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Sample records for nankai accretionary prism

  1. Characterizing structures on borehole images and logging data of the Nankai trough accretionary prism: new insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose

    2016-04-01

    IODP has extensively used the D/V Chikyu to drill the Kumano portion of the Nankai Trough, including two well sites within the Kumano Basin. IODP Expeditions 338 and 348 drilled deep into the inner accretionary prism south of the Kii Peninsula collecting a suite of LWD data, including natural gamma ray, electrical resistivity logs and borehole images, suitable to characterize structures (fractures and faults) inside the accretionary prism. Structural interpretation and analysis of logging-while-drilling data in the deep inner prism revealed intense deformation of a generally homogenous lithology characterized by bedding that dips steeply (60-90°) to the NW, intersected by faults and fractures. Multiple phases of deformation are characterized. IODP Expedition borehole images and LWD data acquired in the last decade in previous and results of NantroSEIZE IODP Expeditions (314, 319) were also analyzed to investigate the internal geometries and structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. This study focused mainly on the characterization of the different types of structures and their specific position within the accretionary prism structures. New structural constraints and methodologies as well as a new approach to the characterization of study of active structures inside the prism will be presented.

  2. Effects of Accretionary Prisms on 3-D Long-Period Ground Motion Simulations

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    Guo, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2014-12-01

    The accretionary prism along the subduction zones such as the Middle America trench or the Nankai trough is considered as an important factor affecting the generation and propagation of long-period ground motions. In Japan, the great earthquake along the Nankai subduction zone which is expected to occur in the near future can generate large long-period ground motions in the metropolitan areas such as Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo. To investigate the effect of accretionary prism on long-period ground motions, we performed simulations of long-period ground motions for the event (Mw 7.1) that occurred off the Kii peninsula, Japan, at 10:07 on 5 September 2004 (UTC). Our simulation model ranged from the Kinki region to the Kanto region, and included the Osaka, Nobi and Kanto basin. We calculated long-period ground motions for four types of 3-D velocity structure models: (a) model with the accretionary prism (reference model), (b) model where accretionary prism has different 3-D geometry from the reference model, (c) model with the accretionary prism whose velocity, density and Q-value are shifted, (d) model without the accretionary prism. We compared the waveforms calculated for these models and concluded that the accretionary prism along the Nankai subduction zone plays roles in reducing the amplitude of direct waves and extending the duration of coda waves. This is attributed to the trap effect of accretionary prism. Our simulation also suggested that, the edge geometry along the landward side of accretionary prism has major effects on the processes of generation and propagation of long-period ground motions.

  3. Mechanical behavior in the Nankai inner accretionary prism, IODP Site C0002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, R. D., II; Saffer, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control seismogenesis and stress state at subduction zones requires knowledge of fault zone and sediment physical and mechanical properties. As part of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE), Expedition 348 drilled into the Kumano forearc basin and underlying inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, located 35 km landward of the trench. One primary objective was to sample and characterize the mechanical behavior of the inner accretionary prism. Here we report on the frictional and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of mudstone samples and a clay-rich shear zone recovered from 2182-2209 meters below sea floor (mbsf), determined from triaxial deformation tests at confining pressures from 1 to 7 MPa (UCS measurements on mudstones) and 36 MPa (strength of fault zone). Our results show that at a confining pressure of 1 MPa, the wall rock sediments fail at a peak differential stress of 9.1 MPa with a residual stress of 2.8 MPa. A clear peak and evolution to residual strength remains present at 7 MPa, and both the peak and residual strengths of the mudstones increases systematically with confining pressure. At a confining pressure of 36 MPa, the shear zone sediment yields at a differential stress of 25.2 MPa followed by strain-hardening to a maximum stress of 33.1 MPa. The shear zone is frictionally weaker than the surrounding mudstones, with a friction coefficient (μ) of 0.26-0.31, versus µ = 0.45 for the wall rock. The suite of tests defines a UCS for the mudstone of 7.9 MPa. Our friction data suggest that the inner wedge may be weaker than commonly assumed in applications of critical wedge theory to estimate the properties and conditions in accretionary prisms. One key implication is that for a given basal detachment friction coefficient, higher basal pore pressures (or lower wedge pore pressures) would be required to sustain observed taper angles. Additionally, the

  4. Complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, NanTroSEIZE Kumano transect

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    Moore, G. F.; Park, J.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Seismic reflection data collected over the past 10 years by the Institute for Research on Earth Evolution (IFREE) of Japan Agency for Marine Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) image a zone of complex thrusting at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism south of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan. The frontal part of the Nankai prism west of Shionomisaki Canyon (SC) at ~136° E, including the Muroto and Ashizuri Transects off Shikoku, is generally formed of imbricate thrusts with spacing of ~ 1-3 km that dip ~25-35° landward and sole into a prominent décollement. Out-of-sequence thrusts (OOSTs) are usually restricted to the landward margin of this imbricate thrust zone. East of SC, in the Kumano Transect area, the imbricate thrust zone is bounded on its seaward edge by a frontal thrust block that is ~5-6 km wide and consists of several OOSTs. The frontal thrust dips ~5-10° under this ~2-4 km thick block, emplacing this thrust sheet over the trench floor. The number and character of thrusts within the frontal thrust block vary laterally along strike. The 2006 Kumano 3D seismic data set images details of one segment of this complex frontal thrust block. Out-of-sequence faulting has led to underplating of several smaller thrust slices and movement along oblique ramps has led to a complex pattern of faulting that cannot be recognized in even closely-spaced 2D seismic lines. The frontal thrust block is further modified by subduction of seamounts and ridges that have caused large slumps of material from the block.

  5. Critically Tapered Wedges and Critical State Soil Mechanics: Porosity-based Pressure Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism.

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    Flemings, P. B.; Saffer, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We predict pore pressure from porosity measurements at ODP Sites 1174 and 808 in the Nankai Accretionary prism, offshore Japan. For a range of friction angles (5-30 degrees), we estimate that the pore pressure ratio (λ*) ranges from 0.5 to 0.8: the pore pressure supports 50% to 80% of the overburden. Higher friction angles result in higher pressures. For the majority of the scenarios, pressures within the prism parallel the lithostat and are greater than the pressures beneath it. Our results support previous qualitative interpretations at Nankai and elsewhere suggesting that lower porosity above the décollement than below reflects higher mean effective stress there. By coupling a critical state soil model (Modified Cam Clay), which describes porosity as a function of mean and deviator stress, with a stress model that considers the difference in stress states above and below the décollement, we quantitatively show that the prism porosities record significant overpressure despite their lower porosity. As the soil is consumed by the advancing prism, changes in both mean and shear stress drive overpressure generation. Even in the extreme case where only change in mean stress is considered (a vertical end cap model), significant overpressures are generated. The high pressures we predict require an effective friction coefficient (µb') at the décollement of 0.023-0.038. Assuming that the pore pressure at the décollement lies between the values we report for the wedge and the underthrusting sediments, these effective friction coefficients correspond to intrinsic friction coefficients of µb= 0.08-0.38 (f = 4.6 - 21°). These values are comparable to friction coefficients of 0.1-0.4 reported for clay-dominated fault zones in a wide range of settings. By coupling the critical wedge model with an appropriate constitutive model, we present a systematic approach to predict pressure in thrust systems.

  6. Pressure and Stress Prediction in the Nankai Accretionary Prism: A Critical State Soil Mechanics Porosity-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, Peter B.; Saffer, Demian M.

    2018-02-01

    We predict pressure and stress from porosity in the Nankai accretionary prism with a critical state soil model that describes porosity as a function of mean stress and maximum shear stress, and assumes Coulomb failure within the wedge and uniaxial burial beneath it. At Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1174 and 808, we find that pore pressure in the prism supports 70% to 90% of the overburden (λu = 0.7 to 0.9), for a range of assumed friction angles (5-30°). The prism pore pressure is equal to or greater than that in the underthrust sediments even though the porosity is lower within the prism. The high pore pressures lead to a mechanically weak wedge that supports low maximum shear stress, and this in turn requires very low basal traction to remain consistent with the observed narrowly tapered wedge geometry. We estimate the décollement friction coefficient (μb) to be 0.08-0.38 (ϕb' = 4.6°-21°). Our approach defines a pathway to predict pressure in a wide range of environments from readily observed quantities (e.g., porosity and seismic velocity). Pressure and stress control the form of the Earth's collisional continental margins and play a key role in its greatest earthquakes. However, heretofore, there has been no systematic approach to relate material state (e.g., porosity), pore pressure, and stress in these systems.

  7. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  8. Paleothermal structure of the Nankai inner accretionary wedge estimated from vitrinite reflectance of cuttings

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    Fukuchi, Rina; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-08-01

    The paleothermal structure and tectonic evolution of an accretionary prism is basic information for understanding subduction zone seismogenesis. To evaluate the entire paleotemperature profile of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002 located in the off-Kumano region of the Nankai Trough and penetrate the inner accretionary wedge down to 3058.5 m below the seafloor (mbsf), we performed a vitrinite reflectance analysis for cuttings and core samples during IODP expeditions 338 and 348: Nankai Trough seismogenic zone experiment. Although vitrinite reflectance values (Ro) tend to increase with depth, two reversals of these values suggested the existence of thrust fault zones with sufficient displacements to offset the paleothermal structure. The estimated maximum paleotemperatures are 42-70°C at 1200-1300 mbsf, 44-100°C at 1600-2400 mbsf, and 56-115°C at 2600-3000 mbsf, respectively. These temperatures roughly coincide with estimated modern temperatures; however, at a smaller scale, the reconstructed partial paleogeothermal gradient (˜60-150°C/km) recorded at the hanging- and footwall of the presumed thrust fault zone is higher than the modern geothermal gradient (˜30-40°C/km). This high paleogeothermal gradient was possibly obtained prior to subduction, reflecting the large heat flow of the young Philippine Sea Plate.

  9. Distribution of very low frequency earthquakes in the Nankai accretionary prism influenced by a subducting-ridge

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    Toh, Akiko; Obana, Koichiro; Araki, Eiichiro

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) that occurred in the shallow accretionary prism of the eastern Nankai trough during one week of VLFE activity in October 2015. They were recorded very close from the sources by an array of broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) equipped in Dense Oceanfloor Network system for Earthquakes and Tsunamis 1 (DONET1). The locations of VLFEs estimated using a conventional envelope correlation method appeared to have a large scatter, likely due to effects of 3D structures near the seafloor and/or sources that the method could not handle properly. Therefore, we assessed their relative locations by introducing a hierarchal clustering analysis based on patterns of relative peak times of envelopes within the array measured for each VLFE. The results suggest that, in the northeastern side of the network, all the detected VLFEs occur 30-40 km landward of the trench axis, near the intersection of a splay fault with the seafloor. Some likely occurred along the splay fault. On the other hand, many VLFEs occur closer to the trench axis in the southwestern side, likely along the plate boundary, and the VLFE activity in the shallow splay fault appears less intense, compared to the northeastern side. Although this could be a snap-shot of activity that becomes more uniform over longer-term, the obtained distribution can be reasonably explained by the change in shear stresses and pore pressures caused by a subducting-ridge below the northeastern side of DONET1. The change in stress state along the strike of the plate boundary, inferred from the obtained VLFE distribution, should be an important indicator of the strain release pattern and localised variations in the tsunamigenic potential of this region.

  10. Characterization of structures of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism from integrated analyses of LWD log response, resistivity images and clay mineralogy of cuttings: Expedition 338 Site C0002

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    Jurado, Maria Jose; Schleicher, Anja

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our research is a detailed characterization of structures on the basis of LWD oriented images and logs,and clay mineralogy of cuttings from Hole C0002F of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism. Our results show an integrated interpretation of structures derived from borehole images, petrophysical characterization on LWD logs and cuttings mineralogy. The geometry of the structure intersected at Hole C0002F has been characterized by the interpretation of oriented borehole resistivity images acquired during IODP Expedition 338. The characterization of structural features, faults and fracture zones is based on a detailed post-cruise interpretation of bedding and fractures on borehole images and also on the analysis of Logging While Drilling (LWD) log response (gamma radioactivity, resistivity and sonic logs). The interpretation and complete characterization of structures (fractures, fracture zones, fault zones, folds) was achieved after detailed shorebased reprocessing of resistivity images, which allowed to enhance bedding and fracture's imaging for geometry and orientation interpretation. In order to characterize distinctive petrophysical properties based on LWD log response, it could be compared with compositional changes derived from cuttings analyses. Cuttings analyses were used to calibrate and to characterize log response and to verify interpretations in terms of changes in composition and texture at fractures and fault zones defined on borehole images. Cuttings were taken routinely every 5 m during Expedition 338, indicating a clay-dominated lithology of silty claystone with interbeds of weakly consolidated, fine sandstones. The main mineralogical components are clay minerals, quartz, feldspar and calcite. Selected cuttings were taken from areas of interest as defined on LWD logs and images. The clay mineralogy was investigated on the LWD) data allowed us to characterize structural, petrophysical and mineralogical properties at fracture and

  11. Regional distribution of volcaniclastic layer and its implication for segmentation of the Nankai seismogenic zone

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    Sasaki, T.; Lim, J.; Higashi, M.; Park, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Nankai Trough is known as one of the best-suited convergent plate margins for studying accretionary prism growth as well as subduction zone earthquakes. Along the Nankai accretionary margin off southwest Japan, the Shikoku Basin which formed 26-15 Ma as backarc spreading in the Philippine Sea Plate is being subducted about 4 cm/year to the northwest. The Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) penetrated the Nankai accretionary prism and the incoming sedimentary section along the Ashizuri and Muroto transects, off Shikoku Island. Also, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), which represented just one part of a multi-stage project known as the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has been conducting drilling cruises now. IODP Expedition 322 in 2009, the coring was carried out at two drilling sites on the northern part of the Shikoku Basin in the subducting Philippine Sea plate. One of the major achievements of Expedition 322 is a discovery of late Miocene (10.2-7.6 Ma) tuffaceous and volcaniclastic sandstone layer (Underwood et al., IODP Prel. Rept. 322, 2009) that has not been previously recognized in the Nankai Trough. Based on age and volcanic sand content analysis, these volcaniclastic layers were unique to the Shikoku Basin off Kii Peninsula. The closest source of this volcanic layer was supposed to be the Izu-Bonin arc. Subducted sediments ultimately affect subduction zone geochemistry, thermal structure, and seismogenesis. High porosity of the volcaniclastic sandstone layer suggests the transportation of fluid to the subduction zone, it might affect the initiation and evolution of the decollement zone or plate boundary fault in the Nankai Trough. We interpreted single channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiles that have been acquired in the Nankai Trough margin by Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) since the year of 1997. We tried to map the major seismic layers such as

  12. Physical properties of the Nankai inner accretionary prism at Site C0002, IODP Expedition 348

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    Kitamura, Manami; Kitajima, Hiroko; Henry, Pierre; Valdez, Robert; Josh, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 348 focused on deepening the existing riser hole at Site C0002 to ~3000 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to access the deep interior of the Miocene inner accretionary prism. This unique tectonic environment, which has never before been sampled in situ by ocean drilling, was characterized through riser drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), mud gas monitoring and sampling, and cuttings and core analysis. Shipboard physical properties measurements including moisture and density (MAD), electrical conductivity, P-wave, natural gamma ray, and magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed mainly on cuttings samples from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, but also on core samples from 2163 and 2204 mbsf. MAD measurements were conducted on seawater-washed cuttings ("bulk cuttings") in two size fractions of >4 mm and 1-4 mm from 870.5 to 3058.5 mbsf, and hand-picked intact cuttings from the >4 mm size fractions within 1222.5-3058.5 mbsf interval. The bulk cuttings show grain density of 2.68 g/cm3 and 2.72 g/cm3, bulk density of 1.9 g/cm3 to 2.2 g/cm3, and porosity of 50% to 32%. Compared to the values on bulk cuttings, the intact cuttings show almost the same grain density (2.66-2.70 g/cm3), but higher bulk density (2.05-2.41 g/cm3) and lower porosity (37-18%), respectively. The grain density agreement suggests that the measurements on both bulk cuttings and intact cuttings are of good quality, and the differences in porosity and density are real, but the values from the bulk cuttings are affected strongly by artifacts of the drilling process. Thus, the bulk density and porosity data on handpicked cuttings are better representative of formation properties. Combined with the MAD measurements on hand-picked intact cuttings and discrete core samples from previous expeditions, porosity generally decreases from ~60% to ~20% from the seafloor to 3000 mbsf at Site C0002. Electrical

  13. Regional Variation of CH4 and N2 Production Processes in the Deep Aquifers of an Accretionary Prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishikawa, Shugo; Nagai, Kazushige; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Kunio; Mitsunobu, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-29

    Accretionary prisms are mainly composed of ancient marine sediment scraped from the subducting oceanic plate at a convergent plate boundary. Large amounts of anaerobic groundwater and natural gas, mainly methane (CH4) and nitrogen gas (N2), are present in the deep aquifers associated with an accretionary prism; however, the origins of these gases are poorly understood. We herein revealed regional variations in CH4 and N2 production processes in deep aquifers in the accretionary prism in Southwest Japan, known as the Shimanto Belt. Stable carbon isotopic and microbiological analyses suggested that CH4 is produced through the non-biological thermal decomposition of organic matter in the deep aquifers in the coastal area near the convergent plate boundary, whereas a syntrophic consortium of hydrogen (H2)-producing fermentative bacteria and H2-utilizing methanogens contributes to the significant production of CH4 observed in deep aquifers in midland and mountainous areas associated with the accretionary prism. Our results also demonstrated that N2 production through the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter by denitrifying bacteria is particularly prevalent in deep aquifers in mountainous areas in which groundwater is affected by rainfall.

  14. Fault structure, properties and activity of the Makran Accretionary Prism and implications for seismogenic potential

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    Smith, G. L.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T.; Bull, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone is the widest accretionary prism in the world (~400km), generated by convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. It represents a global end-member, with a 7km thick incoming sediment section. Accretionary prisms have traditionally been thought to be aseismic due to the presence of unconsolidated sediment and elevated basal pore pressures. The seismogenic potential of the Makran subduction zone is unclear, despite a Mw 8.1 earthquake in 1945 that may have been located on the plate boundary beneath the prism. In this study, a series of imbricate landward dipping (seaward verging) thrust faults have been interpreted across the submarine prism (outer 70 km) using over 6000km of industry multichannel seismic data and bathymetric data. A strong BSR (bottom simulating reflector) is present throughout the prism (excluding the far east). An unreflective décollement is interpreted from the geometry of the prism thrusts. Two major sedimentary units are identified in the input section, the lower of which contains the extension of the unreflective décollement surface. Between 60%-100% of the input section is currently being accreted. The geometry of piggy-back basin stratigraphy shows that the majority of thrusts, including those over 50km from the trench, are recently active. Landward thrusts show evidence for reactivation after periods of quiescence. Negative polarity fault plane reflectors are common in the frontal thrusts and in the eastern prism, where they may be related to increased fault activity and fluid expulsion, and are rarer in older landward thrusts. Significant NE-SW trending basement structures (The Murray Ridge and Little Murray Ridge) on the Arabian plate intersect the deformation front and affect sediment input to the subduction zone. Prism taper and structure are apparently primarily controlled by sediment supply and the secondary influence of subducting basement ridges. The thick, likely distal, sediment

  15. 3D geometry of a plate boundary fault related to the 2016 Off-Mie earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone, Japan

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    Tsuji, Takeshi; Minato, Shohei; Kamei, Rie; Tsuru, Tetsuro; Kimura, Gaku

    2017-11-01

    We used recent seismic data and advanced techniques to investigate 3D fault geometry over the transition from the partially coupled to the fully coupled plate interface inboard of the Nankai Trough off the Kii Peninsula, Japan. We found that a gently dipping plate boundary décollement with a thick underthrust layer extends beneath the entire Kumano forearc basin. The 1 April 2016 Off-Mie earthquake (Mw6.0) and its aftershocks occurred, where the plate boundary décollement steps down close to the oceanic crust surface. This location also lies beneath the trenchward edge of an older accretionary prism (∼14 Ma) developed along the coast of the Kii peninsula. The strike of the 2016 rupture plane was similar to that of a formerly active splay fault system in the accretionary prism. Thus, the fault planes of the 2016 earthquake and its aftershocks were influenced by the geometry of the plate interface as well as splay faulting. The 2016 earthquake occurred within the rupture area of large interplate earthquakes such as the 1944 Tonankai earthquake (Mw8.1), although the 2016 rupture area was much smaller than that of the 1944 event. Whereas the hypocenter of the 2016 earthquake was around the underplating sequence beneath the younger accretionary prism (∼6 Ma), the 1944 great earthquake hypocenter was close to oceanic crust surface beneath the older accretionary prism. The variation of fault geometry and lithology may influence the degree of coupling along the plate interface, and such coupling variation could hinder slip propagation toward the deeper plate interface in the 2016 event.

  16. Structural variation along the southwestern Nankai seismogenic zone related to various earthquake phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Kashiwase, K.; Fujimori, H.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2011-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture area of the Nankai megathrust event, it is important to know the geometry of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and deep subduction structure along the Nankai Trough. To obtain the deep subduction structure of the coseismic rupture area of the Nankai earthquake in 1946 off Shikoku area, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle seismic study was conducted in 2009 and 2010. In this study, 201 and 200 ocean bottom seismographs were deployed off the Shikoku Island and the Kii channel respectively. A tuned airgun system (7800 cu. in.) shot every 200m along 13 profiles. Airgun shots were also recorded along an onshore seismic profile (prepared by ERI, univ. of Tokyo and NIED) prolonged from the offshore profile off the Kii Peninsula. Long-term observation was conducted for ~9 months by 21 OBSs off the Shikoku area and 20 OBSs off the Kii channel.This research is part of 'Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes' funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Structural images of the overriding plate indicate the old accreted sediments (the Cretaceous-Tertiary accretionary prism) with the velocity greater than 6km/s extend seaward from off the Shikoku to the Hyuga-nada. Moreover, the young accreted sediments become relatively thinner eastward from off the cape Ashizuri to Muroto. These structural variations might be related to the different rupture pattern of the Nankai event. Structural image of the deep low frequency earthquakes and tremors is shown by using the airgun shots recorded at onshore

  17. Nankai Stress History and Implications for an Overpressured Decollement

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    Moran, K.; O'Regan, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Nankai Trough, formed from the subduction of the Shikoku Basin beneath the island arc of southwestern Japan, is a relatively young accretionary complex converging at a rate of ~4 cm/yr [Shipboard Scientific Party, 2001a]. The region was studied during the Deep Sea Drilling Project and on three Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Legs-131, 190 and 196. Three sites visited during these Legs form a single cross-margin transect (dubbed the Muroto Transect) that traverses the leading edge of the Nankai accretionary prism, from seaward of the deformation front at Site 1173, to close to the deformation front (Site 1174), and landward to the first frontal thrust (Site 808). The decollement, which forms the major boundary between the converging plates, occurs within the Lower Shikoku Basin stratigraphic unit. The ODP sites were drilled and cored to depths below the decollement (Sites 808 and 1174) and the proto-decollement (Site 1173). Here we present consolidation test results [Moran et al., 1993] that are consistent with porosity-depth functions from core and log measurements for the Lower Shikoku Basin sediments, assuming that the decollement is an overpressured seal. At 1173, where a true decollement has not yet formed, moderate fluid overpressures occur that can be fully attributed to high turbiditic sedimentation rates. Forward modeling of this site into the deformation front over a period of ~300 ky shows that the present 1173 porosity-depth function matches the porosity-depth function at 1174. These results suggest that the young decollement on the Muroto Transect at the deformation front and landward is highly overpressured and forms a seal to sediments below that can be classically modeled as a one-dimensional consolidation system.

  18. Local Seismicity Recorded by ChilePEPPER: Implications for Dynamic Accretionary Prism Response and Long-term Prism Evolution

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    de Moor, A.; Trehu, A. M.; Tryon, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the dynamic response of the outer accretionary wedge updip from the patch of greatest slip during the Mw8.8 2010 Maule earthquake, 10 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) were deployed from May 2012 to March 2013 in a small array with an inter-instrument spacing of ~12 km . Nine instruments were recovered, with 4 recording data on 3 intermediate-band 3-component seismometers and a differential pressure gauge and 5 recording data from absolute pressure gauges. [note: All instruments were also equipped with a fluid flow meter sensitive to flow rates as low as 0.0001 cm/yr in or out of the sediments. However, no flow signal was detected.] Here we present hypocenters for 569 local events that have S-P times less than 17 seconds (i.e. within ~125 km of the array) using hand-picked arrival times and a 1D velocity model derived from a 2D seismic refraction profile through the region (Moscoso et al 2011, EPSL). We analyze the distribution of seismicity in the context of published slip models, ChilePEPPER high-resolution seismic reflection data, critical taper analysis done by Cubas et al 2013 (EPSL), and offshore gravity data. The data show distinct segmentation within the outer prism. The northern section of the study area is characterized by a lack of seismicity, accretion of nearly all incoming sediment and a prism at critical taper. In contrast, abundant seismicity, significant sediment underthrusting at the deformation front and a prism below critical taper angle characterize the southern part of the study area. Both coseismic slip and post-rupture local seismicity can be related to density anomalies within the upper plate as revealed by free air gravity data corrected for the effects of bathymetry and the subducting plate. [ChilePEPPER - Project Evaluating Prism Post-Earthquake Response

  19. Tectonic and Sedimentation Interactions in the East Caribbean Subduction Zone: AN Overview from the Orinoco Delta to the Barbados Accretionary Prism

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    Deville, E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent marine geophysical acquisitions and piston-coring allow to better understand the close interactions between the sand-rich Orinoco turbidite system and the compressional structures of the Barbados prism. Because of the morphologic and tectonic control in the east-Caribbean active margin, the Orinoco turbiditic pattern system does not exhibit a classic fan geometry. The sea-floor geometry between the slope of the front of the Barbados prism and the slope of the South-American margin induces the convergence of the turbidite channels toward the abyssal plain, at the front of the accretionary prism. Also, whereas in most passive margins the turbidite systems are organized upstream to downstream as canyon, then channel-levee, then lobes, here, due to the tectonic control, the sedimentary system is organized as channel-levee, then canyons, then channelized lobes. At the edge of the Orinoco platform, the system has multiple sources with several distributaries and downward the channel courses are complex with frequent convergences or divergences that are emphasized by the effects of the undulating seafloor tectonic morphologies associated with active thrust tectonics and mud volcanism. On top of the accretionary prism, turbidite sediments are filling transported piggy-back basins whose timing of sedimentation vs. deformation is complex. Erosion processes are almost absent on the highly subsiding Orinoco platform and in the upper part of the turbidite system. Erosion processes develop mostly between 2000 and 4000 m of water depth, above the compressional structures of the Barbados prism (canyons up to 3 km wide and 300 m deep). In the abyssal plain, turbiditic channels develop on very long distance (> 1000 km) joining the mid-Atlantic channel (sourced mostly by the Amazon), filling several elongated basins corresponding to transform faults (notably the Barracuda Basin), and finally sourcing the Puerto-Rico trench, the deepest morphologic depression of this region

  20. LWD lithostratigraphy, physical properties and correlations across tectonic domains at the NanTroSEIZE drilling transect, Nankai Trough subduction zone, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudge, J.; Webb, S. I.; Tobin, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2007 the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) has drilled a total of 15 sites across the Nankai Trough subduction zone, including two sites on the incoming sediments of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP). Logging-while-drilling (LWD) data was acquired at 11 of these sites encompassing the forearc Kumano Basin, upper accretionary prism, toe region and input sites. Each of these tectonic domains is investigated for changes in physical properties and LWD characteristics, and this work fully integrates a large data set acquired over multiple years and IODP expeditions, most recently Expedition 338. Using the available logging-while-drilling data, primarily consisting of gamma ray, resistivity and sonic velocity, a log-based lithostratigraphy is developed at each site and integrated with the core, across the entire NanTroSEIZE transect. In addition to simple LWD characterization, the use of Iterative Non-hierarchical Cluster Analysis (INCA) on the sites with the full suite of LWD data clearly differentiates the unaltered forearc and slope basin sediments from the deformed sediments of the accretionary prism, suggesting the LWD is susceptible to the subtle changes in the physical properties between the tectonic domains. This differentiation is used to guide the development of tectonic-domain specific physical properties relationships. One of the most important physical property relationships between is the p-wave velocity and porosity. To fully characterize the character and properties of each tectonic domain we develop new velocity-porosity relationships for each domain found across the NanTroSEIZE transect. This allows the porosity of each domain to be characterized on the seismic scale and the resulting implications for porosity and pore pressure estimates across the plate interface fault zone.

  1. Interaction of Structure and Physical Properties in Accretionary Wedges: Examples from the Cascadia and Nankai Trough Subduction Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Susanna I.

    Subduction zones are capable of producing large, megathrust earthquakes that are sometimes tsunamigenic. Structure and physical properties in the accretionary wedge play a role in how far rupture can propagate and how the wedge deforms coseismically. In this dissertation, I use seismic reflection data and velocity models from the Cascadia subduction zone and logging data from the Nankai Trough, Japan, to interpret structure, link structure to the broader wedge deformation history, and investigate the material properties at depth. I present a full structural interpretation of newly acquired seismic reflection data in the central Cascadia margin, which is characterized by dominantly landward vergent faulting in the outer wedge, a very low wedge taper angle, and a broad, lightly deformed lower slope terrace. Two decollements are active: an upper decollement within the sedimentary section, and a basal decollement at the sediment-basement interface. These interpretations help delineate the spatial extent of decollements and suggest that supra-wedge sedimentation may influence the development of the wedge, including the formation of the lower slope terrace and out of sequence fault activity. I use velocity models from central Cascadia to estimate excess pore fluid pressure and overpressure ratio at depth, which do not exceed 5 MPa and 0.15, respectively. No excess pore pressure is documented in the underthrust sediment section, but modest overpressure is likely present in the incoming sediment section and the footwalls of thrust sheets. The analysis of pore pressure shows that (1) if the base of the wedge is weak, it is due to mechanical properties of the sediments or a relatively thin underthrust layer and (2) the Cascadia wedge is relatively well-drained, and thus potentially strong, which can lead to a low wedge taper angle. In the Nankai Trough, Japan, I reprocessed sonic log data to obtain P-wave and S-wave velocity values and estimate elastic moduli. The logs

  2. Landward vergence in accretionary prism, evidence for frontal propagation of earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    cubas, Nadaya; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Landward vergence in accretionary wedges is rare and have been described at very few places: along the Cascadia subduction zone and more recently along Sumatra where the 2004 Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman event and the 2011 tsunami earthquake occurred. Recent studies have suggested a relation between landward thrust faults and frontal propagation of earthquakes for the Sumatra subduction zone. The Cascadia subduction zone is also known to have produced in 1700 a Mw9 earthquake with a large tsunami across the Pacific. Based on mechanical analysis, we propose to investigate if specific frictional properties could lead to a landward sequence of thrusting. We show that landward thrust requires very low effective friction along the megathrust with a rather high internal effective friction. We also show that landward thrust appears close to the extensional critical limit. Along Cascadia and Sumatra, we show that to get landward vergence, the effective basal friction has to be lower than 0.08. This very low effective friction is most likely due to high pore pressure. This high pore pressure could either be a long-term property or due to dynamic effects such as thermal pressurization. The fact that landward vergence appears far from the compressional critical limit favors a dynamic effect. Landward vergence would then highlight thermal pressurization due to occasional or systematic propagation of earthquakes to the trench. As a consequence, the vergence of thrusts in accretionary prism could be used to improve seismic and tsunamigenic risk assessment.

  3. Numerical modeling of porosity waves in the Nankai accretionary wedge décollement, Japan: implications for aseismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.

    2017-01-01

    Seismic and hydrologic observations of the Nankai accretionary wedge décollement, Japan, show that overpressures at depths greater than ˜2 km beneath the seafloor could have increased to near lithostatic values due to sediment compaction and diagenesis, clay dehydration, and shearing. The resultant high overpressures are hypothesized then to have migrated in rapid surges or pulses called `porosity waves' up the dip of the décollement. Such high velocities—much higher than expected Darcy fluxes—are possible for porosity waves if the porous media through which the waves travel are deformable enough for porosity and permeability to increase strongly with increasing fluid pressure. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that porosity waves can travel at rates (kilometers per day) fast enough to cause aseismic slip in the Nankai décollement. The hypothesis was tested using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the fluid mass conservation equation for elastic porous media. Results show that porosity waves generated at depths of ˜2 km from overpressures in excess of lithostatic pressure can propagate at rates sufficient to account for aseismic slip along the décollement over a wide range of hydrogeological conditions. Sensitivity analysis showed porosity wave velocity to be strongly dependent on specific storage, fluid viscosity, and the permeability-depth gradient. Overpressure slightly less than lithostatic pressure could also produce porosity waves capable of traveling at velocities sufficient to cause aseismic slip, provided that hydrogeologic properties of the décollement are near the limits of their geologically reasonable ranges.

  4. Fluid expulsion sites on the Cascadia accretionary prism: mapping diagenetic deposits with processed GLORIA imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Bobb; Seke, Erol; Paskevich, Valerie F.; Holmes, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Point-discharge fluid expulsion on accretionary prisms is commonly indicated by diagenetic deposition of calcium carbonate cements and gas hydrates in near-surface (topographic and lithologic information. We have processed GLORIA imagery from the Oregon continental margin to remove topographic effects. A synthetic side scan image was created initially from Sea Beam bathymetric data and then was subtracted iteratively from the original GLORIA data until topographic features disappeared. The residual image contains high-amplitude backscattering that we attribute to diagenetic deposits associated with fluid discharge, based on submersible mapping, Ocean Drilling Program drilling, and collected samples. Diagenetic deposits are concentrated (1) near an out-of-sequence thrust fault on the second ridge landward of the base of the continental slope, (2) along zones characterized by deep-seated strikeslip faults that cut transversely across the margin, and (3) in undeformed Cascadia Basin deposits which overlie incipient thrust faults seaward of the toe of the prism. There is no evidence of diagenetic deposition associated with the frontal thrust that rises from the dècollement. If the dècollement is an important aquifer, apparently the fluids are passed either to the strike-slip faults which intersect the dècollement or to the incipient faults in Cascadia Basin for expulsion. Diagenetic deposits seaward of the prism toe probably consist dominantly of gas hydrates.

  5. Distribution and depth of bottom-simulating reflectors in the Nankai subduction margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, Akihiro; Otsuka, Hironori; Kioka, Arata; Ashi, Juichiro

    2018-04-01

    Surface heat flow has been observed to be highly variable in the Nankai subduction margin. This study presents an investigation of local anomalies in surface heat flows on the undulating seafloor in the Nankai subduction margin. We estimate the heat flows from bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) marking the lower boundaries of the methane hydrate stability zone and evaluate topographic effects on heat flow via two-dimensional thermal modeling. BSRs have been used to estimate heat flows based on the known stability characteristics of methane hydrates under low-temperature and high-pressure conditions. First, we generate an extensive map of the distribution and subseafloor depths of the BSRs in the Nankai subduction margin. We confirm that BSRs exist at the toe of the accretionary prism and the trough floor of the offshore Tokai region, where BSRs had previously been thought to be absent. Second, we calculate the BSR-derived heat flow and evaluate the associated errors. We conclude that the total uncertainty of the BSR-derived heat flow should be within 25%, considering allowable ranges in the P-wave velocity, which influences the time-to-depth conversion of the BSR position in seismic images, the resultant geothermal gradient, and thermal resistance. Finally, we model a two-dimensional thermal structure by comparing the temperatures at the observed BSR depths with the calculated temperatures at the same depths. The thermal modeling reveals that most local variations in BSR depth over the undulating seafloor can be explained by topographic effects. Those areas that cannot be explained by topographic effects can be mainly attributed to advective fluid flow, regional rapid sedimentation, or erosion. Our spatial distribution of heat flow data provides indispensable basic data for numerical studies of subduction zone modeling to evaluate margin parallel age dependencies of subducting plates.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  7. The First D/V Chikyu IODP Operations: Successful Logging and Coring During NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expeditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moe Kyaw Thu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE is a multi-expedition IODP drilling project aimed at drilling, coring, logging, and instrumenting the seismogenic zone of an active subduction margin , in a region thought to generate megathrust earthquakes of magnitude >8.0 on the moment-magnitude scale (Tobin and Kinoshita, 2006. The Nankai Trough, offshore of the Kii Peninsula, Honshu, Japan (Fig. 1 was chosen as the location for thisproject based on a number of scientific drilling proposals to IODP. These reviewed existing drilling data in the region, the long-term historical and recent record of great earthquakes, the social and societal relevance of the area, and the accessibility of the seismogenic zone to present drilling technology. The first stage of this multi-stage project was intended to accomplish a broad characterization of the shallow geology, geophysics, physical properties, heat flow, and fluid flow in a transect across the downgoing Philippine Sea Plate, the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism, the megasplay fault zone region on the continental slope, and the Kumano Basin that lies between the accretionary prism and the KiiPeninsula, on the continental shelf (Fig. 2.

  8. Significant strain accumulation between the deformation front and landward out-of-sequence thrusts in accretionary wedge of SW Taiwan revealed by cGPS and SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    High strain accumulation across the fold-and-thrust belt in Southwestern Taiwan are revealed by the Continuous GPS (cGPS) and SAR interferometry. This high strain is generally accommodated by the major active structures in fold-and-thrust belt of western Foothills in SW Taiwan connected to the accretionary wedge in the incipient are-continent collision zone. The active structures across the high strain accumulation include the deformation front around the Tainan Tableland, the Hochiali, Hsiaokangshan, Fangshan and Chishan faults. Among these active structures, the deformation pattern revealed from cGPS and SAR interferometry suggest that the Fangshan transfer fault may be a left-lateral fault zone with thrust component accommodating the westward differential motion of thrust sheets on both side of the fault. In addition, the Chishan fault connected to the splay fault bordering the lower-slope and upper-slope of the accretionary wedge which could be the major seismogenic fault and an out-of-sequence thrust fault in SW Taiwan. The big earthquakes resulted from the reactivation of out-of-sequence thrusts have been observed along the Nankai accretionary wedge, thus the assessment of the major seismogenic structures by strain accumulation between the frontal décollement and out-of-sequence thrusts is a crucial topic. According to the background seismicity, the low seismicity and mid-crust to mantle events are observed inland and the lower- and upper- slope domain offshore SW Taiwan, which rheologically implies the upper crust of the accretionary wedge is more or less aseimic. This result may suggest that the excess fluid pressure from the accretionary wedge not only has significantly weakened the prism materials as well as major fault zone, but also makes the accretionary wedge landward extension, which is why the low seismicity is observed in SW Taiwan area. Key words: Continuous GPS, SAR interferometry, strain rate, out-of-sequence thrust.

  9. Structure and Evolution of the Accretionary Margin of Java-Sumatra. Seismic Data and Numerical Modeling Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.

    2007-12-01

    We present a numerical model for the evolution of an accretionary prism along a subduction margin. We find the mechanical partitioning of the growing prism into active region, abutting against a deformable backstop, and a relatively undeformed forearc basin is a function of the double tapered basal geometry, where the dip of the detachment is assumed to be opposite above oceanic or continental lithopshere. Varying properties of both materials and detachment can be used to adjust the surface slope and hence geometry of the system, but mechanical partitioning remains essentially the same with the regions becoming broader or narrower. The model appears to closely reproduce the geometry of the Sumatra-Java prism, where a high accretion margin has produced the same distinct mechanical units. Newly prestack depth-migrated marine seismic data reveal the extent and geometry of the active deformation of the deformable backstop, and give indications of some material passing into a subduction channel below the accretionary complex. The deformable backstop appears to be composed of multiple duplex structures, but present day tectonic activity is mostly in the form of transtensive or transpressive deformation, possibly reactivating older dip-slip, accretionary structures. The numerical approach used in the simulation (distinct elements) shows great promise in modelling large deformation in situations such as accretionary prisms, and has also been adapted to incorporate the role of fluid pressure and migration in tandem with large deformation (shortening of the order of 100's of kilometres).

  10. Geochemistry of mud volcano fluids in the Taiwan accretionary prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Chenfeng; Gieskes, Joris M.; Lee, Typhoon; Yui Tzenfu; Chen Hsinwen

    2004-01-01

    Taiwan is located at the collision boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and the Asian Continental Plate and is one of the most active orogenic belts in the world. Fluids sampled from 9 sub-aerial mud volcanoes distributed along two major geological structures in southwestern Taiwan, the Chishan fault and the Gutingkeng anticline, were analyzed to evaluate possible sources of water and the degree of fluid-sediment interaction at depth in an accretionary prism. Overall, the Taiwanese mud volcano fluids are characterized by high Cl contents, up to 347 mM, suggesting a marine origin from actively de-watering sedimentary pore waters along major structures on land. The fluids obtained from the Gutingkeng anticline, as well as from the Coastal Plain area, show high Cl, Na, K, Ca, Mg and NH 4 , but low SO 4 and B concentrations. In contrast, the Chishan fault fluids are much less saline (1/4 seawater value), but show much heavier O isotope compositions (δ 18 O=5.1-6.5 %o). A simplified scenario of mixing between sedimentary pore fluids and waters affected by clay dehydration released at depth can explain several crucial observations including heavy O isotopes, radiogenic Sr contents ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.71136-0.71283), and relatively low salinities in the Chishan fluids. Gases isolated from the mud volcanoes are predominantly CH 4 and CO 2 , where the CH 4 -C isotopic compositions show a thermogenic component of δ 13 C=-38 %o. These results demonstrate that active mud volcano de-watering in Taiwan is a direct product of intense sediment accretion and plate collision in the region

  11. Geological Study of Active Cold Seeps in the Syn-collision Accretionary Prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yue Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pogonophoran tube worms, elongated pyrite tubes and authigenic carbonate nodules are used to evaluate the occurrence of potential cold seeps in the syn-collision accretionary prism Kaoping Slope off SW Taiwan. At least two species of pogonophoran tubeworms were found in surface and core sediments. Pyrites occur in three different forms: fillings inside foraminiferal chambers, cements between calcareous microfossils, and elongated tubes. The bottom water off SW Taiwan is aerobic, but authigenic pyrites are found in the surface sediments at several sites, suggesting the existence of local reducing environments enabling the formation of pyrites. These environments are most likely caused by the occurrence of active cold seeps where methane expulses. Authigenic carbonates with highly depleted carbon isotope values (-54 to -43‰ were found at more than 5 locations, in agreement with a methane-derived source for the carbon.

  12. Methane fluxes and inventories in the accretionary prism of southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. H.; Chen, N. C.; Yang, T. F.; Hong, W. L.; Chen, H. W.; Chen, H. C.; Hu, C. Y.; Huang, Y. C.; Lin, S.; Su, C. C.; Liao, W. Z.; Sun, C. H.; Wang, P. L.; Yang, T.; Jiang, S. Y.; Liu, C. S.; Wang, Y.; Chung, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    Sediments distributed across marine and terrestrial realms represent the largest methane reservoir on Earth. The degassing of methane facilitated through either geological structures or perturbation would contribute significantly to global climatic fluctuation and elemental cycling. The exact fluxes and processes governing methane production, consumption and transport in a geological system remain largely unknown in part due to the limited coverage and access of samples. In this study, more than 200 sediment cores were collected from offshore and onshore southwestern Taiwan and analyzed for their gas and aqueous geochemistry. These data combined with published data and existing parameters of subduction system were used to calculate methane fluxes across different geochemical transitions and to develop scenarios of mass balance to constrain deep microbial and thermogenic methane production rates within the Taiwanese accretionary prism. The results showed that high methane fluxes tend to be associated with structural features, suggesting a strong structural control on methane transport. A significant portion of ascending methane (>50%) was consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane at most sites. Gas compositions and isotopes revealed a transition from the predominance of microbial methane in the passive margin to thermogenic methane at the upper slope of the active margin and onshore mud volcanoes. Methane production and consumption at shallow depths were nearly offset with a small fraction of residual methane discharged into seawater or the atmosphere. The flux imbalance arose primarily from the deep microbial and thermogenic production and could be likely accounted for by the sequestration of methane into hydrate forms, and clay absorption.

  13. Geochemical constraints on the temperature and timing of carbonate formation and lithification in the Nankai Trough, NanTroSEIZE transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, James C.; Torres, Marta E.; Fisher, Andrew; Hong, Wei-Li; Destrigneville, Christine; Defliese, William F.; Tripati, Aradhna E.

    2017-02-01

    Information about diagenetic processes and temperatures during burial of sediments entering the subduction zone is important for understanding changes in physical properties and seismic behavior during deformation. The geochemistry of authigenic carbonates from accretionary prisms can serve as proxies for conditions during carbonate cementation and resultant lithification. We report results from the Nankai accretionary prism recovered from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) sites C0011 and C0012 and we document continued cementation of deep sediment sections prior to subduction. Elemental and isotope data provide evidence for complex mixing of different isotopic reservoirs in pore waters contributing to carbonate chemical signatures. Carbon stable isotope values exhibit a broad range (δ13CV-PDB = +0.1‰ to -22.5‰) that corresponds to different stages of cement formation during burial. Carbonate formation temperatures from carbonate-clumped isotope geochemistry range from 16 °C to 63 °C at Site C0011 and 8.7 °C to 68 °C at Site C0012. The correspondence between the clumped-isotope temperatures and extrapolations of measured in situ temperatures indicate the carbonate is continuing to form at present. Calculated water isotopic compositions are in some cases enriched in 18O relative to measured interstitial waters suggesting a component of inherited seawater or input from clay-bound water. Low oxygen isotope values and the observed Ba/Ca ratios are also consistent with carbonate cementation at depth. Strontium isotopes of interstitial waters (87Sr/86Sr of 0.7059-0.7069) and carbonates (87Sr/86Sr of 0.70715-0.70891) support formation of carbonates from a mixture of strontium reservoirs including current interstitial waters and relic seawater contemporaneous with deposition. Collectively our data reflect mixed sources of dissolved inorganic carbon and cations that include authigenic phases driven by organic carbon and volcanic alteration reactions

  14. Shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes accompanied with slow slip event along the plate boundary of the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Hori, T.; Araki, E.; Kodaira, S.; Ide, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recent improvements of seismic and geodetic observations have revealed the existence of a new family of slow earthquakes occurring along or close to the plate boundary worldwide. In the viewpoint of the characteristic time scales, the slow earthquakes can be classified into several groups as low-frequency tremor or tectonic tremor (LFT) dominated in several hertz, very-low-frequency earthquake (VLFE) dominated in 10 to 100 s, and short- and long-term slow-slip event (SSE) with durations of days to years. In many cases, these slow earthquakes are accompanied with other types of slow events. However, the events occurring offshore, especially beneath the toe of accretionary prism, are poorly understood because of the difficulty to detect signals. Utilizing the data captured from oceanfloor observation networks which many efforts have recently been taken to develop is necessary to improve our understandings for these events. Here, we investigated CMT analysis of shallow VLFEs using data obtained from DONET oceanfloor observation networks along the Nankai trough, southwest of Japan. We found that shallow VLFEs have almost identical history of moment release with that of synchronous SSE which occurred at the same region recently found by Araki et al. (2017). VLFE sources show updip migrations during the activity, coincident with the migration of SSE source. From these findings we conclude that these slow events share the same fault slip, and VLFE represent high-frequency fluctuations of slip during SSE. This result imply that shallow SSE along the plate interface would have occurred in the background during the shallow VLFE activities repeatedly observed along the Nankai trough, but the SSE was not reported because of difficult detections.

  15. IODP Expedition 338: Riser and Riserless Drilling Along the NanTroSEIZE Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.; Moore, G. F.; Dugan, B.; Kanagawa, K.; Toczko, S.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338 provided new constraints on the Kumano Basin sediments, the accretionary prism inner wedge, the seaward extension of the megasplay fault, the architecture and mechanics of landslides, and the alteration of oceanic basement of the incoming Philippine Sea plate. This was accomplished through riser and riserless drilling, logging while drilling (LWD), and cuttings and core analysis. Cuttings and LWD analyses at Hole C0002F reveal two lithologic units in the prism inner wedge which are separated by a prominent fault zone at ~1640 mbsf. Mud-gases from the inner prism show high concentrations at the top of the wedge that decrease, but become more thermogenic, with depth. These data are from the previously unaccessed deeper part of the Nankai accretionary prism. Riserless coring at Site C0002 provided data across the gas hydrate zone of the Kumano Basin, across the Kumano Basin-accretionary prism unconformity, and in the uppermost accretionary prism. Within the Kumano basin section, gas and porewater geochemistry documents microbial methane gas in hydrates that are disseminated in sandy layers. Multiple penetrations of the Kumano Basin-accretionary prism boundary and 3D seismic data show that the boundary is erosive and complex. LWD (Site C0018) and coring and LWD (Site C0021) augment existing data to better understand submarine landslide dynamics and mass-transport deposit (MTD) emplacement processes. Previous coring at Site C0018 identified six MTDs, but only two MTD intervals were detected in resistivity images that show high angle, randomly oriented bedding. Site C0021, located more proximal to the MTD source, provides constraint on MTD variability. Correlation across the sites reveals a thick MTD with an erosional base characterized by a shear zone in muddy sediments vs. a translational basal surface within coarse volcaniclastic sand in the proximal and distal/lateral areas, respectively. LWD data and cores from

  16. Long-term temperature monitoring at the biological community site on the Nankai accretionary prism off Kii Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Yamano, M.; Kinoshita, M.; Ashi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Nankai subduction zone off Kii Peninsula is one of the most intensively surveyed areas for studies on the seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflection surveys carried out in this area revealed the existence of splay faults that branched from the subduction zone plate boundary [Park et al., 2002]. Along the splay faults, reversal of reflection polarity was observed, indicating elevated pore fluid pressure along the faults. Cold seepages with biological communities were discovered along a seafloor outcrop of one of the splay faults through submersible observations. Long-term temperature monitoring at a biological community site along the outcrop revealed high heat flow carried by upward fluid flow (>180 mW/m2) [Goto et al., 2003]. Toki et al. [2004] estimated upward fluid flow rates of 40-200 cm/yr from chloride distribution of interstitial water extracted from sediments in and around biological community sites along the outcrop. These observation results suggest upward fluid flow along the splay fault. In order to investigate hydrological nature of the splay fault, we conducted long-term temperature monitoring again in the same cold seepage site where Goto et al. [2003] carried out long-term temperature monitoring. In this presentation, we present results of the temperature monitoring and estimate heat flow carried by upward fluid flow from the temperature records. In this long-term temperature monitoring, we used stand-alone heat flow meter (SAHF), a probe-type sediment temperature recorder. Two SAHFs (SAHF-3 and SAHF-4) were used in this study. SAHF-4 was inserted into a bacterial mat, within several meters of which the previous long-term temperature monitoring was conducted. SAHF-3 was penetrated into ordinary sediment near the bacterial mat. The sub-bottom temperature records were obtained for 8 months. The subsurface temperatures oscillated reflecting bottom- water temperature variation (BTV). For sub-bottom temperatures measured with SAHF-3 (outside of

  17. Frictional properties of the Nankai frontal thrust explain recurring shallow slow slip events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Kopf, A.; Roesner, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations provide evidence for shallow slip reaching to the trench on subduction megathrusts, both in earthquakes and slow slip events (SSE). This is at odds with existing friction studies, which report primarily velocity-strengthening behavior (friction increases with slip velocity) for subduction fault material and synthetic analogs, which leads only to stable sliding. We report on direct shearing experiments on fault rocks from IODP Site C0007, which sampled the frontal thrust of the Nankai accretionary prism. This fault has been implicated in both coseimic slip and recurring SSE. We focus on material from 437.2 meters below seafloor, immediately above a localized shear zone near the base of the fault. In our experiments, a 25 mm diameter cylindrical specimen is loaded in an assembly of two steel plates. After application of normal stress (3, 10, or 17 MPa) and subsequent equilibration, the lower plate is driven at a constant velocity while the upper plate remains stationary; this configuration forces shear to localize between the two plates. After reaching a steady state residual friction coefficient (µss), we conducted velocity-stepping tests to measure the friction rate parameter (a-b), defined as the change in friction for a change in velocity: (a-b) = Δuss/ln(V/Vo), over a range of velocities from 0.1-100 µm s-1. We find that µss ranges from 0.26 to 0.32 and exhibits a slight decrease with normal stress. We observe velocity-weakening behavior at low normal stresses (3-10 MPa) and for low sliding velocities (30 µm s-1. At higher normal stress (17 MPa), we observe dominantly velocity-strengthening, consistent with previously reported measurements for 25 MPa normal stress. Our observation of rate weakening at slip rates matching those of SSE in the outer Nankai forearc provide a potential explanation for periodic strain accumulation and subsequent release during SSE near the trench. The observation of rate weakening behavior only at low normal

  18. Cold seeps and splay faults on Nankai margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P.; Ashi, J.; Tsunogai, U.; Toki, T.; Kuramoto, S.; Kinoshita, M.; Lallemant, S. J.

    2003-04-01

    Cold seeps (bacterial mats, specific fauna, authigenic carbonates) are common on the Nankai margin and considered as evidence for seepage of methane bearing fluids. Camera and submersible surveys performed over the years have shown that cold seeps are generally associated with active faults. One question is whether part of the fluids expelled originate from the seismogenic zone and migrate along splay faults to the seafloor. The localisation of most cold seeps on the hanging wall of major thrusts may, however, be interpreted in various ways: (a) footwall compaction and diffuse flow (b) fluid channelling along the fault zone at depths and diffuse flow near the seafloor (c) erosion and channelling along permeable strata. In 2002, new observations and sampling were performed with submersible and ROV (1) on major thrusts along the boundary between the Kumano forearc basin domain and the accretionary wedge domain, (2) on a fault affecting the forearc (Kodaiba fault), (3) on mud volcanoes in the Kumano basin. In area (1) tsunami and seismic inversions indicate that the targeted thrusts are in the slip zone of the To-Nankai 1944 earthquakes. In this area, the largest seep zone, continuous over at least 2 km, coincides with the termination of a thrust trace, indicating local fluid channelling along the edge of the fault zone. Kodaiba fault is part of another splay fault system, which has both thrusting and strike-slip components and terminates westward into an en-echelon fold system. Strong seepage activity with abundant carbonates was found on a fold at the fault termination. One mud volcano, rooted in one of the en-echelon fold, has exceptionally high seepage activity compared with the others and thick carbonate crusts. These observations suggest that fluid expulsion along fault zones is most active at fault terminations and may be enhanced during fault initiation. Preliminary geochemical results indicate signatures differ between seep sites and suggests that the two

  19. A Long-Term Geothermal Observatory Spanning Subseafloor Gas Hydrates in IODP Hole U1364A, Cascadia Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Davis, E.; Heesemann, M.; McGuire, J. J.; Collins, J. A.; O'Brien, J. K.; von der Heydt, K.

    2017-12-01

    We report the configuration of and initial results from a 24-thermistor cable installed to 268 m below seafloor (mbsf) in IODP Hole U1364A in the frontal accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. The thermistor array spans the gas hydrate stability zone and a clear bottom-simulating reflector at 225-230 mbsf. The thermistor string was deployed in July 2016 along with a seismic-strain observatory into the cased section of a pressure-monitoring Advanced CORK (ACORK) that had been installed in 2010 during IODP Expedition 328. Formation pressures are monitored via permeable screens on the outside of solid steel casing that is sealed at the bottom by a bridge plug and cement up to 302 mbsf. All three observatory systems were connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE cabled observatory Clayoquot Slope node in June of 2017, with the thermistor temperatures being logged by ONC every minute. The thermistor array was designed with concentrated vertical spacing around the BSR and two pressure-monitoring screens at 203 and 244 mbsf, with wider thermistor spacing elsewhere to document the geothermal state up to seafloor. The initial six weeks of data logged via the ONC connection show a generally linear temperature gradient, with temperatures of about 15.8°C at the BSR depth, consistent with methane hydrate stability at that depth and pressure. Sensor temperatures at most depths are quite stable over this period, with the exceptions of two sensors at 76 and 256 mbsf that show slowly rising temperatures; these could be due to cellular convection of borehole fluids, sensor degradation, or formation processes, but this requires a longer time series to resolve. We will report updated results after four more months of data recording through November 2017, along with any correlations to the pressure records. The data are freely available to all registered ONC users via the ONC data management and archiving system.

  20. Mud Gas Logging In A Deep Borehole: IODP Site C0002, Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczko, S.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Maeda, L.

    2014-12-01

    Mud logging, a tool in riser drilling, makes use of the essentially "closed-circuit" drilling mud flow between the drilling platform downhole to the bit and then back to the platform for analyses of gas from the formation in the drilling mud, cuttings from downhole, and a range of safety and operational parameters to monitor downhole drilling conditions. Scientific riser drilling, with coincident control over drilling mud, downhole pressure, and returning drilling mud analyses, has now been in use aboard the scientific riser drilling vessel Chikyu since 2009. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, as part of the goal of reaching the plate boundary fault system near ~5000 mbsf, has now extended the deep riser hole (Hole C0002 N & P) to 3058.5 mbsf. The mud gas data discussed here are from two approximately parallel boreholes, one a kick-off from the other; 860-2329 mbsf (Hole C0002N) and 2163-3058 mbsf (Hole C0002P). An approximate overlap of 166 m between the holes allows for some slight depth comparison between the two holes. An additional 55 m overlap at the top of Hole C0002P exists where a 10-5/8-inch hole was cored, and then opened to 12-1/4-inch with logging while drilling (LWD) tools (Fig. 1). There are several fault zones revealed by LWD data, confirmed in one instance by coring. One of the defining formation characteristics of Holes C0002 N/P are the strongly dipping bedding planes, typically exceeding 60º. These fault zones and bedding planes can influence the methane/ethane concentrations found in the returning drilling mud. A focused comparison of free gas in drilling mud between one interval in Hole C0002 P, drilled first with a 10 5/8-inch coring bit and again with an 12 ¼-inch logging while drilling (LWD) bit is shown. Hole C0002N above this was cased all the way from the sea floor to the kick-off section. A fault interval (in pink) was identified from the recovered core section and from LWD resistivity and gamma. The plot of methane and ethane free gas (C1 and C2; ppmv) shows that the yield of free gas (primarily methane) was greater when the LWD bit returned to open the cored hole to a greater diameter. One possible explanation for this is the time delay between coring and LWD operations; approximately 3 days passed between the end of coring and the beginning of LWD (25-28 December 2013).

  1. Surface sediment remobilization triggered by earthquakes in the Nankai forearc region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, N.; Ashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Irino, T.; Ikehara, K.; Kanamatsu, T.; Suganuma, Y.; Murayama, M.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine landslides triggered by earthquakes generate turbidity currents (e.g. Piper et al., 1988; 1999). Recently several studies report that the remobilization of the surface sediment triggered by earthquakes can also generate turbidity currents. However, studies that proposed such process are still limited (e.g. Ikehara et al., 2016; Mchugh et al., 2016; Moernaut et al., 2017). The purpose of this study is to examine those sedimentary processes in the Nankai forearc region, SW Japan using sedimentary records. We collected 46 cm-long multiple core (MC01) and a 6.7 m-long piston core (PC03) from the small basin during the R/V Shinsei Maru KS-14-8 cruise. The small confined basin, which is our study site, block the paths of direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The sampling site is located at the ENE-WSW elongated basin between the accretionary prism and the forearc basin off Kumano without direct sediment supply from river-submarine canyon system. The basin exhibits a confined basin that captures almost of sediments supplied from outside. Core samples are mainly composed of silty clay or very fine sand. Cs-137 measurement conducted on a MC01 core shows constantly high value at the upper 17 cm section and no detection below it. Moreover, the sedimentary structure is similar to fine-grained turbidite described by Stow and Shanmgam (1980), we interpret the upper 17 cm of MC01 as muddy turbidite. Grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility also agree to this interpretation. Rapid sediment deposition after 1950 is assumed and the most likely event is the 2004 off Kii peninsula earthquakes (Mw=6.6-7.4). By calculation from extent of provenance area, which are estimated by paleocurrent analysis and bathymetric map, and thickness of turbidite layer we conclude that surface 1 cm of slope sediments may be remobilized by the 2004 earthquakes. Muddy turbidites are also identified in a PC03 core. The radiocarbon age gap of 170 years obtained

  2. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Hideharu; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Korenaga, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    In the area in front of Nankai trough, tsunami wave height may increase if tsunamis attacking from some wave sources overlap because of time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough. To evaluation tsunami risk of the important facilities located in front of Nankai trough, we proposed the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering uncertainty on time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough and we evaluated the influence that the time-lag gave to tsunami hazard at the some representative points. (author)

  3. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  4. Acoustic and gravity features of mud volcanoes along the seaward part of the Kumano forearc basin, Nankai region, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mud volcanoes (MV) are geological features that are observed all over the world, especially along plate convergent margins. MVs bring fluid and sediment to the surface from depth. MVs around Japan are expected to transport of information from the shallow portions of the seismogenic zone. The Kumano forearc basin (FAB) in the Nankai region is the most studied area in Japan. It is bounded by a shelf on the north, and the Kumano Basin edge fault zone (KBEFZ) on the south. The Kumano FAB has 1-2 km of sediment and overlies the accretionary prism. There are at least 14 MVs in the Kumano Basin. Most of them are found over the northern basin floor, and at least one MV is at the KBEFZ. The MV at the KBEFZ is imaged on a 3D seismic data set as a small topographic feature on seafloor with a disrupted BSR below it. On high-resolution acoustic imagery, it is an 80 100m-high hill with a crater-like depression. It is characterized by a negative ph anomaly detected just above it. High-backscatter seafloor recognized around the MV suggests that harder seafloor exists in that area. To determine whether large subseafloor diapirs exist below active MVs, we try to detect the gravity contrast between the allochthonous materials and basin sediment. Gravity data were collected by research vessels over the area in 2012 2017. After corrections of drift and Etovos effects, absolute gravity, free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies were calculated. The gravity data do not always show anomalies directly on MVs over the northern basin, thus suggesting that larger diapirs which have gravity contrast over a few milli-Gals do not exist below most of MVs in this basin. Instead, a large negative gravity anomaly is found at the northeastern end of the Kumano Basin. Localized positive anomalies exist along the KBEFZ in the area of theMV. The positive anomaly may suggest that an allochthonous high-density sediment body intrudes along the highly deformed, weak, fault zone.

  5. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  6. Oceanic Sub-Moho Reflectors in and Around the Segmentation Boundary Between the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquake Area, the Central Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ito, A.; Sato, T.; Park, J.; Obana, K.; Kaneda, Y.

    2006-12-01

    The Nankai Trough is a unique subduction zone because the recurrence intervals of M8 class earthquakes and the segmentation of rupture zones are well documented on the basis of geophysical, geological and historic data. In 2004, large intraslab earthquake (Mw7.5) occurred southeast off the Kii Peninsula, the central Nankai Trough. Recent ocean bottom seismograph observation off the Kii Peninsula shows seismicity concentrated in the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle. To understand the genesis of such intraslab earthquakes and its relation to large interplate earthquakes as well as to obtain an entire structural image of Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, a wide-angle reflection/refraction survey across the coseismic rupture zone of the Tonankai earthquake was conducted in 2004. This research is part of "Structure research on plate dynamics of the presumed rupture zone of the Tonankai-Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The result of structural image shows a bit thicker oceanic crust (>8km) subducting landward, and the existence of oceanic sub-Moho reflectors in the uppermost mantle. The aftershocks of the 2004 off Kii Peninsula earthquake are distributed within the oceanic crust and the uppermantle, which is not consistent with the estimated fault plane of main shock. Comparing the structural image with this aftershock distribution and usual seismicity in the uppermost mantle, the depth of the oceanic sub-Moho reflectors and the intraslab events within the uppermantle are both distributed around 20km. We consider that such sub-Moho reflectors may become a seismic fault of intraslab earthquakes.

  7. Present-day chaotic formations around the Japanese trenches: Comparison to the on land examples from the Shimanto and Miura-Boso, and from the Franciscan, Mineoka and Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yujiro; Kawamura, Kiichiro; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Mori, Ryota; Chiba, Tae; Sasaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-05-01

    -fluid supported animals within injection or diapiric intrusion. On the other hand, in the Nankai prism and the on land Miura-Boso Peninsulas, many examples of sandy matrix supported mudstone breccia are a result of liquefaction and injection of such coarse-grained clastic fragments during the earthquake shake and subsequent landsliding. Those deposits are faulted, folded and injected in various stages, some before accretionary prism incorporation, some after. Some are of sedimentary origin by gravitational process, others tectonic or diapiric, but in most cases thrust duplexes and complex folds are common. The third and fourth are mélanges including igneous, metamorphic and/or ophiolitic rock blocks. They look similar to the on land examples in the Franciscan, Mineoka (Boso, central Japan) and the Ankara, and used to be attributable to the diapiric origin, as those that have been already known as serpenitine mud volcanoes with metamorphic block at the foot of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc. However, such analogue need careful consideration how the rock association would form to the final emplacement. As the fourth new type, we found an example of deep (1.5 to 2 GPa) metamorphic rock blocks of eclogitic conditions from the fault line in the schistose serpentinite (antigorite-dominated) in the middle part of the Izu arc near the Ohmachi seamount. This implies for the incorporation and exhumation of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the island arc setting, and may give an adequate analogue to the specific mélange formation of the Franciscan, Mineoka and Ankara.

  8. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and geochronology of Neogene trench-slope cover sediments in the south Boso Peninsula, central Japan: Implications for the development of a shallow accretionary complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiyonobu, Shun; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Saito, Saneatsu

    2017-07-01

    The geological structure and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Middle to Late Miocene trench-slope succession in the southern Boso Peninsula, central Japan, were examined to obtain chronological constraints on the accretion and formation of the trench-slope architecture. As a result, trench-slope cover sediments (Kinone and Amatsu Formations) are clearly distinguishable from the Early Miocene Hota accretionary complex (Hota Group). The Hota accretionary complex was deposited below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) and was affected by intense shearing, forming an east-west trending and south-verging fold and thrust belt. In contrast, the trench-slope cover sediments basically have a homoclinal dip, except at the northern rim where they are bounded by fault contact. They contain many species of calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers, which are indicative of their depositional environment above the CCD, and they show shallowing-upward sedimentary structures. Biostratigraphy revealed that the depositional age of the trench-slope sediments is ca. 15-5.5 Ma, suggesting that there is an approximately 2 myr hiatus beween the Miura Group and the underlying accretionary prism. Based on these results, the age of accretion of the Hota Group is inferred to be between ca. 17-15 Ma, and the group is covered by trench-slope sediments overlain on it after ca. 15 Ma. The timing of accretion and the age of the trench-slope basin tend to be younger southward of the Boso Peninsula. The accretionary system of the Boso Peninsula apparently developed in two stages, in the Middle Miocene and in the Late Miocene to Pliocene.

  9. Changes in In Situ Stress Across the Nankai and Cascadia Convergent Margins From Borehole Breakout Measurements During Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, L.; Moore, J. C.; Yamada, Y.; Chang, C.; Tobin, H.; Kinoshita, M.; Gulick, S.; Moore, G.; Iodp Exp. 314/315/316 Science Party, &

    2008-12-01

    Borehole breakouts are commonly observed in borehole images shortly after drilling of continental margin sites. This study aims to compile and compare these results to determine what in situ shallow stress measurements can tell us about the larger scale tectonic regime. Recent Logging While Drilling resistivity images across the Kumano transect of the Nankai subduction zone, during Expedition 314, Stage 1 of the IODP NanTroSEIZE project, add to this dataset. Expedition 314 site data within the prism (C0001, C0004, C0006, including the megasplay fault system which may overlie the seismogenic updip limit) suggest maximum compressive stress (SHmax) is perpendicular to the margin (not parallel to the convergence vector) but is rotated through 90° at the forearc basin site (C0002). These results may point to changes in stress state of the shallow forearc from east to west: compression in the aseismic active prism (with evidence of strain partitioning of oblique convergence); and extension above the updip seismogenic zone suggesting focus of plate coupling at the plate boundary and not in the shallow forearc. Further south, ODP Leg 196 drilled the prism toe (808) with breakouts indicating SHmax parallel to the convergence vector, in contrast to Exp. 314 results. The stress state in the shallow prism at Site 808 may be affected by nearby seamount subduction or may represent differences in strain partitioning. On the Cascadia margin, two drilling legs have collected LWD borehole images (Leg 204 and Exp. 311). Leg 204 drilled 3 sites at hydrate ridge in the C Cascadia outer prism with breakout orientations variable between closely spaced sites. Prism fold axes are parallel to the margin so we might expect SHmax perpendicular to the margin as in Exp. 314. Deviations from this orientation may reflect local and surface effects (Goldberg and Janik, 2006). Exp. 311, N Cascadia, drilled 5 sites across the prism with breakouts in LWD images. Subduction is not oblique here, in

  10. Structure and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Central Cuba: Insights into deformation in an accretionary wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despaigne-Díaz, Ana Ibis; García Casco, Antonio; Cáceres Govea, Dámaso; Wilde, Simon A.; Millán Trujillo, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    The Trinidad dome, Escambray complex, Cuba, forms part of an accretionary wedge built during intra-oceanic subduction in the Caribbean from the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic. The structure reflects syn-subduction exhumation during thickening of the wedge, followed by extension. Field mapping, metamorphic and structural analysis constrain the tectonic evolution into five stages. Three ductile deformation events (D1, D2 and D3) are related to metamorphism in a compressional setting and formation of several nappes. D1 subduction fabrics are only preserved as relict S1 foliation and rootless isoclinal folds strongly overprinted by the main S2 foliation. The S2 foliation is parallel to sheared serpentinised lenses that define tectonic contacts, suggesting thrust stacks and underthrusting at mantle depths. Thrusting caused an inverted metamorphic structure with higher-grade on top of lower-grade nappes. Exhumation started during D2 when the units were incorporated into the growing accretionary wedge along NNE-directed thrust faults and was accompanied by substantial decompression and cooling. Folding and thrusting continued during D3 and marks the transition from ductile to brittle-ductile conditions at shallower crustal levels. The D4-5 events are related to extension and contributed to the final exhumation (likely as a core complex). D4 is associated with a regional spaced S4 cleavage, late open folds, and numerous extension veins, whereas D5 is recorded by normal and strike-slip faults affecting all nappes. The P-t path shows rapid exhumation during D2 and slower rates during D3 when the units were progressively incorporated into the accretionary prism. The domal shape formed in response to tectonic denudation assisted by normal faulting and erosion at the surface during the final stages of structural development. These results support tectonic models of SW subduction of the Proto-Caribbean crust under the Caribbean plate during the latest Cretaceous and provide

  11. Plutons and accretionary episodes of the Klamath Mountains, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William P.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1999-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains consist of various accreted terranes and include many plutons that range in composition from gabbro to granodiorite. Some of the plutons (preaccretionary plutons) were parts of terranes before the terranes accreted; others (accretionary plutons) intruded during or after the accretion of their host terrane(s). This report attempts to (1) graphically illustrate how the Klamath Mountains grew by the accretion of allochthonous oceanic terranes during early Paleozoic to Cretaceous times, (2) identify the plutons as either preaccretionary or accretionary, and (3) genetically relate the plutonic intrusions to specific accretionary episodes. The eight accretionary episodes portrayed in this report are similar to those shown by Irwin and Mankinen (1998) who briefly described the basis for the timing of the episodes and who illustrated the ~110 degrees of clockwise rotation of the Klamath Mountains since Early Devonian time. Each episode is named for the accreting terrane. In all episodes (Figs. 1-8), the heavy black line represents a fault that separates the accreting oceanic rocks on the left from earlier accreted terranes on the right. The preaccretionary plutons are shown within the accreting oceanic crustal rocks to the left of the heavy black line, and the accretionary plutons in most instances are shown intruding previously accreted terranes to the right. Episodes earlier than the Central Metamorphic episode (Fig. 1), and that may have been important in the formation of the early Paleozoic nucleous of the province (the Eastern Klamath terrane), are not known. The 'Present Time' distribution of the accreted terranes and plutons is shown at a large scale in Figure 9. The schematic vertical section (Fig. 10) depicts the terranes as a stack of horizontal slabs that include or are intruded by vertical plutons. Note that at their base the ~170 Ma preaccretionary plutons of the Western Hayfork subterrane are truncated by the ~164 Ma Salt Creek

  12. Arc-parallel extension and fluid flow in an ancient accretionary wedge: The San Juan Islands, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Gillaspy, J.R.; Lamb, R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural analysis of the Lopez Structural Complex, a major Late Cretaceous terrane-bounding fault zone in the San Juan thrust system, reveals a sequence of events that provides insight into accretionary wedge mechanics and regional tectonics. After formation of regional ductile flattening and shear-related fabrics, the area was crosscut by brittle structures including: (1) southwest-vergent thrusts, (2) extension veins and normal faults related to northwest-southeast extension, and (3) conjugate strike-slip structures that record northwest-southeast extension and northeast-southwest shortening. Aragonite-bearing veins are associated with thrust and normal faults, but only rarely with strike-slip faults. High-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) minerals constrain the conditions for brittle deformation to ???20 km and formed in an accretionary prism during active subduction, which suggests that these brittle structures record internal wedge deformation at depth and early during uplift of the San Juan nappes. The structures are consistent with orogen-normal shortening and vertical thickening followed by vertical thinning and along-strike extension. The kinematic evolution may be related initially to changes in wedge strength, followed by response to overthickening of the wedge in an unbuttressed, obliquely convergent setting. The change in vein mineralogy indicates that exhumation occurred prior to the strike-slip event. The pressure and temperature conditions and spatial and temporal extent of small faults associated with fluid flow suggest a link between these structures and the silent earthquake process. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  13. Distribution of shallow very low frequency earthquakes in the eastern Nankai trough influenced by a subducted oceanic ridge: Results from cluster analysis applied to ocean bottom seismographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, A.; Obana, K.; Araki, E.

    2016-12-01

    The activity of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) in the shallow accretionary prism of the eastern Nankai trough has been observed frequently in the past. In this study, we investigated the distribution of VLFEs that occurred in October 2015, which were recorded by an array of broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) of DONET1 network. The size of the network is much wider (>80 km) compared to previous BBOBS networks that were used for close-in observations of VLFEs; therefore the new dataset provides a broader overview of the VLFE distribution of this region. We first located the detected events using conventional methods such as the envelope correlation method. However, the results seemed to be largely scattered due to noise and the effect of 3D structures that could not be properly handled. Then, we introduced hierarchal clustering analysis, based on measured travel time patterns among stations obtained for each event. The analyses enabled the assessment of relative locations among events. Finally, the locations of event-clusters were estimated, instead of individual events, so that the obtained locations seemed less scattered. The obtained results indicate that the VLFE distribution is strongly influenced by a subducted ridge (Park et al., 2003) that exists beneath the northeastern side of the DONET1 network. Though the VLFEs are distributed from an area near the outer ridge toward the trench axis in the region with a smooth plate boundary, they are clustered at a shallow depth near the outer ridge in the region of the rough plate boundary. The VLFEs are clustered on the landward side of the peak of the subducted ridge; this could be explained by an elevated pore pressure in the region caused by the low-permeability oceanic ridge that may clog the up-dip pathway of the fluid along the decollement zone. The along-strike variation of the stress state, inferred from the VLFE distribution, should be an important factor in assessing the strain release

  14. Velocity-porosity relationships for slope apron and accreted sediments in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 315 Site C0001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Tobin, H. J.; Knuth, M.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we focused on the porosity and compressional wave velocity of marine sediments to examine the physical properties of the slope apron and the accreted sediments. This approach allows us to identify characteristic variations between sediments being deposited onto the active prism and those deposited on the oceanic plate and then carried into the prism during subduction. For this purpose we conducted ultrasonic compressional wave velocity measurements on the obtained core samples with pore pressure control. Site C0001 in the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment transect of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program is located in the hanging wall of the midslope megasplay thrust fault in the Nankai subduction zone offshore of the Kii peninsula (SW Japan), penetrating an unconformity at ˜200 m depth between slope apron sediments and the underlying accreted sediments. We used samples from Site C0001. Compressional wave velocity from laboratory measurements ranges from ˜1.6 to ˜2.0 km/s at hydrostatic pore pressure conditions estimated from sample depth. The compressional wave velocity-porosity relationship for the slope apron sediments shows a slope almost parallel to the slope for global empirical relationships. In contrast, the velocity-porosity relationship for the accreted sediments shows a slightly steeper slope than that of the slope apron sediments at 0.55 of porosity. This higher slope in the velocity-porosity relationship is found to be characteristic of the accreted sediments. Textural analysis was also conducted to examine the relationship between microstructural texture and acoustic properties. Images from micro-X-ray CT indicated a homogeneous and well-sorted distribution of small pores both in shallow and in deeper sections. Other mechanisms such as lithology, clay fraction, and abnormal fluid pressure were found to be insufficient to explain the higher velocity for accreted sediments. The higher slope in velocity-porosity relationship for

  15. Prominent reflector beneath around the segmentation boundary between Tonankai-Nankai earthquake area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.; Mochizuki, K.; Kato, A.; Iidaka, T.; Kurashimo, E.; Shinohara, M.; Takeda, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2013-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In most cases, first break of such large events of Nankai Trough usually begins from southwest off the Kii Peninsula so far. The idea of split Philippine Sea plate between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, which explains seismicity, tectonic background, receiver function image and historical plate motion, was previously suggested. Moreover, between the Kii Peninsula and the Shikoku Island, there is a gap of deep low-frequency events observed in the belt-like zone along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In 2010 and 2011, we conducted the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation from off Shikoku and Kii Peninsula. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km/year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found a possible prominent reflector imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km. The velocity just beneath the reflector cannot be determined due to the lack of ray paths. Based of the amplitude information, we interpret the reflector as the forearc Moho based on the velocity gap (from ~6.4km/s to ~7.4km/s). However, the reflector is shallower than the forearc Moho of other area along the Nankai Trough. Similar reflectors are recognized along other seismic profiles around the Kii channel. In this presentation, we will show the result of structure analysis to understand the peculiar structure including the prominent reflector around the Kii channel. Relation between the structure and the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake or seismic gap of the deep low-frequency events will be also

  16. Tsunami Scenario in the Nankai Trough, Japan, Based on the GPS-A and GNSS Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Watanabe, S. I.; Melgar, D.; Tadokoro, K.

    2017-12-01

    We present two local tsunami scenarios for the Nankai trough, Japan, an area of significant seismic risk, using GPS-A and GNSS velocities and two different plate interface geometries to better assess the slip deficit rate. We expand on the work of Yokota et al. [2016, Nature] by: (1) Adding seafloor data collected by Nagoya University [Tadokoro et al., 2012 GRL] at the Kumano basin, (2) Aligning the geodetic data to the Nankai block (forearc sliver) to the tectonic model of Loveless and Meade [2010 JGR] - the earlier work ignored block boundaries such as the Median Tectonic Line (MTL) and may have overestimated the slip deficit rate, (3) Considering two different plate interface geometries - it is essential to use the accurate depth of the plate interface, especially for the offshore region where the faults are located near the observation sites, (4) Estimating and correcting for the postseismic displacements of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4). Based upon the refined model, we calculate the coseismic displacements and tsunami wave propagation assuming that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation is released instantaneously. We used the open source software GeoClaw v5.3.1, which solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations with the finite volume technique [LeVeque, 2002 Cambridge University Press], for the local tsunami scenarios. We present the expected tsunami propagation models and wave profiles based on the geodetically-derived distribution of slip, stressing the importance of identifying fault locations and geometries. The location of the downdip edge of the coseismic rupture is essential to assess whether the coastal area would subside or not. The sensitivity to the plate interface geometries is increased in the near-trough region. From the point of view of disaster prevention, subsidence at the southern coast would heighten the tsunami runup distance (e.g., at gauges in Shimotsu and Irago). Further

  17. Three-dimensional model of plate geometry and velocity model for Nankai Trough seismogenic zone based on results from structural studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A.; Shimomura, N.; Kodaira, S.; Obana, K.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the Nankai Trough subduction seismogenic zone, the Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes had often occurred simultaneously, and caused a great event. In order to reduce a great deal of damage to coastal area from both strong ground motion and tsunami generation, it is necessary to understand rupture synchronization and segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. For a precise estimate of the rupture zone of the Nankai megathrust event based on the knowledge of realistic earthquake cycle and variation of magnitude, it is important to know the geometry and property of the plate boundary of the subduction seismogenic zone. To improve a physical model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone, the large-scale high-resolution wide-angle and reflection (MCS) seismic study, and long-term observation has been conducted since 2008. Marine active source seismic data have been acquired along grid two-dimensional profiles having the total length of ~800km every year. A three-dimensional seismic tomography using active and passive seismic data observed both land and ocean bottom stations have been also performed. From those data, we found that several strong lateral variations of the subducting Philippine Sea plate and overriding plate corresponding to margins of coseismic rupture zone of historical large event occurred along the Nankai Trough. Particularly a possible prominent reflector for the forearc Moho is recently imaged in the offshore side in the Kii channel at the depth of ~18km which is shallower than those of other area along the Nankai Trough. Such a drastic variation of the overriding plate might be related to the existence of the segmentation of the Nankai megathrust earthquake. Based on our results derived from seismic studies, we have tried to make a geometrical model of the Philippine Sea plate and a three-dimensional velocity structure model of the Nankai Trough seismogenic zone. In this presentation, we will summarize major results of out seismic studies, and

  18. Frictional Behavior of Altered Basement Approaching the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Ikari, M.; Rooney, T. O.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frictional behavior of basement rocks plays an important role in subduction zone faulting and seismicity. This includes earthquakes seaward of the trench, large megathrust earthquakes where seamounts are subducting, or where the plate interface steps down to basement. In exhumed subduction zone rocks such as the Shimanto complex in Japan, slivers of basalt are entrained in mélange which is evidence of basement involvement in the fault system. Scientific drilling during the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) recovered basement rock from two reference sites (C0011 and C0012) located seaward of the trench offshore the Kii Peninsula during Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expeditions 322 and 333. The basement rocks are pillow basalts that appear to be heterogeneously altered, resulting in contrasting dense blue material and more vesicular gray material. Major element geochemistry shows differences in silica, calcium oxides and loss-on-ignition between the two types of samples. Minor element geochemistry reveals significant differences in vanadium, chromium, and barium. X-ray diffraction on a bulk sample powder representing an average composition shows a phyllosilicate content of 20%, most of which is expandable clays. We performed laboratory friction experiments in a biaxial testing apparatus as either intact sample blocks, or as gouge powders. We combine these experiments with measurements of Pennsylvania slate for comparison, including a mixed-lithology intact block experiment. Intact Nankai basement blocks exhibit a coefficient of sliding friction of 0.73; for Nankai basement powder, slate powder, slate blocks and slate-on-basement blocks the coefficient of sliding friction ranges from 0.44 to 0.57. At slip rates ranging from 3x10-8 to 3x10-4 m/s we observe predominantly velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, indicating a tendency for stable slip. At rates of < 1x10-6 m/s some velocity-weakening was observed, specifically in

  19. On the relationship between structure, morphology and large coseismic slip: A case study of the Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile 2010 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Maksymowicz, Andrei; Lange, Dietrich; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Muñoz-Linford, Pamela; Moscoso, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Subduction megathrust earthquakes show complex rupture behaviour and large lateral variations of slip. However, the factors controlling seismic slip are still under debate. Here, we present 2-D velocity-depth tomographic models across four trench-perpendicular wide angle seismic profiles complemented with high resolution bathymetric data in the area of maximum coseismic slip of the Mw 8.8 Maule 2010 megathrust earthquake (central Chile, 34°-36°S). Results show an abrupt lateral velocity gradient in the trench-perpendicular direction (from 5.0 to 6.0 km/s) interpreted as the contact between the accretionary prism and continental framework rock whose superficial expression spatially correlates with the slope-shelf break. The accretionary prism is composed of two bodies: (1) an outer accretionary wedge (5-10 km wide) characterized by low seismic velocities of 1.8-3.0 km/s interpreted as an outer frontal prism of poorly compacted and hydrated sediment, and (2) the middle wedge (∼50 km wide) with velocities of 3.0-5.0 km/s interpreted as a middle prism composed by compacted and lithified sediment. In addition, the maximum average coseismic slip of the 2010 megathrust event is fairly coincident with the region where the accretionary prism and continental slope are widest (50-60 km wide), and the continental slope angle is low (event, published differential multibeam bathymetric data confirms that coseismic slip must have propagated up to ∼6 km landwards of the deformation front and hence practically the entire base of the middle prism. Sediment dewatering and compaction processes might explain the competent rheology of the middle prism allowing shallow earthquake rupture. In contrast, the outer frontal prism made of poorly consolidated sediment has impeded the rupture up to the deformation front as high resolution seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetric data have not showed evidence for new deformation in the trench region.

  20. Temperature Limit of the Deep Subseafloor Biosphere in the Nankai Trough Subduction Zone off Cape Muroto (IODP T-Limit Expedition 370)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morono, Y.; Hauer, V. B.; Inagaki, F.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Scientists, E.

    2017-12-01

    Expedition 370 of the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) aimed to explore the limits of life in the deep subseafloor biosphere at a location where elevated heat flow lets temperature increase with sediment depth beyond the known maximum of microbial life ( 120°C) at 1.2 km below the seafloor. Such conditions are met in the protothrust zone of the Nankai Trough off Cape Muroto, Japan, where Site C0023 was established in the vicinity of ODP Sites 808 and 1174 at a water depth of 4776 m using the drilling vessel DV Chikyu. Hole C0023A was cored down to a total depth of 1180 meters below seafloor, offshore sampling and research was combined with simultaneous shore-based investigations at the Kochi Core Center (KCC), and long-term temperature observations were started (Heuer et al., 2017). The primary scientific objectives of Expedition 370 are (a) to detect and investigate the presence or absence of life and biological processes at the biotic-abiotic transition of the deep subseafloor with unprecedented analytical sensitivity and precision; (b) to comprehensively study the factors that control biomass, activity, and diversity of microbial communities; and (c) to elucidate if continuous or episodic flow of fluids containing thermogenic and/or geogenic nutrients and energy substrates support subseafloor microbial communities in the Nankai Trough accretionary complex (Hinrichs et al., 2016). This contribution will highlight the scientific approach of our field-work and preliminary expedition results by shipboard and shorebased activities. Hinrichs K-U, Inagaki F, Heuer VB, Kinoshita M, Morono Y, Kubo Y (2016) Expedition 370 Scientific Prospectus: T-Limit of the Deep Biosphere off Muroto (T-Limit). International Ocean Discovery Program. http://dx.doi.org/10.14379/iodp.sp.370.2016 Heuer VB, Inagaki F, Morono Y, Kubo Y, Maeda L, the Expedition 370 Scientists (2017) Expedition 370 Preliminary Report: Temperature Limit of the Deep Biosphere off Muroto. International

  1. Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Peri-Pacific Accretionary Evolution of the Mongolian Collage System: Insights From Geochemical and U-Pb Zircon Data From the Ordovician Sedimentary Wedge in the Mongolian Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Kröner, A.; Sun, M.; Lexa, O.; Janoušek, V.; Buriánek, D.; Yuan, C.; Hanžl, P.

    2017-11-01

    Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic accretionary processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt have been evaluated so far mainly using the geology of ophiolites and/or magmatic arcs. Thus, the knowledge of the nature and evolution of associated sedimentary prisms remains fragmentary. We carried out an integrated geological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological study on a giant Ordovician metasedimentary succession of the Mongolian Altai Mountains. This succession is characterized by dominant terrigenous components mixed with volcanogenic material. It is chemically immature, compositionally analogous to graywacke, and marked by significant input of felsic to intermediate arc components, pointing to an active continental margin depositional setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest a source dominated by products of early Paleozoic magmatism prevailing during the Cambrian-Ordovician and culminating at circa 500 Ma. We propose that the Ordovician succession forms an "Altai sedimentary wedge," the evolution of which can be linked to the geodynamics of the margins of the Mongolian Precambrian Zavhan-Baydrag blocks. This involved subduction reversal from southward subduction of a passive continental margin (Early Cambrian) to the development of the "Ikh-Mongol Magmatic Arc System" and the giant Altai sedimentary wedge above a north dipping subduction zone (Late Cambrian-Ordovician). Such a dynamic process resembles the tectonic evolution of the peri-Pacific accretionary Terra Australis Orogen. A new model reconciling the Baikalian metamorphic belt along the southern Siberian Craton with peri-Pacific Altai accretionary systems fringing the Mongolian microcontinents is proposed to explain the Cambro-Ordovician geodynamic evolution of the Mongolian collage system.

  2. Structural styles and zircon ages of the South Tianshan accretionary complex, Atbashi Ridge, Kyrgyzstan: Insights for the anatomy of ocean plate stratigraphy and accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Miao; Xiao, Wenjiao; Orozbaev, Rustam; Bakirov, Apas; Sakiev, Kadyrbek; Pak, Nikolay; Ivleva, Elena; Zhou, Kefa; Ao, Songjian; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhixin

    2018-03-01

    The anatomy of an ancient accretionary complex has a significance for a better understanding of the tectonic processes of accretionary orogens and complex because of its complicated compositions and strong deformation. With a thorough structural and geochronological study of a fossil accretionary complex in the Atbashi Ridge, South Tianshan (Kyrgyzstan), we analyze the structure and architecture of ocean plate stratigraphy in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The architecture of the Atbashi accretionary complex is subdivisible into four lithotectonic assemblages, some of which are mélanges with "block-in-matrix" structure: (1) North Ophiolitic Mélange; (2) High-pressure (HP)/Ultra-high-pressure (UHP) Metamorphic Assemblage; (3) Coherent & Mélange Assemblage; and (4) South Ophiolitic Mélange. Relationships between main units are tectonic contacts presented by faults. The major structures and lithostratigraphy of these units are thrust-fold nappes, thrusted duplexes, and imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy. All these rock units are complicatedly stacked in 3-D with the HP/UHP rocks being obliquely southwestward extruded. Detrital zircon ages of meta-sediments provide robust constraints on their provenance from the Ili-Central Tianshan Arc. The isotopic ages of the youngest components of the four units are Late Permian, Early-Middle Triassic, Early Carboniferous, and Early Triassic, respectively. We present a new tectonic model of the South Tianshan; a general northward subduction polarity led to final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean in the End-Permian to Late Triassic. These results help to resolve the long-standing controversy regarding the subduction polarity and the timing of the final closure of the South Tianshan Ocean. Finally, our work sheds lights on the use of ocean plate stratigraphy in the analysis of the tectonic evolution of accretionary orogens.

  3. Deep-water chemosynthetic ecosystem research during the Census of Marine Life decade and beyond: A proposed deep-ocean road map.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    German, C.R.; Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Baker, M.C.; Tyler, P.A.; Baco-Taylor, A.; Boetius, A.; Bright, M.; de Siqueira, L.C.; Cordes, E.E.; Desbruyeres, D.; Dubilier, N.; Fisher, C.R.; Fujiwara, Y.; Gaill, F.; Gebruk, A.; Juniper, K.; Levin, L.A.; Lokabharathi, P.A.; Metaxas, A.; Rowden, A.A.; Santos, R.S.; Shank, T.M.; Smith, C.R.; Van Dover, C.L.; Young, C.M.; Waren, A.

    West Africa, encompassing a very large region around the Equator, from 15uS to 30uN. The key sites include the Costa Rica cold seeps, the Gulf of Mexico cold seeps, the ultra-slow spreading Mid Cayman Rise, the Barbados Accretionary Prism, hydrothermal... and those present in the Americas – along the Atlantic margin, the Barbados Accretionary Prism, the Gulf of Mexico and, in the extreme, along the Pacific margin of Costa Rica which would also have Census Chemosynthetic Ecosystem Research & Beyond PLoS ONE...

  4. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Makran Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, C.; Tavakoli, F.; Sobouti, F.; Copley, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Jackson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, along the southern coasts of Iran and Pakistan, hosts the world's largest exposed accretionary prism. In contrast to the circum-Pacific subduction zones, the Makran has not been extensively studied, with seismic data collected in the offshore region presenting only a time-integrated picture of the deformation. We investigate spatio-temporal variations in the deformation of the accretionary prism and the insights these offer into subduction zone driving forces and megathrust rheology. We combine seismology, geodesy and field observations to study the 2013 Mw 6.1 Minab earthquake, which occurred at the western end of the accretionary prism. We find that the earthquake was a left-lateral rupture on an ENE-WSW plane, approximately perpendicular to the previously mapped faults in the region. The causative fault of the Minab earthquake is one of a series of left-lateral faults in the region which accommodate a velocity field equivalent to right-lateral shear on N-S planes by rotating clockwise about vertical axes. Another recent strike-slip event within the Makran accretionary wedge was the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, which occurred on a fault optimally oriented to accommodate the regional compression by thrusting. The dominance of strike-slip faulting within the onshore prism, on faults perpendicular to the regional compression, suggests that the prism may have reached the maximum elevation which the megathrust can support, with the compressional forces which dominated in the early stages of the collision now balanced by gravitational forces. This observation allows us to estimate the mean shear stress on the megathrust interface and its effective coefficient of friction.

  5. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  6. Interseismic Coupling-Based Earthquake and Tsunami Scenarios for the Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, H.; Woodruff, J. D.; Loveless, J. P.; Hyodo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical modeling and investigations of recent subduction zone earthquakes show that geodetic estimates of interseismic coupling and the spatial distribution of coseismic rupture are correlated. However, the utility of contemporary coupling in guiding construction of rupture scenarios has not been evaluated on the world's most hazardous faults. Here we demonstrate methods for scaling coupling to slip to create rupture models for southwestern Japan's Nankai Trough. Results show that coupling-based models produce distributions of ground surface deformation and tsunami inundation that are similar to historical and geologic records of the largest known Nankai earthquake in CE 1707 and to an independent, quasi-dynamic rupture model. Notably, these models and records all support focused subsidence around western Shikoku that makes the region particularly vulnerable to flooding. Results imply that contemporary coupling mirrors the slip distribution of a full-margin, 1707-type rupture, and Global Positioning System measurements of surface motion are connected with the trough's physical characteristics.

  7. Towards to Resilience Science -Research on the Nankai trough seismogenic zone-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Fujisawa, Kazuhito; Tokozakura, Eiji

    2017-04-01

    For the last few decades, many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis occurred in the world. Based on lessons learnt from 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunamis, 2010 Chilean Earthquake/Tsunami and 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami, we recognized the importance of real time monitoring on Earthquakes and Tsunamis for disaster mitigation. Recently, Kumamoto Earthquake occurred in 2006. This destructive Earthquake indicated that multi strong motions including pre shock and main shock generated severe earthquake damages buildings. Furthermore, we recognize recovers/ revivals are very important and difficult. In Tohoku area damaged by large tsunamis, recovers/revivals have been under progressing after over 5 years passed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Therefore, we have to prepare the pre plan before next destructive disasters such as the Nankai trough mega thrust earthquake. As one of disaster countermeasures, we would like to propose that Disaster Mitigation Science. This disaster mitigation science is including engineering, science, medicine and social science such as sociology, informatics, law, literature, art, psychology etc. For Urgent evacuations, there are some kinds of real time monitoring system such as Dart buoy and ocean floor network. Especially, the real time monitoring system using multi kinds of sensors such as the accelerometer, broadband seismometer, pressure gauge, difference pressure gauge, hydrophone and thermometer is indispensable for Earthquakes/ Tsunamis monitoring. Furthermore, using multi kind of sensors, we can analyze and estimate broadband crustal activities around mega thrust earthquake seismogenic zones. Therefore, we deployed DONET1 and DONET2 which are dense ocean floor networks around the Nankai trough Southwestern Japan. We will explain about Resilience Science and real time monitoring systems around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone.

  8. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  9. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1660 - Gonioscopic prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1660 Gonioscopic prism. (a) Identification. A gonioscopic prism is a device that is a prism intended to be placed on the eye to study the anterior chamber. The device may have angled mirrors to facilitate visualization of anatomical features. (b...

  11. The PRISM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilyardi, E.

    2003-04-01

    The European Union's PRISM infrastructure project (PRogram for Integrated earth System Modelling) aims at designing a flexible environment to easily assemble and run Earth System Models (http://prism.enes.org). Europe's widely distributed modelling expertise is both a strength and a challenge. Recognizing this, the PRISM project aims at developing an efficient shared modelling software infrastructure for climate scientists, providing them with an opportunity for greater focus on scientific issues, including the necessary scientific diversity (models and approaches). The proposed PRISM system includes 1) the use - or definition - and promotion of scientific and technical standards to increase component modularity, 2) an end-to-end software environment (coupler, user interface, diagnostics) to launch, monitor and analyze complex Earth System Models built around the existing and future community models, 3) testing and quality standards to ensure HPC performance on a variety of platforms and 4) community wide inputs and requirements capture in all stages of system specifications and design through user/developers meetings, workshops and thematic schools. This science driven project, led by 22 institutes* and started December 1st 2001, benefits from a unique gathering of scientific and technical expertise. More than 30 models (both global and regional) have expressed interest to be part of the PRISM system and 6 types of components have been identified: atmosphere, atmosphere chemistry, land surface, ocean, sea ice and ocean biochemistry. Progress and overall architecture design will be presented. * MPI-Met (Coordinator), KNMI (co-coordinator), MPI-M&D, Met Office, University of Reading, IPSL, Meteo-France, CERFACS, DMI, SMHI, NERSC, ETH Zurich, INGV, MPI-BGC, PIK, ECMWF, UCL-ASTR, NEC, FECIT, SGI, SUN, CCRLE

  12. NanTroSEIZE: The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Tobin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE will, for the fi rst time ever, attempt to drill into, sample, and instrument the seismogenic portion of a plate-boundary fault or megathrust within a subduction zone. Access to the interior of active faults where in situ processes can be monitored and fresh fault zone materials can be sampled is of fundamental importance to the understanding of earthquake mechanics. As the December 2004 Sumatraearthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami so tragically demonstrated,large subduction earthquakes represent one of the greatest natural hazards on the planet. Accordingly, drilling into and instrumenting an active interplate seismogenic zone is a very high priority in the IODP Initial Science Plan (2001. Through a decade-long series of national and international workshops, a consensus emerged that the Nankai Trough is an ideal place to attempt drilling and monitoring of the seismogenic plate interface. The fi rst phase of NanTroSEIZE drilling operations has now been scheduled for the late summer of 2007. It involves parallel deployment of both the new U.S. Scientifi c Ocean Drilling Vessel (SODV, this volume and the riser drilling vessel Chikyu.

  13. Transient performance of S-prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubberley, A.E.; Boardman, C.E.; Gamble, R.E.; Hiu, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated plant called SuperPRISM (S-PRISM). This paper presents the results of transient analyses performed to assess the ability of S-PRISM to accommodate severe accident initiator events. A unique safety capability of S-PRISM is accommodation of the ''higher probability'' accident initiators that led to core melt accidents in prior large LMRs. These events, the Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events, are thus the focus of passive safety confirmation analyses. The events included in this assessment are: Unprotected Loss of Flow, Unprotected Loss of Heat Sink, Unprotected Loss of Flow and Heat sink, Unprotected Transient Overpower and Unprotected Safe Shutdown Earthquake. (author)

  14. Mechanical properties of conjugate faults in the Makran accretionary prism estimated from InSAR observations of coseismic deformation due to the 2013 Baluchistan (Mw 7.7) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R.; Harrington, J.; Wang, T.; Feng, G.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.; Jonsson, S.

    2017-12-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements allow us to study various mechanical and rheological properties around faults. For example, strain localizations along faults induced by nearby earthquakes observed by InSAR have been explained by the elastic response of compliant fault zones (CFZ) where the elastic moduli is reduced with respect to that of the surrounding rock. We observed similar strain localizations (up to 1-3 cm displacements in the line-of-sight direction of InSAR) along several conjugate faults near the rupture of the 2013 Mw7.7 Baluchistan (Pakistan) earthquake in the accretionary prism of the Makran subduction zone. These conjugate compliant faults, which have strikes of N30°E and N45°W, are located 15-30 km from the mainshock fault rupture in a N-S compressional stress regime. The long-term geologic slip direction of these faults is left-lateral for the N30°E striking faults and right-lateral for the N45°W striking faults. The 2013 Baluchistan earthquake caused WSW-ENE extensional coseismic stress changes across the conjugate fault system and the observed strain localizations shows opposite sense of motion to that of the geologic long-term slip. We use 3D Finite Element modeling (FEM) to study the effects extensional coseismic stresses have on the conjugate CFZs that is otherwise loaded in a compressional regional stress. We use coseismic static displacements due to the earthquake along the FEM domain boundaries to simulate the extensional coseismic stress change acting across the fault system. Around 0.5-2 km wide CFZs with reduction in shear modulus by a factor of 3 to 4 can explain the observed InSAR strain localizations and the opposite sense of motion. The InSAR measurements were also used to constrain the ranges of the length, width and rigidity variations of the CFZs. The FEM solution shows that the N45°W striking faults localize mostly extensional strain and a small amount of left-lateral shear (opposite sense to

  15. Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophe, Laure; Chabanat, Eric; Delporte, Ludovic; Revol, Patrice; Volckmann, Pierre; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead), and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction) were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations.

  16. Theoretical study of nuclear physics with strangeness at Nankai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Pingzhi

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical study of nuclear physics with strangeness from the nuclear physics group at Nankai university is briefly introduced. Theoretical calculations on hyperon mean free paths in nuclear medium have been done. The other 4 topics in the area of strangeness nuclear physics are the effect of different baryon impurities in nucleus, the heavy flavored baryon hypernuclei, the eta-mesons in nuclear matter and the properties of kaonic nuclei. (authors)

  17. The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may

  18. Amplification of tsunami heights by delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Satake, K.; Furumura, T.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai, Tonankai, and two Nankai segments. We first searched for the worst case, in terms of coastal tsunami heights, of rupture delay time on each segment, on the basis of superposition principle for the linear long wave theory. When the rupture starts on the Tonankai segment, followed by rupture on the Tokai segment 21 min later, as well as the eastern and western Nankai segments 15 and 28 min later, respectively, the average coastal tsunami height becomes the largest. To quantify the tsunami amplification, we compared the coastal tsunami heights from the delayed rupture with those from the simultaneous rupture model. Along the coasts of the sea of Hyu'uga and in the Bungo Channel, the tsunami heights become significantly amplified (>1.4 times larger) relative to the simultaneous rupture. Along the coasts of Tosa Bay and in the Kii Channel, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.2 times. Along the coasts of the sea of Kumano and Ise Bay, and the western Enshu coast, the tsunami heights become slightly smaller for the delayed rupture. Along the eastern Enshu coast, the coast of Suruga Bay, and the west coast of Sagami Bay, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.1 times.

  19. Stages of Gas-Hydrate Evolution on the Northern Cascadia Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 311 Scientists

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrate occurs beneath many continental slopes and in arctic permafrost areas. Recent studies have indicated that the largest deposits of gas hydrate might lie in nearly horizontal layers several hundred meters beneath the seafloor of continental slopes, especially in the large, accretionary sedimentary prisms of subduction zones. Expedition 311 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP investigated the formation of gas hydrate in the accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone (Fig. 1. The primary objectives of Expedition 311 were to test and constraingeological models of gas hydrate formation by upward fluidand methane transport in accretionary prisms. We specifi -cally sought to (a determine the mechanisms that controlthe nature, magnitude, and distribution of the gas hydrate,(b find the pathways of the fluid migration required to formlarge concentrations of gas hydrate, (c examine the effectsof gas hydrate on the physical properties of the host sediment,and (d investigate the microbiology and geochemistryassociated with the occurrence of gas hydrate. Furthermore,we concentrated on the contrast between methane transportby focused fl ow in fault zones and by dispersed pervasiveupward flow at various scales of permeability.

  20. Geometric formula for prism deflection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , governs deflections produced by prisms of refractive index n. The refractive power, n − 1, of most materials is of the order of unity for visible light, which therefore gets deflected through several degrees by a prism. X-rays and neutrons however ...

  1. PRISM: Enmeshment of illness and self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Fiona; Sharpe, Louise; Schrieber, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a recently developed tool purported to assess burden of suffering due to illness. The nature of the PRISM task suggests a conceptual link to the illness self-schema construct hypothesised to be present in some individuals with chronic illness. This study investigates the relationship between PRISM and schema as measured by cognitive bias. 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) completed an information-processing task involving endorsement of positive and negative illness words as descriptors of themselves, followed by free recall of the words. The outcome measures were endorsement and recall bias for negative illness words. Patients also completed the PRISM task and were assessed on other physical and psychological variables. PRISM did not correlate significantly with age, depression, functional impairment or disease activity. In a multiple regression analysis, only recall bias made an independent contribution to PRISM. Illness self-schema appears to play a significant role in determining the way in which SLE patients complete the PRISM task. This is discussed in light of a schema enmeshment model recently proposed in the cognitive bias literature. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Objective-prism spectrophotometry of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clowes, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is derived for obtaining low-resolution spectrophotometry of quasars directly from the objective-prism plates on which they were discovered. Measurements with a PDS microdensitometer of approximately 130 quasar candidates in approximately the central 19 square degrees of the UK Schmidt prism plate UJ3682P were used in the application of the procedure. The success of the objective-prism spectrophotometry is demonstrated in a comparison with 12 slit spectra. Redshifts and equivalent widths can be determined with typical discrepancies of 1% and 40% respectively. This work on objective-prism spectrophotometry leads to a quantification of the selection effects that operate in the searches for emission-line objects on objective-prism plates. The quantification successfully explains an apparent discrepancy in the detection efficiencies of the CTIO-4m and Curtis Schmidt surveys for quasars. Spectra of quasars that were observed with the Image Photon Counting System on the Anglo-Australian Telescope are presented. The observations of quasars with broad absorption troughs indicate the ejection of matter with velocities up to approximately 22000kms -1 and with velocity dispersions up to approximately 11000kms -1 . Data on the wavelength dependences of the contrast γ and the grain response function g of the Kodak emulsion IIIaJ are presented. (author)

  3. Dynamic changes in brain activity during prism adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jacques; Schwartz, Sophie; Rossetti, Yves; Spiridon, Mona; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-01-07

    Prism adaptation does not only induce short-term sensorimotor plasticity, but also longer-term reorganization in the neural representation of space. We used event-related fMRI to study dynamic changes in brain activity during both early and prolonged exposure to visual prisms. Participants performed a pointing task before, during, and after prism exposure. Measures of trial-by-trial pointing errors and corrections allowed parametric analyses of brain activity as a function of performance. We show that during the earliest phase of prism exposure, anterior intraparietal sulcus was primarily implicated in error detection, whereas parieto-occipital sulcus was implicated in error correction. Cerebellum activity showed progressive increases during prism exposure, in accordance with a key role for spatial realignment. This time course further suggests that the cerebellum might promote neural changes in superior temporal cortex, which was selectively activated during the later phase of prism exposure and could mediate the effects of prism adaptation on cognitive spatial representations.

  4. Structural control of the upper plate on the down-dip segmentation of subduction dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Barbot, S.; Karato, S. I.; Shibazaki, B.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tapponnier, P.

    2017-12-01

    The geodetic and seismic discoveries of slow earthquakes in subduction zones have provided the observational evidence for the existence of the transition between megathrust earthquakes and the creeping behaviors. However, the mechanics behind slow earthquakes, and the period differential motion between the subducting slab and the overlying plate below the seismogenic zone, remain controversial. In Nankai subduction zone, the very-low-frequency earthquakes (VLFE), megathrust earthquakes, long-term slow earthquakes (duration of months or years) and the episodic tremor and slip zone (ETS) are located within the accretionary prism, the continental upper crust, the continental lower crust and the upmost mantle of the overriding plate, respectively. We use the rate-and-state friction law to simulate the periodic occurrence of VLFEs, megathrust earthquakes and the tremors in the ETS zone because of relatively high rock strength within these depth ranges. However, it is not feasible to use frictional instabilities to explain the long-term slow earthquakes in the lower crust where the ductile rock physics plays a significant role in the large-scale deformation. Here, our numerical simulations show that slow earthquakes at the depth of the lower crust may be the results of plastic instabilities in a finite volume of ductile material accompanying by the grain-size evolution. As the thickness of the fault zone increases with depth, deformation becomes distributed and the dynamic equilibrium of grain size, as a competition between thermally activated grain growth and damage-related grain size reduction, results in cycles of strain acceleration and strain deficit. In addition, we took into account the elevated pore pressure in the accretinary prism which is associated with small stress drop and low-frequency content of VLFEs and may contribute to the occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes. Hence, in our numerical simulations for the plate boundary system in Nankai, the down

  5. Porro prism lasers: a new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Porro prism lasers are insensitive to misalignment caused by, for example, shock and temperature variation, making them useful in field applications, for example in target designation and range-finding systems. This property is a result of the property of Porro prisms that they return a reflected beam parallel to the incident beam, regardless of any tilt on the prism. These lasers are generally used in a marginally stable or unstable configuration for low divergence, but in the stable configuration some interesting kaleidoscope modes can be modelled. In previous work on Porro prism resonators we formulated an analytical method of determining which Porro angles resonate and result in petal output modes, as well as the corresponding number of petals. This work has been verified using a numerical model as well as experimentally. We have developed this work further and have investigated the losses associated with a range of Porro angles as well as the effects of these losses on the resulting modes. We conclude by summarizing the design considerations for Porro prism lasers.

  6. Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study presenting the cracking behavior and assessment of the compressive strength of masonry prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on 192 masonry prism specimens corresponding to 3 specimens each in 64 groups. The variables considered in the experimental program are type of brick, strength of masonry and height-to-thickness (h/t ratio of the prism specimen. Pressed earth bricks and burnt clay bricks were used for the preparation of masonry prisms. A mathematical model is also proposed for the estimation of compressive strength of masonry prisms by performing a statistical multiple regression analysis on 232 data sets, which includes 64 test data from the present study and 168 test data published in the literature. The model was developed based on the regression analysis of test data of prisms made of a variety of masonry units namely clay bricks, pressed earth bricks, concrete blocks, calcium silicate bricks, stone blocks, perforated bricks and soft mud bricks. The proposed model not only accounts for the wide ranges of compressive strengths of masonry unit and mortar, but also accounts for the influence of volume fractions of masonry unit and mortar in addition to the height-to-thickness ratio. The predicted compressive strength of prisms using the proposed model is compared with 14 models available in published literature. The predicted strength was found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Keywords: Prism strength, Stack bonded masonry, Running bonded masonry, Masonry unit strength, Cracking

  7. Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Scholl, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    At ocean margins where two plates converge, the oceanic plate sinks or is subducted beneath an upper one topped by a layer of terrestrial crust. This crust is constructed of continental or island arc material. The subduction process either builds juvenile masses of terrestrial crust through arc volcanism or new areas of crust through the piling up of accretionary masses (prisms) of sedimentary deposits and fragments of thicker crustal bodies scraped off the subducting lower plate. At convergent margins, terrestrial material can also bypass the accretionary prism as a result of sediment subduction, and terrestrial matter can be removed from the upper plate by processes of subduction erosion. Sediment subduction occurs where sediment remains attached to the subducting oceanic plate and underthrusts the seaward position of the upper plate's resistive buttress (backstop) of consolidated sediment and rock. Sediment subduction occurs at two types of convergent margins: type 1 margins where accretionary prisms form and type 2 margins where little net accretion takes place. At type 2 margins (???19,000 km in global length), effectively all incoming sediment is subducted beneath the massif of basement or framework rocks forming the landward trench slope. At accreting or type 1 margins, sediment subduction begins at the seaward position of an active buttress of consolidated accretionary material that accumulated in front of a starting or core buttress of framework rocks. Where small-to-mediumsized prisms have formed (???16,300 km), approximately 20% of the incoming sediment is skimmed off a detachment surface or decollement and frontally accreted to the active buttress. The remaining 80% subducts beneath the buttress and may either underplate older parts of the frontal body or bypass the prism entirely and underthrust the leading edge of the margin's rock framework. At margins bordered by large prisms (???8,200 km), roughly 70% of the incoming trench floor section is

  8. An improved prism for use in laser resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J.

    1981-08-01

    The use of compound total internal reflection prisms rather than Porro prisms in polarisation coupled lasers is proposed. Performance advantages resulting from the use of these prisms include higher output without the need to bias the Pockels cell, ability to give a larger range of output coupling and independence of performance on the refractive index of the prism. In conventional Q-switched lasers the use of the prism at the Pockels cell end of the resonator instead of the usual 100% reflecting mirror also leads to some advantages including better hold-off, elimination of the need to bias the Pockels cell and insensitivity in one plane to angular misalignment.

  9. Anomalously high porosity in subduction inputs to the Nankai Trough (SW Japan) potentially caused by volcanic ash and pumice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepers, A.; Ikari, M.; Underwood, M.; Kopf, A.

    2013-12-01

    At convergent margins, the sedimentary section seaward of the trench on the subducting oceanic lithosphere provides the source material for accretionary prisms and eventually becomes the host rock of the plate boundary megathrust. The mechanical properties of the sediments seaward of the subduction zone have therefore a first order control on subduction zone forearc mechanics and hydrogeology. At the Nankai Trough (SW Japan) the majority of sediment approaching the subduction zone is clay-rich. Scientific drilling expeditions in the framework of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have revealed an anomalous zone of high porosity in a major lithologic unit known as the Upper Shikoku Basin facies (USB), which is associated with elevated volcanic ash content and high amounts of silica in the interstitial water. The existence of the high porosity zone has previously been associated with advanced silica cementation, driven by the dual diagenetic transition of opal-A to opal-CT, and opal-CT to quartz. However, temperature estimates from recent drilling expeditions offshore the Kii peninsula reveal different in situ temperatures at the proposed diagenetic boundary in the Shikoku Basin. Furthermore, laboratory measurements using core samples from the USB show that cohesive strength is not elevated in the high porosity zone, suggesting that a process other than cementation may be responsible. The USB sediment is characterized by abundant volcanic ash and pumice, therefore the high porosity zone in the USB may be closely linked to the mechanical behavior of this phase. We conducted consolidation tests in the range 0.1 to 8 MPa effective vertical stress on artificial ash-smectite and pumice-smectite mixtures, as well as intact and remolded natural samples from the IODP Sites C0011 and C0012 to investigate the role of the volcanic constituent on porosity loss with progressive burial. Our results show that both remolded and intact

  10. Cerebellar inactivation impairs memory of learned prism gaze-reach calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Scott A; Hathaway, Emily N; Taylor, Jordan A; Thach, W Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys exhibited an aftereffect, such that the widened gaze-reach angle persisted and touches missed the target in the direction opposite that of initial prism-induced error. After 20-30 days of training, monkeys showed long-term learning and storage of the prism gaze-reach calibration: they switched between prism and no-prism and touched the target on the first trials without adaptation or aftereffect. Injections of lidocaine into posterolateral cerebellar cortex or muscimol or lidocaine into dentate nucleus temporarily inactivated these structures. Immediately after injections into cortex or dentate, reaches were displaced in the direction of prism-displaced gaze, but no-prism reaches were relatively unimpaired. There was little or no adaptation on the day of injection. On days after injection, there was no adaptation and both prism and no-prism reaches were horizontally, and often vertically, displaced. A single permanent lesion (kainic acid) in the lateral dentate nucleus of one monkey immediately impaired only the learned prism gaze-reach calibration and in subsequent days disrupted both learning and performance. This effect persisted for the 18 days of observation, with little or no adaptation.

  11. LATE TRIASSIC OBLIQUE EXTRUSION OF UHP/HP COMPLEXES IN THE ATBASHI ACCRETIONARY COMPLEX OF SOUTH TIANSHAN, KYRGYZSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhumation and tectonic emplacement of eclogites and blueschists take place in forearc accretionary complexes by either forearc- or backarc-directed extrusion, but few examples have been well analysed in detail. Here we present an example of oblique wedge extrusion of UHP/HP rocks in the Atbashi accretionary complex of the Kyrgyz South Tianshan.

  12. New Geological Evidence of Past Earthquakes and Tsunami Along the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Batist, M. A. O.; Heyvaert, V.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Fujiwara, O.; Shishikura, M.; Yokoyama, Y.; Brückner, H.; Garrett, E.; Boes, E.; Lamair, L.; Nakamura, A.; Miyairi, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

    2015-12-01

    The east coast of Japan is prone to tsunamigenic megathrust earthquakes, as tragically demonstrated in 2011 by the Tōhoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) and tsunami. The Nankai Trough subduction zone, to the southwest of the area affected by the Tōhoku disaster and facing the densely populated and heavily industrialized southern coastline of central and west Japan, is expected to generate another megathrust earthquake and tsunami in the near future. This subduction zone is, however, segmented and appears to be characterized by a variable rupture mode, involving single- as well as multi-segment ruptures, which has immediate implications for their tsunamigenic potential, and also renders the collection of sufficiently long time records of past earthquakes and tsunami in this region fundamental for an adequate hazard and risk assessment. Over the past three decades, Japanese researchers have acquired a large amount of geological evidence of past earthquakes and tsunami, in many cases extending back in time for several thousands of years. This evidence includes uplifted marine terraces, turbidites, liquefaction features, subsided marshes and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. Despite these efforts, current understanding of the behaviour of the subduction zone still remains limited, due to site-specific evidence creation and preservation thresholds and issues over alternative hypotheses for proposed palaeoseismic evidence and insufficiently precise chronological control. Within the QuakeRecNankai project we are generating a long and coherent time series of megathrust earthquake and tsunami recurrences along the Nankai Trough subduction zone by integrating all existing evidence with new geological records of paleo-tsunami in the Lake Hamana region and of paleo-earthquakes from selected lakes in the Mount Fuji area. We combine extensive fieldwork in coastal plain areas and lakes, with advanced sedimentological and geochemical analyses and innovative dating techniques.

  13. Geothermics of the Apenninic subduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zito

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The subduction of the Adriatic microplate is analysed from a geothermal point of view. In particular four main geodynamic units are distinguished: foreland, foredeep and slab, accretionary prism, and back-arc basin. Each of them is examined from a geothermal point of view and the related open question are discussed. The most relevant results are the determination of the undisturbed geothermal gradient in the aquifer of the foreland; the discovery of a « hot » accretionary prism; and a new model of instantaneous extension of the back-arc basins. The main conclusion is that geothermal data are consistent with a westward dipping subduction that migrated eastward producing a sequence of several episodes at the surface.

  14. Simulated Prism Therapy in Virtual Reality produces larger after-effects than standard prism exposure in normal healthy subject - Implications for Neglect Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality is an important area of exploration within computer-based cognitive rehabilitation of visual neglect. Virtual reality will allow for closer monitoring of patient behaviour during prism adaptation therapy and perhaps change the way we induce prismatic after......-effects. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effect of two different prism simulation conditions in virtual reality to a standard exposure to prism goggles after one session of Prism Adaptation Therapy in healthy subjects. METHOD: 20 healthy subjects were subjected to one session of prism adaptation therapy under...... training for rehabilitation of hemi spatial attentional deficits such as visual neglect....

  15. Calibration of the Wedge Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Briscoe

    1957-01-01

    Since the introduction of plotless cruising in this country by Grosenbaugh and the later suggestion of using a wedge prism as an angle gauge by Bruce this method of determining basal area has been widely adopted in the South. One of the factors contributing to the occasionally unsatisfactory results obtained is failure to calibrate the prism used. As noted by Bruce the...

  16. Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    strategy, regional security affairs, and global strategic problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM...suffer from illiteracy, poor health, and extreme poverty PRISM 1, no. 1 FRoM the FIeld | 89 The country’s maternal mortality and female illiteracy rates...problems. This is the authoritative , official U.S. Department of Defense edition of PRISM. Any copyrighted portions of this journal may not be

  17. GE advanced liquid metal reactor S-PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation covers the following topics: Incentive for developing S-PRISM; Design and safety approach; Design description and competitive potential; Previous Licensing interactions; Planned approach to Licensing S-PRISM

  18. PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    societal issues , given countervailing moral , legal, and ethical interpretations, as well as suspicions PRISM 7, NO. 2 FEATURES | 13 COGNITIVE-EMOTIONAL...to tell our story. Additionally, U.S. practi- tioners are bound by asymmetric legal, moral , and ethical constraints that often keep them from being...the founder of SpaceX and Tesla, withdrew from two business councils providing advice to the administration on economic issues . Further driving

  19. Modeling laser brightness from cross Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Andrew; Burger, Liesl; Litvin, Igor Anatolievich

    2006-08-01

    Laser brightness is a parameter often used to compare high power laser beam delivery from various sources, and incorporates both the power contained in the particular mode, as well as the propagation of that mode through the beam quality factor, M2. In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function of the rotation angle of the prisms. In this paper we consider the diffraction losses as a function of the prism rotation angle relative to one another, and combine this with the propagation of the specific modes to determine the laser output brightness as a function of the prism orientation.

  20. Dynamics of Earthquake Faulting in Subduction Zones: Inference from Pseudotachylytes and Ultracataclasites in an Ancient Accretionary Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ujiie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The fault rocks in ancient accretionary complexes exhumed from seismogenic depths may provide an invaluable opportunity to examine the mechanisms and mechanics of seismic slip in subduction thrusts and splay faults. In order to understand the dynamics of earthquake faulting in subduction zones, we analyzed pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites from the Shimanto accretionary complex in southwest Japan. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.s01.21.2007

  1. The effect of compliant prisms on subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Dunham, Eric M.; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Tobin, Harold J.

    2017-01-01

    Earthquakes generate tsunamis by coseismically deforming the seafloor, and that deformation is largely controlled by the shallow rupture process. Therefore, in order to better understand how earthquakes generate tsunamis, one must consider the material structure and frictional properties of the shallowest part of the subduction zone, where ruptures often encounter compliant sedimentary prisms. Compliant prisms have been associated with enhanced shallow slip, seafloor deformation, and tsunami heights, particularly in the context of tsunami earthquakes. To rigorously quantify the role compliant prisms play in generating tsunamis, we perform a series of numerical simulations that directly couple dynamic rupture on a dipping thrust fault to the elastodynamic response of the Earth and the acoustic response of the ocean. Gravity is included in our simulations in the context of a linearized Eulerian description of the ocean, which allows us to model tsunami generation and propagation, including dispersion and related nonhydrostatic effects. Our simulations span a three-dimensional parameter space of prism size, prism compliance, and sub-prism friction - specifically, the rate-and-state parameter b - a that determines velocity-weakening or velocity-strengthening behavior. We find that compliant prisms generally slow rupture velocity and, for larger prisms, generate tsunamis more efficiently than subduction zones without prisms. In most but not all cases, larger, more compliant prisms cause greater amounts of shallow slip and larger tsunamis. Furthermore, shallow friction is also quite important in determining overall slip; increasing sub-prism b - a enhances slip everywhere along the fault. Counterintuitively, we find that in simulations with large prisms and velocity-strengthening friction at the base of the prism, increasing prism compliance reduces rather than enhances shallow slip and tsunami wave height.

  2. Analysis of unscrammed events in PRISM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. The purpose of this paper is to review the current PRISM design and describe the results from the SSC Code calculations performed at BNL, for a series of unscrammed accidents. 3 refs., 5 figs

  3. Lithologic Controls on Structure Highlight the Role of Fluids in Failure of a Franciscan Complex Accretionary Prism Thrust Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Tobin, H. J.; Goodwin, L. B.

    2015-12-01

    Plate-bounding subduction zone thrust systems are the source of major earthquakes and tsunamis, but their mechanics and internal structure remain poorly understood and relatively little-studied compared to faults in continental crust. Exposures in exhumed accretionary wedges present an opportunity to study seismogenic subduction thrusts in detail. In the Marin Headlands, a series of thrusts imbricates mechanically distinct lithologic units of the Mesozoic Franciscan Complex including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black mudstone, and turbidites. We examine variations in distribution and character of structure and vein occurrence in two exposures of the Rodeo Cove thrust, a fossil plate boundary exposed in the Marin Headlands. We observe a lithologic control on the degree and nature of fault localization. At Black Sand Beach, deformation is localized in broad fault cores of sheared black mudstone. Altered basalts, thrust over greywacke, mudstone, and chert, retain their coherence and pillow structures. Veins are only locally present. In contrast, mudstone is virtually absent from the exposure 2 km away at Rodeo Beach. At this location, deformation is concentrated in the altered basalts, which display evidence of extensive vein-rock interaction. Altered basalts exhibit a pervasive foliation, which is locally disrupted by both foliation-parallel and cross-cutting carbonate-filled veins and carbonate cemented breccia. Veins are voluminous (~50%) at this location. All the structures are cut by anastomosing brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge. Analyses of vein chemistry will allow us to compare the sources of fluids that precipitated the common vein sets at Rodeo Beach to the locally developed veins at Black Sand Beach. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in the absence of a mechanically weak lithology, elevated pore fluid pressure is required for shear failure. If so, the vein-rich altered basalt at Rodeo Beach may record failure of an

  4. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  5. Spatial compression impairs prism-adaptation in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Scriven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically present with gross inattention to one side of space following damage to the contralateral hemisphere. While prism-adaptation is effective in ameliorating some neglect behaviours, the mechanisms involved and their relationship to neglect remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that conscious strategic control processes in prism-adaptation may be impaired in neglect patients, who are also reported to show extraordinarily long aftereffects compared to healthy participants. Determining the underlying cause of these effects may be the key to understanding therapeutic benefits. Alternative accounts suggest that reduced strategic control might result from a failure to detect prism-induced reaching errors properly either because a the size of the error is underestimated in compressed visual space or b pathologically increased error detection thresholds reduce the requirement for error correction. The purpose of this study was to model these two alternatives in healthy participants and to examine whether strategic control and subsequent aftereffects were abnormal compared to standard prism adaptation. Each participant completed three prism-adaptation procedures within a MIRAGE mediated reality environment with direction errors recorded before, during and after adaptation. During prism-adaptation, visual-feedback of the reach could be compressed, perturbed by noise or represented veridically. Compressed visual space significantly reduced strategic control and aftereffects compared to control and noise conditions. These results support recent observations in neglect patients, suggesting that a distortion of spatial representation may successfully model neglect and explain neglect performance while adapting to prisms.

  6. Simple Tidal Prism Models Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luketina, D.

    1998-01-01

    Simple tidal prism models for well-mixed estuaries have been in use for some time and are discussed in most text books on estuaries. The appeal of this model is its simplicity. However, there are several flaws in the logic behind the model. These flaws are pointed out and a more theoretically correct simple tidal prism model is derived. In doing so, it is made clear which effects can, in theory, be neglected and which can not.

  7. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  8. Preferred-rupture propagation to the hangingwall of the shallow part of the out-of-sequence thrust: Ishido Fault in Boso Peninsula, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Fukuyama, M.; Ujiie, K.; Hirose, T.; Hamada, Y.; Kitamura, M.; Kamiya, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although earthquake ruptures in shallow portion of plate boundary have recently been identified (e.g. Tohoku, Nankai, etc.), their mechanisms why the shallow portion of plate boundary composed mainly of clay minerals can accumulate strain and make seismic slip are under controversial. An ancient out-of-sequence thrust which divided the early and late Miocene accretionary complexes in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan records rupture propagation to the shallow portion of accretionary prism (The fault core is composed of black-colored thin (The former is characterized by homogeneous glassy matrix including fragments of quartz/feldspar, submicron-sized Fe-rich spherules, and vesicles. Based on the mineralogy of the host rock and EDS analyses of matrices, origin of the pseudotachylite was apparently frictional melting of smectite containing Fe. Fe-rich spherules formed by rapid cooling of pseudotachylite. On the other hand, overturned fault-related drag fold developed in the footwall, within about 30 m. Although some Riedel sheared normal faults developed in the overturned footwall, no other brittle deformations were identified. These occurrences imply coexistence of low- and high-speed slips along the same thrust fault. The whole-rock major and trace elemental analyses using XRF and ICP-MS show that mudstone in the hangingwall has similar chemical composition to those of pseudotachylite and fluidized fault gouge with REE enriched patterns, whereas the footwall has different chemical characteristics with relatively flat REE pattern and low LOI. Therefore, the protolith of pseudotachylite and fluidized fault gouge is mudstone in the hangingwall. These data imply that rupture propagation preferably occurred in the hangingwall along the fault zone. The footwall was also deformed apparently during slow-slip deformation leading to formation of the overturn, whereas only the hangingwall, just side of the fault zone, slipped under high-speed shear.

  9. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  10. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  11. Gas hydrate drilling transect across northern Cascadia margin - IODP Expedition 311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Collett, T.; Malone, M.J.; Collett, T.S.; Mitchell, M.; Guerin, G.; Akiba, F.; Blanc-Valleron, M.; Ellis, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Heuer, V.; Higashi, Y.; Holland, M.; Jackson, P.D.; Kaneko, M.; Kastner, M.; Kim, J.-H.; Kitajima, H.; Long, P.E.; Malinverno, A.; Myers, Gwen E.; Palekar, L.D.; Pohlman, J.; Schultheiss, P.; Teichert, B.; Torres, M.E.; Trehu, A.M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Worthmann, U.G.; Yoshioka, H.

    2009-01-01

    occurrences of high gas hydrate concentrations contradict the previous model of gas hydrate formation at an accretionary prism. However, long-lived fluid flow (part of the old model) is still required to explain the shallow high gas hydrate concentrations, although it is most likely not pervasive throughout the entire accretionary prism, but rather localized and focused by the tectonic processes. Differences in the fluid flow regime across all of the transect drill sites indicate site-specific and probably disconnected (compartmented) deeper fluid sources in the various parts of the accretionary prism. The data and future analyses will yield a better understanding of the geologic controls, evolution and ultimate fate of gas hydrate in an accretionary prism as an important contribution to the role of gas hydrate methane gas in slope stability and possibly in climate change. ?? The Geological Society of London 2009.

  12. Plant Reliability - an Integrated System for Management (PR-ISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukeman, M.C.; Leininger, E.G.; Carr, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Toledo Edison Company, located in Toledo, Ohio, United States of America, recently implemented a comprehensive maintenance management information system for the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station. The system is called PR-ISM, meaning Plant Reliability - An Integrated System for Management. PR-ISM provides the tools needed by station management to effectively plan and control maintenance and other plant activities. The PR-ISM system as it exists today consists of four integrated computer applications: equipment data base maintenance, maintenance work order control, administrative activity tracking, and technical specification compliance. PR-ISM is designed as an integrated on-line system and incorporates strong human factors features. PR-ISM provides each responsible person information to do his job on a daily basis and to look ahead towards future events. It goes beyond 'after the fact' reporting. In this respect, PR-ISM is an 'interactive' control system which: captures work requirements and commitments as they are identified, provides accurate and up-to-date status immediately to those who need it, simplifies paperwork and reduces the associated time delays, provides the information base for work management and reliability analysis, and improves productivity by replacing clerical tasks and consolidating maintenance activities. The functional and technical features of PR-ISM, the experience of Toledo Edison during the first year of operation, and the factors which led to the success of the development project are highlighted. (author)

  13. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd"2"+ doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m"2 g"−"1, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  14. Salt-induced square prism Pd microtubes and their ethanol electrocatalysis properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Kunpeng; Ma, Shenghua; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Ying; Han, Xiaojun, E-mail: hanxiaojun@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A simple method is established to fabricate square prism Pd microtubes. • The novel square prism Pd microtubes are based on a salt-induced aggregation event. • The surface of the square prism tubes convert from cataphracted nanosheets to spheres after calcinations treatment. • The square prism pure Pd tubes show excellent electro catalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation. - Abstract: The synthesis of square prism tubes are always challenging due to their thermo and dynamical instability. We demonstrated a simple method using Pd{sup 2+} doped PoPD oligomers as building blocks to assemble into 1D square prism metal-organic microtubes, which consists of cataphracted nanosheets on the surfaces. After high temperature treatment, the microtubes became square prism Pd tubes with a cross section size of 3 μm. The pure Pd microtubes showed excellent catalyzing activity towards the electro oxidation of ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface area is 48.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which indicates the square prism Pd tubes have great potential in the field of fuel cell.

  15. Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis; DONET/ DONET2, Part2 -Development and data application for the mega thrust earthquakes around the Nankai trough-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, M.; Kamiya, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Baba, T.; Ohori, M.; Hori, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneko, S.; Donet Research; Development Group

    2010-12-01

    Yoshiyuki Kaneda Katsuyoshi Kawaguchi*, Eiichiro Araki*, Shou Kaneko*, Hiroyuki Matsumoto*, Takeshi Nakamura*, Masaru Nakano*, Shinichirou Kamiya*, Keisuke Ariyoshi*, Toshitaka Baba*, Michihiro Ohori*, Narumi Takakahashi*, and Takane Hori** * Earthquake and Tsunami Research Project for Disaster Prevention, Leading Project , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) **Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) DONET (Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) is the real time monitoring system of the Tonankai seismogenic zones around the Nankai trough southwestern Japan. We were starting to develop DONET to perform real time monitoring of crustal activities over there and the advanced early warning system. DONET will provide important and useful data to understand the Nankai trough maga thrust earthquake seismogenic zones and to improve the accuracy of the earthquake recurrence cycle simulation. Details of DONET concept are as follows. 1) Redundancy, Extendable function and advanced maintenance system using the looped cable system, junction boxes and the ROV/AUV. DONET has 20 observatories and incorporated in a double land stations concept. Also, we are developed ROV for the 10km cable extensions and heavy weight operations. 2) Multi kinds of sensors to observe broad band phenomena such as long period tremors, very low frequency earthquakes and strong motions of mega thrust earthquakes over M8: Therefore, sensors such as a broadband seismometer, an accelerometer, a hydrophone, a precise pressure gauge, a differential pressure gauge and a thermometer are equipped with each observatory in DONET. 3) For speedy detections, evaluations and notifications of earthquakes and tsunamis: DONET system will be deployed around the Tonankai seismogenic zone. 4) Provide data of ocean floor crustal deformations derived from pressure sensors: Simultaneously, the development of data

  16. Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to ...

  17. Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262

  18. The response to prism deviations in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E

    1999-09-23

    Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.

  19. Containment performance of S-prism under severe BDB conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, C.E.; Dubberley, A.E.; Hui, M.; Iwashige, K.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. Based on the success of the previous DOE sponsored Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program GE has continued to develop and assess the technical viability and economic potential of an up-rated modular Fast Reactor called Super PRISM (S-PRISM). S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. An additional feature of S-PRISM involves the use an innovative containment system that reduces the required design basis containment pressure by a factor of two through the use of a controlled venting system. The performance of this innovative containment system is evaluated and described in this paper. (author)

  20. Revisit of Criteria and Evidence for the Tectonic Erosion vs Accretion in East Asian Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary and erosive margins provide tectonic end-members in subduction zone and how these tectonic processes might be recorded and recognizable in ancient subduction complexes remains a challenging issue. Tectonic erosion includes sediment subduction and basal erosion along the plate boundary megathrust and drags down the crust of the upper plate into the mantle. Geologic evidence for the erosion is commonly based on lost geological tectono-stratigraphic data, i.e. gaps in the record and indirect phenomena such as subsidence of the forearc slopes. A topographically rough surface such as seamount has been suggested to work like an erosive saw carving the upper plate. Another mechanism of basal erosion has been suggested to be hydrofracturing of upper plate materials due to dehydration-induced fluid pressures, resulting in entrainment of upper plate materials into the basal décollement. Considering the interaction between the ~30 km thick crust of the upper plate and subducting oceanic plate, a subduction dip angle of ~15°, and convergent rate of ~10 cm/year, at least ~1 Ma of continuous basal erosion is necessary to induce clear subsidence of the forearc because the width of plate interface between the upper crustal and subducting plates is about 115 km (30/cos15°). In several examples of subduction zones, for example the Japan Trench and the Middle America Trench off Costa Rica, the subsidence of a few thousand metres of the forearc, combined with a lack of accretionary prism over a period of several million years, suggest that the erosive condition needs to be maintained for several to tens of million years.Such age gaps in the accretionary complex, however, do not automatically imply that tectonic erosion has taken place, as other interpretations such as no accretion, cessation of subduction, and/or later tectonic modification, are also possible. Recent drilling in the forearc of the Nankai Trough suggests that the accretion was ceased between ~12 Ma to

  1. PRISMES. The INES microgrid platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barruel, F.; Vervaart, M.; Merten, J. [INES, 73 - Le Bourget-du-lac (FR). Lab. for Solar Systems (L2S)

    2010-07-01

    The massive penetration of fluctuating renewable energies will challenge the low voltage grids. Innovative solutions to address this issue need to be developed and tested. They may consist of intelligent energy management systems and the use of storage systems. For this purpose the PRISMES platform has been designed and implemented at the INES headquarter in Chambery. It is a universal test and development tool, such as stand alone hybrid systems and grid connected PV systems combined with a storage system and loads. This paper describes the PRISMES facility which will start operation in autumn 2008. (orig.)

  2. Accuracy assessment of ALOS optical instruments: PRISM and AVNIR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Iwata, Takanori; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the updated results of calibration and validation to assess the accuracies for optical instruments onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was successfully launched on January 24th, 2006 and it is continuously operating very well. ALOS has an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar called PALSAR and two optical instruments i.e. the Panchromatic Remotesensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three radiometers and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution that is an objective of the ALOS mission. Therefore, geometric calibration is important in generating a precise DSM with stereo pair images of PRISM. AVNIR-2 has four radiometric bands from blue to near infrared and uses for regional environment and disaster monitoring etc. The radiometric calibration and image quality evaluation are also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. This paper describes updated results of geometric calibration including geolocation determination accuracy evaluations of PRISM and AVNIR-2, image quality evaluation of PRISM, and validation of generated PRISM DSM. These works will be done during the ALOS mission life as an operational calibration to keep absolute accuracies of the standard products.

  3. Characteristics of Fluid Force Reduction for Two Different Square Prisms in a Tandem Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Ki Deok; Kang, Chang Whan; Park, Kwon Ho [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The Characteristics of the flow fields of a square prism having a small square prism were investigated by measuring of lift and drag on the square prism and visualizing the flow field using PIV. The experimental parameters were the width ratios(H/B=0.2~0.6) of small square prisms to the prism width and the gap ratios (G/B=0~3) between the prism and the small square prism. The drag reduction rate of the square prism initially increased and then decreased with the G/B ratio for the same H/B ratio, and increased with the H/B ratio for the same G/B ratio. The maximum drag reduction rate of 98.0% was observed at H/B=0.6 and G/B=1.0. The lift reduction rate of the square prism was not affected by the width and gap ratios; the total average value was approximately 66.5%. In case of a square prism having a small square prism, the stagnation regions were represented in the upstream and downstream sides of the square prism.

  4. Initiation process of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Dotare, Tatsuya; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted 2D (cross-sectional) analog experiments with dry sand using a high resolution digital image correlation (DIC) technique to reveal initiation process of a thrust fault in detail, and identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the thrust initiation. The observations suggest that the process can be divided into three stages. Stage 1: characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will be generated later. Before initiation of the fault, the area to be the hanging wall starts to uplift. Stage 2: defined by the generation of the new thrust and its active displacement. The location of the new thrust seems to be constrained by its associated back-thrust, produced at the foot of the surface slope (by the previous thrust). The activity of the previous thrust turns to zero once the new thrust is generated, but the timing of these two events is not the same. Stage 3: characterized by a constant displacement along the (new) thrust. Similar minor shear bands can be seen in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan and we can correlate the along-strike variations in seismic profiles to the model results that show the characteristic features in each thrust development stage.

  5. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  6. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, J.; Andres, B.; Brown, S.; Donaldson, G.; Harrington, B.; Johnston, V.; Jones, S.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Skagen, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). PRISM is being implemented by a Canada-United States Shorebird Monitoring and Assessment Committee formed in 2001 by the Canadian Shorebird Working Group and the U.S. Shorebird Council. PRISM provides a single blueprint for implementing the shorebird conservation plans recently completed in Canada and the United States. The goals of PRISM are to (1) estimate the size of breeding population of 74 shorebird taxa in North America; (2) describe the distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships for each of these taxa; (3) monitor trends in shorebird population size; (4) monitor shorebird numbers at stopover locations, and; (5) assist local managers in meeting their shorebird conservation goals. PRISM has four main components: arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding surveys, temperate non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys. Progress on, and action items for, each major component are described. The more important major tasks for immediate action are carrying out the northern surveys, conducting regional analyses to design the program of migration counts, and evaluating aerial photographic surveys for migration and winter counts.

  7. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  8. Asymmetric transmission in prisms using structures and materials with isotropic-type dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Funda Tamara; Serebryannikov, Andriy E; Cakmak, A Ozgur; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2015-09-21

    It is demonstrated that strong asymmetry in transmission can be obtained at the Gaussian beam illumination for a single prism based on a photonic crystal (PhC) with isotropic-type dispersion, as well as for its analog made of a homogeneous material. Asymmetric transmission can be realized with the aid of refraction at a proper orientation of the interfaces and wedges of the prism, whereas neither contribution of higher diffraction orders nor anisotropic-type dispersion is required. Furthermore, incidence toward a prism wedge can be used for one of two opposite directions in order to obtain asymmetry. Thus, asymmetric transmission is a general property of the prism configurations, which can be obtained by using simple geometries and quite conventional materials. The obtained results show that strong asymmetry can be achieved in PhC prisms with (nearly) circular shape of equifrequency dispersion contours, in both cases associated with the index of refraction 01. For the comparison purposes, results are also presented for solid uniform non-magnetic prisms made of a material with the same value of n. It is shown in zero-loss approximation that the PhC prism and the ultralow-index material prism (01. Possible contributions of scattering on the individual rods and diffraction on the wedge to the resulting mechanism are discussed. Analogs of unidirectional splitting and unidirectional deflection regimes, which are known from the studies of PhC gratings, are obtained in PhC prisms and solid uniform prisms, i.e. without higher diffraction orders.

  9. Lithological discrimination of accretionary complex (Sivas, northern Turkey) using novel hybrid color composites and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Mutlu; Çelik, Ömer Faruk; Özyavaş, Aziz

    2018-02-01

    One of the most appropriate approaches to better understand and interpret geologic evolution of an accretionary complex is to make a detailed geologic map. The fact that ophiolite sequences consist of various rock types may require a unique image processing method to map each ophiolite body. The accretionary complex in the study area is composed mainly of ophiolitic and metamorphic rocks along with epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks. This paper attempts to map the Late Cretaceous accretionary complex in detail in northern Sivas (within İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Zone in Turkey) by the analysis of all of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) bands and field study. The new two hybrid color composite images yield satisfactory results in delineating peridotite, gabbro, basalt, and epi-ophiolitic sedimentary rocks of the accretionary complex in the study area. While the first hybrid color composite image consists of one principle component (PC) and two band ratios (PC1, 3/4, 4/6 in the RGB), the PC5, the original ASTER band 4 and the 3/4 band ratio images were assigned to the RGB colors to generate the second hybrid color composite image. In addition to that, the spectral indices derived from the ASTER thermal infrared (TIR) bands discriminate clearly ultramafic, siliceous, and carbonate rocks from adjacent lithologies at a regional scale. Peridotites with varying degrees of serpentinization illustrated as a single color were best identified in the spectral indices map. Furthermore, the boundaries of ophiolitic rocks based on fieldwork were outlined in detail in some parts of the study area by superimposing the resultant maps of ASTER maps on Google Earth images of finer spatial resolution. Eventually, the encouraging geologic map generated by the image analysis of ASTER data strongly correlates with lithological boundaries from a field survey.

  10. PRISM -- A tool for modelling proton energy deposition in semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a description of, and test results from, a new PC based software simulation tool PRISM (Protons in Semiconductor Materials). The model describes proton energy deposition in complex 3D sensitive volumes of semiconductor materials. PRISM is suitable for simulating energy deposition in surface-barrier detectors and semiconductor memory devices, the latter being susceptible to Single-Event Upset (SEU) and Multiple-Bit Upset (MBU). The design methodology on which PRISM is based, together with the techniques used to simulate ion transport and energy deposition, are described. Preliminary test results used to analyze the PRISM model are presented

  11. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  12. Reverse time migration of prism waves for salt flank delineation

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-09-22

    In this paper, we present a new reverse time migration method for imaging salt flanks with prism wave reflections. It consists of four steps: (1) migrating the seismic data with conventional RTM to give the RTM image; (2) using the RTM image as a reflectivity model to simulate source-side reflections with the Born approximation; (3) zero-lag correlation of the source-side reflection wavefields and receiver-side wavefields to produce the prism wave migration image; and (4) repeating steps 2 and 3 for the receiver-side reflections. An advantage of this method is that there is no need to pick the horizontal reflectors prior to migration of the prism waves. It also separately images the vertical structures at a different step to reduce crosstalk interference. The disadvantage of prism wave migration algorithm is that its computational cost is twice that of conventional RTM. The empirical results with a salt model suggest that prism wave migration can be an effective method for salt flank delineation in the absence of diving waves.

  13. PRISM: An innovative liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, G.B.; Boardman, C.E.; Olich, E.E.; Switick, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative sodium-cooled reactor concept employing small certified reactor modules coupled with a standardized steam generator system. The total plant employs nine PRISM reactors (power reactor inherently safe module) in three 415 MWe power blocks. The PRISM design concept utilizes inherent safety characteristics and modularity to improve licensability, reduce owner's risk, and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. It is proposed that a single PRISM module be used in a full-scale integrated reactor safety test. Results from the test would be used to obtain NRC certification of the standard design

  14. PRISM Software: Processing and Review Interface for Strong‐Motion Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A continually increasing number of high‐quality digital strong‐motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey, as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, calls for automated processing of strong‐motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong‐motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch‐processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed‐source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a review tool, which is a graphical user interface for manual review, edit, and processing. To facilitate use by non‐NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand‐alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. All the computing features have been thoroughly tested.

  15. MEGARA Optics: stain removal in PBM2Y prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre-Aguirre, D; Izazaga-Pérez, R; Carrasco, E; Villalobos-Mendoza, B; De Paz, A Gil; Gallego, J; Iglesias, J

    2017-01-01

    MEGARA is the new integral-field and multi-object optical spectrograph for the GTC. For medium and high resolution, the dispersive elements are volume phase holographic gratings, sandwiched between two flat windows and two prisms of high optical precision. The prisms are made of Ohara PBM2Y optical glass. After the prisms polishing process, some stains appeared on the surfaces. For this, in this work is shown the comparative study of five different products (muriatic acid, paint remover, sodium hydroxide, aqua regia and rare earth liquid polish) used for trying to eliminate the stains of the HR MEGARA prisms. It was found that by polishing with the hands the affected area, and using a towel like a kind of pad, and polish during five minutes using rare earth, the stains disappear completely affecting only a 5% the rms of the surface quality. Not so the use of the other products that did not show any apparent result. (paper)

  16. PRISM reactor. An option for plutonium disposition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlinger, Sebastian; Friess, Friederike; Kuett, Moritz [IANUS, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) is sodium cooled fast reactor model. The energy output depends on the core configuration, however with an energy output of approximately 300 MWe, the PRISM reactor belongs to the class of small modular reactors. Beside using the reactor as a breeder reactor or for the transmutation of nuclear waste, it might also be used as a burner reactor for separated plutonium. This includes for example U.S.-American excess weapon-grade plutonium as well as separated reactor-grade plutonium. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion in GB to use the PRISM reactor to dispose their excess civilian plutonium. Depending on the task, the core configuration varies slightly. We will present different layouts and the matching MCNP models, these models can then be used to conduct depletion calculations. From these results, analysis of the change in the plutonium isotopics in the spent fuel, the amount of fissioned plutonium, and the possible annual plutonium throughputs is possible.

  17. Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J.

    1992-03-01

    Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/''inherent'' shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program

  18. Petal–like modes in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available , and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al [1] as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry–Perot cavities by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over... of America OCIS codes: (140.4780) Optical resonators; (260.0260) Physical optics; (140.3410) Laser resonators; (230.5480) Prisms; (140.0140) Lasers and laser optics References and links 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz, “Crossed Roof...

  19. [Dental enamel prisms of Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839, compared with recent cercopithecids (Primates: Cercopithecidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, A; Zapfe, H

    1986-01-01

    The dental enamel prisms of Cercopithecidae were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The main task of this study was to show the prism morphology representatives of different genera as well as their comparison with the fossil Mesopithecus pentelicus Wagner, 1839. The method used to show the enamel prisms was to etch the tooth surface with hydrochloric acid. In this way the outlines of the prisms were better contrasted for the descriptive morphology of the prisms than in etching with phosphoric acid. Two types were determined, in accord with the systematic division into subfamilies. In the subfamily Cercopithecinae elongated slender prisms were dominating, some with pointed, others with truncated tops. Most characteristic of this type were Macaca and Cercopithecus. An exception was Papio hamadryas which had broader, rounded prisms. In this way it differed largely from P. anubis whose prisms were short and mostly triangular. A very interesting fact was that very different patterns were found in P. anubis and P. hamadryas, although these two species are regarded as only one species by many authors. The second subfamily, the Colobinae, was characterized by broader prisms with a rounded shape, nearly as long as wide. Exceptions of the 'Colobine type' were at first Colobus with prisms little longer than wide and secondly Nasalis, with mostly parallel sides and truncated tops of the prisms. The prism outlines of Mesopithecus showed the greatest similarity to those of Presbytis which represents the characteristic 'Colobine type'. This fact confirmed the actual systematic position of the fossil Mesopithecus within the subfamily Colobinae. In addition to previously known primitive features of Mesopithecus within the subfamily of Colobinae, we present here a further concrete, common feature with asiatic Colobines.

  20. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  1. Multivariable control for the PRISM ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the application of state variable control design methods in the conceptual design of two key system level controllers in the PRISM ALMR. The PRISM plant concept consists of three power blocks, each made up of three identical reactors and steam generator modules connected to one turbine. Operation of these physically distributed systems is directed by a hierarchy of controllers at the system, power block, and plant levels. The system level controllers in this paper are the reactivity controllers for movement of the six control rods in each of the nine reactor modules, and the feedwater control of the three parallel steam generators in each of the three power blocks. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  2. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  3. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F., E-mail: fankli@indiana.edu; Parnell, S. R.; Wang, T.; Baxter, D. V. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Hamilton, W. A. [Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Maranville, B. B. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Semerad, R. [Ceraco Ceramic Coating GmbH, Ismaning 85737 (Germany); Cremer, J. T. [Adelphi Technology Inc., Redwood City, California 94063 (United States); Pynn, R. [Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ∼30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ∼98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  4. Superconducting magnetic Wollaston prism for neutron spin encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Parnell, S. R.; Hamilton, W. A.; Maranville, B. B.; Wang, T.; Semerad, R.; Baxter, D. V.; Cremer, J. T.; Pynn, R.

    2014-05-01

    A magnetic Wollaston prism can spatially split a polarized neutron beam into two beams with different neutron spin states, in a manner analogous to an optical Wollaston prism. Such a Wollaston prism can be used to encode the trajectory of neutrons into the Larmor phase associated with their spin degree of freedom. This encoding can be used for neutron phase-contrast radiography and in spin echo scattering angle measurement (SESAME). In this paper, we show that magnetic Wollaston prisms with highly uniform magnetic fields and low Larmor phase aberration can be constructed to preserve neutron polarization using high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The Meissner effect of HTS films is used to confine magnetic fields produced electromagnetically by current-carrying HTS tape wound on suitably shaped soft iron pole pieces. The device is cooled to ˜30 K by a closed cycle refrigerator, eliminating the need to replenish liquid cryogens and greatly simplifying operation and maintenance. A HTS film ensures that the magnetic field transition within the prism is sharp, well-defined, and planar due to the Meissner effect. The spin transport efficiency across the device was measured to be ˜98.5% independent of neutron wavelength and energizing current. The position-dependent Larmor phase of neutron spins was measured at the NIST Center for Neutron Research facility and found to agree well with detailed simulations. The phase varies linearly with horizontal position, as required, and the neutron beam shows little depolarization. Consequently, the device has advantages over existing devices with similar functionality and provides the capability for a large neutron beam (20 mm × 30 mm) and an increase in length scales accessible to SESAME to beyond 10 μm. With further improvements of the external coupling guide field in the prototype device, a larger neutron beam could be employed.

  5. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisarah Mukhtar, Wan; Halim, Razman Mohd; Hassan, Hazirah

    2017-11-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI), namely n=1.51(type BK7) and n=1.77(type SF11). Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical) able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape) as light couplers.

  6. Optimization of SPR signals: Monitoring the physical structures and refractive indices of prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Wan Maisarah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR can only be achieved if sufficient energy is provided at the boundary between metal and dielectric. An employment of prism as a light coupler by using Kretschmann configuration is one of the alternative for the production of adequate energy to be generated as surface plasmon polaritons (SPP. This work is carried out to investigate the effect of physical structure of the prism and its refractive index to the excitation of SPPs. A 50nm gold thin metal film with dielectric constant of ɛ=-12.45i+1.3 was deposited on the hypotenuse surface of the prisms. The physical structures of the prisms were varied such as triangular, conical, hemispherical and half cylindrical. These prisms were classified into two types of refractive indices (RI, namely n=1.51(type BK7 and n=1.77(type SF11. Based on SPR curve analyses, we discovered that strong SPR signals which consist of 82.98% photons were excited as SPPs can be obtained by using type-BK7 prism with physical structures of hemispherical or half cylindrical. From the view of selectivity ability as sensors, the usage of type-SF11 prisms (half cylindrical and hemispherical able to enhance this impressive feature in which sharp SPR curves with small FWHM values were obtained. In conclusion, apart from properties of thin film materials, the physical structure of prisms and their RI values play crucial roles to obtain optimum SPR signal. High sensitivity SPR sensor can be established with the appointment of type-BK7 prisms (hemispherical or half cylindrical shape as light couplers.

  7. PRISM, Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion Data Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, E.; Jones, J. M.; Stephens, C. D.; Ng, P.

    2016-12-01

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the U.S., calls for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records by providing batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM software is platform-independent (coded in Java), open-source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine composed of modules for each processing step, and a graphical user interface (GUI) for manual review and processing. To facilitate the use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and GUI components) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate implementation of new processing techniques. Input to PRISM currently is limited to data files in the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) V0 format, so that all retrieved acceleration time series need to be converted to this format. Output products include COSMOS V1, V2 and V3 files as: (i) raw acceleration time series in physical units with mean removed (V1), (ii) baseline-corrected and filtered acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series (V2), and (iii) response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra and common earthquake-engineering intensity measures (V3). A thorough description of the record processing features supported by PRISM is presented with examples and validation results. All computing features have been

  8. Automated analysis of objective-prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, P.C.; Irwin, M.J.; Bunclark, P.; Bridgeland, M.T.; Kibblewhite, E.J.; Smith, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    A fully automated system for the location, measurement and analysis of large numbers of low-resolution objective-prism spectra is described. The system is based on the APM facility at the University of Cambridge, and allows processing of objective-prism, grens or grism data. Particular emphasis is placed on techniques to obtain the maximum signal-to-noise ratio from the data, both in the initial spectral estimation procedure and for subsequent feature identification. Comparison of a high-quality visual catalogue of faint quasar candidates with an equivalent automated sample demonstrates the ability of the APM system to identify all the visually selected quasar candidates. In addition, a large population of new, faint (msub(J)approx. 20) candidates is identified. (author)

  9. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-11-28

    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  10. Single-Frequency Nd:YAG Ring Lasers with Corner Cube Prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Ying; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming; Wei, Guang-Hui

    2000-10-01

    We put forward another form of the non-planar ring lasers, in which the corner cube prism is the key element and the Nd:YAG crystal is used as a Porro prism to enclose the ring resonator. The phase shift due to the total internal reflections of the three differently orientated reflection planes of the corner cube prism, Faraday rotation in the Nd:YAG crystal placed in a magnetic field and the different output coupling in S and P polarization form an optical diode and enforce the single-frequency generating power. A round trip analysis of the polarization properties of the resonator is made by the evaluation of Jones matrix.

  11. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultitude, Janet H.

    2013-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’) is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the proposal that prism

  12. Accurate geometrical optics model for single-lens stereovision system using a prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyu; Lim, Kah Bin; Guo, Qiyong; Wang, DaoLei

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we proposed a new method for analyzing the image formation of a prism. The prism was considered as a single optical system composed of some planes. By analyzing each plane individually and then combining them together, we derived a transformation matrix which can express the relationship between an object point and its image by the refraction of a prism. We also explained how to use this matrix for epipolar geometry and three-dimensional point reconstruction. Our method is based on optical geometry and could be used in a multiocular prism. Experimentation results are presented to prove the accuracy of our method is better than former researchers' and is comparable with that of the multicamera stereovision system.

  13. Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy with Right-Angle Prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A right-angle prism was used to enhance the acoustic signal of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS system. The incident laser beam was parallelly inverted by the right-angle prism and passed through the gap between two tuning fork prongs again to produce another acoustic excitation. Correspondingly, two pairs of rigid metal tubes were used as acoustic resonators with resonance enhancement factors of 16 and 12, respectively. The QEPAS signal was enhanced by a factor of 22.4 compared with the original signal, which was acquired without resonators or a prism. In addition, the system noise was reduced a little with double resonators due to the Q factor decrease. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was greatly improved. Additionally, a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA of 5.8 × 10−8 W·cm−1·Hz−1/2 was achieved for water vapor detection in the atmosphere.

  14. A study on suppressing transmittance fluctuations for air-gapped Glan-type polarizing prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanfa; Li, Dailin; Zhu, Huafeng; Li, Chuanzhi; Jiao, Zhiyong; Wang, Ning; Xu, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiumin; Song, Lianke

    2018-05-01

    Light intensity transmittance is a key parameter for the design of polarizing prisms, while sometimes its experimental curves based on spatial incident angle presents periodical fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel method for completely suppressing these fluctuations via setting a glued error angle in the air gap of Glan-Taylor prisms. The proposal consists of: an accurate formula of the intensity transmittance for Glan-Taylor prisms, a numerical simulation and a contrast experiment of Glan-Taylor prisms for analyzing the causes of the fluctuations, and a simple method for accurately measuring the glued error angle. The result indicates that when the setting glued error angle is larger than the critical angle for a certain polarizing prism, the fluctuations can be completely suppressed, and a smooth intensity transmittance curve can be obtained. Besides, the critical angle in the air gap for suppressing the fluctuations is decreased with the increase of beam spot size. This method has the advantage of having less demand for the prism position in optical systems.

  15. Asymmetrical effects of adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms depends on pre-existing attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Kelly M; Leblanc, Andrew; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Barrett, Anna M

    2010-09-01

    Proposals that adaptation with left-shifting prisms induces neglect-like symptoms in normal individuals rely on a dissociation between the postadaptation performance of individuals trained with left- versus right-shifting prisms (e.g., Colent, Pisella, & Rossetti, 2000). A potential problem with this evidence is that normal young adults have an a priori leftward bias (e.g., Jewell & McCourt, 2000). In Experiment 1, we compared the line bisection performance of young adults to that of aged adults, who as a group may lack a leftward bias in line bisection. Participants trained with both left- and right-shifting prisms. Consistent with our hypothesis, while young adults demonstrated aftereffects for left, but not right prisms, aged adults demonstrated reliable aftereffects for both prisms. In Experiment 2, we recruited a larger sample of young adults, some of whom were right-biased at baseline. We observed an interaction between baseline bias and prism-shift, consistent with the results of Experiment 1: Left-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with right-shifting prisms and right-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with left-shifting prisms. These results suggest that previous failures to find generalizable aftereffects with right-shifting prisms may be driven by participants' baseline biases rather than specific effects of the prism itself.

  16. Prism adaptation for spatial neglect after stroke: translational practice gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A M; Goedert, Kelly M; Basso, Julia C

    2012-10-01

    Spatial neglect increases hospital morbidity and costs in around 50% of the 795,000 people per year in the USA who survive stroke, and an urgent need exists to reduce the care burden of this condition. However, effective acute treatment for neglect has been elusive. In this article, we review 48 studies of a treatment of intense neuroscience interest: prism adaptation training. Due to its effects on spatial motor 'aiming', prism adaptation training may act to reduce neglect-related disability. However, research failed, first, to suggest methods to identify the 50-75% of patients who respond to treatment; second, to measure short-term and long-term outcomes in both mechanism-specific and functionally valid ways; third, to confirm treatment utility during the critical first 8 weeks poststroke; and last, to base treatment protocols on systematic dose-response data. Thus, considerable investment in prism adaptation research has not yet touched the fundamentals needed for clinical implementation. We suggest improved standards and better spatial motor models for further research, so as to clarify when, how and for whom prism adaptation should be applied.

  17. Design of airborne imaging spectrometer based on curved prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Xiangli, Bin; Zhou, Jinsong; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2011-11-01

    A novel moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer spreading from visible wavelength to near infrared wavelength range with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, which combines curved prisms with the Offner configuration, is introduced. Compared to conventional imaging spectrometers based on dispersive prism or diffractive grating, this design possesses characteristics of small size, compact structure, low mass as well as little spectral line curve (smile) and spectral band curve (keystone or frown). Besides, the usage of compound curved prisms with two or more different materials can greatly reduce the nonlinearity inevitably brought by prismatic dispersion. The utilization ratio of light radiation is much higher than imaging spectrometer of the same type based on combination of diffractive grating and concentric optics. In this paper, the Seidel aberration theory of curved prism and the optical principles of Offner configuration are illuminated firstly. Then the optical design layout of the spectrometer is presented, and the performance evaluation of this design, including spot diagram and MTF, is analyzed. To step further, several types of telescope matching this system are provided. This work provides an innovational perspective upon optical system design of airborne spectral imagers; therefore, it can offer theoretic guide for imaging spectrometer of the same kind.

  18. Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms for high performance electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianbo; Li, Man; Li, Junru; Wei, Chengzhen; He, Yuyue; Huang, Yixuan; Li, Qiaoling

    2017-12-01

    Porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have been successfully synthesized via a facile route. The process involves the preparation of nickel-cobalt-manganese acetate hydroxide by a simple co-precipitation method and subsequently the thermal treatment. The as-synthesized Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms had a large surface area (96.53 m2 g-1) and porous structure. As electrode materials for supercapacitors, porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms showed a high specific capacitance of 1623.5 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1. Moreover, the porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms were also employed as positive electrode materials to assemble flexible solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors. The resulting flexible device had a maximum volumetric energy density (0.885 mW h cm-3) and power density (48.9 mW cm-3). Encouragingly, the flexible device exhibited good cycling stability with only about 2.2% loss after 5000 charge-discharge cycles and excellent mechanical stability. These results indicate that porous Ni-Co-Mn oxides prisms have the promising application in high performance electrochemical energy storage.

  19. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available , independent of the angle of incidence. Thus an initial planar wavefront remains planar after reflection. This property was initially exploited in Michelson interferometers to relax the tolerances on mis-alignment, and then proposed in 1962 by Gould et al1... 20 25 30 35 0 20 40 60 80 100 Prism Angle (Degrees) Nu mb er o f P et als divisions. These relationships lead to the following equation for the allowed angles of rotation of the prism edges relative to one another for repeatability...

  20. An evaluation of factors influencing pore pressure in accretionary complexes: Implications for taper angle and wedge mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    At many subduction zones, accretionary complexes form as sediment is off-scraped from the subducting plate. Mechanical models that treat accretionary complexes as critically tapered wedges of sediment demonstrate that pore pressure controls their taper angle by modifying basal and internal shear strength. Here, we combine a numerical model of groundwater flow with critical taper theory to quantify the effects of sediment and de??collement permeability, sediment thickness, sediment partitioning between accretion and underthrusting, and plate convergence rate on steady state pore pressure. Our results show that pore pressure in accretionary wedges can be viewed as a dynamically maintained response to factors which drive pore pressure (source terms) and those that limit flow (permeability and drainage path length). We find that sediment permeability and incoming sediment thickness are the most important factors, whereas fault permeability and the partitioning of sediment have a small effect. For our base case model scenario, as sediment permeability is increased, pore pressure decreases from near-lithostatic to hydrostatic values and allows stable taper angles to increase from ??? 2.5?? to 8??-12.5??. With increased sediment thickness in our models (from 100 to 8000 m), increased pore pressure drives a decrease in stable taper angle from 8.4??-12.5?? to 15?? to <4??) with increased sediment thickness (from <1 to 7 km). One key implication is that hydrologic properties may strongly influence the strength of the crust in a wide range of geologic settings. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Igor A.; Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-05-01

    A model to describe the transverse field distribution of the output beam from porro prism resonators is proposed. The model allows the prediction of the output transverse field distribution by assuming that the main areas of loss are located at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed.

  2. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-06-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  3. 3D Printed Prisms with Tunable Dispersion for the THz Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Beltran-Mejia, Felipe; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Here, we present a 3D printed prism for THz waves made out of an artificial dielectric material in which the dispersion can be tuned by external compression. The artificial material consists of thin dielectric layers with variable air spacings which has been produced using a fused deposition molding process. The material properties are carefully characterized and the functionality of the prisms is in a good agreement with the underlying theory. These prisms are durable, lightweight, inexpensive, and easy to produce.

  4. Ferromanganese nodules from MANOP Sites H, S, and R-Control of mineralogical and chemical composition by multiple accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, J.; Lyle, M.; Finney, B.; Piper, D.Z.; Murphy, K.; Conard, R.; Pisias, N.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical composition of ferromanganese nodules from the three nodule-bearing MANOP sites in the Pacific can be accounted for in a qualitative way by variable contributions of distinct accretionary processes. These accretionary modes are: 1. (1) hydrogenous, i.e., direct precipitation or accumulation of colloidal metal oxides in seawater, 2. (2) oxic diagenesis which refers to a variety of ferromanganese accretion processes occurring in oxic sediments; and 3. (3) suboxic diagenesis which results from reduction of Mn+4 by oxidation of organic matter in the sediments. Geochemical evidence suggests processes (1) and (2) occur at all three MANOP nodule-bearing sites, and process (3) occurs only at the hemipelagic site, H, which underlies the relatively productive waters of the eastern tropical Pacific. A normative model quantitatively accounts for the variability observed in nearly all elements. Zn and Na, however, are not well explained by the three end-member model, and we suggest that an additional accretionary process results in greater variability in the abundances of these elements. Variable contributions from the three accretionary processes result in distinct top-bottom compositional differences at the three sites. Nodule tops from H are enriched in Ni, Cu, and Zn, instead of the more typical enrichments of these elements in nodule bottoms. In addition, elemental correlations typical of most pelagic nodules are reversed at site H. The three accretionary processes result in distinct mineralogies. Hydrogenous precipitation produces ??MnO2. Oxic diagenesis, however, produces Cu-Ni-rich todorokite, and suboxic diagenesis results in an unstable todorokite which transforms to a 7 A?? phase ("birnessite") upon dehydration. The presence of Cu and Ni as charge-balancing cations influence the stability of the todorokite structure. In the bottoms of H nodules, which accrete dominantly by suboxic diagenesis, Na+ and possibly Mn+2 provide much of the charge balance for

  5. Multi-energy CT based on a prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hao; Osher, Stanley; Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compressive sensing approach for multi-energy computed tomography (CT), namely the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). To further compress the multi-energy image for allowing the reconstruction with fewer CT data and less radiation dose, the PRISM models a multi-energy image as the superposition of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix (with row dimension in space and column dimension in energy), where the low-rank matrix corresponds to the stationary background over energy that has a low matrix rank, and the sparse matrix represents the rest of distinct spectral features that are often sparse. Distinct from previous methods, the PRISM utilizes the generalized rank, e.g., the matrix rank of tight-frame transform of a multi-energy image, which offers a way to characterize the multi-level and multi-filtered image coherence across the energy spectrum. Besides, the energy-dependent intensity information can be incorporated into the PRISM in terms of the spectral curves for base materials, with which the restoration of the multi-energy image becomes the reconstruction of the energy-independent material composition matrix. In other words, the PRISM utilizes prior knowledge on the generalized rank and sparsity of a multi-energy image, and intensity/spectral characteristics of base materials. Furthermore, we develop an accurate and fast split Bregman method for the PRISM and demonstrate the superior performance of the PRISM relative to several competing methods in simulations. (papers)

  6. ePRISM: A case study in multiple proxy and mixed temporal resolution integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; Dowsett, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) Project, we present the ePRISM experiment designed I) to provide climate modelers with a reconstruction of an early Pliocene warm period that was warmer than the PRISM interval (similar to 3.3 to 3.0 Ma), yet still similar in many ways to modern conditions and 2) to provide an example of how best to integrate multiple-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) data from time series with varying degrees of temporal resolution and age control as we begin to build the next generation of PRISM, the PRISM4 reconstruction, spanning a constricted time interval. While it is possible to tie individual SST estimates to a single light (warm) oxygen isotope event, we find that the warm peak average of SST estimates over a narrowed time interval is preferential for paleoclimate reconstruction as it allows for the inclusion of more records of multiple paleotemperature proxies.

  7. Intricacies of Feedback in Computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method for treatment of attentional disorders, such as neglect e.g. 1,2. The method involves repeated pointing at specified targets with or without prism glasses using a specifically designed wooden box. The aim of this study was to ascertain...... whether the PAT method can be executed with similar effect using a computer with a touch screen.   62 healthy subjects were subjected to two experimental conditions: 1) pointing out at targets using the original box, 2) pointing out at targets on a computer attached touch screen. In both conditions......, the subjects performed a pre-test consisting of 30 targets without feedback, then an exposure-test of 90 targets with prism glasses and feedback, and finally a post-test of 60 targets, with no glasses and no feedback. Two experiments were carried out, 1) the feedback was provided by showing a cross...

  8. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  9. Anatomy of the western Java plate interface from depth-migrated seismic images

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Heidrun; Hindle, David; Klaeschen, Dirk; Oncken, O.; Scholl, D.

    2009-01-01

    Newly pre-stack depth-migrated seismic images resolve the structural details of the western Java forearc and plate interface. The structural segmentation of the forearc into discrete mechanical domains correlates with distinct deformation styles. Approximately 2/3 of the trench sediment fill is detached and incorporated into frontal prism imbricates, while the floor sequence is underthrust beneath the décollement. Western Java, however, differs markedly from margins such as Nankai or Barbados...

  10. Variation in forearc basin development along the Sunda Arc, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, W.

    The present forearc basin configuration along the Sunda Arc initially appears to have been controlled by extension and differential subsidence of basement blocks in response to the late Eocene collision of India with Asia. The late Oligocene increase in convergence between the South-east Asian and Indian Plates associated with a new pulse of subduction, resulted in basement uplift and the formation of a regional unconformity that can be recognized along the entire Sunda Arc. From the early to late Miocene, the Sumba and Savu forearc sectors along the eastern Sunda Arc may have been characterized by forearc extension. Submarine fan deposition on the arcward side of the evolving accretionary prism represents the first phase in forearc basin deposition. These fans were subsequently covered by basin and slope sediments derived from the evolving magmatic arc. Structural response to increased late Miocene compression varied along strike of the Sunda Arc. North of Bali, Lombok and Sumbawa, the incipient collision between Australia and the western Banda Arc caused back-arc thrusting and basin inversion. Towards the south of Java, an increase in both the size of the accretionary prism and convergence rates resulted in uplift and large scale folding of the outer forearc basin strata. Along the west coast of Sumatra, increased compression resulted in uplift along the inner side of the forearc along older transcurrent faults. Uplift of West Sumatra was followed by the deposition of a westward prograding sequence of terrigenous sediments that resulted in the development of a broad shelf. Initial forearc basin subsidence relates to the age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, on top of which the basin is situated. Along the western Sunda Arc, both fexural loading of the evolving accretionary prism, and across arc strike-slip faulting represent additional factors that result in forearc subsidence.

  11. Tsunami Scenarios Based on Interseismic Models Along the Nankai Trough, Japan, From Seafloor and Onshore Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Bock, Yehuda; Melgar, Diego; Tadokoro, Keiichi

    2018-03-01

    The recent availability of Global Positioning System-Acoustic seafloor geodetic observations enables us to resolve the spatial distribution of the slip deficit rate near the Nankai trough, southwestern Japan. Considering a tectonic block model and the transient deformation due to the major earthquakes in this area, the slip deficit rate between the two relevant blocks can be estimated. In this study, we remove the time-dependent postseismic deformation of the 2004 southeastern off the Kii Peninsula earthquakes (MJMA 7.1, 7.4), which had led to the underestimation of the slip deficit rate in earlier studies. We model the postearthquake viscoelastic relaxation using the 3D finite element model with bi-viscous Burgers rheology, as well as the afterslip on the finite faults. The corrected Global Positioning System-Acoustic and land-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems data are aligned to the existing tectonic model and used to estimate the slip deficit rate on the plate boundary. We then calculate the coseismic displacements and tsunami wave propagation with the simple assumption that a hundred years of constant slip deficit accumulation was released instantaneously. To evaluate the influence of uncertainties in the plate interface geometry on a tsunami model for the Nankai trough, we investigated two different geometries and performed checkerboard inversion simulations. Although the two models indicate roughly similar results, the peak height of the tsunami wave and its arrival time at several points are significantly different in terms of the expected hazard.

  12. Physical optics modeling of modal patterns in a crossed porro prism resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical optics model is proposed to describe the transverse modal patterns in crossed Porro prism resonators. The model departs from earlier attempts in that the prisms are modeled as non-classical rotating elements with amplitude and phase...

  13. Os experimentos prismáticos de Goethe Goethe's prismatic experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Jordan

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio pretende estimular a realização de experimentos prismáticos com recursos muito simples e, com isso, facilitar o acesso aos fundamentais estudos de Goethe sobre cor, a "Farbenlehre". O encarte anexo contém fotos de um processo prismático complementar, produzido por Imagens-Modelo em Claro-Escuro neutro. Contém ainda fotos de imagens prismáticas produzidas por Imagens-Modelo em cores.The essay intends to stimulate the carrying out of prismatic experiments with very simple resources and, therewith, ease the access to Goethe's fundamental color studies, the "Farbenlehre". The included folder contains photographs of a complementary prismatic process produced by neutral bright-dark Model-Images. It also contains photographs of prismatic images produced by colored Model-Images.

  14. Beam pointing direction changes in a misaligned Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-Fa; Leung, Chung-Yee

    1988-07-01

    The relative change of the beam pointing direction for a misaligned Porro prism resonator has been analyzed, using an oscillation axis concept for the Porro prism resonator to find the beam direction. Expressions for the beam tilting angles are presented which show that the angular misalignment in the horizontal direction will result in beam tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is found.

  15. Improvement of Mental Imagery after Prism Exposure in Neglect: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Rode

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that various symptoms of unilateral neglect, including the pathological shift of the subjective midline to the right, may be improved by a short adaptation period to a prismatic shift of the visual field to the right. We report here the improvement of imagined neglect after prism exposure in a patient with a left unilateral neglect. Despite a strong neglect observed for mental images as well as for conventional tests, the mental evocation of left-sided information from an internal image of the map of France map was fully recovered following prism adaptation to the right. This improvement could not be explained by the alteration of visuomotor responses induced by the prism adaptation. Prism adaptation may therefore act not only on sensory-motor levels but also on a higher cognitive level of mental space representation and/or exploration.

  16. Use of yoked prisms in patients with acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Surbhi; Han, Esther; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical practices for prescribing yoked prisms, as well as to assess related patient responses, in a sample of visually-symptomatic patients having acquired brain injury (ABI). The clinical records of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) that were assessed for yoked prisms were reviewed retrospectively. This query resulted in 60 patient records for analysis between January 2011 and December 2012. The following diagnostic groups were analysed: homonymous hemianopsia (HH)/homonymous quadranopsia, abnormal egocentric localization (AEL) and visual neglect. HH/homonymous quadranopsia (58.3%) was the primary indication to prescribe yoked prisms, followed by visual neglect/unilateral spatial inattention (USI) (40.0%) and AEL (11.7%). The most common favourable patient responses were increased awareness of their blind visual field and improved gait, mobility and balance. The magnitude and direction of prisms prescribed were dependent upon the subjective responses in patients manifesting AEL. In contrast, base direction was dependent upon the direction of visual field loss in patients with HH/homonymous quadranopsia and visual neglect. Two-thirds of the present sample population responded favourably to the yoked prisms. The results of the present study should prove useful to clinicians for the successful prescription of yoked prisms as a treatment modality in patients presenting with the above three diagnoses.

  17. Numerical experiment on tsunami deposit distribution process by using tsunami sediment transport model in historical tsunami event of megathrust Nankai trough earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Sugawara, D.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    A large flow caused by tsunami transports sediments from beach and forms tsunami deposits in land and coastal lakes. A tsunami deposit has been found in their undisturbed on coastal lakes especially. Okamura & Matsuoka (2012) found some tsunami deposits in the field survey of coastal lakes facing to the Nankai trough, and tsunami deposits due to the past eight Nankai Trough megathrust earthquakes they identified. The environment in coastal lakes is stably calm and suitable for tsunami deposits preservation compared to other topographical conditions such as plains. Therefore, there is a possibility that the recurrence interval of megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis will be discussed with high resolution. In addition, it has been pointed out that small events that cannot be detected in plains could be separated finely (Sawai, 2012). Various aspects of past tsunami is expected to be elucidated, in consideration of topographical conditions of coastal lakes by using the relationship between the erosion-and-sedimentation process of the lake bottom and the external force of tsunami. In this research, numerical examination based on tsunami sediment transport model (Takahashi et al., 1999) was carried out on the site Ryujin-ike pond of Ohita, Japan where tsunami deposit was identified, and deposit migration analysis was conducted on the tsunami deposit distribution process of historical Nankai Trough earthquakes. Furthermore, examination of tsunami source conditions is possibly investigated by comparison studies of the observed data and the computation of tsunami deposit distribution. It is difficult to clarify details of tsunami source from indistinct information of paleogeographical conditions. However, this result shows that it can be used as a constraint condition of the tsunami source scale by combining tsunami deposit distribution in lakes with computation data.

  18. Forward and inverse solutions for Risley prism based on the Denavit-Hartenberg methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran-Gonzalez, A.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Strojnik, M.; Flores, J. L.; Garcia-Luna, J. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism for pointing and scanning beam systems are developed. A more efficient and faster algorithm is proposed to make an analogy of the Risley prism system compared with a robotic system with two degrees of freedom. This system of equations controls each Risley prism individually as a planar manipulator arm of two links. In order to evaluate the algorithm we implement it in a pointing system. We perform popular routines such as the linear, spiral and loops traces. Using forward and inverse solutions for two-element Risley prism it is also possible to point at coordinates specified by the user, provided they are within the pointer area of work area. Experimental results are showed as a validation of our proposal.

  19. Assessing the Relative Mobility of Submarine Landslides from Deposit Morphology and Physical Properties: an Example from Nankai Trough, Offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Moore, Z. T.

    2014-12-01

    A prominent landslide deposit in the Slope Basin seaward of the Megasplay Fault in the Nankai Trough was emplaced by a high-mobility landslide based on analysis of physical properties and seismic geomorphology. Slide acceleration is a critical variable that determines amplitude of slide-generated tsunami but is many times a variable with large uncertainty. In controlled laboratory experiments, the ratio of the shear stress to yield strength, defined as the Flow Factor, controls a wide spectrum of mass movement styles from slow, retrogressive failure to rapid, liquefied flows. We apply the laboratory Flow Factor approach to a natural landslide in the Nankai Trough by constraining pre-failure particle size analysis and porosity. Several mass transport deposits (MTDs), were drilled and cored at Site C0021 in the Nankai Trough during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 338. The largest, MTD-6, occurs at 133-176 meters below seafloor and occurred approximately 0.87 Mya. Slide volume is 2 km3, transport distance is 5 km, and average deposit thickness is 50 m (maximum 180 m). Pre-failure water content was estimated from shallow sediments at Site C0018 (porosity = 72%). The average grain size distribution is 39% clay-sized, 58% silt-sized, and 3% sand-size particles as determined by hydrometer analyses of the MTD. Together, the porosity and clay fraction predict a Flow Factor of approximately 4, which corresponds to a relatively high mobility slide. We interpret this result to indicate the landslide that created MTD-6 was a single event that transported the slide mass relatively rapidly as opposed to a slow, episodic landslide event. This is supported by the observation of a completely evacuated source area with no remnant blocks or retrogressive headscarp and the internally chaotic seismic facies with large entrained blocks. Future works will focus on the tsunamigenic potential of this high mobility slide. This approach can be extended to other field

  20. Eu3+-doped Y2O3 hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Errui; Li, Guangshe; Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing; Huang, Xinsong; Xu, Wen; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition of Eu 3+ . With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu 3+ concentration in Y 2 O 3 , an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y 2 O 3 is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ doped Y 2 O 3 hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y 4 O(OH) 9 (NO 3 ) to Y 2 O 3 was discussed. • Aspect ratio of prisms was tailored by the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. • Luminescence properties were

  1. Design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel for enhancing solar energy collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, Vinayak; Jiang, Dongyue; Park, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present an arrayed tunable prism panel enabling wide tracking and high solar concentration. • A microfluidic technology allows a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system. • Our prism panel enables high solar concentration up to 2032× factor. • Various liquid prism configurations (stacked prism arrays) and optical materials are considered. • Their impacts on solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration are studied. - Abstract: We present the design and optical analyses of an arrayed microfluidic tunable prism panel that enables wide solar tracking and high solar concentration while minimizing energy loss. Each of the liquid prism modules is implemented by a microfluidic (i.e. non-mechanical) technology based on electrowetting for adaptive solar beam steering. Therefore the proposed platform offers a low-cost, lightweight and precise solar tracking system while obviating the need for bulky and heavy mechanical moving parts essentially required for a conventional motor-driven solar tracker. In this paper, various liquid prism configurations in terms of design (single, double, triple and quad-stacked prism arrays) as well as optical materials are considered and their impact on optical performance aspects such as solar beam steering, reflection losses and beam concentration is studied. Our system is able to achieve a wide solar tracking covering the whole-day movement of the Sun and a reflection loss below 4.4% with a Rayleigh’s film for a quad-stacked prism configuration. Furthermore, an arrayed prism panel is proposed to increase the aperture area and thus allows for the collection of large amounts of sunlight. Our simulation study based on the optical design software, ZEMAX, indicates that the prism panel is capable of high solar concentration up to 2032× factor even without conventional solar tracking devices. We also deal with dispersion characteristics of the materials and their corresponding effect on

  2. PRISM, a Novel Visual Metaphor Measuring Personally Salient Appraisals, Attitudes and Decision-Making: Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sensky

    Full Text Available PRISM (the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure is a novel, simple visual instrument. Its utility was initially discovered serendipitously, but has been validated as a quantitative measure of suffering. Recently, new applications for different purposes, even in non-health settings, have encouraged further exploration of how PRISM works, and how it might be applied. This review will summarise the results to date from applications of PRISM and propose a generic conceptualisation of how PRISM works which is consistent with all these applications.A systematic review, in the form of a qualitative evidence synthesis, was carried out of all available published data on PRISM.Fifty-two publications were identified, with a total of 8254 participants. Facilitated by simple instructions, PRISM has been used with patient groups in a variety of settings and cultures. As a measure of suffering, PRISM has, with few exceptions, behaved as expected according to Eric Cassell's seminal conceptualisation of suffering. PRISM has also been used to assess beliefs about or attitudes to stressful working conditions, interpersonal relations, alcohol consumption, and suicide, amongst others.This review supports PRISM behaving as a visual metaphor of the relationship of objects (eg 'my illness' to a subject (eg 'myself' in a defined context (eg 'my life at the moment'. As a visual metaphor, it is quick to complete and yields personally salient information. PRISM is likely to have wide applications in assessing beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making, because of its properties, and because it yields both quantitative and qualitative data. In medicine, it can serve as a generic patient-reported outcome measure. It can serve as a tool for representational guidance, can be applied to developing strategies visually, and is likely to have applications in coaching, psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions.

  3. Effective strength of incoming sediments and its implications for plate boundary propagation: Nankai and Costa Rica as type examples of accreting vs. erosive convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Achim

    2013-11-01

    The location of the seaward tip of a subduction thrust controls material transfer at convergent plate margins, and hence global mass balances. At approximately half of those margins, the material of the subducting plate is completely underthrust so that no accretion or even subduction erosion takes place. Along the remaining margins, material is scraped off the subducting plate and added to the upper plate by frontal accretion. We here examine the physical properties of subducting sediments off Costa Rica and Nankai, type examples for an erosional and an accretionary margin, to investigate which parameters control the level where the frontal thrust cuts into the incoming sediment pile. A series of rotary-shear experiments to measure the frictional strength of the various lithologies entering the two subduction zones were carried out. Results include the following findings: (1) At Costa Rica, clay-rich strata at the top of the incoming succession have the lowest strength (μres = 0.19) while underlying calcareous ooze, chalk and diatomite are strong (up to μres = 0.43; μpeak = 0.56). Hence the entire sediment package is underthrust. (2) Off Japan, clay-rich deposits within the lower Shikoku Basin inventory are weakest (μres = 0.13-0.19) and favour the frontal proto-thrust to migrate into one particular horizon between sandy, competent turbidites below and ash-bearing mud above. (3) Taking in situ data and earlier geotechnical testing into account, it is suggested that mineralogical composition rather than pore-pressure defines the position of the frontal thrust, which locates in the weakest, clay mineral-rich (up to 85 wt.%) materials. (4) Smectite, the dominant clay mineral phase at either margin, shows rate strengthening and stable sliding in the frontal 50 km of the subduction thrust (0.0001-0.1 mm/s, 0.5-25 MPa effective normal stress). (5) Progressive illitization of smectite cannot explain seismogenesis, because illite-rich samples also show velocity

  4. Transfer of memory trace of cerebellum-dependent motor learning in human prism adaptation: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Soichi; Honda, Takeru; Yamazaki, Tadashi

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the memory trace of ocular reflex adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei for consolidation through repetitions of training. However, the memory transfer is not well characterized in the learning of voluntary movement. Here, we implement our model of memory transfer to interpret the data of prism adaptation (Martin, Keating, Goodkin, Bastian, & Thach, 1996a, 1996b), assuming that the cerebellar nuclear memory formed by memory transfer is used for normal throwing. When the subject was trained to throw darts wearing prisms in 30-40 trials, the short-term memory for recalibrating the throwing direction by gaze would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, which was extinguished by throwing with normal vision in a similar number of trials. After weeks of repetitions of short-term prism adaptation, the long-term memory would be formed in the cerebellar nuclei through memory transfer, which enabled one to throw darts to the center wearing prisms without any training. These two long-term memories, one for throwing with normal vision and the other for throwing wearing prisms, are assumed to be utilized automatically under volitional control. Moreover, when the prisms were changed to new prisms, a new memory for adapting to the new prisms would be formed in the cerebellar cortex, just to counterbalance the nuclear memory of long-term adaptation to the original prisms in a similar number of trials. These results suggest that memory transfer may occur in the learning of voluntary movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. XeCl excimer laser with new prism resonator configurations and its performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benerji, N. S., E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A.; Varshnay, N.; Singh, Bijendra, E-mail: nsb@rrcat.gov.in, E-mail: bsingh@rrcat.gov.in [Excimer Laser Section, LMPD, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2015-07-15

    New resonator cavity configurations, namely, the prism resonator and unstable prism resonator, are demonstrated for the first time in an excimer (XeCl) laser with interesting and novel results. High misalignment tolerance ∼50 mrad is achieved with considerably reduced beam divergence of less than ∼1 mrad without reduction in output power capabilities of the laser. The misalignment tolerance of ∼50 mrad is a dramatic improvement of ∼25 times compared to ∼2 mrad normally observed in standard excimer laser with plane-plane cavity. Increase in depth of focus from 3 mm to 5.5 mm was also achieved in case of prism resonator configuration with an improvement of about 60%. Unstable prism resonator configuration is demonstrated here in this paper with further reduction in beam divergence to about 0.5 mrad using plano-convex lens as output coupler. The misalignment tolerance in case of unstable prism resonator was retained at about 30 mrad which is a high value compared to standard unstable resonators. The output beam spot was completely filled with flat-top profile with prism resonator configurations, which is desired for various material processing applications. Focusing properties and beam divergence in case of prism resonator have been investigated using SEM (scanning electron microscope) images. SEM images of the focused spot size (∼20 μm holes) on metal sheet indicate beam divergence of about 0.05 mrad which is about 1.5 times diffraction limit. Energy contained in this angle is thus sufficient for micro-machining applications. Clean and sharp edges of the micro-holes show high pointing stability with multiple shot exposures. Such characteristics of the excimer laser system will be extremely useful in micro-machining and other field applications.

  6. In situ stress and pore pressure in the Kumano Forearc Basin, offshore SW Honshu from downhole measurements during riser drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.; Boutt, D.; Doan, M.-L.; Ito, T.; McNeill, L.; Byrne, T.; Conin, M.; Lin, W.; Kano, Y.; Araki, E.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.

    2013-05-01

    situ stress and pore pressure are key parameters governing rock deformation, yet direct measurements of these quantities are rare. During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition #319, we drilled through a forearc basin at the Nankai subduction zone and into the underlying accretionary prism. We used the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester tool (MDT) for the first time in IODP to measure in situ minimum stress, pore pressure, and permeability at 11 depths between 729.9 and 1533.9 mbsf. Leak-off testing at 708.6 mbsf conducted as part of drilling operations provided a second measurement of minimum stress. The MDT campaign included nine single-probe (SP) tests to measure permeability and in situ pore pressure and two dual-packer (DP) tests to measure minimum principal stress. Permeabilities defined from the SP tests range from 6.53 × 10-17 to 4.23 × 10-14 m2. Pore fluid pressures are near hydrostatic throughout the section despite rapid sedimentation. This is consistent with the measured hydraulic diffusivity of the sediments and suggests that the forearc basin should not trap overpressures within the upper plate of the subduction zone. Minimum principal stresses are consistently lower than the vertical stress. We estimate the maximum horizontal stress from wellbore failures at the leak-off test and shallow MDT DP test depths. The results indicate a normal or strike-slip stress regime, consistent with the observation of abundant active normal faults in the seaward-most part of the basin, and a general decrease in fault activity in the vicinity of Site C0009.

  7. How material contrast around subduction faults may control coseismic slip and rupture dynamics: tsunami applications for the case study of Tohoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Antonio; Murphy, Shane; Romano, Fabrizio; Lorito, Stefano; Festa, Gaetano; Volpe, Manuela; Piatanesi, Alessio

    2017-04-01

    Recent megathrust tsunamigenic events, e.g. Maule 2010 (M8.8) and Tohoku 2011 (M9.0), generated huge tsunami waves as a consequence of high slip in the shallow part of the respective subduction zone. Other events, (e.g. the recent Mentawai 2010, M7.8, or the historical Meiji 1896, M8.2), referred to as tsunami earthquakes, produced unexpectedly large tsunami waves, probably due to large slip at shallow depth over longer rupture durations compared to deeper thrust events. Subduction zone earthquakes originate and propagate along bimaterial interfaces separating materials having different elastic properties, e.g. continental and oceanic crust, a stiffer deep mantle wedge, shallow compliant accretionary prism etc. Bimaterial interfaces have been showed, through observations (seismological and laboratory) and theoretical studies, to affect the rupture: introducing a preferred rupture direction as well as asymmetric rupture velocities and shear stress redistributions. Such features are predominantly due to the break of symmetry between the two sides of the interface in turn ascribable to the complex coupling between the frictional interfacial sliding and the slip-induced normal stress perturbations. In order to examine the influence of material contrast on a fault plane on the seismic source and tsunami waves, we modelled a Tohoku-like subduction zone to perform a large number of 2D along-dip rupture dynamics simulations in the framework of linear slip weakening both for homogeneous and bimaterial fault. In this latter model, the rupture acts as the interface between the subducting oceanic crust and the overriding layers (accretionary prism, continental crust and mantle wedge), varying the position of the shear stress asperity acting as nucleation patch. Initial results reveal that ruptures in homogeneous media produce earthquakes with large slip at depth compared to the case where bi-material interface is included. However the opposite occurs for events nucleating at

  8. Jones matrix formulation of a Porro prism laser resonator with waveplates: theoretical and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, L.; Bhardwaj, A.; Pal, S.; Kumar, A.

    2007-11-01

    This article presents the results of a detailed theoretical and experimental analysis carried out on a folded Z-shaped polarization coupled, electro-optically Q-switched laser resonator with Porro prisms and waveplates. The advantages of adding waveplates in a Porro prism resonator have been explored for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching and obtaining variable reflectivity with fixed orientation of Porro prism. Generalized expressions have been derived in terms of azimuth angles and phase shifts introduced by the polarizing elements. These expressions corroborate with known reported results under appropriate substitutions. A specific case of a crossed Porro prism diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. In the feedback arm, a 0.57λ waveplate oriented at 135° completely compensates the phase shift of a fused silica Porro prism and provides better tolerances than a BK-7 prism/0.60λ waveplate combination to stop prelasing. The fused silica prism/0.57λ combination with waveplate at 112° acts like a 100% mirror and was utilized for optimization of free running performance. The effective reflectivity was determined for various orientations of the quarter waveplate in the gain arm to numerically estimate the Q-switched laser pulse parameters through rate equation analysis. Experimental results match well with the theoretical analysis.

  9. Beyond the sensorimotor plasticity: cognitive expansion of prism adaptation in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine eMICHEL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor plasticity allows us to maintain an efficient motor behavior in reaction to environmental changes. One of the classical models for the study of sensorimotor plasticity is prism adaptation. It consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prismatic lenses that shift the visual field laterally. The conditions of the development of the plasticity and the sensorimotor after-effects have been extensively studied for more than a century. However, the interest taken in this phenomenon was considerably increased since the demonstration of neglect rehabilitation following prism adaptation by Rossetti and his colleagues in 1998. Mirror effects, i.e. simulation of neglect in healthy individuals, were observed for the first time by Colent and collaborators in 2000. The present review focuses on the expansion of prism adaptation to cognitive functions in healthy individuals during the last 15 years. Cognitive after-effects have been shown in numerous tasks even in those that are not intrinsically spatial in nature. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of a strong link between low-level sensorimotor plasticity and high-level cognitive functions and raise important questions about the mechanisms involved in producing unexpected cognitive effects following prism adaptation. Implications for the functional mechanisms and neuroanatomical network of prism adaptation are discussed to explain how sensorimotor plasticity may affect cognitive processes.

  10. Innovative Solar Tracking Concept by Rotating Prism Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy has become one of the most promising renewable energies and is the most widely used nowadays. In order to achieve an optimum performance, both photovoltaic and solar thermal applications are required to track the position of the sun throughout the day and year in the most effective way possible to avoid a high negative impact on the system efficiency. The present paper attempts to describe a novel semipassive solar tracking concentrator (SPSTC in which, in order to track the sun, two independent arrays of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA prisms are implemented to refract sunlight by rotating said prisms, thus being able to redirect solar radiation as desired. The first set is responsible for eliminating one of the directional components of the solar radiation; the task is achieved by rotating the prisms within the array at a specific angle. The second set deals with another of the sunlight’s directional components, transforming its direction into a completely perpendicular pattern to the array. Having downward vertical radiation makes it possible to implement a stationary Fresnel lens to concentrate the solar radiation for any application desired. The system is designed and validated using simulation software to prove the feasibility of the concept.

  11. Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Natalya

    2012-01-01

    Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…

  12. Anomalous refraction of light colors by a metamaterial prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mário G

    2009-05-15

    A prism of glass separates white light into its spectral components in such a manner that colors associated with shorter wavelengths are more refracted than the colors associated with longer wavelengths. Here, we demonstrate that this property is not universal, and that a lossless metamaterial prism with a suitable microstructure may enable a broadband regime of anomalous dispersion, where the spectral components of light are separated in an unconventional way, so that "violet light" is less refracted than "red light." This phenomenon is fundamentally different from conventional anomalous dispersion effects, which are invariably accompanied by significant loss and are typically very narrow band.

  13. Corporate Privacy Policy Changes during PRISM and the Rise of Surveillance Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosure of the NSA’s PRISM program demonstrated that Internet companies have become prime targets of government surveillance. But what role do companies themselves play in putting users’ privacy at risk? By comparing the changes in the privacy policies of ten companies—the nine in PRISM plus Twitter—I seek to understand how users’ privacy shifted. Specifically, I study how company practices surrounding the life cycle of user information (e.g. collection, use, sharing, and retention shifted between the times when companies joined PRISM and when PRISM news broke. A qualitative analysis of the changes in the privacy policies suggests that company disclosure of tracking for advertising purposes increased. I draw on business scholar Shoshana Zuboff’s conceptualization of “surveillance capitalism” and legal scholar Joel Reidenberg’s “transparent citizen” to explain the implications such changes hold for users’ privacy. These findings underscore why public debates about post-Snowden privacy rights cannot ignore the role that companies play in legitimizing surveillance activities under the auspices of creating market value.

  14. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  15. Fusional Vergence Detected by Prism Bar and Synoptophore in Chinese Childhood Intermittent Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the changes in fusional vergence in Chinese children with intermittent exotropia (IXT and the association with the control of IXT. Methods. Ninety-two patients with IXT (8–15 years old were compared with 86 controls. Exodeviation control was evaluated using the Revised Newcastle Control Score. Angle of deviation was measured using prism and alternate cover testing at distance and near. Fusional vergence was measured using prism bar and synoptophore. This study was registered with ChiCTR-RCC-13003920. Results. Using prism bar, convergence break points were lower whereas divergence break points were higher in children with IXT at distance (P<0.001 and near (P<0.001 compared with controls. There was no significant difference in mean divergence amplitudes between the two groups when testing using a synoptophore (P=0.53. In children with IXT, the distance between recovery point and break point in both convergence (distance: P=0.02; near: P=0.02 and divergence (distance: P<0.001; near: P<0.001 was larger than controls when detected by prism bar and synoptophore (convergence: P=0.005; divergence: P=0.006. Conclusions. Children with IXT have reduced convergence amplitudes as detected by both prism bar and synoptophore.

  16. Train integrity detection risk analysis based on PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yuan

    2018-04-01

    GNSS based Train Integrity Monitoring System (TIMS) is an effective and low-cost detection scheme for train integrity detection. However, as an external auxiliary system of CTCS, GNSS may be influenced by external environments, such as uncertainty of wireless communication channels, which may lead to the failure of communication and positioning. In order to guarantee the reliability and safety of train operation, a risk analysis method of train integrity detection based on PRISM is proposed in this article. First, we analyze the risk factors (in GNSS communication process and the on-board communication process) and model them. Then, we evaluate the performance of the model in PRISM based on the field data. Finally, we discuss how these risk factors influence the train integrity detection process.

  17. Analysis of unscrammed loss of flow and heat sink for PRISM with GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Kennett, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring an advanced liquid-metal reactor design by General Electric Company (GE) called PRISM. The intent is to design a reactor with passively safe responses to many operational and severe accidents. PRISM is under review at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for licensability with Brookhaven National Laboratory providing technical assistance. Recently, the PRISM design has been modified to include three gas expansion modules (GEMs) on its core periphery. The GEMs were added to quickly reduce the power (by inserting negative reactivity) during loss-of-flow events to curtail peak fuel and clad temperatures predicted in the previous design. The GEM prototypes have been tested at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The significance of the GEMs in PRISM is discussed in this paper through the evaluation of the unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and loss of heat sink using the SSC code. It has been demonstrated in the past that SSC predicts results similar to GE and other liquid-metal reactor codes

  18. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  19. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  20. Prism Foil from an LCD Monitor as a Tool for Teaching Introductory Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and…

  1. Assessment of prism responses to loss of flow events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Sands, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), with Brookhaven national Laboratory providing technical support, is continuing a preapplication review of the 471 MWt, advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), PRISM by General Electric. The revised design has been evaluated using the SSC code, for a series of loss of flow events (LOF) with and without gas expansion modules (GEMs). These devices have a net worth of 69 cents and have reduced the seriousness of the LOF in PRISM. However, it was found that the extremely low probability case of an instantaneous loss of 4 EM pumps without scram could lead to sodium boiling even with the GEMs

  2. Preparing for the Future Nankai Trough Tsunami: A Data Assimilation and Inversion Analysis From Various Observational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Iyan E.; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2017-10-01

    The future Nankai Trough tsunami is one of the imminent threats to the Japanese coastal communities that could potentially cause a catastrophic event. As a part of the countermeasure efforts for such an occurrence, this study analyzes the efficacy of combining tsunami data assimilation (DA) and waveform inversion (WI). The DA is used to continuously refine a wavefield model whereas the WI is used to estimate the tsunami source. We consider a future scenario of the Nankai Trough tsunami recorded at various observational systems, including ocean bottom pressure (OBP) gauges, global positioning system (GPS) buoys, and ship height positioning data. Since most of the OBP gauges are located inside the source region, the recorded tsunami signals exhibit significant offsets from surface measurements due to coseismic seafloor deformation effects. Such biased data are not applicable to the standard DA, but can be taken into account in the WI. On the other hand, the use of WI for the ship data may not be practical because a considerably large precomputed tsunami database is needed to cope with the spontaneous ship locations. The DA is more suitable for such an observational system as it can be executed sequentially in time and does not require precomputed scenarios. Therefore, the combined approach of DA and WI allows us to concurrently make use of all observational resources. Additionally, we introduce a bias correction scheme for the OBP data to improve the accuracy, and an adaptive thinning of observations to determine the efficient number of observations.

  3. Effect of prism adaptation on left dichotic listening deficit in neglect patients: glasses to hear better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rode, G; Pavani, F; O'Shea, J; Giard, M H; Boisson, D; Rossetti, Y

    2010-03-01

    Unilateral neglect is a disabling syndrome frequently observed following right hemisphere brain damage. Symptoms range from visuo-motor impairments through to deficient visuo-spatial imagery, but impairment can also affect the auditory modality. A short period of adaptation to a rightward prismatic shift of the visual field is known to improve a wide range of hemispatial neglect symptoms, including visuo-manual tasks, mental imagery, postural imbalance, visuo-verbal measures and number bisection. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the beneficial effects of prism adaptation may generalize to auditory manifestations of neglect. Auditory extinction, whose clinical manifestations are independent of the sensory modalities engaged in visuo-manual adaptation, was examined in neglect patients before and after prism adaptation. Two separate groups of neglect patients (all of whom exhibited left auditory extinction) underwent prism adaptation: one group (n = 6) received a classical prism treatment ('Prism' group), the other group (n = 6) was submitted to the same procedure, but wore neutral glasses creating no optical shift (placebo 'Control' group). Auditory extinction was assessed by means of a dichotic listening task performed three times: prior to prism exposure (pre-test), upon prism removal (0 h post-test) and 2 h later (2 h post-test). The total number of correct responses, the lateralization index (detection asymmetry between the two ears) and the number of left-right fusion errors were analysed. Our results demonstrate that prism adaptation can improve left auditory extinction, thus revealing transfer of benefit to a sensory modality that is orthogonal to the visual, proprioceptive and motor modalities directly implicated in the visuo-motor adaptive process. The observed benefit was specific to the detection asymmetry between the two ears and did not affect the total number of responses. This indicates a specific effect of prism adaptation on

  4. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He dating of teschenite intrusions gives time constraints on accretionary processes and development of planation surfaces in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisik, Martin; Frisch, Wolfgang [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences; Panek, Tomas [Ostrava Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Matysek, Dalibor [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Engineering; Dunkl, Istvan [Geoscience Center Goettingen (Germany). Sedimentology and Environmental Geology

    2008-09-15

    The age of planation surfaces in the Podbeskydska pahorkatina Upland in the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC, Czech Republic) is constrained by low-temperature thermochronological dating methods for the first time. Our apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data measured on teschenite intrusions show that planation surfaces in the study area formed in post-Pannonian time (>7.1 Ma) and are therefore younger than traditionally believed. This contradicts the classical concepts, which stipulate that a large regional planation surface of Pannonian age (the so-called ''midmountain level'') developed in the whole Western Carpathians. Geodynamic implications of our data are the following: (i) the investigated Tesin and Godula nappes of the OWC were buried and thermally overprinted in the accretionary wedge in different ways, and consequently experienced different cooling histories. This indicates a dynamic basin setting with an active accretionary process in a subduction zone; (ii) accretionary processes in the OWC were active already during Late Eocene times. (orig.)

  5. Affective three-dimensional brain-computer interface created using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    To avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we applied a prism array-based display when presenting three-dimensional (3-D) objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli to increase the signal-to-noise ratios of steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) because involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanisms can enhance SSVEP amplitudes, thus producing increased interaction efficiency. Ten male and nine female participants voluntarily participated in our experiments. Participants were asked to control objects under three viewing conditions: two-dimension (2-D), stereoscopic 3-D, and prism. The participants performed each condition in a counter-balanced order. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant increases in the positive predictive values in the prism condition compared to the 2-D and 3-D conditions. Participants' subjective ratings of realness and engagement were also significantly greater in the prism condition than in the 2-D and 3-D conditions, while the ratings for visual fatigue were significantly reduced in the prism condition than in the 3-D condition. The proposed methods are expected to enhance the sense of reality in 3-D space without causing critical visual fatigue. In addition, people who are especially susceptible to stereoscopic 3-D may be able to use the affective brain-computer interface.

  6. Numerical and experimental evaluation of masonry prisms by finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.R. SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract This work developed experimental tests and numerical models able to represent the mechanical behavior of prisms made of ordinary and high strength concrete blocks. Experimental tests of prisms were performed and a detailed micro-modeling strategy was adopted for numerical analysis. In this modeling technique, each material (block and mortar was represented by its own mechanical properties. The validation of numerical models was based on experimental results. It was found that the obtained numerical values of compressive strength and modulus of elasticity differ by 5% from the experimentally observed values. Moreover, mechanisms responsible for the rupture of the prisms were evaluated and compared to the behaviors observed in the tests and those described in the literature. Through experimental results it is possible to conclude that the numerical models have been able to represent both the mechanical properties and the mechanisms responsible for failure.

  7. Suffering Quantified? Feasibility and Psychometric Characteristics of 2 Revised Versions of the Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PhD Ad J.J.M. Vingerhoets; PhD Marjet G.B.G. Blokhorst; MSc Jolene L.M. Reimus; MSc Annemieke M.A. van Nunen; MD E.J.M. Wouters

    2008-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) assesses suffering. In this article, the authors explored the feasibility and psychometric qualities of 2 revised versions of the PRISM-PRISM-R1 and PRISM-R2-that they used in 3 studies of participants with different medical problems.

  8. Prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM): A new frontier at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Formed by non-covalent interactions and not defined at genetic level, the assemblies of small molecules in biology are complicated and less explored. A common morphology of the supramolecular assemblies of small molecules is nanofibrils, which coincidentally resembles the nanofibrils formed by proteins such as prions. So these supramolecular assemblies are termed as prion-like nanofibrils of small molecules (PriSM). Emerging evidence from several unrelated fields over the past decade implies the significance of PriSM in biology and medicine. This perspective aims to highlight some recent advances of the research on PriSM. This paper starts with description of the intriguing similarities between PriSM and prions, discusses the paradoxical features of PriSM, introduces the methods for elucidating the biological functions of PriSM, illustrates several examples of beneficial aspects of PriSM, and finishes with the promises and current challenges in the research of PriSM. We anticipate that the research of PriSM will contribute to the fundamental understanding at the intersection of supramolecular chemistry and cell biology and ultimately lead to a new paradigm of molecular (or supramolecular) therapeutics for biomedicine.

  9. Establishment and correction of an Echelle cross-prism spectrogram reduction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Bayanheshig; Li, Xiaotian; Cui, Jicheng

    2017-11-01

    The accuracy of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer depends on the matching degree between the spectrum reduction model and the actual state of the spectrometer. However, the error of adjustment can change the actual state of the spectrometer and result in a reduction model that does not match. This produces an inaccurate wavelength calibration. Therefore, the calibration of a spectrogram reduction model is important for the analysis of any echelle cross-prism spectrometer. In this study, the spectrogram reduction model of an echelle cross-prism spectrometer was established. The image position laws of a spectrometer that varies with the system parameters were simulated to the influence of the changes in prism refractive index, focal length and so on, on the calculation results. The model was divided into different wavebands. The iterative method, least squares principle and element lamps with known characteristic wavelength were used to calibrate the spectral model in different wavebands to obtain the actual values of the system parameters. After correction, the deviation of actual x- and y-coordinates and the coordinates calculated by the model are less than one pixel. The model corrected by this method thus reflects the system parameters in the current spectrometer state and can assist in accurate wavelength extraction. The instrument installation and adjustment would be guided in model-repeated correction, reducing difficulty of equipment, respectively.

  10. Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model (PRISM) For Environmental Remediation and Waste Management - 12097

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentz, David L.; Stoll, Ralph H.; Greeves, John T. [Predicus LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Miller, R. Ian [GoldSim Technology Group, LLC, Issaquah, WA 98027 (United States); Nutt, W. Mark [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The PRISM (Prioritization Risk Integration Simulation Model), a computer model was developed to support the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) in its mission to clean up the environmental legacy from the Nation's nuclear weapons materials production complex. PRISM provides a comprehensive, fully integrated planning tool that can tie together DOE-EM's projects. It is designed to help DOE managers develop sound, risk-informed business practices and defend program decisions. It provides a better ability to understand and manage programmatic risks. The underlying concept for PRISM is that DOE-EM 'owns' a portfolio of environmental legacy obligations (ELOs), and that its mission is to transform the ELOs from their current conditions to acceptable conditions, in the most effective way possible. There are many types of ELOs - - contaminated soils and groundwater plumes, disused facilities awaiting D and D, and various types of wastes waiting for processing or disposal. For a given suite of planned activities, PRISM simulates the outcomes as they play out over time, allowing for all key identified uncertainties and risk factors. Each contaminated building, land area and waste stream is tracked from cradle to grave, and all of the linkages affecting different waste streams are captured. The progression of the activities is fully dynamic, reflecting DOE-EM's prioritization approaches, precedence requirements, available funding, and the consequences of risks and uncertainties. The top level of PRISM is the end-user interface that allows rapid evaluation of alternative scenarios and viewing the results in a variety of useful ways. PRISM is a fully probabilistic model, allowing the user to specify uncertainties in input data (such as the magnitude of an existing groundwater plume, or the total cost to complete a planned activity) as well as specific risk events that might occur. PRISM is based on the GoldSim software

  11. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment. METHODS: Twelve patients with acquired, documented HVFD were eligible to be included. All patients underwent specific vision-targeted, health-related QOL questionnaire and monocular and binocular Goldmann perimetry before commencing prism therapy. Patients were fitted with monocular prisms on the side of the HVFD with the base-in the direction of the field defect creating a peripheral optical exotropia and field expansion. After the treatment period, QOL questionnaires and perimetry were repeated. RESULTS: Twelve patients were included in the treatment group, 10 of whom were included in data analysis. Overall, there was significant improvement within multiple vision-related, QOL functioning parameters, specifically within the domains of general health (p < 0.01), general vision (p < 0.05), distance vision (p < 0.01), peripheral vision (p < 0.05), role difficulties (p < 0.05), dependency (p < 0.05), and social functioning (p < 0.05). Visual field expansion was shown when measured monocularly and binocularly during the study period in comparison with pretreatment baselines. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HVFD demonstrate decreased QOL. Monocular sector prisms can improve the QOL and expand the visual field in these patients.

  12. Analysis of postulated events for the revised ALMR/PRISM design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PRISM reactor is presently under pre-application licensing review by the NRC, with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) providing technical assistance. In this paper, the authors describe the latest set of results from their SSC and MINET code calculations. Series of postulated events were analyzed, for the most current PRISM design, to evaluate the system performance under unscrammed conditions. The PRISM reactor utilizes a metal fuel composed of 27% Pu, 10% Zr, and 63% U, based on the fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program. The fuel has a small power and temperature defect as a result of the high fuel thermal conductivity of metal and a hard neutron spectrum. The reactivity feedbacks of the core are designed to provide a negative response to off-normal, high temperature conditions, by invoking negative responses from the thermal expansion of the fuel, control rods, and core radial dimensions. The core restraint system incorporates the limited free bowing feature, which generates an outward bow of the in-core portion of the fuel assembly when a temperature gradient exits. The core also has three Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs) placed around the periphery, which will remove a combined worth of -69 cents of reactivity when the pumps are tripped from full power conditions. In evaluating this passive shutdown response, in which the PRISM reactor power should decrease significantly in response to overheated conditions, one considers three classes of unscrammed events. These include the unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF), loss of heat sink (ULOHS), and transient over power (UTOP) events

  13. PRISM: Processing routines in IDL for spectroscopic measurements (installation manual and user's guide, version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes procedures for installing and using the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software. PRISM provides a framework to conduct spectroscopic analysis of measurements made using laboratory, field, airborne, and space-based spectrometers. Using PRISM functions, the user can compare the spectra of materials of unknown composition with reference spectra of known materials. This spectroscopic analysis allows the composition of the material to be identified and characterized. Among its other functions, PRISM contains routines for the storage of spectra in database files, import/export of ENVI spectral libraries, importation of field spectra, correction of spectra to absolute reflectance, arithmetic operations on spectra, interactive continuum removal and comparison of spectral features, correction of imaging spectrometer data to ground-calibrated reflectance, and identification and mapping of materials using spectral feature-based analysis of reflectance data. This report provides step-by-step instructions for installing the PRISM software and running its functions.

  14. Signatures of geochemical changes at methane-seeps as recorded by seep carbonates

    OpenAIRE

    Himmler, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This thesis compiles three manuscripts: (1) The first manuscript (chapter 2.1) contains petrographic and geochemical data of aragonitic seep carbonates from the Makran accretionary prism. High-resolution rare earth element (REE) analysis yield distinct total REE[aragonite] concentrations and shale-normalised REE[aragonite] patterns. The REE variations are ascribed to different pore fluid compositions and accompanied redox changes during aragonite precipitation. (2) The second manuscript (chap...

  15. Cyclic formation and stabilization of Archean lithosphere by accretionary orogenesis: Constraints from TTG and potassic granitoids, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cawood, Peter A.; Liu, Shuwen; Guo, Rongrong; Bai, Xiang; Wang, Kang

    2017-09-01

    Accretionary orogens are major sites of modern continental growth, yet their role in the development of Archean continental crust remains enigmatic. Diverse granitoid suites from tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) to potassic granitoids appeared during late Archean, representing a period of major continental formation and stabilization. In this study, whole-rock geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic data are reported for Neoarchean granitoid gneisses from the Northern Liaoning Terrane, northeastern North China Craton (NCC). Older granitoid gneisses ( 2592-2537 Ma) define three magmatic zones migrating from southeast to northwest, each showing a common magmatic evolution from high-pressure TTGs to medium-/low-pressure TTGs and potassic granitoids. They have depleted zircon ƐHf(t) of +0.5 to +8.7. Younger 2529-2503 Ma potassic granitoids and TTGs occur throughout the terrane, which are marked by variable zircon ƐHf(t) of -4.7 to +8.1, and are coeval with regional high-grade metamorphism. Petrogenetic modeling and changing Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N of the granitoids suggest that the crust experienced episodic thickening and thinning and became progressively evolved through development of potassic granitoids and sedimentary successions. The metavolcanic basement to the granitoids display tholeiitic to calc-alkaline affinities, together with the top-to-the-northwest thrusting and associated volcanogenic massive sulfide-type Cu-Zn deposits, suggesting cyclic crustal formation of Northern Liaoning within an accretionary orogen with a SE-dipping subduction polarity. Cyclic crustal thickening and thinning is related to tectonic switching from advancing to retreating relations between the downgoing and overriding plate. After 2530 Ma, this accretionary system accreted to the ancient continental nucleus of NCC (Anshan-Benxi Terrane), signifying final lithosphere stabilization.

  16. Sedimentological Properties of Natural Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sands in the Nankai Trough and Mallik Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Tsuji, T.; Waseda, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Nankai Trough parallels the Japanese Island, where extensive BSRs have been interpreted from seismic reflection records. High resolution seismic surveys have definitely indicated gas hydrate distributions, and drilling the MITI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 and the METI Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada wells in 2004 have revealed subsurface gas hydrate in the eastern part of Nankai Trough. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that also clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. During the field operations, the LWD and wire-line well log data were continuously obtained and plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand cores were recovered. Subsequence sedimentological and geochemical analyses performed on those core samples revealed the crucial geologic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrate in sediments. Pore-space gas hydrates reside in sandy sediments mostly filling intergranular porosity. Pore waters chloride anomalies, core temperature depression and core observations on visible gas hydrates confirm the presence of pore-space gas hydrates within moderate to thick sandy layers, typically 10 cm to a meter thick. Sediment porosities and pore-size distributions were obtained by mercury porosimetry, which indicate that porosities of gas hydrate-bearing sandy strata are approximately 45 %. According to grain size distribution curves, gas hydrate is dominant in fine- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Gas hydrate saturations are typically up to 80 % in pore volume throughout most of the hydrate-dominant sandy layers, which are estimated by well log analyses as well as pore water chloride anomalies. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicated that highly saturated

  17. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael

    2011-01-01

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  18. Prism foil from an LCD monitor as a tool for teaching introductory optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Gojkosek, Mihael, E-mail: gorazd.planinsic@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19 (Slovenia)

    2011-03-15

    Transparent prism foil is part of a backlight system in LCD monitors that are widely used today. This paper describes the optical properties of the prism foil and several pedagogical applications suitable for undergraduate introductory physics level. Examples include experiments that employ refraction, total internal reflection, diffraction and image formation in a nontrivial way and are therefore particularly useful for active learning strategies.

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework: evidence from Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqil Anwer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS. In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance

  20. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM): A novel visual instrument to measure quality of life in dermatological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühleisen, Beda; Büchi, Stefan; Schmidhauser, Simone; Jenewein, Josef; French, Lars E; Hofbauer, Günther F L

    2009-07-01

    To validate the PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) tool, a novel visual instrument, for the assessment of health-related quality of life in dermatological inpatients compared with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and the Skindex-29 questionnaires and to report qualitative information on PRISM. In an open longitudinal study, PRISM and Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires were completed and HRQOL measurements compared. Academic dermatological inpatient ward. The study population comprised 227 sequential dermatological inpatients on admission. Patients completed the PRISM tool and the Skindex-29 and DLQI questionnaires at admission and discharge. PRISM Self-Illness Separation (SIS) score; Skindex-29 and DLQI scores; and qualitative PRISM information by Mayring inductive qualitative context analysis. The PRISM scores correlated well with those from the Skindex-29 (rho = 0.426; P quality of life questionnaires to assess changes in the burden of suffering during hospitalization. Inductive qualitative context analysis revealed impairment of adjustment and self-image as major aspects. Patients overall expected symptomatic and functional improvement. In patients with psoriasis and leg ulcers, many expected no treatment benefit. The PRISM tool proved to be convenient and reliable for health-related quality of life assessment, applicable for a wide range of skin diseases, and correlated with DLQI and Skindex-29 scores. With the PRISM tool, free-text answers allow for the assessment of individual information and potentially customized therapeutic approaches.

  1. A compact and lightweight off-axis lightguide prism in near to eye display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Qijia; Surman, Phil; Zheng, Yuanjin; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2017-06-01

    We propose a method to improve the design of an off-axis lightguide configuration for near to eye displays (NED) using freeform optics technology. The advantage of this modified optical system, which includes an organic light-emitting diode (OLED), a doublet lens, an imaging lightguide prism and a compensation prism, is that it increases optical length path, offers a smaller size, as well as avoids the obstructed views, and matches the user's head shape. In this system, the light emitted from the OLED passes through the doublet lens and is refracted/reflected by the imaging lightguide prism, which is used to magnify the image from the microdisplay, while the compensation prism is utilized to correct the light ray shift so that a low-distortion image can be observed in a real-world setting. A NED with a 4 mm diameter exit pupil, 21.5° diagonal full field of view (FoV), 23 mm eye relief, and a size of 33 mm by 9.3 mm by 16 mm is designed. The developed system is compact, lightweight and suitable for entertainment and education application.

  2. Evidence for chaotic fault interactions in the seismicity of the San Andreas fault and Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Turcotte, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamical behavior introduced by fault interactions is examined here using a simple spring-loaded, slider-block model with velocity-weakening friction. The model consists of two slider blocks coupled to each other and to a constant-velocity driver by elastic springs. For an asymmetric system in which the frictional forces on the two blocks are not equal, the solutions exhibit chaotic behavior. The system's behavior over a range of parameter values seems to be generally analogous to that of weakly coupled segments of an active fault. Similarities between the model simulations and observed patterns of seismicity on the south central San Andreas fault in California and in the Nankai trough along the coast of southwestern Japan.

  3. Hyperbolic prisms and foams in Hele-Shaw cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tufaile, A.P.B. [Soft Matter Laboratory, Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-10-03

    The propagation of light in foams creates patterns which are generated due to the reflection and refraction of light. One of these patterns is observed by the formation of multiple mirror images inside liquid bridges in a layer of bubbles in a Hele-Shaw cell. We are presenting the existence of these patterns in foams and their relation with hyperbolic geometry and Sierpinski gaskets using the Poincare disk model. The images obtained from the experiment in foams are compared to the case of hyperbolic optical elements. -- Highlights: → The chaotic scattering of light in foams generating deltoid patterns is based on hyperbolic geometry. → The deltoid patterns are obtained through the Plateau borders in a Hele-Shaw cell. → The Plateau borders act like hyperbolic prism. → Some effects of the refraction and reflection of the light rays were studied using a hyperbolic prism.

  4. Instantaneous flow field above the free end of finite-height cylinders and prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostamy, N.; Sumner, D.; Bergstrom, D.J.; Bugg, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PIV measurements of the flow above the free end of finite-height bodies. • Effect of cross-sectional shape of the models on the instantaneous flow. • Small-scale structures generated by the separated shear layer were revealed. • Effect of aspect ratio on the reattachment of the separated flow on the free end. -- Abstract: The flow above the free ends of surface-mounted finite-height circular cylinders and square prisms was studied experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Cylinders and prisms with aspect ratios of AR = 9, 7, 5, and 3 were tested at a Reynolds number of Re = 4.2 × 10 4 . The bodies were mounted normal to a ground plane and were partially immersed in a turbulent zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness relative to the body width was δ/D = 1.6. PIV measurements were made above the free ends of the bodies in a vertical plane aligned with the flow centreline. The present PIV results provide insight into the effects of aspect ratio and body shape on the instantaneous flow field. The recirculation zone under the separated shear layer is larger for the square prism of AR = 3 compared to the more slender prism of AR = 9. Also, for a square prism with low aspect ratio (AR = 3), the influence of the reverse flow over the free end surface becomes more significant compared to that for a higher aspect ratio (AR = 9). For the circular cylinder, a cross-stream vortex forms within the recirculation zone. As the aspect ratio of the cylinder decreases, the reattachment point of the separated flow on the free end surface moves closer to the trailing edge. For both the square prism and circular cylinder cases, the instantaneous velocity vector field and associated in-plane vorticity field revealed small-scale structures mostly generated by the separated shear layer

  5. Strategic Planning for Chronic Disease Prevention in Rural America: Looking Through a PRISM Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Amanda A; Wile, Kristina; Dove, Cassandra; Hawkins, Jackie; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Community-level strategic planning for chronic disease prevention. To share the outcomes of the strategic planning process used by Mississippi Delta stakeholders to prevent and reduce the negative impacts of chronic disease in their communities. A key component of strategic planning was participants' use of the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) to project the reduction, compared with the status quo, in deaths and costs from implementing interventions in Mississippi Delta communities. Participants in Mississippi Delta strategic planning meetings used PRISM, a user-friendly, evidence-based simulation tool that includes 22 categories of policy, systems, and environmental change interventions, to pose what-if questions that explore the likely short- and long-term effects of an intervention or any desired combination of the 22 categories of chronic disease intervention programs and policies captured in PRISM. These categories address smoking, air pollution, poor nutrition, and lack of physical activity. Strategic planning participants used PRISM outputs to inform their decisions and actions to implement interventions. Rural communities in the Mississippi Delta. A diverse group of 29 to 34 local chronic disease prevention stakeholders, known as the Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance. Community plans and actions that were developed and implemented as a result of local strategic planning. Existing strategic planning efforts were complemented by the use of PRISM. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance decided to implement new interventions to improve air quality and transportation and to expand existing interventions to reduce tobacco use and increase access to healthy foods. They also collaborated with the Department of Transportation to raise awareness and use of the current transportation network. The Mississippi Delta Strategic Alliance strategic planning process was complemented by the use of PRISM as a tool for strategic planning, which led to the

  6. Submarine Landslides and Mass-Transport Deposition in the Nankai fore-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.; Henry, P.; Kanamatsu, T.; Moe, K.; Moore, G. F.; IODP Expedition 333 Scientists

    2011-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence exist for a range of sediment mass movement processes within the shallow megasplay fault zone (MSFZ) area and the adjacent slope basin in the outer fore-arc of the Nankai subduction zone, Japan. Diagnostic features observed in 3-D reflection seismic data and in cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 316 document a complex mass movement history spanning at least ˜2.87 million years. Various modes and scales of sediment remobilization can be related to the different morphotectonic settings in which they occurred and allow integration of knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of submarine landslides into a holistic reconstruction of the tectonostratigraphic evolution. New data from the most-recent Nankai IODP Expedition 333, which drilled and cored a Pleistocene-to-Holocene succession of the slope-basin seaward of the MSFZ, provides unprecedented details on submarine landslide processes occurring over the last Million year. The slope-basin represents the depocentre for downslope sediment transport and is characterized in 3-D reflection seismic data by several mass-transport deposits (MTDs), including an up to 180 m thick MTD. Here we present D/V Chikyu shipboard results and first post cruise results from Site C0018, including litho- bio- magneto- tephra- and stable isotope-stratigraphy, X-ray computed tomography analysis and physical properties data. Six MTDs were identified from visual core description and X-ray CT-scans. The thickest MTD is also the oldest (emplaced between 0.85 and 1.05 Ma) and it coincides with a lithological transition between a sandy turbidite sequence below, and ash-bearing hemipelagites comprising several MTDs above. Deformation styles within the MTD are heterogeneous: intervals of disturbed sediments are interbedded within intervals inferred to retain original, coherent bedding. In three occurrences the base of the MTD is defined by a shear zone within fine-grained sediments

  7. Propagation of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Ma, Haotong; Dong, Li; Ren, Ge; Qi, Bo; Tan, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Limited by the size and weight of prism and optical assembling, Rotational Risley-prism-array system is a simple but effective way to realize high power and superior beam quality of deflecting laser output. In this paper, the propagation of the rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array in atmospheric turbulence is studied in detail. An analytical expression for the average intensity distribution at the receiving plane is derived based on nonparaxial ray tracing method and extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Power in the diffraction-limited bucket is chosen to evaluate beam quality. The effect of deviation angle, propagation distance and intensity of turbulence on beam quality is studied in detail by quantitative simulation. It reveals that with the propagation distance increasing, the intensity distribution gradually evolves from multiple-petal-like shape into the pattern that contains one main-lobe in the center with multiple side-lobes in weak turbulence. The beam quality of rotational Risley-prism-array-based Gaussian beam array with lower deviation angle is better than its counterpart with higher deviation angle when propagating in weak and medium turbulent (i.e. Cn2 beam quality of higher deviation angle arrays degrades faster as the intensity of turbulence gets stronger. In the case of propagating in strong turbulence, the long propagation distance (i.e. z > 10km ) and deviation angle have no influence on beam quality.

  8. Development and application of GIS-based PRISM integration through a plugin approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Seop; Chun, Jong Ahn; Kang, Kwangmin

    2014-05-01

    A PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model) QGIS-plugin was developed on Quantum GIS platform in this study. This Quantum GIS plugin system provides user-friendly graphic user interfaces (GUIs) so that users can obtain gridded meteorological data of high resolutions (1 km × 1 km). Also, this software is designed to run on a personal computer so that it does not require an internet access or a sophisticated computer system. This module is a user-friendly system that a user can generate PRISM data with ease. The proposed PRISM QGIS-plugin is a hybrid statistical-geographic model system that uses coarse resolution datasets (APHRODITE datasets in this study) with digital elevation data to generate the fine-resolution gridded precipitation. To validate the performance of the software, Prek Thnot River Basin in Kandal, Cambodia is selected for application. Overall statistical analysis shows promising outputs generated by the proposed plugin. Error measures such as RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) and MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) were used to evaluate the performance of the developed PRISM QGIS-plugin. Evaluation results using RMSE and MAPE were 2.76 mm and 4.2%, respectively. This study suggested that the plugin can be used to generate high resolution precipitation datasets for hydrological and climatological studies at a watershed where observed weather datasets are limited.

  9. Novel laterally pumped by prism laser configuration for compact solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascalu, T; Salamu, G; Sandu, O; Voicu, F; Pavel, N

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new laser configuration in which the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through a prism. The laser medium is square shaped and the prism is attached on one of its lateral sides, near one of the crystal extremities. The diode-laser fiber end is placed close to the prism hypotenuse, the pump radiation is coupled into the laser crystal through the opposite surface of the prism and propagates into the crystal through total internal reflections. This laser geometry is simple to align and permits the realization of compact diode-pumped laser systems, as well as power scaling. A diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser yielding pulses of 2.1 mJ energy under a pump with pulses of 9.9 mJ is demonstrated. The laser slope efficiency is 0.22. Furthermore, this geometry enables one to obtain passively Q-switched lasers with the saturable absorber crystal placed between the resonator high-reflectivity mirror and the laser crystal. A Nd:YAG laser, passively Q-switched by a Cr 4+ :YAG crystal with initial transmission T 0 = 0.90, delivering laser output with a pulsed energy of 93 μJ, a duration of 26 ns and a pump threshold of 1.9 mJ, is realized in order to prove the concept. (letter)

  10. Laser Oscillator Incorporating a Wedged Polarization Rotator and a Porro Prism as Cavity Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A laser cavity was designed and implemented by using a wedged polarization rotator and a Porro prism in order to reduce the parts count, and to improve the laser reliability. In this invention, a z-cut quartz polarization rotator is used to compensate the wavelength retardance introduced by the Porro prism. The polarization rotator rotates the polarization of the linear polarized beam with a designed angle that is independent of the orientation of the rotator. This unique property was used to combine the retardance compensation and a Risley prism to a single optical component: a wedged polarization rotator. This greatly simplifies the laser alignment procedure and reduces the number of the laser optical components.

  11. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  12. PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] design concept enhances waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    PRISM, a modular advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR), has been designed conceptually by GE under the US Department of Energy sponsorship. The concept design and analyses have been primarily focused on passive safety and improved construction and operating costs. Significantly, the unique design of multiple modules and features of PRISM enhance waste management over conventional reactor systems. This paper provides an overview of PRISM of these enhancements. Inherent to the ALMR's, the sodium coolant precludes crud buildup on reactor surfaces and in components and waste for disposal. Preliminary evaluations indicate this fundamental feature results in factors of 2-4 less waste volume and 2-3 orders of magnitude less curies per megawatt-electric for ultimate disposal. For example, the tap designed for sodium cleanup is expected to be exchanged only once every thirty years. Also, inherent to ALMR's, burning waste actinides and selected fission products to preclude their accumulation and burial is very attractive. The hard neutron spectrum of ALMR burns the actinides efficiently and is not poisoned by the actinides and fission products. The modular design of PRISM components (and the fuel cycle equipment) permit replacement without expensive and potentially hazardous volume reduction. For example, the functional components of the reference electromagnetic pump and IHK can be removed intact for waste disposal. Although development of the reference metal fuel is not completed, it is estimated that (low-level) waste from recycle of the fuel will result in significantly less volume than would be generated by aqueous recycle of oxide fuel. 6 refs., 10 figs

  13. Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms: Shape-controlled synthesis and tailored luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Errui [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li, Guangshe [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Fu, Chaochao; Zheng, Jing [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Huang, Xinsong [Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Xu, Wen [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Liping, E-mail: lipingli@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-25

    In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach, which involves water at the bottom as aqueous phase and oleylamine in the above as oil phase. With this unique reaction system, precursors of hexagonal prisms Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) were first obtained by simply varying the volume ratio of water to oleylamine. Time-dependent experiments were systematically performed to reveal the growth mechanism of the precursor. After subsequent heat treatment, these precursors transformed to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled diameters and aspect ratios varying from 4 to 19. Such a transformation is preceded via a topotactic process, as indicated by TG-DTA and mass spectra. Eventually, all Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were found to exhibit an intensive red emission at 611 nm, which corresponds to {sup 5}D{sub 0}→{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. With varying the aspect ratio of hexagonal prisms and increasing Eu{sup 3+} concentration in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, an optimum external quantum efficiency was achieved. - Graphical abstract: In this work, Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms with controlled aspect ratio from 4.4 to 19.3 were synthesized by transformation of the precursor Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) hexagonal prisms from a novel two-phase reaction system. The growth mechanism of the precursor has been systematically investigated, and a topotactic phase transformation from precursors to cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is for the first time put forward. By the size controlling and aspect ratio adjusting, the luminescence emission intensity as well as external quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms is further tailored to show an optimum. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} hexagonal prisms were synthesized by a novel two-phase approach. • Inheriting mechanism of prisms morphology from Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9

  14. Processing and review interface for strong motion data (PRISM) software, version 1.0.0—Methodology and automated processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A continually increasing number of high-quality digital strong-motion records from stations of the National Strong-Motion Project (NSMP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as well as data from regional seismic networks within the United States, call for automated processing of strong-motion records with human review limited to selected significant or flagged records. The NSMP has developed the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software to meet this need. In combination with the Advanced National Seismic System Quake Monitoring System (AQMS), PRISM automates the processing of strong-motion records. When used without AQMS, PRISM provides batch-processing capabilities. The PRISM version 1.0.0 is platform independent (coded in Java), open source, and does not depend on any closed-source or proprietary software. The software consists of two major components: a record processing engine and a review tool that has a graphical user interface (GUI) to manually review, edit, and process records. To facilitate use by non-NSMP earthquake engineers and scientists, PRISM (both its processing engine and review tool) is easy to install and run as a stand-alone system on common operating systems such as Linux, OS X, and Windows. PRISM was designed to be flexible and extensible in order to accommodate new processing techniques. This report provides a thorough description and examples of the record processing features supported by PRISM. All the computing features of PRISM have been thoroughly tested.

  15. Watching Nanoscale Self-Assembly Kinetics of Gold Prisms in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyeong; Ou, Zihao; Jones, Matthew R.; Chen, Qian

    We use liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy to watch self-assembly of gold triangular prisms into polymer-like structures. The in situ dynamics monitoring enabled by liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy, single nanoparticle tracking, and the marked conceptual similarity between molecular reactions and nanoparticle self-assembly combined elucidate the following mechanistic understanding: a step-growth polymerization based assembly statistics, kinetic pathways sampling particle curvature dependent energy minima and their interconversions, and directed assembly into polymorphs (linear or cyclic chains) through in situ modulation of the prism bonding geometry. Our study bridges the constituent kinetics on the molecular and nanoparticle length scales, which enriches the design rules in directed self-assembly of anisotropic nanoparticles.

  16. SU-G-IeP1-13: Sub-Nyquist Dynamic MRI Via Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B; Gao, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accelerated dynamic MRI is important for MRI guided radiotherapy. Inspired by compressive sensing (CS), sub-Nyquist dynamic MRI has been an active research area, i.e., sparse sampling in k-t space for accelerated dynamic MRI. This work is to investigate sub-Nyquist dynamic MRI via a previously developed CS model, namely Prior Rank, Intensity and Sparsity Model (PRISM). Methods: The proposed method utilizes PRISM with rank minimization and incoherent sampling patterns for sub-Nyquist reconstruction. In PRISM, the low-rank background image, which is automatically calculated by rank minimization, is excluded from the L1 minimization step of the CS reconstruction to further sparsify the residual image, thus allowing for higher acceleration rates. Furthermore, the sampling pattern in k-t space is made more incoherent by sampling a different set of k-space points at different temporal frames. Results: Reconstruction results from L1-sparsity method and PRISM method with 30% undersampled data and 15% undersampled data are compared to demonstrate the power of PRISM for dynamic MRI. Conclusion: A sub- Nyquist MRI reconstruction method based on PRISM is developed with improved image quality from the L1-sparsity method.

  17. Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Olthoff, Liselot; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M a

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found a negative relation between neglect and postural imbalance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of a single session of prism adaptation on balance [i.e. mediolateral and anteroposterior center of pressure (CoP)] and postural sway (i.e. mean

  18. Behaviour of concrete beams reinforced withFRP prestressed concrete prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svecova, Dagmar

    The use of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) to reinforce concrete is gaining acceptance. However, due to the relatively low modulus of FRP, in comparison to steel, such structures may, if sufficient amount of reinforcement is not used, suffer from large deformations and wide cracks. FRP is generally more suited for prestressing. Since it is not feasible to prestress all concrete structures to eliminate the large deflections of FRP reinforced concrete flexural members, researchers are focusing on other strategies. A simple method for avoiding excessive deflections is to provide sufficiently high amount of FRP reinforcement to limit its stress (strain) to acceptable levels under service loads. This approach will not be able to take advantage of the high strength of FRP and will be generally uneconomical. The current investigation focuses on the feasibility of an alternative strategy. This thesis deals with the flexural and shear behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms. FRP prestressed concrete prisms (PCP) are new reinforcing bars, made by pretensioning FRP and embedding it in high strength grout/concrete. The purpose of the research is to investigate the feasibility of using such pretensioned rebars, and their effect on the flexural and shear behaviour of reinforced concrete beams over the entire loading range. Due to the prestress in the prisms, deflection of concrete beams reinforced with this product is substantially reduced, and is comparable to similarly steel reinforced beams. The thesis comprises both theoretical and experimental investigations. In the experimental part, nine beams reinforced with FRP prestressed concrete prisms, and two companion beams, one steel and one FRP reinforced were tested. All the beams were designed to carry the same ultimate moment. Excellent flexural and shear behaviour of beams reinforced with higher prestressed prisms is reported. When comparing deflections of three beams designed to have the

  19. Transient safety performance of the PRISM innovative liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Dubberley, A.E.; Rhow, S.K.; Wu, T.

    1988-01-01

    The PRISM sodium-cooled reactor concept utilizes passive safety characteristics and modularity to increase performance margins, improve licensability, reduce owner's risk and reduce costs. The relatively small size of each reactor module (471 MWt) facilitates the use of passive self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features, which permit design simplification and reduction of safety-related systems. Key to the transient performance is the inherent negative reactivity feedback characteristics of the core design resulting from the use of metal (U-Pu-Zr) swing, and very low control rod runout worth. Selected beyond design basis events relying only on these core design features are analyzed and the design margins summarized to demonstrate the advancement in reactor safety achieved with the PRISM design concept

  20. High-performance beam steering using electrowetting-driven liquid prism fabricated by a simple dip-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrico Clement, Carlos; Park, Sung-Yong, E-mail: mpeps@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Block EA, #07-08, 9 Engineering Drive 1, 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-05-09

    A high degree of beam steering is demonstrated using an electrowetting-driven liquid prism. While prism devices have typically relied on complex and expensive laboratory setups, such as high-vacuum facilities for fabrication of dielectric layers, this work utilizes a simple dip-coating method to provide an ion gel layer as a dielectric, offering 2 or 3 orders higher specific capacitance (c ≈ 10 μF/cm{sup 2}) than that of conventional dielectrics. Analytical studies present the effects of liquid selection and arrangement on overall prism performance. For experimental demonstrations of high-performance beam steering, we not only selected two immiscible liquids of water and 1-bromonaphthalene (1-BN) oil which provide the large refractive index difference (n{sub water} = 1.33 and n{sub 1-BN} = 1.65 at λ = 532 nm) between them, but also utilized a double-stacked prism configuration which increases the number of interfaces for incoming light to be steered. At a prism apex angle of φ = 27°, we were able to achieve significantly large beam steering of up to β = 19.06°, which is the highest beam steering performance ever demonstrated using electrowetting technology.

  1. Cyclicity, episodicity, and continuity in accretionary wedge evolution: insights from geophysical imaging and physical analogue experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, N.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical profiles across active convergent margins reveal different styles and locations of sediment accretion, thrust slices dipping successively steeper towards the hinterland, splay faults, and blind thrusts as well as accumulation spaces e. g. thrust top basins and larger basins formed by regional subsidence, of very variable size and position. Morphologically, the continental slope at most margins can be sub-divided in a lower, middle, and upper slope, with often the middle slope being the most shallowly inclined, suggesting segmented wedges. Beneath the forearc, a subduction channel of a few hundred meters to a few km thickness marks a layer of material transport into greater depth that also hosts the plate interface and décollement zone. The petrographical composition of accretionary wedges and subduction channels as well as related pressures and temperatures are accessible through deep drilling or sampling fossil accretionary complexes now exhumed. The structure, lithology, and tectonic history of forearcs as identified from geophysical and geology field observations hint to parameters possibly controlling material transfer at convergent margins. Among them, sediment supply, which itself is largely controlled by climate, width of the subduction channel, and interplate frictional properties, which also exhibit control on plate coupling and therefore the seismic potential of a forearc, are suggested to be of major importance. These parameters further may undergo temporal fluctuation, e.g. when climate changes or when different material is entering the trench and therefore potentially also the subduction channel. High resolution monitoring of material flux and the evolution of fault zone kinematics of analogue experimental wedges made of granular materials exhibiting frictional behaviour equivalent to that of upper crustal rocks shows that accretionary cycles proceed as a chain of sub-processes, i.e. the development of a thrust slice from initial failure

  2. An assessment of the Crossed Porro Prism Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, B. A.; Fueloep, K.; Seymour, R.

    1980-08-01

    Lasers with crossed porro prism resonators for military laser rangefinder and designator applications are studied. Properties of these devices are reviewed and advantages over normal mirror resonators are examined. The theory of operating is treated and the mechanical stability and other features of the laser are examined and compared to standard mirror resonators.

  3. A novel and compact spectral imaging system based on two curved prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yunfeng; Bin, Xiangli; Zhou, Jinsong; Li, Yang

    2013-09-01

    As a novel detection approach which simultaneously acquires two-dimensional visual picture and one-dimensional spectral information, spectral imaging offers promising applications on biomedical imaging, conservation and identification of artworks, surveillance of food safety, and so forth. A novel moderate-resolution spectral imaging system consisting of merely two optical elements is illustrated in this paper. It can realize the function of a relay imaging system as well as a 10nm spectral resolution spectroscopy. Compared to conventional prismatic imaging spectrometers, this design is compact and concise with only two special curved prisms by utilizing two reflective surfaces. In contrast to spectral imagers based on diffractive grating, the usage of compound-prism possesses characteristics of higher energy utilization and wider free spectral range. The seidel aberration theory and dispersive principle of this special prism are analyzed at first. According to the results, the optical system of this design is simulated, and the performance evaluation including spot diagram, MTF and distortion, is presented. In the end, considering the difficulty and particularity of manufacture and alignment, an available method for fabrication and measurement is proposed.

  4. Origin of Fluids and Salts at Mercator Mud Vulcano, Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Heeschen; M. Haeckel; C. Berndt; D. Teagle; M. Palmer; D. Green; M. Cooper; H. Vaneste; V. Liebetrau

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is located at the plate boundary between the Eurasian and African plates and is characterized by widespread mud volcanism all along the continental margins. It is commonly believed that this results from sediment dewatering enhanced by the compressional forces within the accretionary prism. Recently, 3D seismic data and geochemical sediment cores indicated that in addition to compressional tectonics, halokinesis controls the location and dynamics of the Mercator mud volca...

  5. Optofluidic laser scanner based on a rotating liquid prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Daniel; Lehmann, Lukas; Zappe, Hans

    2016-03-20

    We demonstrate an electrowetting-actuated optofluidic system based on a rotatable liquid prism implemented as a two-dimensional laser scanner. The system is fabricated through a novel technology using a patterned flexible polymeric foil on which a high density of electrodes is structured and which is subsequently inserted into a cylindrical housing. The resulting radial electrode array is used for electrowetting actuation of two fluids filled into the cylinder, which allows a controllable tilt and orientation of the planar liquid interface and thus represents a tunable rotating prism. Finite element simulations and subsequent experimental verification show that this highly planar and precisely positionable liquid/liquid interface may be actuated to a deflection angle of ±6.4°, with a standard deviation of ±0.18°, and rotated 360° about the vertical axis. Power consumption is limited to several microwatts, and switching times of several hundred milliseconds were determined.

  6. Multisensory and Modality-Specific Influences on Adaptation to Optical Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calzolari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These

  7. Formation of forearc basins by collision between seamounts and accretionary wedges: an example from the New Hebrides subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.-Y.; Fisher, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Seabeam data reveal two deep subcircular reentrants in the lower arc slope of the New Hebrides island arc that may illustrate two stages in the development of a novel type of forearc basin. The Malekula reentrant lies just south of the partly subducted Bougainville seamount. This proximity, as well as the similarity in morphology between the reentrant and an indentation in the lower arc slope off Japan, suggests that the Malekula reentrant formed by the collision of a seamount with the arc. An arcuate fold-thrust belt has formed across the mouth of the reentrant, forming the toe of a new accretionary wedge. The Efate reentrant may show the next stage in basin development. This reentrant lies landward of a lower-slope ridge that may have begun to form as an arcuate fold-thrust belt across the mouth of a reentrant. This belt may have grown by continued accretion at the toe of the wedge, by underplating beneath the reentrant, and by trapping of sediment shed from the island arc. These processes could result in a roughly circular forearc basin. Basins that may have formed by seamount collision lie within the accretionary wedge adjacent to the Aleutian trenches. -Authors

  8. Numerical simulation of blast wave propagation in vicinity of standalone prism on flat plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valger, Svetlana; Fedorova, Natalya; Fedorov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    In the paper, numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of a standalone prism and a prism with a cavity in front of it was carried out. The modeling was based on the solution of 3D Euler equations and Fluent software was used as a main computational tool. The algorithm for local dynamic mesh adaptation to high gradients of pressure was applied. The initial stage of the explosion of condensed explosive was described with the help of "Compressed balloon method". The research allowed describing the characteristic stages of the blast in a semi-closed space, the structure of secondary shock waves and their interaction with obstacles. The numerical approach in Fluent based on combining inviscid gas dynamics methods and "Compressed balloon method" was compared with the method which had been used by the authors earlier with the help of AUTODYN and which is based on the use of the hydrodynamic model of a material to describe state of detonation products. For the problem of shock wave propagation in the vicinity of standalone prism the comparison of the simulation results obtained using both the methods with the experimental data was performed on the dependence of static pressure and effective momentum on time for the characteristic points located on prism walls.

  9. Characteristic analysis of a polarization output coupling Porro prism resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hailong; Meng, Junqing; Chen, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    An Electro-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG slab laser with a crossed misalignment Porro prism resonator for space applications has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The phase shift induced by the combination of different wave plates and Porro prism azimuth angles have been studied for creating high loss condition prior to Q-switching. The relationship of the effective output coupling reflectivity and the employed Q-switch driving voltage is explored by using Jones matrix optics. In the experiment, the maximum output pulse energy of 93 mJ with 14-ns pulse duration is obtained at the repetition rate of 20 Hz and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 16.8%. The beam quality factors are M 2 x = 2.5 and M 2y = 2.2, respectively.

  10. THz Photonic Band-Gap Prisms Fabricated by Fiber Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Stefan F.; Xu, Lipeng; Stecher, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We suggest a novel form of polymeric based 3D photonic crystal prisms for THz frequencies which could be fabricated using a standard fiber drawing technique. The structures are modeled and designed using a finite element analyzing technique. Using this simulation software we theoretically study...

  11. Amplitude versus offset analysis to marine seismic data acquired in Nankai Trough, offshore Japan where methane hydrate exists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, M.; Inamori, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Shimizu, S.

    2003-04-01

    Occurrence of methane hydrates in the Nankai Trough, located off the south-eastern coast of Japan, was confirmed by the exploratory test well drilling conducted by Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1999. Confirmation of methane hydrate has given so big impact to the Japan's future energy strategy and scientific and technological interest was derived from the information of the coring and logging results at the well. Following the above results, Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC) launched the national project, named as MH21, for establishing the technology of methane hydrate exploration and related technologies such as production and development. As one of the research project for evaluating the total amount of the methane hydrate, Amplitude versus Offset (AVO) was applied to the seismic data acquired in the Nankai Trough area. The main purpose of the AVO application is to evaluate the validity of delineation of methane hydrate-bearing zones. Since methane hydrate is thought to accompany with free-gas in general just below the methane hydrate-bearing zones, the AVO has a possibility of describing the presence of free-gas. The free-gas is thought to be located just below the base of methane hydrate stability zone which is characterized by the Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) on the seismic section. In this sense, AVO technology, which was developed as gas delineation tools, can be utilized for methane hydrate exploration. The result of AVO analysis clearly shows gas-related anomaly below the BSRs. Appearance of the AVO anomaly has so wide variety. Some of the anomalies might not correspond to the free-gas existence, however, some of them may show free-gas. We are now going to develop methodology to clearly discriminate free-gas from non-gas zone by integrating various types of seismic methods such as seismic inversion and seismic attribute analysis.

  12. Forearc Basin Stratigraphy and Interactions With Accretionary Wedge Growth According to the Critical Taper Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Forearc basins are important constituents of sediment traps along subduction zones; the basin stratigraphy records various events that the basin experienced. Although the linkage between basin formation and accretionary wedge growth suggests that mass balance exerts a key control on their evolution, the interaction processes between basin and basement remain poorly understood. This study performed 2-D numerical simulations in which basin stratigraphy was controlled by changes in sediment fluxes with accretionary wedge growth according to the critical taper concept. The resultant stratigraphy depended on the degree of filling (i.e., whether the basin was underfilled or overfilled) and the volume balance between the sediment flux supplied to the basin from the hinterland and the accommodation space in the basin. The trenchward progradation of deposition with onlapping contacts on the trenchside basin floor occurred during the underfilled phase, which formed a wedge-shaped sedimentary unit. In contrast, the landward migration of the depocenter, with the tilting of strata, was characteristic for the overfilled phase. Condensed sections marked stratigraphic boundaries, indicating when sediment supply or accommodation space was limited. The accommodation-limited intervals could have formed during the end of wedge uplift or when the taper angle decreased and possibly associated with the development of submarine canyons as conduits for bypassing sediments from the hinterland. Variations in sediment fluxes and their balance exerted a strong influence on the stratigraphic patterns in forearc basins. Assessing basin stratigraphy could be a key to evaluating how subduction zones evolve through their interactions with changing surface processes.

  13. Possibilities of magnet prism β-spectrometer application in on-line experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, K.M.; Arynov, S.

    1996-01-01

    The main attention is paid to works with particle beam in up-to-date nuclear investigations. The application of magnet prism β-spectrometer for works in 'on-line' experiments is considered in this article. The source chamber and detector chamber are distanted from each other on great distance (4 m) and are out of operation field of spectrometer. There is a reliable defence of operating field of device from external parasitic fields by the magnetic screens system. The additional advantage is a factor that source (target) and detector could replacing in specific directions about few centimetres during the device operating. The main β-spectroscopic performances of device are compared with Grenoble spectroscopic complex. The liner depression of prism spectrometer account for from 3,6 up to 6 m; light force - from 2·10 -4 up to 6·10 -4 up to 4π; operating resolving power - 0,02-0,05% by impulse. Investigation range is from several keV up to 3 MeV. There are all opportunities for installing of the on-line magnetic prism spectrometer on the U-150 accelerator and the WWR-K reactor. Spectrometer application in 'on-line' experiments gives possibility to obtain more wide information. 4 refs

  14. The Behaviour of Palm Oil Fibre Block Masonry Prism under Eccentric Compressive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kolop, Roslan; Baizura Hamid, Nor; Kaamin, Masiri; Farhan Rosdi, Mohd; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-08-01

    Dry-stacked masonry offers great benefits in constructing masonry buildings. Several examples from previous research show that dry masonry is reasonable alternative to the traditional building system. By addition of fibre, the ductility and the propagation of cracking will be improved. This study investigates the dry stack oil palm fibre block prisms which were subjected to eccentricity compression loads. These concrete blocks were cast using a single mould with suitable fibre-cement composition namely 1:4 (cement: sand) and 0.40 water to the cement ratio based on cement weight. Prisms test using 400 (length) × 150 (width) × 510 (height) mm specimen was carried under eccentric load. There were forty eight (48) prisms built with different configurations based on their volume of fibre. In this study, one types of grout were used namely the fine grout of mix 1:3:2 (cement: sand: aggregate (5mm maximum). Based on the test performed, the failure mechanism and influencing parameters were discussed. From compressive strength test result, it shows that the strength of concrete block decreased with the increase of fibre used. Although the control sample has the higher strength compared to concrete with EFB, it can be seen from mode failure of masonry prism that fibre could extend the cracking time. These results show that the oil palm fibre blocks can improve the failure behaviour and suitable to be used as load bearing wall construction in Malaysia.

  15. Shallow very-low-frequency earthquakes accompany slow slip events in the Nankai subduction zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masaru; Hori, Takane; Araki, Eiichiro; Kodaira, Shuichi; Ide, Satoshi

    2018-03-14

    Recent studies of slow earthquakes along plate boundaries have shown that tectonic tremor, low-frequency earthquakes, very-low-frequency events (VLFEs), and slow-slip events (SSEs) often accompany each other and appear to share common source faults. However, the source processes of slow events occurring in the shallow part of plate boundaries are not well known because seismic observations have been limited to land-based stations, which offer poor resolution beneath offshore plate boundaries. Here we use data obtained from seafloor observation networks in the Nankai trough, southwest of Japan, to investigate shallow VLFEs in detail. Coincident with the VLFE activity, signals indicative of shallow SSEs were detected by geodetic observations at seafloor borehole observatories in the same region. We find that the shallow VLFEs and SSEs share common source regions and almost identical time histories of moment release. We conclude that these slow events arise from the same fault slip and that VLFEs represent relatively high-frequency fluctuations of slip during SSEs.

  16. The personalized reminder information and social management system (PRISM) trial: rationale, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Boot, Walter R; Charness, Neil; A Rogers, Wendy; Sharit, Joseph; Fisk, Arthur D; Lee, Chin Chin; Nair, Sankaran N

    2015-01-01

    Technology holds promise in terms of providing support to older adults. To date, there have been limited robust systematic efforts to evaluate the psychosocial benefits of technology for older people and identify factors that influence both the usability and uptake of technology systems. In response to these issues, we developed the Personal Reminder Information and Social Management System (PRISM), a software application designed for older adults to support social connectivity, memory, knowledge about topics, leisure activities and access to resources. This trail is evaluating the impact of access to the PRISM system on outcomes such as social isolation, social support and connectivity. This paper reports on the approach used to design the PRISM system, study design, methodology and baseline data for the trial. The trial is multi-site randomized field trial. PRISM is being compared to a Binder condition where participants received a binder that contained content similar to that found on PRISM. The sample includes 300 older adults, aged 65-98 years, who lived alone and at risk for being isolated. The primary outcome measures for the trial include indices of social isolation and support and well-being. Secondary outcomes measures include indices of computer proficiency, technology uptake and attitudes towards technology. Follow-up assessments occurred at 6 and 12 months post-randomization. The results of this study will yield important information about the potential value of technology for older adults. The study also demonstrates how a user-centered iterative design approach can be incorporated into the design and evaluation of an intervention protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spherical Lenses and Prisms Lead to Postural Instability in Both Dyslexic and Non Dyslexic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoi; Gaertner, Chrystal; Matheron, Eric

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13–17 years-old) and 11 non dyslexics (13–16 years-old) participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of −1 diopter (ACCOM1) over each eye; viewing with −3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3); viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the −1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the −3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain) revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum), was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  18. Spherical lenses and prisms lead to postural instability in both dyslexic and non dyslexic adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Kapoula

    Full Text Available There is controversy as to whether dyslexic children present systematic postural deficiency. Clinicians use a combination of ophthalmic prisms and proprioceptive soles to improve postural performances. This study examines the effects of convergent prisms and spherical lenses on posture. Fourteen dyslexics (13-17 years-old and 11 non dyslexics (13-16 years-old participated in the study. Quiet stance posturography was performed with the TechnoConcept device while subjects fixated a target at eye-level from a distance of 1_m. Four conditions were run: normal viewing; viewing the target with spherical lenses of -1 diopter (ACCOM1 over each eye; viewing with -3 diopters over each eye (ACCOM3; viewing with a convergent prism of 8 diopters per eye. Relative to normal viewing, the -1 lenses increased the surface of body sway significantly whereas the -3 diopter lenses only resulted in a significant increase of antero-posterior body sway. Thus, adolescents would appear to cope more effectively with stronger conflicts rather than subtle ones. The prism condition resulted in a significant increase in both the surface and the antero-posterior body sway. Importantly, all of these effects were similar for the two groups. Wavelet analysis (time frequency domain revealed high spectral power of antero-posterior sway for the prism condition in both groups. In the ACCOM3 condition, the spectral power of antero-posterior sway decreased for non dyslexics but increased for dyslexics suggesting that dyslexics encounter more difficulty with accommodation. The cancelling time for medium range frequency (believed to be controlled by the cerebellum, was shorter in dyslexics, suggesting fewer instances of optimal control. We conclude that dyslexics achieve similar postural performances albeit less efficiently. Prisms and lenses destabilize posture for all teenagers. Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to

  19. Prism adaptation does not alter configural processing of faces [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1wk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ following a brain lesion show difficulty responding or orienting to objects and events on the left side of space. Substantial evidence supports the use of a sensorimotor training technique called prism adaptation as a treatment for neglect. Reaching for visual targets viewed through prismatic lenses that induce a rightward shift in the visual image results in a leftward recalibration of reaching movements that is accompanied by a reduction of symptoms in patients with neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Interestingly, prism adaptation can also alter aspects of non-lateralised spatial attention. We previously demonstrated that prism adaptation alters the extent to which neglect patients and healthy participants process local features versus global configurations of visual stimuli. Since deficits in non-lateralised spatial attention are thought to contribute to the severity of neglect symptoms, it is possible that the effect of prism adaptation on these deficits contributes to its efficacy. This study examines the pervasiveness of the effects of prism adaptation on perception by examining the effect of prism adaptation on configural face processing using a composite face task. The composite face task is a persuasive demonstration of the automatic global-level processing of faces: the top and bottom halves of two familiar faces form a seemingly new, unknown face when viewed together. Participants identified the top or bottom halves of composite faces before and after prism adaptation. Sensorimotor adaptation was confirmed by significant pointing aftereffect, however there was no significant change in the extent to which the irrelevant face half interfered with processing. The results support the proposal that the therapeutic effects

  20. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X)

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Vanany; Dian Tanukhidah

    2004-01-01

    This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder...

  1. Use of the Tax Prism Method When Forming Tax Part of the Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verovska Ludmila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The tax prism method is developed for the assessment of tax part of the budget as well as for forecasting the influence of tax optimisation on it. There are certain trends in global practice. Developing and transition economies are characterised by low tax burden. Economically developed countries with a high level of social security of population are characterised by high tax burden. The analytical and graphic-analytical research for the purpose of determination of optimum size of the taxation using the tax prism has been conducted. In addition to the concept of ‘tax prism’, concepts such as static and dynamic tax prisms have been introduced, allowing to consider changes in the part of the budget of interest in connection with a possibility of taxation subjects to reduce the size of a tax burden by various methods of tax optimisation, and also to consider the influence of other factors on it. The use of this approach helps effectively to enhance the tax legislation by modelling high-quality and quantitative consequences of one or another changes and innovations.

  2. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A.

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC's ''Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants'' (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC's preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant's research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified

  3. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  4. The role of frictional strength on plate coupling at the subduction interface

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Eh

    2012-10-01

    At a subduction zone the amount of friction between the incoming plate and the forearc is an important factor in controlling the dip angle of subduction and the structure of the forearc. In this paper, we investigate the role of the frictional strength of sediments and of the serpentinized peridotite on the evolution of convergent margins. In numerical models, we vary thickness of a serpentinized layer in the mantle wedge (15 to 25km) and the frictional strength of both the sediments and serpentinized mantle (friction angle 1 to 15, or static friction coefficient 0.017 to 0.27) to control the amount of frictional coupling between the plates. With plastic strain weakening in the lithosphere, our numerical models can attain stable subduction geometry over millions of years. We find that the frictional strength of the sediments and serpentinized peridotite exerts the largest control on the dip angle of the subduction interface at seismogenic depths. In the case of low sediment and serpentinite friction, the subduction interface has a shallow dip, while the subduction zone develops an accretionary prism, a broad forearc high, a deep forearc basin, and a shallow trench. In the high friction case, the subduction interface is steep, the trench is deeper, and the accretionary prism, forearc high and basin are all absent. The resultant free-air gravity and topographic signature of these subduction zone models are consistent with observations. We believe that the low-friction model produces a geometry and forearc structure similar to that of accretionary margins. Conversely, models with high friction angles in sediments and serpentinite develop characteristics of an erosional convergent margin. We find that the strength of the subduction interface is critical in controlling the amount of coupling at the seismogenic zone and perhaps ultimately the size of the largest earthquakes at subduction zones. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying spatial realignment during adaptation to optical wedge prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Heidi L; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Gavrilescu, Maria; Strudwick, Mark W; Loftus, Andrea; Cunnington, Ross; Mattingley, Jason B

    2010-07-01

    Visuomotor adaptation to a shift in visual input produced by prismatic lenses is an example of dynamic sensory-motor plasticity within the brain. Prism adaptation is readily induced in healthy individuals, and is thought to reflect the brain's ability to compensate for drifts in spatial calibration between different sensory systems. The neural correlate of this form of functional plasticity is largely unknown, although current models predict the involvement of parieto-cerebellar circuits. Recent studies that have employed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions associated with prism adaptation have discovered patterns of parietal and cerebellar modulation as participants corrected their visuomotor errors during the early part of adaptation. However, the role of these regions in the later stage of adaptation, when 'spatial realignment' or true adaptation is predicted to occur, remains unclear. Here, we used fMRI to quantify the distinctive patterns of parieto-cerebellar activity as visuomotor adaptation develops. We directly contrasted activation patterns during the initial error correction phase of visuomotor adaptation with that during the later spatial realignment phase, and found significant recruitment of the parieto-cerebellar network--with activations in the right inferior parietal lobe and the right posterior cerebellum. These findings provide the first evidence of both cerebellar and parietal involvement during the spatial realignment phase of prism adaptation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new ASE filter: the 20-fold prism monochromator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Freriks, J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new ASE filter is presented, consisting of 20 dispersion prisms and two spatial filters. The transmission of the filter is measured with a ring-dye laser. The 1 width of the filter is 0.23 nm. The transmission is approximately 80% for the transmitted wavelengths. The rejection is in the order of .

  7. Estimation of interplate coupling along Nankai trough considering the block motion model based on onland GNSS and seafloor GPS/A observation data using MCMC method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H.; Ito, T.; Tadokoro, K.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction In southwest Japan, Philippine sea plate is subducting under the overriding plate such as Amurian plate, and mega interplate earthquakes has occurred at about 100 years interval. There is no occurrence of mega interplate earthquakes in southwest Japan, although it has passed about 70 years since the last mega interplate earthquakes: 1944 and 1946 along Nankai trough, meaning that the strain has been accumulated at plate interface. Therefore, it is essential to reveal the interplate coupling more precisely for predicting or understanding the mechanism of next occurring mega interplate earthquake. Recently, seafloor geodetic observation revealed the detailed interplate coupling distribution in expected source region of Nankai trough earthquake (e.g., Yokota et al. [2016]). In this study, we estimated interplate coupling in southwest Japan, considering block motion model and using seafloor geodetic observation data as well as onland GNSS observation data, based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Method Observed crustal deformation is assumed that sum of rigid block motion and elastic deformation due to coupling at block boundaries. We modeled this relationship as a non-linear inverse problem that the unknown parameters are Euler pole of each block and coupling at each subfault, and solved them simultaneously based on MCMC method. Input data we used in this study are 863 onland GNSS observation data and 24 seafloor GPS/A observation data. We made some block division models based on the map of active fault tracing and selected the best model based on Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC): that is consist of 12 blocks. Result We find that the interplate coupling along Nankai trough has heterogeneous spatial distribution, strong at the depth of 0 to 20km at off Tokai region, and 0 to 30km at off Shikoku region. Moreover, we find that observed crustal deformation at off Tokai region is well explained by elastic deformation due to subducting Izu Micro

  8. Stress effects in prism coupling measurements of thin polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agan, S.; Ay, F.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    Due to the increasingly important role of some polymers in optical waveguide technologies, precise measurement of their optical properties has become important. Typically, prism coupling to slab waveguides made of materials of interest is used to measure the relevant optical parameters. However,

  9. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (STUDI KASUS PADA PDAM TIRTA MOEDAL CABANG SEMARANG TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Budi Puspitasari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini PDAM Tirta Moedal belum memiliki sistem pengukuran kinerja. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja. Dari kondisi PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model performance prism  dibanding model lain. Sistem pengukuran kinerja ini memiliki 44 KPI yang meliputi 12 KPI pelanggan, 9 KPI karyawan, 11 KPI pemilik modal, 6 KPI supplier, 6 KPI pemerintah dan masyarakat di sekitar lingkungan. Dari hasil implementasi sistem pengukuran kinerja dengan proses scoring system menggunakan metode OMAX menunjukkan nilai current performance indicator yang telah dicapai oleh PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang adalah sebesar 75,1 %. Hasil pengukuran menjadi landasan pihak manajemen mengevaluasi dan menentukan rencana kerja perbaikan sehingga harapan dari semua stakeholder dapat terpenuhi Kata kunci : Pengukuran Kinerja, Performance Prism, PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang   Abstract This study describes the results of research on the performance measurement system design PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang with model Performance Prism. During this PDAM Tirta Moedal not have a performance measurement system. Therefore, it is necessary to design performance measurement systems. From the condition of PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang, the exact model used is a prism model performance compared to other models. This performance measurement system has 44 KPIs which include 12 customer KPI, KPI 9 employees, 11 KPI owners of capital, supplier KPI 6, KPI 6 governments and communities around the neighborhood. From the results of performance measurement system implementation with the scoring system using the OMAX shows the current performance indicator has been achieved by PDAM Tirta Moedal Semarang amounted to 75.1%. The basis of measurement results to evaluate and determine the management

  10. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielissen, M.F.M.; Prins, J.B.; Knoop, H.; Verhagen, S.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue.

  11. Hollow optical-fiber based infrared spectroscopy for measurement of blood glucose level by using multi-reflection prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Saiko; Omori, Suguru; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-02-01

    A mid-infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy system employing hollow optical fibers and a trapezoidal multi-reflection ATR prism has been developed to measure blood glucose levels. Using a multi-reflection prism brought about higher sensitivity, and the flat and wide contact surface of the prism resulted in higher measurement reproducibility. An analysis of in vivo measurements of human inner lip mucosa revealed clear signatures of glucose in the difference spectra between ones taken during the fasting state and ones taken after ingestion of glucose solutions. A calibration plot based on the absorption peak at 1155 cm(-1) that originates from the pyranose ring structure of glucose gave measurement errors less than 20%.

  12. Illusory reversal of causality between touch and vision has no effect on prism adaptation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu eTanaka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc. In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka, Homma & Imamizu (2011 Exp Brain Res demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal-order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  13. Illusory Reversal of Causality between Touch and Vision has No Effect on Prism Adaptation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Learning, according to Oxford Dictionary, is "to gain knowledge or skill by studying, from experience, from being taught, etc." In order to learn from experience, the central nervous system has to decide what action leads to what consequence, and temporal perception plays a critical role in determining the causality between actions and consequences. In motor adaptation, causality between action and consequence is implicitly assumed so that a subject adapts to a new environment based on the consequence caused by her action. Adaptation to visual displacement induced by prisms is a prime example; the visual error signal associated with the motor output contributes to the recovery of accurate reaching, and a delayed feedback of visual error can decrease the adaptation rate. Subjective feeling of temporal order of action and consequence, however, can be modified or even reversed when her sense of simultaneity is manipulated with an artificially delayed feedback. Our previous study (Tanaka et al., 2011; Exp. Brain Res.) demonstrated that the rate of prism adaptation was unaffected when the subjective delay of visual feedback was shortened. This study asked whether subjects could adapt to prism adaptation and whether the rate of prism adaptation was affected when the subjective temporal order was illusory reversed. Adapting to additional 100 ms delay and its sudden removal caused a positive shift of point of simultaneity in a temporal order judgment experiment, indicating an illusory reversal of action and consequence. We found that, even in this case, the subjects were able to adapt to prism displacement with the learning rate that was statistically indistinguishable to that without temporal adaptation. This result provides further evidence to the dissociation between conscious temporal perception and motor adaptation.

  14. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  15. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remes, Z., E-mail: remes@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i., Cukrovarnicka 10, Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Girard, H.A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000–1500 cm{sup −1} spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  16. Diamond-coated ATR prism for infrared absorption spectroscopy of surface-modified diamond nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Z.; Kozak, H.; Rezek, B.; Ukraintsev, E.; Babchenko, O.; Kromka, A.; Girard, H. A.; Arnault, J.-C.; Bergonzo, P.

    2013-04-01

    Linear antenna microwave chemical vapor deposition process was used to homogeneously coat a 7 cm long silicon prism by 85 nm thin nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer. To show the advantages of the NCD-coated prism for attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of nanoparticles, we apply diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) of 5 nm nominal size with various surface modifications by a drop-casting of their methanol dispersions. ATR-FTIR spectra of as-received, air-annealed, plasma-oxidized, and plasma-hydrogenated DNPs were measured in the 4000-1500 cm-1 spectral range. The spectra show high spectral resolution, high sensitivity to specific DNP surface moieties, and repeatability. The NCD coating provides mechanical protection against scratching and chemical stability of the surface. Moreover, unlike on bare Si surface, NCD hydrophilic properties enable optically homogeneous coverage by DNPs with some aggregation on submicron scale as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Compared to transmission FTIR regime with KBr pellets, direct and uniform deposition of DNPs on NCD-ATR prism significantly simplifies and speeds up the analysis (from days to minutes). We discuss prospects for in situ monitoring of surface modifications and molecular grafting.

  17. The PRISM concept for a safe, economic and testable liquid metal fast reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, R.C.; Salerno, L.N.; Tippets, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM project is underway at General Electric as part of an advanced reactor conceptual design program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The PRISM concept emphasizes inherent safety, modular construction, and factory fabrication. These features are intended to improve the basis for public acceptance, reduce cost,improve licensability, and reduce the risk of schedule delays and cost increases during construction. A PRISM power plant comprises a number of reactor modules. The relatively small size of the reactor module facilitates the use of passive, inherent self-shutdown and shutdown heat removal features for safe accommodation of accidents. These inherent safety features permit simplification and reduction of conventional safety-related systems in the plant. Testing of a full-size prototype reactor module is planned in the late 1990's to demonstrate these inherent safety characteristics. It is intended that the results of the test be used to obtain certification of the design by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission preparatory to use of reactor modules built to this standard design in licensed commercial plants

  18. A Pilot Evaluation of On-Road Detection Performance by Drivers with Hemianopia Using Oblique Peripheral Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R. Bowers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Homonymous hemianopia (HH, a severe visual consequence of stroke, causes difficulties in detecting obstacles on the nonseeing (blind side. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the effects of oblique peripheral prisms, a novel development in optical treatments for HH, on detection of unexpected hazards when driving. Methods. Twelve people with complete HH (median 49 years, range 29–68 completed road tests with sham oblique prism glasses (SP and real oblique prism glasses (RP. A masked evaluator rated driving performance along the 25 km routes on busy streets in Ghent, Belgium. Results. The proportion of satisfactory responses to unexpected hazards on the blind side was higher in the RP than the SP drive (80% versus 30%; P=0.001, but similar for unexpected hazards on the seeing side. Conclusions. These pilot data suggest that oblique peripheral prisms may improve responses of people with HH to blindside hazards when driving and provide the basis for a future, larger-sample clinical trial. Testing responses to unexpected hazards in areas of heavy vehicle and pedestrian traffic appears promising as a real-world outcome measure for future evaluations of HH rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving detection when driving.

  19. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  20. Retrowedge-related Carboniferous units and coeval magmatism in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Santos, Joao O. S.; Dalponte, Marcelo; Belousova, Elena; McNaughton, Neal

    2012-11-01

    The studied Carboniferous units comprise metasedimentary (Guaraco Norte Formation), pyroclastic (Arroyo del Torreón Formation), and sedimentary (Huaraco Formation) rocks that crop out in the northwestern Neuquén province, Argentina. They form part of the basement of the Neuquén Basin and are mostly coeval with the Late Paleozoic accretionary prism complex of the Coastal Cordillera, south-central Chile. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of detrital zircon yielded a maximum depositional age of 374 Ma (Upper Devonian) for the Guaraco Norte Formation and 389 Ma for the Arroyo del Torreón Formation. Detrital magmatic zircon from the Guaraco Norte Formation are grouped into two main populations of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian) ages. In the Arroyo del Torreón Formation, zircon populations are also of Devonian and Ordovician (Famatinian), as well as of Late Neoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic ages. In both units, there is a conspicuous population of Devonian magmatic zircon grains (from 406 ± 4 Ma to 369 ± 5 Ma), indicative of active magmatism at that time range. The ɛHf values of this population range between -2.84 and -0.7, and the TDM-(Hf) are mostly Mesoproterozoic, suggesting that the primary sources of the Devonian magmatism contained small amounts of Mesoproterozoic recycled crustal components. The chemical composition of the Guaraco Norte Formation corresponds to recycled, mature polycyclic sediment of mature continental provenance, pointing to a passive margin with minor inputs from continental margin magmatic rocks. The chemical signature of the Huaraco Formation indicates that a magmatic arc was the main provenance for sediments of this unit, which is consistent with the occurrence of tuff—mostly in the Arroyo del Torreón Formation and very scarcely in the Huaraco Formation—with a volcanic-arc signature, jointly indicating the occurrence of a Carboniferous active arc magmatism during the deposition of the two units. The Guaraco Norte Formation is interpreted

  1. Prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matched terahertz wave generation using a DAST crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suizu, Koji; Shibuya, Takayuki; Uchida, Hirohisa; Kawase, Kodo

    2010-02-15

    Terahertz (THz) wave generation based on nonlinear frequency conversion is a promising method for realizing a tunable monochromatic high-power THz-wave source. Unfortunately, many nonlinear crystals have strong absorption in the THz frequency region. This limits efficient and widely tunable THz-wave generation. The Cherenkov phase-matching method is one of the most promising techniques for overcoming these problems. Here, we propose a prism-coupled Cherenkov phase-matching (PCC-PM) method, in which a prism with a suitable refractive index at THz frequencies is coupled to a nonlinear crystal. This has the following advantages. Many crystals can be used as THz-wave emitters; the phase-matching condition inside the crystal does not have to be observed; the absorption of the crystal does not prevent efficient generation of radiation; and pump sources with arbitrary wavelengths can be employed. Here we demonstrate PCC-PM THz-wave generation using the organic crystal 4-dimethylamino-N-metyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) and a Si prism coupler. We obtain THz-wave radiation with tunability of approximately 0.1 to 10 THz and with no deep absorption features resulting from the absorption spectrum of the crystal. The obtained spectra did not depend on the pump wavelength in the range 1300 to 1450 nm. This simple technique shows promise for generating THz radiation using a wide variety of nonlinear crystals.

  2. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  3. Imaging the structure of the Northern Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe - Virgin Island) to assess the tectonic and thermo-mechanical behavior of an arcuate subduction zone that undergoes increasing convergence obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Graindorge, D.; Bouquerel, H.; Conin, M.; Crozon, J.; De Min, L.; De Voogd, B.; Evain, M.; Heuret, A.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.; Lucazeau, F.; Pichot, T.; Prunier, C.; Rolandone, F.; Rousset, D.; Vitard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Paradoxically, the Northern Lesser Antilles is the less-investigated and the most tectonically and seismically complex segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: - The convergence obliquity between the North American and Caribbean plates increases northward from Guadeloupe to Virgin Islands raising questions about the fore-arc tectonic partitioning. - The margin has undergone the subduction of the rough sediment-starved Atlantic Ocean floor spiked with ridges as well as banks docking, but the resulting tectonic deformation remains hypothetical in the absence of a complete bathymetry and of any seismic line. - Recent geodetic data and low historical seismic activity suggest a low interplate coupling between Saint-Martin and Anegada, but the sparse onshore seismometers located far from source zone cast doubt on this seismic gap. To shed new light on these questions, the ANTITHESIS project, 5 Marine Geophysical legs totaling 72 days, aims at recording a complete bathymetric map, deep and shallow seismic reflexion lines, wide-angle seismic data, heat-flow measurements and the seismic activity with a web of sea-bottom seismometers. Our preliminary results suggest that: - A frontal sliver of accretionary prism is stretched and expulsed northward by 50km along the left-lateral Bunce fault that limits the prism from the margin basement as far southward as 18.5°N. So far, this structure is the only interpreted sign of tectonic partitioning in the fore-arc. - The Anegada Passage extends eastward to the accretionary prism through strike-slip faults and pull-apart basins that possibly form a lef-lateral poorly-active system inherited from a past tectonic phase, consistently with geodetic and seismologic data. - The anomalously cold interplate contact, consistent with a low interseismic coupling, is possibly due to fluid circulation within the shallow crustal aquifer or a depressed thermal structure of the oceanic crust related to the slow-spreading at the medio

  4. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Gabriella B.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  5. Overview of the ANL advanced LMR system thermal-hydraulic test program supporting both GE/PRISM and RI/SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptions of the ANL thermal-hydraulic water models of both the PRISM and SAFR reactors are presented, together with results from Phases I and II of the thermal-hydraulic test program. Phenomena discovered during these tests and modeling results are presented. Overall, these efforts demonstrate the acceptable thermal-hydraulic performance of both the PRISM and SAFR concepts

  6. Thermo-hydraulics of the Peruvian accretionary complex at 12°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, Nina; Pecher, Ingo

    1999-01-01

    Coupled heat and fluid transport at the Peruvian convergent margin at 12°S wasstudied with finite element modelling. Structural information was available from two seismicreflection lines. Heat production in the oceanic plate, the metamorphic basement, and sedimentswas estimated from literature. Porosity, permeability, and thermal conductivity for the modelswere partly available from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 112; otherwise we used empiricalrelations. Our models accounted for a possible permeability anisotropy. The decollement was bestmodelled as a highly permeable zone (10−13 m2). Permeabilities of thePeruvian accretionary wedge adopted from the model calculations fall within the range of 2 to7×10−16 m2 at the ocean bottom to a few 10−18 m2 at the base and need to be anisotropic. Fluid expulsion at the sea floor decreases graduallywith distance from the deformation front and is structure controlled. Small scale variations of heatflux reflected by fluctuations of BSR depths across major faults could be modelled assuming highpermeability in the faults which allow for efficient advective transport along those faults.

  7. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    André, Philippe; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoît, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J. A. P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford

    2014-01-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations

  8. Experience with basal area estimation by prisms in lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe

    1957-01-01

    Estimation of basal area by prisms offers intriguing possibilities for reducing time and effort in making stand inventories. Increased inventory efficiency is a particular need in stands that are relatively low in value due to small stems, predominance of low value species or heavy defect. In the Pacific Northwest, lodgepole pine characteristically forms dense low-...

  9. Preapplication safety evaluation report for the Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-metal reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J.E.; Donohew, J.N.; Golub, G.R.; Kenneally, R.M.; Moore, P.B.; Sands, S.P.; Throm, E.D.; Wetzel, B.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Associate Directorate for Advanced Reactors and License Renewal

    1994-02-01

    This preapplication safety evaluation report (PSER) presents the results of the preapplication desip review for die Power Reactor Innovative Small Module (PRISM) liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Project No. 674. The PRISM conceptual desip was submitted by the US Department of Energy in accordance with the NRC`s ``Statement of Policy for the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants`` (51 Federal Register 24643). This policy provides for the early Commission review and interaction with designers and licensees. The PRISM reactor desip is a small, modular, pool-type, liquid-mew (sodium)-cooled reactor. The standard plant design consists of dim identical power blocks with a total electrical output rating of 1395 MWe- Each power block comprises three reactor modules, each with a thermal rating of 471 MWt. Each module is located in its own below-grade silo and is co to its own intermediate heat transport system and steam generator system. The reactors utilize a metallic-type fuel, a ternary alloy of U-Pu-Zr. The design includes passive reactor shutdown and passive decay heat removal features. The PSER is the NRC`s preliminary evaluation of the safety features in the PRISM design, including the projected research and development programs required to support the design and the proposed testing needs. Because the NRC review was based on a conceptual design, the PSER did not result in an approval of the design. Instead it identified certain key safety issues, provided some guidance on applicable licensing criteria, assessed the adequacy of the preapplicant`s research and development programs, and concluded that no obvious impediments to licensing the PRISM design had been identified.

  10. Paleographical, Bathymetric and Numerical Investigations for a Tsunami Possibly Caused by Submarine Mass Failure in the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, T.; Ashi, J.; Kanamatsu, T.; Imai, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2017-12-01

    "SHINCHO-KI" is an ancient document that records tsunami damages caused by the 1512 Eisho earthquake, the 1605 Keicho earthquake, the 1707 Hoei earthquake and the 1854 Ansei-Nankai earthquake in Shishikui, where is located along the coast of the southeastern part of Shikoku, facing to the Nankai trough. According to SHINCHO-KI, 3700 people were dead in Shishikui by the tsunami during the 1512 Eisho earthquake. However, no evidence was found for the occurrence of the 1512 Eisho earthquake except for SHINCHO-KI, while the other earthquakes were recorded in many ancient documents in the southwestern Japan. To investigate the source mechanism of the 1512 Eisho earthquake, we carefully read a bathymetric chart and found a scarp with a height of about 400 m and a width of about 6000 m at a position about 24 km offshore in the southeastern direction from Shishikui. We also carried out a survey by using a deep-towed sub-bottom profiler (SBP) on ROV NSS during the R/V Hakuho-maru KH-16-5 cruise. The result shows detailed structures possibly caused by a recent landslide. The vertical displacement of the strata was measured to be about 50 m. By considering these results, we simulated the 1512 Eisho tsunami generated by a submarine mass failure. The topographic data in Shishikui which is needed in the calculation was made from the present data. But we removed the artificial structures such as wave breakers and altered coastlines by referring to old map images. In the numerical simulation, the initial sea surface deformation was obtained by the method proposed by Watts et al. (2005), and the tsunami propagation was calculated by solving the nonlinear shallow water equations with dispersive (Boussinesq) term on a finite difference scheme. We solved the advection terms by using the third-order upwind difference to avoid artificial viscosity. The numerical simulation estimated the maximum tsunami height of about 6m and moderate inundation on land in Shishikui by the 1512 Eisho

  11. Resource assessment of methane hydrate in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Inamori, T.; Hayashi, M.; Takano, O.; Takayama, T.; Kawasaki, T.; Nagakubo, S.; Nakamizu, M.; Yokoi, K. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Mihama-ku, Chiba (Japan). Technology and Research Center

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the methane hydrate (MH) in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan as a potential natural gas resource. The resource assessment of MH was determined from the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) exploratory test wells Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) campaigns were launched at 16 sites, coring at 4 sites and wirelogging at 2 sites. This study used high resolution 2D/3D seismic data and introduced a new concept for the MH concentrated zone and applied it to resource assessment. MH bearing layers in the survey area were classified into 2 categories, notably MH concentrated zones and MH bearing layers other than relatively thin, low saturated MH layers. The total amount of methane gas in place was estimated to be 40 tcf as Pmean value (10 tcf as P90, 82 tcf as P10). More than 10 prospective MH concentrated zones were extracted. They were characterized by high resistivity well logs, strong seismic reflectors, high p-wave interval velocity and turbidite deposits delineated by sedimentary facies analysis. The total gas in place for MH concentrated zones was estimated to be 20 tcf (half of the total amount) as Pmean value. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the net-to-gross ratio and methane pore saturation have higher sensitivity than other parameters. As such, they are important for further detail analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. Progress on PRISM, an inherently safe, economic, and testable advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippets, F.E.; Salerno, L.N.; Boardman, C.E.; Kwant, W.; Murata, R.E.; Snyder, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports progress on the design of PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) under the DOE-sponsored innovative reactor program now in its third year at General Electric. The purpose of this program is to develop a design for an inherently safe, reliable, and marketable liquid metal fast reactor power plant. The PRISM design approach includes the following key elements: Compact sodium-cooled pool-type reactor modules that are sized to enable factory fabrication, economical shipment to inland as well as water-side sites, and economical full-scale prototype testing for design certification; Nuclear safety-related envelope limited to the reactor modules and their service systems; Inherent, passive shutdown heat removal for loss-of-cooling events; Inherent, passive reactivity shutdown for failure-to-scram events

  13. Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM): a graphic instrument to assess suffering in fatigued cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielissen, Marieke F M; Prins, Judith B; Knoop, Hans; Verhagen, Stans; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-06-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Self and Illness Measure (PRISM) measures in a simple, graphic way the burden of suffering due to illness. The question addressed in this study is whether the PRISM is a valid instrument to measure suffering in cancer survivors experiencing severe fatigue. Quantitative and qualitative data of a previous randomized controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) especially designed for postcancer fatigue was used to assess convergent validity and sensitivity to change in a sample of 83 cancer survivors. The PRISM, yielding self-illness separation (SIS-fatigue = suffering due to fatigue; SIS-cancer = suffering due to cancer), fatigue severity (Checklist Individual Strength; CIS-fatigue), functional impairment, psychological well-being, quality of life, and coping with the experience of cancer (Impact of Event Scale; IES). Moderate significant correlations were found with the PRISM and the above-mentioned measures. On the basis of SIS scores, the sample was divided into two separate groups: cancer survivors who suffered more because of fatigue and cancer survivors who suffered more because they had cancer in the past. The two groups had different scores on CIS-fatigue and IES, in line with that aspect that caused them the most suffering. The qualitative data confirmed this finding. Participants in the CBT condition demonstrated a significant difference between SIS-fatigue at baseline versus 6 months later compared with those in the waiting list condition. No change of SIS-cancer was found. The PRISM seems to be a valuable tool in fatigue research and clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P): An intervention for caregivers of youth with serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Klein, Victoria; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-09-01

    It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress. The PRISM-P includes 4 short skills-based modules, delivered in either 2 or 4 separate, individual sessions. English-speaking parents of adolescents with cancer or Type 1 diabetes were eligible. Feasibility was conservatively defined as a completion rate of 80%; satisfaction was qualitatively evaluated based upon parent feedback regarding intervention content, timing, and format. Resilience and distress were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Twelve of 24 caregivers of youth with diabetes (50%) and 13 of 15 caregivers of youth with cancer (87%) agreed to participate. Nine of 12 (75%) and 9 of 13 (64%) completed all PRISM-P modules, respectively. Among those who completed the intervention, qualitative satisfaction was high. Parent-reported resilience and distress scores improved after the intervention. Effect sizes for both groups indicated a moderate intervention effect. Ultimately, the PRISM-P intervention was well accepted and impactful among parents who completed it. However, attrition rates were higher than anticipated, suggesting alternative or less time-intensive formats may be more feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. 3D seismic investigation of the structural and stratigraphic characteristics of the Pagasa Wedge, Southwest Palawan Basin, Philippines, and their tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilao, Kimberly A.; Morley, Christopher K.; Aurelio, Mario A.

    2018-04-01

    The Pagasa Wedge is a poorly imaged deepwater orogenic wedge that has been variously interpreted as representing an accretionary prism, a former accretionary prism modified by thrusting onto a thinned continental margin, and a gravity-driven fold-thrust belt. This study, using 2D and 3D seismic data, together with well information indicates that at least the external part of the wedge is dominantly composed of mass transport complexes, capped by syn-kinematic sediments that have thrusts and normal faults superimposed upon them. Drilling shows that despite stratigraphic repetition of Eocene Middle Miocene units, there is stratigraphic omission of Oligocene and Early Miocene units. This absence suggests that mass transport processes have introduced the Eocene section into the wedge rather than tectonic thrusting. The accretionary prism stage (Oligocene) of the Central Palawan Ophiolite history appears to be marked by predominantly north-vergent deformation. The Deep Regional Unconformity (∼17 Ma) likely indicates the approximate time when obduction ceased in Palawan. The Pagasa Wedge is a late-stage product of the convergence history that was active in its final phase sometime above the top of the Nido Limestone (∼16 Ma) and the base of the Tabon Limestone in the Aboabo-A1X well (∼9 Ma). The top of the wedge is traditionally associated with the Middle Miocene Unconformity (MMU), However the presence of multiple unconformities, diachronous formation tops, local tectonic unconformities and regional diachronous events (e.g. migrating forebulges) all suggest simply giving a single age (or assigning a single unconformity, such as the MMU as defining the top of the Pagasa Wedge is inappropriate. The overall NE-SW trend of the wedge, and the dominant NW transport of structures within the wedge diverge from the more northerly transport direction determined from outcrops in Palawan, and also from the Nido Limestone in the SW part of the Pagasa Wedge. Possibly this NW

  16. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  17. Bisecting real and fake body parts: effects of prism adaptation after right brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eBolognini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The representation of body parts holds a special status in the brain, due to their prototypical shape and the contribution of multisensory (visual and somatosensory-proprioceptive information. In a previous study (Sposito et al., 2010, we showed that patients with left unilateral spatial neglect exhibit a rightward bias in setting the mid-point of their left forearm, which becomes larger when bisecting a cylindrical object comparable in size. This body part advantage, found also in control participants, suggests partly different processes for computing the extent of body parts and objects. In this study we tested 16 right-brain-damaged patients, and 10 unimpaired participants, on a manual bisection task of their own (real left forearm, or a size-matched fake forearm. We then explored the effects of adaptation to rightward displacing prism exposure, which brings about leftward aftereffects. We found that all participants showed prism adaptation and aftereffects, with right-brain-damaged patients exhibiting a reduction of the rightward bias for both real and fake forearm, with no overall differences between them. Second, correlation analyses highlighted the role of visual and proprioceptive information for the metrics of body parts. Third, single-patient analyses showed dissociations between real and fake forearm bisections, and the effects of prism adaptation, as well as a more frequent impairment with fake body parts. In sum, the rightward bias shown by right-brain-damaged patients in bisecting body parts is reduced by prism exposure, as other components of the neglect syndrome; discrete spatial representations for real and fake body parts, for which visual and proprioceptive codes play different roles, are likely to exist. Multisensory information seems to render self bodily segments more resistant to the disruption brought about by right-hemisphere injury.

  18. Subscales correlations between MSSS-88 and PRISM scales in evaluation of spasticity for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Patient-reported outcomes have been recognized as an important way of assessing health and well-being of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of the study is to determine the correlation between different subscales of Patient-Reported Impact of Spasticity Measure (PRISM and Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale (MSSS-88 scales in the estimation of spasticity influence on different domains Methods. The study is a cross-sectional observational study. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales were analyzed in five domains (body-function domain, activity domain, participation domain, personal factors/wellbeing domain, and hypothesis. For statistical interpretation of the correlation we performed the Spearman’s ρ-test, concurrent validity, divergent validity, and the linear regression model. Results. We found a significant correlation between subscales of evaluated MSSS-88 and PRISM scales for body domains; the highest correlation was between the need for assistance/positioning (NA/P and walking (W. Spasticity has the weakest correlation with the need for intervention (NI. The presence of pain has a negative impact and significant positive correlation between pain discomfort and NI. In the domain of body function for males, there was a non-significant correlation between muscle spasms and NI. The same applies for social functioning and social embarrassment domains, as well as for emotional health and psychological agitation for personal factors / wellbeing domain. The differences between genders of MS patients persist in different domains; muscle spasms are strong predictors for NI, and body movement is a strong predictor versus W for NA/P. Conclusion. MSSS-88 and PRISM scales can be considered reliable in measuring different domains of disability for MS patients with spasticity. Because it is shorter, quicker, and simple to use, it is concluded that the PRISM scale can successfully compete with and replace the MSSS-88 scale in

  19. Risk of fall (RoF) intervention by affecting visual egocenter through gait analysis and yoked prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Subramanian, Prem; Spurling, April; Jenness, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Following a neurologic event such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and chronic neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy a shift in the visual midline (egocenter) can directly affect posture, balance and spatial orientation. As a consequence, this increases the risk of fall (RoF) and injury that imposes a major financial burden on the public health system. To determine if there is a statistically significant change in balance with the intervention of yoked prisms to reduce the risk of fall in subjects with neurological impairments. Ambulation of thirty-six subjects was evaluated on a pressure sensitive mat before and after intervention with yoked prisms. Changes in gait and balance were analyzed in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) axes during ambulation. T-tests for each measure comparing the difference-of-differences to a zero change at baseline returned statistically significant reductions in both AP (p <  0.0001; 95% CI: 1.368- 2.976) and ML (p = 0.0002; 95% CI: 1.472- 4.173) imbalances using specifically directed yoked prisms to correct the visual midline deviation. These findings demonstrate that yoked prisms have the potential to provide a cost-effective means to restore the visual midline thereby improving balance, reduce RoF and subsequent injury.

  20. Origin of preferential clay particle orientation in faults, and relationships with pore-water flow and water-sediment interactions. Two natural examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaume, P.

    1998-01-01

    Two natural examples are presented of shear deformation associated with thrust faulting in clayey sediments. The first example is the basal decollement fault of the Barbados accretionary prism (Lesser Antilles), drilled during ODP Leg 156. This decollement is an active fault where the relationships between pore-water and deformation can be studied in situ. The second example is the Eocene south-Pyrenean basin (northern Spain), studied by the European Community EBRO Network Working Group. In this case, fluid activity in fossil thrust-faults was studied indirectly through the products of water-sediment interactions. (author)

  1. Rapid growth of ZnO hexagonal prism crystals by direct microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhenqi; ZHOU Jian; LIU Guizhen; REN Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    ZnO hexagonal prism crystals were synthesized from ZnO powders by microwave heating in a short time (within 20 min) without any metal catalyst or transport agent.Zinc oxide raw materials were made by evaporating from the high-temperature zone in an enclosure atmosphere and crystals were grown on the self-source substrate.The inherent asymmetry in microwave heating provides the temperature gradient for crystal growth.Substrate and temperature distribution in the oven show significant effects on the growth of the ZnO crystal.The morphologies demonstrate that these samples are pure hexagonal prism crystals with maximum 80 μm in diameter and 600 μm in length,which possess a well faceted end and side surface.X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals that these samples are pure crystals.The photoluminescence (PL) exhibits strong ultraviolet emission at room temperature,indicating potential applications for short-wave light-emitting photonic devices.

  2. PERANCANGAN DAN IMPLEMENTASI SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus pada Hotel X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Vanany

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article described a result of research design of performance measurement system in hotel business with Performance Prism Model. As long as, performance measurement system at hotel X not yet representatived organization performance according to comprehensif and integrated. Because of needed redesign performance measurement system with new model. From the objective condition of hotel X, Performance Prism model more representative than others. The result of design described that stakeholder in hotel X such as: customer, employee, supplier, owner and investor, and regulator and community. From the performance measurement system design are obtained 36 types Key Performance Indicator (KPI such as: 6 KPI of customer, 9 KPI of staff manajerial, 9 KPI of staff operational, 4 KPI of supplier, 3 KPI of investor, and 5 KPI of regulator & community. Result of implementation performance measurement system with scoring system indicates that the amount of scor current performance indicator is 50,75%. Result of measurement can be based management act evaluation and choice planning improvement organization and all Stakeholder requirements must be request. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Artikel ini menguraikan hasil penelitian perancangan sistem pengukuran kinerja pada sebuah perusahaan dalam bisnis hotel dengan model Performance Prism. Selama ini, sistem pengukuran kinerja di Hotel X belum merepresentasikan kinerja organisasi secara komprehensif dan integratif. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perancangan kembali sistem pengukuran kinerjanya. Dari kondisi objektif hotel X, model yang tepat digunakan adalah model Performance Prism dibanding model lain. Hasil rancangan menunjukkan bahwa stakeholder hotel X meliputi: konsumen, tenaga kerja, supplier, pemilik/investor, serta pemerintah dan masyarakat sekitar lingkungan hotel. Sistem pengukuran kinerja memuat 36 KPI yang meliputi 6 KPI konsumen, 9 KPI staff manajerial, 9 KPI staff operasional, 4 KPI supplier, 3

  3. Improving detection tools for the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of prism and multifunnel traps at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Crook, Damon J; Fraser, Ivich; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C

    2013-12-01

    The current emerald ash borer survey trap used in the United States is a prism trap constructed from a stock purple corrugated plastic. In recent years, several colors (particularly shades of green and purple) have been shown to be more attractive to the emerald ash borer than this stock color. Our goal was to determine if plastics produced with these colors and incorporated into prism traps can improve and serve as a new alternative to plastics already in use for the emerald ash borer survey. The plastics were tested in moderate to heavily infested areas in Michigan in two initial studies to test their effectiveness at catching the emerald ash borer. Because results from studies performed in heavily infested sites may not always correspond with what is found along the edges of the infestation, we compared trap catch and detection rates (recording at least one catch on a trap over the course of the entire trapping season) of several trap types and colors at sites outside the core of the currently known emerald ash borer infestation in a nine-state detection tool comparison study. Two of the new plastics, a (Sabic) purple and a medium-dark (Sabic) green were incorporated into prism traps and tested alongside a standard purple prism trap and a green multifunnel trap. In areas with lower emerald ash borer density, the new purple (Sabic) corrugated plastic caught more beetles than the current purple prism trap, as well as more than the medium-dark green (Sabic) prism and green multifunnel traps. Sabic purple traps in the detection tools comparison study recorded a detection rate of 86% compared with 73, 66, and 58% for the standard purple, Sabic green, and green multifunnel traps, respectively. These detection rates were reduced to 80, 63, 55, and 46%, respectively, at low emerald ash borer density sites.

  4. High-precision angle sensor based on a Köster’s prism with absolute zero-point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, V.; Oertel, E.; Manske, E.

    2018-06-01

    In this publication, a novel approach will be presented to use a compact white-light interferometer based on a Köster’s prism for angle measurements. Experiments show that the resolution of this angle interferometer is in the range of a commercial digital autocollimator, with a focal length of f  =  300 mm, but with clearly reduced signal noise and without overshoot artifacts in the signal caused by digital filters. The angle detection of the reference mirror in the Köster’s interferometer is based on analysing the rotation angle of the fringe pattern, which is projected on a CMOS-matrix. The fringe pattern is generated by two displaced spherical wave fronts coming from one fiber-coupled white-light source and getting divided into a reference and a measurement beam by the Köster’s prism. The displacement correlates with the reference angle mirror in one linear direction and with the angle aberrations of the prism in the other orthogonal direction on the CMOS sensor. We will present the experimental and optical setup, the method and algorithms for the image-to-angle processing as well as the experimental results obtained in calibration and long-term measurements.

  5. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  6. Applying machine learning methods for characterization of hexagonal prisms from their 2D scattering patterns - an investigation using modelled scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salawu, Emmanuel Oluwatobi; Hesse, Evelyn; Stopford, Chris; Davey, Neil; Sun, Yi

    2017-11-01

    Better understanding and characterization of cloud particles, whose properties and distributions affect climate and weather, are essential for the understanding of present climate and climate change. Since imaging cloud probes have limitations of optical resolution, especially for small particles (with diameter < 25 μm), instruments like the Small Ice Detector (SID) probes, which capture high-resolution spatial light scattering patterns from individual particles down to 1 μm in size, have been developed. In this work, we have proposed a method using Machine Learning techniques to estimate simulated particles' orientation-averaged projected sizes (PAD) and aspect ratio from their 2D scattering patterns. The two-dimensional light scattering patterns (2DLSP) of hexagonal prisms are computed using the Ray Tracing with Diffraction on Facets (RTDF) model. The 2DLSP cover the same angular range as the SID probes. We generated 2DLSP for 162 hexagonal prisms at 133 orientations for each. In a first step, the 2DLSP were transformed into rotation-invariant Zernike moments (ZMs), which are particularly suitable for analyses of pattern symmetry. Then we used ZMs, summed intensities, and root mean square contrast as inputs to the advanced Machine Learning methods. We created one random forests classifier for predicting prism orientation, 133 orientation-specific (OS) support vector classification models for predicting the prism aspect-ratios, 133 OS support vector regression models for estimating prism sizes, and another 133 OS Support Vector Regression (SVR) models for estimating the size PADs. We have achieved a high accuracy of 0.99 in predicting prism aspect ratios, and a low value of normalized mean square error of 0.004 for estimating the particle's size and size PADs.

  7. Nonlinear attractor dynamics in the fundamental and extended prism adaptation paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.; Blau, Julia J.C.; Turvey, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation and re-adaptation processes are studied in terms of dynamic attractors that evolve and devolve. In doing so, a theoretical account is given for the fundamental observation that adaptation and re-adaptation processes do not exhibit one-trial learning. Moreover, the emergence of the latent aftereffect in the extended prism paradigm is addressed

  8. [Shared decision-making and individualized goal setting - a pilot trial using PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in psychiatric inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchi, S; Straub, S; Schwager, U

    2010-12-01

    Although there is much talk about shared decision making and individualized goal setting, there is a lack of knowledge and knowhow in their realization in daily clinical practice. There is a lack in tools for easy applicable tools to ameliorate person-centred individualized goal setting processes. In three selected psychiatric inpatients the semistructured, theory driven use of PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) in patients with complex psychiatric problems is presented and discussed. PRISM sustains a person-centred individualized process of goal setting and treatment and reinforces the active participation of patients. The process of visualisation and synchronous documentation is validated positively by patients and clinicians. The visual goal setting requires 30 to 45 minutes. In patients with complex psychiatric illness PRISM was used successfully to ameliorate individual goal setting. Specific effects of PRISM-visualisation are actually evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  9. A Concentrator Photovoltaic System Based on a Combination of Prism-Compound Parabolic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc Hai Vu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a cost-effective concentrating photovoltaic system composed of a prism and a compound parabolic concentrator (P-CPC. In this approach, the primary collector consists of a prism, a solid compound parabolic concentrator (CPC, and a slab waveguide. The prism, which is placed on the input aperture of CPC, directs the incoming sunlight beam to be parallel with the main axes of parabolic rims of CPC. Then, the sunlight is reflected at the parabolic rims and concentrated at the focal point of these parabolas. A slab waveguide is coupled at the output aperture of the CPC to collect focused sunlight beams and to guide them to the solar cell. The optical system was modeled and simulated with commercial ray tracing software (LightTools™. Simulation results show that the optical efficiency of a P-CPC can achieve up to 89%. when the concentration ratio of the P-CPC is fixed at 50. We also determine an optimal geometric structure of P-CPC based on simulation. Because of the simplicity of the P-CPC structure, a lower-cost mass production process is possible. A simulation based on optimal structure of P-CPC was performed and the results also shown that P-CPC has high angular tolerance for input sunlight. The high tolerance of the input angle of sunlight allows P-CPC solar concentrator utilize a single sun tracking system instead of a highly precise dual suntracking system as cost effective solution.

  10. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  11. COMET and PRISM - Search for Charged Lepton Flavor Violation with Muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    The experiment (COMET) at J-PARC to search for a charged-lepton-flavor-violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom is described. Future prospects of an experiment (PRISM) with even higher sensitivity is mentioned. On-going R and D on a highly intense muon source (MuSIC) at Osaka University is presented.

  12. The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  13. Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... in the aftereffect. The findings have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  14. PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission): an extended white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    André, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bielewicz, Pawel [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); Banday, Anthony [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Barbosa, Domingos [Grupo de Radio Astronomia Basic Sciences and Enabling Technologies Instituto de Telecomunicações, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barreiro, Belen [Instituto de Fìsica de Cantabria (CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria) Avda. de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Bartlett, James [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris, Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Bartolo, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei" , Università degli studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy); Battistelli, Elia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Battye, Richard; Bonaldi, Anna [Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bendo, George [U.K. ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Benoȋt, Alain [Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bersanelli, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria, 16, Milano (Italy); Béthermin, Matthieu, E-mail: naselsky@nbi.dk [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-02-01

    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The data obtained will allow us to precisely measure the absolute sky brightness and polarization of all the components of the sky emission in the observed frequency range, separating the primordial and extragalactic components cleanly from the galactic and zodiacal light emissions. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM, which include: (1) the ultimate galaxy cluster survey using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect, detecting approximately 10{sup 6} clusters extending to large redshift, including a characterization of the gas temperature of the brightest ones (through the relativistic corrections to the classic SZ template) as well as a peculiar velocity survey using the kinetic SZ effect that comprises our entire Hubble volume; (2) a detailed characterization of the properties and evolution of dusty galaxies, where the most of the star formation in the universe took place, the faintest population of which constitute the diffuse CIB (Cosmic Infrared Background); (3) a characterization of the B modes from primordial gravity waves generated during

  15. Prism adaptation does not alter object-based attention in healthy participants [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet H. Bultitude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hemispatial neglect (‘neglect’ is a disabling condition that can follow damage to the right side of the brain, in which patients show difficulty in responding to or orienting towards objects and events that occur on the left side of space. Symptoms of neglect can manifest in both space- and object-based frames of reference. Although patients can show a combination of these two forms of neglect, they are considered separable and have distinct neurological bases. In recent years considerable evidence has emerged to demonstrate that spatial symptoms of neglect can be reduced by an intervention called prism adaptation. Patients point towards objects viewed through prismatic lenses that shift the visual image to the right. Approximately five minutes of repeated pointing results in a leftward recalibration of pointing and improved performance on standard clinical tests for neglect. The understanding of prism adaptation has also been advanced through studies of healthy participants, in whom adaptation to leftward prismatic shifts results in temporary neglect-like performance. Here we examined the effect of prism adaptation on the performance of healthy participants who completed a computerised test of space- and object-based attention. Participants underwent adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms, or performed neutral pointing according to a between-groups design. Significant pointing after-effects were found for both prism groups, indicating successful adaptation. In addition, the results of the computerised test revealed larger reaction-time costs associated with shifts of attention between two objects compared to shifts of attention within the same object, replicating previous work. However there were no differences in the performance of the three groups, indicating that prism adaptation did not influence space- or object-based attention for this task. When combined with existing literature, the results are consistent with the

  16. Influence of the apex angle of a hollow prism made from an ordinary commercial glass plate as a simple refractometer to the accuracy of the refractive index measurement of the edible oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, N.; Maswati; Yusibani, E.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of the apex angle of a hollow prism used as a simple refractometer to the accuracy of a refractive index measurement of the edible oil samples was studied. The hollow prism was made from an ordinary commercial glass plate with a thickness of 2 mm. The apex angle of the constructed hollow prism was varied. The edible oil sample used in this study was palm oil, namely the packaged, branded oil sample and the bulk oil sample. For measuring the refractive index, the oil sample was filled in the constructed hollow prism, and then a helium-neon laser beam was passed through the oil sample at a certain angle of incidence. The angle of minimum deviation of the transmitted laser He-Ne beam was measured and then was used for calculating the refractive index of the oil sample. The refractive index measurement was made using the hollow prism with different apex angles, ranging from 300 to 600. The measurement accuracy was estimated by comparing the refractive index measured using the hollow prisms to that of obtained using a standard Abbe refractometer. It was found that the refractive index of the edible oil can be measured accurately by using the hollow prism. It was also found that the accuracy of the refractive index measurement significantly changes with the apex angle of the hollow prism. The refractive index values measured using this simple refractometer deviate up to 3,49% from the refractive index value measured using the standard Abbe refractometer, especially when the apex angle of the prism is 30°. The measurement results with high accuracies obtained when using the hollow prisms with apex angles of 450 and 600. The optimum apex angle for the present constructed hollow prism is 450. The refractive index obtained using the hollow prism with the apex angle of 450 is 1,4623 and 1,4438 for the bulk oil and the packed, branded oil samples, respectively. This result suggests that the apex angle of the prism used affects largely the accuracy of the

  17. Distribution of dehalogenation activity in subseafloor sediments of the Nankai Trough subduction zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futagami, Taiki; Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Kaksonen, Anna H; Inagaki, Fumio

    2013-04-19

    Halogenated organic matter buried in marine subsurface sediment may serve as a source of electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration of subseafloor microbes. Detection of a diverse array of reductive dehalogenase-homologous (rdhA) genes suggests that subseafloor organohalide-respiring microbial communities may play significant ecological roles in the biogeochemical carbon and halogen cycle in the subseafloor biosphere. We report here the spatial distribution of dehalogenation activity in the Nankai Trough plate-subduction zone of the northwest Pacific off the Kii Peninsula of Japan. Incubation experiments with slurries of sediment collected at various depths and locations showed that degradation of several organohalides tested only occurred in the shallow sedimentary basin, down to 4.7 metres below the seafloor, despite detection of rdhA in the deeper sediments. We studied the phylogenetic diversity of the metabolically active microbes in positive enrichment cultures by extracting RNA, and found that Desulfuromonadales bacteria predominate. In addition, for the isolation of genes involved in the dehalogenation reaction, we performed a substrate-induced gene expression screening on DNA extracted from the enrichment cultures. Diverse DNA fragments were obtained and some of them showed best BLAST hit to known organohalide respirers such as Dehalococcoides, whereas no functionally known dehalogenation-related genes such as rdhA were found, indicating the need to improve the molecular approach to assess functional genes for organohalide respiration.

  18. Performance of the prism reactor's passive decay heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, P.M.; Hunsbedt, A.

    1989-01-01

    The PRISM modular reactor concept has a totally passive safety-grade decay heat removal system referred to as the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that rejects heat from the reactor by radiation and natural convection of air. The system is inherently reliable and is not subject to the failure modes commonly associated with active cooling systems. The thermal performance of RVACS exceeds requirements and significant thermal margins exist. RVACS has been shown to perform its function under many postulated accident conditions. The PRISM power plant is equipped with three methods for shutdown: condenser cooling in conjunction with intermediate sodium and steam generator systems, and auxiliary cooling system (ACS) which removes heat from the steam generator by natural convection of air and transport of heat from the core by natural convection in the primary and intermediate systems, and a safety- grade reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) which removes heat passively from the reactor containment vessel by natural convection of air. The combination of one active and two passive systems provides a highly reliable and economical shutdown heat removal system. This paper provides a summary of the RVACS thermal performance for expected operating conditions and postulated accident events. The supporting experimental work, which substantiates the performance predictions, is also summarized

  19. The application of the right rectangular prism in the process determining the value of terrain correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalović Oleg R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topographic masses on gravity were determined for the territory of Serbia by using the digital terrain model with resolution of 1 arch second in both directions. For the effect of distant masses, i.e. masses that are out of the territory of Serbia, a global digital model SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was used. All the topography masses were divided by using a right rectangle prism and classic terrain corrections was applied. Special attention was dedicated to the curvatures of the Earth surface and singularity points, where equations for first partial derivatives of prism gravity potential are not defined.

  20. On improvement of the series convergence in the problem of the vibrations of orhotropic rectangular prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashko, A. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new analytical presentation of the solution for steady-state oscillations of orthotopic rectangular prism is found. The corresponding infinite system of linear algebraic equations has been deduced by the superposition method. A countable set of precise eigenfrequencies and elementary eigenforms is found. The identities are found which make it possible to improve the convergence of all the infinite series in the solution of the problem. All the infinite series in presentation of solution are analytically summed up. Numerical calculations of stresses in the rectangular orthotropic prism with a uniform along the border and harmonic in time load on two opposite faces have been performed.

  1. Health-related quality of life and binocular vision in patients with diplopia in acute-onset comitant esotropia with press-on prism improves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the effect of press-on prisms in patients with acute-onset comitant esotropia and diplopia, focusing primarily on vision-related quality of life and binocular vision. METHODS: Retrospective case-series study. Totally 16 acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia who received treatment in the Huzhou Central Hospital were included in this study from March 2014 to March 2017. Vision-related quality of life before press-on prism correction and 1mo after press-on prism correction were performed with the Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire(CHI-NEI-VFQ-25. In each time of follow-up, we made a minute examination, includes worth four dot test and stereo tests. Data was statistically analyzed with paired sample t test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Except the degree of eye pain, color vision and perimetry, the indicators from CHI-NEI-VFQ-25 table including general health status, overall vision, mental health, social role difficulties, social functional, near activities, distant activities, independency and driving of acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia were obviously significant improved 1mo after press-on prism correction(PPCONCLUSION: Press-on prism correction may be helpful for binocular vision recovery in acute-onset comitant esotropia patients with diplopia, so as improve the vision-related quality of life.

  2. Ocean deformation processes at the Caribbean-North America-South America triple junction: Initial results of the 2007 ANTIPLAC marine survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, F.; Deville, E.; Le Drezen, E.; Loubrieu, B.; Maltese, L.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W.; Thereau, E.; Umber, M.; Vially, R.

    2007-12-01

    Marine geophysical data (multibeam and seismic lines) acquired in 2007 (ANTIPLAC survey) in the North-South Americas-Caribbean triple point (Central Atlantic, Barracuda and Tiburon ridges area), provide information about the structure, the tectonic processes and the timing of the deformation in this large diffuse zone of polyphase deformation. The deformation of the plate boundary between the north and south Americas is distributed on several structures located in the Atlantic plain, at the front of the Barbados accretionary prism. In this area of deformation of the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, the main depressions and transform troughs are filled by Late Pliocene-Pleistocene turbidite sediments, especially in the Barracuda trough, north of Barracuda ridge. These sediments are not issued from the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc but they are sourced from the East, probably by the Orinoco turbidite distal system, through channels transiting in the Atlantic abyssal plain. These Late Pliocene- Quaternary sediments show locally spectacular evidences of syntectonic deformation. It can be shown notably that Barracuda ridge includes a pre-existing transform fault system which has been folded and uplifted very recently during Pleistocene times. This recent deformation has generate relieves up to 2 km high with associated erosion processes notably along the northern flank the Barracuda ridge. The subduction of these recently deformed ridges induces deformation of earlier structures within the Barbados accretionary prism. These asperities within the Atlantic oceanic lithosphere which is subducted in the Lesser Antilles active margin are correlated with the zone of intense seismic activity below the volcanic arc.

  3. Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure Revised II (PRISM-RII) - a novel method to assess perceived burden of illness in diabetes patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klis, S.; Vingerhoets, A.J.M.M.; de, W.M.; Zandbelt, N.; Snoek, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) has been introduced as a visual measure of suffering. We explored the validity of a revised version, the PRISM-RII, in diabetes patients as part of the annual review. Methods: Participants were 308 adult outpatients with

  4.   Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

      Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  5. THE PRISM MULTI-OBJECT SURVEY (PRIMUS). II. DATA REDUCTION AND REDSHIFT FITTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard J. [MMT Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics, Siena College, 515 Loudon Rd., Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Burles, Scott M. [D.E. Shaw and Co. L.P, 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 850, Cupertino, CA 95014 (United States); Coil, Alison L.; Aird, James; Mendez, Alexander J. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wong, Kenneth C. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Zhu, Guangtun [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCA/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bolton, Adam S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2013-04-20

    The PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS) is a spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey to z {approx} 1 completed with a low-dispersion prism and slitmasks allowing for simultaneous observations of {approx}2500 objects over 0.18 deg{sup 2}. The final PRIMUS catalog includes {approx}130,000 robust redshifts over 9.1 deg{sup 2}. In this paper, we summarize the PRIMUS observational strategy and present the data reduction details used to measure redshifts, redshift precision, and survey completeness. The survey motivation, observational techniques, fields, target selection, slitmask design, and observations are presented in Coil et al. Comparisons to existing higher-resolution spectroscopic measurements show a typical precision of {sigma}{sub z}/(1 + z) = 0.005. PRIMUS, both in area and number of redshifts, is the largest faint galaxy redshift survey completed to date and is allowing for precise measurements of the relationship between active galactic nuclei and their hosts, the effects of environment on galaxy evolution, and the build up of galactic systems over the latter half of cosmic history.

  6. Family Perspectives: Using a Cultural Prism to Understand Families from Asian Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Turnbull, Ann P.; Zan, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Educators can better serve students who come from diverse cultural backgrounds by understanding the differing cultural values of these students and their families. This article explores different cultural perspectives using a cultural prism approach, focused most specifically on the Korean and Chinese cultures. (Contains 2 tables.)

  7. Brain Activity Stimulated by Prism Adaptation Tasks Utilized for the Treatment of Unilateral Spatial Neglect: A Study with fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Taniguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the neurological basis for efficacy of prism adaptation therapy, which is used for the treatment of poststroke unilateral spatial neglect (USN. Study subjects were 6 USN-positive (+, 6 USN-negative patients, and 6 healthy volunteer control subjects. USN was identified by the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT. During the tasks, brain activity was assessed with fNIRS via changes in oxyHb concentration per unit length. There was no significant difference in the number of errors in the task between the 3 groups. However, in the USN(+ group there was a significantly greater reduction in oxyHb levels in the right parietal association cortex during the prism adaptation task than in the other 2 groups (<0.05. There was an immediate improvement in USN symptoms as well as a significant increase in oxyHb levels during the prism adaptation in the channels covering the right frontal and parietal lobes in 2 patients in the USN(+ group (<0.05. This result suggested that decreased activity in the right parietal association cortex, which is related to spatial perception, during the prism adaptation task and task-induced reorganization of the right frontal and parietal areas were involved in improvement in USN symptoms.

  8. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, S K; Shibin Krishna, T C; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Kumar, Pawan; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Gupta, Govind

    2014-08-21

    We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.

  9. Using the accelerated Brazilian concrete prism test (ABCPT to evaluate alkali aggregate reaction (AAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    Full Text Available There are many test methods used in the laboratory to detect potential alkali-aggregate reactions (AAR. However, up to now, there is no consensus if they are reliable and efficient. This work presents the development of a new and accelerated concrete prism test called ABCPT (accelerate Brazilian concrete prism test as an attempt to create a reliable and fast test that can analyze and classify the potential reactivity of aggregates in the laboratory. For this research, six aggregates from different lithotypes were used. The methods CPT, ACPT and ABCPT were carried out with all the aggregates and a comparative analysis among all tests was performed. ABCPT seems to have a great potential to analyze and classify aggregates in the laboratory, although it needs further testing with other lithotypes to be confirmed as feasible.

  10. The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...... is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non...

  11. Design of a fast runback feature for PRISM control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.K.; Rhow, S.K.; Daniel, W.R.; Dayal, Y.; Gaubatz, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The nine power reactor inherently safe modules (PRISM) are controlled and their operation coordinated by a hierarchical, distributed, digital plant control system (PCS). This paper describes the fast runback features of the PCS. Fast runback consists of PCS directed reactor module shutdown with accompanying reductions of coolant flows. Analyses have shown that the PCS fast runback adequately terminates duty cycle events initiated in the balance of plant and the steam generating system, results in lower thermal shock to the reactor than scram, and reduces the number of scrams by approximately a factor of five

  12. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available in 1962 by Gould et al1 as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry-Perot cavities, by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over the years2... Optronics for the use of their laser and for making experimental data available to us. We would also like to thank Dr Dieter Preussler and Mr Daniel Esser for useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz...

  13. Intravesicular Phosphatase PHOSPHO1 Function in Enamel Mineralization and Prism Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Pandya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The transport of mineral ions from the enamel organ-associated blood vessels to the developing enamel crystals involves complex cargo packaging and carriage mechanisms across several cell layers, including the ameloblast layer and the stratum intermedium. Previous studies have established PHOSPHO1 as a matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase that interacts with matrix vesicles molecules phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine to initiate apatite crystal formation inside of matrix vesicles in bone. In the present study, we sought to determine the function of Phospho1 during amelogenesis. PHOSPHO1 protein localization during amelogenesis was verified using immunohistochemistry, with positive signals in the enamel layer, ameloblast Tomes' processes, and in the walls of ameloblast secretory vesicles. These ameloblast secretory vesicle walls were also labeled for amelogenin and the exosomal protein marker HSP70 using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, PHOSPHO1 presence in the enamel organ was confirmed by Western blot. Phospho1−/− mice lacked sharp incisal tips, featured a significant 25% increase in total enamel volume, and demonstrated a significant 2-fold reduction in silver grain density of von Kossa stained ground sections indicative of reduced mineralization in the enamel layer when compared to wild-type mice (p < 0.001. Scanning electron micrographs of Phospho1−/− mouse enamel revealed a loss of the prominent enamel prism “picket fence” structure, a loss of parallel crystal organization within prisms, and a 1.56-fold increase in enamel prism width (p < 0.0001. Finally, EDS elemental analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in phosphate incorporation in the enamel layer when compared to controls (p < 0.05. Together, these data establish that the matrix vesicle membrane-associated phosphatase PHOSPHO1 is essential for physiological enamel mineralization. Our findings also suggest that intracellular ameloblast secretory

  14. The PRISM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circeo, L.J. Jr.; Camacho, S.L.; Tixier, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Contaminated soils and buried wastes represent one of the most widespread and costly remediation problems in the United States and other developed countries around the world. This concept of in situ remediation using a plasma arc torch should be directly applicable to many of the contaminated soil remediation needs described the DOE, EPA, and DoD. Plasma Remediation of In Situ Materials (PRISM) could provide a highly efficient, cost-effective, reliable and controllable technique to selectively melt and vitrify any contaminated/buried volume of soils, materials, or objects at any depth underground. If necessary, it could pinpoint underground objects such as buried drums for selective remediation. Plasma arc technology was developed over 30 years ago by NASA for the US space program to simulate reentry temperatures on heat shields. Only recently has this technology begun to emerge as a commercial tool in several industries such as steelmaking, metallurgy, precious metal recovery, and waste disposal. Conceptually, a plasma torch could be used on the ground surface or lowered to the bottom of a small diameter, cased borehole. By raising and operating the torch at progressively higher levels a column of contaminated material would be vitrified and converted into an environmentally safe, glassy residue, highly resistant to leaching. With proper borehole spacing the vitrified columns could be coalesced together to form a contiguous, homogeneous mass of vitrified material which is environmentally safe and highly resistant to leaching

  15. Heat Flow Variation along the Nankai Trough Floor Correlated with the Structure of the Shikoku Basin Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, M.; Kawada, Y.; Gao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Surface heat flow observed on the floor of the Nankai Trough, near the trench axis, is highly variable and does not well correspond to the seafloor age of the incoming Philippine Sea plate (Shikoku Basin). Recent detailed measurements between 133.5°E and 137°E revealed that heat flow on the trough floor significantly varies along the trough. The most conspicuous variation is found around 136°E. Heat flow is extremely high and variable between 135°E and 136°E, much higher than the value estimated from the age. On the east of 136°E, heat flow gradually decreases eastward over 50 km to the value nearly consistent with the age with no appreciable scatter. Elevated heat flow on the trough floor can be attributed to vigorous fluid circulation in a permeable layer (aquifer) in the subducted oceanic crust, which efficiently transports heat upward along the plate interface (Spinelli and Wang, 2008). The heat flow variation around 136°E may therefore arise from variation in the permeability structure of the crustal aquifer. A probable cause of the heterogeneity in the aquifer permeability is a structure boundary in the incoming Shikoku Basin, the boundary between the younger part on the west formed by spreading in NE-SW direction and the older part on the east formed by E-W spreading. It is located around 136°E, about the same place as the heat flow distribution boundary. A possible additional source of variation in the permeability structure is the geometry of the subducted Philippine Sea plate. A prominent bend in the subducted plate between 135°E and 136°E, which corresponds to the high heat flow area on the trough floor, may have fractured the oceanic crust and enhanced the aquifer permeability. We evaluated the influence of variations in the aquifer permeability on the thermal structure through 3D numerical modelling using a high thermal-conductivity proxy for heat transport by fluid flow. A sharp along-strike change in the permeability of the subducted

  16. Prism therapy and visual rehabilitation in homonymous visual field loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C

    2011-02-01

    Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common and frequently occur after cerebrovascular accidents. They significantly impair visual function and cause disability particularly with regard to visual exploration. The purpose of this study was to assess a novel interventional treatment of monocular prism therapy on visual functioning in patients with HVFD of varied etiology using vision targeted, health-related quality of life (QOL) questionnaires. Our secondary aim was to confirm monocular and binocular visual field expansion pre- and posttreatment.

  17. Petroleum potential of the northern Sinu-San Jacinto Basin, Colombia: an integrated petroleum system and basin modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Christian H.; Goncalves, Felix T.T.; Bedregal, Ricardo P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Modelagem de Bacias (LAB2M); Azevedo, Debora A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Landau, Luis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)

    2004-07-01

    The northern Sinu-San Jacinto basin, located in the northwestern corner of South America (Colombia), belongs to the accretionary prism that resulted from the collision and subduction of the Caribbean plate under the South America plate. Despite all the previous exploratory efforts, solely a few small sub-commercial oil and gas accumulation have been found up to now. The geological and geochemical information acquired by different companies during the lasts decades was integrated with new geochemical analysis and basin modeling to characterize the petroleum systems, to reconstruct the hydrocarbon charge history in the study area and to better assess the exploratory risk. (author)

  18. The PRISM reactor as a possible option to deal with the british civilian plutonium stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fichtlscherer, Christopher [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany); ISR, Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Boku) (Austria)

    2017-07-01

    Dealing with stocks of separated weapon-usable plutonium is a big challenge for our modern society. This work focuses on the British civil plutonium stockpiles, which amount to 103.3 tons. One option is seen in irradiating the plutonium in a fast reactor under development, namely the GE PRISM reactor. The PRISM reactor is a small modular, fast reactor which has a thermal power of 840 MW and an electrical output of 311 MW. It is intended to use MOX fuel and proponents claim, that it thus would be possible to produce clean energy, while making the plutonium proliferation resistant. A MCNP model of the reactor is built and depletion calculations with different target burnups of the fuel were conducted to check whether the burned material would fulfil the Spent-Fuel Standard. Particularly it was checked whether the spent fuel is self protecting, meaning that the dose rate does not fall below a limit of 1 Sv/h in 1 meter distance after a cooling period of 30 years. Based on the reactor model calculations the irradiation time to fulfill this limit for the spent fuel is calculated. Based on the needed target burnup, it can be verified, whether it is possible for the PRISM reactor to render the civil plutonium proliferation resistant in only 20 years as is is claimed by its proponents.

  19. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, J.D.

    1959-07-01

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  20. Thermal stresses in long prisms by relaxation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1959-07-15

    A general method is presented for calculating the elastic thermal stresses in long prisms which are producing heat and are not solvable by simple analytical methods. The problem of an inverted lattice i.e. an hexagonal coolant passage surrounded by hexagonal fuel elements is considered and the temperature and principal thermal stress distributions evaluated for the particular case of 20% coolant. The maximum thermal stress for this type of fuel element is about the same as the maximum thermal stress in a cylindrical fuel element surrounded by a sea of coolant assuming the existence of the same maximum temperature drop and material properties. (author)

  1. Basal and prism dislocation cores in magnesium: comparison of first-principles and embedded-atom-potential methods predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasi, J A; Nogaret, T; Curtin, W A; Trinkle, D R; Qi, Y; Hector, L G Jr

    2009-01-01

    The core structures of screw and edge dislocations on the basal and prism planes in Mg, and the associated gamma surfaces, were studied using an ab initio method and the embedded-atom-method interatomic potentials developed by Sun et al and Liu et al. The ab initio calculations predict that the basal plane dislocations dissociate into partials split by 16.7 Å (edge) and 6.3 Å (screw), as compared with 14.3 Å and 12.7 Å (Sun and Liu edge), and 6.3 Å and 1.4 Å (Sun and Liu screw), with the Liu screw dislocation being metastable. In the prism plane, the screw and edge cores are compact and the edge core structures are all similar, while ab initio does not predict a stable prismatic screw in stress-free conditions. These results are qualitatively understood through an examination of the gamma surfaces for interplanar sliding on the basal and prism planes. The Peierls stresses at T = 0 K for basal slip are a few megapascals for the Sun potential, in agreement with experiments, but are ten times larger for the Liu potential. The Peierls stresses for prism slip are 10–40 MPa for both potentials. Overall, the dislocation core structures from ab initio are well represented by the Sun potential in all cases while the Liu potential shows some notable differences. These results suggest that the Sun potential is preferable for studying other dislocations in Mg, particularly the (c + a) dislocations, for which the core structures are much larger and not accessible by ab initio methods

  2. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  3. PENGUKURAN KINERJA UMKM MENGGUNAKAN PERFORMANCE PRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agelina Purnomo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available UMKM XYZ merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan keripik buah nangka. Pada proses observasi langsung di lapangan, perusahaan mempunyai masalah dalam melakukan pengukuran kinerja. Pengukuran kinerja yang dilakukan hanya berdasarkan Net Profit Margin (rasio laba bersih dibandingkan dengan pendapatan tiap tahunnya. Pengukuran yang dilakukan oleh perusahaan tidak cukup representatif menilai kinerja perusahaan secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan alat ukur kinerja yang tepat dan fleksibel, yaitu dengan metode Performance Prism. Proses penentuan Key Performance Indicator (KPI kinerja berdasarkan persetujuan dari pihak manajer perusahaan. Dengan periode dasar (tahun 2015 didapatkan hasil bahwa terdapat 25 Key Performance Indicator yang terdiri dari: 2 KPI Investor, 8 KPI Konsumen, 4 KPI Suplier, 6 KPI Karyawan, dan 5 KPI Masyarakat Sekitar dengan nilai total kinerja keseluruhan sebagai pembanding dengan periode pengukuran adalah 2,232 (kategori cukup sehingga perlu ditingkatkan lagi pada periode selanjutnya berdasarkan saran-saran pada periode dasar.

  4. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations throughout the years 2008-09 within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the Composite Topographic Index (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms). PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data were summarized to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  5. Broadband IR polarizing beam splitter using a subwavelength-structured one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer embedded in a high-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, H K; Azzam, R M A

    2009-09-20

    An iterative procedure for the design of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) that uses a form-birefringent, subwavelength-structured, one-dimensional photonic-crystal layer (SWS 1-D PCL) embedded in a high-index cubical prism is presented. The PBS is based on index matching and total transmission for the p polarization and total internal reflection for the s polarization at the prism-PCL interface at 45 degrees angle of incidence. A high extinction ratio in reflection (>50 dB) over the 4-12 microm IR spectral range is achieved using a SWS 1-D PCL of ZnTe embedded in a ZnS cube within an external field of view of +/-6.6 degrees and in the presence of grating filling factor errors of up to +/-10%. Comparable results, but with wider field of view, are also obtained with a Ge PCL embedded in a Si prism.

  6. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENGUKURAN KINERJA DENGAN METODE PERFORMANCE PRISM (Studi Kasus di Plaza Hotel Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suliantoro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini Plaza hotel belum pernah melakukan pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi yang terdiri dari aspek finansial dan non finansial. Dilihat dari prosentase tingkat hunian yang tidak memenuhi target yang ditetapkan, maka pengukuran kinerja yang terintegrasi diharapkan mampu memberikan perbaikan kinerja yang diharapkan. Dengan menggunakan performance prism, dilakukan identifikasi kebutuhan dan kontribusi stakeholder secara keseluruhan sehingga didapat indikator kinerja dari kriteria strategi, proses dan kapabilitas yang dijadikan tolok ukur perbaikan kinerja.. tahap pengumpulan data dengan menyebarkan matriks perbandingan berpasangan sebagai dasar penyusunan bobot kepentingan pada AHP dan kuesioner target pencapaian kinerja sebagai dasar penetapan skor aktual pada OMAX. Dari analisis yang dilakukan setelah bobot kepentingan diperoleh dan perhitungan nilai performansi, dilakukan simulasi perbaikan satu-satuan nilai performansi agar didapat kriteria dan elemen apa saja yang mendapat prioritas perbaikan dan rekomendasi perbaikan yang perlu dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kinerja Plaza Hotel Semarang. Kata kunci : Performance Prism, AHP, OMAX, skor aktual

  7. Moving forward with prisms: Sensory-motor adaptation improves gait initiation in Parkinson’s disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Helen Bultitude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that the decreased walking speed; small, shuffling steps; and ‘freezing’ shown by patients with Parkinson’s disease could stem from an inability to tilt the body forward enough to provide sufficient forward propulsion. In two repeated-measures studies we examined whether adaptation to upward-shifting prisms, resulting in a downward after-effect, could improve gait initiation in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson’s disease. Faster forward stepping followed a brief (5 min exposure period for patients, and a longer (20 min exposure period for age-matched controls. Backward stepping was unchanged, and adaptation to downward-shifting prisms with control participants showed no effect on forward or backward stepping. These results suggest that adaptation of arm proprioception in the vertical plane may generalise to anterior-posterior postural control, presenting new possibilities for the treatment of gait disturbance in basal ganglia disorders.

  8. The Refractive Index Measurement Of Silicon Dioxide Thin Film by the Coupling Prism Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budianto, Anwar; Hariyanto, Sigit; Subarkah

    1996-01-01

    Refractive index of silicon dioxide thin film that doped with phosphor (SiO 2 :P) above the pure silicon dioxide substrate has been measured by light coupling prism method. The method principle is focusing the light on coupling prism base so that the light propagates into the waveguide layer while the reflected one forms a mode in the observation plane. The SiO 2 thin film as waveguide layer has a refractive index that give the thick and refractive index relation. The He-Ne laser as light source has the wavelength λ 0,6328 μm. The refractive index measurement of the thin film with the substrate refractive index n sb = 1,47 and the thin film thick d = 2μm gives n g = 1,5534 ± 0,01136. This method can distinguish the refractive index of thin film about 6% to the refractive index of substrate

  9. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed; Hendam, Ahmed; Fahmy, Ezzat; Abou Zeid, Mohamed; Haroun, Medhat

    2012-01-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Lightweight AAC Masonry Wall Prisms with Ferrocement Layers in Compression and Flexure

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2012-05-01

    An experimental program is designed to evaluate the performance of lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete masonry wall strengthened using ferrocement layers, in a sandwich structure, under in-plane compression and out-of-plane bending. The 25 mm thick ferrocement mortar is reinforced with steel welded wire mesh of 1 mm diameters at 15 mm spacing. Different types of shear connectors are used to evaluate their effect on failure loads. The effect of different design parameters on the wall strength are considered including wall thickness, mortar strength, and type and distribution of shear connectors. A total of 20 prisms are tested in compression and 5 prisms are tested under bending. The proposed ferrocement strengthening technique is easy to apply on existing wall system and results in significant strength and stiffness enhancement of the tested wall specimens. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications.

  11. Designing and researching of the virtual display system based on the prism elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, V. N.; Grimm, V. A.; Romanova, G. E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Grishina, N. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Problems of designing of systems for virtual display systems for augmented reality placed near the observers eye (so called head worn displays) with the light guide prismatic elements are considered. Systems of augmented reality is the complex consists of the image generator (most often it's the microdisplay with the illumination system if the display is not self-luminous), the objective which forms the display image practically in infinity and the combiner which organizes the light splitting so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding environment as the background at the same time. This work deals with the system with the combiner based on the composite structure of the prism elements. In the work three cases of the prism combiner design are considered and also the results of the modeling with the optical design software are presented. In the model the question of the large pupil zone was analyzed and also the discontinuous character (mosaic structure) of the angular field in transmission of the information from the microdisplay to the observer's eye with the prismatic structure are discussed.

  12. The Clinical Utility of ASRS-v1.1 for Identifying ADHD in Alcoholics Using PRISM as the Reference Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maria M; Schneekloth, Terry D; Hitschfeld, Mario J; Geske, Jennifer R; Atkinson, David L; Karpyak, Victor M

    2016-05-02

    The objective was to assess the clinical utility of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) in identifying ADHD in alcoholics using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM) as the diagnostic "gold standard." We performed a secondary analysis of data from 379 treatment-seeking alcoholics who completed the ASRS-v1.1 and the ADHD module of the PRISM. Data analysis included descriptive statistics. The prevalence of ADHD was 7.7% (95% CI = [5.4, 10.8]). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ASRS-v1.1 was 18.1% (95% CI = [12.4, 25.7]) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.6% (95% CI = [94.9, 98.9]). The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated a sensitivity of 79.3% (95% CI = [61.6, 90.2]) and a specificity of 70.3% (95% CI = [65.3, 74.8]). The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity in a sample of treatment-seeking alcoholics when compared with the PRISM as the reference standard for ADHD diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. HEATING OF BLANK IN FORM OF PRISM IN ACCORDANCE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kovalevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on optimum heating control of a blank in the form of prism under complicated conditions of heat-transfer in accordance with criteria of gas consumption minimization, decarburized layer and scaling. Numerical algorithm of the problem solution and examples are given in the paper. A new technology of the flame furnace operation has been developed in the paper. 

  14. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  15. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. (author)

  16. Distance 2-Domination in Prisms of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ferran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G − D and D is at most two. Let γ2(G denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G with v′ ∊ V(G′ if and only if v′ = π(u. If γ2(πG = γ2(G for any permutation π of V(G, then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.

  17. Basalts and picrites from a plume-type ophiolite in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, Qilian Orogen: Accretion of a Cambrian Oceanic Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Song, Shuguang; Yang, Liming; Su, Li; Niu, Yaoling; Allen, Mark B.; Xu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    Oceanic plateaus with high-Mg rocks in the present-day oceanic crust have attracted much attention for their proposed mantle-plume origins and abnormally high mantle potential temperatures (Tp). However, equivalent rocks in ancient oceanic environments are usually poorly preserved because of deformation and metamorphism. Here we present petrological, geochronological and geochemical data for pillow lavas from Cambrian ophiolites in the Lajishan and Yongjing regions of the South Qilian Accretionary Belt (SQAB), from the southern part of the Qilian Orogen, northern China. Three rock groups can be identified geochemically: (1) sub-alkaline basalts with enriched mid- ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB) affinity; (2) alkaline basalts with oceanic island basalt (OIB) features, probably derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle source; and (3) picrites with MgO (18-22 wt%). Cr-numbers [Cr# = Cr/(Cr + Al)] of spinels from the picrites suggest 18-21% degree of partial melting at the estimated mantle potential temperature (Tp) of 1489-1600 °C, equivalent to values of Cenozoic Hawaiian picrites (1500-1600 °C). Zircons from one gabbro sample yielded a U-Pb Concordia age of 525 ± 3 Ma, suggesting the oceanic crust formed in the Cambrian. Available evidence suggests that Cambrian mantle plume activity is preserved in the South Qilian Accretionary Belt, and influenced the regional tectonics: "jamming" of the trench by thick oceanic crust explains the emplacement and preservation of the oceanic plateau, and gave rise to the generation of concomitant Ordovician inner-oceanic island arc basalts via re-organisation of the subduction zones in the region.

  18. Field guide to the Mesozoic arc and accretionary complex of South-Central Alaska, Indian to Hatcher Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Susan M.; Oswald, P.J.; Hults, Chad P.

    2015-01-01

    This field trip traverses exposures of a multi-generation Mesozoic magmatic arc and subduction-accretion complex that had a complicated history of magmatic activity and experienced variations in composition and deformational style in response to changes in the tectonic environment. This Mesozoic arc formed at an unknown latitude to the south, was accreted to North America, and was subsequently transported along faults to its present location (Plafker and others, 1989; Hillhouse and Coe, 1994). Some of these faults are still active. Similar tectonic, igneous, and sedimentary processes to those that formed the Mesozoic arc complex persist today in southern Alaska, building on, and deforming the Mesozoic arc. The rocks we will see on this field trip provide insights on the three-dimensional composition of the modern arc, and the processes involved in the evolution of an arc and its companion accretionary complex.

  19. Accelerated Determination of ASR Susceptibility during Concrete Prism Testing through Nonlinear Resonance Ultrasonic Spectroscopy : TechBrief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The research has been conducted on laboratory-cast concrete prism specimens containing both fine and coarse aggregates obtained from different sources to provide a spectrum of reactivity for assessment through the developed NIRAS technique. The NIRAS...

  20. A VUV prism spectrometer for RICH radiator refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Moyssides, P G; Fokitis, E

    2000-01-01

    A prism spectrometer has been developed to operate in the VUV wavelength range from 120 to 200 nm. It can be used as a pre- disperser in conjunction with a Fabry-Perot based gas refractometer. This instrument has also been used to measure the refractive index of the liquid radiator C/sub 6/F/sub 14/ in various spectral lines. This radiator is used in the RICH detectors of the DELPHI experiment and has been proposed for ALICE, and LHCb experiments. The spectral resolution of the system is improved as the wavelength decreases and the data are consistent with a wavelength accuracy about 0.4 nm at 140 nm. The results for the dispersion curve of the above liquid are presented. (17 refs).

  1. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  2. Permeability of sediment cores from methane hydrate deposit in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Effective and absolute permeability are key parameters for gas production from methane-hydrate-bearing sandy sediments. Effective and/or absolute permeability have been measured using methane-hydrate-bearing sandy cores and clayey and silty cores recovered from Daini Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. Liquid-nitrogen-immersed cores were prepared by rapid depressurization of pressure cores recovered by a pressure coring system referred to as the Hybrid PCS. Cores were shaped cylindrically on a lathe with spraying of liquid nitrogen to prevent hydrate dissociation. Permeability was measured by a flooding test or a pressure relaxation method under near in-situ pressure and temperature conditions. Measured effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments is less than tens of md, which are order of magnitude less than absolute permeability. Absolute permeability of clayey cores is approximately tens of μd, which would perform a sealing function as cap rocks. Permeability reduction due to a swelling effect was observed for a silty core during flooding test of pure water mimicking hydrate-dissociation-water. Swelling effect may cause production formation damage especially at a later stage of gas production from methane hydrate deposits. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  3. FDS5 Simulation for OECD PRISME Fire Test of DOOR PRSD5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyu Bok; Park, Jong Seuk

    2009-01-01

    OECD/NEA PRISME Fire Project is an international co-operation project to investigate fire propagation by means of experiments and analyses for nuclear power plant applications. This project focuses on the generation of experimental data for fire and smoke propagation from the fire room to adjacent rooms under various conditions and room configurations. In addition, analyses using computer codes are performed to understand the phenomena of interest and to produce a consistent interpretation of the experimental results. The PRISME Project is composed of series of tests named as SOURCE, DOOR, LEAK and Global Tests. The SOURCE is composed of tests to characterize the fire source, and the DOOR is to study fire and smoke propagation through an open door, while the LEAK is to investigate hot gas leakages through other modes of openings such as holes, a slot, a duct, and a partially opened door. The Global test will be conducted as integral tests on the basis of the results of the previous separate effects tests. In this paper, simulations are performed with FDS5 computer code for the DOOR Test No.5 (PRS D 5) and the calculation results are compared with the corresponding experimental data to study the code capability to predict the phenomena of the hot gas propagation between two rooms

  4. On the geometrically nonlinear elastic response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Ida; Amendola, Ada; Zuccaro, Giulio; Feo, Luciano; Fraternali, Fernando

    2018-03-01

    The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class ϑ=1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables) or compression (bars), under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either 'standard' or 'expanded' configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a 'thick' and a 'slender' model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  5. Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    for assessing its vulnerability and subsequent listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans (Donaldson et al. 2000, Brown et aL 2001). Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions (Bart et al. 2002). PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approaches to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic andboreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  6. Graphite oxide-mediated synthesis of porous CeO2 quadrangular prisms and their high-efficiency adsorptive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ling; Wang, Fengxian; Xie, Dong; Zhang, Jun; Du, Gaohui

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous CeO 2 quadrangular prisms have been prepared via graphite oxide-mediated synthesis. • Dual-pore hierarchical systems are formed with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. • Porous CeO 2 exhibits a rapid adsorption to Rhodamine B with a removal efficiency of ∼99%. • Porous CeO 2 retains the same performances in different pH solutions. - Abstract: We report a graphite oxide-mediated approach for synthesizing porous CeO 2 through a facile hydrothermal process followed by thermal annealing in air. The phase structure, morphology, microstructure and porosity of the products have been revealed by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and N 2 adsorption. The as-prepared CeO 2 products show well-defined quadrangular prism morphology, and they are composed of interconnected nanoparticles with diameters around 30–100 nm. In particular, the dual-pore hierarchical systems are created in the CeO 2 quadrangular prisms with the pore distributions around 4 nm and 30 nm. The dye sorption capacity of the porous CeO 2 is investigated, which exhibits a rapid adsorption to rhodamine B with a high removal efficiency of ∼99%. Moreover, the CeO 2 absorbent retains the same performances in different pH solutions

  7. Post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small concrete walls reinforced with plant fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Soto

    Full Text Available Structural masonry using concrete blocks promotes the rationalization of construction projects, lowering the final cost of a building through the elimination of forms and the reduction of the consumption of reinforcement bars. Moreover, production of a block containing a combination of concrete and vegetable fiber sisal results in a unit with properties such as mechanical strength, stiffness, flexibility, ability to absorb energy, and post-cracking behavior that are comparable to those of a block produced with plain concrete. Herein are reported the results of a study on the post-cracking behavior of blocks, prisms, and small walls reinforced with sisal fibers (lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm added at volume fractions of 0.5% and 1%. Tests were performed to characterize the fibers and blocks and to determine the compressive strength of the units, prisms, and small walls. The deformation modulus of the elements was calculated and the stress-strain curves were plotted to gain a better understanding of the values obtained. The compression test results for the small walls reinforced with fibers were similar to those of the reference walls and better than the blocks and prisms with added fibers, which had resistances lower than those of the corresponding conventional materials. All elements prepared with the addition of sisal exhibited an increase in the deformation capacity (conferred by the fibers, which was observed in the stress-strain curves. The failure mode of the reference elements was characterized by an abrupt fracture, whereas the reinforced elements underwent ductile breakage. This result was because of the presence of the fibers, which remained attached to the faces of the cracks via adhesion to the cement matrix, thus preventing loss of continuity in the material. Therefore, the cement/plant fiber composites are advantageous in terms of their ductility and ability to resist further damage after cracking.

  8. Analysis of the applicability of acceleration methods for a triangular prism geometry nodal diffusion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Toichiro; Okumura, Keisuke

    2002-11-01

    A prototype version of a diffusion code has been developed to analyze the hexagonal core as reduced moderation reactor and the applicability of some acceleration methods have been investigated to accelerate the convergence of the iterative solution method. The hexagonal core is divided into regular triangular prisms in the three-dimensional code MOSRA-Prism and a polynomial expansion nodal method is applied to approximate the neutron flux distribution by a cubic polynomial. The multi-group diffusion equation is solved iteratively with ordinal inner and outer iterations and the effectiveness of acceleration methods is ascertained by applying an adaptive acceleration method and a neutron source extrapolation method, respectively. The formulation of the polynomial expansion nodal method is outlined in the report and the local and global effectiveness of the acceleration methods is discussed with various sample calculations. A new general expression of vacuum boundary condition, derived in the formulation is also described. (author)

  9. Development and commissioning of a double-prism spectrometer for the diagnosis of femtosecond electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, Steffen

    2016-12-15

    Free-electron lasers as accelerator-driven light sources and wakefield-based acceleration in plasmas require the knowledge of the longitudinal extension and the longitudinal current profile of the involved electron bunches. These bunches can yield lengths below 10 μm, or durations shorter than approx. 33 fs, as well as charges less than 30 pC. During this work, transition radiation from relativistic electron bunches was investigated in the mid-infrared wavelength regime. A spectrometer using an arrangement of two consecutive zinc selenide prisms was developed, built and commissioned. The instrument covers the spectral range from 2 μm to 18 μm in a single shot. Measurements with the double-prism spectrometer were conducted at the FEL facilities FLASH at DESY in Hamburg, Germany and FELIX at the Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The assessment of the spectrometer and comparative studies with established diagnostic devices at FLASH show high signal-to-noise ratios at bunch charges below 10 pC and confirm the obtained results.

  10. Polygonal Prism Mesh in the Viscous Layers for the Polyhedral Mesh Generator, PolyGen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Kim, Shin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Polyhedral mesh has been known to have some benefits over the tetrahedral mesh. Efforts have been made to set up a polyhedral mesh generation system with open source programs SALOME and TetGen. The evaluation has shown that the polyhedral mesh generation system is promising. But it is necessary to extend the capability of the system to handle the viscous layers to be a generalized mesh generator. A brief review to the previous works on the mesh generation for the viscous layers will be made in section 2. Several challenging issues for the polygonal prism mesh generation will be discussed as well. The procedure to generate a polygonal prism mesh will be discussed in detail in section 3. Conclusion will be followed in section 4. A procedure to generate meshes in the viscous layers with PolyGen has been successfully designed. But more efforts have to be exercised to find the best way for the generating meshes for viscous layers. Using the extrusion direction of the STL data will the first of the trials in the near future

  11. Compact surface plasmon resonance biosensor utilizing an injection-molded prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, How-Foo; Chen, Chih-Han; Chang, Yun-Hsiang; Chuang, Hsin-Yuan

    2016-05-01

    Targeting at a low cost and accessible diagnostic device in clinical practice, a compact surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with a large dynamic range in high sensitivity is designed to satisfy commercial needs in food safety, environmental bio-pollution monitoring, and fast clinical diagnosis. The core component integrates an optical coupler, a sample-loading plate, and angle-tuning reflectors is injection-molded as a free-from prism made of plastic optics. This design makes a matching-oil-free operation during operation. The disposability of this low-cost component ensures testing or diagnosis without cross contamination in bio-samples.

  12. Prism reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-08-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristic and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  13. PRISM reactor system design and analysis of postulated unscrammed events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Rosztoczy, Z.; Lane, J.

    1991-01-01

    Key safety characteristics of the PRISM reactor system include the passive reactor shutdown characteristics and the passive shutdown heat removal system, RVACS. While these characteristics are simple in principle, the physical processes are fairly complex, particularly for the passive reactor shutdown. It has been possible to adapt independent safety analysis codes originally developed for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor review, although some limitations remain. In this paper, the analyses of postulated unscrammed events are discussed, along with limitations in the predictive capabilities and plans to correct the limitations in the near future. 6 refs., 4 figs

  14. Note: Using a Kösters prism to create a fringe pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellmann, R F; Bewerunge, J; Platten, F; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-05-01

    The interference of two crossed laser beams results in a standing wave. Such fringe patterns are exploited in different instruments such as interferometers or laser-Doppler anemometers. We create a fringe pattern in the sample plane of a microscope using a compact apparatus based on a Kösters prism. The fringe pattern is shown to be spatially and temporally very stable, covers a large area, and its spacing is easily tunable. In addition, we exploit it to impose a sinusoidal potential on colloidal particles.

  15. Foreword: Contributions of Arctic PRISM to monitoring western hemispheric shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagen, Susan K.; Smith, Paul A.; Andres, Brad A.; Donaldson, Garry; Brown, Stephen; Bart, Jonathan R.; Johnston, Victoria H.

    2012-01-01

    listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and the Canadian Species at Risk Act. To meet the need for information on population size and trends, shorebird biologists from Canada and the United States proposed a shared blueprint for shorebird monitoring across the Western Hemisphere in the late 1990s; this effort was undertaken in concert with the development of the Canadian and the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plans. Soon thereafter, partners in the monitoring effort adopted the name "Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring" (PRISM). Among the primary objectives of PRISM were to estimate the population sizes and trends of breeding North American shorebirds and describe their distributions. PRISM members evaluated ongoing and potential monitoring approached to address 74 taxa (including subspecies) and proposed a combination of arctic and boreal breeding surveys, temperate breeding and non-breeding surveys, and neotropical surveys.

  16. Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 - August 15 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Photovoltaic and Distributed Systems Integration; Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photovoltaics and Distributed Systems Integration; Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electric Power Systems Research

    2016-09-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced six months of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the six-month period ranging from 18% to 136%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically tilted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules and more energy than monofacial modules at any orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid-morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: PRISM Normals Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents climate observations within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) PRISM is a set of monthly, yearly, and single-event gridded data products of mean temperature and precipitation, max/min temperatures, and dewpoints, primarily for the United States. In-situ point measurements are ingested into the PRISM (Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) statistical mapping system. The PRISM products use a weighted regression scheme to account for complex climate regimes associated with orography, rain shadows, temperature inversions, slope aspect, coastal proximity, and other factors. (see Data Sources for links to NHDPlusV2 data and USGS Data) These data are summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  18. Hydro-bio-geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments from Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, J.C.; Dai, Shifeng; Terzariol, M.; Jang, Jeonghwan; Waite, William F.; Winters, William J.; Nagao, J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural hydrate-bearing sediments from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, were studied using the Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs) to obtain geomechanical, hydrological, electrical, and biological properties under in situ pressure, temperature, and restored effective stress conditions. Measurement results, combined with index-property data and analytical physics-based models, provide unique insight into hydrate-bearing sediments in situ. Tested cores contain some silty-sands, but are predominantly sandy- and clayey-silts. Hydrate saturations Sh range from 0.15 to 0.74, with significant concentrations in the silty-sands. Wave velocity and flexible-wall permeameter measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core sediments suggest hydrates in the coarser-grained zones, the silty-sands where Sh exceeds 0.4, contribute to soil-skeletal stability and are load-bearing. In the sandy- and clayey-silts, where Sh < 0.4, the state of effective stress and stress history are significant factors determining sediment stiffness. Controlled depressurization tests show that hydrate dissociation occurs too quickly to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure–temperature conditions track the hydrate stability boundary in pure-water, rather than that in seawater, in spite of both the in situ pore water and the water used to maintain specimen pore pressure prior to dissociation being saline. Hydrate dissociation accompanied with fines migration caused up to 2.4% vertical strain contraction. The first-ever direct shear measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core specimens show hydrate-bearing sediments have higher sediment strength and peak friction angle than post-dissociation sediments, but the residual friction angle remains the same in both cases. Permeability measurements made before and after hydrate dissociation demonstrate that water permeability increases after dissociation, but the gain is limited by the transition from hydrate saturation

  19. Stress distribution and pressure-bearing capacity of a high-pressure split-cylinder die with prism cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Mingzhe; Wang, Liyan; Qu, Erhu; Yi, Zhuo

    2018-03-01

    A novel high-pressure belt-type die with a split-type cylinder is investigated with respect to extending its lifetime and improving its pressure bearing capacity. Specifically, a tungsten carbide cylinder is split into several parts along the radial direction with a prism-type cavity. In this paper, the cylinders with different split numbers are chosen to study the stress distribution and compare them with the traditional belt-type die. The simulation results indicate that the split cylinder has much smaller stress than those in the belt-type cylinder, and the statistical analysis reveals that the split-pressure cylinder is able to bear higher pressure. Experimental tests also show that the high-pressure die with a split cylinder and prism cavity has a stronger pressure-bearing capacity than a belt-type die. The split cylinder has advantages of easy manufacturing, high pressure bearing capacity, and replaceable performance.

  20. Gas Hydrate Petroleum System Modeling in western Nankai Trough Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Wada, N.; Komatsu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2003, we have been conducting Gas Hydrate (GH) petroleum system models covering the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, and results of resource potential from regional model shows good match with the value depicted from seismic and log data. In this year, we have applied this method to explore GH potential in study area. In our study area, GH prospects have been identified with aid of bottom simulating reflector (BSR) and presence of high velocity anomalies above the BSR interpreted based on 3D migration seismic and high density velocity cubes. In order to understand the pathway of biogenic methane from source to GH prospects 1D-2D-3D GH petroleum system models are built and investigated. This study comprises lower Miocene to Pleistocene, deep to shallow marine sedimentary successions of Pliocene and Pleistocene layers overlain the basement. The BSR were interpreted in Pliocene and Pleistocene layers. Based on 6 interpreted sequence boundaries from 3D migration seismic and velocity data, construction of a depth 3D framework model is made and distributed by a conceptual submarine fan depositional facies model derived from seismic facies analysis and referring existing geological report. 1D models are created to analyze lithology sensitivity to temperature and vitrinite data from an exploratory well drilled in the vicinity of study area. The PSM parameters are applied in 2D and 3D modeling and simulation. Existing report of the explanatory well reveals that thermogenic origin are considered to exist. For this reason, simulation scenarios including source formations for both biogenic and thermogenic reaction models are also investigated. Simulation results reveal lower boundary of GH saturation zone at pseudo wells has been simulated with sensitivity of a few tens of meters in comparing with interpreted BSR. From sensitivity analysis, simulated temperature was controlled by different peak generation temperature models and geochemical parameters. Progressive folding

  1. Perovskite, reaction product of a harzburgite with Jurassic– Cretaceous accretionary wedge fluids (Western Carpathians, Slovakia: evidence from the whole-rock and mineral trace element data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putiš Marián

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite (Prv was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia. Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite. Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core” to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce, Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the

  2. Direct AFM observation of an opening event of a DNA cuboid constructed via a prism structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-07

    A cuboid structure was constructed using a DNA origami design based on a square prism structure. The structure was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The real-time opening event of the cuboid was directly observed by high-speed AFM.

  3. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  4. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Stephane J; Hassall, Cameron D; Ishigami, Yoko; Krigolson, Olav E; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN)-a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuomotor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuomotor aftereffect has been used to study visuomotor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided) space. In order to optimize PA's use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch), then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss) and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late). Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an error-related negativity (ERN), and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  5. Scattering of a light wave by a thin fiber on or near a prism: experiment and analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Fumiaki; Nishiyama, Yoshio

    2012-06-01

    We have performed an experiment of the scattering of the near field on a prism created by a laser wave, evanescent wave (EW), or plane wave (PW) of an incident angle slightly larger than or smaller than the critical angle, by a thin fiber of subwavelength diameter set above the prism, and we made an analytical theory of an adapted model for the experiment. We have been able to analyze the experimental data exactly by the model theory better than any other theory we have ever known. The importance of the multiple interaction of the wave between the fiber and the surface and also the close similarity of the scattering characteristics between the EW and the PW mentioned above have been acknowledged by the analysis of the data obtained.

  6. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  7. High-velocity basal sediment package atop oceanic crust, offshore Cascadia: Impacts on plate boundary processes and fluid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. E.; Keranen, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Differences in fluid pressure and mechanical properties at megathrust boundaries in subduction zones have been proposed to create varying seismogenic behavior. In Cascadia, where large ruptures are possible but little seismicity occurs presently, new seismic transects across the deformation front (COAST cruise; Holbrook et al., 2012) image an unusually high-wavespeed sedimentary unit directly overlying oceanic crust. Wavespeed increases before sediments reach the deformation front, and the well-laminated unit, consistently of 1 km thickness, can be traced for 50 km beneath the accretionary prism before imaging quality declines. Wavespeed is modeled via iterative prestack time migration (PSTM) imaging and increases from 3.5 km/sec on the seaward end of the profile to >5.0 km/s near the deformation front. Landward of the deformation front, wavespeed is low along seaward-dipping thrust faults in the Quaternary accretionary prism, indicative of rapid dewatering along faults. The observed wavespeed of 5.5 km/sec just above subducting crust is consistent with porosity intersects the plate boundary at an oblique angle and changes the degree of hydration of the oceanic plate as it subducts within our area. Fluid flow out of oceanic crust is likely impeded by the low-porosity basal sediment package except along the focused thrust faults. Decollements are present at the top of oceanic basement, at the top of the high-wavespeed basal unit, and within sedimentary strata at higher levels; the decollement at the top of oceanic crust is active at the toe of the deformation front. The basal sedimentary unit appears to be mechanically strong, similar to observations from offshore Sumatra, where strongly consolidated sediments at the deformation front are interpreted to facilitate megathrust rupture to the trench (Hupers et al., 2017). A uniformly strong plate interface at Cascadia may inhibit microseismicity while building stress that is released in great earthquakes.

  8. Time lapse survey plan on the first offshore methane hydrate production test in 2013 around the eastern Nankai Trough area by multi-component OBC seismic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, T.; Hayashi, T.; Asakawa, E.; Takahashi, H.; Saeki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We are planning to conduct the multi-component ocean bottom cable (hereafter OBC) seismic survey to monitor the methane hydrate dissociation zone at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, in 2013. We conducted the first OBC survey in the methane hydrate concentrated zone around the eastern Nankai Trough area in 2006 by RSCS which we developed. We obtained to the good image of methane hydrate bearing layer by P-P section as similar as the conventional surface seismic survey. However, we could not obtain the good image from P-S section compared with P-P section. On the other hand, we studied the sonic velocity distribution at the Mallik 2nd production test before and after in 2007, by the sonic tool data. We could clearly delineate the decrease of S-wave velocity, however, we could not detect the decrease of P-wave velocity because of the presence of the dissociated methane gas from methane hydrate. From these reason we guess the S-wave data is more proper to delineate the condition of the methane hydrate zone at the methane hydrate production tests than P-wave data. We are now developing the new OBC system, which we call Deep-sea Seismic System (hereafter DSS). The sensor of the DSS will install three accelerometers and one hydrophone. A feasibility study to detect the methane hydrate dissociation with the DSS was carried out and we found that the methane hydrate dissociation could be detected with the DSS depending on the zone of the dissociation. And the baseline survey will be held at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in summer 2012. Two monitoring surveys are planned after the methane hydrate production test in 2013. We believe that we will get the good images to delineate the methane hydrate dissociated zone from this time lapse survey. The Authors would like to thank METI, MH21 consortium and JOGMEC for permissions to publish this paper.

  9. Applicability of PRISM PRA Methodology to the Level II Probabilistic Safety Analysis of KALIMER-600 (I) (Core Damage Event Tree Analysis Part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, B. Y.

    2009-03-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing liquid metal reactor (LMR) design technologies under a National Nuclear R and D Program. Nevertheless, there is no experience of the PSA domestically for a fast reactor with the metal fuel. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish the methodologies of risk assessment for the reference design of KALIMER-600 reactor. An applicability of the PSA of the PRISM plant to the KALIMER-600 has been studied. The study is confined to a core damage event tree analysis which is a part of a level 2 PSA. Assuming that the accident types, which can be developed from level 1 PSA, are same as the PRISM PRA, core damage categories are defined and core damage event trees are developed for the KALIMER-600 reactor. Fission product release fractions of the core damage categories and branch probabilities of the core damage event trees are referred from the PRISM PRA temporarily. Plant specific data will be used during the detail analysis

  10. Preparation of fluorinated Cr2O3 hexagonal prism and catalytic performance for the dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane to vinyl fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenfeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Tang, Haodong; Wang, Zhikun; Xi, Miao; Li, Ying; Liu, Huazhang

    2015-09-01

    A Cr2O3 hexagonal prism structure synthesized via the reaction of aqueous CrCl3 solution with NaBH4 solution at room temperature followed by calcination of the precipitate in N2 atmosphere at 500 °C is investigated as an efficient catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane producing vinyl fluoride. With the assistance of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, experimental results revealed that the uniform hexagonal prism has a prism length of 285 ± 43 nm and width of 233 ± 33 nm. It is in the form of loose and net-like aggregation of nano-Cr2O3 with diameter less than 3-5 nm with polycrystalline structure. NH3 temperature programmed desorption and chlorodifluoromethane dismutation experiments confirm the existence of relatively abundant and strong acidic sites. As a catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane, compared with commercial Cr2O3, much higher activity and stability were observed due to the evolution of CrO x F y species and much higher surface area and mesoporous structure. No significant morphology changes or sintering of the catalyst are observed after 70-h reaction. Compared with the commercial Cr2O3, we suggest that the much smaller size of Cr2O3 crystalline which possesses higher surface energy, lower strength, and more abundant Lewis acidity and the formation of CrO x F y during reaction over hexagonal prism catalyst probably contributes to the activity and stability difference between these two catalysts.

  11. Re-evaluation of temperature at the updip limit of locked portion of Nankai megasplay inferred from IODP Site C0002 temperature observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Takamitsu; Kinoshita, Masataka; Araki, Eichiro; Kimura, Toshinori; Kyo, Masanori; Namba, Yasuhiro; Kido, Yukari; Sanada, Yoshinori; Thu, Moe Kyaw

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, the first long-term borehole monitoring system was deployed at approximately 900 m below the sea floor (mbsf) and was assumed to be situated above the updip limit of the seismogenic zone in the Nankai Trough off Kumano (Site C0002). Four temperature records show that the effect of drilling diminished in less than 2 years. Based on in situ temperatures and thermal conductivities measured on core samples, the temperature measurements and heat flow at 900 mbsf are estimated to be 37.9°C and 56 ± 1 mW/m2, respectively. This heat flow value is in excellent agreement with that from the shallow borehole temperature corrected for rapid sedimentation in the Kumano Basin. We use these values in the present study to extrapolate the temperature below 900 mbsf for a megasplay fault at approximately 5,200 mbsf and a plate boundary fault at approximately 7,000 mbsf. To extrapolate the temperature downward, we use logging-while-drilling (LWD) bit resistivity data as a proxy for porosity and estimate thermal conductivity from this porosity using a geometrical mean model. The one-dimensional (1-D) thermal conduction model used for the extrapolation includes radioactive heat and frictional heat production at the plate boundary fault. The estimated temperature at the megasplay ranges from 132°C to 149°C, depending on the assumed thermal conductivity and radioactive heat production values. These values are significantly higher, by up to 40°C, than some of previous two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model predictions that can account for the high heat flow seaward of the deformation front, including a hydrothermal circulation within the subducted igneous oceanic crust. However, our results are in good agreement with those of the 2-D model, which does not include the advection cooling effect. The results imply that 2-D geometrical effects as well as the influence of the advective cooling may be critical and should be evaluated more quantitatively. Revision of 2-D simulation by

  12. Role of Prism Decussation on Fatigue Crack Growth and Fracture of Human Enamel

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    The role of prism decussation on the crack growth resistance of human enamel is evaluated. Miniature inset Compact Tension (CT) specimens embodying a section of cuspal enamel were subjected to Mode I cyclic or monotonic loads. Cracks were grown in either the forward (from outer enamel inwards) or reverse (from inner enamel outwards) direction and the responses were compared quantitatively. Results showed that the outer enamel exhibits lower resistance to the inception and growth of cracks. Re...

  13. Single-domain versus two-domain configuration in thin ferromagnetic prisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, Maria Gloria; Politi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Thin ferromagnetic elements in the form of rectangular prisms are theoretically investigated in order to study the transition from single-domain to two-domain state, with changing the in-plane aspect ratio p. We address two main questions: first, how general is the transition; second, how the critical value p c depends on the physical parameters. We use two complementary methods: discrete-lattice calculations and a micromagnetic continuum approach. Ultrathin films do not appear to split in two domains. Instead, thicker films may undergo the above transition. We have used the continuum approach to analyze recent magnetic force microscopy observations in 30nm-thick patterned permalloy elements, finding a good agreement for p c

  14. FDS5 Simulation of PRISME INTEGRAL Test, PRSINT4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Seok

    2012-01-01

    The reliance on fire modeling has playing a key role in the risk-informed and performance-based fire protection field. The ability to accurately predict fire behavior using the fire models is of high utility for hazard assessment, investigations and performance based design. Validation is the process of determining the degree of agreement between fire model outputs and real world events for one or more results of interest. The goal of validation is to quantify confidence in the predictive capability of the model. Validation in NUREG-1824 entails comparing the model prediction with full-scale fire experiments and quantifying the results. The objectives of this study, focused on the fire model validation, are to compare the FDS5 prediction results with the PRISME INTEGRAL test data and to validate FDS5 model

  15. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Meuleman

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB by using the Control Test Master (CTM, the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC, quality flagging (QF and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF, and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b helping the understanding of the Earth’s complex mechanisms.

  16. A 900 electrostatic prism for microparticle beam steering on a 2 MV van der Graaff dust accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.G.; Clarke, C.D.; McDonnell, J.A.M.; Dickason, R.E.; Flavill, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    The design and construction of a 90 0 electrostatic prism is described. The device is used to deflect hypervelocity dust particles produced in a horizontal van der Graaff accelerator to simulate micrometeoroid impacts on dusty lunar and asteroidal surfaces where vertical incidence must be provided. (author)

  17. The influence of hardening conditions on the properties of masonry cement mortar prisms made in brick moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertram, G.; Lourenco, P.B.; Hasseltine, B.A.; Vasconseles, G.

    2014-01-01

    One aspect of our investigation into the spacing of movement joints involved the short and long term deformation of mortar embedded in masonry. In this research the influence of hardening conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of masonry cement mortar [M5] were studied. Mortar prisms

  18. Fast Focal Point Correction in Prism-Coupled Total Internal Reflection Scanning Imager Using an Electronically Tunable Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Total internal reflection (TIR is useful for interrogating physical and chemical processes that occur at the interface between two transparent media. Yet prism-coupled TIR imaging microscopes suffer from limited sensing areas due to the fact that the interface (the object plane is not perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope. In this paper, we show that an electrically tunable lens can be used to rapidly and reproducibly correct the focal length of an oblique-incidence scanning microscope (OI-RD in a prism-coupled TIR geometry. We demonstrate the performance of such a correction by acquiring an image of a protein microarray over a scan area of 4 cm2 with an effective resolution of less than 20 microns. The electronic focal length tuning eliminates the mechanical movement of the illumination lens in the scanning microscope and in turn the noise and background drift associated with the motion.

  19. Highly Sideophile Element Abundance Constraints on the Nature of the Late Accretionary Histories of Earth, Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.; Puchtel, I. S.; Brandon, A. D.; Horan, M. F.; James, O. B.

    2007-01-01

    The highly siderophile elements (HSE) include Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd. These elements are initially nearly-quantitatively stripped from planetary silicate mantles during core segregation. They then may be re-enriched in mantles via continued accretion sans continued core segregation. This suite of elements and its included long-lived radiogenic isotopes systems (Re-187 (right arrow) Os-187; Pt-190 (right arrow) Os-186) can potentially be used to fingerprint the characteristics of late accreted materials. The fingerprints may ultimately be useful to constrain the prior nebular history of the dominant late accreted materials, and to compare the proportion and genesis of late accretionary materials added to the inner planets. The past ten years have seen considerable accumulation of isotopic and compositional data for HSE present in the Earth's mantle, lunar mantle and impact melt breccias, and Martian meteorites. Here we review some of these data and consider the broader implications of the compiled data.

  20. On the Geometrically Nonlinear Elastic Response of Class θ = 1 Tensegrity Prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Mascolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work studies the geometrically nonlinear response of class θ = 1 tensegrity prisms modeled as a collection of elastic springs reacting in tension (strings or cables or compression (bars, under uniform uniaxial loading. The incremental equilibrium equations of the structure are numerically solved through a path-following procedure, with the aim of modeling the mechanical behavior of the structure in the large displacement regime. Several numerical results are presented with reference to a variety of physical models, which use two different materials for the cables and the bars, and show different aspect ratios associated with either “standard” or “expanded” configurations. An experimental validation of the predicted constitutive response is conducted with reference to a “thick” and a “slender” model, observing rather good theory vs. experiment matching. The given numerical and experimental results highlight that the elastic response of the examined structures may switch from stiffening to softening, depending on the geometry of the system, the magnitude of the external load, and the applied prestress. The outcomes of the current study confirm previous literature results on the elastic response of minimal tensegrity prisms, and pave the way to the use of tensegrity systems as nonlinear spring units forming tunable mechanical metamaterials.

  1. Preparation of fluorinated Cr2O3 hexagonal prism and catalytic performance for the dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane to vinyl fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wenfeng; Li, Xiaojuan; Tang, Haodong; Wang, Zhikun; Xi, Miao; Li, Ying; Liu, Huazhang

    2015-01-01

    A Cr 2 O 3 hexagonal prism structure synthesized via the reaction of aqueous CrCl 3 solution with NaBH 4 solution at room temperature followed by calcination of the precipitate in N 2 atmosphere at 500 °C is investigated as an efficient catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane producing vinyl fluoride. With the assistance of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, experimental results revealed that the uniform hexagonal prism has a prism length of 285 ± 43 nm and width of 233 ± 33 nm. It is in the form of loose and net-like aggregation of nano-Cr 2 O 3 with diameter less than 3–5 nm with polycrystalline structure. NH 3 temperature programmed desorption and chlorodifluoromethane dismutation experiments confirm the existence of relatively abundant and strong acidic sites. As a catalyst for dehydrofluorination of 1,1-difluoroethane, compared with commercial Cr 2 O 3 , much higher activity and stability were observed due to the evolution of CrO x F y species and much higher surface area and mesoporous structure. No significant morphology changes or sintering of the catalyst are observed after 70-h reaction. Compared with the commercial Cr 2 O 3 , we suggest that the much smaller size of Cr 2 O 3 crystalline which possesses higher surface energy, lower strength, and more abundant Lewis acidity and the formation of CrO x F y during reaction over hexagonal prism catalyst probably contributes to the activity and stability difference between these two catalysts.

  2. Inventory and review of existing PRISM hydrogeologic data for the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS entered into an agreement with the Mauritania Ministry of Mines and Industry to inventory and review the quality of information collected as part of the Project for Strengthening of the Institutions in the Mining Sector (PRISM). Whereas the PRISM program collected geophysical, geochemical, geological, satellite, and hydrogeologic information, this report focuses on an inventory and review of available hydrogeologic data provided to the USGS in multiple folders, files, and formats. Most of the information pertained to the hydrogeologic setting and the water budget of evaporation, evapotranspiration, and precipitation in the Choum-Zouerate area in northwestern Mauritania, and the country of Mauritania itself. Other information about the quantity and quality of groundwater was found in the relational Access database. In its present form, the limited hydrogeologic information was not amenable to conducting water balance, geostatistical, and localized numerical modeling studies in support of mineral exploration and development. Suggestions are provided to remedy many of the data's shortcomings, such as performing quality assurance on all SIPPE2 data tables and sending questionnaires to appropriate agencies, mining and other companies to populate the database with additional meteorology, hydrology, and groundwater data.

  3. The modular ALMR (PRISM) fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The modular reactor concept, PRISM (power reactor, innovative, small module), originated by General Electric in conjunction with the integral fast reactor (IFR) metal fuel being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is the reference US Department of Energy advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR). The reference ALMR is unique in several ways; for example, it can produce (or breed) substantially more fissile material than it consumes. It is also unique in that it has the capability to utilize as fuel the long-life radioactive actinides (primarily plutonium, and the minor actinides, neptunium, americium, and curium) present as waste in light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels. This capability provides a means for converting long-life actinide radioactive wastes to elements whose lifetimes and thus storage needs are much shorter, namely, hundreds of years. This could clearly focus and potentially alleviate a controversial aspect (waste disposal) of the nuclear option. While it does not change the need for, or timing of, an initial high-level waste (HLW) repository, the conversion of actinides could change in a dramatic way the time period required for safe storage of nuclear waste and potentially the number and criteria for future repositories. This work considers the potential for utilizing LWR actinides in the ALMR fuel cycle

  4. R&D proposal the prism plastic calorimeter:PPC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Marchand, P; Nédélec, P; Salin, P; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    This proposal supports two goals: First Goal_Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC) towers with a new "liquid crystal" type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. Second Goal_ Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector,and list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum amount of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronics being outside the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. The R&D program we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.

  5. One Year Performance Results for the Prism Solar Installation at the New Mexico Regional Test Center: Field Data from February 15 2016 - February 14 2017.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burnham, Laurie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    A 9.6 kW test array of Prism bifacial modules and reference monofacial modules installed in February 2016 at the New Mexico Regional Test Center has produced one year of performance data. The data reveal that the Prism modules are out-performing the monofacial modules, with bifacial gains in energy over the twelve-month period ranging from 17% to 132%, depending on the orientation and ground albedo. These measured bifacial gains were found to be in good agreement with modeled bifacial gains using equations previously published by Prism Solar. The most dramatic increase in performance was seen among the vertically mounted, west-facing modules, where the bifacial modules produced more than double the energy of monofacial modules in the same orientation. Because peak energy generation (mid- morning and mid-afternoon) for these bifacial modules may best match load on the electric grid, the west-facing orientation may be more economically desirable than traditional south-facing module orientations (which peak at solar noon).

  6. Reliability of tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms: clinical implications from the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System Quality Assurance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Daly, M K; Cakiner-Egilmez, T; Baker, E

    2011-05-01

    Given the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System's recent introduction of single-use Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an alternative to Goldmann applanation tonometers (GATs), this study had two aims: to conduct a large-scale quality assurance trial to assess the reliability of intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements of the Tonosafe disposable tonometer compared with GAT, particularly at extremes of pressure; to evaluate the suitability of Tonosafe disposable tonometer prisms as an acceptable substitute for GATs and for clinic-wide implementation in an academic tertiary referral setting. Ophthalmology resident physicians measured the IOPs of patients in general and specialty eye clinics with the Tonosafe disposable tonometer and GAT. Tonosafe test-retest reliability data were also collected. A retrospective review of patient charts and data analysis were performed to determine the reliability of measurements. The IOPs of 652 eyes (326 patients) were measured with both GAT and Tonosafe, with a range of 3-34 mm Hg. Linear regression analysis showed R=0.93, slope=0.91, both of which supported the proposed hypothesis, and the y-intercept=-1.05 was significantly different from the hypothesized value. The Tonosafe test-retest repeatability (40 eyes of 40 patients), r=0.977, was very high, which was further supported by linear regression slope=0.993, y-intercept=0.118, and a Tonosafe repeatability coefficient of 2.06, similar to GAT repeatability. The IOP measurements by Tonosafe disposable prisms correlated closely with Goldmann measurements, with similar repeated measurement variability to GAT. This suggests that the Tonosafe is an acceptable substitute for GAT to measure IOP in ophthalmology clinic settings.

  7. Risk factors of methane hydrate resource development in the concentrated zones distributed in the eastern Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Nagakubo, S.

    2009-04-01

    Some environmental and safety concerns on the offshore methane hydrate development have been raised, but the ground of such allegations are sometime not fully reasonable. The risks of methane hydrate resource development to environment and safety should be discussed upon methane hydrate occurrences condition, the production methods, and the designs of production system, under comprehensively scientific manners. In the Phase 1 of the Methane Hydrate Exploitation Program in Japan (FY2001-2008), the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) found methane hydrate concentrated zones in the eastern Nankai Trough that are potential prospects for resource development. The concentrated zones are consisted of turbidite-derived sandy sediments and hydrate crystals in pore spaces of sand grains (pore-filling type structure). The MH21 Research Consortium proposed the depressurization method as prime technique due to its efficiency of gas production in such concentrated zones, and has tried to develop conceptual designs of production systems based on the information of existing devices and facilities. Under the condition and circumstances described above, the authors tried to extract and evaluate some risk factors concerning methane hydrate development using depressurization in the area. Leakage of methane gas, that is less harmful substance to ecosystem than heavier hydrocarbons, from production system can be one possible risk. However, in the case of gas production through wellbore, even if catastrophic damages happen in the subsea production system during gas production, the leakages do not continue because the borehole could be filled by seawater and depressurization is stopped immediately. Another possible risk is a leakage of produced gas through seafloor. If methane hydrate production makes high pressure or temperature zones in sediments, the risk should be considered. However, depressurization method makes opposite condition

  8. PRISM, a Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument, Accurately Measures Symptom Change in Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Whitman, Cynthia; Talley, Jennifer; Erder, M Haim; Joseph, Alain; Silberg, Debra G; Spiegel, Brennan

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) experience relief following treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (Vakil et al. in Am J Gastroenterol 101:1900-1920, 2006; Everhart and Ruhl in Gastroenterology 136:376-386, 2009). As many as 17-44% of patients, however, exhibit only partial response to therapy. Most extant GERD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments fail to meet development best practices as described by the FDA (Talley and Wiklund in Qual Life Res 14:21-33, 2005; Van Pinxteren et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD002095, 2004; El-Serag et al. in Aliment Pharmacol Ther 32:720-737, 2010). To develop and validate a PRO instrument for clinical trials involving patients with GERD who are PPI partial responders. We prepared a systematic literature review, held patient focus groups, convened an expert panel, and conducted cognitive interviews to establish content validity. Eligible participants took PPI therapy for at least 8 weeks, had undergone an upper endoscopy, and scored at least 8 points on the GerdQ [6]. Qualitative data guided development of 26 draft items. Items were reviewed by expert panels and debriefed with patients. The resulting 21-item instrument underwent psychometric evaluation during a Phase IIB trial. During the trial, confirmatory factor analysis (n = 220) resulted in a four-factor model displaying the highest goodness of fit. All domains had a high inter-item correlation (Cronbach's α > 0.8). Test-retest reliability and convergent validity were strong, with highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations between average weekly PRISM scores and severity anchors and significant (p < 0.05) correlations with anchor subscales. Cumulative distribution functions revealed significant differences between responders and non-responders. Analysis in a clinical trial setting demonstrated strong psychometric properties suggesting validity of PRISM. Developed in line with FDA guidance on PROs, PRISM represents an

  9. A couple-focused intervention to prevent postnatal smoking relapse: PRISM study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghea, Cristian Ioan; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Mihu, Dan; Iuhas, Cristian Ioan; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Sidor, Alexandra; Alexa, Paula Mădălina; Brînza, Cătălina; Pop, Oana Maria; Cherecheș, Răzvan Mircea

    2015-03-01

    Maternal smoking is one of the most modifiable factors with clear adverse effects for the fetus and the entire family. Addressing the dearth of pregnancy smoking interventions with partner support, PRISM (Prevent Relapse In SMoking) is a partnership between a research institution and the two largest state-owned obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The study will assess the efficacy of a couple-focused telephone-counseling program to prevent smoking relapse among mothers who quit smoking closely before or during pregnancy. The intervention is a program for couples based on motivational interviewing delivered over the phone after birth. The study is an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 250 Romanian women recruited soon after childbirth, who quit smoking in the six months before pregnancy or no later than the end of the first pregnancy trimester and remained abstinent (which was biochemically verified) until delivery. Participants were randomized to: (1) a control arm (usual care); and (2) an intervention arm consisting of up to 4 postnatal counseling calls for mothers and their partners using motivational interviewing to encourage the woman to remain smoke-free and the partner to support her decision. The primary outcome is maternal smoking abstinence at 6 months postpartum (biochemically verified). PRISM has the potential to identify strategies to reduce maternal postnatal relapse and increase partner quitting. If successful, the program may be an effective method to prevent and reduce smoking, which may lead to improved child, mother, and partner health both in the short and the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of postulated LOF [loss-of-flow] events in PRISM and SAFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, B.C.; Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Aronson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The PRISM and SAFR designs, as currently proposed by DOE, are designed for ''inherent'', as opposed to ''engineered'', safety. Brookhaven National Laboratory is supporting the initial NRC review of these advanced LMR concepts. A loss-of-flow (LOF) accident coupled with a failure of the reactor shutdown system is one of the major safety concerns in the advanced liquid metal reactor (LMR) evaluation effort. The analysis discussed here covers: (1) primary pipe break without pump trip, (2) primary coolant pump seizure, and (3) primary coolant pump coastdown. The analytical modelling and the calculated thermal and hydraulic behavior are described in detail

  11. The nature of the phenomenon “Event” in the prism of the conception by Gilles Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyugina Elena Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the prism of the “event” conception by G. Deleuze the article explores the ambivalent language and social nature of the event. It analyses references between attributes of the event: sign, meaning, and significance. It also defines the role of "floating signifiers" in the event and implementation of the virulent ideas and names into the system of event.

  12. Hydrate studies of northern Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island : a reference source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Spence, G.D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Extensive geophysical studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate in the Cascadia subduction zone off western Canada. In this paper, the authors compiled a comprehensive reference list of studies involving marine natural gas hydrate surveys and studies on the northern Cascadia margin. The reference categories included general reviews; regional tectonic framework for northern Cascadia hydrate; prism sediment thickening, fluid expulsion and hydrate formation; and, seismic surveys. This paper first addressed the local tectonics and the sedimentary accretionary prism in which the hydrate forms, followed by a description of the geophysical and geological surveys that have been conducted. The surveys included a wide range of seismic surveys such as multichannel, ocean-bottom, high-resolution single channel and very high resolution deep towed surveys. Heat flow, electrical sounding, seafloor compliance, sediment coring, and mapping gas plumes from the seafloor were among the other geophysical studies listed in this paper. The conclusions that have resulted from this work in terms of distribution, concentrations and amounts of hydrate were presented along with a discussion on the process of hydrate formation and dissociation. 96 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Provenance and paleo-weathering of Tertiary accretionary prism-forearc sedimentary deposits of the Andaman Archipelago, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the provenance and tectono-sedimentary processes occurring in the Andaman Subduction Zone (ASZ), the Late Cretaceous to Oligocene sedimentary records from the Andaman Islands have been studied. These sedimentary records are considered to have preserved the history of the India-Asia collision, evolution of the Himalayas, climatic development and palaeo-drainage reorganizations on the Indian and Asian plates. About 47 sandstones and mudstones (shales and siltstones) samples were analyzed for whole rock major, trace, and rare earth element compositions. The geochemical results suggest mixing of sediments derived from the mafic igneous sources comprising local ophiolites and volcanic arc of the ASZ and an older Archean to Proterozoic age felsic cratonic source with compositions similar to average granodiorite or upper continental crustal sources. The compositions were dominated by sources of the mafic arc during deposition of the Mithakhari Group, whereas they were controlled by continental sources during deposition of the Andaman Flysch Group. The Hope Town Conglomerate unit of the Mithakhari Group was mainly derived from weathering and erosion of the subaerially exposed local ophiolite thrust sheets, whereas its Namunagarh unit contains significant detritus from volcanic arcs. The Andaman Flysch turbidites were deposited with a greater supply of sediments from first-cycle active continental margin sources probably located in the Tibetan and eastern Myanmar region and recycled quartzose sedimentary sources within the nascent Himalayas. The sediments supplied to both the Mithakhari and the Andaman Flysch Groups were characterized by varying values of CIA, PIA and W. These variable values were either due to non-steady state weathering conditions in the sources or the changing climatic conditions owing to the motion of Indian plate with reference to the equator. The uniformly high CIA and W values in the Andaman Flysch rocks can be related to high precipitation and strong chemical weathering associated with the initiation of the Indian monsoon.

  14. Impacts of tides on tsunami propagation due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Soo; Shimoyama, Tomohisa; Popinet, Stéphane

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of tides on extreme tsunami propagation due to potential Nankai Trough earthquakes in the Seto Inland Sea (SIS), Japan, are investigated through numerical experiments. Tsunami experiments are conducted based on five scenarios that consider tides at four different phases, such as flood, high, ebb, and low tides. The probes that were selected arbitrarily in the Bungo and Kii Channels show less significant effects of tides on tsunami heights and the arrival times of the first waves than those that experience large tidal ranges in inner basins and bays of the SIS. For instance, the maximum tsunami height and the arrival time at Toyomaesi differ by more than 0.5 m and nearly 1 h, respectively, depending on the tidal phase. The uncertainties defined in terms of calculated maximum tsunami heights due to tides illustrate that the calculated maximum tsunami heights in the inner SIS with standing tides have much larger uncertainties than those of two channels with propagating tides. Particularly in Harima Nada, the uncertainties due to the impacts of tides are greater than 50% of the tsunami heights without tidal interaction. The results recommend simulate tsunamis together with tides in shallow water environments to reduce the uncertainties involved with tsunami modeling and predictions for tsunami hazards preparedness. This article was corrected on 26 OCT 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  15. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC. Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica y IFIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side. (orig.)

  16. Testing of seismic isolation bearings for advanced liquid metal reactor prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.; Kelly, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Seismic isolation can significantly mitigate earthquake loads on liquid metal reactors (LMR), thus reducing the impact of seismic loads on design. This improves plant safety margins for beyond-design basis seismic events and enhances adaptability of a standardized design to a variety of sites, with potential cost benefits. The PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) LMR incorporates a horizontal isolation system which consists of high damping steel laminated rubber bearings. The results of an experimental program to determine the mechanical properties of the rubber compound and the bearing performance under different loading conditions are presented. The test results demonstrate the excellent performance of the bearings and their suitability for isolating compact LMR plants

  17. Palatini wormholes and energy conditions from the prism of general relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Wormholes are hypothetical shortcuts in spacetime that in general relativity unavoidably violate all of the pointwise energy conditions. In this paper, we consider several wormhole spacetimes that, as opposed to the standard designer procedure frequently employed in the literature, arise directly from gravitational actions including additional terms resulting from contractions of the Ricci tensor with the metric, and which are formulated assuming independence between metric and connection (Palatini approach). We reinterpret such wormhole solutions under the prism of General Relativity and study the matter sources that thread them. We discuss the size of violation of the energy conditions in different cases and how this is related to the same spacetimes when viewed from the modified gravity side.

  18. Determination of the crust thickness in the active margin of the Antarctic region; Determinacao da estrutura crustal na margem ativa da regiao antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Luiz Carlos; Gamboa, Luiz Antonio Pierantoni [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Lagemar; Gomes, Benedito Souza [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Seismic multichannel, gravity and magnetometry measurements were carried out in the region of West coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, Bransfield Strait, South Shetland Islands and South Shetland Trench, by Brazilian Antarctic Program during the summers of 1987 and 1988. The present work, using a continue seismic and gravity and gravity data profile crossing the area, intends to present a two-dimensional model of the crust thickness in this region. By this model, the Moho discontinuity would lie at a depth of 14.5 km below the axis of the Bransfield trough. This anomalous behaviour in addition to compressional processes identified in the accretionary prism and trench, was interpreted as an evidence of the continued opening of the Bransfield basin. (author)

  19. Isotopic and chemical evidence for three accretionary magmatic arcs ( 1.79 - 1.42 Ga) in the SW Amazon Craton, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes, Mauro Cesar; Teixeira, Wilson; Schmus, William Randall van

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one U/Pb ages of granitoids in the SW Amazon craton define three crustal accretionary events during the Paleo-and Mesoproterozoic that represent significant portions of the Rio Negro-Juruena Province and the Rondonian/San Ignacio province. Two events refer to the Rio Negro-Juruena province: The Alto Jauru greenstone belt comprises acid volcanics and tonalite to granite gneisses with U/Pb ages from 1790 to 1750 Ma. Sm/Nd isotopic data (e N -d (t) from +2.6 to +2.2 and T DM from 2.0 to 1.80 Ga) indicate a volcanic arc with juvenile signatures for these units. The second event (Cachoeirinha arc) comprises granites to tonalites with U/Pb ages from 1580 to 1530 Ma. Sm/Nd results. (author)

  20. Summary of advanced LMR [Liquid Metal Reactor] evaluations: PRISM [Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module] and SAFR [Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Kroeger, P.G.

    1989-10-01

    In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed independent analyses of two advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concepts. The designs, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) [Berglund, 1987] and the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) [Baumeister, 1987], were developed primarily by General Electric (GE) and Rockwell International (RI), respectively. Technical support was provided to DOE, RI, and GE, by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), particularly with respect to the characteristics of the metal fuels. There are several examples in both PRISM and SAFR where inherent or passive systems provide for a safe response to off-normal conditions. This is in contrast to the engineered safety systems utilized on current US Light Water Reactor (LWR) designs. One important design inherency in the LMRs is the ''inherent shutdown'', which refers to the tendency of the reactor to transition to a much lower power level whenever temperatures rise significantly. This type of behavior was demonstrated in a series of unscrammed tests at EBR-II [NED, 1986]. The second key design feature is the passive air cooling of the vessel to remove decay heat. These systems, designated RVACS in PRISM and RACS in SAFR, always operate and are believed to be able to prevent core damage in the event that no other means of heat removal is available. 27 refs., 78 figs., 3 tabs

  1. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  2. Calculation of gravity and magnetic anomalies of finite-length right polygonal prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    An equation is derived for the vertical gravity field due to a homogeneous body with polygonal cross‐section and finite strike‐length. The equation can be separated into the two‐dimensional (2-D) terms of Talwani et al. (1959) and exact terms for the contributions of the ends of the prism. Equations for the magnetic field due to a similar body were derived by Shuey and Pasquale (1973), who coined the term “two‐and‐a‐half dimensional” (2 1/2-D) to describe the geometry. Magnetic intensities are expressed as a vector sum, from which the common dot product formulation can be obtained by binomial expansion.

  3. The eclipse of CI Cygni in 1980 on the objective prism spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikolajewska, J.; Mikolajewski, M.

    1982-01-01

    The observations of CI Cyg were carried out with the Torun 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope with the objective prism giving a dispersion of 250 A/mm at H-gamma. Intensity traces of 20 selected spectra, made on the Kodak IIa-O plates, were made. The results were corrected for all instrumental effects and the interstellar extinction. The relative emission lines intensities have been obtained from the tracings after normalization to H-beta = 100. The spectra were typical for the quiet symbiotic star. So, all changes in the spectrum were caused by geometrical effects (eclipse). A preliminary analysis of the obtained spectra is presented. (Auth.)

  4. Removal of intraocular foreign body in anterior chamber angle with prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ming; Yan, Hua; Cai, Jin-Hong; Li, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a novel approach in removal of anterior chamber angle foreign body (ACFB) using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps. Data of 42 eyes of 42 patients who had undergone removal of ACFB using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps from January 2008 to October 2013 were collected and analyzed. Twenty eyes in group A received the conventional approach by using toothed forceps through corneal limbus incision, and 22 eyes in group B underwent the novel method through the opposite corneal limbus incision. The success rate of ACFB once removal was 75% (15/20) in group A, and 100% (22/22) in group B. The average operation time of group A was significantly longer compared with group B (34.9±9.88min vs 22.13±8.85min; P contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps is a safer, more effective, and convenient technique compared with the conventional approach.

  5. The clustering of quasars from an objective-prism survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, A.

    1982-01-01

    The positions and redshifts of 108 quasars from the Cerro Tololo objective-prism survey are subjected to Fourier Power Spectrum Analysis in a search for clustering in their spatial distribution. It is found that, on the whole, these quasars are not clustered but are scattered in space independently at random. The sole exception is a group of four quasars at z = 0.37 which has a low probability of being a chance event and which, with a size of about 100 Mpc, may therefore be the largest known structure in the Universe. The conclusions disagree with Arp's analysis of this catalogue: his 'clouds of quasars' ejected by certain low-redshift galaxies, for example, are attributable to sensitivity variations among the different plates of the survey. It is shown that analysis of deeper surveys is likely to show up quasar clusters even at high redshift, and could therefore provide a useful new cosmological probe. (author)

  6. Early Cretaceous wedge extrusion in the Indo-Burma Range accretionary complex: implications for the Mesozoic subduction of Neotethys in SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Cai, Fulong; Sein, Kyaing; Naing, Soe

    2017-06-01

    The Indo-Burma Range (IBR) of Myanmar, the eastern extension of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Neotethyan belt of Tibet in China, contains mélanges with serpentinite, greenschist facies basalt, chert, sericite schist, silty slate and unmetamorphosed Triassic sandstone, mudstone and siltstone interbedded with chert in the east, and farther north high-pressure blueschist and eclogite blocks in the Naga Hills mélange. Our detailed mapping of the Mindat and Magwe sections in the middle IBR revealed a major 18 km antiformal isocline in a mélange in which greenschist facies rocks in the core decrease in grade eastwards and westwards symmetrically `outwards' to lower grade sericite schist and silty slate, and at the margins to unmetamorphosed sediments, and these metamorphic rocks are structurally repeated in small-scale imbricated thrust stacks. In the Mindat section the lower western boundary of the isoclinal mélange is a thrust on which the metamorphic rocks have been transported over unmetamorphosed sediments of the Triassic Pane Chaung Group, and the upper eastern boundary is a normal fault. These relations demonstrate that the IBR metamorphic rocks were exhumed by wedge extrusion in a subduction-generated accretionary complex. Along strike to the north in the Naga Hills is a comparable isoclinal mélange in which central eclogite lenses are succeeded `outwards' by layers of glaucophane schist and glaucophanite, and to lower grade greenschist facies sericite schist and slate towards the margins. In the Natchaung area (from west to east) unmetamorphosed Triassic sediments overlie quartzites, sericite schists, actinolite schists and meta-volcanic amphibolites derived from MORB-type basalt, which are in fault contact with peridotite. Olivine in the peridotite has undulatory extinction suggesting deformation at 600-700 °C, similar to the peak temperature of the amphibolite; these relations suggest generation in a metamorphic sole. The amphibolites have U/Pb zircon ages of 119

  7. Safety and licensing analysis of 471 MWt PRISM reactor module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Independent analyses of unscrammed events postulated for the 471 MW t PRISM reactor module, as performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, are discussed. Peak fuel, cladding, and sodium temperatures for several postulated events were compared against reference temperatures. In general, BNL could essentially duplicate GE's analytical results, by making GE's assumptions. For the postulated unscrammed loss of flow (ULOF) events, the newly added Gas Expansion Modules (GEMs), have improved the passive shutdown response. With respect to the unscrammed loss of heat sink (ULOHS) event, there was little impact expected from the latest revisions, and little was found. For the unscrammed transient over-power (UTOP) events, uncertainties with respect to the behavior of ternary metal fuel leave unresolved the issue of how large a UTOP initiator (between 20 and 40 cents) may be acceptable. (author)

  8. Evaluating PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) as a measure of life quality for children with skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbardis Jørgensen, K.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2011-01-01

    of age-dependant cognitive development on children's self-reported QoL. Methods and materials: A total of 43 children of both sexes aged 5-16, with a diagnosed dermatologic disease were asked to complete both PRISM and CDLQI. Children with a mental handicap, children who did not speak Danish or who were......Background: Changes in Quality of Life (QoL) are increasingly being used as an outcome measure in dermatology. For pediatric dermatology this poses special problems due to the natural cognitive development of the patients. QoL is mostly assessed using questionnaires. The use of a non......-verbal instrument may therefore be of particular relevance to pediatric patients. Purpose: To evaluate PRISM (Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure) as a non-verbal measure of QoL for children with skin diseases compared to CDLQI (Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index) and the possible influence...

  9. Effect of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms on the visual-evoked potential (VEP) in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Naveen K; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    To assess quantitatively the effect and relative contribution of binasal occlusion (BNO) and base-in prisms (BI) on visually-evoked potential (VEP) responsivity in persons with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and the symptom of visual motion sensitivity (VMS), as well as in visually-normal (VN) individuals. Subjects were comprised of 20 VN adults and 15 adults with mTBI and VMS. There were four test conditions: (1) conventional pattern VEP, which served as the baseline comparison condition; (2) VEP with BNO alone; (3) VEP with 2 pd BI prisms before each eye; and (4) VEP with the above BNO and BI prism combination. In mTBI, the mean VEP amplitude increased significantly in nearly all subjects (∼90%) with BNO alone. In contrast, in VN, it decreased significantly with BNO alone in all subjects (100%), as compared to the other test conditions. These objective findings were consistent with improvements in visual impressions and sensorimotor tasks in the group with mTBI. Latency remained within normal limits under all test conditions in both groups. Only the BNO condition demonstrated significant, but opposite and consistent, directional effects on the VEP amplitude in both groups. The BNO-VEP test condition may be used clinically for the objectively-based, differential diagnosis of persons suspected of having mTBI and VMS from the VNs.

  10. Wavelength-tunable prism-coupled external cavity passively mode-locked quantum-dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan-Hua; Jian Wu; Jin Peng; Wang Fei-Fei; Hu Fa-Jie; Wei Heng; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable mode-locked quantum dot laser using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. A dispersion prism, which has lower optical loss and less spectral narrowing than a blazed grating, is used for wavelength selection and tuning. A wavelength tuning range of 45.5 nm (from 1137.3 nm to 1182.8 nm) under 140-mA injection current in the passive mode-locked regime is achieved. The maximum average power of 19 mW is obtained at the 1170.3-nm wavelength, corresponding to the single pulse energy of 36.5 pJ. (paper)

  11. Structure and evolution of the northern Oman margin: gravity and seismic constraints over the Zagros-Makran-Oman collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaut, P.; Bayer, R.; Hassani, R.; Rousset, D.; Yahya'ey, A. Al

    1997-09-01

    The obduction process in Oman during Late Cretaceous time, and continental-to-oceanic subduction along the Zagros-Makran region during the Tertiary are consequences of the Arabian-Eurasian collision, resulting in construction of complex structures composed of the Oman ophiolite belt, the Zagros continental mountain belt and the Makran subduction zone with its associated accretionary wedge. In this paper, we jointly interpret Bouguer anomaly and available petroleum seismic profiles in terms of crustal structures. We show that the gravity anomaly in northern Oman is characterized by a high-amplitude negative-positive couple. The negative anomaly is coincident with Late Cretaceous (Fiqa) and Tertiary (Pabdeh) foreland basins and with the Zagros-Oman mountain belts, whereas the positive anomaly is correlated to the ophiolite massifs. The Bouguer anomaly map indicates the presence of a post-Late Cretaceous sedimentary basin, the Sohar basin, centred north of the Batinah plain. We interpret the negative/positive couple in terms of loading of the elastic Arabian lithosphere. We estimate the different Cretaceous-to-Recent loads, including topography, ophiolite nappes, sedimentary fill and the accretionary prism of the Makran trench. A new method, using Mindlin's elastic plate theory, is proposed to model the 2D deflection of the heterogeneous elastic Arabian plate, taking into account boundary conditions at the ends of the subducted plate. We show that remnant ophiolites are isolated from Tethyan oceanic lithosphere in the Gulf of Oman by a continental basement ridge, a NW prolongation of the Saih-Hatat window. Loading the northward-limited ophiolite blocks explains the deflection of the Fiqa foredeep basin. West of the Musandam Peninsula, the Tertiary Pabdeh foredeep is probably related to the emplacement of a 8-km-thick tectonic prism located on the Musandam Peninsula and in the Strait of Hormuz. Final 2D density models along profiles through the Oman mountain belt and

  12. InSAR Analysis of Post-Seismic Deformation Following the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K.; Barnhart, W. D.

    2017-12-01

    On September 24th, 2013, a Mw 7.7 earthquake ruptured a 200 km portion of the Hoshab fault, a reverse fault in the Makran accretionary prism of southern Pakistan. This earthquake is notable because it ruptured a reverse fault with a predominantly strike-slip sense of displacement, and it ruptured a mechanically weak accretionary prism. Here, we present initial analysis of ongoing post-seismic deformation imaged with the Sentinel-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) mission with the goals of a) determining the dominant post-seismic deformation processes active, b) characterizing the rigidity and rheological structure of a flat-slab subduction zone, and c) elucidating whether post-seismic deformation may account for or exacerbate the 4-6 m fault convergence deficit left by the 2013 earthquake. We first present InSAR time series analysis of the post-seismic transient derived from ongoing Sentinel-1 SAR acquisitions, including a comparison of atmosphere-corrected and uncorrected time series. Interferograms spanning December 2014 to the present reveal an ongoing post-seismic deformation transient in the region surrounding the Hoshab fault. Additionally, fault creep signals on and adjacent to the Hoshab fault are present. Second, we present a suite of forward models that explore the potential contributions of viscoelastic relaxation and frictional afterslip to the recorded displacement signal. These models, conducted using the semi-analytical solutions of RELAX and compared to InSAR line-of-sight time series displacements, explore a range of candidate rheological descriptions of the Makran subduction zone that are designed to probe the rheological structure of a region where current knowledge of the subsurface geology is highly limited. Our preliminary results suggest that post-seismic displacements arise from a combination of viscoelastic deformation and frictional afterslip, as opposed to one single mechanism. Additionally, our preliminary results suggest

  13. TSUNAMIGENIC SOURCE MECHANISM AND EFFICIENCY OF THE MARCH 11, 2011 SANRIKU EARTHQUAKE IN JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The great Tohoku earthquake of March 11, 2011 generated a very destructive and anomalously high tsunami. To understand its source mechanism, an examination was undertaken of the seismotectonics of the region and of the earthquake’ focal mechanism, energy release, rupture patterns and spatial and temporal sequencing and clustering of major aftershocks. It was determined that the great tsunami resulted from a combination of crustal deformations of the ocean floor due to up-thrust tectonic motions, augmented by additional uplift due to the quake’s slow and long rupturing process, as well as to large coseismic lateral movements which compressed and deformed the compacted sediments along the accretionary prism of the overriding plane. The deformation occurred randomly and non-uniformly along parallel normal faults and along oblique, en-echelon faults to the earthquake’s overall rupture direction – the latter failing in a sequential bookshelf manner with variable slip angles. As the 1992 Nicaragua and the 2004 Sumatra earthquakes demonstrated, such bookshelf failures of sedimentary layers could contribute to anomalously high tsunamis. As with the 1896 tsunami, additional ocean floor deformation and uplift of the sediments was responsible for the higher waves generated by the 2011 earthquake. The efficiency of tsunami generation was greater along the shallow eastern segment of the fault off the Miyagi Prefecture where most of the energy release of the earthquake and the deformations occurred, while the segment off the Ibaraki Prefecture – where the rupture process was rapid – released less seismic energy, resulted in less compaction and deformation of sedimentary layers and thus to a tsunami of lesser offshore height. The greater tsunamigenic efficiency of the 2011 earthquake and high degree of the tsunami’s destructiveness along Honshu’s coastlines resulted from vertical crustal displacements of more than 10 meters due to up

  14. Student Analogy Reasons When Solving Area Concepts in Pyramids and Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashuri, A.; Sudjadi, I.; Pramudya, I.; Gembong, S.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the reasoning of students’ analogies in solving the broad concept problem in pyramids and prisms. This research method using descriptive qualitative. Data collection uses analogous reasoning tests and interviews. After that tested to 32 students of Junior High School. Based on the results of the analysis can be concluded that (1) 16% of students solve the problem of source and target problem correctly. (2) 29% of students correctly solve source problems and target problems incorrectly. (3) 55% solve source problems and target problems wrong. This is because students tend to memorize formulas not using analogy reasoning to solve new problems. Finally, the students have difficulties in solving new problems, because students are not accustomed to using the experience they have gained to solve new problems.

  15. An Optimal Design for Placements of Tsunami Observing Systems Around the Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, I. E.; Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.

    2017-12-01

    Presently, there are numerous tsunami observing systems deployed in several major tsunamigenic regions throughout the world. However, documentations on how and where to optimally place such measurement devices are limited. This study presents a methodological approach to select the best and fewest observation points for the purpose of tsunami source characterizations, particularly in the form of fault slip distributions. We apply the method to design a new tsunami observation network around the Nankai Trough, Japan. In brief, our method can be divided into two stages: initialization and optimization. The initialization stage aims to identify favorable locations of observation points, as well as to determine the initial number of observations. These points are generated based on extrema of an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) spatial modes derived from 11 hypothetical tsunami events in the region. In order to further improve the accuracy, we apply an optimization algorithm called a mesh adaptive direct search (MADS) to remove redundant measurements from the initially generated points by the first stage. A combinatorial search by the MADS will improve the accuracy and reduce the number of observations simultaneously. The EOF analysis of the hypothetical tsunamis using first 2 leading modes with 4 extrema on each mode results in 30 observation points spread along the trench. This is obtained after replacing some clustered points within the radius of 30 km with only one representative. Furthermore, the MADS optimization can improve the accuracy of the EOF-generated points by approximately 10-20% with fewer observations (23 points). Finally, we compare our result with the existing observation points (68 stations) in the region. The result shows that the optimized design with fewer number of observations can produce better source characterizations with approximately 20-60% improvement of accuracies at all the 11 hypothetical cases. It should be note, however, that our

  16. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  17. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  18. The Implementation of Cumulative Learning Theory in Calculating Triangular Prism and Tube Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muklis, M.; Abidin, C.; Pamungkas, M. D.; Masriyah

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at describing the application of cumulative learning theory in calculating the volume of a triangular prism and a tube as well as revealing the students’ responses toward the learning. The research method used was descriptive qualitative with elementary school students as the subjects of the research. Data obtained through observation, field notes, questionnaire, tests, and interviews. The results from the application of cumulative learning theory obtained positive students’ responses in following the learning and students’ learning outcomes was dominantly above the average. This showed that cumulative learning could be used as a reference to be implemented in learning, so as to improve the students’ achievement.

  19. Subduction history of the Paleo-Pacific plate beneath the Eurasian continent: Evidence from Mesozoic igneous rocks and accretionary complex in NE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mesozoic magmatisms in NE China can be subdivided into seven stages, i.e., Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, Late Jurassic, early Early Cretaceous, late Early Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous. Late Triassic magmatisms consist of calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the Erguna Massif, and bimodal igneous rocks in eastern margin of Eurasian continent. The former reveals southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate, the latter reveals an extensional environment (Xu et al., 2013). Early Jurassic magmatisms are composed of calc-alkaline igneous rocks in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent and the Erguna Massif, revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate and southward subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic plate (Tang et al., 2015), respectively. Middle Jurassic magmatism only occur in the Great Xing'an Range and the northern margin of the NCC, and consists of adakitic rocks that formed in crustal thickening, reflecting the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk ocean (Li et al., 2015). Late Jurassic and early Early Cretaceous magmatisms only occur to the west of the Songliao Basin, and consist of trackyandesite and A-type of rhyolites, revealing an extensional environment related to delamination of thickened crust. The late Early Cretaceous magmatisms are widespread in NE China, and consist of calc-alkaline volcanics in eastern margin and bimodal volcanics in intracontinent, revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate. Late Cretaceous magmatisms mainly occur to the east of the Songliao Basin, and consist of calc-alkaline volcanics in eastern margin and alkaline basalts in intracontinent (Xu et al., 2013), revealing westward subduction of the Paleo-pacific plate. The Heilongjiang complex with Early Jurassic deformation, together with Jurassic Khabarovsk complex in Russia Far East and Mino-Tamba complex in Japan, reveal Early Jurassic accretionary history. Additionally, the Raohe complex with the age of ca. 169 Ma was

  20. A model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro-prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Liesl; Forbes, Andrew

    2007-09-01

    A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the "petal" mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest-order modes of this type of resonator. Further use of the model reveals the formation of more complex beam patterns, and the nature of these patterns is investigated. Also, the output of stable and unstable resonator modes is presented.

  1. Geological evidence for Holocene earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai-Suruga Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Ed; Fujiwara, Osamu; Garrett, Philip; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Shishikura, Masanobu; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Brückner, Helmut; Nakamura, Atsunori; De Batist, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The Nankai-Suruga Trough, lying immediately south of Japan's densely populated and highly industrialised southern coastline, generates devastating great earthquakes (magnitude > 8). Intense shaking, crustal deformation and tsunami generation accompany these ruptures. Forecasting the hazards associated with future earthquakes along this >700 km long fault requires a comprehensive understanding of past fault behaviour. While the region benefits from a long and detailed historical record, palaeoseismology has the potential to provide a longer-term perspective and additional insights. Here, we summarise the current state of knowledge regarding geological evidence for past earthquakes and tsunamis, incorporating literature originally published in both Japanese and English. This evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, including uplifted marine terraces and biota, marine and lacustrine turbidites, liquefaction features, subsided marshes and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. We enhance available results with new age modelling approaches. While publications describe proposed evidence from > 70 sites, only a limited number provide compelling, well-dated evidence. The best available records allow us to map the most likely rupture zones of eleven earthquakes occurring during the historical period. Our spatiotemporal compilation suggests the AD 1707 earthquake ruptured almost the full length of the subduction zone and that earthquakes in AD 1361 and 684 were predecessors of similar magnitude. Intervening earthquakes were of lesser magnitude, highlighting variability in rupture mode. Recurrence intervals for ruptures of the a single seismic segment range from less than 100 to more than 450 years during the historical period. Over longer timescales, palaeoseismic evidence suggests intervals ranging from 100 to 700 years. However, these figures reflect thresholds of evidence creation and preservation as well as genuine recurrence intervals. At present, we have

  2. Brewster-angle 50%-50% beam splitter for p-polarized infrared light using a high-index quarter-wave layer deposited on a low-index prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, R M A

    2017-08-10

    A quarter-wave layer (QWL) of high refractive index, which is deposited on a transparent prism of low refractive index, can be designed to split an incident p-polarized light beam at the Brewster angle (BA) of the air-substrate interface into p-polarized reflected and transmitted beams of equal intensity (50% each) that travel in orthogonal directions. For reflection of p-polarized light at the BA, the supported QWL functions as a free-standing (unsupported) pellicle. An exemplary design is presented that uses Si x Ge 1-x QWL deposited on an IRTRAN1 prism for applications (such as Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometry) with a variable compositional fraction x in the 2-6 μm mid-IR spectral range.

  3. Evaluation of the polarization properties of a Philips-type prism for the construction of imaging polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Borda, R.; Waluschka, E.; Pellicori, S.; Martins, J. V.; Ramos-Izquierdo, L.; Cieslak, J. D.; Thompson, P.

    2009-08-01

    The design and construction of wide FOV imaging polarimeters for use in atmospheric remote sensing requires significant attention to the prevention of artificial polarization induced by the optical elements. Surface, coatings, and angles of incidence throughout the system must be carefully designed in order to minimize these artifacts because the remaining instrumental bias polarization is the main factor which drives the final polarimetric accuracy of the system. In this work, we present a detailed evaluation and analysis to explore the possibility of retrieving the initial polarization state of the light traveling through a generic system that has inherent instrumental polarization. Our case is a wide FOV lens and a splitter device. In particular, we chose as splitter device a Philips-type prism, because it is able to divide the signal in 3 independent channels that could be simultaneously analyze to retrieve the three first elements of the Stoke vector (in atmospheric applications the elliptical polarization can be neglected [1]). The Philips-type configuration is a versatile, compact and robust prism device that is typically used in three color camera systems. It has been used in some commercial polarimetric cameras which do not claim high accuracy polarization measurements [2]. With this work, we address the accuracy of our polarization inversion and measurements made with the Philips-type beam divider.

  4. Stakeholder theory and reporting information The case of performance prism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Nita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to explain the stakeholder theory in the context of performance measurement in integrated reporting. Main research methods used in the article include logical reasoning, critical analysis of academic literature, and observation. The principal result of the discussion is included in the statement that the stakeholder theory in the field of accounting is reflected in the so-called integrated reporting. Moreover, among the large variety of performance measurement methods, such as balanced scorecard and others, the concept of performance prism can be considered as the only method that fully takes into account the wide range of stakeholders. The analysis performed leads to the conclusion that development in accounting research takes into account the objectives of an organization in the context of the so-called corporate social responsibility as well as performance reporting oriented towards the communication of the company with its environment and the various stakeholder groups.

  5. Tarzan as a cultural prism: Ideological Associations in Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Hadi Q. Alseed

    2013-01-01

    More than any other of Burroughs’ many creations, Tarzan has become a staple of popular culture. The character functions as a cultural prism, in which the concerns, anxieties, desires, and tastes of particular times and places are encapsulated in such a way to make us look at that context in a different perspective. Burroughs’ original Tarzan embodies several of the aspirations, tensions, and failings of the early twentieth-century Unites States. On one hand, the novel refracts a national lon...

  6. Whole genome amplification approach reveals novel polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases (PhaCs) from Japan Trench and Nankai Trough seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Choon Pin; Lau, Nyok-Sean; Deguchi, Shigeru; Toyofuku, Takashi; Taylor, Todd D; Sudesh, Kumar; Matsui, Minami

    2014-12-24

    Special features of the Japanese ocean include its ranges of latitude and depth. This study is the first to examine the diversity of Class I and II PHA synthases (PhaC) in DNA samples from pelagic seawater taken from the Japan Trench and Nankai Trough from a range of depths from 24 m to 5373 m. PhaC is the key enzyme in microorganisms that determines the types of monomer units that are polymerized into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and thus affects the physicochemical properties of this thermoplastic polymer. Complete putative PhaC sequences were determined via genome walking, and the activities of newly discovered PhaCs were evaluated in a heterologous host. A total of 76 putative phaC PCR fragments were amplified from the whole genome amplified seawater DNA. Of these 55 clones contained conserved PhaC domains and were classified into 20 genetic groups depending on their sequence similarity. Eleven genetic groups have undisclosed PhaC activity based on their distinct phylogenetic lineages from known PHA producers. Three complete DNA coding sequences were determined by IAN-PCR, and one PhaC was able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) in recombinant Cupriavidus necator PHB-4 (PHB-negative mutant). A new functional PhaC that has close identity to Marinobacter sp. was discovered in this study. Phylogenetic classification for all the phaC genes isolated from uncultured bacteria has revealed that seawater and other environmental resources harbor a great diversity of PhaCs with activities that have not yet been investigated. Functional evaluation of these in silico-based PhaCs via genome walking has provided new insights into the polymerizing ability of these enzymes.

  7. Treatment of vestibular disorders with weak asymmetric base-in prisms : An hypothesis with a focus on Ménière’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Vente, P.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Regular treatments of Ménière’s disease (MD) vary largely, and no single satisfactory treatment exists. A complementary treatment popular among Dutch and Belgian patients involves eyeglasses with weak asymmetric base-in prisms, with a perceived high success rate. An explanatory

  8. Spacing of Imbricated Thrust Faults and the Strength of Thrust-Belts and Accretionary Wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, G.; Regensburger, P. V.; Moore, G. F.

    2017-12-01

    The pattern of imbricated thrust blocks is a prominent characteristic of the large-scale structure of thrust-belts and accretionary wedges around the world. Mechanical models of these systems have a rich history from laboratory analogs, and more recently from computational simulations, most of which, qualitatively reproduce the regular patterns of imbricated thrusts seen in nature. Despite the prevalence of these patterns in nature and in models, our knowledge of what controls the spacing of the thrusts remains immature at best. We tackle this problem using a finite difference, particle-in-cell method that simulates visco-elastic-plastic deformation with a Mohr-Coulomb brittle failure criterion. The model simulates a horizontal base that moves toward a rigid vertical backstop, carrying with it an overlying layer of crust. The crustal layer has a greater frictional strength than the base, is cohesive, and is initially uniform in thickness. As the layer contracts, a series of thrust blocks immerge sequentially and form a wedge having a mean taper consistent with that predicted by a noncohesive, critical Coulomb wedge. The widths of the thrust blocks (or spacing between adjacent thrusts) are greatest at the front of the wedge, tend to decrease with continued contraction, and then tend toward a pseudo-steady, minimum width. Numerous experiments show that the characteristic spacing of thrusts increases with the brittle strength of the wedge material (cohesion + friction) and decreases with increasing basal friction for low (laws that will illuminate the basic physical processes controlling systems, as well as allow researchers to use observations of thrust spacing as an independent constraint on the brittle strength of wedges as well as their bases.

  9. An analytic solution to the alibi query in the space-time prisms model for moving object data

    OpenAIRE

    GRIMSON, Rafael; KUIJPERS, Bart; OTHMAN, Walied

    2010-01-01

    Moving objects produce trajectories, which are stored in databases by means of finite samples of time-stamped locations. When also speed limitations in these sample points are known, space-time prisms (also called beads) (Egenhofer 2003, Miller 2005, Pfoser and Jensen 1999) can be used to model the uncertainty about an object’s location in between sample points. In this setting, a query of particular interest, that has been studied in the literature of geographic information systems (GIS), is...

  10. Baseline seismic survey for the 2nd offshore methane hydrate production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Y.; Inamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujii, T.; Saeki, T.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, F.

    2017-12-01

    JOGMEC carries out seismic monitoring surveys before and after the 2nd offshore methane hydrate (MH) production test in the Eastern Nankai Trough and evaluates MH dissociation behavior from the time-lapse seismic response. In 2016, JOGMEC deployed Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) system provided by OCC in the Daini Atsumi Knoll with water depths of 900-1100 m. The main challenge of the seismic survey was to optimize the cable layout for ensuring an effective time-lapse seismic detectability while overcoming the following two issues: 1. OBC receiver lines were limited to only two lines. It was predicted that the imaging of shallow reflectors would suffer from lack of continuity and resolution due to this limitation of receiver lines. 2. The seafloor and shallow sedimentary layers including monitoring target are dipping to the Northwest direction. It was predicted that the refection points would laterally shift to up-dip direction (Southeast direction). In order to understand the impact of the issues above, the seismic survey was designed with elastic wave field simulation. The reflection seismic survey for baseline data was conducted in August 2016. A total of 70 receiver stations distributed along one cable were deployed successfully and a total of 9952 shots were fired. After the baseline seismic survey, the hydrophone and geophone vertical component datasets were processed as outlined below: designaturing, denoising, surface consistent deconvolution and surface consistent amplitude correction. High-frequency imaging with Reverse Time Migration (RTM) was introduced to these data sets. Improvements in imaging from the RTM are remarkable compared to the Kirchhoff migration and the existing Pre-stack time migration with 3D marine surface seismic data obtained and processed in 2002, especially in the following parts. The MH concentrated zone which has complex structures. Below the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR) which is present as a impedance-contrast boundary

  11. Slippiń and Slidiń: Capturing the Earth in Motion below the Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since the beginning of ocean drilling, sampling and dating seismically imaged tectono-stratigraphic sections and recovering rocks from active faults of marine plate-boundary systems has advanced our understanding of subduction zone structures and evolution. It further evidenced the dynamic nature of deformation, fluid flow and fluxes within such systems. With the advancement in developing borehole observatories, monitoring data is increasingly becoming available to analyze and quantify the dynamic processes, such as those leading to and resulting from earthquakes, slides and tsunamis. Combined with knowledge gained from seismological studies, IODP drilling efforts at Costa Rica, Hikurangi, Japan Trench, Nankai and Sumatra margins contribute invaluable observatory data and core samples, the analyses and derived research results of which are fundamentally changing the way fault slip behavior, seafloor instability and tsunamigenesis are understood. Short instrumental records, however, limit our perspective of maximum magnitude and recurrence of such submarine geohazard processes. Examining past events expressed as sedimentary or geochemical perturbations preserved in the marine record provides IODP the key to address this challenge: Recent efforts included sampling mass-transport deposits to study causes and consequences of submarine slides. For the Nankai accretionary margin, we documented the submarine landslide history spanning ˜2.5 million years. The modes and scales of slides were linked to the different morphotectonic settings in which they occurred. The timing of major slides hints at climate preconditioning for sediment instability and reveals that margin destabilization does not occur systematically during all megathrust earthquakes. However, new observation after recent earthquakes and studies using lakes as model basins discovered a new mode of dynamic earthquake ground motion response for surficial (<5-10 cm) seafloor sediments. This can trigger

  12. Heteroleptic metallosupramolecular racks, rectangles, and trigonal prisms: stoichiometry-controlled reversible interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Subhadip; Lorenz, Yvonne; Engeser, Marianne; Samanta, Debabrata; Schmittel, Michael

    2013-06-17

    A simple approach toward preparation of heteroleptic two-dimensional (2D) rectangles and three-dimensional (3D) triangular prisms is described utilizing the HETPYP (HETeroleptic PYridyl and Phenanthroline metal complexes) concept. By mixing metal-loaded linear bisphenanthrolines of varying lengths with diverse (multi)pyridine (py) ligands in a proper ratio, six different self-assembled architectures arise cleanly and spontaneously in the absence of any template. They are characterized by (1)H and DOSY NMR, ESI-FT-ICR mass spectrometry as well as by Job plots and UV-vis titrations. Density functional theory (DFT) computations provide information about each structure. A stoichiometry-controlled supramolecule-to-supramolecule interconversion based on the relative amounts of metal bisphenanthroline and bipyridine forces the rectangular assembly to reorganize to a rack architecture and back to the rectangle, as clearly supported by variable temperature and DOSY NMR as well as dynamic light scattering data. The highly dynamic nature of the assemblies represents a promising starting point for constitutional dynamic materials.

  13. Predicting Folding Sequences Based on the Maximum Rock Strength and Mechanical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, N.; Souloumiac, P.; Maillot, B.; Leroy, Y. M.

    2007-12-01

    The objective is to propose and validate simple procedures, compared to the finite-element method, to select and optimize the dominant mode of folding in fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges, and to determine its stress distribution. Mechanical equilibrium as well as the constraints due to the limited rock strength of the bulk material and of major discontinuities, such as décollements, are accounted for. The first part of the proposed procedure, which is at the core of the external approach of classical limit analysis, consists in estimating the least upper bound on the tectonic force by minimisation of the internal dissipation and part of the external work. The new twist to the method is that the optimization is also done with respect to the geometry of the evolving fold. If several folding events are possible, the dominant mode is the one leading to the least upper bound. The second part of the procedure is based on the Equilibrium Element Method, which is an application of the internal approach of limit analysis. The optimum stress field, obtained by spatial discretisation of the fold, provides the best lower bound on the tectonic force. The difference between the two bounds defines an error estimate of the exact unknown tectonic force. To show the merits of the proposed procedure, its first part is applied to predict the life span of a thrust within an accretionary prism, from its onset, its development with a relief build up and its arrest because of the onset of a more favorable new thrust (Cubas et al., 2007). This life span is sensitive to the friction angles over the ramp and the décollement. It is shown how the normal sequence of thrusting in a supercritical wedge is ended with the first out-of sequence event. The second part of the procedure provides the stress state over each thrust showing that the active back thrust is a narrow fan which dip is sensitive to the friction angle over the ramp and the amount of relief build up (Souloumiac et

  14. TESLA GPUs versus MPI with OpenMP for the Forward Modeling of Gravity and Gravity Gradient of Large Prisms Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Couder-Castañeda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An implementation with the CUDA technology in a single and in several graphics processing units (GPUs is presented for the calculation of the forward modeling of gravitational fields from a tridimensional volumetric ensemble composed by unitary prisms of constant density. We compared the performance results obtained with the GPUs against a previous version coded in OpenMP with MPI, and we analyzed the results on both platforms. Today, the use of GPUs represents a breakthrough in parallel computing, which has led to the development of several applications with various applications. Nevertheless, in some applications the decomposition of the tasks is not trivial, as can be appreciated in this paper. Unlike a trivial decomposition of the domain, we proposed to decompose the problem by sets of prisms and use different memory spaces per processing CUDA core, avoiding the performance decay as a result of the constant calls to kernels functions which would be needed in a parallelization by observations points. The design and implementation created are the main contributions of this work, because the parallelization scheme implemented is not trivial. The performance results obtained are comparable to those of a small processing cluster.

  15. Characterization and Prediction of the Gas Hydrate Reservoir at the Second Offshore Gas Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Tamaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the world’s first offshore production test that was conducted from a gas hydrate reservoir by a depressurization technique in 2013, the second offshore production test has been planned in the eastern Nankai Trough. In 2016, the drilling survey was performed ahead of the production test, and logging data that covers the reservoir interval were newly obtained from three wells around the test site: one well for geological survey, and two wells for monitoring surveys, during the production test. The formation evaluation using the well log data suggested that our target reservoir has a more significant heterogeneity in the gas hydrate saturation distribution than we expected, although lateral continuity of sand layers is relatively good. To evaluate the spatial distribution of gas hydrate, the integration analysis using well and seismic data was performed. The seismic amplitude analysis supports the lateral reservoir heterogeneity that has a significant positive correlation with the resistivity log data at the well locations. The spatial distribution of the apparent low-resistivity interval within the reservoir observed from log data was investigated by the P-velocity volume derived from seismic inversion. The integrated results were utilized for the pre-drill prediction of the reservoir quality at the producing wells. These approaches will reduce the risk of future commercial production from the gas hydrate reservoir.

  16. Simplified analysis of PRISM RVACS [Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System] performance without liner spill-over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified analysis of the performance of the PRISM RVACS decay heat removal system under off-normal conditions, i.e., without the liner spill-over, is described. Without the spilling of hot-pool sodium over the liner and the resultant down-flow along the inside of the reactor vessel wall, the RVACS system performance becomes dominated by the radial heat condition and radiation. Simple estimates of the resulting heat conduction and radiation processes support GE's contention that the RVACS performance is not severely impacted by the absence of spillover, and can improve significantly if sodium has leaked into the region between the reactor and containment vessels. 7 refs

  17. Silica precipitation potentially controls earthquake recurrence in seismogenic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Otsubo, Makoto

    2017-10-17

    Silica precipitation is assumed to play a significant role in post-earthquake recovery of the mechanical and hydrological properties of seismogenic zones. However, the relationship between the widespread quartz veins around seismogenic zones and earthquake recurrence is poorly understood. Here we propose a novel model of quartz vein formation associated with fluid advection from host rocks and silica precipitation in a crack, in order to quantify the timescale of crack sealing. When applied to sets of extensional quartz veins around the Nobeoka Thrust of SW Japan, an ancient seismogenic splay fault, our model indicates that a fluid pressure drop of 10-25 MPa facilitates the formation of typical extensional quartz veins over a period of 6.6 × 10 0 -5.6 × 10 1 years, and that 89%-100% of porosity is recovered within ~3 × 10 2 years. The former and latter sealing timescales correspond to the extensional stress period (~3 × 10 1 years) and the recurrence interval of megaearthquakes in the Nankai Trough (~3 × 10 2 years), respectively. We therefore suggest that silica precipitation in the accretionary wedge controls the recurrence interval of large earthquakes in subduction zones.

  18. Astrophysical Information from Objective Prism Digitized Images: Classification with an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratsolis Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stellar spectral classification is not only a tool for labeling individual stars but is also useful in studies of stellar population synthesis. Extracting the physical quantities from the digitized spectral plates involves three main stages: detection, extraction, and classification of spectra. Low-dispersion objective prism images have been used and automated methods have been developed. The detection and extraction problems have been presented in previous works. In this paper, we present a classification method based on an artificial neural network (ANN. We make a brief presentation of the entire automated system and we compare the new classification method with the previously used method of maximum correlation coefficient (MCC. Digitized photographic material has been used here. The method can also be used on CCD spectral images.

  19. Accretionary Tectonics of Rock Complexes in the Western Margin of the Siberian Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanov, I. I.; Nozhkin, A. D.; Savko, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The geological, geochemical, and isotope-geochronological evidence of the events at the final stage of the Neoproterozoic history of the Yenisei Range is considered (beginning from the formation of fragments of the oceanic crust in the region and their accretion to the Siberian Craton until the postaccretionary stage of crustal tension and onset of the Caledonian orogeny). Based on an analysis of new data on the petrogeochemical composition, age, and geodynamic nature of the formation of contrasting rocks in the composition of tectonic mélange of the Near-Yenisei (Prieniseiskaya) regional shear zone, we have found the chronological sequence of events that marks the early stages of the Paleoasian Ocean evolution in the zone of its junction with the Siberian Craton. These events are documented by the continental marginal, ophiolitic, and island-arc geological complexes, each of which has different geochemical features. The most ancient structures are represented by fragments of oceanic crust and island arcs from the Isakovka terrane (700-620 Ma). The age of glaucophane-schist metamorphic units that formed in the paleosubduction zone corresponds to the time interval of 640-620 Ma. The formation of high-pressure tectonites in the suture zone, about 600 Ma in age, marks the finishing stage of accretion of the Isakovka block to the western margin of the Siberian Craton. The final events in the early history of the Asian Paleoocean were related to the formation of Late Vendian riftogenic amygdaloidal basalts (572 ± 6.5 Ma) and intrusion of postcollisional leucogranites of the Osinovka massif (550-540 Ma), which intruded earlier fragments of the oceanic crust in the Isakovka terrane. These data allow us to refine the Late Precambrian stratigraphic scheme in the northwestern Trans-Angarian part of the Yenisei Range and the evolutionary features of the Sayan-Yenisei accretionary belt. The revealed Late Neoproterozoic landmarks of the evolution of the Isakovka terrane are

  20. Prism Adaptation Alters Electrophysiological Markers of Attentional Processes in the Healthy Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Laube, Inga; Koun, Eric; Farnè, Alessandro; Reilly, Karen T; Pisella, Laure

    2016-01-20

    Neglect patients typically show a rightward attentional orienting bias and a strong disengagement deficit, such that they are especially slow in responding to left-sided targets after right-sided cues (Posner et al., 1984). Prism adaptation (PA) can reduce diverse debilitating neglect symptoms and it has been hypothesized that PA's effects are so generalized that they might be mediated by attentional mechanisms (Pisella et al., 2006; Redding and Wallace, 2006). In neglect patients, performance on spatial attention tasks improves after rightward-deviating PA (Jacquin-Courtois et al., 2013). In contrast, in healthy subjects, although there is evidence that leftward-deviating PA induces neglect-like performance on some visuospatial tasks, behavioral studies of spatial attention tasks have mostly yielded negative results (Morris et al., 2004; Bultitude et al., 2013). We hypothesized that these negative behavioral findings might reflect the limitations of behavioral measures in healthy subjects. Here we exploited the sensitivity of event-related potentials to test the hypothesis that electrophysiological markers of attentional processes in the healthy human brain are affected by PA. Leftward-deviating PA generated asymmetries in attentional orienting (reflected in the cue-locked N1) and in attentional disengagement for invalidly cued left targets (reflected in the target-locked P1). This is the first electrophysiological demonstration that leftward-deviating PA in healthy subjects mimics attentional patterns typically seen in neglect patients. Significance statement: Prism adaptation (PA) is a promising tool for ameliorating many deficits in neglect patients and inducing neglect-like behavior in healthy subjects. The mechanisms underlying PA's effects are poorly understood but one hypothesis suggests that it acts by modulating attention. To date, however, there has been no successful demonstration of attentional modulation in healthy subjects. We provide the first

  1. Collision of the Tacheng block with the Mayile-Barleik-Tangbale accretionary complex in Western Junggar, NW China: Implication for Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of the western Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Yichao; Windley, Brian F.; Song, Dongfang; Han, Chunming; Safonova, Inna

    2018-06-01

    Western Junggar in NW China, located to the southeast of the Boshchekul-Chingiz (BC) Range and to the north of the Chu-Balkhash-Yili microcontinent (CBY), played a key role in the architectural development of the western Altaids. However, the mutual tectonic relationships have been poorly constrained. In this paper, we present detailed mapping, field structural geology, and geochemical data from the Barleik-Mayile-Tangbale Complex (BMTC) in Western Junggar. The Complex is divisible into Zones I, II and III, which are mainly composed of Cambrian-Silurian rocks. Zone I contains pillow lava, siliceous shale, chert, coral-bearing limestone, sandstone and purple mudstone. Zone II consists of basaltic lava, siliceous shale, chert, sandstone and mudstone. Zone III is characterized by basalt, chert, sandstone and mudstone. These rocks represent imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy, which have been either tectonically juxtaposed by thrusting or form a mélange with a block-in-matrix structure. All these relationships suggest that the BMTC is an Early-Middle Paleozoic accretionary complex in the eastern extension of the BC Range. These Early Paleozoic oceanic rocks were thrust onto Silurian sediments forming imbricate thrust stacks that are unconformably overlain by Devonian limestone, conglomerate and sandstone containing fossils of brachiopoda, crinoidea, bryozoa, and plant stems and leaves. The tectonic vergence of overturned folds in cherts, drag-related curved cleavages and σ-type structures on the main thrust surface suggests top-to-the-NW transport. Moreover, the positive εNd(t) values of volcanic rocks from the Tacan-1 drill-core, and the positive εHf(t) values and post-Cambrian ages of detrital zircons from Silurian and Devonian strata to the south of the Tacheng block indicate that its basement is a depleted and juvenile lithosphere. And there was a radial outward transition from coral-bearing shallow marine (shelf) to deep ocean (pelagic) environments, and from

  2. Convergent margin structure and tectonics of the Java subduction zone (105°E-122°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, H.; Barckhausen, U.; Djajadihardja, Y.; Engels, M.; Flueh, E. R.; Hindle, D. A.; Lueschen, E.; Mueller, C.; Planert, L.; Reichert, C. J.; Shulgin, A. A.; Wittwer, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Java margin is the site of oceanic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate underneath the Indonesian archipelago. Data from a suite of geophysical experiments conducted between 1997-2006 using RV SONNE as platform include seismic and seismological studies, potential field measurements and high-resolution seafloor bathymetry mapping. Tomographic inversions provide an image of the ongoing deformation of the forearc and the deep subsurface. We investigate the role of various key mechanisms that shape the first-order features characterizing the present margin architecture. Our results show a high variability in subduction zone processes along the Java margin, ranging from accretionary subduction to erosive processes to zero-budget mass transfer. These variations are closely linked to changes in character of the incoming plate. Off Western Java (105°E -109°E), near-full accretion of the trench sediment fill is associated with a well-developed accretionary prism fronting a 4 km deep forearc basin. The Central Java segment (109°E -115°E) experiences the collision of an oceanic plateau dotted with numerous seamounts, causing large-scale uplift of the forearc, coupled with erosion of the frontal prism and correlated mass wasting processes. Intense deformation of the forearc basin results from thrusting and compressional forces. In the neighbouring segment farther to the east (115°E-119°E), the lack of significant sediment input to the trench supports the notion that recycling of upper plate material in the forearc sustains the massive outer high observed here adjacent to a mature forearc basin. The incoming oceanic plate of the Argo Abyssal plain is devoid of a sediment drape and the original spreading fabric overprinted by bending-related faulting near the trench shape its morphology. The transition zone from the Java margin to the Banda Arc (119°E-122°E) experiences the early stages of continent-island arc collision associated with the convergence of the

  3. Managing Uncertainties Associated With Radioactive Waste Disposal: Task Group 4 Of The IAEA PRISM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  4. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei

    2017-09-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly < 0). Thus, the elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic data suggest that the felsic magmas were generated by partial melting of source rocks comprising mantle-derived juvenile component and recycled crustal component. In addition to the occurrence in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic belt, Cretaceous to Early Paleogene magmatic rocks are also widespread in NE China, southern Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The

  5. Limestone and chert in tectonic blocks from the Esk Head subterrane, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberling, Norman J.; Nichols, K.M.; Bradshaw, J.D.; Blome, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Esk Head subterrane is a continuous belt, generally 10-20 km wide, of tectonic melange and broken formation on the South Island of New Zealand. This subterrane separates older and younger parts of the Torlesse terrane which is an extensive accretionary prism composed mostly of quartzo-feldspathic, submarine-fan deposits ranging from Permian to Early Cretaceous in age. The Esk Head subterrane of the Torlesse is especially informative because it includes within it conspicuous tectonic blocks of submarine basalt and a variety of basalt-associated seamount and sea-floor limestones and cherty rocks thought to be representative of the subducted plate. Paleogeographic inferences drawn from megafossils, bioclasts, and radiolarians, as well as from carbonate cements, indicate deposition of the oceanic sedimentary rocks at paleolatitudes somewhat lower than that of the New Zealand part of the Gondwana margin, but higher than paleoequatorial latitudes. -Authors

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY OF UKRAINE THROUGH THE PRISM OF MEMORY ON CHERNOBYL DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Perga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the research of individual, collective and historical memory — through the prism of environmental disasters. Although they lead not only to physical but also to mental trauma in modern scientific discourse this aspect has not become a subject of special studies. In the example of Chernobyl disaster traumatic experience of 50 residents of Kiev, who received indirect effects of the accident, is analyzed. It is shown the formation a stable distrust of the authorities of the USSR, which is transferred to the present and entails a negative assessment of the environmental policy of independent Ukraine. Factors, which cause such situation and its relationship with the views of respondents on their future, are established. The conclusion of the feasibility of using the questionnaire method for determining the main trends traumatic impact of environmental disasters on individual memory is done. Directions for further in-depth research in this area are proposed.

  7. Tarzan as a cultural prism: Ideological Associations in Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan of the Apes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Hadi Q. Alseed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available More than any other of Burroughs’ many creations, Tarzan has become a staple of popular culture. The character functions as a cultural prism, in which the concerns, anxieties, desires, and tastes of particular times and places are encapsulated in such a way to make us look at that context in a different perspective. Burroughs’ original Tarzan embodies several of the aspirations, tensions, and failings of the early twentieth-century Unites States. On one hand, the novel refracts a national longing for an unspoiled nature, on another hand, the novel echoes the racism and violence directed at African Americans at this time.

  8. Islamic exorcism and the cinema fist: Analyzing exorcism among Danish Muslims through the prism of film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    In this article I apply film theory as an analytic prism through which to examine the ritual mechanisms of a particular kind of Islamic exorcism (al-ruqya al-sharʿiyya). I show how these exorcisms operate as a ritual montage that conjures the absent presence of al-ghayb—a hidden world of power...... that only God can see in its totality and to which the possessed patients and the jinn spirits must succumb. These exorcisms thus provide healing, not in the sense of immediate “well-being” or “relief from pain” but in the sense of moral witnessing, an opportunity to testify to the limits of human seeing...

  9. Structures within the oceanic crust of the central South China Sea basin and their implications for oceanic accretionary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weiwei; Sun, Zhen; Dadd, Kelsie; Fang, Yinxia; Li, Jiabiao

    2018-04-01

    Internal structures in mature oceanic crust can elucidate understanding of the processes and mechanism of crustal accretion. In this study, we present two multi-channel seismic (MCS) transects across the northern flank of the South China Sea basin to reveal the internal structures related to Cenozoic tectono-magmatic processes during seafloor spreading. Bright reflectors within the oceanic crust, including the Moho, upper crustal reflectors, and lower crustal reflectors, are clearly imaged in these two transects. The Moho reflection displays varied character in continuity, shape and amplitude from the continental slope area to the abyssal basin, and becomes absent in the central part of the basin where abundant seamounts and seamount chains formed after the cessation of seafloor spreading. Dipping reflectors are distinct in most parts of the MCS data but generally confined to the lower crust above the Moho reflection. These lower crustal reflectors merge downward into the Moho without offsetting it, probably arising from shear zones between the crust and mantle characterized by interstitial melt, although we cannot exclude other possibilities such as brittle faulting or magmatic layering in the local area. A notable feature of these lower crustal reflector events is their opposite inclinations. We suggest the two groups of conjugate lower crustal reflector events observed between magnetic anomalies C11 and C8 were associated with two unusual accretionary processes arising from plate reorganizations with southward ridge jumps.

  10. The SpeX Prism Library for Ultracool Dwarfs: A Resource for Stellar, Exoplanet and Galactic Science and Student-Led Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam

    The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility's (IRTF) SpeX spectrograph has been an essential tool in the discovery and characterization of ultracool dwarf (UCD) stars, brown dwarfs and exoplanets. Over ten years of SpeX data have been collected on these sources, and a repository of low-resolution (R 100) SpeX prism spectra has been maintained by the PI at the SpeX Prism Spectral Libraries website since 2008. As the largest existing collection of NIR UCD spectra, this repository has facilitated a broad range of investigations in UCD, exoplanet, Galactic and extragalactic science, contributing to over 100 publications in the past 6 years. However, this repository remains highly incomplete, has not been uniformly calibrated, lacks sufficient contextual data for observations and sources, and most importantly provides no data visualization or analysis tools for the user. To fully realize the scientific potential of these data for community research, we propose a two-year program to (1) calibrate and expand existing repository and archival data, and make it virtual-observatory compliant; (2) serve the data through a searchable web archive with basic visualization tools; and (3) develop and distribute an open-source, Python-based analysis toolkit for users to analyze the data. These resources will be generated through an innovative, student-centered research model, with undergraduate and graduate students building and validating the analysis tools through carefully designed coding challenges and research validation activities. The resulting data archive, the SpeX Prism Library, will be a legacy resource for IRTF and SpeX, and will facilitate numerous investigations using current and future NASA capabilities. These include deep/wide surveys of UCDs to measure Galactic structure and chemical evolution, and probe UCD populations in satellite galaxies (e.g., JWST, WFIRST); characterization of directly imaged exoplanet spectra (e.g., FINESSE), and development of low

  11. Comparison of male and female emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) responses to phoebe oil and (Z)-3-hexanol lures in light green prism traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary G. Grant; Therese M. Poland; Tina Ciaramitaro; D. Barry Lyons; Gene C. Jones

    2011-01-01

    We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Michigan, USA, and Ontario, Canada, to compare unbaited light green sticky prism traps with traps baited with phoebe oil, (Z)-3-hexenol (Z3-6:OH), or blends of other green leaf volatiles (GLVs) with Z3-6:OH. Traps were placed in the...

  12. Presolar silicates in the matrix and fine-grained rims around chondrules in primitive CO3.0 chondrites: Evidence for pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the rims in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenecour, Pierre; Floss, Christine; Zega, Thomas J.; Croat, Thomas K.; Wang, Alian; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Carpenter, Paul

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the origin of fine-grained rims around chondrules (FGRs), we compared presolar grain abundances, elemental compositions and mineralogies in fine-grained interstitial matrix material and individual FGRs in the primitive CO3.0 chondrites Allan Hills A77307, LaPaz Icefield 031117 and Dominion Range 08006. The observation of similar overall O-anomalous (∼155 ppm) and C-anomalous grain abundances (∼40 ppm) in all three CO3.0 chondrites suggests that they all accreted from a nebular reservoir with similar presolar grain abundances. The presence of presolar silicate grains in FGRs combined with the observation of similar estimated porosity between interstitial matrix regions and FGRs in LAP 031117 and ALHA77307, as well as the identification of a composite FGR (a small rimmed chondrule within a larger chondrule rim) in ALHA77307, all provide evidence for a formation of FGRs by accretion of dust grains onto freely-floating chondrules in the solar nebula before their aggregation into their parent body asteroids. Our study also shows systematically lower abundances of presolar silicate grains in the FGRs than in the matrix regions of CO3 chondrites, while the abundances of SiC grains are the same in all areas, within errors. This trend differs from CR2 chondrites in which the presolar silicate abundances are higher in the FGRs than in the matrix, but similar to each other within 2σ errors. This observation combined with the identification of localized (micrometer-scaled) aqueous alteration in a FGR of LAP 031117 suggests that the lower abundance of presolar silicates in FGRs reflects pre-accretionary aqueous alteration of the fine-grained material in the FGRs. This pre-accretionary alteration could be due to either hydration and heating of freely floating rimmed chondrules in icy regions of the solar nebula or melted water ice associated with 26Al-related heating inside precursor planetesimals, followed by aggregation of FGRs into the CO chondrite parent-body.

  13. Frictional properties of relic fore arc metasediments from Kodiak Island, AK: Implications for slip in the upper accretionary prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.; Rabinowitz, H. S.; Saffer, D. M.; Savage, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    The slip behavior of subduction megathrusts is controlled by the mechanical and frictional properties of the material entrained along the plate interface. The shallow reaches of subduction thrusts (i.e. Events (SSE's), tremor, and very low frequency earthquakes (VLFE). However, there remain few detailed experimental studies of relevant fault materials under in situ conditions to probe the connections between rock frictional properties and fault slip behavior. To quantitatively understand the evolution of frictional properties along the upper part of the megathrust, we conducted a suite of shearing experiments at pressures and temperatures similar to in situ conditions, using exhumed subduction zone fault rocks composed of metamorphosed clay-rich sediments from Kodiak Island, Alaska. The metasediments we tested have experienced maximum burial depths ranging from 4-6 to 10-15 km, and peak temperatures ranging from 100-125 to 280 oC, making them ideal analogs for investigating the evolution of friction across the stability transition and into the seismogenic zone. These samples were powdered and sheared in a triaxial deformation apparatus at conditions ranging from 25 MPa and 20 oC, to 195 MPa and 200 oC. Preliminary results at room temperature show steady state friction values of 0.56 and rate strengthening behavior (a-b 0.002) with Dc of 19 mm. Ongoing work is characterizing the frictional properties across the stability transition in greater detail.

  14. Late Cretaceous-recent tectonic assembly of diverse crustal blocks in Central America, the Nicaraguan Rise, the Colombian Basin and northern South America as seen on a 1600-km-long, geologic and structural transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    We have constructed a 1600-km-long transect from northern Honduras to northern Colombia that crosses northeastward-striking crustal blocks using a combination of offshore seismic data, gravity and magnetic data, well subsidence information, nearby outcrop information, and results from previous thermochronological, geochronological, geochemical and paleostress studies. The transect defines three major crustal and structural provinces: 1) Precambrian-Paleozoic, Chortis continental block whose northern edge is defined by the North America-Caribbean plate boundary. Events in this ~20-25-km-thick province include two major unconformities at the top of the Cretaceous and Eocene, associated southeast-dipping thrust faults related to collision of the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) and Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) with the Chortis continental block. A third event is Eocene to recent subsidence and transtensional basins formed during the opening of the Cayman trough; 2) Late Cretaceous GAC and CLIP of oceanic arc and plateau origin, whose northern, deformed edge corresponds to the mapped Siuna belt of northern Nicaragua. This crustal province has a ~15-20-km-thick crust and is largely undeformed and extends across the Lower Nicaraguan Rise, Hess fault, to the southern limit of the Colombian basin where about 300 km of this province has been subducted beneath the accretionary wedge of the South Caribbean deformed belt of northwestern South America; and 3) Eocene to recent accretionary prism and intramontane basins on continental crust of northern South America, where Miocene accelerated exhumation and erosion of Paleogene and Cretaceous rocks reflect either shallow subduction of the CLIP or the Panama collisional event to the southwest.

  15. Potential of a polygonal prism and lamina; Takakuchu men no potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, S

    1996-05-01

    With the use of rectangular coordinates O-XYZ, the potential of a calculation point P is expressed in the form of a triple repeated integral of a density {sigma} at point Q in the mass. The potential at the density {sigma} assumed to be 1 is named the potential of a polygonal prism. Further, a double repeated integral with an integral concerning Z removed from the triple integral is named the potential of polygonal lamina. This potential can be expressed in a quadratic form (linear form) with 2nd order parti