-old children with ASD may have difficulties accurately reporting their anxiety levels. The clinical implications were discussed.

  20. Reviewing the Evidence Base for the Children and Young People Safety Thermometer (CYPST: A Mixed Studies Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Aston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify evidence to support use of specific harms for the development of a children and young people’s safety thermometer (CYPST. We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library post-1999 for studies in pediatric settings about pain, skin integrity, extravasation injury, and use of pediatric early warning scores (PEWS. Following screening, nine relevant articles were included. Convergent synthesis methods were used drawing on thematic analysis to combine findings from studies using a range of methods (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. A review of PEWS was identified so other studies on this issue were excluded. No relevant studies about extravasation injury were identified. The synthesized results therefore focused on pain and skin integrity. Measurement and perception of pain were complex and not always carried out according to best practice. Skin abrasions were common and mostly associated with device related injuries. The findings demonstrate a need for further work on perceptions of pain and effective communication of concerns about pain between parents and nursing staff. Strategies for reducing device-related injuries warrant further research focusing on prevention. Together with the review of PEWS, these synthesized findings support the inclusion of pain, skin integrity, and PEWS in the CYPST.

  1. Fiber-optic thermometer application of thermal radiation from rare-earth end-doped SiO2 fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumata, Toru; Morita, Kentaro; Komuro, Shuji; Aizawa, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Visible light thermal radiation from SiO 2 glass doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu were studied for the fiber-optic thermometer application based on the temperature dependence of thermal radiation. Thermal radiations according to Planck's law of radiation are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu at the temperature above 1100 K. Thermal radiations due to f-f transitions of rare-earth ions are observed from the SiO 2 fibers doped with Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb at the temperature above 900 K. Peak intensities of thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 fibers increase sensitively with temperature. Thermal activation energies of thermal radiations by f-f transitions seen in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb doped SiO 2 fibers are smaller than those from SiO 2 fibers doped with Y, La, Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, and Lu. Thermal radiation due to highly efficient f-f transitions in Nd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Yb ions emits more easily than usual thermal radiation process. Thermal radiations from rare-earth doped SiO 2 are potentially applicable for the fiber-optic thermometry above 900 K

  2. Patients' and clinicians' experiences of holistic needs assessment using a cancer distress thermometer and problem list: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Lucy; Paramasivan, Sangeetha; Harris, Susan; Campbell, Rona; Brennan, James; Hollingworth, William

    2016-08-01

    Psychosocial needs assessment is recommended for patients undergoing cancer treatment, but trials of effectiveness of assessment tools provide mixed results. This qualitative study aimed to understand how such tools are experienced by patients and clinicians in order to optimise use in the future. Qualitative interviews were used in a mixed-methods sequential design following a randomised controlled trial of needs assessment using the Distress Thermometer and Problem List (DT&PL), and explored patients' and clinicians' evaluations of the needs assessment process. Benefits of needs assessment using the DT&PL included the potential to detect hidden distress, allow opportunity for distress to be discussed, and to deliver outcomes to address problems. However, effectiveness and patient willingness to report all forms of distress could be hindered by: clinicians feeling ill-equipped to deal with 'non-physical' distress and patients questioning their appropriateness to do so; time constraints; insufficient support services and referral guidelines; inappropriate timing; and lack of follow-up. The benefits of a holistic needs assessment cannot be realised without matching time and frequency of administration to the dynamic nature of distress during cancer, and making changes to the context of delivery - for instance, providing protected time, increasing referral options and clinician training. Significant investment is needed to optimise potential benefits for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of malayalam version of national comprehensive cancer network distress thermometer and its feasibility in oncology patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Biji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN distress thermometer (DT in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. Aims: (1 To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2 To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. Settings and Design: This is a single-arm prospective observational study. The study was conducted at author's institution between December 8, 2015, and January 20, 2016 in the Department of Cancer Palliative Medicine. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the linguistic validation of the NCCN DT was done. In Phase 2, the feasibility, face validity, and utility of the translated of NCCN DT in accordance with QQ-10 too was done. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc. was used for analysis. Results: Ten patients were enrolled in Phase 2. The median age was 51.5 years and 40% of patients were male. All patients had completed at least basic education up to the primary level. The primary site of cancer was heterogeneous. The NCCN DT completion rate was 100%. The face validity, utility, reliability, and feasibility were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Malayalam validated DT has high face validity, utility, and it is feasible for its use.

  4. Validation of Malayalam Version of National Comprehensive Cancer Network Distress Thermometer and its Feasibility in Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biji, M S; Dessai, Sampada; Sindhu, N; Aravind, Sithara; Satheesan, B

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to translate and validate the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) distress thermometer (DT) in regional language " Malayalam" and to see the feasibility of using it in our patients. (1) To translate and validate the NCCN DT. (2) To study the feasibility of using validated Malayalam translated DT in Malabar Cancer center. This is a single-arm prospective observational study. The study was conducted at author's institution between December 8, 2015, and January 20, 2016 in the Department of Cancer Palliative Medicine. This was a prospective observational study carried out in two phases. In Phase 1, the linguistic validation of the NCCN DT was done. In Phase 2, the feasibility, face validity, and utility of the translated of NCCN DT in accordance with QQ-10 too was done. SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc. Released 2007. SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago, SPSS Inc.) was used for analysis. Ten patients were enrolled in Phase 2. The median age was 51.5 years and 40% of patients were male. All patients had completed at least basic education up to the primary level. The primary site of cancer was heterogeneous. The NCCN DT completion rate was 100%. The face validity, utility, reliability, and feasibility were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 90%, respectively. It can be concluded that the Malayalam validated DT has high face validity, utility, and it is feasible for its use.

  5. Use of the distress thermometer to evaluate symptoms, outcome and satisfaction in a specialist psycho-oncology service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkiron, Paul; Brooks, Alexander; Dearden, Richard; McVey, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends the use of structured tools to improve holistic care for patients with cancer. The Distress Thermometer and Problem Checklist (DT) is commonly used for screening in physical health settings. However, it has not been integrated into the clinical pathway within specialist psycho-oncology services. We used the DT to examine the broad clinical effectiveness of psycho-oncology intervention and to ascertain factors from the DT linked to an improved outcome. We also evaluated patients' satisfaction with their care. We asked 111 adult outpatients referred to York Psycho-Oncology Service to complete the DT at their first appointment. Individuals offered a period of psycho-oncology care re-rated their emotional distress, problems and service satisfaction on the DT at discharge. Median distress scores decreased significantly (from 6 to 4, Wilcoxon's z = -4.83, P psycho-oncology care. It may also provide evidence to support the effectiveness of specialist psycho-oncology interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Final report on SIM.T-S2: Comparison of the calibration of 100 Ω platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Chimenti Ruiz, V.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-01-01

    An International Comparison on industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand-carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This report presents the results of this comparison and provides detailed information of the measurements performed by the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Laboratory calibration of the calcium carbonate clumped isotope thermometer in the 25-250 °C temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Tobias; John, Cédric M.; Jourdan, Anne-Lise; Davis, Simon; Crawshaw, John

    2015-05-01

    Many fields of Earth sciences benefit from the knowledge of mineral formation temperatures. For example, carbonates are extensively used for reconstruction of the Earth's past climatic variations by determining ocean, lake, and soil paleotemperatures. Furthermore, diagenetic minerals and their formation or alteration temperature may provide information about the burial history of important geological units and can have practical applications, for instance, for reconstructing the geochemical and thermal histories of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is a relatively new technique that can provide the formation temperature of carbonate minerals without requiring a priori knowledge of the isotopic composition of the initial solution. It is based on the temperature-dependent abundance of the rare 13C-18O bonds in carbonate minerals, specified as a Δ47 value. The clumped isotope thermometer has been calibrated experimentally from 1 °C to 70 °C. However, higher temperatures that are relevant to geological processes have so far not been directly calibrated in the laboratory. In order to close this calibration gap and to provide a robust basis for the application of clumped isotopes to high-temperature geological processes we precipitated CaCO3 (mainly calcite) in the laboratory between 23 and 250 °C. We used two different precipitation techniques: first, minerals were precipitated from a CaCO3 supersaturated solution at atmospheric pressure (23-91 °C), and, second, from a solution resulting from the mixing of CaCl2 and NaHCO3 in a pressurized reaction vessel at a pressure of up to 80 bar (25-250 °C).

  8. Screening young adult cancer survivors for distress with the Distress Thermometer: Comparisons with a structured clinical diagnostic interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recklitis, Christopher J; Blackmon, Jaime E; Chang, Grace

    2016-01-15

    The validity of the Distress Thermometer (DT) as a screen for psychological distress in young adult cancer survivors was assessed by comparing it with the results of a psychiatric diagnostic interview, the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (SCID), to evaluate the accuracy of the DT and identify optimal cutoff scores for this population. A total of 247 survivors aged 18 to 40 years completed the DT and SCID. Based on the SCID, participants were classified as having: 1) ≥ 1 SCID diagnoses; 2) significant symptoms, but no SCID diagnosis; or 3) no significant SCID symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined the sensitivity and specificity of all possible DT cutoff scores for detecting survivors with a SCID diagnosis, and subsequently for survivors with significant SCID symptoms or a SCID diagnosis. The recommended DT cutoff score of ≥5 failed to identify 31.81% of survivors with a SCID diagnosis (sensitivity of 68.18% and specificity of 78.33%), and 32.81% of survivors with either significant SCID symptoms or a SCID diagnosis. No alternative DT cutoff score met the criteria for acceptable sensitivity (≥85%) and specificity (≥75%). The DT does not reliably identify young adult cancer survivors with psychiatric problems identified by a "gold standard" structured psychiatric interview. Therefore, the DT should not be used as a stand-alone psychological screen in this population. Cancer 2016;122:296-303. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. How Hot are Your Ions Really? A Threshold Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Substituted Benzylpyridinium "Thermometer" Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, John E.; McNary, Christopher P.; Furin, April; Sweeney, Andrew F.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2017-09-01

    The first absolute experimental bond dissociation energies (BDEs) for the main heterolytic bond cleavages of four benzylpyridinium "thermometer" ions are measured using threshold collision-induced dissociation in a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. In this experiment, substituted benzylpyridinium ions are introduced into the apparatus using an electrospray ionization source, thermalized, and collided with Xe at varied kinetic energies to determine absolute cross-sections for these reactions. Various effects are accounted for, including kinetic shifts, multiple collisions, and internal and kinetic energy distributions. These experimentally measured 0 K BDEs are compared with computationally predicted values at the B3LYP-GD3BJ, M06-GD3, and MP2(full) levels of theory with a 6-311+G(2d,2p) basis set using vibrational frequencies and geometries determined at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level. Additional dissociation pathways are observed for nitrobenzylpyridinium experimentally and investigated using these same levels of theory. Experimental BDEs are also compared against values in the literature at the AM1, HF, B3LYP, B3P86, and CCSD(T) levels of theory. Of the calculated values obtained in this work, the MP2(full) level of theory with counterpoise corrections best reproduces the experimental results, as do the similar literature CCSD(T) values. Lastly, the survival yield method is used to determine the characteristic temperature (Tchar) of the electrospray source prior to the thermalization region and to confirm efficient thermalization. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Long-term comparison of temperature measurements by the multi-plate shield and Czech-Slovak thermometer screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozny, Martin; Stepanek, Petr; Hajkova, Lenka; Bares, Daniel [Doksany Observatory, Doksany (Czech Republic). Czech Hydrometeorological Inst.; Trnka, Mirek [Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Global Change Research Centre; Zalud, Zdenek; Semeradova, Daniela [Mendel Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Agrosystems and Bioclimatology; Koznarova, Vera [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Agroecology and Biometeorology

    2012-04-15

    Differences between measurements taken with the Czech-Slovak thermometer screen (TS) and the multiplate radiation shield (MRS) should not be neglected. The average difference between the TS and the MRS measurements varied between 0.3 and 2.8 C during suitable weather conditions (wind speed less than 3 m/s, bright and sunny day) throughout the year, during both daytime and nighttime hours. A 10-year time series of comparative measurements in Doksany, Czech Republic, showed that relative to TS, measurements from MRS yielded average and minimum air temperatures that were lower in the winter and higher in the summer. Daily maximum air temperatures were lower for MRS than TS throughout the year. The greatest differences were observed in the maximum air temperatures; only 62 % of all differences between the TS and MRS were less than 0.5 C, and 70 % were less than 1 C. Among minimum air temperatures, 60 % of differences were less than 0.5 C, and 79 % were less than 1 C. In contrast, 74 % of all differences in average daily temperature were less than 0.5 C, and 97 % were less than 1 C. The use of temperature measurements from multiple equipments may negatively affect inference from climate and hydro-meteorological models. Irregular temperature data could be corrected using a simulation of temperature differences (SITEDI) model, which incorporates differences between the MRS and the TS. It is important to consider whether temperature data in the Czech Republic and Slovakia come from the TS or the MRS when analyzing and modeling temperature in Central Europe. (orig.)

  11. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  12. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linck, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  13. A comparative study on accuracy of liquid crystal forehead, digital electronic axillary, infrared tympanic with glass-mercury rectal thermometer in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongpanichkul, A; Bunjongpak, S

    2000-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the accuracy of three devices namely, liquid crystal forehead, digital electronic axillary and infrared tympanic thermometer, using a glass-mercury rectal thermometer as the control. The subjects were two hundred children aged 0-48 months. The mean rectal temperature was 38.0 +/- 0.91 degrees C; forehead, 37.83 +/- 0.94 degrees C; tympanic, 37.77 +/- 0.95 degrees C, and axillary, 37.71 +/- 0.86 degrees C. Compared to the rectal temperature, all values were significantly lower (p < 0.05). Forehead, tympanic and axillary temperature differed from rectal temperature by at least 0.5 degrees C in 33.33 per cent, 23.5 per cent and 31.5 per cent of subjects, and at least 1 degrees C in 22 per cent, 1 per cent and 6 per cent of subjects respectively. Accuracy in detection of fever was 79 per cent for forehead, 85.5 per cent for tympanic and 84 per cent for axillary thermometry. Sensitivity of the three devices was 67-83 per cent in detection of fever and 64-77 per cent in detection of high fever. Tympanic thermometry had the best performance while forehead thermometry had the poorest. After using revised diagnostic threshold temperature by ROC curves, sensitivity of each device improved but accuracy was nearly the same. It is concluded that the three devices are not suitable as a substitute for a glass-mercury rectal thermometer in assessment of fever in infants and young children.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Correlation between the Resistance Ratios of Platinum Resistance Thermometers at the Melting Point of Gallium and the Triple Point of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Y. P.; Maas, H.; Edler, F.; Zaidi, Z. H.

    1994-01-01

    A set of resistance ratios (W) for platinum resistance thermometers was obtained at the triple point of Hg and the melting point of Ga in order to study their relationship. It was found that using measured values for one of the fixed points, a linear equation will predict the value of the other. These measurements also indicate that the fixed points of Hg and of Ga are inconsistent by about 1,5 mK in the sense that either the melting point of Ga or the triple point of Hg was assigned too high a value on the ITS-90.

  15. The reproducibility of some thermometric fixed points and the accuracy of temperature measurements using platinum resistance thermometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ancsin, J. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for National Measurement Standards; Mendez-Lango, E. [Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM), Div. Termometria, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The reproducibility of some thermometric fixed points and the accuracy of four platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) were studied. It was found that the fixed points of aluminium (Al), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), indium (In) and gallium (Ga) were realized reproducibly within {+-}0.17 mK; {+-}0.11 mK; {+-}0.10 mK; {+-}0.13 mK and {+-}0.12 mK, respectively. Because the actual impurities and their concentration in our samples (of 99.9999 % or 99.999 99 % purity) are unknown, the systematic uncertainly due to impurities cannot be estimated. However, any of the samples of Ga, In, Sn, Zn and Al is consistent with the rest within {+-}0.2 mK, using a cubic or quadratic deviation function, in the temperature range 0 deg C to 660 deg C. This indicates that the effect of impurities is negligible. Four PRTs were selected at random. They were calibrated repeatedly, first up to the Zn point and then up to the Al point. The resistance of each PRT drifted. From time to time, for each PRT, a seemingly well-established resistance drift suddenly and unpredictably changed to a different rate of drift. Occasionally, the resistance of the PRTs shifted. Such unpredictable changes obviously limit the accuracy of temperature measurements using PRTs no matter what the accuracy of their calibrations. In the case of our four PRTs, the uncertainty of temperature measurements near 660 deg C ranged from about {+-}1 mK to about {+-}2,5 mK even though they were all calibrated at all fixed points well within {+-}0.25 mK uncertainty. Possible explanations are offered for the apparently permanent drifts and the erratic shifts in the resistance of the PRTs. Some comments are made concerning the ambiguity of 'immersion tests' in general. The furnaces of the National Research Council of Canada used in this work are high-temperature adiabatic calorimeters. (authors)

  16. A sounding rocket payload for X-ray astronomy employing high-resolution microcalorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCammon, D.; Almy, R.; Deiker, S.; Morgenthaler, J.; Kelley, R.L.; Marshall, F.J.; Moseley, S.H.; Stahle, C.K.; Szymkowiak, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We have completed a sounding rocket payload that will use a 36 element array of microcalorimeters to obtain a high-resolution spectrum of the diffuse X-ray background between 0.1 and 1 keV. This experiment uses only mechanical collimation of the incoming X-rays, but the cryostat and detector assembly have been designed to be placed at the focus of a conical foil imaging mirror which will be employed on subsequent flights to do spatially resolved spectroscopy of supernova remnants and other extended objects. The detector system is a monolithic array of silicon calorimeters with ion-implanted thermometers and HgTe X-ray absorbers. The 1 mm 2 pixels achieve a resolution of about 8 eV FWHM operating at 60 mK. (orig.)

  17. What model resolution is required in climatological downscaling over complex terrain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Samra, Renalda; Bou-Zeid, Elie; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2018-05-01

    This study presents results from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model applied for climatological downscaling simulations over highly complex terrain along the Eastern Mediterranean. We sequentially downscale general circulation model results, for a mild and wet year (2003) and a hot and dry year (2010), to three local horizontal resolutions of 9, 3 and 1 km. Simulated near-surface hydrometeorological variables are compared at different time scales against data from an observational network over the study area comprising rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. The overall performance of WRF at 1 and 3 km horizontal resolution was satisfactory, with significant improvement over the 9 km downscaling simulation. The total yearly precipitation from WRF's 1 km and 3 km domains exhibited quantitative measure of the potential errors for various hydrometeorological variables.

  18. Design of a high speed, high resolution thermometry system for 1.5 GHz superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Jens; Muller, Henry; Padamsee, Hasan

    1994-11-01

    Presented in this paper are the description and the test results of a new stationary thermometry system used to map the temperature of the outer surface of 1.5 GHz superconducting single-cell cavities during operation at 1.6 K. The system comprises 764 removable carbon thermometers whose signals are multiplexed and scanned by a Macintosh computer. A complete temperature map can be obtained in as little as 0.1 s at a temperature resolution of about 0.2 mK. Alternatively, it has been demonstrated that if the acquisition time is increased to several seconds, then a temperature resolution on the order of 30 μK is possible. To our knowledge, these are the fastest acquisition times so far achieved with L-band cavities at these resolutions.

  19. Some observations on the use of the triple points of deuterium and xenon in interpolation schemes for platinum resistance thermometers below 273 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the triple points of deuterium and xenon is investigated in some interpolation schemes for platinum resistance thermometers between 13.8 K and 273 K. The use of these triple points together is shown to lead to a large sensitivity to errors in the realization of the boiling point of water or the triple point of gallium and of the triple point of xenon for interpolated temperatures below 25 K. The behaviour of these interpolation schemes is presented as evidence that the large non-uniqueness observed in temperature scales between 84 K and 273 K is due in part to measurement errors at the boiling point of water. The use of the triple point of xenon and in interpolation scheme between 25 K and 273 K is shown to lead to a large sensitivity to calibration errors in the triple points of xenon and gallium between 25 K and 54 K. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative tradeoffs between spatial, temporal, and thermometric resolution of nonresonant Raman thermometry for dynamic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S; Goodwin, Peter M; Dattelbaum, Dana M

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of Stokes to anti-Stokes nonresonant spontaneous Raman can provide an in situ thermometer that is noncontact, independent of any material specific parameters or calibrations, can be multiplexed spatially with line imaging, and can be time resolved for dynamic measurements. However, spontaneous Raman cross sections are very small, and thermometric measurements are often limited by the amount of laser energy that can be applied without damaging the sample or changing its temperature appreciably. In this paper, we quantitatively detail the tradeoff space between spatial, temporal, and thermometric accuracy measurable with spontaneous Raman. Theoretical estimates are pinned to experimental measurements to form realistic expectations of the resolution tradeoffs appropriate to various experiments. We consider the effects of signal to noise, collection efficiency, laser heating, pulsed laser ablation, and blackbody emission as limiting factors, provide formulae to help choose optimal conditions and provide estimates relevant to planning experiments along with concrete examples for single-shot measurements.

  1. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  2. Heat Capacity and Thermal Conductance Measurements of a Superconducting-Normal Mixed State by Detection of Single 3 eV Photons in a Magnetic Penetration Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Balvin, M. A.; Bandler, S. R.; Denis, K. L.; Lee, S.-J.; Nagler, P. C.; Smith, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    We report on measurements of the detected signal pulses in a molybdenum-gold Magnetic Penetration Thermometer (MPT) in response to absorption of one or more 3 eV photons. We designed and used this MPT sensor for x-ray microcalorimetry. In this device, the diamagnetic response of a superconducting MoAu bilayer is used to sense temperature changes in response to absorbed photons, and responsivity is enhanced by a Meissner transition in which the magnetic flux penetrating the sensor changes rapidly to minimize free energy in a mixed superconducting normal state. We have previously reported on use of our MPT to study a thermal phonon energy loss to the substrate when absorbing x-rays. We now describe results of extracting heat capacity C and thermal conductance G values from pulse height and decay time of MPT pulses generated by 3 eV photons. The variation in C and G at temperatures near the Meissner transition temperature (set by an internal magnetic bias field) allow us to probe the behavior in superconducting normal mixed state of the condensation energy and the electron cooling power resulting from quasi-particle recombination and phonon emission. The information gained on electron cooling power is also relevant to the operation of other superconducting detectors, such as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  3. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.phelan@oeaw.ac.at [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Tortorella, Daniele [Payr Engineering GmbH, Wiederschwing 25, A-9564 Patergassen (Austria); Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo [Low Temperature Solutions UG, Bahnhofstraße 21, D-85737 Ismaning (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  4. ANL high resolution injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.; Kutschera, W.; Hartog, P.D.; Billquist, P.

    1985-01-01

    The ANL (Argonne National Laboratory) high-resolution injector has been installed to obtain higher mass resolution and higher preacceleration, and to utilize effectively the full mass range of ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System). Preliminary results of the first beam test are reported briefly. The design and performance, in particular a high-mass-resolution magnet with aberration compensation, are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Acceptability of the Distress Thermometer and Problem List to community-based telephone cancer helpline operators, and to cancer patients and carers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargeant Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer can be a distressing experience for cancer patients and carers, impacting on psychological, social, physical and spiritual functioning. However, health professionals often fail to detect distress in their patients due to time constraints and a lack of experience. Also, with the focus on the patient, carer needs are often overlooked. This study investigated the acceptability of brief distress screening with the Distress Thermometer (DT and Problem List (PL to operators of a community-based telephone helpline, as well as to cancer patients and carers calling the service. Methods Operators (n = 18 monitored usage of the DT and PL with callers (cancer patients/carers, >18 years, and English-speaking from September-December 2006 (n = 666. The DT is a single item, 11-point scale to rate level of distress. The associated PL identifies the cause of distress. Results The DT and PL were used on 90% of eligible callers, most providing valid responses. Benefits included having an objective, structured and consistent means for distress screening and triage to supportive care services. Reported challenges included apparent inappropriateness of the tools due to the nature of the call or level of caller distress, the DT numeric scale, and the level of operator training. Conclusions We observed positive outcomes to using the DT and PL, although operators reported some challenges. Overcoming these challenges may improve distress screening particularly by less experienced clinicians, and further development of the PL items and DT scale may assist with administration. The DT and PL allow clinicians to direct/prioritise interventions or referrals, although ongoing training and support is critical in distress screening.

  6. Assessment of psychological distress among Asian adolescents and young adults (AYA) cancer patients using the distress thermometer: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexandre; Poon, Eileen; Goh, Wei Lin; Gan, Yanxiang; Tan, Chia Jie; Yeo, Kelvin; Chua, Annabelle; Chee, Magdalene; Law, Yi Chye; Somasundaram, Nagavalli; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Ng, Quan Sing; Tham, Chee Kian; Toh, Chee Keong; Lim, Soon Thye; Tao, Miriam; Tang, Tiffany; Quek, Richard; Farid, Mohamad

    2018-04-11

    Since few studies have investigated whether the Distress Thermometer (DT) in Asian adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients (between 15 and 39 years), we investigated the appropriateness of the DT as a screening tool for psychological symptom burden in these AYA patients and to evaluate AYA patients' distress across a trajectory of three time points longitudinally over a 6-month period. This was a prospective, longitudinal study. Recruited Asian AYA patients were diagnosed with lymphomas, sarcomas, primary brain malignancies, or germ cell tumors. Patients completed the DT, PedsQL Generic Core Scales, and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Data were analyzed using STATA version 15. Approximately half of the patients experienced clinically significant DT distress (distress score ≥ 4) early in their cancer journey with 43.1% patients presenting with distress at time of diagnosis and 47.7% patients 1 month after diagnosis. Among AYA patients > 24 years old, worry (68.3%), insurance/financial issues (61%), treatment decisions (43.9%), work/school issues (41.5%), nervousness (41.5%), and sadness (41.5%) were the top five identified problems. On the other hand, the top five identified problems among AYA ≤ 24 years were worry (54.2%), nervousness (41.7%), bathing/dressing problems (37.5%), work/school issues (33.3%), and fatigue (33.3%). DT scores were significantly associated with certain psychological symptom burden items such as worry (p psychological distress in AYA cancer patients with clinically significant distress being identified in the early phases of the cancer journey.

  7. A pilot study on the usefulness of peripheral blood flow cytometry for the diagnosis of lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes: the "MDS thermometer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Ana; Teixeira, Maria Dos Anjos; Lau, Catarina; Moreira, Cláudia; Spínola, Ana; Mota, Alexandra; Freitas, Inês; Coutinho, Jorge; Lima, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    Immunophenotypic analysis of the bone marrow (BM) cells has proven to be helpful in the diagnosis of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). However, the usefulness of flow cytometry (FCM) for the detection of myelodysplasia in the peripheral blood (PB) still needs to be investigated. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the value of FCM-based PB neutrophil and monocyte immunophenotyping for the diagnosis of lower risk MDS (LR-MDS). We evaluated by 8-color FCM the expression of multiple cell surface molecules (CD10, CD11b, CD11c, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD34, CD45, CD56, CD64 and HLA-DR) in PB neutrophils and monocytes from a series of 14 adult LR-MDS patients versus 14 normal individuals. Peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with LR-MDS frequently had low forward scatter (FSC) and side scatter (SSC) values and low levels of CD11b, CD11c, CD10, CD16, CD13 and CD45 expression, in that order, as compared to normal neutrophils. In addition, patients with LR-MDS commonly display a higher fraction of CD14 + CD56 + and a lower fraction of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in the PB. Based on these results, we proposed an immunophenotyping score based on which PB samples from patients with LR-MDS could be distinguished from normal PB samples with a sensitivity 93% and a specificity of 100%. In addition, we used this score to construct the MDS Thermometer, a screening tool for detection and monitoring of MDS in the PB in clinical practice. Peripheral blood neutrophil and monocyte immunophenotyping provide useful information for the diagnosis of LR-MDS, as a complement to cytomorphology. If validated by subsequent studies in larger series of MDS patients and extended to non-MDS patients with cytopenias, our findings may improve the diagnostic assessment and avoid invasive procedures in selected groups of MDS patients.

  8. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  9. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure......, where the parent company holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at its operating financial subsidiaries. This would facilitate a ‘single point of entry’ resolution procedure, minimising the risk of creditor runs and destructive ring-fencing by national regulators....

  10. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  11. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  12. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  13. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  14. Resolution 1540 (2004) overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzyk, N.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the Resolution 1540, its features and its status of implementation. Resolution 1540 is a response to the risk that non-State actors may acquire, develop, traffic in weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery. Resolution 1540 was adopted on 28 April 2004 by the U.N. Security Council at the unanimity of its members. Resolution 1540 deals with the 3 kinds of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical and biological weapons) as well as 'related materials'. This resolution implies 3 sets of obligations: first no support of non-state actors concerning weapons of mass destruction, secondly to set national laws that prohibit any non-state actors to deal with weapons of mass destruction and thirdly to enforce domestic control to prevent the proliferation of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery. Four working groups operated by the 1540 Committee have been settled: - Implementation (coordinator: Germany); - Assistance (coordinator: France); - International cooperation (interim coordinator: South Africa); and - Transparency and media outreach (coordinator: USA). The status of implementation of the resolution continues to improve since 2004, much work remains to be done and the gravity of the threat remains considerable. (A.C.)

  15. Stability and Repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised (ESAS-r with Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Leclair

    Full Text Available Parents report psychological distress in association with their child's cancer. Reliable tools are needed to screen parental distress over the cancer trajectory. This study aimed to estimate the stability and repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Depression and Anxiety items of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r-D; -A in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Fifty parents (28 mothers, median age = 44 of clinically stable survivors of childhood solid and brain tumours completed questionnaires about their own distress (DT, ESAS-r-D; -A, Brief Symptom Inventory-18: BSI-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9: PHQ-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7: GAD-7 and their children's quality of life (QoL; Peds Quality of Life: PedsQL twice, with a month interval between the two assessments. At retest, parents also evaluated life events that occurred between the two time points. Hierarchical regressions explored moderators for the temporal stability of test measures.Stability estimates were ICC = .78 for the DT, .55 for the ESAS-r-D, and .47 for the ESAS-r-A. Caseness agreement between test and retest was substantial for the DT, fair for the ESAS-r-D, and slight for the ESAS-r-A. Repeatability analyses indicated that the error range for the DT was more than 2 pts below/above actual measurement, whereas it was more than 3 pts for the ESAS-r-A, and 2.5 for the ESAS-r-D. Instability of the DT could be explained by changes in children's physical QoL, but not by other components of QoL or life events. No moderators of stability could be identified for the ESAS-r items.The DT appears to be a fairly stable measure when the respondent's condition is stable yet with a relatively wide error range. Fluctuations in distress-related constructs may affect the temporal stability of the DT. The lower stability of ESAS-r items may result from shorter time-lapse instructions resulting in a greater sensitivity to change. Findings support

  16. A Crystallization-Temperature Profile Through Paleo-Oceanic Crust (Wadi Gideah Transect, Oman Ophiolite): Application of the REE-in-Plagioclase-Clinopyroxene Partitioning Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Hasenclever, J.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Koepke, J.; Hoernle, K.

    2017-12-01

    The accretion mechanisms forming oceanic crust at fast spreading ridges are still under controversial discussion. Thermal, petrological, and geochemical observations predict different end-member models, i.e., the gabbro glacier and the sheeted sill model. They all bear implications for heat transport, temperature distribution, mode of crystallization and hydrothermal heat removal over crustal depth. In a typical MOR setting, temperature is the key factor driving partitioning of incompatible elements during crystallization. LA-ICP-MS data for co-genetic plagioclase and clinopyroxene in gabbros along a transect through the plutonic section of paleo-oceanic crust (Wadi Gideah Transect, Oman ophiolite) reveal that REE partitioning coefficients are relatively constant in the layered gabbro section but increase for the overlying foliated gabbros, with an enhanced offset towards HREEs. Along with a systematic enrichment of REE's with crustal height, these trends are consistent with a system dominated by in-situ crystallization for the lower gabbros and a change in crystallization mode for the upper gabbros. Sun and Liang (2017) used experimental REE partitioning data for calibrating a new REE-in-plagioclase-clinopyroxene thermometer that we used here for establishing the first crystallization-temperature depth profile through oceanic crust that facilitates a direct comparison with thermal models of crustal accretion. Our results indicate crystallization temperatures of about 1220±8°C for the layered gabbros and lower temperatures of 1175±8°C for the foliated gabbros and a thermal minimum above the layered-to-foliated gabbro transition. Our findings are consistent with a hybrid accretion model for the oceanic crust. The thermal minimum is assumed to represent a zone where the descending crystal mushes originating from the axial melt lens meet with mushes that have crystallized in situ. These results can be used to verify and test thermal models (e.g., Maclennan et al

  17. Calibration of TOB+ Thermometer's Cards

    CERN Document Server

    Banitt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Motivation - Under the new upgrade of the CMS detector the working temperature of the trackers had been reduced to -27 Celsius degrees. Though the thermal sensors themselves (Murata and Fenwal thermistors) are effective at these temperatures, the max1542 PLC (programmable logic controller) cards, interpreting the resistance of the thermal sensors into DC counts usable by the DCS (detector control system), are not designed for these temperatures in which the counts exceed their saturation and therefor had to be replaced. In my project I was in charge of handling the emplacement and calibration of the new PLC cards to the TOB (tracker outer barrel) control system.

  18. Sub-recoil cooling up to nano-Kelvin. Direct measurement of spatial coherency length. New tests for Levy statistics; Refroidissement laser subrecul au nanokelvin. Mesure directe de la longueur de coherence spatiale. Nouveaux tests des statistiques de Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saubamea, B

    1998-12-15

    This thesis presents a new method to measure the temperature of ultracold atoms from the spatial autocorrelation function of the atomic wave-packets. We thus determine the temperature of metastable helium-4 atoms cooled by velocity selective dark resonance, a method known to cool the atoms below the temperature related to the emission or the absorption of a single photon by an atom at rest, namely the recoil temperature. This cooling mechanism prepares each atom in a coherent superposition of two wave-packets with opposite mean momenta, which are initially superimposed and then drift apart. By measuring the temporal decay of their overlap, we have access to the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution of the atoms. Using this method, we can measure temperatures as low as 5 nK, 800 times as small as the recoil temperature. Moreover we study in detail the exact shape of the momentum distribution and compare the experimental results with two different theoretical approaches: a quantum Monte Carlo simulation and an analytical model based on Levy statistics. We compare the calculated line shape with the one deduced from simulations, and each theoretical model with experimental data. A very good agreement is found with each approach. We thus demonstrate the validity of the statistical model of sub-recoil cooling and give the first experimental evidence of some of its characteristics: the absence of steady-state, the self-similarity and the non Lorentzian shape of the momentum distribution of the cooled atoms. All these aspects are related to the non ergodicity of sub-recoil cooling. (author)

  19. Development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution spectroscopy; Entwicklung eines metallischen magnetischen Kalorimeters fuer die hochaufloesende Roentgenspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, M.

    2007-05-02

    In this thesis the development of a metallic magnetic calorimeter for high resolution detection of single x-ray quanta is described. The detector consists of an X-ray absorber and a paramagnetic temperature sensor. The raise in temperature of the paramagnetic sensor due to the absorption of a single X-ray is measured by the change in magnetization of the sensor using a low-noise SQUID magnetometer. The thermodynamic properties of the detector can be described by a theoretical model based on a mean field approximation. This allows for an optimization of the detector design with respect to signal size. The maximal archivable energy resolution is limited by thermodynamic energy fluctuations between absorber, heat bath and thermometer. An interesting field of application for a metallic magnetic calorimeter is X-ray astronomy and the investigation of X-ray emitting objects. Through high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy it is possible to obtain information about physical processes of even far distant objects. The magnetic calorimeter that was developed in this thesis has a metallic absorber with a quantum efficiency of 98% at 6 keV. The energy resolution of the magnetic calorimeter is EFWHM=2.7 eV at 5.9 keV. The deviation of the detector response from a linear behavior of the detector is only 0.8% at 5.9 keV. (orig.)

  20. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  1. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  2. High resolution drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 μm resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs

  3. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on supplementary comparison APMP-T-S3-03 of industrial platinum resistance and liquid in glass thermometers from -40 °C to 250 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norranim, Uthai; Nguyen, Mong Kim; Ballico, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial thermometers such as industrial platinum resistance thermometers (iprts) and liquid-in-glass thermometers (LIGTs) are widely used in industry. Because Key Comparisons are limited to direct realizations of ITS-90, and not all APMP NMIs have participated in them, the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of Thailand and Australia (NIMT and NIMA) organized an APMP supplementary comparison to support the approval of CMCs (calibration and measurement capabilities) for these laboratories. The comparison, performed in 2003, covered the range from -40.0 °C to 250.0 °C, using IPRTs (Hart Scientific 5626-12-S), total immersion (ASTM 62C, 120C) and partial immersion (ASTM 40C) LIGTs. Ten NMIs from the APMP: KIM-LIPI (Indonesia), ITDI (Philippines), MSL (New Zealand), NBSM (Nepal), NMIA (Australia), NIMT (Thailand), SCL (Hong Kong), SIRIM (Malaysia), SPRING (Singapore) and VMI (Vietnam) were divided into two loops to shorten the circulation time, and these were linked by the two pilot laboratories. This report describes details of the artifacts, the circulation schedule, the measurement procedures, the results submitted by participants, uncertainties and the analysis of the results. Reference values calculated using simple mean, median and weighted mean were consistent with each other, but as the Birge criterion was satisfied, the weighted mean with its lower uncertainty was adopted. The artifacts were found to be stable over the comparison and the results of the loop linking labs consistent, allowing an uncertainty of 2 mK to 4 mK to be achieved for the IPRT reference value and 10 mK to 20 mK for the LIGT reference values. These uncertainties allowed the comparison data to be used to adequately test the uncertainties of all the participant laboratories, and hence to directly support their CMC claims. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database

  4. High resolution data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  5. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arko, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) covers a very broad range of measurements, disciplines, and interests. As the next generation light source, the FEL will result in improvements over the undulator that are larger than the undulater improvements over bending magnets. The combination of high flux and high inherent resolution will result in several orders of magnitude gain in signal to noise over measurements using synchrotron-based undulators. The latter still require monochromators. Their resolution is invariably strongly energy-dependent so that in the regions of interest for many experiments (h upsilon > 100 eV) they will not have a resolving power much over 1000. In order to study some of the interesting phenomena in actinides (heavy fermions e.g.) one would need resolving powers of 10 4 to 10 5 . These values are only reachable with the FEL

  6. Particle detector spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs

  7. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  8. High resolution (transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Souto, Jose A; Lamela-Rivera, Horacio

    2006-10-16

    A novel fiber-optic interferometric sensor is presented for vibrations measurements and analysis. In this approach, it is shown applied to the vibrations of electrical structures within power transformers. A main feature of the sensor is that an unambiguous optical phase measurement is performed using the direct detection of the interferometer output, without external modulation, for a more compact and stable implementation. High resolution of the interferometric measurement is obtained with this technique (transformers are also highlighted.

  9. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  10. Determination of mean molecular weights in organic reactor coolants. III. Differential cryoscopy with thermoelectric thermometer; Determinacion de masas moleculares medias en refrigerantes nucleares organicos. III-Crioscopia diferencial con termometro termoelectrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerro, E; Carreira, M

    1968-07-01

    The solubility problems raised by some components of the polymeric residue of irradiated polyphenolic coolants, which make it necessary to operate with very small samples, have been solved by means of a differential cryoscopic technique using a thermoelectric thermometer (thermal) as sensitive element. The method is based on the direct measurement of the difference between the freezing points of the investigated solution and of a reference solution whose concentration may be changed at will. The change of {delta} V (mV) versus c(molal) is linear, the equivalent point being determined either analytically or graphically depending on the required accuracy. The method has been tested by measurements on pure polyphenyls, using diphenyl ether as solvent. It has been also applied to the main prospective coolants for the DON reactor. Working with 10{sup 2} molal solutions the accuracy is better than {+-} 2 per cent. (Author) 2 refs.

  11. Approximation of the thermometric characteristics of n- and p-GaAs thermodiodes in the 4.2-300 K temperature range and p-GaAs resistance thermometers in the 4.2-100 K temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvinenko, S.P.; Derbysheva, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The investigation results are reported of various methods for approximating the calibration characteristics of technical resistance thermometers made from p-GaAs and of thermodiodes from n- p-GaAs. The following methods may by used for approximating thermometric characteristics and obtaining calibration tables: method of approximating function describing a physical model (P); method of power polynoms (PP); and the spline method (S). Studies of thermometric characteristics have been achieved in the 4.2-300 K temperature range for thermodiodes, and at 4.2-100 K for thermoresistances. The obtained data show that the use of the S and PP methods for describing monotonous thermometric characteristics of thermodiodes and thermoresistances is equivalent and leads to satisfactory results. Method S affords the best results for describing thermometric characteristics with specific features. The error in approximating thermometric characteristics by method S does not exceed 0.01 K

  12. CCT-K2.1: NRC/VNIIFTRI bilateral comparison of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers from 13.8 K to 273.16 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, K.D.; Steele, A.G. [National Research Council of Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Dedikov, Y.A.; Shkraba, V.T. [Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements (VNIIFTRI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-04-01

    The Consultative Committee for Thermometry Key Comparison 2 (CCT-K2) results were published two years ago (2002 Metrologia 39 551-71). NRC served as the pilot laboratory for CCT-K2 and remains able to provide a scale and measurement system suitable for performing bilateral comparisons linked to the original key comparison results. In March 2003, measurements of two VNIIFTRI 100 {omega} capsule-style platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRTs), S/N 356 and 476, were undertaken to relate their local calibration to the results from the CCT-K2 exercise. The NRC Leeds and Northrup (L and N) CSPRT S/N 1872174 provides the link to the CCT-K2 results. The three CSPRTs were compared at the eight defining cryogenic temperatures of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the range from 13.8033 K to 273.16 K. The reader is referred to the full text of the CCT-K2 report for a detailed explanation of the methodology employed for the comparison. Only the details unique to the measurements reported here will be addressed in this article. The NRC/VNIIFTRI bilateral comparison of capsule-style platinum resistance thermometers over the range 13.8 K to 273.16 K has revealed calibrations at VNIIFTRI to be in agreement with the KCRV of CCT-K2 within the expanded uncertainty for all temperatures of the comparison with the exception of the triple point of hydrogen at 13.8033 K. One of the two CSPRTs supplied by VNIIFTRI was found to be discrepant as revealed by differences at the triple point of water and at the lowest temperatures of the comparison, and was therefore excluded from further analysis. The linkage to the CCT-K2 data supports the evaluation of the VNIIFTRI CMCs in Appendix C of the KCDB. (authors)

  13. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...... of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  14. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...... of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  15. High resolution backscattering instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.

    2001-01-01

    The principle of operation of indirect-geometry time-of-flight spectrometers are presented, including the IRIS at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The key features that make those types of spectrometers ideally suited for low-energy spectroscopy are: high energy resolution over a wide dynamic range, and simultaneous measurement over a large momentum transfer range provided by the wide angular detector coverage. To exemplify these features are discussed of single-crystal experiments of the spin dynamics in the two-dimensional frustrated quantum magnet Cs 2 CuCl 4 . (R.P.)

  16. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  17. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  18. The super-resolution debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for nanoscopy with super-resolution, consensus from the imaging community is that super-resolution is not always needed and that scientists should choose an imaging technique based on their specific application.

  19. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  20. Optimization of the energy resolution and of the radioactive background rejection for ionization-heat detectors equipped with thermometric thin films for the direct WIMPs detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgorouky, Y.W.

    2008-09-01

    The EDELWEISS experiment aims at the direct detection of WIMPs as possible candidates for dark matter. It uses heat-and-ionization detectors that can discriminate these particles from the radioactive background. To date, this method is limited by events with incomplete charge collection that occur just beneath the detectors electrodes. In order to identify and reject these undesirable events, we have developed detectors equipped with thin films used both as thermometers - and hence sensitive to the transient athermal regime - and as electrodes for the charge collection. This thesis focuses on the optimization of such thin films regarding surface events rejection and on the modelling of the physical processes enabling this identification. The optimization must both maximize the fiducial volume and conserve an energy resolution such that the recoil energy threshold is of the order of 30 keV. Our work explores four generations of detectors each of which corresponds to successive evolutions in their conception. In all cases, the electrode-thermometer is an amorphous Anderson insulator NbSi thin film polarized by two interleaved comb-shaped niobium electrodes. In spite of constant progress in the successive detectors performances, the latest generation does not display the performances required for the EDELWEISS II experiment. Our work has shown the difficulty of the transient thermal signal modelling due to the complex contribution of the charge collection. This works has lead to new ideas regarding the detectors configuration, so that the athermal regime can be optimized to enhance both the rejection capability and the resolution. (author)

  1. Automating the conflict resolution process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to initiate a discussion of how the conflict resolution process at the Network Control Center can be made more efficient. Described here are how resource conflicts are currently resolved as well as the impacts of automating conflict resolution in the ATDRSS era. A variety of conflict resolution strategies are presented.

  2. Resolution of praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Woelfle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for the worldwide treatment and control of schistosomiasis. The drug is synthesized and administered as a racemate. Use of the pure active enantiomer would be desirable since the inactive enantiomer is associated with side effects and is responsible for the extremely bitter taste of the pill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified two resolution approaches toward the production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer. One approach starts with commercially available praziquantel and involves a hydrolysis to an intermediate amine, which is resolved with a derivative of tartaric acid. This method was discovered through an open collaboration on the internet. The second method, identified by a contract research organisation, employs a different intermediate that may be resolved with tartaric acid itself. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both resolution procedures identified show promise for the large-scale, economically viable production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer for a low price. Additionally, they may be employed by laboratories for the production of smaller amounts of enantiopure drug for research purposes that should be useful in, for example, elucidation of the drug's mechanism of action.

  3. High resolution hadron calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    The components that contribute to the signal of a hadron calorimeter and the factors that affect its performance are discussed, concentrating on two aspects; energy resolution and signal linearity. Both are decisively dependent on the relative response to the electromagnetic and the non-electromagnetic shower components, the e/h signal ratio, which should be equal to 1.0 for optimal performance. The factors that determine the value of this ratio are examined. The calorimeter performance is crucially determined by its response to the abundantly present soft neutrons in the shower. The presence of a considerable fraction of hydrogen atoms in the active medium is essential for achieving the best possible results. Firstly, this allows one to tune e/h to the desired value by choosing the appropriate sampling fraction. And secondly, the efficient neutron detection via recoil protons in the readout medium itself reduces considerably the effect of fluctuations in binding energy losses at the nuclear level, which dominate the intrinsic energy resolution. Signal equalization, or compensation (e/h = 1.0) does not seem to be a property unique to 238 U, but can also be achieved with lead and probably even iron absorbers. 21 refs.; 19 figs

  4. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 {mu} g/dl(mean, 5.3 {mu} g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 {mu} g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 {mu} g/l(mean, 291.4 {mu} g/l; normal value is less than 20 {mu} g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic.

  5. Chronic mercury vapor poisoning of the lung plain radiography and high resolution CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Choong Ki; Hwang, Woo Cheol; Nho, Joon Young; Ahn, Bum Gyu; Woo, Hyo Cheol; Kim, Heung Cheol; Lee, Myoung Koo

    1993-01-01

    Authors analyzed the findings of chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) of the chronic mercury vapor poisoning in 12 patients who were diagnosed by previous working history for mercury-thermometer and high level of mercury in blood and urine. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the HRCT findings of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. Duration of mercury exposure was ranged from 10 to 41 months(mean, 21.8 months). Estimated value of serum mercury was ranged from 3.6 to 8.7 μ g/dl(mean, 5.3 μ g/dl: normal value is less than 0.5 μ g/dl). Estimated value of mercury in urine was ranged from 104 to 482 μ g/l(mean, 291.4 μ g/l; normal value is less than 20 μ g/l). Chest radiographs showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities and peribronchial cuffings in only 2 out of 12 patients, but HRCT showed positive findings such as ground glass opacities in 8 patients, peribronchial cuffings in 7 patients, centrilobular abnormalities in 5 patients, interface sign in 4 patients, interlobular septal thickening with intralobular lines in 2 patients and lobular consolidation in one patient. In conclusion, chest HRCT is superior to chest radiograph to show the pulmonary manifestation of chronic mercury vapor poisoning. In patients with chronic mercury vapor poisoning. HRCT findings of centrilobular distributed ground glass opacities and peribroncjial cuffinges are characteristic

  6. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  7. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  8. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  9. Optimization of the energy resolution and of the radioactive background rejection for ionization-heat detectors equipped with thermometric thin films for the direct WIMPs detection; Optimisation du pouvoir de resolution et du rejet du fond radioactif de detecteurs ionisation-chaleur equipes de couches minces thermometriques pour la detection directe de WIMPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgorouky, Y.W.

    2008-09-15

    The EDELWEISS experiment aims at the direct detection of WIMPs as possible candidates for dark matter. It uses heat-and-ionization detectors that can discriminate these particles from the radioactive background. To date, this method is limited by events with incomplete charge collection that occur just beneath the detectors electrodes. In order to identify and reject these undesirable events, we have developed detectors equipped with thin films used both as thermometers - and hence sensitive to the transient athermal regime - and as electrodes for the charge collection. This thesis focuses on the optimization of such thin films regarding surface events rejection and on the modelling of the physical processes enabling this identification. The optimization must both maximize the fiducial volume and conserve an energy resolution such that the recoil energy threshold is of the order of 30 keV. Our work explores four generations of detectors each of which corresponds to successive evolutions in their conception. In all cases, the electrode-thermometer is an amorphous Anderson insulator NbSi thin film polarized by two interleaved comb-shaped niobium electrodes. In spite of constant progress in the successive detectors performances, the latest generation does not display the performances required for the EDELWEISS II experiment. Our work has shown the difficulty of the transient thermal signal modelling due to the complex contribution of the charge collection. This works has lead to new ideas regarding the detectors configuration, so that the athermal regime can be optimized to enhance both the rejection capability and the resolution. (author)

  10. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  11. KEY COMPARISON: CCT-K2.1: NRC/VNIIFTRI bilateral comparison of capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometers from 13.8 K to 273.16 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. D.; Steele, A. G.; Dedikov, Y. A.; Shkraba, V. T.

    2005-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Thermometry Key Comparison 2 (CCT-K2) results were published two years ago (2002 Metrologia 39 551-71). NRC served as the pilot laboratory for CCT-K2 and remains able to provide a scale and measurement system suitable for performing bilateral comparisons linked to the original key comparison results. In March 2003, measurements of two VNIIFTRI 100 Ω capsule-style platinum resistance thermometers (CSPRTs), S/N 356 and 476, were undertaken to relate their local calibration to the results from the CCT-K2 exercise. The NRC Leeds and Northrup (L&N) CSPRT S/N 1872174 provides the link to the CCT-K2 results. The three CSPRTs were compared at the eight defining cryogenic temperatures of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) in the range from 13.8033 K to 273.16 K. The reader is referred to the full text of the CCT-K2 report for a detailed explanation of the methodology employed for the comparison. Only the details unique to the measurements reported here will be addressed in this article. The NRC/VNIIFTRI bilateral comparison of capsule-style platinum resistance thermometers over the range 13.8 K to 273.16 K has revealed calibrations at VNIIFTRI to be in agreement with the KCRV of CCT-K2 within the expanded uncertainty for all temperatures of the comparison with the exception of the triple point of hydrogen at 13.8033 K. One of the two CSPRTs supplied by VNIIFTRI was found to be discrepant as revealed by differences at the triple point of water and at the lowest temperatures of the comparison, and was therefore excluded from further analysis. The linkage to the CCT-K2 data supports the evaluation of the VNIIFTRI CMCs in Appendix C of the KCDB. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions

  12. Tele-AAC Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide.  Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems.  The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation; determine the communication competence levels achieved  by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’  perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability; maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. 

  13. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian; Cotte, Yann; Toy, Fatih; Jourdain, Pascal; Boss, Daiel; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  14. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full‐waveform

  15. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  16. "Planar" Tautologies Hard for Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan; Riis, Søren

    2001-01-01

    We prove exponential lower bounds on the resolution proofs of some tautologies, based on rectangular grid graphs. More specifically, we show a 2Ω(n) lower bound for any resolution proof of the mutilated chessboard problem on a 2n×2n chessboard as well as for the Tseitin tautology (G. Tseitin, 196...

  17. Resolution function in neutron diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, N.

    1987-01-01

    The resolution function in the neutron diffractometry is defined, on base of generalizing the resolution formerly formulated for the double axis neutron spectrometer. A polemical discussion is raised concerning an approach to this function existent in literature. The actual approach is concretized for the DN-2 time-of-flight diffractometer installed at the IBR-2 reactor

  18. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40/sup 0/ biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals.

  19. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40 0 biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals

  20. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  1. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  2. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  3. The importance of $^{22}$Ne($\\alpha$, n)$^{25}$Mg as s-process neutron source and the s-process thermometer $^{151}$Sm

    CERN Multimedia

    Leal, L C; Kitis, G; Guber, K H; Cox, J; Quaranta, A; Koehler, P E

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis provides a sensitive tool for testing He burning scenarios in massive stars as well as in low mass AGB stars. During this phase of stellar evolution nuclei in the mass region between Fe and Bi are producted by the slow neutron capture process ($\\emph{s}$-process). Because of the relatively low neutron densities, neutron capture times are long compared to typical $\\beta$-half-lives. This implies that the reaction path follows the stability valley and that the resulting abundances are essentially determined by the respective neutron capture cross sections. Hence, these data represent the most important nuclear physics input for $\\emph{s}$-process studies. In general, laboratory measurements are required in the energy range 0.1 < E$_{n}$ < 300 keV in order to obtain reliable averages over the stellar Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for thermal energies between kT=5 keV and 30 keV. The extremely high neutron flux, the energy resolution and the excellent duty factor make the nT...

  4. Super-resolution biomolecular crystallography with low-resolution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T

    2010-04-22

    X-ray diffraction plays a pivotal role in the understanding of biological systems by revealing atomic structures of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes, with much recent interest in very large assemblies like the ribosome. As crystals of such large assemblies often diffract weakly (resolution worse than 4 A), we need methods that work at such low resolution. In macromolecular assemblies, some of the components may be known at high resolution, whereas others are unknown: current refinement methods fail as they require a high-resolution starting structure for the entire complex. Determining the structure of such complexes, which are often of key biological importance, should be possible in principle as the number of independent diffraction intensities at a resolution better than 5 A generally exceeds the number of degrees of freedom. Here we introduce a method that adds specific information from known homologous structures but allows global and local deformations of these homology models. Our approach uses the observation that local protein structure tends to be conserved as sequence and function evolve. Cross-validation with R(free) (the free R-factor) determines the optimum deformation and influence of the homology model. For test cases at 3.5-5 A resolution with known structures at high resolution, our method gives significant improvements over conventional refinement in the model as monitored by coordinate accuracy, the definition of secondary structure and the quality of electron density maps. For re-refinements of a representative set of 19 low-resolution crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank, we find similar improvements. Thus, a structure derived from low-resolution diffraction data can have quality similar to a high-resolution structure. Our method is applicable to the study of weakly diffracting crystals using X-ray micro-diffraction as well as data from new X-ray light sources. Use of homology information is not restricted to X

  5. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszyński, M., E-mail: M.Moszynski@ncbj.gov.pl; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  6. The cerebellum mediates conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Tom A; Oriet, Chris; Meiran, Nachshon; Alexander, Michael P; Cusimano, Michael; Stuss, Donald T

    2007-12-01

    Regions within the frontal and parietal cortex have been implicated as important neural correlates for cognitive control during conflict resolution. Despite the extensive reciprocal connectivity between the cerebellum and these putatively critical cortical areas, a role for the cerebellum in conflict resolution has never been identified. We used a task-switching paradigm that separates processes related to task-set switching and the management of response conflict independent of motor processing. Eleven patients with chronic, focal lesions to the cerebellum and 11 healthy controls were compared. Patients were slower and less accurate in conditions involving conflict resolution. In the absence of response conflict, however, tasks-witching abilities were not impaired in our patients. The cerebellum may play an important role in coordinating with other areas of cortex to modulate active response states. These results are the first demonstration of impaired conflict resolution following cerebellar lesions in the presence of an intact prefrontal cortex.

  7. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  8. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  9. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  10. Estimating uncertainty in resolution tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available frequencies yields a biased estimate, and we provide an improved estimator. An application illustrates how the results derived can be incorporated into a larger un- certainty analysis. ? 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. H20851DOI: 10....1117/1.2202914H20852 Subject terms: resolution testing; USAF 1951 test target; resolution uncertainity. Paper 050404R received May 20, 2005; revised manuscript received Sep. 2, 2005; accepted for publication Sep. 9, 2005; published online May 10, 2006. 1...

  11. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms.

  12. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center (CPRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  13. High angular resolution at LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Bertero, M.; Boccacci, P.; Davies, A. G.; Defrere, D.; de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.; Hinz, P.; Hofmann, K. H.; La Camera, A.; Leisenring, J.; Kürster, M.; Rathbun, J. A.; Schertl, D.; Skemer, A.; Skrutskie, M.; Spencer, J. R.; Veillet, C.; Weigelt, G.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution from ground-based observatories stands as a key technology for advancing planetary science. In the window between the angular resolution achievable with 8-10 meter class telescopes, and the 23-to-40 meter giants of the future, LBT provides a glimpse of what the next generation of instruments providing higher angular resolution will provide. We present first ever resolved images of an Io eruption site taken from the ground, images of Io's Loki Patera taken with Fizeau imaging at the 22.8 meter LBT [Conrad, et al., AJ, 2015]. We will also present preliminary analysis of two data sets acquired during the 2015 opposition: L-band fringes at Kurdalagon and an occultation of Loki and Pele by Europa (see figure). The light curves from this occultation will yield an order of magnitude improvement in spatial resolution along the path of ingress and egress. We will conclude by providing an overview of the overall benefit of recent and future advances in angular resolution for planetary science.

  14. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  15. Berkeley High-Resolution Ball

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Criteria for a high-resolution γ-ray system are discussed. Desirable properties are high resolution, good response function, and moderate solid angle so as to achieve not only double- but triple-coincidences with good statistics. The Berkeley High-Resolution Ball involved the first use of bismuth germanate (BGO) for anti-Compton shield for Ge detectors. The resulting compact shield permitted rather close packing of 21 detectors around a target. In addition, a small central BGO ball gives the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity, as well as the angular pattern of the γ rays. The 21-detector array is nearly complete, and the central ball has been designed, but not yet constructed. First results taken with 9 detector modules are shown for the nucleus 156 Er. The complex decay scheme indicates a transition from collective rotation (prolate shape) to single- particle states (possibly oblate) near spin 30 h, and has other interesting features

  16. High resolution optical DNA mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baday, Murat

    Many types of diseases including cancer and autism are associated with copy-number variations in the genome. Most of these variations could not be identified with existing sequencing and optical DNA mapping methods. We have developed Multi-color Super-resolution technique, with potential for high throughput and low cost, which can allow us to recognize more of these variations. Our technique has made 10--fold improvement in the resolution of optical DNA mapping. Using a 180 kb BAC clone as a model system, we resolved dense patterns from 108 fluorescent labels of two different colors representing two different sequence-motifs. Overall, a detailed DNA map with 100 bp resolution was achieved, which has the potential to reveal detailed information about genetic variance and to facilitate medical diagnosis of genetic disease.

  17. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  18. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  19. USI A-43 resolution positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    NUREG-0869 is comprised of the following documents: Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.82, Revision 1, Sump for Emergency Core Cooling and Containment Spray Systems; The Value-Impact Statement for USI A-43, Containment Emergency Sump Performance; and Background and Summary of Minutes of Meetings of the Committee to Review Generic Requirements Regarding Unresolved Safety Issue A-43 Resolution. The report has been assembled to facilitate obtaining for comment feedback on the position developed for resolution of USI A-43. There are no licensing requirements contained in NUREG-0869, and it should be clearly noted that this for comment report will not be used as interim requirements

  20. Connecticut church passes genetics resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, B J

    1984-11-09

    The Connecticut Conference of the United Church of Christ, which represents the largest Protestant denomination in the state, has passed a resolution affirming an ethical duty to do research on human gene therapy and is planning to form local church groups to study the scientific and ethical issues involved. The resolution is intended to counter an earlier one proposed by Jeremy Rifkin to ban all efforts at engineering specific traits into the human germline. The Rifkin proposal had been endorsed by a large number of religious leaders, including the head of the U.S. United Church of Christ, but was subsequently characterized by many of the church leaders as overly restrictive.

  1. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  2. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  3. Resolution 1540, ten years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Adopted on the 28 April 2004 by the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, Resolution 1540 is a composite tool that was hitherto unprecedented. To recap, States are bound to 'refrain from providing any form of support to non-State actors that attempt to develop, acquire, manufacture, possess, transport, transfer or use nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery' (par. 1), and to prohibit and prevent non-State actors from the aforementioned through 'appropriate and effective' (par. 2,3) legal, judiciary, and administrative means. A Committee was established to which States had to submit a first report outlining the steps 'they have taken or intend to take to implement this resolution' (par. 4). This Committee was initially established for two years and has been regularly renewed since, and its mandate was extended in 2011 for ten years. It is not a surveillance mechanism. Finally, with the aim of remedying difficulties that certain States may experience in implementing the Resolution, 'States in a position to do so' are invited to offer assistance (par. 7). The level of the application of Resolution 1540 was originally based on a delicate three-pronged balance of obligation, good will, and partnership. It is not a matter of designating certain States to the rest of the international community, whilst avoiding that the exercise be limited to the submission of national reports, instead aiming to initiate a dynamic. The wager was a risky one. Ten years on, 90% of UN member States have submitted one or several implementation reports. 170 States and 50 international and regional organisations have taken part in outreach and implementation support events. Whatever quantitative or qualitative conclusions that can be reached, we should continue to promote the Re-solution's universal adoption, and to ensure that the implementation of its provisions is undertaken in a lasting manner, taking account of the national

  4. RESOLUTION

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    Research without a budget = Europe without a future !   Noting that the CERN Management has submitted to the Member States for the Finance Committee meeting on 25th August 2010 a budget for 2011 and a medium-term plan (MTP) for the period 2012-2015; Deploring the fact that, on the Member States’ request, this plan proposes a reduction of resources of 478 million Swiss francs over the period 2011–2015, compared to the initial proposal by the Management, which corresponded even then to the minimum needed to exploit the machines and experiments; Recalling that, following a decision by Council in 1996, CERN has suffered an annual budget cut of 100 million Swiss francs; Considering that this approach equates to an abandonment by the Member States of the European Union of a policy agreed upon in Barcelona in 2003 to invest 3% of their GDP in R&D by 2010, and today they can barely manage 1.85%; Considering that these budget cuts imposed on CERN compromise not on...

  5. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and the thinking emerging from African universities, colleges and organisations. Other websites assiciated with this Journal: ...

  6. Fractional charge resolution in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.L.; Brady, F.P.; Christie, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results obtained with MUSIC (MUltiple Sampling Ionization Chamber) for La and Ar beams at the Bevalac show resolutions better than ΔZ(FWHM) = 0.3 e. These results suggest the use of MUSIC in future ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

  7. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  8. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  9. Spatial resolution in visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shalom, Asaf; Ganel, Tzvi

    2015-04-01

    Representations in visual short-term memory are considered to contain relatively elaborated information on object structure. Conversely, representations in earlier stages of the visual hierarchy are thought to be dominated by a sensory-based, feed-forward buildup of information. In four experiments, we compared the spatial resolution of different object properties between two points in time along the processing hierarchy in visual short-term memory. Subjects were asked either to estimate the distance between objects or to estimate the size of one of the objects' features under two experimental conditions, of either a short or a long delay period between the presentation of the target stimulus and the probe. When different objects were referred to, similar spatial resolution was found for the two delay periods, suggesting that initial processing stages are sensitive to object-based properties. Conversely, superior resolution was found for the short, as compared with the long, delay when features were referred to. These findings suggest that initial representations in visual memory are hybrid in that they allow fine-grained resolution for object features alongside normal visual sensitivity to the segregation between objects. The findings are also discussed in reference to the distinction made in earlier studies between visual short-term memory and iconic memory.

  10. High resolution metric imaging payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclaud, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Alcatel Space Industries has become Europe's leader in the field of high and very high resolution optical payloads, in the frame work of earth observation system able to provide military government with metric images from space. This leadership allowed ALCATEL to propose for the export market, within a French collaboration frame, a complete space based system for metric observation.

  11. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational

  12. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  13. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  14. Spatial resolution in Micromegas detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bayb, A; Giomataris, Ioanis; Zaccone, Henri; Bay, A; Perroud, Jean-Pierre; Ronga, F

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a telescope of Micromegas detectors has been studied in a pion beam at the CERN PS. With a gas filling of CF/sub 4 / and 20% isobutane and with a strip pitch of 100 mu m an accuracy of 14+or-3 mu m on the spatial resolution has been measured at normal incidence. A simulation demonstrates that the resolution is limited by the size of the holes of the mesh of the detector and could be reduced to 11 mu m in the same conditions with smaller holes. Even further improvement down to 8.5 mu m is feasible for the same gas with an optimized 75 mu m strip pitch. (5 refs).

  15. SPECT imaging with resolution recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)

  16. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  17. OTTER, Resolution Style Theorem Prover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: OTTER (Other Techniques for Theorem-proving and Effective Research) is a resolution-style theorem-proving program for first-order logic with equality. OTTER includes the inference rules binary resolution, hyper-resolution, UR-resolution, and binary para-modulation. These inference rules take as small set of clauses and infer a clause. If the inferred clause is new and useful, it is stored and may become available for subsequent inferences. Other capabilities are conversion from first-order formulas to clauses, forward and back subsumption, factoring, weighting, answer literals, term ordering, forward and back demodulation, and evaluable functions and predicates. 2 - Method of solution: For its inference process OTTER uses the given-clause algorithm, which can be viewed as a simple implementation of the set of support strategy. OTTER maintains three lists of clauses: axioms, sos (set of support), and demodulators. OTTER is not automatic. Even after the user has encoded a problem into first-order logic or into clauses, the user must choose inference rules, set options to control the processing of inferred clauses, and decide which input formulae or clauses are to be in the initial set of support and which, if any, equalities are to be demodulators. If OTTER fails to find a proof, the user may try again different initial conditions. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 5000 characters in an input string, 64 distinct variables in a clause, 51 characters in any symbol. The maxima can be changed by finding the appropriate definition in the header.h file, increasing the limit, and recompiling OTTER. There are a few constraints on the order of commands

  18. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  19. A novel super-resolution camera model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  20. Using smartphone batteries as an urban thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droste, Arjan; Pape, Jan-Jaap; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Van Delden, Aarnout; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2017-04-01

    Taking meteorological measurements in the urban environment is notoriously difficult due to the complex geometry at street and neighbourhood level. Traditional weather stations are absent in cities because of WMO regulations, so urban data has to come from typically expensive measurement-networks, or short intensive campaigns. While traditional measurements are scarce, there is an abundance of smart devices in cities: the well-known Internet of Things. It is for these reasons that crowdsourcing data has an enormous potential in cities, to deliver vast quantities of data without the maintenance costs of a measurement network. A promising source of potentially valuable data is the smartphone, because of its ubiquity and the many sensors most newer phone models now possess. Since most people nowadays have a smartphone, and carry it around wherever they go, data logged by the phone can be used to estimate the urban air temperature. A persistent log taken by nearly all smartphone models, even those without air temperature sensors, is the smartphone's battery temperature. The free OpenSignal smartphone application logs this battery temperature (among many other variables) and the position of the smartphone, which makes it possible to estimate the urban air temperature through a straightforward heat transfer model relating battery temperature to air and body temperature. The obtained urban temperatures are accurate within 1 to 2 degrees of certified measurement stations, proving the huge potential of this innovative method. This poster focuses on describing how thousands of daily smartphone battery temperature measurements can be translated to a relatively robust estimation of an urban air temperature, using 2 years of data from São Paulo in Brazil. Analysis of the results is presented in a separate session.

  1. Thermometer testing with ion thermometric sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Rosenkranz, J.; Strnad, M.

    1986-01-01

    The operation is described of standardization system KP-4 which uses five temperature points consisting of ion thermometric sensors. The system is used for in-service inspection of temperature sensors. Temperature is controlled using the slope of the dependence of electric conductivity of the ion thermometric sensors on temperature. Measurement error is less than 0.3 degC. (M.D.)

  2. Tree thermometers and commodities: historic climate indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.M.; Pandolfi, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    In four modern trees, hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios track the modern temperature records. In a 2000-yr sequence of a Japanese cedar, there are the same periodicities of variation of D/H and O 18 /O 16 as have been found in O 18 /O 16 in a Greenland ice well. The same periodicities are found in uranium and organic carbon concentrations versus depth in a sea core from the Santa Barbara Channel, and in carbon-14 variations in a sequence of Bristlecone pine from southern California. In a 2000-yr sequence of Japanese cedar and in a 1000-yr sequence of European oak D/H and O 18 /O 16 are related to each other by a slope of 8, just as they are in world-wide precipitation. In a 72-yr sequence of Sequoia gigantea, measured year by year for its oxygen isotope ratios, the 10.5-yr cycle of sunspot numbers found, but not the 21-yr cycle of sunspot magnetism; this we believe indicates that the sun is affecting the earth's climate with non-magnetic particles, probably photons. All these phenomena are related to periodic changes in sea surface temperature caused by periodic changes in the sun. (author)

  3. Linearization of resistance thermometers and other transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    deflection output or to null balance output. The application to the common temperature transducers is considered. It is shown that thermistors, linear metals (e.g., copper), and nickel can be linearized in terms of temperature, but platinum cannot be. If linearization is desired in terms of the reciprocal...

  4. 176Lu: Cosmic clock or stellar thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.A.; Beer, H.; Kaeppeler, F.; Wisshak, K.

    1980-12-01

    We quantitatively examine the various experimental and theoretical aspects of the stellar synthesis of the long-lived ground state of 176 Lu (3.6 x 10 10 y). We discuss the various regimes of stellar temperature and free-neutron density in which either: (i) the internal electromagnetic couplings between 176 Lusup(o) and 176 Lusup(m) (3.68 hours) are sufficiently slow that they may be treated as separate nuclei, or (ii) the internal couplings are rapidly able to establish thermal equilibrium between 176 Lusup(o) and 176 Lusup(m). (orig.)

  5. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  6. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  7. Subsequent bilateral comparison to CCT-K3, CIPM key comparison CCT-K3.1: Comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers at the triple point of water (T = 273.16 K) and at the melting point of gallium (T = 302.9146 K)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, S.; Nonis, M.; Solve, S.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Renaot, E.; Martin, C.

    2011-01-01

    A comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers (SPRTs) has been carried out between the BIPM and the Laboratoire commun de métrologie LNE-CNAM using the melting point of gallium and the triple point of water. The temperature difference at Ga between the BIPM and the LNE-CNAM was determined as 108 µK with an associated combined standard uncertainty of 223 µK. This outcome indicates a present temperature difference of the BIPM of -65 µK with respect to an Average Reference Value from an earlier comparison, with an associated uncertainty of uc = 262 µK. It should be noted that the present BIPM scale is not independent, but traceable to cells used in KC7. The comparison results validate the re-establishment of thermometer calibrations at the BIPM for internal use. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. Comparison between tympanic and anal temperature with a clinical infrared ray thermometer in dogs Comparação entre a temperatura timpânica e a temperatura anal usando um termômetro clínico de raio infravermelho em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G.S. Wiedemann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A clinical thermometer of infrared rays was used twice to record consecutively the temperature of the tympanic membrane in each ear and in the anus of 53 dogs. Temperatures did not differ significantly between organs, and were strongly correlated. The anal temperature measurement with an infrared thermometer in dogs is feasible and trustworthy, as well as the thermal checking of tympanic temperature.Utilizou-se um termômetro clínico de emissão de raios infravermelhos para medir, duas vezes consecutivas, a temperatura da membrana timpânica de cada ouvido e duas vezes a temperatura no ânus de 53 cães. Não houve diferença entre as temperaturas quanto ao órgão estudado e a correlação entre as temperaturas foi alta. Em cães, a medida da temperatura anal com o termômetro clínico de emissão de raios infravermelhos é rápida e confiável tanto quanto a da temperatura timpânica.

  9. Ultra-high resolution AMOLED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacyk, Ihor; Prache, Olivier; Ghosh, Amal

    2011-06-01

    AMOLED microdisplays continue to show improvement in resolution and optical performance, enhancing their appeal for a broad range of near-eye applications such as night vision, simulation and training, situational awareness, augmented reality, medical imaging, and mobile video entertainment and gaming. eMagin's latest development of an HDTV+ resolution technology integrates an OLED pixel of 3.2 × 9.6 microns in size on a 0.18 micron CMOS backplane to deliver significant new functionality as well as the capability to implement a 1920×1200 microdisplay in a 0.86" diagonal area. In addition to the conventional matrix addressing circuitry, the HDTV+ display includes a very lowpower, low-voltage-differential-signaling (LVDS) serialized interface to minimize cable and connector size as well as electromagnetic emissions (EMI), an on-chip set of look-up-tables for digital gamma correction, and a novel pulsewidth- modulation (PWM) scheme that together with the standard analog control provides a total dimming range of 0.05cd/m2 to 2000cd/m2 in the monochrome version. The PWM function also enables an impulse drive mode of operation that significantly reduces motion artifacts in high speed scene changes. An internal 10-bit DAC ensures that a full 256 gamma-corrected gray levels are available across the entire dimming range, resulting in a measured dynamic range exceeding 20-bits. This device has been successfully tested for operation at frame rates ranging from 30Hz up to 85Hz. This paper describes the operational features and detailed optical and electrical test results for the new AMOLED WUXGA resolution microdisplay.

  10. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.

    1987-01-01

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources. 14 references

  11. On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.

  12. Likelihood Ratio Based Mixed Resolution Facial Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for low-resolution face recognition. It is especially useful for a common situation in forensic search where faces of low resolution, e.g. on surveillance footage or in a crowd, must be compared to a high-resolution reference. This method is based on the

  13. Development of AMS high resolution injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Yiwen; Guan Xialing; Hu Yueming

    2008-01-01

    The Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator AMS high resolution injector system was developed. The high resolution energy achromatic system consists of an electrostatic analyzer and a magnetic analyzer, which mass resolution can reach 600 and transmission is better than 80%. (authors)

  14. Resolution on the program energy-climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  15. Incremental Query Rewriting with Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazanov, Alexandre; Aragão, Marcelo A. T.

    We address the problem of semantic querying of relational databases (RDB) modulo knowledge bases using very expressive knowledge representation formalisms, such as full first-order logic or its various fragments. We propose to use a resolution-based first-order logic (FOL) reasoner for computing schematic answers to deductive queries, with the subsequent translation of these schematic answers to SQL queries which are evaluated using a conventional relational DBMS. We call our method incremental query rewriting, because an original semantic query is rewritten into a (potentially infinite) series of SQL queries. In this chapter, we outline the main idea of our technique - using abstractions of databases and constrained clauses for deriving schematic answers, and provide completeness and soundness proofs to justify the applicability of this technique to the case of resolution for FOL without equality. The proposed method can be directly used with regular RDBs, including legacy databases. Moreover, we propose it as a potential basis for an efficient Web-scale semantic search technology.

  16. Microscopic resolution broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S; Watson, P; Prance, R J

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented for a non-contact measurement system capable of micron level spatial resolution. It utilises the novel electric potential sensor (EPS) technology, invented at Sussex, to image the electric field above a simple composite dielectric material. EP sensors may be regarded as analogous to a magnetometer and require no adjustments or offsets during either setup or use. The sample consists of a standard glass/epoxy FR4 circuit board, with linear defects machined into the surface by a PCB milling machine. The sample is excited with an a.c. signal over a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, from the reverse side, by placing it on a conducting sheet connected to the source. The single sensor is raster scanned over the surface at a constant working distance, consistent with the spatial resolution, in order to build up an image of the electric field, with respect to the reference potential. The results demonstrate that both the surface defects and the internal dielectric variations within the composite may be imaged in this way, with good contrast being observed between the glass mat and the epoxy resin.

  17. Microscopic resolution broadband dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Watson, P.; Prance, R. J.

    2011-08-01

    Results are presented for a non-contact measurement system capable of micron level spatial resolution. It utilises the novel electric potential sensor (EPS) technology, invented at Sussex, to image the electric field above a simple composite dielectric material. EP sensors may be regarded as analogous to a magnetometer and require no adjustments or offsets during either setup or use. The sample consists of a standard glass/epoxy FR4 circuit board, with linear defects machined into the surface by a PCB milling machine. The sample is excited with an a.c. signal over a range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, from the reverse side, by placing it on a conducting sheet connected to the source. The single sensor is raster scanned over the surface at a constant working distance, consistent with the spatial resolution, in order to build up an image of the electric field, with respect to the reference potential. The results demonstrate that both the surface defects and the internal dielectric variations within the composite may be imaged in this way, with good contrast being observed between the glass mat and the epoxy resin.

  18. Super Resolution Algorithm for CCTVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohshi, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, security cameras and CCTV systems have become an important part of our daily lives. The rising demand for such systems has created business opportunities in this field, especially in big cities. Analogue CCTV systems are being replaced by digital systems, and HDTV CCTV has become quite common. HDTV CCTV can achieve images with high contrast and decent quality if they are clicked in daylight. However, the quality of an image clicked at night does not always have sufficient contrast and resolution because of poor lighting conditions. CCTV systems depend on infrared light at night to compensate for insufficient lighting conditions, thereby producing monochrome images and videos. However, these images and videos do not have high contrast and are blurred. We propose a nonlinear signal processing technique that significantly improves visual and image qualities (contrast and resolution) of low-contrast infrared images. The proposed method enables the use of infrared cameras for various purposes such as night shot and poor lighting environments under poor lighting conditions.

  19. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  20. Reconcile: A Coreference Resolution Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V; Cardie, C; Gilbert, N; Riloff, E; Buttler, D; Hysom, D

    2009-10-29

    Despite the availability of standard data sets and metrics, approaches to the problem of noun phrase coreference resolution are hard to compare empirically due to the different evaluation setting stemming, in part, from the lack of comprehensive coreference resolution research platforms. In this tech report we present Reconcile, a coreference resolution research platform that aims to facilitate the implementation of new approaches to coreference resolution as well as the comparison of existing approaches. We discuss Reconcile's architecture and give results of running Reconcile on six data sets using four evaluation metrics, showing that Reconcile's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art systems in coreference resolution.

  1. Comparison of super-resolution benefits for downsampled iages and real low-resolution data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Gökberk, B.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, more and more researchers are exploring the benefits of super-resolution methods on low-resolution face recognition. However, often results presented are obtained on downsampled high-resolution face images. Because downsampled images are different from real images taken at low resolution,

  2. 40 CFR 22.18 - Quick resolution; settlement; alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; alternative dispute resolution. 22.18 Section 22.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...; alternative dispute resolution. (a) Quick resolution. (1) A respondent may resolve the proceeding at any time... complaint. (d) Alternative means of dispute resolution. (1) The parties may engage in any process within the...

  3. Super resolution for astronomical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Peng, Qingyu; Bhanu, Bir; Zhang, Qingfeng; He, Haifeng

    2018-05-01

    In order to obtain detailed information from multiple telescope observations a general blind super-resolution (SR) reconstruction approach for astronomical images is proposed in this paper. A pixel-reliability-based SR reconstruction algorithm is described and implemented, where the developed process incorporates flat field correction, automatic star searching and centering, iterative star matching, and sub-pixel image registration. Images captured by the 1-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory are used to test the proposed technique. The results of these experiments indicate that, following SR reconstruction, faint stars are more distinct, bright stars have sharper profiles, and the backgrounds have higher details; thus these results benefit from the high-precision star centering and image registration provided by the developed method. Application of the proposed approach not only provides more opportunities for new discoveries from astronomical image sequences, but will also contribute to enhancing the capabilities of most spatial or ground-based telescopes.

  4. Hadron energy resolution at ICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Moon Moon; Ghosh, Anushree; Kaur, Daljeet; Mohan, Lakshmi S.

    2013-01-01

    We have performed a simulation study for determining the hadron energy resolution of INO-ICAL detector within a GEANT4 based simulation framework. We do this by propagating single pions from a fixed or a randomised vertex, as also with the NUANCE (neutrino event generator) generated events in which hadrons are produced in the energy range (0.5 ≤ E ≤ 15 GeV). Hadron interactions produce a shower of hits inside the detector. The energy of hadrons can therefore be reconstructed only by taking these hits into account. Hit distribution for each energy and angle bin has been obtained and analyzed. In order to find the suitable fit for such hit distributions a comparative study has been performed by applying different fit functions and results will be shown

  5. Resolution of the Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    You were many to attend the public information meetings organised in October and we thank you for your interest. In this decision phase of the current Five-Yearly Review of our employment conditions they provided an opportunity to review the Management proposals in detail. They were a moment of exchange also on the various topics under review, and your comments were many and very valuable. Meeting on Thursday 29th October, the Staff Council discussed once more these proposals. It considered that the "package" of proposed measures is not balanced enough in its current form. It decided to formulate additional requests to the Management, relating mainly to the effects of the introduction of the proposed new career system. The resolution adopted this morning also implies that the consultation of staff, originally foreseen next week, is postponed. The staff Council will reconvene in a special session on Thursday, 5th November to reassess its position depending on the progress made regarding its d...

  6. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  7. High resolution eddy current microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M. A.; Jarvis, S. P.; Tokumoto, H.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a sensitive scanning force microscope based technique for measuring local variations in resistivity by monitoring changes in the eddy current induced damping of a cantilever with a magnetic tip oscillating above a conducting sample. To achieve a high sensitivity, we used a cantilever with an FeNdBLa particle mounted on the tip. Resistivity measurements are demonstrated on a silicon test structure with a staircase doping profile. Regions with resistivities of 0.0013, 0.0041, and 0.022 Ω cm are clearly resolved with a lateral resolution of approximately 180 nm. For this range of resistivities, the eddy current induced damping is found to depend linearly on the sample resistivity.

  8. Atomic-resolution neutron holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cser, L.; Toeroek, Gy.; Krexner, G.

    2001-01-01

    Atomic-resolution neutron holography can be realised by two different schemes. In the frame of the first approach a point-like source of slow neutrons is produced inside the investigated crystal. Due to the extremely large value of the incoherent-scattering cross-section of the proton, hydrogen atoms imbedded in a metal single-crystal lattice may serve as point-like sources when the sample is irradiated by a monochromatic beam of slow neutrons. The second approach utilizes the registration of the interference between the incident and scattered waves by means of a point-like detector inserted in the lattice of the crystal under investigation. In addition, neutron-induced electron holography is considered. The feasibility of these ideas is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R

    2016-11-13

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U (1) -U (0) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  11. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    shortcoming in preventing impasses is a need to have a priori information on the future demand for resources, and it is not always possible.One of ways to "struggle" against impasses when there is no a priori information on the process demand for resources is to detect deadlocks. Detection of impasses (without leading to their resolution yet is a periodical use of the algorithm which checks current distribution of resources to reveal whether there is an impasse and if it exists what processes are involved in it.The work objective is to develop methods and algorithms allowing us to minimize losses because of impasses in CS using the optimum strategy of conflict resolution. The offered approach is especially effective to eliminate deadlocks in management (control computer systems having a fixed set of programmes.The article offers a developed efficient strategy of the information processes management in multiprocessing CS, which detects and prevents impasses. The strategy is based on allocation of indivisible resources to computing processes so that losses caused by conflicts are minimized. The article studies a multi-criterion problem of indivisible resources allocation to the processes, with the optimality principle expressed by the known binary relation over set of average vectors of penalties for conflicts in each of resources. It is shown that sharing a decision theory tool and a classical one allows more efficient problem solution to eliminate deadlock. The feature of suggesting effective methods and algorithms to eliminate deadlocks is that they can be used in CS development and operation in real time. The article-given example shows that the proposed method and algorithm for the impasse resolution in multiprocessing CS are capable and promising.The offered method and algorithm provide reducing the average number of CS conflicts by 30-40 %.

  12. Conflict resolution: practical principles for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Berger, David H; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L; Martinez, George; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2008-11-01

    Historically, surgeons have had little formal training in conflict resolution; however, there has been an increasing body of evidence that poor conflict resolution skills may have an adverse impact on patient outcomes and career advancement. Furthermore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has recognized the importance of conflict resolution skills in resident training by mandating the training of communication skills and professionalism. These skills have often been taught in other professions, and surgeons may need to acquaint themselves with the literature from those fields. Conflict resolution techniques such as the 7-step model or principle-based conflict resolution can be applied to conflict in the operating room, wards, and among colleagues. We propose a model for conflict resolution by using the basic tools of the history and physical exam, a process well known to all physicians.

  13. Shipments/receipts resolution program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) has initiated an aggressive program aimed at improving shipper/receiver (S/R) posture. The site is routinely involved in 800 nuclear material transfers/year. This many transactions between facilities provides many opportunities for resolving S/R differences. Resolution of S/R differences requires considerable effort from both DOE offices and contractors, presents legitimate safeguards concerns if the receiving quantity is less than the quantity shipped, and must be resolved for shipments to continue. This paper discusses the programs in place at SRP to resolve S/R differences. S/R agreements provide a method of communicating between the shipping and receiving facilities and protect both facilities by eliminating misunderstandings. Nondestructive assay (NDA) instrumentation allows the facility to obtain an accountability quality value for receipt before the material is processed. More accurate and precise analytical techniques are in use wherever SRP does not have the capability to measure a shipment or receipt by NDA. S/R values are graphed to identify trends and/or biases that may not have exceeded any error limits. The central Material Control and Accountability (MCandA) division has become more involved in analyzing the data from shipments and receipts including the calculation of limits of error (LOE's), instrument biases, and analyzing trends

  14. Interactively variable isotropic resolution in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, Robert M; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kachelriess, Marc; Wilharm, Sylvia; Kalender, Willi A

    2008-01-01

    An individual balancing between spatial resolution and image noise is necessary to fulfil the diagnostic requirements in medical CT imaging. In order to change influencing parameters, such as reconstruction kernel or effective slice thickness, additional raw-data-dependent image reconstructions have to be performed. Therefore, the noise versus resolution trade-off is time consuming and not interactively applicable. Furthermore, isotropic resolution, expressed by an equivalent point spread function (PSF) in every spatial direction, is important for the undistorted visualization and quantitative evaluation of small structures independent of the viewing plane. Theoretically, isotropic resolution can be obtained by matching the in-plane and through-plane resolution with the aforementioned parameters. Practically, however, the user is not assisted in doing so by current reconstruction systems and therefore isotropic resolution is not commonly achieved, in particular not at the desired resolution level. In this paper, an integrated approach is presented for equalizing the in-plane and through-plane spatial resolution by image filtering. The required filter kernels are calculated from previously measured PSFs in x/y- and z-direction. The concepts derived are combined with a variable resolution filtering technique. Both approaches are independent of CT raw data and operate only on reconstructed images which allows for their application in real time. Thereby, the aim of interactively variable, isotropic resolution is achieved. Results were evaluated quantitatively by measuring PSFs and image noise, and qualitatively by comparing the images to direct reconstructions regarded as the gold standard. Filtered images matched direct reconstructions with arbitrary reconstruction kernels with standard deviations in difference images of typically between 1 and 17 HU. Isotropic resolution was achieved within 5% of the selected resolution level. Processing times of 20-100 ms per frame

  15. 2 DOF resolution adjustment laser position sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available means. [19, 20] Other - Displacement measuring instruments utilizing eddy currents, capacitive and inductive properties exist, but are not as widely spread as the technologies mentioned. Accelerometers and Gyroscopes are used to determine... resolution. The current accuracy of the IRB 340 Flex Picker, a rapid pick and place machine, is 0.1 mm. The lower limit on screen resolution for absolute 2D positioning would then be 400 phototransistors per square mm, a screen with twice the resolution...

  16. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  17. Mass resolution for lepton pairs at Isabelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.; Paige, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments measuring e + e - and μ + μ-pairs will be the principal way of searching at ISABELLE for the Z 0 and for vector mesons made from new heavy quark-antiquark (Q anti Q ) pairs. Although the best possible mass resolution is clearly of benefit in such experiments, excessive resolution would lead to an unnecessarily large detector. It is believed that a mass resolution of a few percent is appropriate in searching both for the Z 0 and for new Q anti Q states. However, there are some interesting experiments which would require much better mass resolution, of order 1/4% FWHM. 9 references

  18. Minimal free resolutions over complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbud, David

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a theory of higher matrix factorizations for regular sequences and uses it to describe the minimal free resolutions of high syzygy modules over complete intersections. Such resolutions have attracted attention ever since the elegant construction of the minimal free resolution of the residue field by Tate in 1957. The theory extends the theory of matrix factorizations of a non-zero divisor, initiated by Eisenbud in 1980, which yields a description of the eventual structure of minimal free resolutions over a hypersurface ring. Matrix factorizations have had many other uses in a wide range of mathematical fields, from singularity theory to mathematical physics.

  19. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation camera for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area is described in which means is provided for second order positional resolution. The phototubes, which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  20. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  1. Resolution effects in reconstructing ancestral genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfang; Jeong, Yuji; Turcotte, Madisyn Gabrielle; Sankoff, David

    2018-05-09

    The reconstruction of ancestral genomes must deal with the problem of resolution, necessarily involving a trade-off between trying to identify genomic details and being overwhelmed by noise at higher resolutions. We use the median reconstruction at the synteny block level, of the ancestral genome of the order Gentianales, based on coffee, Rhazya stricta and grape, to exemplify the effects of resolution (granularity) on comparative genomic analyses. We show how decreased resolution blurs the differences between evolving genomes, with respect to rate, mutational process and other characteristics.

  2. Resolution in in-line digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, C; Denis, L; Fournel, T

    2010-01-01

    Digital in-line holography is a 3D imaging technique which has been widely developed during the last two decades. This technique achieves the 3D reconstruction of volume objects from a 2D image-hologram. It is a metrological tool and therefore the improvement of resolution is one of the current challenges. However the resolution depends on several experimental parameters and the experimenters have to choose the parameters which will lead to the best resolution. This paper presents the study of resolution in in-line digital holography from the asymptotical bounds of the covariance of estimators used in hologram reconstruction.

  3. Environmental control of U concentration and 234U/238U in speleothems at subannual resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.; Henderson, G. M.

    2003-12-01

    Trace element and isotope variability in speleothems encodes a range of information about the past environment, although its interpretation is often problematic. U concentration and isotopes have frequently been analysed in speleothems in order to provide chronology, but their use as environmental proxies in their own right has not been comprehensively investigated. In this study, we have investigated the environmental controls of U in a stalagmite from the Central Yangtze Valley in China. This stalagmite grew rapidly throughout the Holocone and contains visible annual layers about 300microns thick. Analysis of a portion of the stalagmite corresponding to the 1970s by electron probe, LA-ICP-MS, and by physical subsampling indicate clear annual cycles in Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca. The reasonably open cave structure and the correlation of Sr/Ca with Mg/Ca suggest that temperature exerts considerable control over these trace element variations. U/Ca also varies seasonally by up to 42 % and shows a clear anti-correlation with Mg/Ca (correlation coefficient -0.64). Based on the inverse relationship between U/Ca and temperature exhibited in other carbonates (e.g. corals) the speleothem U/Ca is suggested to be controlled primarily by temperature and may provide a paleo cave thermometer with less rainfall influence than Mg/Ca. Ongoing monitoring of the cave temperature and humidity will assess the robustness of this conclusion and the sensitivity of speleothem U/Ca to temperature. (234U/238U) in this stalagmite range from 1.733 to 1.872 during the Holocene. The U concentration is high enough (typically 0.48 ppm) and growth rate fast enough, that (234U/238U) can also be measured at a subannual resolution. The expected alpha-recoil control of excess 234U supply suggests that these measurements may provide a measure of the transit time of recharge waters to the stalagmite during the seasonal cycle. Such a proxy would enable deconvolution of temperature and recharge-rate control

  4. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  5. 20 CFR 627.481 - Audit resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit resolution. 627.481 Section 627.481 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING...) or disagreement (an initial determination) with the recipient's audit resolution report will be...

  6. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  7. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  8. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  9. A Macro Approach to International Bank Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the aftermath of the Great Financial Crisis, regulators have rushed to strengthen banking supervision and implement bank resolution regimes. While such resolution regimes are welcome to reintroduce market discipline and reduce the reliance on taxpayer-funded bailouts, the effects

  10. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Formula... unresolved beyond the time period specified for its resolution in the licensee's fundamental nuclear material...

  11. Psychosocial Resolution and Counsellor Trainee Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level counseling students (n=74) were surveyed to investigate the relationship between resolution of Erikson's psychosocial stage of intimacy/isolation and counselor trainee empathy. Results revealed a significant positive relationship between measures of psychosocial stage resolution and counselor empathy and a significant main effect for…

  12. Alternative Dispute Resolution to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassberg, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Examines the use of mediation and arbitration to settle civil disputes which have been traditionally settled through the courts. Discusses the advantages of alternative forms of dispute resolution. Describes the operations of dispute resolution centers and provides information about the individuals who serve as dispute mediators. (KO)

  13. Planning for shallow high resolution seismic surveys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fourie, CJS

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the input wave. This information can be used in conjunction with this spreadsheet to aid the geophysicist in designing shallow high resolution seismic surveys to achieve maximum resolution and penetration. This Excel spreadsheet is available free from...

  14. Simultaneous super-resolution and blind deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroubek, F; Flusser, J; Cristobal, G

    2008-01-01

    In many real applications, blur in input low-resolution images is a nuisance, which prevents traditional super-resolution methods from working correctly. This paper presents a unifying approach to the blind deconvolution and superresolution problem of multiple degraded low-resolution frames of the original scene. We introduce a method which assumes no prior information about the shape of degradation blurs and which is properly defined for any rational (fractional) resolution factor. The method minimizes a regularized energy function with respect to the high-resolution image and blurs, where regularization is carried out in both the image and blur domains. The blur regularization is based on a generalized multichannel blind deconvolution constraint. Experiments on real data illustrate robustness and utilization of the method

  15. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  16. Resolution on the program energy-climate; Resolution sur le paquet energie-climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)

  17. Resolution enhancement of low quality videos using a high-resolution frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Schutte, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an example-based Super-Resolution (SR) algorithm of compressed videos in the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain. Input to the system is a Low-Resolution (LR) compressed video together with a High-Resolution (HR) still image of similar content. Using a training set of

  18. Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thitaikumar, Arun; Righetti, Raffaella; Krouskop, Thomas A; Ophir, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 45 0 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (ΔW) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 45 0 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

  19. 40 keV atomic resolution TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, David C.; Russo, Christopher J.; Kolmykov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the first atomic resolution TEM imaging at 40 keV using an aberration-corrected, monochromated source TEM. Low-voltage High-Resolution Electron Microscopy (LVHREM) has several advantages, including increased cross-sections for inelastic and elastic scattering, increased contrast per electron and improved spectroscopy efficiency, decreased delocalization effects and reduced knock-on damage. Together, these often improve the contrast to damage ratio obtained on a large class of samples. Third-order aberration correction now allows us to operate the TEM at low energies while retaining atomic resolution, which was previously impossible. At low voltage the major limitation to resolution becomes the chromatic aberration limit. We show that using a source monochromator we are able to reduce the effect of chromatic aberration and achieve a usable high-resolution limit at 40 keV to less than 1 Å. We show various materials' examples of the application of the technique to image graphene and silicon, and compare atomic resolution images with electron multislice simulations. -- Highlights: ► We present the first atomic resolution images recorded at 40 keV using an aberration-corrected, monochromated TEM. ► We show information transfer measured to better than 1 Å. ► At 40 keV an aberration-corrected monochromated TEM is limited by fifth-order spherical aberration. ► We show that using a monochromator the effect of chromatic aberration is reduced to enable high resolution imaging. ► Low voltage high resolution electron microscopy will be beneficial for imaging the organic/inorganic materials interface.

  20. Resolution of Reflection Seismic Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Zunino, Andrea

    The Rayleigh Principle states that the minimum separation between two reflectors that allows them to be visually separated is the separation where the wavelet maxima from the two superimposed reflections combine into one maximum. This happens around Δtres = λb/8, where λb is the predominant...... lower vertical resolution of reflection seismic data. In the following we will revisit think layer model and demonstrate that there is in practice no limit to the vertical resolution using the parameterization of Widess (1973), and that the vertical resolution is limited by the noise in the data...

  1. Ultra-high resolution coded wavefront sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Congli

    2017-06-08

    Wavefront sensors and more general phase retrieval methods have recently attracted a lot of attention in a host of application domains, ranging from astronomy to scientific imaging and microscopy. In this paper, we introduce a new class of sensor, the Coded Wavefront Sensor, which provides high spatio-temporal resolution using a simple masked sensor under white light illumination. Specifically, we demonstrate megapixel spatial resolution and phase accuracy better than 0.1 wavelengths at reconstruction rates of 50 Hz or more, thus opening up many new applications from high-resolution adaptive optics to real-time phase retrieval in microscopy.

  2. On Resolution Complexity of Matching Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan S.

    proof system. The results in the thesis fall in this category. We study the Resolution complexity of some Matching Principles. The three major contributions of the thesis are as follows. Firstly, we develop a general technique of proving resolution lower bounds for the perfect matchingprinciples based...... Chessboard as well as for Tseitin tautologies based on rectangular grid graph. We reduce these problems to Tiling games, a concept introduced by us, which may be of interest on its own. Secondly, we find the exact Tree-Resolution complexity of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle. It is the most studied...

  3. The High-Resolution IRAS Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Terebey, Susan; Prince, Thomas A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    An atlas of the Galactic plane (-4.7 deg is less than b is less than 4.7 deg), along with the molecular clouds in Orion, rho Oph, and Taurus-Auriga, has been produced at 60 and 100 microns from IRAS data. The atlas consists of resolution-enhanced co-added images with 1 min - 2 min resolution and co-added images at the native IRAS resolution. The IRAS Galaxy Atlas, together with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory H(sub I) line/21 cm continuum and FCRAO CO (1-0) Galactic plane surveys, which both have similar (approx. 1 min) resolution to the IRAS atlas, provides a powerful tool for studying the interstellar medium, star formation, and large-scale structure in our Galaxy. This paper documents the production and characteristics of the atlas.

  4. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  5. Land Reform and Conflict Resolution in Colombia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieswiadomy, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to change the overall high concentration of landownership, This thesis examines to what effect, if any, a redistributive land reform policy implemented amid the ongoing rural conflict would have on its resolution...

  6. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective....... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  7. Bank Resolution in the European Banking Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...

  8. Spatial resolution requirements for digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Dallas, W.J.; Guillian, J.; Ovitt, T.; Standen, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes research to define the needed spatial resolution for maintaining diagnostic accuracy in digital systems. Posteroanterior images from 30 normal and 30 abnormal studies of patients with various stages of interstitial disease were digitized at 51 p/mm with 12 bits of gray level and then processed in a computer to reduce spatial resolution from 5.0 to 2.5, 1.875, and in 1.25 Ip/mm. A Kodak laser writer using a LUT devised to ensure the copies had equal densities to those measured from the original images was used to write the images back to film. These film images were then shown to radiologists (one resolution level per radiologist). They were asked to give their diagnosis and certainty for each image (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] paradigm) and also to rate each image on overall spatial and contrast resolution as well as the visibility of seven diagnostically important structures

  9. Resolution limits for wave equation imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    migration (LSM), and full waveform inversion (FWI), and suggest a multiscale approach to iterative FWI based on multiscale physics. That is, at the early stages of the inversion, events that only generate low-wavenumber resolution should be emphasized

  10. Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetic investigation on enantioselective hydrolytic resolution of epichlorohydrin by crude epoxide hydrolase from domestic duck liver. X Ling, D Lu, J Wang, J Chen, L Ding, J Chen, H Chai, P Ouyang ...

  11. The Resolution Game: A Dual Selves Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Migrow

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the emergence of an unique equilibrium resolution as the result of a compromise between two selves with different preferences. The stronger this difference is, the more generous the resolution gets. This result is in contrast to predictions of other models in which sinful consumption is distributed bimodally. Therefore, our result fits better with our daily observations concerning a lot of ambivalent goods where we often form nonrigid resolutions. The normative analysis uses the device of a hypothetical impartial self that regards both conflicting motives as equally legitimate. The result of this analysis is dilemmatic. It demonstrates that the resolution is broken too often to be welfare maximal. However, the introduction of external self-commitment devices results in their overuse and is welfare decreasing.

  12. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shangfeng; Zhang Changmin; Yin Yanshi; Yin Taiju

    2008-01-01

    Since high resolution sequence stratigraphy was introduced into China by DENG Hong-wen in 1995, it has been experienced two development stages in China which are the beginning stage of theory research and development of theory research and application, and the stage of theoretical maturity and widely application that is going into. It is proved by practices that high resolution sequence stratigraphy plays more and more important roles in the exploration and development of oil and gas in Chinese continental oil-bearing basin and the research field spreads to the exploration of coal mine, uranium mine and other strata deposits. However, the theory of high resolution sequence stratigraphy still has some shortages, it should be improved in many aspects. The authors point out that high resolution sequence stratigraphy should be characterized quantitatively and modelized by computer techniques. (authors)

  13. MERIS Level-2 Reduced Resolution - OBPG Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MERIS is a programmable, medium-spectral resolution, imaging spectrometer operating in the solar reflective spectral range. Fifteen spectral bands can be selected by...

  14. High resolution CT of the chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F H [Eemland Hospital (Netherlands), Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Compared to conventional CT high resolution CT (HRCT) shows several extra anatomical structures which might effect both diagnosis and therapy. The extra anatomical structures were discussed briefly in this article. (18 refs.).

  15. MERIS Level-1B Reduced Resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MERIS is a programmable, medium-spectral resolution, imaging spectrometer operating in the solar reflective spectral range. Fifteen spectral bands can be selected by...

  16. High-resolution spectrometer at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; HRS Collaboration.

    1982-01-01

    A description is presented of the High Resolution Spectrometer experiment (PEP-12) now running at PEP. The advanced capabilities of the detector are demonstrated with first physics results expected in the coming months

  17. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A scintillation camera is described for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area in which means is provided for second-order positional resolution. The phototubes which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second-order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  18. Lateral resolution of eddy current imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.; Blodgett, M.; Nagy, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical, finite element simulation, and experimental methods were used to investigate the lateral resolution of eddy current microscopy. It was found that the lateral resolution of eddy current imaging is ultimately limited by the probe-coil geometry and dimensions, but both the inspection frequency and the phase angle can be used to optimize the resolution, to some degree, at the expense of sensitivity. Electric anisotropy exhibited by noncubic crystallographic classes of materials such as titanium alloys can play a very similar role in electromagnetic materials characterization of polycrystalline metals to that of elastic anisotropy in ultrasonic materials characterization. Our results demonstrate that eddy current microscopy can be enhanced via a high-resolution, small diameter probe-coil which delivers a unique materials characterization tool well suited for the evaluation of Ti alloys

  19. Popular dispute resolution mechanisms in Ethiopia: Trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    institutions to such initiatives are considered to be good opportunities for ..... where the wrongdoer is cleansed and the victim compensated; a school where ..... coexistence of multiple systems of conflict resolution and the ways of resolving.

  20. Alternative Dispute Resolution – Justice without Trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is proposed to analyze the alternative means of dispute resolution, as an alternativeof justice, or as a justice alternative, after studying both European critical literature and national one. Thephrase „alternative dispute resolution” means any alternative way of dispute resolution method whereby two ormore people try using a third party to reach a solution to the problem that precludes them, whether it ismediation, conciliation, assisted negotiation. In this research, we proposed to use the observation as a commonmethod. We concluded that the main reason of the alternative means for dispute resolution results from thepossibility to avoid the judicial system that makes it available for the litigants. It was also shown that users ofalternative means for dispute resolution not seek to resolve the dispute outside a court as an amicablesettlement, negotiated, consensual of their dispute.

  1. Kinematics and resolution at future ep colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.; Klein, M.

    1992-01-01

    Limitations due to resolution and kinematics are discussed of the (Q 2 , x) range accessible with electron-proton colliders after HERA. For the time after HERA one may think of two electron-proton colliders: an asymmetric energy machine and a rather symmetric one. Both colliders are compared here in order to study the influence of the different E l /E p ratios on the accessible kinematic range which is restricted due to angular coverage, finite detector resolution and calibration uncertainties

  2. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  3. A high resolution β-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Cuzon, J.C.; Tricoire, H.; Valentin, L.

    1987-01-01

    We present a detector which associates a charge coupled device to a light amplifier. This image sensor must detect weak β-activity, with a 10 μm resolution and should replace the autoradiographic films used for molecular hybridization. The best results are obtained with the 35 S emittor, for which the resolution and the efficiency are respectively 20 μm and 100% (relative to the measured standard source)

  4. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1969-01-01

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...... or experimentally determined probability distributions may be used. The application to the study of the dispersion relation for excitations in a crystal is outlined...

  5. Submicrovolt resolution X-ray monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trammell, G.T.; Hannon, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods are available to obtain monochromatic x-radiation from a white source: wavelength selection and frequency selection. The resolution of wavelength selection methods is limited to 1-10 MeV in the E = 10 KeV range. To exceed this resolution frequency selection methods based on nuclear resonance scattering can be used. Devices which give strong nuclear resonance reflections but weak electronic reflections are candidates for components of frequency selection monochromates. Some examples are discussed

  6. Resolution improvement by nonconfocal theta microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindek, S; Stelzer, E H

    1999-11-01

    We present a novel scanning fluorescence microscopy technique, nonconfocal theta microscopy (NCTM), that provides almost isotropic resolution. In NCTM, multiphoton absorption from two orthogonal illumination directions is used to induce fluorescence emission. Therefore the point-spread function of the microscope is described by the product of illumination point-spread functions with reduced spatial overlap, which provides the resolution improvement and the more isotropic observation volume. We discuss the technical details of this new method.

  7. A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Nalon, Cláudia; Zhang, Lan; Dixon, Clare; Hustadt, Ullrich

    2014-01-01

    We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and prese...

  8. Atomic resolution images of graphite in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, D.A.; Shedd, G.M.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    One sample used for proof of operation for atomic resolution in STM is highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). This sample has been imaged with many different STM`s obtaining similar results. Atomic resolution images of HOPG have now been obtained using an STM designed and built at the Precision Engineering Center. This paper discusses the theoretical predictions and experimental results obtained in imaging of HOPG.

  9. True resolution enhancement for optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Justin T.; Oleske, Jeffrey B.

    2018-02-01

    Resolving spectrally adjacent peaks is important for techniques, such as tracking small shifts in Raman or fluorescence spectra, quantifying pharmaceutical polymorph ratios, or molecular orientation studies. Thus, suitable spectral resolution is a vital consideration when designing most spectroscopic systems. Most parameters that influence spectral resolution are fixed for a given system (spectrometer length, grating groove density, excitation source, CCD pixel size, etc.). Inflexible systems are non-problematic if the spectrometer is dedicated for a single purpose; however, these specifications cannot be optimized for different applications with wider range resolution requirements. Data processing techniques, including peak fitting, partial least squares, or principal component analysis, are typically used to achieve sub-optical resolution information. These techniques can be plagued by spectral artifacts introduced by post-processing as well as the subjective implementation of statistical parameters. TruRes™, from Andor Technology, uses an innovative optical means to greatly improve and expand the range of spectral resolutions accessible on a single setup. True spectral resolution enhancement of >30% is achieved without mathematical spectral alteration, dataprocessing, or spectrometer component changes. Discreet characteristic spectral lines from Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and atomic calibration sources are now fully resolved from spectrally-adjacent peaks under otherwise identical configuration. TruRes™ has added advantage of increasing the spectral resolution without sacrificing bandpass. Using TruRes™ the Kymera 328i resolution can approach that of a 500 mm focal spectrometer. Furthermore, the bandpass of a 500 mm spectrograph with would be 50% narrower than the Kymera 328i with all other spectrometer components constant. However, the Kymera 328i with TruRes™ is able to preserve a 50% wider bandpass.

  10. High resolution spectrometry for relativistic heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, G; Schimmerling, W; Greiner, D; Bieser, F; Lindstrom, P [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1975-12-01

    Several techniques are discussed for velocity and energy spectrometry of relativistic heavy ions with good resolution. A foil telescope with chevron channel plate detectors is described. A test of this telescope was performed using 2.1 GeV/A C/sup 6 +/ ions, and a time-of-flight resolution of 160 ps was measured. Qualitative information on the effect of foil thickness was also obtained.

  11. The spatial resolution of epidemic peaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet L Mills

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel respiratory pathogens can challenge the capacity of key health care resources, such as intensive care units, that are constrained to serve only specific geographical populations. An ability to predict the magnitude and timing of peak incidence at the scale of a single large population would help to accurately assess the value of interventions designed to reduce that peak. However, current disease-dynamic theory does not provide a clear understanding of the relationship between: epidemic trajectories at the scale of interest (e.g. city; population mobility; and higher resolution spatial effects (e.g. transmission within small neighbourhoods. Here, we used a spatially-explicit stochastic meta-population model of arbitrary spatial resolution to determine the effect of resolution on model-derived epidemic trajectories. We simulated an influenza-like pathogen spreading across theoretical and actual population densities and varied our assumptions about mobility using Latin-Hypercube sampling. Even though, by design, cumulative attack rates were the same for all resolutions and mobilities, peak incidences were different. Clear thresholds existed for all tested populations, such that models with resolutions lower than the threshold substantially overestimated population-wide peak incidence. The effect of resolution was most important in populations which were of lower density and lower mobility. With the expectation of accurate spatial incidence datasets in the near future, our objective was to provide a framework for how to use these data correctly in a spatial meta-population model. Our results suggest that there is a fundamental spatial resolution for any pathogen-population pair. If underlying interactions between pathogens and spatially heterogeneous populations are represented at this resolution or higher, accurate predictions of peak incidence for city-scale epidemics are feasible.

  12. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, Stefan W; Sahl, Steffen J; Bates, Mark; Jakobs, Stefan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I

    2015-01-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  13. Uncertainty in relative energy resolution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovitsky, P.; Yen, J.; Cumberland, L.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a new method for the determination of the detector relative energy resolution and its uncertainty based on spline approximation of experimental spectra and a statistical bootstrapping procedure. The proposed method is applied to the spectra obtained with NaI(Tl) scintillating detectors and 137 Cs sources. The spectrum histogram with background subtracted channel-by-channel is modeled by cubic spline approximation. The relative energy resolution (which is also known as pulse height resolution and energy resolution), defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) divided by the value of peak centroid, is calculated using the intercepts of the spline curve with the line of the half peak height. The value of the peak height is determined as the point where the value of the derivative goes to zero. The residuals, which are normalized over the square root of counts in a given bin (y-coordinate), obey the standard Gaussian distribution. The values of these residuals are randomly re-assigned to a different set of y-coordinates where a new 'pseudo-experimental' data set is obtained after 'de-normalization' of the old values. For this new data set a new spline approximation is found and the whole procedure is repeated several hundred times, until the standard deviation of relative energy resolution becomes stabilized. The standard deviation of relative energy resolutions calculated for each 'pseudo-experimental' data set (bootstrap uncertainty) is considered to be an estimate for relative energy resolution uncertainty. It is also shown that the relative bootstrap uncertainty is proportional to, and generally only two to three times bigger than, 1/√(N tot ), which is the relative statistical count uncertainty (N tot is the total number of counts under the peak). The newly suggested method is also applicable to other radiation and particle detectors, not only for relative energy resolution, but also for any of the other parameters in a measured spectrum, like

  14. PREREQUISITES OF THE RESOLUTION OF A CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Victor OCHEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available I herein want to emphasise the prerequisites of the resolution of a contract according to the Romanian Civil Code of 2009. The prerequisites of the resolution of a contract are substantially different from those identified under the former fundamental civil legislation (the Romanian Civil code of 1864. This study aims at a better understanding of the new prerequisites of the resolution of a contract: a. a fundamental non-performance of the obligation; b. an unjustified non-performance of the obligation; c. mora debitoris The analysis of these prerequisites reveals a new possible trait of the resolution: a remedy for the non-performance of the contract rather than a sanction or a variety of contractual liability. Thus the modern legislator of the Romanian Civil Code of 2009 proposed to partially change the physiognomy of the resolution of a contract, different from the former institution and here we are in front of a new law institution. The resolution of a contract under the Romanian Civil Code of 2009 is regulated under The 5th Book – The Obligations, The second chapter – The enforcement of the Obligations, The 5th Section – Resolution of the Contract, respectively under the Article 1549 – 1554. As will be shown below, the resolution of a contract has a homogeneous structure without being spread in different parts of the Civil code. The earning lies in the action of organism the new legal provisions, apparently enriched in comparison to those found in the Romanian Civil Code of 1864. Most notably, the Romanian Civil Code of 2009 preserves the Roman legacy. The modern legislator had a difficult task: 146 years of legal doctrine and jurisprudence transposed into a new legislation which, of course, has its flaws. Nevertheless, it should be praised, as it encompasses useful tools to regulate social relations

  15. Ultra-high resolution protein crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kazuki; Hirano, Yu; Miki, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Many protein structures have been determined by X-ray crystallography and deposited with the Protein Data Bank. However, these structures at usual resolution (1.5< d<3.0 A) are insufficient in their precision and quantity for elucidating the molecular mechanism of protein functions directly from structural information. Several studies at ultra-high resolution (d<0.8 A) have been performed with synchrotron radiation in the last decade. The highest resolution of the protein crystals was achieved at 0.54 A resolution for a small protein, crambin. In such high resolution crystals, almost all of hydrogen atoms of proteins and some hydrogen atoms of bound water molecules are experimentally observed. In addition, outer-shell electrons of proteins can be analyzed by the multipole refinement procedure. However, the influence of X-rays should be precisely estimated in order to derive meaningful information from the crystallographic results. In this review, we summarize refinement procedures, current status and perspectives for ultra high resolution protein crystallography. (author)

  16. A Simple Two Aircraft Conflict Resolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Gano B.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict detection and resolution methods are crucial for distributed air-ground traffic management in which the crew in, the cockpit, dispatchers in operation control centers sad and traffic controllers in the ground-based air traffic management facilities share information and participate in the traffic flow and traffic control functions. This paper describes a conflict detection, and a conflict resolution method. The conflict detection method predicts the minimum separation and the time-to-go to the closest point of approach by assuming that both the aircraft will continue to fly at their current speeds along their current headings. The conflict resolution method described here is motivated by the proportional navigation algorithm, which is often used for missile guidance during the terminal phase. It generates speed and heading commands to rotate the line-of-sight either clockwise or counter-clockwise for conflict resolution. Once the aircraft achieve a positive range-rate and no further conflict is predicted, the algorithm generates heading commands to turn back the aircraft to their nominal trajectories. The speed commands are set to the optimal pre-resolution speeds. Six numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the conflict detection, and the conflict resolution methods.

  17. Automated Conflict Resolution For Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflicts automatically is considered to be an essential requirement for the next generation air traffic control system. While systems for automated conflict detection have been used operationally by controllers for more than 20 years, automated resolution systems have so far not reached the level of maturity required for operational deployment. Analytical models and algorithms for automated resolution have been traffic conditions to demonstrate that they can handle the complete spectrum of conflict situations encountered in actual operations. The resolution algorithm described in this paper was formulated to meet the performance requirements of the Automated Airspace Concept (AAC). The AAC, which was described in a recent paper [1], is a candidate for the next generation air traffic control system. The AAC's performance objectives are to increase safety and airspace capacity and to accommodate user preferences in flight operations to the greatest extent possible. In the AAC, resolution trajectories are generated by an automation system on the ground and sent to the aircraft autonomously via data link .The algorithm generating the trajectories must take into account the performance characteristics of the aircraft, the route structure of the airway system, and be capable of resolving all types of conflicts for properly equipped aircraft without requiring supervision and approval by a controller. Furthermore, the resolution trajectories should be compatible with the clearances, vectors and flight plan amendments that controllers customarily issue to pilots in resolving conflicts. The algorithm described herein, although formulated specifically to meet the needs of the AAC, provides a generic engine for resolving conflicts. Thus, it can be incorporated into any operational concept that requires a method for automated resolution, including concepts for autonomous air to air resolution.

  18. Geneva calling: WHO resolution on mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbui Corrado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new resolution on mental, neurological and substance use disorders was adopted in January 2012 by the World Health Organization (WHO Executive Board. The resolution urges WHO and Member States to collaborate in the development of a comprehensive mental health action plan, to be submitted for discussion and approval to the WHO World Health Assembly. This commentary aims at rising awareness on the risk that this resolution may not fulfil its potential. Discussion Lack of political awareness and visibility of the resolution is a first major issue. Theoretically, Member States should be aware of the resolution and support its implementation at their respective national level, but in practice political commitment may not be high enough, and technical and financial resources made available may be limited. A second challenge is that the resolution suggests to work with Member States and technical agencies to promote academic exchange through which to contribute to policy-making in mental health. It is not straightforward, however, how such a statement may be effectively translated into action. A third key methodological aspect is how scientific evidence and factors other than scientific evidence will be handled. This seems particularly relevant in the field of mental health, where value-based decisions together with resource and feasibility considerations may be unavoidable. Summary We argue that WHO and Member States should work together to increase the visibility of the resolution, ensuring that Ministries of Health and other relevant components of the health systems are aware of the resolution and its implications. As the resolution urges for academic exchange, WHO should develop a plan for an explicit, inclusive and open call for support and collaboration, so that partners willing to contribute are not kept out from the process. The production of an action plan for mental disorders should be based on scientifically sound

  19. Very low resolution face recognition problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases.

  20. Adaptive resolution simulation of salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevc, Staš; Praprotnik, Matej; Junghans, Christoph; Kremer, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    We present an adaptive resolution simulation of aqueous salt (NaCl) solutions at ambient conditions using the adaptive resolution scheme. Our multiscale approach concurrently couples the atomistic and coarse-grained models of the aqueous NaCl, where water molecules and ions change their resolution while moving from one resolution domain to the other. We employ standard extended simple point charge (SPC/E) and simple point charge (SPC) water models in combination with AMBER and GROMOS force fields for ion interactions in the atomistic domain. Electrostatics in our model are described by the generalized reaction field method. The effective interactions for water–water and water–ion interactions in the coarse-grained model are derived using structure-based coarse-graining approach while the Coulomb interactions between ions are appropriately screened. To ensure an even distribution of water molecules and ions across the simulation box we employ thermodynamic forces. We demonstrate that the equilibrium structural, e.g. radial distribution functions and density distributions of all the species, and dynamical properties are correctly reproduced by our adaptive resolution method. Our multiscale approach, which is general and can be used for any classical non-polarizable force-field and/or types of ions, will significantly speed up biomolecular simulation involving aqueous salt. (paper)

  1. Severe accident issue resolution -- definition and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to introduce the session on the Progress on the Resolution of Severe Accident Issues. There has been much work in the area of resolution of severe accident issues over the past few years. This work has been focused on those issues most important to risk as assessed by comprehensive studies such as NUREG-1150. In particular, issues associated with early containment failure have been analyzed. These efforts to resolve issues have been hampered by the fact that open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes has not always been well defined. The term open-quotes issue resolutionclose quotes conjures tip different images for the regulator, the accident analyst, the physicist, and the probabalist. In fact it is common to have as many different images of issue resolution as there are people in the room. This issue is complicated by the fact that the uncertainty in severe accident issues is enormous. (When convolved, the quantitative uncertainty in an integrated analysis due to severe accident issues can span several orders of magnitude.) In this summary, hierarchy is presented in an attempt to add some perspective to the resolution of issues in the face of large uncertainties. Recommendations are also made for analysts communicating in the area of issue resolution

  2. High tracking resolution detectors. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Li, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution tracking detectors based on Active Pixel Sensor (APS) have been valuable tools in Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics research, and have contributed to major discoveries. Their integration time, radiation length and readout rate is a limiting factor for the planed luminosity upgrades in nuclear and high-energy physics collider-based experiments. The goal of this program was to demonstrate and develop high-gain, high-resolution tracking detector arrays with faster readout, and shorter radiation length than APS arrays. These arrays may operate as direct charged particle detectors or as readouts of high resolution scintillating fiber arrays. During this program, we developed in CMOS large, high-resolution pixel sensor arrays with integrated readout, and reset at pixel level. Their intrinsic gain, high immunity to surface and moisture damage, will allow operating these detectors with minimal packaging/passivation requirements and will result in radiation length superior to APS. In Phase I, we designed and fabricated arrays with calorimetric output capable of sub-pixel resolution and sub-microsecond readout rate. The technical effort was dedicated to detector and readout structure development, performance verification, as well as to radiation damage and damage annealing.

  3. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface

  4. Resolution limits for wave equation imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-01

    Formulas are derived for the resolution limits of migration-data kernels associated with diving waves, primary reflections, diffractions, and multiple reflections. They are applicable to images formed by reverse time migration (RTM), least squares migration (LSM), and full waveform inversion (FWI), and suggest a multiscale approach to iterative FWI based on multiscale physics. That is, at the early stages of the inversion, events that only generate low-wavenumber resolution should be emphasized relative to the high-wavenumber resolution events. As the iterations proceed, the higher-resolution events should be emphasized. The formulas also suggest that inverting multiples can provide some low- and intermediate-wavenumber components of the velocity model not available in the primaries. Finally, diffractions can provide twice or better the resolution than specular reflections for comparable depths of the reflector and diffractor. The width of the diffraction-transmission wavepath is approximately λ at the diffractor location for the diffraction-transmission wavepath. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Learning from errors in super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    A novel framework of learning-based super-resolution is proposed by employing the process of learning from the estimation errors. The estimation errors generated by different learning-based super-resolution algorithms are statistically shown to be sparse and uncertain. The sparsity of the estimation errors means most of estimation errors are small enough. The uncertainty of the estimation errors means the location of the pixel with larger estimation error is random. Noticing the prior information about the estimation errors, a nonlinear boosting process of learning from these estimation errors is introduced into the general framework of the learning-based super-resolution. Within the novel framework of super-resolution, a low-rank decomposition technique is used to share the information of different super-resolution estimations and to remove the sparse estimation errors from different learning algorithms or training samples. The experimental results show the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed framework in enhancing the performance of different learning-based algorithms.

  6. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  7. Smartphone microendoscopy for high resolution fluorescence imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution optical endoscopes are increasingly used in diagnosis of various medical conditions of internal organs, such as the cervix and gastrointestinal (GI tracts, but they are too expensive for use in resource-poor settings. On the other hand, smartphones with high resolution cameras and Internet access have become more affordable, enabling them to diffuse into most rural areas and developing countries in the past decade. In this paper, we describe a smartphone microendoscope that can take fluorescence images with a spatial resolution of 3.1 μm. Images collected from ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo samples using the device are also presented. The compact and cost-effective smartphone microendoscope may be envisaged as a powerful tool for detecting pre-cancerous lesions of internal organs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs.

  8. Resolution of ranking hierarchies in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Lillo, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Identifying hierarchies and rankings of nodes in directed graphs is fundamental in many applications such as social network analysis, biology, economics, and finance. A recently proposed method identifies the hierarchy by finding the ordered partition of nodes which minimises a score function, termed agony. This function penalises the links violating the hierarchy in a way depending on the strength of the violation. To investigate the resolution of ranking hierarchies we introduce an ensemble of random graphs, the Ranked Stochastic Block Model. We find that agony may fail to identify hierarchies when the structure is not strong enough and the size of the classes is small with respect to the whole network. We analytically characterise the resolution threshold and we show that an iterated version of agony can partly overcome this resolution limit. PMID:29394278

  9. A high resolution portable spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, C.P.; Vaidya, P.P.; Paulson, M.; Bhatnagar, P.V.; Pande, S.S.; Padmini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the system details of a High Resolution Portable Spectroscopy System (HRPSS) developed at Electronics Division, BARC. The system can be used for laboratory class, high-resolution nuclear spectroscopy applications. The HRPSS consists of a specially designed compact NIM bin, with built-in power supplies, accommodating a low power, high resolution MCA, and on-board embedded computer for spectrum building and communication. A NIM based spectroscopy amplifier and a HV module for detector bias are integrated (plug-in) in the bin. The system communicates with a host PC via a serial link. Along-with a laptop PC, and a portable HP-Ge detector, the HRPSS offers a laboratory class performance for portable applications

  10. Jet energy resolution of the SDC detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Para, A.; Beretvas, A.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Green, D.; Yeh, G.P.; Wu, W.; Iso, H.

    1990-01-01

    We have answered the PAC question (''Demonstrate the jet energy resolution of your proposed detector by studying decays Z → jet + jet and Z' → jet + jet, M Z' = 1 TeV.'') using a general program called SSCSIM. This program is a tool for investigating simple questions involving the relations between detector parameters and physics capabilities of a detector. A different package called ANLSIM developed by our colleagues at Argonne has also been used to answer this question. The results as expected are very similar. In this note we will try to document our procedures. Our tentative conclusion from this study is that physics induced effects, out-of-cone fluctuations and underlying event fluctuations, dominate the resolution. Pushing the detector performance to the limits of technology improves the effective resolution by at most 20%. 20 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Chandra ACIS Sub-pixel Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, C. S.; Mossman, A. E.; Allen, G. E.; Fabbiano, G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; McDowell, J. C.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate how to achieve the best possible ACIS spatial resolution by binning in ACIS sub-pixel and applying an event repositioning algorithm after removing pixel-randomization from the pipeline data. We quantitatively assess the improvement in spatial resolution by (1) measuring point source sizes and (2) detecting faint point sources. The size of a bright (but no pile-up), on-axis point source can be reduced by about 20-30%. With the improve resolution, we detect 20% more faint sources when embedded on the extended, diffuse emission in a crowded field. We further discuss the false source rate of about 10% among the newly detected sources, using a few ultra-deep observations. We also find that the new algorithm does not introduce a grid structure by an aliasing effect for dithered observations and does not worsen the positional accuracy

  12. Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.

  13. Moving towards Hyper-Resolution Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, T.; Maggioni, V.; Houser, P.; Mei, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Developing a predictive capability for terrestrial hydrology across landscapes, with water, energy and nutrients as the drivers of these dynamic systems, faces the challenge of scaling meter-scale process understanding to practical modeling scales. Hyper-resolution land surface modeling can provide a framework for addressing science questions that we are not able to answer with coarse modeling scales. In this study, we develop a hyper-resolution forcing dataset from coarser resolution products using a physically based downscaling approach. These downscaling techniques rely on correlations with landscape variables, such as topography, roughness, and land cover. A proof-of-concept has been implemented over the Oklahoma domain, where high-resolution observations are available for validation purposes. Hourly NLDAS (North America Land Data Assimilation System) forcing data (i.e., near-surface air temperature, pressure, and humidity) have been downscaled to 500m resolution over the study area for 2015-present. Results show that correlation coefficients between the downscaled temperature dataset and ground observations are consistently higher than the ones between the NLDAS temperature data at their native resolution and ground observations. Not only correlation coefficients are higher, but also the deviation around the 1:1 line in the density scatterplots is smaller for the downscaled dataset than the original one with respect to the ground observations. Results are therefore encouraging as they demonstrate that the 500m temperature dataset has a good agreement with the ground information and can be adopted to force the land surface model for soil moisture estimation. The study has been expanded to wind speed and direction, incident longwave and shortwave radiation, pressure, and precipitation. Precipitation is well known to vary dramatically with elevation and orography. Therefore, we are pursuing a downscaling technique based on both topographical and vegetation

  14. Texton-based super-resolution for achieving high spatiotemporal resolution in hybrid camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenji; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2010-05-01

    Many super-resolution methods have been proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of images by using iteration and multiple input images. In a previous paper, we proposed the example-based super-resolution method to enhance an image through pixel-based texton substitution to reduce the computational cost. In this method, however, we only considered the enhancement of a texture image. In this study, we modified this texton substitution method for a hybrid camera to reduce the required bandwidth of a high-resolution video camera. We applied our algorithm to pairs of high- and low-spatiotemporal-resolution videos, which were synthesized to simulate a hybrid camera. The result showed that the fine detail of the low-resolution video can be reproduced compared with bicubic interpolation and the required bandwidth could be reduced to about 1/5 in a video camera. It was also shown that the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) of the images improved by about 6 dB in a trained frame and by 1.0-1.5 dB in a test frame, as determined by comparison with the processed image using bicubic interpolation, and the average PSNRs were higher than those obtained by the well-known Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method. Compared with that of the Freeman’s patch-based super-resolution method, the computational time of our method was reduced to almost 1/10.

  15. Application of Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network for Enhancing Image Resolution in Chest CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Kensuke; Ota, Junko; Ishida, Takayuki

    2017-10-18

    In this study, the super-resolution convolutional neural network (SRCNN) scheme, which is the emerging deep-learning-based super-resolution method for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images, was applied and evaluated using the post-processing approach. For evaluation, 89 chest CT cases were sampled from The Cancer Imaging Archive. The 89 CT cases were divided randomly into 45 training cases and 44 external test cases. The SRCNN was trained using the training dataset. With the trained SRCNN, a high-resolution image was reconstructed from a low-resolution image, which was down-sampled from an original test image. For quantitative evaluation, two image quality metrics were measured and compared to those of the conventional linear interpolation methods. The image restoration quality of the SRCNN scheme was significantly higher than that of the linear interpolation methods (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05). The high-resolution image reconstructed by the SRCNN scheme was highly restored and comparable to the original reference image, in particular, for a ×2 magnification. These results indicate that the SRCNN scheme significantly outperforms the linear interpolation methods for enhancing image resolution in chest CT images. The results also suggest that SRCNN may become a potential solution for generating high-resolution CT images from standard CT images.

  16. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): A Different Framework for Conflict Resolution in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Selahattin; Taylor, Charles

    This paper briefly introduces alternative dispute resolution (ADR) processes and their fundamental principles. The paper provides a review of the literature on ADR and discusses its applicability in educational settings. The concept of conflict is explained, along with analysis of the limitations of traditional conflict resolution processes. The…

  17. Super-resolution optics for virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovičkić, Dejan; Benitez, Pablo; Miñano, Juan C.; Zamora, Pablo; Buljan, Marina; Narasimhan, Bharathwaj; Nikolic, Milena I.; Lopez, Jesus; Gorospe, Jorge; Sanchez, Eduardo; Lastres, Carmen; Mohedano, Ruben

    2017-06-01

    In present commercial Virtual Reality (VR) headsets the resolution perceived is still limited, since the VR pixel density (typically 10-15 pixels/deg) is well below what the human eye can resolve (60 pixels/deg). We present here novel advanced optical design approaches that dramatically increase the perceived resolution of the VR keeping the large FoV required in VR applications. This approach can be applied to a vast number of optical architectures, including some advanced configurations, as multichannel designs. All this is done at the optical design stage, and no eye tracker is needed in the headset.

  18. Position resolution of MSGCs with cathode readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, N.; Cremaldi, L.; Finocchiaro, G.; Gobbi, B.; Ng, K.K.; Manzella, V.; Peskov, V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rubinov, P.; Schamberger, D.; Sellberg, G.; Steffens, J.; Tilden, R.; Wang, P.; Yu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a telescope of micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) has been studied in a beam of pions. Detectors with different anode pitch and with different substrates have been operated using several gas mixtures. The position resolutions obtained by reading out the cathodes for the 200 μm pitch is 42 μm. For the 400 μm pitch detectors the resolution is 42 μm after correcting the centroid positions with a function derived from the data. (orig.)

  19. Conflict Resolution in Headquarters-Subsidiary Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Gammelgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the role of regulatory fit and moral emotions, that is, contempt and anger, in influencing conflict resolution between the headquarters and subsidiary boundary spanners. We develop a theoretical framework, which integrates literature on international business and headquarters......-subsidiary relationships with regulatory focus, moral emotions, and conflict resolution. The chapter outlines the relationships between the regulatory focus of a headquarters’ boundary spanner, and his or her manner of engagement, conflict sensitivity, violation of code, moral emotions, and the way conflicts are resolved...

  20. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasillo, N.J.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Kapp, O.H.; Sosnowski, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  1. Catalytic Kinetic Resolution of Biaryl Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gaoyuan; Sibi, Mukund P

    2015-08-10

    Biaryl compounds with axial chirality are very common in synthetic chemistry, especially in catalysis. Axially chiral biaryls are important due to their biological activities and extensive applications in asymmetric catalysis. Thus the development of efficient enantioselective methods for their synthesis has attracted considerable attention. This Minireview discusses the progress made in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl compounds and chronicles significant advances made recently in catalytic kinetic resolution of biaryl scaffolds. © 2015 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A Resolution Prover for Coalition Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Nalon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a prototype tool for automated reasoning for Coalition Logic, a non-normal modal logic that can be used for reasoning about cooperative agency. The theorem prover CLProver is based on recent work on a resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic that operates on coalition problems, a normal form for Coalition Logic. We provide an overview of coalition problems and of the resolution-based calculus for Coalition Logic. We then give details of the implementation of CLProver and present the results for a comparison with an existing tableau-based solver.

  3. Detectors for high resolution dynamic pet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.; Huesman, R.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report reviews the motivation for high spatial resolution in dynamic positron emission tomography of the head and the technical problems in realizing this objective. We present recent progress in using small silicon photodiodes to measure the energy deposited by 511 keV photons in small BGO crystals with an energy resolution of 9.4% full-width at half-maximum. In conjunction with a suitable phototube coupled to a group of crystals, the photodiode signal to noise ratio is sufficient for the identification of individual crystals both for conventional and time-of-flight positron tomography

  4. Track resolution in the RPC chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, R.; Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Liberti, B.; Santonico, R.

    2007-01-01

    A new very promising read out, in addition to the well-known charge centroid method, is proposed for improving the space resolution in the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) in the sub-millimeter range. The method is based on the read out of the signal propagating in the graphite electrode which was simulated using a distributed resistance-capacitance model in SPICE. The results show that a good space-time correlation in the diffusion process is only possible by suitable signal processing. Three RPC detectors with the new layout and dedicated electronics were tested. The measured space resolution was in the order of a few 100μm

  5. Studying AGN Jets At Extreme Angular Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Gabriele

    2016-10-01

    RadioAstron is a 10m antenna orbiting on the Russian Speckt-R spacecraft, launched in 2011. Performing radio interferometry with a global array of ground telescopes, it is providing record angular resolution. The Key Science Project on AGN polarization is exploiting it to study in great detail the configuration of magnetic fields in AGN jets, and understand their formation and collimation. To date, the project has already achieved the highest angular resolution image ever obtained in Astronomy, and detected brightness temperatures exceeding the ones predicted by theory of AGN.

  6. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared

  7. High resolution neutron spectroscopy for helium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; Klages, H.O.; Schmalz, G.; Haesner, B.H.; Kecskemeti, J.; Schwarz, P.; Wilczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    A high resolution fast neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described, neutron time-of-flight spectra are taken using a specially designed TDC in connection to an on-line computer. The high time-of-flight resolution of 5 ps/m enabled the study of the total cross section of 4 He for neutrons near the 3/2 + resonance in the 5 He nucleus. The resonance parameters were determined by a single level Breit-Winger fit to the data. (orig.)

  8. The Grief Resolution Process in Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compares grief in divorce to the Kubler-Ross model of grief resolution in bereavement in 17 persons who wrote essays about their divorce. The results suggested a conceptual model based on three chronological stages with linear progression through the stages, characterized by circularity within each stage. (JAC)

  9. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  10. Time resolution research in liquid scintillating detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongkun; Shi Haoshan

    2006-01-01

    The signal processing design method is introduced into liquid scintillating detection system design. By analyzing the signal of liquid scintillating detection, improving time resolution is propitious to upgrade efficiency of detecting. The scheme of realization and satisfactory experiment data is demonstrated. Besides other types of liquid scintillating detection is the same, just using more high speed data signal processing techniques and elements. (authors)

  11. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments,

  12. Sibling Conflict Resolution Skills: Assessment and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brett W.; Roberts, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    Sibling conflict can rise to the level of a clinical problem. In Phase 1 a lengthy behavioral role-play analog sampling child reactions to normal sibling conflicts was successfully shortened. In Phase 2 normal children who lacked sibling conflict resolution skills were randomly assigned to a Training or Measurement Only condition. Training…

  13. CNEN resolution phohibits radioactive lightning rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    After 15 years of irrestricted use in Brazil, the radioactive lightning rods were phohibited by Brazilian CNEN since the publication of a new law (Resolution number 4 of april 19,1989) published on may 9, 1989. All the existing ones will be removed at the time of their programed maintenance. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. High resolution Neutron and Synchrotron Powder Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.

    1986-01-01

    The use of high-resolution powder diffraction has grown rapidly in the past years, with the development of Rietveld (1967) methods of data analysis and new high-resolution diffractometers and multidetectors. The number of publications in this area has increased from a handful per year until 1973 to 150 per year in 1984, with a ten-year total of over 1000. These papers cover a wide area of solid state-chemistry, physics and materials science, and have been grouped under 20 subject headings, ranging from catalysts to zeolites, and from battery electrode materials to pre-stressed superconducting wires. In 1985 two new high-resolution diffractometers are being commissioned, one at the SNS laboratory near Oxford, and one at the ILL in Grenoble. In different ways these machines represent perhaps the ultimate that can be achieved with neutrons and will permit refinement of complex structures with about 250 parameters and unit cell volumes of about 2500 Angstrom/sp3/. The new European Synchotron Facility will complement the Grenoble neutron diffractometers, and extend the role of high-resolution powder diffraction to the direct solution of crystal structures, pioneered in Sweden

  15. High speed, High resolution terahertz spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngchan; Yee, Dae Su; Yi, Miwoo; Ahn, Jaewook

    2008-01-01

    A variety of sources and methods have been developed for terahertz spectroscopy during almost two decades. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz TDS)has attracted particular attention as a basic measurement method in the fields of THz science and technology. Recently, asynchronous optical sampling (AOS)THz TDS has been demonstrated, featuring rapid data acquisition and a high spectral resolution. Also, terahertz frequency comb spectroscopy (TFCS)possesses attractive features for high precision terahertz spectroscopy. In this presentation, we report on these two types of terahertz spectrometer. Our high speed, high resolution terahertz spectrometer is demonstrated using two mode locked femtosecond lasers with slightly different repetition frequencies without a mechanical delay stage. The repetition frequencies of the two femtosecond lasers are stabilized by use of two phase locked loops sharing the same reference oscillator. The time resolution of our terahertz spectrometer is measured using the cross correlation method to be 270 fs. AOS THz TDS is presented in Fig. 1, which shows a time domain waveform rapidly acquired on a 10ns time window. The inset shows a zoom into the signal with 100ps time window. The spectrum obtained by the fast Fourier Transformation (FFT)of the time domain waveform has a frequency resolution of 100MHz. The dependence of the signal to noise ratio (SNR)on the measurement time is also investigated

  16. Neural understanding of low-resolution images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; DeGraaf, J; Nijhuis, JAG; Stevens, [No Value; Wichers, W

    1998-01-01

    Neural networks can be applied for a number of innovative applications in a production environment, ranging from security & safety in the environmental conditions to the product control & diagnosis. For visual monitoring the use of low-resolution images is promising to bridge the time elapse between

  17. Resolution analysis in full waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, A.; Trampert, J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method for the quantitative resolution analysis in full seismic waveform inversion that overcomes the limitations of classical synthetic inversions while being computationally more efficient and applicable to any misfit measure. The method rests on (1) the local quadratic

  18. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, W.R.

    1995-01-01

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.)

  19. Low-resolution structure of Drosophila translin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Gupta, Gagan D.

    2012-01-01

    Crystals of native Drosophila melanogaster translin diffracted to 7 Å resolution. Reductive methylation of the protein improved crystal quality. The native and methylated proteins showed similar profiles in size-exclusion chromatography analyses but the methylated protein displayed reduced DNA-binding activity. Crystals of the methylated protein diffracted to 4.2 Å resolution at BM14 of the ESRF synchrotron. Crystals with 49% solvent content belonged to monoclinic space group P21 with eight protomers in the asymmetric unit. Only 2% of low-resolution structures with similar low percentage solvent content were found in the PDB. The crystal structure, solved by molecular replacement method, refined to Rwork (Rfree) of 0.24 (0.29) with excellent stereochemistry. The crystal structure clearly shows that drosophila protein exists as an octamer, and not as a decamer as expected from gel-filtration elution profiles. The similar octameric quaternary fold in translin orthologs and in translin–TRAX complexes suggests an up-down dimer as the basic structural subunit of translin-like proteins. The drosophila oligomer displays asymmetric assembly and increased radius of gyration that accounts for the observed differences between the elution profiles of human and drosophila proteins on gel-filtration columns. This study demonstrates clearly that low-resolution X-ray structure can be useful in understanding complex biological oligomers. PMID:23650579

  20. Atomic Resolution Microscopy of Nitrides in Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    MN and CrMN type nitride precipitates in 12%Cr steels have been investigated using atomic resolution microscopy. The MN type nitrides were observed to transform into CrMN both by composition and crystallography as Cr diffuses from the matrix into the MN precipitates. Thus a change from one...

  1. The resolution of inflammation: Principles and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headland, Sarah E; Norling, Lucy V

    2015-05-01

    The concept that chemokines, cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators act in a co-ordinated fashion to drive the initiation of the inflammatory reaction is well understood. The significance of such networks acting during the resolution of inflammation however is poorly appreciated. In recent years, specific pro-resolving mediators were discovered which activate resolution pathways to return tissues to homeostasis. These mediators are diverse in nature, and include specialized lipid mediators (lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins) proteins (annexin A1, galectins) and peptides, gaseous mediators including hydrogen sulphide, a purine (adenosine), as well as neuromodulator release under the control of the vagus nerve. Functionally, they can act to limit further leukocyte recruitment, induce neutrophil apoptosis and enhance efferocytosis by macrophages. They can also switch macrophages from classical to alternatively activated cells, promote the return of non-apoptotic cells to the lymphatics and help initiate tissue repair mechanisms and healing. Within this review we highlight the essential cellular aspects required for successful tissue resolution, briefly discuss the pro-resolution mediators that drive these processes and consider potential challenges faced by researchers in the quest to discover how inflammation resolves and why chronic inflammation persists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Values Conflict Resolution Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnier, Richard T.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the development of a Values Conflict Resolution Assessment (VCRA) and reports on validation and reliability. Items were constructed from theoretical criteria in values clarification and decision making with "ethical-emotional" and "rational-behavioral" components. VCRA scores correlated negatively with…

  3. A Baseline Method for Genealogical Entity Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremova, J.; Ranjbar-Sahraei, B.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Calders, T.; Tuyls, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the application of entity resolution (ER) techniques on a real-world multi-source genealogical dataset. Our goal is to identify all persons involved in various notary acts and link them to their birth, marriage and death certificates. In order to evaluate the performance of a

  4. Resolution revival technique for subwavelength imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The method to achieve a high resolution of subwavelength features (to improve the contrast function) for a dark-field hyperlens—hyperbolic metamaterial slab possessing metallic properties at the interface — is developed. The technique requires the introduction of the phase difference between the o...

  5. Classification of high resolution satellite images

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Anders

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis the Support Vector Machine (SVM)is applied on classification of high resolution satellite images. Sveral different measures for classification, including texture mesasures, 1st order statistics, and simple contextual information were evaluated. Additionnally, the image was segmented, using an enhanced watershed method, in order to improve the classification accuracy.

  6. Searching for Resolution in Cultural Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Sarah; Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors recount their visit to Chiang Mai, a city in northern Thailand, in late January and focus on their search for resolution in cultural dissonance. So much about Thailand was different to them. Although they tend to relish differences, they still find some differences quite challenging. Thai culture is firmly anchored in…

  7. X-ray diffractometry with spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiner, K.

    1981-04-01

    X-ray diffractometry is one of the extensively used methods for investigation of the crystalline structure of materials. Line shape and position of a diffracted line are influenced by grain size, deformation and stress. Spatial resolution of one of these specimen characteristics is usually achieved by point-focused X-ray beams and subsequently analyzing different specimen positions. This work uses the method of image reconstruction from projections for the generation of distribution maps. Additional experimental requirements when using a conventional X-ray goniometer are a specimen scanning unit and a computer. The scanning unit repeatedly performs a number of translation steps followed by a rotation step in a fixed X-ray tube/detector (position sensitive detector) arrangement. At each specimen position a diffraction line is recorded using a line-shaped X-ray beam. This network of diffraction lines (showing line resolution) is mathematically converted to a distribution map of diffraction lines and going thus a point resolution. Specimen areas of up to several cm 2 may be analyzed with a linear resolution of 0.1 to 1 mm. Image reconstruction from projections must be modified for generation of ''function-maps''. This theory is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulations. Diffraction line analysis is done for specimen deformation using a deconvolution procedure. The theoretical considerations are experimentally verified. (author)

  8. High resolution CT in diffuse lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, W R [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    High resolution CT (computerized tomography) was discussed in detail. The conclusions were HRCT is able to define lung anatomy at the secondary lobular level and define a variety of abnormalities in patients with diffuse lung diseases. Evidence from numerous studies indicates that HRCT can play a major role in the assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease and is indicate clinically (95 refs.).

  9. Towards secure name resolution on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothoff, C.; Wachs, M.; Ermert, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Domain Name System (DNS) provides crucial name resolution functions for most Internet services. As a result, DNS traffic provides an important attack vector for spy agencies, as demonstrated by the QUANTUMDNS and MORECOWBELL programs of the NSA. This article reviews how DNS works, and explains

  10. High-resolution clean-sc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, P.; Snellen, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a high-resolution extension of CLEAN-SC is proposed: HR-CLEAN-SC. Where CLEAN-SC uses peak sources in “dirty maps” to define so-called source components, HR-CLEAN-SC takes advantage of the fact that source components can likewise be derived from points at some distance from the peak,

  11. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…

  12. Forward | Malan | African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal on Conflict Resolution. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 2 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Forward. Jannie Malan. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  13. Adaptive Resolution Simulation of MARTINI Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Melo, Manuel N.; Cunha, Ana V.; de Vries, Alex H.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Praprotnik, Matej

    We present adaptive resolution dynamics simulations of aqueous and apolar solvents coarse-grained molecular models that are compatible with the MARTINI force field. As representatives of both classes solvents we have chosen liquid water and butane, respectively, at ambient temperature. The solvent

  14. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  15. Alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, plea bargain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conflicts, disputes, disagreements, problems and issues are inevitable in human affairs. Most of these disputes and problems in some circumstances give rise to offences for which a criminal prosecution becomes necessary. One can say that Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) is used all round the world to resolve ...

  16. High resolution SETI: Experiences and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Clubok, Ken

    Megachannel spectroscopy with sub-Hertz resolution constitutes an attractive strategy for a microwave search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), assuming the transmission of a narrowband radiofrequency beacon. Such resolution matches the properties of the interstellar medium, and the necessary Doppler corrections provide a high degree of interference rejection. We have constructed a frequency-agile receiver with an FFT-based 8 megachannel digital spectrum analyzer, on-line signal recognition, and multithreshold archiving. We are using it to conduct a meridian transit search of the northern sky at the Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m antenna, with a second identical system scheduled to begin observations in Argentina this month. Successive 400 kHz spectra, at 0.05 Hz resolution, are searched for features characteristic of an intentional narrowband beacon transmission. These spectra are centered on guessable frequencies (such as λ21 cm), referenced successively to the local standard of rest, the galactic barycenter, and the cosmic blackbody rest frame. This search has rejected interference admirably, but is greatly limited both in total frequency coverage and sensitivity to signals other than carriers. We summarize five years of high resolution SETI at Harvard, in the context of answering the questions "How useful is narrowband SETI, how serious are its limitations, what can be done to circumvent them, and in what direction should SETI evolve?" Increasingly powerful signal processing hardware, combined with ever-higher memory densities, are particularly relevant, permitting the construction of compact and affordable gigachannel spectrum analyzers covering hundreds of megahertz of instantaneous bandwidth.

  17. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  18. Cochlear implant users' spectral ripple resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Turner, Christopher W; Karsten, Sue A; Henry, Belinda A; Gantz, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    This study revisits the issue of the spectral ripple resolution abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The spectral ripple resolution of recently implanted CI recipients (implanted during the last 10 years) were compared to those of CI recipients implanted 15 to 20 years ago, as well as those of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners from previously published data from Henry, Turner, and Behrens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1111-1121 (2005)]. More recently, implanted CI recipients showed significantly better spectral ripple resolution. There is no significant difference in spectral ripple resolution for these recently implanted subjects compared to hearing-impaired (acoustic) listeners. The more recently implanted CI users had significantly better pre-operative speech perception than previously reported CI users. These better pre-operative speech perception scores in CI users from the current study may be related to better performance on the spectral ripple discrimination task; however, other possible factors such as improvements in internal and external devices cannot be excluded.

  19. Resolution enhancement in medical ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploquin, Marie; Basarab, Adrian; Kouamé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Image resolution enhancement is a problem of considerable interest in all medical imaging modalities. Unlike general purpose imaging or video processing, for a very long time, medical image resolution enhancement has been based on optimization of the imaging devices. Although some recent works purport to deal with image postprocessing, much remains to be done regarding medical image enhancement via postprocessing, especially in ultrasound imaging. We face a resolution improvement issue in the case of medical ultrasound imaging. We propose to investigate this problem using multidimensional autoregressive (AR) models. Noting that the estimation of the envelope of an ultrasound radio frequency (RF) signal is very similar to the estimation of classical Fourier-based power spectrum estimation, we theoretically show that a domain change and a multidimensional AR model can be used to achieve super-resolution in ultrasound imaging provided the order is estimated correctly. Here, this is done by means of a technique that simultaneously estimates the order and the parameters of a multidimensional model using relevant regression matrix factorization. Doing so, the proposed method specifically fits ultrasound imaging and provides an estimated envelope. Moreover, an expression that links the theoretical image resolution to both the image acquisition features (such as the point spread function) and a postprocessing feature (the AR model) order is derived. The overall contribution of this work is threefold. First, it allows for automatic resolution improvement. Through a simple model and without any specific manual algorithmic parameter tuning, as is used in common methods, the proposed technique simply and exclusively uses the ultrasound RF signal as input and provides the improved B-mode as output. Second, it allows for the a priori prediction of the improvement in resolution via the knowledge of the parametric model order before actual processing. Finally, to achieve the

  20. 42 CFR 455.240 - Conflict of interest resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflict of interest resolution. 455.240 Section... § 455.240 Conflict of interest resolution. (a) Review Board: CMS may establish a Conflicts of Interest Review Board to assist in resolving organizational conflicts of interest. (b) Resolution: Resolution of...

  1. 39 CFR 601.107 - Initial disagreement resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... communicate, in writing, to the supplier his or her resolution of the disagreement. (c) Alternative dispute resolution. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures may be used to resolve a disagreement. If the use... disagreement resolution. (a) Definitions. (1) Days. Calendar days; however, any time period will run until a...

  2. High resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy based on frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Hu, Qi; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    signals can be analyzed. The obtainable frequency resolution is usually in the nm range where sub nm resolution is preferred in many applications, like gas spectroscopy. In this work we demonstrate how to obtain sub nm resolution when using upconversion. In the presented realization one object point...... high resolution spectral performance by observing emission from hot water vapor in a butane gas burner....

  3. 48 CFR 1233.214 - Alternative dispute resolution (ADR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Alternative dispute resolution (ADR). (c) The Administrative Dispute Resolution Act (ADRA) of 1990, Public Law... Specialist, who is responsible for the operations of the Center for Alternative Dispute Resolution, (C-4... alternative means of dispute resolution set forth in the ADRA, 5 U.S.C. 571(3) on a non-reimbursable basis for...

  4. 14 CFR 17.31 - Use of alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alternative dispute resolution. 17... PROCEDURAL RULES PROCEDURES FOR PROTESTS AND CONTRACTS DISPUTES Alternative Dispute Resolution § 17.31 Use of alternative dispute resolution. (a) The Office of Dispute Resolution for Acquisition shall encourage the...

  5. Understanding conflict-resolution taskload: Implementing advisory conflict-detection and resolution algorithms in an airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Adan Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    From 2010 to 2030, the number of instrument flight rules aircraft operations handled by Federal Aviation Administration en route traffic centers is predicted to increase from approximately 39 million flights to 64 million flights. The projected growth in air transportation demand is likely to result in traffic levels that exceed the abilities of the unaided air traffic controller in managing, separating, and providing services to aircraft. Consequently, the Federal Aviation Administration, and other air navigation service providers around the world, are making several efforts to improve the capacity and throughput of existing airspaces. Ultimately, the stated goal of the Federal Aviation Administration is to triple the available capacity of the National Airspace System by 2025. In an effort to satisfy air traffic demand through the increase of airspace capacity, air navigation service providers are considering the inclusion of advisory conflict-detection and resolution systems. In a human-in-the-loop framework, advisory conflict-detection and resolution decision-support tools identify potential conflicts and propose resolution commands for the air traffic controller to verify and issue to aircraft. A number of researchers and air navigation service providers hypothesize that the inclusion of combined conflict-detection and resolution tools into air traffic control systems will reduce or transform controller workload and enable the required increases in airspace capacity. In an effort to understand the potential workload implications of introducing advisory conflict-detection and resolution tools, this thesis provides a detailed study of the conflict event process and the implementation of conflict-detection and resolution algorithms. Specifically, the research presented here examines a metric of controller taskload: how many resolution commands an air traffic controller issues under the guidance of a conflict-detection and resolution decision-support tool. The goal

  6. High-Resolution Sonars: What Resolution Do We Need for Target Recognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailhas Yan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognition in sonar imagery has long been an active research area in the maritime domain, especially in the mine-counter measure context. Recently it has received even more attention as new sensors with increased resolution have been developed; new threats to critical maritime assets and a new paradigm for target recognition based on autonomous platforms have emerged. With the recent introduction of Synthetic Aperture Sonar systems and high-frequency sonars, sonar resolution has dramatically increased and noise levels decreased. Sonar images are distance images but at high resolution they tend to appear visually as optical images. Traditionally algorithms have been developed specifically for imaging sonars because of their limited resolution and high noise levels. With high-resolution sonars, algorithms developed in the image processing field for natural images become applicable. However, the lack of large datasets has hampered the development of such algorithms. Here we present a fast and realistic sonar simulator enabling development and evaluation of such algorithms.We develop a classifier and then analyse its performances using our simulated synthetic sonar images. Finally, we discuss sensor resolution requirements to achieve effective classification of various targets and demonstrate that with high resolution sonars target highlight analysis is the key for target recognition.

  7. Depth of interaction resolution measurements for a high resolution PET detector using position sensitive avalanche photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yongfeng; Dokhale, Purushottam A; Silverman, Robert W; Shah, Kanai S; McClish, Mickel A; Farrell, Richard; Entine, Gerald; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    We explore dual-ended read out of LSO arrays with two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPDs) as a high resolution, high efficiency depth-encoding detector for PET applications. Flood histograms, energy resolution and depth of interaction (DOI) resolution were measured for unpolished LSO arrays with individual crystal sizes of 1.0, 1.3 and 1.5 mm, and for a polished LSO array with 1.3 mm pixels. The thickness of the crystal arrays was 20 mm. Good flood histograms were obtained for all four arrays, and crystals in all four arrays can be clearly resolved. Although the amplitude of each PSAPD signal decreases as the interaction depth moves further from the PSAPD, the sum of the two PSAPD signals is essentially constant with irradiation depth for all four arrays. The energy resolutions were similar for all four arrays, ranging from 14.7% to 15.4%. A DOI resolution of 3-4 mm (including the width of the irradiation band which is ∼2 mm) was obtained for all the unpolished arrays. The best DOI resolution was achieved with the unpolished 1 mm array (average 3.5 mm). The DOI resolution for the 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm unpolished arrays was 3.7 and 4.0 mm respectively. For the polished array, the DOI resolution was only 16.5 mm. Summing the DOI profiles across all crystals for the 1 mm array only degraded the DOI resolution from 3.5 mm to 3.9 mm, indicating that it may not be necessary to calibrate the DOI response separately for each crystal within an array. The DOI response of individual crystals in the array confirms this finding. These results provide a detailed characterization of the DOI response of these PSAPD-based PET detectors which will be important in the design and calibration of a PET scanner making use of this detector approach

  8. USGS High Resolution Orthoimagery Collection - Historical - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) High Resolution Orthoimagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS high resolution orthorectified images from The National Map combine the image characteristics of an aerial photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. An...

  9. High-resolution X-ray television and high-resolution video recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Horbaschek, H.; Alexandrescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    The improved transmission properties of the high-resolution X-ray television chain described here make it possible to transmit more information per television image. The resolution in the fluoroscopic image, which is visually determined, depends on the dose rate and the inertia of the television pick-up tube. This connection is discussed. In the last few years, video recorders have been increasingly used in X-ray diagnostics. The video recorder is a further quality-limiting element in X-ray television. The development of function patterns of high-resolution magnetic video recorders shows that this quality drop may be largely overcome. The influence of electrical band width and number of lines on the resolution in the X-ray television image stored is explained in more detail. (orig.) [de

  10. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kotasidis Fotis A.; Kotasidis Fotis A.; Angelis Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez Jose; Matthews Julian C.; Reader Andrew J.; Reader Andrew J.; Zaidi Habib; Zaidi Habib; Zaidi Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However due to the short half life of clinically used isotopes other long lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such non optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction usuall...

  11. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    2012-01-01

    High Resolution NMR: Theory and Chemical Applications discusses the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance and how this concept is used in the chemical sciences. This book is written at an intermediate level, with mathematics used to augment verbal descriptions of the phenomena. This text pays attention to developing and interrelating four approaches - the steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The style of this book is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintance with the general principles of quantum mechanics, but no extensive background in quantum theory or proficiency in mathematics is required. This book begins with a description of the basic physics, together with a brief account of the historical development of the field. It looks at the study of NMR in liquids, including high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. This book is intended to assis...

  12. High resolution NMR theory and chemical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Edwin D

    1999-01-01

    High Resolution NMR provides a broad treatment of the principles and theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as it is used in the chemical sciences. It is written at an "intermediate" level, with mathematics used to augment, rather than replace, clear verbal descriptions of the phenomena. The book is intended to allow a graduate student, advanced undergraduate, or researcher to understand NMR at a fundamental level, and to see illustrations of the applications of NMR to the determination of the structure of small organic molecules and macromolecules, including proteins. Emphasis is on the study of NMR in liquids, but the treatment also includes high resolution NMR in the solid state and the principles of NMR imaging and localized spectroscopy. Careful attention is given to developing and interrelating four approaches - steady state energy levels, the rotating vector picture, the density matrix, and the product operator formalism. The presentation is based on the assumption that the reader has an acquaintan...

  13. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-01

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  14. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-21

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  16. Processing method for high resolution monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Koji; Mitsui, Takaya

    2006-12-01

    A processing method for high resolution monochromator (HRM) has been developed at Japanese Atomic Energy Agency/Quantum Beam Science Directorate/Synchrotron Radiation Research unit at SPring-8. For manufacturing a HRM, a sophisticated slicing machine and X-ray diffractometer have been installed for shaping a crystal ingot and orienting precisely the surface of a crystal ingot, respectively. The specification of the slicing machine is following; Maximum size of a diamond blade is φ 350mm in diameter, φ 38.1mm in the spindle diameter, and 2mm in thickness. A large crystal such as an ingot with 100mm in diameter, 200mm in length can be cut. Thin crystal samples such as a wafer can be also cut using by another sample holder. Working distance of a main shaft with the direction perpendicular to working table in the machine is 350mm at maximum. Smallest resolution of the main shaft with directions of front-and-back and top-and-bottom are 0.001mm read by a digital encoder. 2mm/min can set for cutting samples in the forward direction. For orienting crystal faces relative to the blade direction adjustment, a one-circle goniometer and 2-circle segment are equipped on the working table in the machine. A rotation and a tilt of the stage can be done by manual operation. Digital encoder in a turn stage is furnished and has angle resolution of less than 0.01 degrees. In addition, a hand drill as a supporting device for detailed processing of crystal is prepared. Then, an ideal crystal face can be cut from crystal samples within an accuracy of about 0.01 degrees. By installation of these devices, a high energy resolution monochromator crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and a beam collimator are got in hand and are expected to be used for nanotechnology studies. (author)

  17. Conflict Resolution in Organization through Strategic Management

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zafar; H. Ashfaq; Muhammad Ahmad Ali; M. Imran

    2014-01-01

    This study reveals the conflict Resolution in organization through Strategic management. There are different causes of conflicts within Organization and impact of conflicts on organization performance. The past decade researches identify the negative relation of conflict with employee performance. The research methodology was case study approach of different National and Multinational companies. The aim of study is to alleviate conflicts in organization through strategic management for enhanc...

  18. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  19. Interpersonal conflict: strategies and guidelines for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, D E; Bushardt, S C

    1985-02-01

    Historically, management theorists have recommended the avoidance or suppression of conflict. Modern management theorists recognize interpersonal conflict as an inevitable byproduct of growth and change. The issue is no longer avoidance of conflict but the strategy by which conflict is resolved. Various strategies of conflict resolution and the consequences of each are discussed in this article, along with guidelines for the effective use of confrontation strategy.

  20. High resolution imaging of boron carbide microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, I.D.R.; Aselage, T.; Van Deusen, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Two samples of boron carbide have been examined using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). A hot-pressed B 13 C 2 sample shows a high density of variable width twins normal to (10*1). Subtle shifts or offsets of lattice fringes along the twin plane and normal to approx.(10*5) were also observed. A B 4 C powder showed little evidence of stacking disorder in crystalline regions

  1. Measurements of energy resolution with hemispheric scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, A.C.S.; Binns, D.A.C.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1980-01-01

    The hemispheric configuration is used for plastic scintillators type NE 102 with the aiming to optimize the light collect. Scintillators at this configuration, with radii of 3,81 cm and 2,54 cm, are showing improvement about 16-17% in the energy resolution, on cilyndric scintillators with the same volume, for gamma rays of 511-1275 KeV. (E.G.) [pt

  2. The high resolution spaghetti hadron calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenni, P.; Sonderegger, P.; Paar, H.P.; Wigmans, R.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to build a prototype for a hadron calorimeter with scintillating plastic fibres as active material. The absorber material is lead. Provided that these components are used in the appropriate volume ratio, excellent performance may be expected, e.g. an energy resolution of 30%/√E for jet detection. The proposed design offers additional advantages compared to the classical sandwich calorimeter structures in terms of granularity, hermiticity, uniformity, compactness, readout, radiation resistivity, stability and calibration. 22 refs.; 7 figs

  3. Instrumentation for millisecond-resolution scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.B.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Jordan-Sweet, J.L.; Brauer, S.; Mainville, J.; Yang, Y.S.; Sutton, M.

    1989-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray scattering studies of phase transition kinetics have been carried out using the wide-bandpass monochromator and fast linear position-sensitive detector system at the IBM/MIT beamline X-20C at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). We report here on the instrumentation that has been developed for these studies, and in particular on the methods used to measure, change, and control sample temperature with millisecond resolution

  4. Effect of pinhole shape on projection resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L C; Metzler, S D; Moore, S C

    2016-01-01

    We are designing a dual-resolution pre-clinical SPECT system based on square-pinhole apertures for use in applications with a small field-of-view (FOV), such as cardiac imaging of mice. Square pinholes allow for increased sensitivity due to more efficient projection tiling on the detector compared to circular pinholes. Aperture fabrication techniques cannot produce a perfect square, giving the square pinholes some amount of roundedness at the corners. This work investigates how this roundedness affects the physical properties of projection images in terms of spatial resolution. Different pinhole full-acceptance angles and roundedness values were simulated. To facilitate a fair comparison, properties of the non-square pinholes were manipulated to yield pinholes with approximately the same sensitivity (to within 0.1%) and FOV (to within 0.5%) as those of the square pinholes, subsequently referred to as matched apertures. The aperture size (flat-to-flat edge length) of each non-square aperture was increased until its sensitivity was approximately equal to that of the square pinhole. Next, the full acceptance angle was increased until the FOV of each non-square aperture was approximately equivalent to that of the square pinhole. Sensitivity was calculated to include both the geometric and penetrative sensitivity of a point source, as well as the packing faction of the multi-pinhole collimator. Using the sensitivity-matched and FOV-matched apertures, spatial resolution was estimated. For the 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, and 1 mm edge-length square apertures studied, the full-width at half-maximum widened as pinhole shape changed from square to circle, while full-width tenth-maximum showed little change. These results indicate that a perfect square pinhole shape is more desirable than a rounded-square pinhole with regard to spatial resolution when sensitivity and FOV-matched pinholes are compared. (paper)

  5. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Koushik

    2017-01-01

    I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B)1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM) cavity. Such cavities are known to occur f...

  6. The EUV dayglow at high spectral resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.D.; Bowers, C.W.; Feldman, P.D.; Meier, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket observations of the dayglow spectrum of the terrestrial atmosphere between 840 angstrom and 1860 angstrom at 2 angstrom resolution were obtained with a sounding rocket payload flown on January 17, 1985. Additionally, spectra were also obtained using a 0.125-m focal length scanning Ebert-Fastie monochromator covering the wavelength interval of 1150-1550 angstrom at 7 angstrom resolution on this flight and on a sounding rocket flight on August 29, 1983, under similar viewing geometries and solar zenith angles. Three bands of the N 2 c' 4 system are seen clearly resolved in the dayglow. Analysis of high-resolution N 2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield data shows no anomalous vibrational distribution as has been reported from other observations. The altitude profiles of the observed O and N 2 emissions demonstrate that the MSIS-83 model O and N 2 densities are appropriate for the conditions of both the 1983 and 1985 rocket flights. A reduction of a factor of 2 in the model O 2 density is required for both flights to reproduce the low-altitude atomic oxygen emission profiles. The volume excitation rates calculated using the Hinteregger et al. (1981) SC number-sign 21REFW solar reference spectrum and the photoelectron flux model of Strickland and Meier (1982) need to be scaled upward by a factor of 1.4 for both fights to match the observations

  7. Dynamic high resolution imaging of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, R.S.; Lewellen, T.K.; Bice, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A positron emission tomography with the sensitivity and resolution to do dynamic imaging of rats would be an invaluable tool for biological researchers. In this paper, the authors determine the biological criteria for dynamic positron emission imaging of rats. To be useful, 3 mm isotropic resolution and 2-3 second time binning were necessary characteristics for such a dedicated tomograph. A single plane in which two objects of interest could be imaged simultaneously was considered acceptable. Multi-layered detector designs were evaluated as a possible solution to the dynamic imaging and high resolution imaging requirements. The University of Washington photon history generator was used to generate data to investigate a tomograph's sensitivity to true, scattered and random coincidences for varying detector ring diameters. Intrinsic spatial uniformity advantages of multi-layered detector designs over conventional detector designs were investigated using a Monte Carlo program. As a result, a modular three layered detector prototype is being developed. A module will consist of a layer of five 3.5 mm wide crystals and two layers of six 2.5 mm wide crystals. The authors believe adequate sampling can be achieved with a stationary detector system using these modules. Economical crystal decoding strategies have been investigated and simulations have been run to investigate optimum light channeling methods for block decoding strategies. An analog block decoding method has been proposed and will be experimentally evaluated to determine whether it can provide the desired performance

  8. An alternative resolution to the Mansuripur paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Francis

    2016-04-01

    In 2013 an article published online by the journal Science declared that the paradox proposed by Masud Mansuripur was resolved. This paradox concerns a point charge-Amperian magnetic dipole system as seen in a frame of reference where they are at rest and one in which they are moving. In the latter frame an electric dipole appears on the magnetic dipole. A torque is then exerted upon the electric dipole by the point charge, a torque that is not observed in the at-rest frame. Mansuripur points out this violates the relativity principle and suggests the Lorentz force responsible for the torque be replaced by the Einstein-Laub force. The resolution of the paradox reported by Science, based on numerous papers in the physics literature, preserves the Lorentz force but depends on the concept of hidden momentum. Here I propose a different resolution based on the overlooked fact that the charge-magnetic dipole system contains linear and angular electromagnetic field momentum. The time rate of change of the field angular-momentum in the frame through which the system is moving cancels that due to the charge-electric dipole interaction. From this point of view hidden momentum is not needed in the resolution of the paradox.

  9. CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES: DATA REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray ALAGÖZLÜ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The way conflicts are solved is thought to be culturally learned (Hammer, 2005; therefore, this is reflected through language use. Conflicts, as inevitable parts of communication, naturally mirror cultural differences. Intercultural conflict styles have been studied so far by various researchers. How conflicts are initiated, maintained and escalated or terminated are all culture bound (Leung, 2002 and all the related stages vary from one culture to another. In the related literature, there have been attempts to describe different conflict handling classifications. Using Hammer’s (2005 categorization that was found to be more refined and summative, conflict resolution styles of Turkish and American College students were explored using Discourse Completion Tests (DCT with eight conflict situations where the respondents were required to write verbal solutions to overcome the conflicts described in the test. Those utterances were categorized according to Directness/Indirectness Scale modified from Hammer’s (2005 “International Conflict Style Inventory (ICSI” that classifies intercultural conflict resolution styles as high/low level of directness and high/low level of emotional expressiveness. It is believed that the study provides insight into intercultural communication as there are culturally generalizable (etic and learned patterns of conflict resolution styles pertinent to different cultures (Hammer, 2009, p. 223; Ting-Toomey, 1994.

  10. Test of special resolution and trigger efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Benhammou, Y

    2015-01-01

    The forthcoming luminosity upgrade of LHC to super-LHC (sLHC) will increase the expected background rate in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer by approximately the factor of five. Some of the present Muon Spectrometer components will fail to cope with these high rates and will have to be replaced. The results of a test of a device consisting of Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) and a fast small-diameter Muon Drift Tube Chamber (sMDT) using the 180 GeV/c muons at the SPS-H8 muon beam at CERN are presented. The goal of the test was to study the combined TGC-sMDT system as tracking and triggering device in the ATLAS muon spectrometer after high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The analysis of the recorded data shows a very good correlation between the TGC and sMDT track position and inclination. This technology offers the combination of trigger and tracking and has good angular and spatial resolutions. The angular resolution is 0.4 mrad for each system individually. For the spatial resolution, the width of t...

  11. High-Resolution MRI in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution MRI is the best method of assessing the relation of the rectal tumor with the potential circumferential resection margin (CRM). Therefore it is currently considered the method of choice for local staging of rectal cancer. The primary surgery of rectal cancer is total mesorectal excision (TME), which plane of dissection is formed by the mesorectal fascia surrounding mesorectal fat and rectum. This fascia will determine the circumferential margin of resection. At the same time, high resolution MRI allows adequate pre-operative identification of important prognostic risk factors, improving the selection and indication of therapy for each patient. This information includes, besides the circumferential margin of resection, tumor and lymph node staging, extramural vascular invasion and the description of lower rectal tumors. All these should be described in detail in the report, being part of the discussion in the multidisciplinary team, the place where the decisions involving the patient with rectal cancer will take place. The aim of this study is to provide the information necessary to understand the use of high resolution MRI in the identification of prognostic risk factors in rectal cancer. The technical requirements and standardized report for this study will be describe, as well as the anatomical landmarks of importance for the total mesorectal excision (TME), as we have said is the surgery of choice for rectal cancer. (authors) [es

  12. Computed tomography with selectable image resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dibianca, F.A.; Dallapiazza, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    A computed tomography system x-ray detector has a central group of half-width detector elements and groups of full-width elements on each side of the central group. To obtain x-ray attenuation data for whole body layers, the half-width elements are switched effectively into paralleled pairs so all elements act like full-width elements and an image of normal resolution is obtained. For narrower head layers, the elements in the central group are used as half-width elements so resolution which is twice as great as normal is obtained. The central group is also used in the half-width mode and the outside groups are used in the full-width mode to obtain a high resolution image of a body zone within a full body layer. In one embodiment data signals from the detector are switched by electronic multiplexing and in another embodiment a processor chooses the signals for the various kinds of images that are to be reconstructed. (author)

  13. Neural mechanisms of proactive interference-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jonides, John; Berman, Marc G

    2007-12-01

    The ability to mitigate interference from information that was previously relevant, but is no longer relevant, is central to successful cognition. Several studies have implicated left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) as a region tied to this ability, but it is unclear whether this result generalizes across different tasks. In addition, it has been suggested that left anterior prefrontal cortex (APFC) also plays a role in proactive interference-resolution although support for this claim has been limited. The present study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of these regions in resolving proactive-interference across two different tasks performed on the same subjects. Results indicate that both left VLPFC and left APFC are involved in the resolution of proactive interference across tasks. However, different functional networks related to each region suggest dissociable roles for the two regions. Additionally, regions of the posterior cingulate gyrus demonstrated unique involvement in facilitation when short- and long-term memory converged. This pattern of results serves to further specify models of proactive interference-resolution.

  14. Analysis of Time Resolution in HGCAL Testbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Steentoft, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a 250 GeV electron run during the November 2016 HGCAL testbeam, the time resolution of the High Granularity hadronic endcap Calorimeter, HGCAL, was investigated, looking at the seven innermost Si cells, and using them as reference timers for each other. Cuts in the data was applied based on signal amplitude,$0.05 \\hspace{1mm} V < A < 0.45 \\hspace{1mm} V$, position of incoming beam particle,$0 \\hspace{1mm} mm < TDCx < 22\\hspace{1mm} mm$ and $-7\\hspace{1mm} mm resolution of $15-50$ $ps$ was obtained, depending on which two cells were compared, and how the low-statistics cut were placed. We also confirmed a slight correlation between time resolution and distanc...

  15. Super-Resolution for Synthetic Zooming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical zooming is an important feature of imaging systems. In this paper, we investigate a low-cost signal processing alternative to optical zooming—synthetic zooming by super-resolution (SR techniques. Synthetic zooming is achieved by registering a sequence of low-resolution (LR images acquired at varying focal lengths and reconstructing the SR image at a larger focal length or increased spatial resolution. Under the assumptions of constant scene depth and zooming speed, we argue that the motion trajectories of all physical points are related to each other by a unique vanishing point and present a robust technique for estimating its D coordinate. Such a line-geometry-based registration is the foundation of SR for synthetic zooming. We address the issue of data inconsistency arising from the varying focal length of optical lens during the zooming process. To overcome the difficulty of data inconsistency, we propose a two-stage Delaunay-triangulation-based interpolation for fusing the LR image data. We also present a PDE-based nonlinear deblurring to accommodate the blindness and variation of sensor point spread functions. Simulation results with real-world images have verified the effectiveness of the proposed SR techniques for synthetic zooming.

  16. DISPUTE RESOLUTION AND MEDIATION ON CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN GHEORGHE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital Market is usually depicted as a place for experts, for people with high trading skills. This is a half truth. There are entities established and functioning under strict scrutiny of Romanian National Securities Commission (RNSC, in compliance with Capital Market Law and regulations. There are also the investors, in many cases individuals involved in shares/financial instruments trade. In both cases disputes can rise. Disputes are inevitable a part of human interaction, hence the need for dispute resolution. First option is the judicial court system. Alternative dispute resolution comprises arbitration and mediation. Arbitration is an alternative choice to provide simpler, speedier and more accessible justice than ordinary courts as well as expertise in matters that are technical in nature and require special knowledge to adjudicate upon. Capital Market environment provides an institutional arbitration court for all participants, including investors. In many cases the agreement executed between participants under RNSC scrutiny The other option for settling disputes outside the court is mediation. Mediation can provide a much cheaper and quick extrajudicial resolution of disputes in commercial matters without time consuming procedures and rigid rules. Agreements resulting from mediation are more likely to be complied with voluntarily and are more likely to foster the commercial relationship between the parties. The interaction between investors and brokerage houses is based on investment services agreement concluded by parties. This is the usual framework for disputes between parties and the usual “landscape” for mediation on capital market.

  17. An alternative resolution to the Mansuripur paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, Francis

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 an article published online by the journal Science declared that the paradox proposed by Masud Mansuripur was resolved. This paradox concerns a point charge-Amperian magnetic dipole system as seen in a frame of reference where they are at rest and one in which they are moving. In the latter frame an electric dipole appears on the magnetic dipole. A torque is then exerted upon the electric dipole by the point charge, a torque that is not observed in the at-rest frame. Mansuripur points out this violates the relativity principle and suggests the Lorentz force responsible for the torque be replaced by the Einstein–Laub force. The resolution of the paradox reported by Science, based on numerous papers in the physics literature, preserves the Lorentz force but depends on the concept of hidden momentum. Here I propose a different resolution based on the overlooked fact that the charge-magnetic dipole system contains linear and angular electromagnetic field momentum. The time rate of change of the field angular–momentum in the frame through which the system is moving cancels that due to the charge-electric dipole interaction. From this point of view hidden momentum is not needed in the resolution of the paradox. (paper)

  18. Benchmarking NaI(Tl) Electron Energy Resolution Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, Wondwosen; Valentine, J D.

    2002-01-01

    A technique for validating electron energy resolution results measured using the modified Compton coincidence technique (MCCT) has been developed. This technique relies on comparing measured gamma-ray energy resolution with calculated values that were determined using the measured electron energy resolution results. These gamma-ray energy resolution calculations were based on Monte Carlo photon transport simulations, the measured NaI(Tl) electron response, a simplified cascade sequence, and the measured electron energy resolution results. To demonstrate this technique, MCCT-measured NaI(Tl) electron energy resolution results were used along with measured gamma-ray energy resolution results from the same NaI(Tl) crystal. Agreement to within 5% was observed for all energies considered between the calculated and measured gamma-ray energy resolution results for the NaI(Tl) crystal characterized. The calculated gamma-ray energy resolution results were also compared with previously published gamma-ray energy resolution measurements with good agreement (<10%). In addition to describing the validation technique that was developed in this study and the results, a brief review of the electron energy resolution measurements made using the MCCT is provided. Based on the results of this study, it is believed that the MCCT-measured electron energy resolution results are reliable. Thus, the MCCT and this validation technique can be used in the future to characterize the electron energy resolution of other scintillators and to determine NaI(Tl) intrinsic energy resolution

  19. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  20. Conflict resolution styles in the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Managers, including those in nursing environments, may spend much of their time addressing employee conflicts. If not handled properly, conflict may significantly affect employee morale, increase turnover, and even result in litigation, ultimately affecting the overall well-being of the organization. A clearer understanding of the factors that underlie conflict resolution styles could lead to the promotion of better management strategies. The aim of this research was to identify the predominant conflict resolution styles used by a sample of Spanish nurses in two work settings, academic and clinical, in order to determine differences between these environments. The effects of employment level and demographic variables were explored as well. Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Our sample consisted of professional nurses in Madrid, Spain, who worked in either a university setting or a clinical care setting. Within each of these environments, nurses worked at one of three levels: full professor, assistant professor, or scholarship professor in the academic setting; and nursing supervisor, registered staff nurse, or nursing assistant in the clinical setting. Conflict resolution style was examined using the standardized Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument, a dual-choice questionnaire that assesses a respondent's predominant style of conflict resolution. Five styles are defined: accommodating, avoiding, collaborating, competing, and compromising. Participants were asked to give answers that characterized their dominant response in a conflict situation involving either a superior or a subordinate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the relationship between workplace setting and conflict resolution style. The most common style used by nurses overall to resolve workplace conflict was compromising, followed by competing, avoiding, accommodating, and collaborating. There was a significant overall difference in styles between nurses who worked

  1. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  2. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, John Michael

    2014-04-22

    A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.

  3. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong

    2011-01-01

    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)

  4. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland and Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, M20 3LJ, Manchester (United Kingdom); Angelis, Georgios I. [Faculty of Health Sciences, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Sydney (Australia); Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C. [Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Manchester M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Reader, Andrew J. [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal QC H3A 2B4, Canada and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King' s College London, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Zaidi, Habib [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Centre, Geneva University, CH-1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30 001, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  5. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A.; Angelis, Georgios I.; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C.; Reader, Andrew J.; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. Methods: In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. Results: The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Conclusions: Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution

  6. Isotope specific resolution recovery image reconstruction in high resolution PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotasidis, Fotis A; Angelis, Georgios I; Anton-Rodriguez, Jose; Matthews, Julian C; Reader, Andrew J; Zaidi, Habib

    2014-05-01

    Measuring and incorporating a scanner-specific point spread function (PSF) within image reconstruction has been shown to improve spatial resolution in PET. However, due to the short half-life of clinically used isotopes, other long-lived isotopes not used in clinical practice are used to perform the PSF measurements. As such, non-optimal PSF models that do not correspond to those needed for the data to be reconstructed are used within resolution modeling (RM) image reconstruction, usually underestimating the true PSF owing to the difference in positron range. In high resolution brain and preclinical imaging, this effect is of particular importance since the PSFs become more positron range limited and isotope-specific PSFs can help maximize the performance benefit from using resolution recovery image reconstruction algorithms. In this work, the authors used a printing technique to simultaneously measure multiple point sources on the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT), and the authors demonstrated the feasibility of deriving isotope-dependent system matrices from fluorine-18 and carbon-11 point sources. Furthermore, the authors evaluated the impact of incorporating them within RM image reconstruction, using carbon-11 phantom and clinical datasets on the HRRT. The results obtained using these two isotopes illustrate that even small differences in positron range can result in different PSF maps, leading to further improvements in contrast recovery when used in image reconstruction. The difference is more pronounced in the centre of the field-of-view where the full width at half maximum (FWHM) from the positron range has a larger contribution to the overall FWHM compared to the edge where the parallax error dominates the overall FWHM. Based on the proposed methodology, measured isotope-specific and spatially variant PSFs can be reliably derived and used for improved spatial resolution and variance performance in resolution recovery image reconstruction. The

  7. Super-resolution for asymmetric resolution of FIB-SEM 3D imaging using AI with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Higuchi, Takeshi; Jinnai, Hiroshi

    2018-04-12

    Scanning electron microscopy equipped with a focused ion beam (FIB-SEM) is a promising three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique for nano- and meso-scale morphologies. In FIB-SEM, the specimen surface is stripped by an ion beam and imaged by an SEM installed orthogonally to the FIB. The lateral resolution is governed by the SEM, while the depth resolution, i.e., the FIB milling direction, is determined by the thickness of the stripped thin layer. In most cases, the lateral resolution is superior to the depth resolution; hence, asymmetric resolution is generated in the 3D image. Here, we propose a new approach based on an image-processing or deep-learning-based method for super-resolution of 3D images with such asymmetric resolution, so as to restore the depth resolution to achieve symmetric resolution. The deep-learning-based method learns from high-resolution sub-images obtained via SEM and recovers low-resolution sub-images parallel to the FIB milling direction. The 3D morphologies of polymeric nano-composites are used as test images, which are subjected to the deep-learning-based method as well as conventional methods. We find that the former yields superior restoration, particularly as the asymmetric resolution is increased. Our super-resolution approach for images having asymmetric resolution enables observation time reduction.

  8. Example-Based Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shu; Han, Boran; Kutz, J Nathan

    2018-04-23

    Capturing biological dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution demands the advancement in imaging technologies. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers spatial resolution surpassing the diffraction limit to resolve near-molecular-level details. While various strategies have been reported to improve the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging, all super-resolution techniques are still fundamentally limited by the trade-off associated with the longer image acquisition time that is needed to achieve higher spatial information. Here, we demonstrated an example-based, computational method that aims to obtain super-resolution images using conventional imaging without increasing the imaging time. With a low-resolution image input, the method provides an estimate of its super-resolution image based on an example database that contains super- and low-resolution image pairs of biological structures of interest. The computational imaging of cellular microtubules agrees approximately with the experimental super-resolution STORM results. This new approach may offer potential improvements in temporal resolution for experimental super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and provide a new path for large-data aided biomedical imaging.

  9. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  10. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  11. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Tripathy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM cavity. Such cavities are known to occur following the resolution of sub-ILM bleed due to various cause including Valsalva retinopathy,2 Terson syndrome, and also in some retinitis3 cases.4 In fact, some of these cavities may simulate a neurosensory retinal detachment or central serous chorioretinopathy on cursory clinical examination.5 To confirm that the features of the current patient1 are indeed related to the optic disc pit, it is necessary for the authors to provide an OCT scan which shows a connection of the presented cavity with the optic disc pit. Also, clear OCT scans of the fovea, both at presentation and at final follow-up would help our understanding of the visual recovery of the patient. The interval between the presenting (28 June 2012 OCT and final OCT (30 Nov 2012 is 5 months and not 6 months as described in the manuscript. For an effective comparison, both the presenting and final OCT scans should have been taken using either horizontal or vertical orientation over the macula. Though the spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy is possible, visual recovery in usually unlikely and in such cases an alternate diagnosis needs to be excluded.

  12. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  13. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling

  14. Moderate resolution spectrophotometry of high redshift quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

    1991-01-01

    A uniform set of photometry and high signal-to-noise moderate resolution spectroscopy of 33 quasars with redshifts larger than 3.1 is presented. The sample consists of 17 newly discovered quasars (two with redshifts in excess of 4.4) and 16 sources drawn from the literature. The objects in this sample have r magnitudes between 17.4 and 21.4; their luminosities range from -28.8 to -24.9. Three of the 33 objects are broad absorption line quasars. A number of possible high redshift damped Ly-alpha systems were found.

  15. Depth resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of the solid body discreteness in the direction of the normal to the sample surface on the depth resolution of the secondary ion mass spectrometry method is analyzed. It is shown that for this case the dependence of the width at the semi-height of the delta profiles of the studied elements depth distribution on the energy and angle of incidence of the initial ions should have the form of the stepwise function. This is experimentally proved by the silicon-germanium delta-layers in the silicon samples [ru

  16. Coordination Logic for Repulsive Resolution Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dutle, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for determining the direction an aircraft should maneuver in the event of a potential conflict with another aircraft. The algorithm is implicitly coordinated, meaning that with perfectly reliable computations and information, it will in- dependently provide directional information that is guaranteed to be coordinated without any additional information exchange or direct communication. The logic is inspired by the logic of TCAS II, the airborne system designed to reduce the risk of mid-air collisions between aircraft. TCAS II provides pilots with only vertical resolution advice, while the proposed algorithm, using a similar logic, provides implicitly coordinated vertical and horizontal directional advice.

  17. Resolution of Graves' disease after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne; Butani, Lavjay; Glaser, Nicole; Nguyen, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of an adolescent boy with Down's syndrome and ESRD on hemodialysis who developed mild Graves' disease that was not amenable to radioablation, surgery, or ATDs. After 14 months of observation without resolution of Graves' disease, he successfully received a DDRT with a steroid minimization protocol. Thymoglobulin and a three-day course of steroids were used for induction and he was started on tacrolimus, MMF, and pravastatin for maintenance transplant immunosuppression. One month after transplantation, all biochemical markers and antibody profiling for Graves' disease had resolved and remain normal one yr later. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conflict Resolution at Work for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A practical workplace guide to handling conflict effectively. Managing employees and encouraging them to work together toward a common goal is an essential skill that all leaders should possess. Conflict Resolution at Work For Dummies provides the tools and advice you need to restore peace, train your colleagues to get along better with others, prevent conflicts from ever starting, and maintain better productivity while boosting morale.: One of the only trade publications that takes the manager's perspective on how to address conflicts, resolve disputes, and restore peace and productivity to t

  19. High resolution IVEM tomography of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedat, J.W.; Agard, D.A. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Electron tomography is a powerful tool for elucidating the three-dimensional architecture of large biological complexes and subcellular organelles. The introduction of intermediate voltage electron microscopes further extended the technique by providing the means to examine very large and non-symmetrical subcellular organelles, at resolutions beyond what would be possible using light microscopy. Recent studies using electron tomography on a variety of cellular organelles and assemblies such as centrosomes, kinetochores, and chromatin have clearly demonstrated the power of this technique for obtaining 3D structural information on non-symmetric cell components. When combined with biochemical and molecular observations, these 3D reconstructions have provided significant new insights into biological function.

  20. Entity resolution in the web of data

    CERN Document Server

    Christophides, Vassilis; Stefanidis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several knowledge bases have been built to enable large-scale knowledge sharing, but also an entity-centric Web search, mixing both structured data and text querying. These knowledge bases offer machine-readable descriptions of real-world entities, e.g., persons, places, published on the Web as Linked Data. However, due to the different information extraction tools and curation policies employed by knowledge bases, multiple, complementary and sometimes conflicting descriptions of the same real-world entities may be provided. Entity resolution aims to identify different descrip