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Sample records for nanjing university china

  1. David Triggle: Research collaborations and scientific exchanges with the China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

    Dai, De-Zai

    2015-11-15

    Over the period 1995-2012, David Triggle was a frequent visitor to the China Pharmaceutical University in Nanjing, China making many important contributions that enhanced the activities of the Research Division of Pharmacology at the University. In addition to providing collegial advice and facilitating interactions with the international pharmacological community, Professor Triggle's international reputation as a thought leader in the field of ion channel research and drug discovery provided important insights into the potential pathophysiological and therapeutic effects of targeting ion channels. This included the L-type calcium channel and the outward delayed rectified potassium currents of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components in the myocardium. The Nanjing research team had been particularly interested in ion channel dysfunction in the context of cardiac arrhythmias, remodeling and drug discovery. With Professor Triggle's assistance, the relationship between an increase in ICa.L and other biological events including an enhancement of IKr and IKr currents, NADPH oxidase and endothelin receptor activation, down regulation of calcium modulating protein FKBP12.6, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPse (SERCA2A) and calsequens 2 (CASQ2), calcium leak at the diastole and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were evaluated and are discussed. Additionally, the organization of several international symposia was greatly enhanced by input from Professor Triggle as were the published research manuscripts in international pharmacology journals. During his association with the China Pharmaceutical University, Professor Triggle aided in enhancing the scientific standing of the Pharmacology department and was a highly effective ambassador for international research cooperation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Modern Christian Landscape in Nanjing, China: A Literature Review

    Cheng Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Between the First Opium War in 1840 and the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the development of modern Christianity in Nanjing expanded beyond the parameters of faith and spirituality, while interacting closely with Nanjing’s city life and space across a wider spectrum, such that a unique religious and cultural landscape was produced. Through an extensive literature review of 115 articles identified on this topic, this paper analyzes the development of the space of Christian churches in Nanjing, and further documents the pattern of interactions between Nanjing’s development as a modern city and its religious cultural landscape. Moreover, drawing from the theoretical perspective of Sense of Place, the paper summarizes the characteristics of religious cultural landscape in the aspects of vision and structure, function and modernization, and memory and identity, and points out that the Christian landscape should also be conducted from the activation of material form, local functions and historical meanings to achieve sustainable development of Christian landscape. Finally, the paper offers planning and design strategies for the continued growth of Christian landscape in Nanjing.

  3. High-Resolution Typing Reveals Distinct Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in an At-Risk Population in Nanjing, China

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This

  4. 6 June 2012 - Chinese Nanjing University President J.Chen in the ATLAS visitor centre with Member of the ATLAS Collaboration I. Wingerter and International Relations Office Adviser E. Tsesmelis. M. Qi, Nanjing University and ATLAS Collaboration, accompanies the delegation.

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    6 June 2012 - Chinese Nanjing University President J.Chen in the ATLAS visitor centre with Member of the ATLAS Collaboration I. Wingerter and International Relations Office Adviser E. Tsesmelis. M. Qi, Nanjing University and ATLAS Collaboration, accompanies the delegation.

  5. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China.

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-03-08

    An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment--the neighborhood form and street form--on residents' active travel. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke's ρ², increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions.

  6. Aerosol optical properties at SORPES in Nanjing, east China

    Shen, Yicheng; Virkkula, Aki; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Jiaping; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Huang, Xin; Liu, Qiang; Zheng, Longfei; Xu, Zheng; Petäjä, Tuukka; Aalto, Pasi P.; Fu, Congbin; Kulmala, Markku

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOPs) and supporting parameters - particle number size distributions, PM2.5 mass concentrations, and the concentrations of trace gases (NOx and NOy) - were measured at SORPES, a regional background station in Nanjing, China from June 2013 to May 2015. The aerosol was highly scattering: the average scattering coefficient was σsp = 403 ± 314 Mm-1, the absorption coefficient σap = 26 ± 19 Mm-1, and the single-scattering albedo SSA = 0.93 ± 0.03 for green light. The SSA in Nanjing appears to be slightly higher than published values from several other sites in China and elsewhere. The average Ångström exponent of absorption (AAE) for the wavelength range 370-950 nm was 1.04 and the AAE range was 0.7-1.4. These AAE values can be explained with different amounts of non-absorbing coating on pure black carbon (BC) cores and different core sizes rather than contribution by brown carbon. The AOPs had typical seasonal cycles with high σsp and σap in winter and low ones in summer: the averages were σsp = 544 ± 422 and σap = 36 ± 24 Mm-1 in winter and σsp = 342 ± 281 and σap = 20 ± 13 Mm-1 in summer. The intensive AOPs had no clear seasonal cycles, the variations in them were rather related to the evolution of pollution episodes. The diurnal cycles of the intensive AOPs were clear and in agreement with the cycle of the particle number size distribution. The diurnal cycle of SSA was similar to that of the air photochemical age, suggesting that the darkest aerosol originated from fresh traffic emissions. A Lagrangian retroplume analysis showed that the potential source areas of high σsp and σap are mainly in eastern China. Synoptic weather phenomena dominated the cycle of AOPs on a temporal scale of 3-7 days. During pollution episodes, modeled boundary layer height decreased, whereas PM2.5 concentrations and σsp and σap typically increased gradually and remained high during several days but decreased faster, sometimes by even more

  7. Parental, Behavioral, and Psychological Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nanjing, China

    Li, Xiaoming; Mao, Rong; Stanton, Bonita; Zhao, Qun

    2010-01-01

    We designed this study to assess parental, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with tobacco use among Chinese adolescents. The data were collected from 995 middle school students in Nanjing, China. Both smoking experimentation and current smoking (smoking in the past 30 days) were assessed among the study sample. Psychosocial measures…

  8. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs : Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the a...

  9. Genotyping and pathobiologic characterization of canine parvovirus circulating in Nanjing, China.

    Zhao, Yanbing; Lin, Yan; Zeng, Xujian; Lu, Chengping; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-08-29

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen that causes acute enteric disease in dogs. It has mutated and spread throughout the world in dog populations. We provide an update on the molecular characterization of CPV that circulated in Nanjing, a provincial capital in China between 2009 and 2012. Seventy rectal swab samples were collected from the dogs diagnosed with CPV infection in 8 animal hospitals of Nanjing. Sequence analysis of VP2 genes of 31 samples revealed that 29 viral strains belonged to CPV-2a subtype, while other two strains were classified into CPV-2b. To investigate the pathogenicity of the prevalent virus, we isolated CPV-2a and performed the animal experiment. Nine beagles were inoculated with 105.86 of 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the virus. All the experimentally infected beagles exhibited mild to moderate mucoid or watery diarrhea on day 4 post-infection (p.i.). On day 9 p.i., characteristic histopathological lesions were clearly observed in multiple organs of infected dogs, including liver, spleen, kidney, brain and all segments of the small and large intestines, while viral DNA and antigen staining could be detected in the sampled tissues. It is notable that canine parvovirus was isolated in one from two brain samples processed. Our results indicated that CPV-2a is the predominant subtype in Nanjing of China. And this virus caused extensive lesions in a variety of tissues, including the brain.

  10. The benchmarks of carbon emissions and policy implications for China's cities: Case of Nanjing

    Bi Jun; Zhang Rongrong; Wang Haikun; Liu Miaomiao; Wu Yi

    2011-01-01

    The development of urbanization is accelerating in China, and there are great pressures and opportunities in cities to reduce carbon emissions. An emissions inventory is a basic requirement for analyzing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), their potential reduction and to realize low-carbon development of cities. This study describes a method to establish a GHGs emissions inventory in Chinese cities for 6 emission sources including industrial energy consumption, transportation, household energy consumption, commercial energy consumption, industrial processes and waste. Nanjing city was selected as a representative case to analyze the characteristics of carbon emissions in Chinese cities. The results show that carbon emissions in Nanjing have increased nearly 50% during the last decade. The three largest GHGs contributors were industrial energy consumption, industrial processes and transportation, which contributed 37-44%, 35-40% and 6-10%, respectively, to the total GHGs emissions. Per GDP carbon emissions decreased by 55% from 2002 to 2009, and the per capita and per GDP carbon emissions were comparable or even lower than the world average levels. These results have important policy implications for Chinese cities to control their carbon emissions. - Highlights: → Carbon emissions inventory using bottom-up methodology was firstly reported for a Chinese city. → Emission characteristics of Nanjing city were compared with other international cities. → Low carbon policies for Chinese cities were recommended based on the results of this research.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of canine distemper virus in domestic dogs in Nanjing, China.

    Bi, Zhenwei; Wang, Yongshan; Wang, Xiaoli; Xia, Xingxia

    2015-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infects a broad range of carnivores, including wild and domestic Canidae. The hemagglutinin gene, which encodes the attachment protein that determines viral tropism, has been widely used to determine the relationship between CDV strains of different lineages circulating worldwide. We determined the full-length H gene sequences of seven CDV field strains detected in domestic dogs in Nanjing, China. A phylogenetic analysis of the H gene sequences of CDV strains from different geographic regions and vaccine strains was performed. Four of the seven CDV strains were grouped in the same cluster of the Asia-1 lineage to which the vast majority of Chinese CDV strains belong, whereas the other three were clustered within the Asia-4 lineage, which has never been detected in China. This represents the first record of detection of strains of the Asia-4 lineage in China since this lineage was reported in Thailand in 2013.

  12. Sources and Dynamic Processes Controlling Background and Peak Concentrations of TGM in Nanjing, China

    Casey B. Hall

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Total gaseous mercury (TGM data from urban Nanjing, at the western edge of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region in China, over nine months, were analyzed for peak and background mercury concentrations. The background concentration of TGM was found to be 2.2 ng∙m−3. In examining episodic influences of free tropospheric air masses on the surface TGM concentrations in Nanjing, we hypothesize heterogeneity in the global distribution of TGM concentrations in the free troposphere. The nine-month averaged diurnal cycles of TGM indicate a strong co-emission with SO2 and an underestimation of greater than 80% TGM emissions in current inventories. Regular peak concentrations of mercury were investigated and the major causes were YRD emissions, transport from rural areas, and monsoonal transport. Transport of rural emissions is hypothesized to be from illegal artisanal small-scale gold mining that are currently missing in the emission inventories. Enhancement of TGM associated with summer monsoon contributed to a maximum TGM concentration in mid-May–early June, an inverse seasonality in comparison to most other observations in China, North America, and Europe.

  13. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on Jinling Petrochemical Corporation, China. Energy conservation project for Nanjing Refinery

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, the basic survey was conducted on potential energy conservation at Nanjing Refinery, Jiangsu Nanjing city, China. Investigational studies were made on the repair of the power recovery system in line with the plan to enlarge the fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and the power recovery using exhaust gas from the RFCC catalytic regeneration system. Moreover, the energy conservation technology to reduce power loads of the refining system was adopted to this project. As a result, it was found out that this repair plan makes recovery of the power equivalent to 10.6MW possible and produces the effect of reducing the fuel to be used. The realization of this project brings the CO2 reduction amount of approximately 70,000 t/y. It was also found out that this project not only reduces a large amount of greenhouse effect gas emissions, but contributes to profits of the plant concerned and helps improve the environment in the area concerned. For the implementation of this project, the detailed plan is expected to be further discussed. (NEDO)

  14. Estimation of social value of statistical life using willingness-to-pay method in Nanjing, China.

    Yang, Zhao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Rational decision making regarding the safety related investment programs greatly depends on the economic valuation of traffic crashes. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the social value of statistical life in the city of Nanjing in China. A stated preference survey was conducted to investigate travelers' willingness to pay for traffic risk reduction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at stations, shopping centers, schools, and parks in different districts in the urban area of Nanjing. The respondents were categorized into two groups, including motorists and non-motorists. Both the binary logit model and mixed logit model were developed for the two groups of people. The results revealed that the mixed logit model is superior to the fixed coefficient binary logit model. The factors that significantly affect people's willingness to pay for risk reduction include income, education, gender, age, drive age (for motorists), occupation, whether the charged fees were used to improve private vehicle equipment (for motorists), reduction in fatality rate, and change in travel cost. The Monte Carlo simulation method was used to generate the distribution of value of statistical life (VSL). Based on the mixed logit model, the VSL had a mean value of 3,729,493 RMB ($586,610) with a standard deviation of 2,181,592 RMB ($343,142) for motorists; and a mean of 3,281,283 RMB ($505,318) with a standard deviation of 2,376,975 RMB ($366,054) for non-motorists. Using the tax system to illustrate the contribution of different income groups to social funds, the social value of statistical life was estimated. The average social value of statistical life was found to be 7,184,406 RMB ($1,130,032). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human migration activities drive the fluctuation of ARGs: Case study of landfills in Nanjing, eastern China.

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Schwab, Arthur P; Li, Xu; Wan, Jinzhong; Wei, Zhong; Wu, Jun; Friman, Ville-Petri; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin

    2016-09-05

    Landfills are perfect sites to study the effect of human migration on fluctuation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as they are the final destination of municipal waste. For example, large-scale human migration during the holidays is often accompanied by changes in waste dumping having potential effects on ARG abundance. Three landfills were selected to examine fluctuation in the abundance of fifteen ARGs and Intl1 genes for 14 months in Nanjing, eastern China. Mass human migration, the amount of dumped waste and temperature exerted the most significant effects on bimonthly fluctuations of ARG levels in landfill sites. As a middle-sized cosmopolitan city in China, millions of college students and workers migrate during holidays, contributing to the dramatic increases in waste production and fluctuation in ARG abundances. In line with this, mass migration explained most of the variation in waste dumping. The waste dumping also affected the bioaccessibility of mixed-compound pollutants that further positively impacted the level of ARGs. The influence of various bioaccessible compounds on ARG abundance followed the order: antibiotics>nutrients>metals>organic pollutants. Concentrations of bioaccessible compounds were more strongly correlated with ARG levels compared to total compound concentrations. Improved waste classification and management strategies could thus help to decrease the amount of bioaccessible pollutants leading to more effective control for urban ARG dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical compositions, sources and evolution processes of the submicron aerosols in Nanjing, China during wintertime

    Wu, Y.; He, Y.; Ge, X.; Wang, J.; Yu, H.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric particulate matter pollution is one of the most significant environmental issues in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Thus it is important to unravel the characteristics, sources and evolution processes of the ambient aerosols in order to improve the air quality. In this study, we report the real-time monitoring results on submicron aerosol particles (PM1) in suburban Nanjing during wintertime of 2015, using an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). This instrument allows the fast measurement of refractory black carbon simultaneously with other aerosol components. Results show that organics was on average the most abundant species of PM1 (25.9%), but other inorganic species, such as nitrate (23.7%) and sulfate (23.3%) also comprised large mass fractions. As the sampling site is heavily influenced by various sources including industrial, traffic and other anthropogenic emissions, etc., six organic aerosol (OA) factors were identified from Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the SP-AMS OA mass spectra. These factors include three primary OA factors - a hydrocarbon-like OA, an industry-related OA (IOA) and a cooking OA (COA), and three secondary OA factors, i.e., a local OOA (LSOA), a semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA). Overall, the primary organic aerosol (POA) (HOA, IOA and COA) dominated the total OA mass. Behaviors and evolution processes of these OA factors will be discussed in combining with the other supporting data.

  17. Nanjing 1937

    Harmsen, Peter

    An historical account of the month-long Nanjing campaign at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War which culminated in the Japanese occupation of the Chinese capital......An historical account of the month-long Nanjing campaign at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War which culminated in the Japanese occupation of the Chinese capital...

  18. Report on the 10th anniversary of international drug discovery science and technology conference, 8 - 10 november 2012, nanjing, china.

    Everett, Jeremy R

    2013-03-01

    The 10th Anniversary of International Drug Discovery Science and Technology (IDDST) Conference was held in Nanjing, China from 8 to 10 November 2012. The conference ran in parallel with the 2nd Annual Symposium of Drug Delivery Systems. Over 400 delegates from both conferences came together for the Opening Ceremony and Keynote Addresses but otherwise pursued separate paths in the huge facilities of the Nanjing International Expo Centre. The IDDST was arranged into 19 separate Chapters covering drug discovery biology, target validation, chemistry, rational drug design, pharmacology and toxicology, drug screening technology, 'omics' technologies, analytical, automation and enabling technologies, informatics, stem cells and regenerative medicine, bioprocessing, generics, biosimilars and biologicals and seven disease areas: cancer, CNS, respiratory and inflammation, autoimmune, emerging infectious, bone and orphan diseases. There were also two sessions of a 'Bench to Bedside to Business' Program and a Chinese Scientist programme. In each period of the IDDST conference, up to seven sessions were running in parallel. This Meeting Highlight samples just a fraction of the content of this large meeting. The talks included have as a link, the use of new approaches to drug discovery. Many other excellent talks could have been highlighted and the author has necessarily had to be selective.

  19. Feasibility of recruiting a diverse sample of men who have sex with men: observation from Nanjing, China.

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available Respondent-driven-sampling (RDS has well been recognized as a method for sampling from most hard-to-reach populations like commercial sex workers, drug users and men who have sex with men. However the feasibility of this sampling strategy in terms of recruiting a diverse spectrum of these hidden populations has not been understood well yet in developing countries.In a cross sectional study in Nanjing city of Jiangsu province of China, 430 MSM were recruited including 9 seeds in 14 weeks of study period using RDS. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual risk behavior were collected and testing was done for HIV and syphilis. Duration, completion, participant characteristics and the equilibrium of key factors were used for assessing feasibility of RDS. Homophily of key variables, socio-demographic distribution and social network size were used as the indicators of diversity.In the study sample, adjusted HIV and syphilis prevalence were 6.6% and 14.6% respectively. Majority (96.3% of the participants were recruited by members of their own social network. Although there was a tendency for recruitment within the same self-identified group (homosexuals recruited 60.0% homosexuals, considerable cross-group recruitment (bisexuals recruited 52.3% homosexuals was also seen. Homophily of the self-identified sexual orientations was 0.111 for homosexuals. Upon completion of the recruitment process, participant characteristics and the equilibrium of key factors indicated that RDS was feasible for sampling MSM in Nanjing. Participants recruited by RDS were found to be diverse after assessing the homophily of key variables in successive waves of recruitment, the proportion of characteristics after reaching equilibrium and the social network size. The observed design effects were nearly the same or even better than the theoretical design effect of 2.RDS was found to be an efficient and feasible sampling method for recruiting a diverse

  20. Landscape Optimization in a Highly Urbanized Tourism Destination: An Integrated Approach in Nanjing, China

    Lingling Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Planning and developing urban tourism destinations must encompass landscape optimization to achieve healthy urban ecosystems, as well as for evolution sustainability. This study explored sustainable landscape planning by examining the optimization of landscape spatial distribution in an urban tourism destination–Nanjing, China—using an integrated approach that included remote sensing (RS, geographic information system (GIS, and landscape metrics in the context of an urban tourism destination evolution model. Least-cost modeling in GIS was also used to optimize decision-making from an ecological perspective. The results indicated that landscapes were more homogenous, fragmented, and less connected. Except for the eastern area, the landscape evolution showed characteristics of both degeneration and growth. A complete greenway network including sources, greenways, and nodes were constructed, and an increase in natural landscapes was strongly recommended. The findings provide geographic insights for sustainable urban tourism planning and development via comprehensive methodological applications.

  1. Super Rice Cropping Will Enhance Rice Yield and Reduce CH4 Emission: A Case Study in Nanjing, China

    Yu JIANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was performed to learn the differences in plant productivity and CH4 emission between two rice cultivars, super rice variety Ningjing 1 and traditional variety Zhendao 11, which were currently commercially applied in Nanjing, China. Similar seasonal changes of CH4 emission fluxes and soil solution CH4 contents were found between the tested cultivars. Although there was no significant difference in plant biomass production between the cultivars, the grain yield of Ningjing 1 was significantly higher by 35.0% (P < 0.05 than that of Zhendao 11, whereas the total CH4 emission from Ningjing 1 was 35.2% lower (P < 0.05. The main difference in the amounts of CH4 emission between the cultivars occurred in the period from the tillering stage to the heading stage. The biomass-scaled and yield-scaled CH4 emissions were respectively 3.8 and 5.2 mg/g for Ningjing 1, significantly lower than those for Zhendao 11 (7.4 and 12.8 mg/g, respectively. According to the relationships between the plant growth characteristics and the CH4 emission, a stronger root system contributed mainly to the lower CH4 emission of Ningjing 1, as compared with Zhendao 11. Our results demonstrated that super rice has advantages not only in grain productivity but also in CH4 emission mitigation. Further expansion of super rice cropping will enhance rice yield and reduce greenhouse gas emission in China.

  2. Ecological and human health risks from metal(loid)s in peri-urban soil in Nanjing, China.

    Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the ecological and human health risks of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, and As) in peri-urban soils, 43 surface soil samples were collected from the peri-urban area around Nanjing, a megacity in China. The average contents were 1.19, 67.8, 37.6, 105, 167, 44.6, 722, and 50.8 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and As, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As (p urban soil samples. Potential ecological risk indices show that the metal(loid)s in the soil could result in higher ecological risks. Cd is the main contributor to the risk, followed by As. The levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As in stomach and intestinal phases show a positive linear correlation with their total contents. Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in stomach phase showed higher bioaccessibility, while in intestinal phase, Cu, Cr, and As had the higher bioaccessibility. The carcinogenic risk in children and adults posed by As, Pb, and Cr via ingestion was deemed acceptable. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by these metal(loid)s via ingestion to children are higher than to adults and mainly result from As.

  3. Year-round atmospheric wet and dry deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on water and land surfaces in Nanjing, China.

    Sun, Liying; Li, Bo; Ma, Yuchun; Wang, Jinyang; Xiong, Zhengqin

    2013-06-01

    The dry deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus (TP) to both water (DW) and land (DD) surfaces, along with wet deposition, were simultaneously monitored from March 2009 to February 2011 in Nanjing, China. Results showed that wet deposition of total phosphorus was 1.1 kg phosphorus ha (-1)yr(-1), and inorganic nitrogen was 28.7 kg nitrogen ha (-1)yr(-1), with 43% being ammonium nitrogen. Dry deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus, measured by the DW/DD method, was 7.5/2.2 kg nitrogen ha (-1)yr(-1), 6.3/ 4.9 kg nitrogen ha (-1)yr(-1), and 1.9/0.4 kg phosphorus ha (-1)yr(-1), respectively. Significant differences between the DW and DD methods indicated that both methods should be employed simultaneously when analyzing deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in watershed areas. The dry deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus contributed 38%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, to the total deposition in the simulated aquatic ecosystem; this has significance for the field of water eutrophication control.

  4. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  5. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  6. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China

    Liu, Enfeng, E-mail: efliu@niglas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Ting [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Birch, Gavin [School of Geosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhu, Yuxin [State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n = 99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2–23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca > Cu > Pb ≈ Zn > Cr ≈ Fe > Ni ≈ Ba > Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children. - Highlights: • Pollution and

  7. Awareness of knowledge and practice regarding physical activity: A population-based prospective, observational study among students in Nanjing, China.

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA promotion has proven effectiveness in preventing childhood obesity. Increasing children's health knowledge is the most frequently used approach in PA intervention programs targeting childhood obesity prevention. However, little is known about the specific association between the change in a child's knowledge awareness and their PA practice.A one-year follow-up study was conducted among primary and junior high school students in Nanjing, China. At baseline students' knowledge of healthy behavior, and their PA levels, were assessed. Students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity were followed for one academic year. After nine-months their knowledge and PA levels were re-measured using the same validated questionnaire. Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate the relationship between awareness of knowledge about the link between PA and obesity and PA changes.Of the 1899 students who were unaware of the association between PA and obesity at baseline, 1859 (follow-up rate = 97.9% were successfully followed-up. After nine months 1318 (70.9% participants had become aware of PA-obesity association. Compared to their counterparts who remained unaware, students who became aware of the PA-obesity association were more likely to increase both the frequency (odds ratio (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.64 and duration (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.65 of PA, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables.Becoming aware of the known link between PA and obesity led to positive behavior modification regarding PA in this cohort of Chinese students. This is of particular importance that knowledge disimination and health education may be a useful approach for population-based physical activity promotion aiming at childhood obesity prevention in China.

  8. Acute effects of PM2.5 on lung function parameters in schoolchildren in Nanjing, China: a panel study.

    Xu, Dandan; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Lian; Li, Tiantian

    2018-03-17

    The association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and reduced lung function parameters has been reported in many works. However, few studies have been conducted in developing countries with high levels of air pollution like China, and little attention has been paid to the acute effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on lung function. The study design consisted of a panel comprising 86 children from the same school in Nanjing, China. Four measurements of lung function were performed. A mixed-effects regression model with study participant as a random effect was used to investigate the relationship between PM 2.5 and lung function. An increase in the current day, 1-day and 2-day moving average PM 2.5 concentration was associated with decreases in lung function indicators. The greatest effect of PM 2.5 on lung function was detected at 1-day moving average PM 2.5 exposure. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in the 1-day moving average PM 2.5 concentration was associated with a 23.22 mL decrease (95% CI: 13.19, 33.25) in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), a 18.93 mL decrease (95% CI: 9.34, 28.52) in 1-s Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV 1 ), a 29.38 mL/s decrease (95% CI: -0.40, 59.15) in Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF), and a 27.21 mL/s decrease (95% CI: 8.38, 46.04) in forced expiratory flow 25-75% (FEF 25-75% ). The effects of PM 2.5 on lung function had significant lag effects. After an air pollution event, the health effects last for several days and we still need to pay attention to health protection.

  9. Effects of black carbon and boundary layer interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing, China

    Gao, Jinhui; Zhu, Bin; Xiao, Hui; Kang, Hanqing; Pan, Chen; Wang, Dongdong; Wang, Honglei

    2018-05-01

    As an important solar radiation absorbing aerosol, the effect of black carbon (BC) on surface ozone, via reducing photolysis rate, has been widely discussed by offline model studies. However, BC-boundary layer (BL) interactions also influence surface ozone. Using the online model simulations and process analysis, we demonstrate the significant impact of BC-BL interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing. The absorbing effect of BC heats the air above the BL and suppresses and delays the development of the BL, which eventually leads to a change in surface ozone via a change in the contributions from chemical and physical processes (photochemistry, vertical mixing and advection). For chemical processes, the suppression of the BL leads to large amounts of ozone precursors being confined below the BL which has an increased effect on ozone chemical production and offsets the decrease caused by the reduction of the photolysis rate, thus enhancing ozone chemical formation from 10:00 to 12:00 LT. Furthermore, changes in physical processes, especially the vertical mixing process, show a more significant influence on surface ozone. The weakened turbulence, caused by the suppressed BL, entrains much less ozone aloft down to the surface. Finally, summing-up the changes in the processes, surface ozone reduces before noon and the maximum reduction reaches 16.4 ppb at 12:00 LT. In the afternoon, the changes in chemical process are small which inconspicuously influence surface ozone. However, change in the vertical mixing process still influences surface ozone significantly. Due to the delayed development of the BL, there are obvious ozone gradients around the top of BL. Therefore, high concentrations of ozone aloft can still be entrained down to the surface which offsets the reduction of surface ozone. Comparing the changes in the processes, the change in vertical mixing plays the most important role in impacting surface ozone. Our results highlight the great impacts BC

  10. Effects of black carbon and boundary layer interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing, China

    J. Gao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As an important solar radiation absorbing aerosol, the effect of black carbon (BC on surface ozone, via reducing photolysis rate, has been widely discussed by offline model studies. However, BC–boundary layer (BL interactions also influence surface ozone. Using the online model simulations and process analysis, we demonstrate the significant impact of BC–BL interaction on surface ozone in Nanjing. The absorbing effect of BC heats the air above the BL and suppresses and delays the development of the BL, which eventually leads to a change in surface ozone via a change in the contributions from chemical and physical processes (photochemistry, vertical mixing and advection. For chemical processes, the suppression of the BL leads to large amounts of ozone precursors being confined below the BL which has an increased effect on ozone chemical production and offsets the decrease caused by the reduction of the photolysis rate, thus enhancing ozone chemical formation from 10:00 to 12:00 LT. Furthermore, changes in physical processes, especially the vertical mixing process, show a more significant influence on surface ozone. The weakened turbulence, caused by the suppressed BL, entrains much less ozone aloft down to the surface. Finally, summing-up the changes in the processes, surface ozone reduces before noon and the maximum reduction reaches 16.4 ppb at 12:00 LT. In the afternoon, the changes in chemical process are small which inconspicuously influence surface ozone. However, change in the vertical mixing process still influences surface ozone significantly. Due to the delayed development of the BL, there are obvious ozone gradients around the top of BL. Therefore, high concentrations of ozone aloft can still be entrained down to the surface which offsets the reduction of surface ozone. Comparing the changes in the processes, the change in vertical mixing plays the most important role in impacting surface ozone. Our results highlight the

  11. Predicting the outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Nanjing, China: a time-series model based on weather variability

    Liu, Sijun; Chen, Jiaping; Wang, Jianming; Wu, Zhuchao; Wu, Weihua; Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Xu, Fei; Tong, Shilu; Shen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health issue in China and an accurate prediction of epidemic can improve the effectiveness of HFMD control. This study aims to develop a weather-based forecasting model for HFMD using the information on climatic variables and HFMD surveillance in Nanjing, China. Daily data on HFMD cases and meteorological variables between 2010 and 2015 were acquired from the Nanjing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, respectively. A multivariate seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was developed and validated by dividing HFMD infection data into two datasets: the data from 2010 to 2013 were used to construct a model and those from 2014 to 2015 were used to validate it. Moreover, we used weekly prediction for the data between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2015 and leave-1-week-out prediction was used to validate the performance of model prediction. SARIMA (2,0,0)52 associated with the average temperature at lag of 1 week appeared to be the best model (R 2 = 0.936, BIC = 8.465), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. In the validation of the constructed model, the predicted values matched the observed values reasonably well between 2014 and 2015. There was a high agreement rate between the predicted values and the observed values (sensitivity 80%, specificity 96.63%). This study suggests that the SARIMA model with average temperature could be used as an important tool for early detection and prediction of HFMD outbreaks in Nanjing, China.

  12. Factors associated with loss-to-follow-up during behavioral interventions and HIV testing cohort among men who have sex with men in Nanjing, China.

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available Behavioral interventions (BIs remained the cornerstone of HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. One of the major concerns for such efforts is the loss-to-follow-up (LTFU that threatens almost every HIV control program involving high-risk population groups.To evaluate the factors associated with LTFU during BIs and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM, 410 HIV sero-negatives MSM were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS in Nanjing, China during 2008, they were further followed for 18 months. At baseline and each follow-up visits, each participant was counseled about various HIV risk-reductions BIs at a designated sexually transmitted infection (STI clinic.Among 410 participants recruited at baseline, altogether 221 (53.9% were LTFU at the 18-month follow-up visit. Overall, 46 participants were found to be positive for syphilis infection at baseline while 13 participants were HIV sero-converted during the follow-up period. Increasing age was less (Adjusted Odds Ratio(aOR of 0.90, 95% confidence Interval (CI 0.86-0.94 and official residency of provinces other than Nanjing (AOR of 2.49, 95%CI 1.32-4.71, lower level of education (AOR of 2.01, 95%CI 1.10-3.66 and small social network size (AOR of 1.75, 95%CI 1.09-2.80 were more likely to be associated with higher odds of LTFU.To improve retention in the programs for HIV control, counseling and testing among MSM in Nanjing, focused intensified intervention targeting those who were more likely to be LTFU, especially the young, less educated, unofficial residents of Nanjing who had smaller social network size, might be helpful.

  13. Factors Associated with Loss-to-Follow-Up during Behavioral Interventions and HIV Testing Cohort among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nanjing, China

    Tang, Weiming; Huan, Xiping; Zhang, Ye; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Li, Jianjun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Yan, Hongjing; Fu, Gengfeng; Zhao, Jinkou; Gu, Chenghua; Detels, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions (BIs) remained the cornerstone of HIV prevention in resource-limited settings. One of the major concerns for such efforts is the loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) that threatens almost every HIV control program involving high-risk population groups. Methods To evaluate the factors associated with LTFU during BIs and HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM), 410 HIV sero-negatives MSM were recruited using respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Nanjing, China during 2008, they were further followed for 18 months. At baseline and each follow-up visits, each participant was counseled about various HIV risk-reductions BIs at a designated sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Results Among 410 participants recruited at baseline, altogether 221 (53.9%) were LTFU at the 18-month follow-up visit. Overall, 46 participants were found to be positive for syphilis infection at baseline while 13 participants were HIV sero-converted during the follow-up period. Increasing age was less (Adjusted Odds Ratio(aOR) of 0.90, 95% confidence Interval (CI) 0.86–0.94) and official residency of provinces other than Nanjing (AOR of 2.49, 95%CI 1.32–4.71), lower level of education (AOR of 2.01, 95%CI 1.10–3.66) and small social network size (AOR of 1.75, 95%CI 1.09–2.80) were more likely to be associated with higher odds of LTFU. Conclusion To improve retention in the programs for HIV control, counseling and testing among MSM in Nanjing, focused intensified intervention targeting those who were more likely to be LTFU, especially the young, less educated, unofficial residents of Nanjing who had smaller social network size, might be helpful. PMID:25559678

  14. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China.

    Wang, Wei; Xiao, Chenchang; Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17) to have had suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early screening

  15. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China.

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China.An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were computed.In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147 of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62-4.51, perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17-3.32, and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08-3.20 and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06-8.16 were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11-7.17 to have had suicidal ideation.Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, early

  16. Psychosocial health and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS: A cross-sectional study in Nanjing, China

    Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious cause of mortality worldwide and is considered as a psychiatric emergency. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed the prevalence and verified the syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions on suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from July to August 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-report questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics, infection status, psychosocial variables and suicide ideation reports of participants were collected. Logistic regressions were used to identify potential factors associated with suicidal ideation and to verify the syndemic effect of psychosocial factors. Additionally, odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. Results In total, four hundred sixty-five PLWHA participated, 31.6% (n = 147) of whom had suicidal ideation. The results from univariate analysis showed that older age, low education level, being married, having children, and psychosocial variables (high perceived stigma, depression, low self-esteem, social support and resilience) were significantly associated with increased suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that depression (OR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.62–4.51), perceived stigma (OR = 1.97, 95%CI = 1.17–3.32), and low social support (OR = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.08–3.20) and self-esteem (OR = 4.11, 95%CI = 2.06–8.16) were statistically significant. PLWHA with at least two psychosocial health problems were nearly 5 times more likely (OR = 4.72, 95% CI 3.11–7.17) to have had suicidal ideation. Conclusions Suicidal ideation is frequent among PLWHA in China and is consistent with prevalence estimates from abroad. Psychosocial health problems were the determining factors associated with suicidal ideation, and a syndemic effect of psychosocial health conditions was confirmed in

  17. The Impact of Green Space Layouts on Microclimate and Air Quality in Residential Districts of Nanjing, China

    Liyan Rui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study numerically investigates the influence of different vegetation types and layouts on microclimate and air quality in residential districts based on the morphology and green layout of Nanjing, China. Simulations were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics and the microclimate model ENVI-met. Four green indices, i.e., the green cover ratio, the grass and shrub cover ratio, the ecological landscaping plot ratio and the landscaping isolation index, were combined to evaluate thermal and wind fields, as well as air quality in district models. Results show that under the same green cover ratio (i.e., the same quantity of all types of vegetation, the reduction of grass and shrub cover ratio (i.e., the quantity of grass and shrubs, replaced by trees, has an impact, even though small, on thermal comfort, wind speed and air pollution, and increases the leisure space for occupants. When trees are present, a low ecological landscaping plot ratio (which expresses the weight of carbon dioxide absorption and is larger in the presence of trees is preferable due to a lower blocking effect on wind and pollutant dispersion. In conjunction with a low landscaping plot ratio, a high landscaping isolation index (which means a distributed structure of vegetation enhances the capability of local cooling and the general thermal comfort, decreasing the average temperature up to about 0.5 °C and the average predicted mean vote (PMV up to about 20% compared with the non-green scenario. This paper shows that the relationship vegetation-microclimate-air quality should be analyzed taking into account not only the total area covered by vegetation but also its layout and degree of aggregation.

  18. Model analysis of urbanization impacts on boundary layer meteorology under hot weather conditions: a case study of Nanjing, China

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Meigen; Wang, Yongwei

    2016-08-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, configured with a single-layer urban canopy model, was employed to investigate the influence of urbanization on boundary layer meteorological parameters during a long-lasting heat wave. This study was conducted over Nanjing city, East China, from 26 July to 4 August 2010. The impacts of urban expansion and anthropogenic heat (AH) release were simulated to quantify their effects on 2-m temperature, 2-m water vapor mixing ratio, and 10-m wind speed and heat stress index. Urban sprawl increased the daily 2-m temperature in urbanized areas by around 1.6 °C and decreased the urban diurnal temperature range (DTR) by 1.24 °C. The contribution of AH release to the atmospheric warming was nearly 22 %, but AH had little influence on the DTR. The urban regional mean surface wind speed decreased by about 0.4 m s-1, and this decrease was successfully simulated from the surface to 300 m. The influence of urbanization on 2-m water vapor mixing ratio was significant over highly urbanized areas with a decrease of 1.1-1.8 g kg-1. With increased urbanization ratio, the duration of the inversion layer was about 4 h shorter, and the lower atmospheric layer was less stable. Urban heat island (UHI) intensity was significantly enhanced when synthesizing both urban sprawl and AH release and the daily mean UHI intensity increased by 0.74 °C. Urbanization increased the time under extreme heat stress (about 40 %) and worsened the living environment in urban areas.

  19. Pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a new urban district of Nanjing, China.

    Wang, Tao; Xia, Zhonghuan; Wu, Minmin; Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Shiqi; Yin, Jing; Zhou, Yanchi; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-01

    This paper focused on the pollution characteristics, sources and lung cancer risk of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a new urban district of Nanjing, China. Gaseous and aerosol PM 2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5μm) samples were collected in spring of 2015. Sixteen PAHs were extracted and analyzed after sampling. Firstly, arithmetic mean concentrations of PAHs and BaP eq (benzo[a]pyrene equivalent) were calculated. The mean concentrations of PAHs were 29.26±14.13, 18.14±5.37 and 48.47±16.03ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. The mean concentrations of BaP eq were 0.87±0.51, 2.71±2.17 and 4.06±2.31ng/m 3 in gas phase, particle phase and both phases, respectively. Secondly, diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were adopted to identify the sources of PAHs and the outcomes were the same: traffic exhaust was the predominant source followed by fuel combustion and industrial process. Finally, incremental lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure to PAHs for population groups of different age and gender were estimated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. ILCR values caused by particle phase PAHs were greater than those caused by gas phase PAHs. ILCR values for adults were greater than those for other age groups. ILCR values caused by total (gas+particle) PAHs for diverse groups were all greater than the significant level (l0 -6 ), indicating high potential lung cancer risk. Sensitivity analysis results showed that cancer slope factor for BaP inhalation exposure and BaP eq concentration had greater impact than body weight and inhalation rate on the ILCR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Impacts of emission reduction and meteorological conditions on air quality improvement during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China

    Q. Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As the holding city of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games (YOG, Nanjing is highly industrialized and urbanized, and faces several air pollution issues. In order to ensure better air quality during the event, the local government took great efforts to control the emissions from pollutant sources. However, air quality can still be affected by synoptic weather, not only emission. In this paper, the influences of meteorological factors and emission reductions were investigated using observational data and numerical simulations with WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting – Community Multiscale Air Quality. During the month in which the YOG were held (August 2014, the observed hourly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 were 11.6 µg m−3, 34.0 µg m−3, 57.8 µg m−3, 39.4 µg m−3, 0.9 mg m−3 and 38.8 µg m−3, respectively, which were below China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (level 2. However, model simulation showed that the weather conditions, such as weaker winds during the YOG, were adverse for better air quality and could increase SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO by 17.5, 16.9, 18.5, 18.8, 7.8 and 0.8 %. Taking account of local emission abatement only, the simulated SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO decreased by 24.6, 12.1, 15.1, 8.1 and 7.2 %. Consequently, stringent emission control measures can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants in the short term, and emission reduction is very important for air quality improvement during the YOG. A good example has been set for air quality protection for important social events.

  1. Impacts of emission reduction and meteorological conditions on air quality improvement during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China

    Huang, Qian; Wang, Tijian; Chen, Pulong; Huang, Xiaoxian; Zhu, Jialei; Zhuang, Bingliang

    2017-11-01

    As the holding city of the 2nd Youth Olympic Games (YOG), Nanjing is highly industrialized and urbanized, and faces several air pollution issues. In order to ensure better air quality during the event, the local government took great efforts to control the emissions from pollutant sources. However, air quality can still be affected by synoptic weather, not only emission. In this paper, the influences of meteorological factors and emission reductions were investigated using observational data and numerical simulations with WRF-CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multiscale Air Quality). During the month in which the YOG were held (August 2014), the observed hourly mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 were 11.6 µg m-3, 34.0 µg m-3, 57.8 µg m-3, 39.4 µg m-3, 0.9 mg m-3 and 38.8 µg m-3, respectively, which were below China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (level 2). However, model simulation showed that the weather conditions, such as weaker winds during the YOG, were adverse for better air quality and could increase SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO by 17.5, 16.9, 18.5, 18.8, 7.8 and 0.8 %. Taking account of local emission abatement only, the simulated SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO decreased by 24.6, 12.1, 15.1, 8.1 and 7.2 %. Consequently, stringent emission control measures can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants in the short term, and emission reduction is very important for air quality improvement during the YOG. A good example has been set for air quality protection for important social events.

  2. Chemical speciation and human health risk of trace metals in urban street dusts from a metropolitan city, Nanjing, SE China

    Li, Huiming; Qian, Xin, E-mail: xqian@nju.edu.cn; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yulei; Gao, Hailong

    2013-07-01

    The modified BCR (the European Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure was applied for partitioning and evaluating the mobility, availability and persistence of trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn) in urban street dusts collected from different areas of Nanjing, China. The mobility sequence based on the sum of the BCR sequential extraction stages was: Sr (91.65%) > Pb (79.16%) > Zn (74.26%) > Cu (68.53%) > Co (45.98%) > Al (40.01%) ≈ V (38.45%) ≈ Ni (37.88%) > Cr (29.35%) > Cd (22.68%). Almost every trace metal had its highest total concentrations in the industrial area, except for Sr which had its highest concentration in the commercial area. Contamination factors (Cf), risk assessment code (RAC) and enrichment factor (Ef) were then calculated to further assess the environmental risk and provide a preliminary estimate of the main sources of trace metals in street dusts. Non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenic effects due to exposure to urban street dusts were assessed for both children and adults. For non-carcinogenic effects, ingestion was the main route of exposure to street dusts for these metals, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index values for all studied metals were lower than the safe level of 1, and Pb exhibited the highest risk value (0.125) in the case of children. The carcinogenic risk for Cd, Co, Cr and Ni were all below the acceptable level (< 10{sup −6}). - Highlights: • This study assesses a comprehensive environmental risk of urban trace metal pollution. • This study evaluates human health risk combined with the speciation of trace metals. • This study points the critical contaminated metals that need to be paid special attention. • This study supplies useful information and reference on the application of BCR SPE method.

  3. Acute effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness in Nanjing, China: A population-based study.

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Lian; Chen, Jin; Chen, Kai; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xiaodong; Tang, Fenyang

    2016-03-01

    Influenza-like illness causes substantial morbidity and mortality. Air pollution has already been linked to many health issues, and increasing evidence in recent years supports an association between air pollution and respiratory infections. It is a pioneer study in China to quantify the effects of air pollution on influenza-like illness. This study used wavelet coherence analysis and generalized additive models to explore the potential association between air pollution (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦2.5 μm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≦10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) and influenza-like illness (a total of 59860 cases) in Nanjing, China from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 were 77.37 μg/m(3), 135.20 μg/m(3) and 55.80 μg/m(3). An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with a 2.99% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64%, 4.36%) increase in daily influenza-like cases on the same day, while the corresponding increase in NO2 was associated with a 3.77% (95% CI: 2.01%, 5.56%) increase in daily cases. People aged 0-4 were proved to be significantly susceptible to PM10 and NO2; 5-14 ages were significantly susceptible to PM2.5 and PM10; and 15-24 ages were significantly susceptible to all the analyzed air pollutants. Air pollution effects tended to be null or negative for patients aged over 25, which might be due to the small number of influenza-like cases in this age group. This study can be useful for understanding the adverse health effects of air pollution and the cause of influenza-like illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive modelling study on observed new particle formation at the SORPES station in Nanjing, China

    X. Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation (NPF has been investigated intensively during the last 2 decades because of its influence on aerosol population and the possible contribution to cloud condensation nuclei. However, intensive measurements and modelling activities on this topic in urban metropolitan areas in China with frequent high-pollution episodes are still very limited. This study provides results from a comprehensive modelling study on the occurrence of NPF events in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD region, China. The comprehensive modelling system, which combines the WRF-Chem (the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry regional chemical transport model and the MALTE-BOX sectional box model (the model to predict new aerosol formation in the lower troposphere, was shown to be capable of simulating atmospheric nucleation and subsequent growth. Here we present a detailed discussion of three typical NPF days, during which the measured air masses were notably influenced by either anthropogenic activities, biogenic emissions, or mixed ocean and continental sources. Overall, simulated NPF events were generally in good agreement with the corresponding measurements, enabling us to get further insights into NPF processes in the YRD region. Based on the simulations, we conclude that biogenic organic compounds, particularly monoterpenes, play an essential role in the initial condensational growth of newly formed clusters through their low-volatility oxidation products. Although some uncertainties remain in this modelling system, this method provides a possibility to better understand particle formation and growth processes.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variations of PM2.5 and Its Relation to Meteorological Factors in the Urban Area of Nanjing, China

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The serious air pollution problem has aroused widespread public concerns in China. Nanjing city, as one of the famous cities of China, is faced with the same situation. This research aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and the influence of weather factors on PM2.5 in Nanjing using Spearman-Rank analysis and the Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise (CEEMDAN method. Hourly PM2.5 observation data and daily meteorological data were collected from 1 April 2013 to 31 December 2015. The spatial distribution result shows that the Maigaoqiao site suffered the most serious pollution. Daily PM2.5 concentrations in Nanjing varied from 7.3 μg/m3 to 336.4 μg/m3. The highest concentration was found in winter and the lowest in summer. The diurnal variation of PM2.5 increased greatly from 6 to 10 a.m. and after 6 p.m., while the concentration exhibited few variations in summer. In addition, the concentration was slightly higher on weekends compared to weekdays. PM2.5 was found to exhibit a reversed relation with wind speed, relative humidity, and precipitation. Although temperature had a positive association with PM2.5 in most months, a negative correlation was observed during the whole period. Additionally, a high concentration was mainly brought with the wind with a southwest direction and several relevant factors are discussed to explain the difference of the impacts of diverse wind directions.

  6. Inpatient glycemic management in internal medicine: an observational multicenter study in Nanjing, China.

    Hao, Shujie; Zhang, Ning; Fish, Anne Folta; Yuan, Xiaodan; Liu, Lin; Li, Fan; Fang, Zhaohui; Lou, Qingqing

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of hyperglycemia among inpatients in internal medicine, and specifically, to assess the glycemic management of inpatients in non-endocrinology departments in three large urban hospitals in China. A multicenter observational study was conducted using electronic health records, and a survey of 1939 patients who were admitted to internal medicine units and followed until discharge. Those with previously diagnosed diabetes, newly diagnosed diabetes, or impaired fasting glucose were included. Aspects of glycemic management examined were (a) hyperglycemia, (b) endocrinology consultation for hyperglycemia and (c) hypoglycemia. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in internal medicine was 45.7% (886 out of 1939). A total of 741 (83.6%) patients were treated by non-endocrinology departments; of those, 230 (31.1%) were in poor glycemic control and needed an endocrinology consultation. Yet only 57 (24.8%) received one. In 4 cases, the physician did not follow the consultants' advice. Among the remaining 53 consulted patients, 35 (66.1%) were still in poor glycemic control, yet only about half received a second consultation. Finally, among patients treated in non-endocrinology departments, 58 (7.8%) had hypoglycemia; less than half retested their blood glucose after treatment. The majority of patients with hyperglycemia were in non-endocrinology departments. Their glycemic management was poor; the endocrinology consultation rate was low and the result was suboptimal. Also, the management of hypoglycemia was not ideal. Therefore, improving glycemic management is urgently needed in Chinese hospitals.

  7. Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic, mercury and other metals in urban street dusts from a mega-city, Nanjing, China

    Hu Xin; Zhang, Yun; Luo Jun; Wang Tijian; Lian Hongzhen; Ding Zhuhong

    2011-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility and the human health risks of As, Hg and other metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Mn, V and Fe) in urban street dusts from different land use districts in Nanjing (a mega-city), China were investigated. Both the total contents and the oral bioaccessibility estimated by the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) of the studied elements varied with street dusts from different land use districts. Cd, Zn, Mn, Pb, Hg and As showed high bioaccessibility. SBET-extractable contents of elements were significantly correlated with their total contents and the dust properties (pH, organic matter contents). The carcinogenic risk probability for As and Cr to children and adults were under the acceptable level ( -4 ). Hazard Quotient values for single elements and Hazard Index values for all studied elements suggested potential non-carcinogenic health risk to children, but not to adults. - Highlights: → Spatial variation of elements in street dusts from different land use districts. → Oral bioaccessibility of elements in street dusts from different land use districts. → Human health risks of elements in street dusts from different land use districts. - Bioaccessibility and health risks of trace elements differed with street dusts from different land use districts in Nanjing.

  8. Distribution, Seasonal Variations and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Foliar Dust of Nanjing, China.

    Zha, Yan; Zhang, Yinlong; Ma, Zilong; Tang, Jie; Sun, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern for both ecosystem and human health due to their potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. The concentration of ∑ 16 PAHs in foliar dust ranged from 49.4 to 19,018.1 µg kg -1 , with a mean value of 7074.5 µg kg -1 . There were significant seasonal variations in the concentration of ∑ 16 PAHs, with the concentration in winter being almost twice as high as in summer. Similarly, the differences between PAH profiles in different seasons indicated that they had common sources, which were attributed to the combined effect of regional transport and local emissions. The diagnostic ratios of indicator compounds indicated that PAHs detected in foliar dust originated from a mixture of gasoline vehicle emissions, biomass, and coal combustion in Nanjing. According to the ecological risk classification of ∑ 16 PAHs, the ecological risk caused by PAHs was high since the value of RQ ∑16PAHs(MPCs) was ≥ 1 and RQ ∑16PAHs(NCs) were ≥ 800. The mean values for RQ∑ 16 PAHs (MPCs) and RQ∑ 16 PAHs (NCs) were 14.8 and 2368.9, which indicated a relatively high ecological risks of PAHs in foliar dust in Nanjing.

  9. [Optimization of urban green space spatial arrangement based on supply-demand analysis: a case study in Nanjing City, China].

    Gui, Kun-Peng; Xu, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Urban green space has the functions of ecological and social services, and the two services levels are decided by the supply-demand relationship. However, the supply-demand of green space not only involves in quantity, but also refers to spatial distribution. Therefore, only greening indicators can not wholly reflect the true levels of green space services. Based on the supply-demand analysis and supported by the ArcGIS, this paper examined the ecological and social services levels of the urban green spaces in Nanjing City by using the evenness indicator and the rate the people could enjoy the public green space in their accessible area. Accordingly, the ecological and social services levels of the green space in the City were investigated. The results showed that in the east of Nanjing City, green spaces were rich, but high accessible ones were lack, which resulted in a moderate social service level. In the center of the City, green spaces were lack and distributed unevenly, resulting in the low levels of ecological and social services. In Hexi area, due to the shortage in ecological green space and its uneven distribution, the green spaces had a high level social service but a low level ecological service. In the southern and northern areas of the City, green spaces were in deficiency, uneven distribution, and lack in high accessible.

  10. Column-integrated aerosol optical properties and direct radiative forcing over the urban-industrial megacity Nanjing in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Kang, Na; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Yu, Xingna; Yin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol optical properties were measured and analyzed through the ground-based remote sensing Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) over an urban-industrial site, Nanjing (32.21° N, 118.72° E, and 62 m above sea level), in the Yangtze River Delta, China, during September 2007-August 2008. The annual averaged values of aerosol optical depth (AOD500) and the Ångström exponent (AE440-870) were measured to be 0.94 ± 0.52 and 1.10 ± 0.21, respectively. The seasonal averaged values of AOD500 (AE440-870) were noticed to be high in summer (autumn) and low in autumn (spring). The characterization of aerosol types showed the dominance of mixed type followed by the biomass burning and urban-industrial type of aerosol at Nanjing. Subsequently, the curvature (a 2) obtained from the second-order polynomial fit and the second derivative of AE (α') were also analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type. The single scattering albedo at 440 nm (SSA440) varied from 0.88 to 0.93 with relatively lower (higher) values during the summer (spring), suggesting an increase in black carbon and mineral dust (desert dust) aerosols of absorbing (scattering) nature. The averaged monthly and seasonal evolutions of shortwave (0.3-4.0 μm) direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) values were computed from the Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) model both at the top of atmosphere (TOA) and bottom of atmosphere (SUR) during the study period. Further, the aerosol forcing efficiency (AFE) and the corresponding atmospheric heating rates (AHR) were also estimated from the forcing within the atmosphere (ATM). The derived DARF values, therefore, produced a warming effect within the atmosphere due to strong absorption of solar radiation.

  11. Prevalence of Coxsackievirus A6 and Enterovirus 71 in Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Nanjing, China in 2013.

    Hu, Ya-Qian; Xie, Guang-Cheng; Li, Dan-Di; Pang, Li-Li; Xie, Jing; Wang, Peng; Chen, Ying; Yang, Jing; Cheng, Wei-Xia; Zhang, Qing; Jin, Yu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Although hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been strongly associated with enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and other enteroviruses, studies regarding coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) infection in HFMD are limited. The aim of this study was to identify the major etiological agents causing HFMD in Nanjing in 2013 and explore the clinical and genetic characteristics of the prevalent enterovirus (EV) types in HFMD. A total of 394 throat swabs were collected from hospitalized children diagnosed with HFMD from April to July 2013. EVs were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of 5' UTR sequences. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis were based on VP4 sequences. Demographic and clinical data were obtained. Of the specimens, 68.5% (270/394) were positive for EVs. The genotypes and detection rates were CVA6, 30.00% (81/270); EV71, 17.41% (47/270); HRV, 11.11% (30/270); CVA10, 3.33% (9/270); CVA2, 1.11% (3/270); CVA16, 0.74% (2/270); EV68, 0.37% (1/270); echovirus 6, 0.37% (1/270); echovirus 9, 0.37% (1/270), respectively. Patients infected with CVA6 displayed symptoms atypical of HFMD, including larger vesicles on their limbs and buttocks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 2 genetically distinct CVA6 strains that circulated independently within the region. Patients infected with CVA6 were more likely to have abnormal periphery blood white blood cell and C-reactive protein levels, while EV71 was more likely to infect the central nervous system, as indicated by clinical manifestations and white blood cell analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Multiple EV genotypes contributed to HFMD in Nanjing in 2013, and CVA6 was the dominant genotype. The clinical presentation of CVA6 infection differs from that of EV71 infection in HFMD.

  12. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  13. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  14. Personal exposure and health risk assessment of carbonyls in family cars and public transports-a comparative study in Nanjing, China.

    Xu, Huaizhou; Zhang, Qin; Song, Ninghui; Guo, Min; Zhang, Shenghu; Ji, Guixiang; Shi, Lili

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate passenger health risks associated with inhalation exposure to carbonyl compounds mainly emitted from decoration materials of vehicles, we tested the carbonyl concentrations in interior air of 20 family cars, 6 metro lines, and 5 buses in the city of Nanjing. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines of China, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. To assess carcinogenic risks, we followed a standard approach proposed by the OEHHA to calculate lifetime cancer risks (LCR) of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde for various age groups. The results showed that there are formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein concentrations in 40, 35, and 50% of family car samples exceeded the reference concentrations (RfCs) provided by Chinese guidelines (GB/T 27630-2011 and GB/T 18883-2002). Whereas, in the tested public transports, concentrations of the three carbonyls were all below the Chinese RfCs. Fifty and 90% of family cars had formaldehyde and acrolein concentrations exceeding the guidelines of OEHHA. Only one public transport sample (one bus) possesses formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations above the chronic inhalation reference exposure limits (RELs). Furthermore, the assessments of carcinogenic risk of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde showed that lifetime cancer risks were higher than the limits of EPA for some family cars and public transports. In the study, buses and metros appear to be relatively clean environments, with total carbonyl concentrations that do not exceed 126 μg/m 3 . In family cars, carbonyl levels showed significant variations from 6.1 to 811 μg/m 3 that was greatly influenced by direct emissions from materials inside the vehicles. Public transports seemed to be the first choice for resident trips as compared to family cars. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  15. Geochemical and isotopic evidence on the recharge and circulation of geothermal water in the Tangshan Geothermal System near Nanjing, China: implications for sustainable development

    Lu, Lianghua; Pang, Zhonghe; Kong, Yanlong; Guo, Qi; Wang, Yingchun; Xu, Chenghua; Gu, Wen; Zhou, Lingling; Yu, Dandan

    2018-01-01

    Geothermal resources are practical and competitive clean-energy alternatives to fossil fuels, and study on the recharge sources of geothermal water supports its sustainable exploitation. In order to provide evidence on the recharge source of water and circulation dynamics of the Tangshan Geothermal System (TGS) near Nanjing (China), a comprehensive investigation was carried out using multiple chemical and isotopic tracers (δ2H, δ18O, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, 14C and 3H). The results confirm that a local (rather than regional) recharge source feeds the system from the exposed Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks area on the upper part of Tangshan Mountain. The reservoir temperature up to 87 °C, obtained using empirical as well as theoretical chemical geothermometers, requires a groundwater circulation depth of around 2.5 km. The temperature of the geothermal water is lowered during upwelling as a consequence of mixing with shallow cold water up to a 63% dilution. The corrected 14C age shows that the geothermal water travels at a very slow pace (millennial scale) and has a low circulation rate, allowing sufficient time for the water to become heated in the system. This study has provided key information on the genesis of TGS and the results are instructive to the effective management of the geothermal resources. Further confirmation and even prediction associated with the sustainability of the system could be achieved through continuous monitoring and modeling of the responses of the karstic geothermal reservoir to hot-water mining.

  16. Feasibility and economic analysis of solid desiccant wheel used for dehumidification and preheating in blast furnace: A case study of steel plant, Nanjing, China

    Guan, Yipeng; Zhang, Yufeng; Sheng, Ying; Kong, Xiangrui; Du, Song

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of huge energy consumption from conventional dehumidification using lithium bromide adsorption refrigerating (LBARD) system, a novel desiccant wheel dehumidification and preheating (DWDP) system using two-stage desiccant wheel for blast furnace is brought forward. The DWDP system was designed for dehumidification and preheating in blast furnace of steel plant. It takes waste heat in the slag flushing water as desiccant regeneration and preheating energy. To validate the feasibility of the new DWDP system, experimental studies were conducted based on a steel plant in Nanjing, China. The experiment was designed to use DWDP system in humid outdoor climates e.g. summer seasons. The experimental results indicate that the moisture removal capacity of DWDP system can reach 8.7 g/kg which will lead to the improvement of steel production by 0.9% and the coal is saved of about 2100 tons per year. With the DWDP system, the energy consumed by cooling tower of slag flushing water can decrease 7.3%. All of these energy saved equates to 10.3 million CNY annually. A comparison of initial investment and operating cost between DWDP system and LBRAD system was then carried out. The results show that the initial investment and operating cost of DWDP system is 37% and 57% of present LBARD system, and the payback period is shortened 66%. - Highlights: • A novel two-stage desiccant wheel dehumidification system for blast furnace is proposed. • Average moisture removal of 8.7 g/kg is achieved and dehumidification efficiency is 47%. • Outlet humidity ratio is less than 10 g/kg that satisfies the requirement of blast air. • Waste heat in slag flushing water is utilized and 61.4 million kJ is saved annually. • The investment and operating cost is 37% and 57% of former dehumidification system

  17. Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction with Community Health Service under the Gatekeeper System: A Cross-sectional Study in Nanjing, China.

    Li, Wen Zhen; Gan, Yong; Zhou, Yan Feng; Chen, Ya Wen; Li, Jing; Kkandawire, Naomiem; Hu, Sai; Qiao, Yan; Lu, Zu Xun

    2017-09-01

    The gatekeeper policy has been implemented for approximately ten years on a pilot population in China. It is necessary to assess the satisfaction of patients utilizing community health service (CHS) under the gatekeeper system. Our study showed that the cognition of gatekeeper policy was associated with four dimensions including doctor-patient relationships, information and support, organization of care, and accessibility (P health scores also affected their satisfaction. General practitioners must be prepared to focus on these aspects of information and support, organization of care, and accessibility as indicators of potential opportunities for improvement. Additionally, policymakers can improve patients' satisfaction with CHS by strengthening their awareness of the gatekeeper policy. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  19. Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in the Soils of Vegetable-Growing Land along Urban-Rural Gradient of Nanjing, China

    Fang, Shi-Bo; Hu, Hao; Sun, Wan-Chun; Pan, Jian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    China has experienced rapid urbanization in recent years. The acceleration of urbanization has created wealth and opportunity as well as intensified ecological and environmental problems, especially soil pollution. Our study concentrated on the variation of heavy metal content due to urbanization in the vegetable-growing soil. Laws and other causes of the spatial-temporal variation in heavy metal content of vegetable-growing soils were analyzed for the period of urbanization in Nanjing (the capital of Jiangsu province in China). The levels of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg in samples of vegetable-growing soil were detected. The transverse, vertical spatio-temporal variation of heavy metals in soil was analyzed on the base of field investigations and laboratory analysis. The results show that: (1) in soil used for vegetable production, the levels of heavy metals decreased gradually from urban to rural areas; the levels of the main heavy metals in urban areas are significantly higher than suburban and rural areas; (2) the means of the levels of heavy metals, calculated by subtracting the sublayer (15–30 cm) from the toplayer (0–15 cm), are all above zero and large in absolute value in urban areas, but in suburban and rural areas, the means are all above or below zero and small in absolute value. The causes of spatial and temporal variation were analyzed as follows: one cause was associated with mellowness of the soil and the length of time the soil had been used for vegetable production; the other cause was associated with population density and industrial intensity decreasing along the urban to rural gradient (i.e., urbanization levels can explain the distribution of heavy metals in soil to some extent). Land uses should be planned on the basis of heavy metal pollution in soil, especially in urban and suburban regions. Heavily polluted soils have to be expected from food production. Further investigation should be done to determine whether and what kind of agricultural

  20. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among Chinese kids against Obesity (CLICK-Obesity) in Nanjing City, China: the baseline data.

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiaorong; Ware, Robert S; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Hong, Xin; Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa

    2014-01-01

    urgent development of effective interventions to prevent rapidly rising childhood obesity in China is needed. Between May 2010 and December 2013, a cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 4th graders in eight urban primary schools randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in Nanjing, China. A multi-component intervention program was implemented within the treatment group, while students in the control group followed their usual health education curriculum without additional intervention. At baseline, 638 and 544 students were enrolled in the intervention and control group, respectively. The prevalence of excess body weight was 26.8%, with 27.4% in the intervention group and 26.1% in the control group (p=0.61). The mean (SD) BMI and WC was 18.7 (3.0) and 63.0 (9.2) for participants in intervention schools, and 18.5 (2.9) and 63.6 (8.7) for students in control group, separately (p=0.24 and 0.41, respectively). Compared to those who were not aware of what lifestyle/behavior factors were unhealthy, students who were aware of the unhealthy lifestyle/ behavior factors consumed fewer fried snacks (0.46±0.76 serves/week vs 0.65±0.91 serves/week; p<0.01), soft drinks (160±194 ml/week vs 199±227 ml/week; p<0.01), but larger amount of meat (502±429 g/week vs 449±344 g/week; p=0.03), and reported less screen time (214±232 minutes/week vs 252±264 minutes/week; p<0.01). Moreover, there was no difference within physical activity time between these two groups (257±341 minutes/week vs 218±324 minutes/week; p=0.13). Main characteristics of participants were balanced at baseline within intervention and control schools, but a gap existed between healthy lifestyle knowledge and actual healthy behavior in students. ChiCTR-ERC-11001819.

  1. Test-retest reliability of Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale among urban men and women in Nanjing, China.

    Zhao, L; Wang, Z; Qin, Z; Leslie, E; He, J; Xiong, Y; Xu, F

    2018-03-01

    The identification of physical-activity-friendly built environment (BE) constructs is highly useful for physical activity promotion and maintenance. The Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale (PANES) was developed for assessing BE correlates. However, PANES reliability has not been investigated among adults in China. A cross-sectional study. With multistage sampling approaches, 1568 urban adults (aged 35-74 years) were recruited for the initial survey on all 17 items of PANES Chinese version (PANES-CHN), with the survey repeated 7 days later for each participant. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the test-retest reliability of PANES-CHN for each item. Totally, 1551 participants completed both surveys (follow-up rate = 98.9%). Among participants (mean age: 54.7 ± 11.1 years), 47.8% were men, 22.1% were elders, and 22.7% had ≥13 years of education. Overall, the PANES-CHN demonstrated at least substantial reliability with ICCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.95 (core items), from 0.75 to 0.95 (recommended items), and from 0.78 to 0.87 (optional items). Similar outcomes were observed when data were analyzed by gender or age groups. The PANES-CHN has excellent test-retest reliability and thus has valuable utility for assessing urban BE attributes among Chinese adults. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal characterization and regional contribution to O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing, China

    Xie, Min, E-mail: minxie@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Kuanguang; Wang, Tijian, E-mail: tjwang@nju.edu.cn; Chen, Pulong; Han, Yong; Li, Shu; Zhuang, Bingliang; Shu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    To improve our understanding of the interplay among local and regional photochemical pollutants in the typical city of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, the concurrent observation of O{sub 3} and NO{sub x} concentrations at an urban and a suburban site in Nanjing during 2008 is presented. In general, the annual mean O{sub 3} concentration is 2.35 ppbv lower in the downtown than at suburban due to higher NO{sub x} pollution levels correlated with heavy traffic. At both sites, O{sub 3} shows a distinct seasonality with the spring maximum and the winter minimum, while the minimum concentration of NO{sub x} appears in summertime. Besides the chemical processes of O{sub 3} sensitivity in the daytime and the NO{sub x} titration at night, meteorological conditions also play an essential role in these monthly and diurnal variations. The ozone weekend effect that can be attributed to the weekly routine of human activities is observed in the urban atmosphere of Nanjing as well, with O{sub 3} concentrations 2.09 ppbv higher and NO{sub x} concentrations 6.20 ppbv lower on weekends than on weekdays. The chemical coupling of NO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is investigated to show that the OX-component (O{sub 3} and NO{sub 2}) partitioning point occurs at about 35 ppbv for NO{sub x}, with O{sub 3} being the dominant form at lower levels and NO{sub 2} dominating at higher levels. And it is also discovered that the level of OX is made up of two contributions, including the regional contribution affected by regional background O{sub 3} level and the local contribution correlated with the level of primary pollution. The diurnal peak of regional contribution appears 2–5 h after the peak of local contribution, implying that OX in Nanjing might prominently affected by the pollutants from a short distance. The highest regional contribution and the second highest local contribution lead to the spring peak of O{sub 3} observed in Nanjing, whereas the highest local contribution and the

  3. Water Use Efficiency of China's Terrestrial Ecosystems and Responses to Drought

    Liu, Y.; Xiao, J.; Ju, W.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, S.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yibo Liu1, 2, Jingfeng Xiao2, Weimin Ju3, Yanlian Zhou4, Shaoqiang Wang5, Xiaocui Wu31 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China, 2Earth Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA, 3 International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China, 4 School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China, 5 Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China Water use efficiency (WUE) measures the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss of terrestrial ecosystems, and better understanding its dynamics and controlling factors is essential for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change. We assessed the magnitude, spatial patterns, and trends of WUE of China's terrestrial ecosystems and its responses to drought using a process-based ecosystem model. During the period from 2000 to 2011, the national average annual WUE (net primary productivity (NPP)/evapotranspiration (ET)) of China was 0.79 g C kg-1 H2O. Annual WUE decreased in the southern regions because of the decrease in NPP and increase in ET and increased in most northern regions mainly because of the increase in NPP. Droughts usually increased annual WUE in Northeast China and central Inner Mongolia but decreased annual WUE in central China. "Turning-points" were observed for southern China where moderate and extreme drought reduced annual WUE and severe drought slightly increased annual WUE. The cumulative lagged effect of drought on monthly WUE varied by region. Our findings have implications for ecosystem management and climate policy making. WUE is expected to continue to change under future climate

  4. Nanjing Library’s Efforts on Intellectual Freedom

    Wang Bing

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a civilized society, free and equal access to information resources is every citizen's basic constitutional rights. Although the library is not the sole means to guarantee citizens’ right to freedom of knowledge, it undoubtedly plays a very important role. In recent years, provincial public libraries in China have made great efforts in guaranteeing citizens’ intellectual freedom. This article describes Nanjing Library’s progress and achievements in improving public service, convenience, equality, and free and easy access.

  5. Development and validation of a bacteria-based index of biotic integrity for assessing the ecological status of urban rivers: A case study of Qinhuai River basin in Nanjing, China.

    Li, Jie; Li, Yi; Qian, Bao; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Cai, Wei; Wu, Hainan; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing human disturbance to urban rivers, the extinction and biodiversity losses of some macroorganism species decreased the accuracy of bioassessment. In this study, a novel index of biotic integrity based on bacteria (Ba-IBI) was first developed for Qinhuai River in Nanjing city, China. Thirty-two biofilm samples were collected along the river bank and the bacterial communities were identified by high-throughput sequencing. By the range, responsive, and redundancy tests, four core metrics were selected from the dataset of 78 candidate metrics, including Pielou's evenness index, proportion of Paenibacillus, proportion of OTUs tolerant to organic pollution and proportion of Nitrosomonas. The results showed that the Ba-IBI was able to effectively discriminate different impaired site groups, and had a good correlation with the index of water quality (r = 0.79, p river. Our study revealed that the Ba-IBI is an effective and reliable approach for assessing the ecological status of Qinhuai River basin, which can complement the existing ecological assessment approaches for urban rivers. Meanwhile, repeted surveys and field validations are still needed to further improve the applicability of the index in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ambient levels and temporal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 at a residential site in the mega-city, Nanjing, in the western Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Shen, Guo F; Yuan, Si Y; Xie, Yu N; Xia, Si J; Li, Li; Yao, Yu K; Qiao, Yue Z; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Qiu Y; Ding, Ai J; Li, Bin; Wu, Hai S

    2014-01-01

    The deteriorating air quality in eastern China including the Yangtze River Delta is attracting growing public concern. In this study, we measured the ambient PM10 and fine PM2.5 in the mega-city, Nanjing at four different times. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations were 0.033-0.234 and 0.042-0.328 mg/m(3), respectively. The daily PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 2.9 (2.7-3.2, at 95% confidence interval) and 4.2 (3.8-4.6) times the WHO air quality guidelines of 0.025 mg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 0.050 mg/m(3) for PM10, respectively, which indicated serious air pollution in the city. There was no obvious weekend effect. The highest PM10 pollution occurred in the wintertime, with higher PM2.5 loadings in the winter and summer. PM2.5 was correlated significantly with PM10 and the average mass fraction of PM2.5 in PM10 was about 72.5%. This fraction varied during different sampling periods, with the lowest PM2.5 fraction in the spring but minor differences among the other three seasons.

  7. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    ... and Photonic Technology Laboratory, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China; School of Science, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, ...

  8. One year online measurements of water-soluble ions at the industrially polluted town of Nanjing, China: Sources, seasonal and diurnal variations.

    Wang, Honglei; An, Junlin; Cheng, Mengtian; Shen, Lijuan; Zhu, Bin; Li, Yi; Wang, Yuesi; Duan, Qing; Sullivan, Amy; Xia, Li

    2016-04-01

    Half-hourly mass concentrations water-soluble ions (WSIs) and PM2.5 were measured online a Rapid Collector of Fine Particles and Ion Chromatography system (RCFP-IC) and FH62C14 Continuous Particulate Monitor in Nanjing from October 18, 2013 to November 17, 2014. The WSIs concentration ranged from 7.07 to 333.42 μg m(-3) with an annual mean of 76.32 μg m(-3). The WSIs ranked in the order of SO4(2-) > NH4(+) > NO3(-) > Cl(-) > NO2(-) > K(+) > Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+). The PM2.5 concentration ranged from 4.00 to 400 μg m(-3) with an annual mean of 83.58 μg m(-3). The concentrations of WSIs varied in the order of winter (115.77 μg m(-3)) > spring (76.10 μg m(-3)) > autumn (63.72 μg m(-3)) > summer (59.75 μg m(-3)), with the highest level in January (123.99 μg m(-3)) and lowest level in August (43.73 μg m(-3)). Different WSIs had distinct diurnal variations. The source analysis of the WSIs in the PCA/APCS mode illustrated that the sources consisted of secondary aerosol, coal combustion, mineral dust, biomass burning, traffic emissions and sea salt. In addition, there were seasonal variations amongst the various sources. The haze formation mechanism was different in summer and winter. The winter was dominated by NH4NO3 (18.56%), (NH4)2SO4 (28.63%), NH4(+) (11.27%), SO4(2-) (18.35%) and NO3(-) (13.13%), and by NH3 (25.93%), (NH4)2SO4 (13.37%), SO4(2-) (15.74%) and NO3(-) (9.97%) in summer. Consequently, the proportions of HCl, HNO3, NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were much larger during haze episodes in winter, while it was dominated by NH4NO3, NH4(+), (NH4)2SO4, SO4(2-) and NO3(-) during summer haze episodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Corporate Universities in China: Processes, Issues and Challenges

    Qiao, June Xuejun

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study is intended to investigate the current status of corporate universities in China. It aims to explore the processes and practices of corporate universities in China, and discover the issues and challenges involved in building and running a corporate university in China. Design/methodology/approach: The heads of 11 well-known…

  10. Source-oriented risk assessment of inhalation exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and contributions of non-priority isomers in urban Nanjing, a megacity located in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Zhuo, Shaojie; Shen, Guofeng; Zhu, Ying; Du, Wei; Pan, Xuelian; Li, Tongchao; Han, Yang; Li, Bengang; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Sixteen U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eleven non-priority isomers including some dibenzopyrenes were analyzed to evaluate health risk attributable to inhalation exposure to ambient PAHs and contributions of the non-priority PAHs in a megacity Nanjing, east China. The annual average mass concentration of the total 16 EPA priority PAHs in air was 51.1 ± 29.8 ng/m 3 , comprising up to 93% of the mass concentration of all 27 PAHs, however, the estimated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) due to inhalation exposure would be underestimated by 63% on average if only accounting the 16 EPA priority PAHs. The risk would be underestimated by 13% if only particulate PAHs were considered, though gaseous PAHs made up to about 70% of the total mass concentration. During the last fifteen years, ambient Benzo[a]pyrene decreased significantly in the city which was consistent with the declining trend of PAHs emissions. Source contributions to the estimated ILCR were much different from the contributions for the total mass concentration, calling for the introduce of important source-oriented risk assessments. Emissions from gasoline vehicles contributed to 12% of the total mass concentration of 27 PAHs analyzed, but regarding relative contributions to the overall health risk, gasoline vehicle emissions contributed 45% of the calculated ILCR. Dibenzopyrenes were a group of non-priority isomers largely contributing to the calculated ILCR, and vehicle emissions were probably important sources of these high molecular weight isomers. Ambient dibenzo[a,l]pyrene positively correlated with the priority PAH Benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The study indicates that inclusion of non-priority PAHs could be valuable for both PAH source apportionment and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A school-based comprehensive lifestyle intervention among chinese kids against obesity (CLICK-Obesity: rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled trial in Nanjing city, China

    Xu Fei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity among adolescents has been rapidly rising in Mainland China in recent decades, especially in urban and rich areas. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Limited data regarding adolescent overweight prevention in China are available. Thus, we developed a school-based intervention with the aim of reducing excess body weight in children. This report described the study design. Methods/design We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial in 8 randomly selected urban primary schools between May 2010 and December 2013. Each school was randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group (four schools in each group. Participants were the 4th graders in each participating school. The multi-component program was implemented within the intervention group, while students in the control group followed their usual health and physical education curriculum with no additional intervention program. The intervention consisted of four components: a classroom curriculum, (including physical education and healthy diet education, b school environment support, c family involvement, and d fun programs/events. The primary study outcome was body composition, and secondary outcomes were behaviour and behavioural determinants. Discussion The intervention was designed with due consideration of Chinese cultural and familial tradition, social convention, and current primary education and exam system in Mainland China. We did our best to gain good support from educational authorities, school administrators, teachers and parents, and to integrate intervention components into schools’ regular academic programs. The results of and lesson learned from this study will help guide future school-based childhood obesity prevention programs in Mainland China. Trial registration Registration number: ChiCTR-ERC-11001819

  12. University of Nottingham Ningbo China and Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University: Globalization of Higher Education in China

    Feng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This essay studies the University of Nottingham Ningbo China and Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University--the two Chinese campuses established respectively by the University of Nottingham and the University of Liverpool. They represent successful models of globalization of higher education in China; however their rationale, strategies, curricula,…

  13. Analysis of hydrological response to land use changes based on Low Impact Development—a case study on the southern area of Fangshan National Geopark in Nanjing city, China

    Wang, Y.; Fu, D., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    and identifies the sponge facilities with the aid of XPDrainage software on the southern area of Fangshan National Geopark in Nanjing city, China. A technical method to evaluate the influence of land use change on hydrological process and its response during the sponge city construction process is preliminarily discussed.

  14. Exploration of Forest Garden Construction in Forestry Universities:Taking the Baima Teaching and Research Base of Nanjing Forestry University as an Example%林业高校树木园建设探索——以南京林业大学白马教学科研基地为例

    潘宇伟; 蒋瞻; 巨云为; 孙昕; 朱兴洲; 邢雯

    2017-01-01

    Nanjing Forestry University Baima Teaching and Research Base Arboretum constructed in March 2012, construction area of about 725 acres,694 species of woody plants are planned.Among them,there are 9 kinds of national protected tree species.It is a teaching and research base for tree cultivation research,student teaching practice,popular science tourism and providing excellent seedlings.%南京林业大学白马教学科研基地树木园于2012年3月启动建设,建设面积约725亩,规划收集694种木本植物,其中国家级保护树种9种,是集树木栽培研究、学生教学实习、科普旅游观光及提供优良种苗的教学科研基地.

  15. Use value innovation to create competitive advantages in Blue Ocean : A case study of IKEA in Nanjing

    Lu, Chaoren; Thawatthatree, Apinya

    2011-01-01

    This present thesis aims to contribute to a better understand about how to use value innovation to get competitive advantages and get leading position in the market.   This theoretical approach is supported by an empirical case study about IKEA in Nanjing, China. This case is based on a qualitative research method of in-depth interviews with the local customers, co-workers and managers. The outcome is IKEA uses a unique strategy execution in Nanjing, and it fits Nanjing’s market very well.   ...

  16. A 4-year surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumanni in a university-affiliated hospital in China.

    Xu, Ting; Xia, Wenying; Rong, Guodong; Pan, Shiyang; Huang, Peijun; Gu, Bing

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the changes in resistance of Acinetobacter baumanni (A. baumannii) to different antimicrobial agents and the association of resistance rates with several independent factors: specimen origin, hospital wards, patients' gender and age, from 2008 to 2011. Bacterial isolates were isolated from January 2008 to December 2011 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by the Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Agar method as recommended by CLSI. Data were managed by the software WHONET 5.4 and analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software. The proportion of A. baumannii in our hospital increased from 7.0% in 2008 to 18.8% in 2011, becoming the most frequent pathogen in gram-negative isolates. 79.9% of A. baumannii were cultured from respiratory tract and geriatrics showed the highest isolation rate of A. baumannii during 4 years. The resistance rates to 12 antibiotics significantly increased from 2008 to 2011, from 14.8% to 90.8% to imipenem, and from 23.3% to 91.1% to meropenem. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the specimen origin, hospital wards, patients' gender and age were associated with resistance rate in varying degrees. The 4-year surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility demonstrated the rapid increase of drug-resistant strains of A. baumannii, and revealed several factors related with resistance rate. Knowing the antimicrobial resistance patterns will help guide the empirical therapy and strengthen interventional infection control measures in China.

  17. Building biophysics in mid-century China: the University of Science and Technology of China.

    Luk, Yi Lai Christine

    2015-01-01

    Biophysics has been either an independent discipline or an element of another discipline in the United States, but it has always been recognized as a stand-alone discipline in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since 1949. To inquire into this apparent divergence, this paper investigates the formational history of biophysics in China by examining the early institutional history of one of the best-known and prestigious science and technology universities in the PRC, the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). By showing how the university and its biophysics program co-evolved with national priorities from the school's founding in 1958 to the eve of the Cultural Revolution in 1966, the purpose of this paper is to assess the development of a scientific discipline in the context of national demands and institutional politics. Specific materials for analysis include the school's admission policies, curricula, students' dissertations, and research program. To further contextualize the institutional setting of Chinese biophysics, this paper begins with a general history of proto-biophysical institutions in China during the Nationalist-Communist transitional years. This paper could be of interest to historians wanting to know more about the origin of the biophysics profession in China, and in particular how research areas that constitute biophysics changed in tandem with socio-political contingencies.

  18. [Comparison of biomedical engineering education between Southeast University (China) and American universities].

    Wang, Xi; Huang Ningping; Sun Xiao; Gu Ning

    2011-06-01

    Taking Duke University as an example, this article makes a comparison between the major of biomedical engineering in the Southeast University and that in American universities in term of subject direction, faculty, teaching principle and status of publishing academic papers. Through the comparison and analysis, the problems we face were explored. From the comparison and summary the future improvements in four aspects, such as strengthening the interdisciplinary among different majors, etc. so as to provide an inspiration on the future perspectives of research and teaching in biomedical engineering in China.

  19. The ESR dating of the Nanjing Homo erectus stratigraphy

    Chen Tiemei; Wu En; Yang Quan; Hu Yanqiu

    1997-01-01

    Five fossil tooth enamel samples collected from the stratum of the Nanjing Homo erectus were ESR dated. The average age is 355 +- 42 ka, based on the early uranium-uptake model. Additional uranium series measurement of fossil teeth confirms the appropriateness of the early uranium-uptake model for these ESR samples. Considering also the uranium-series ages of two calcite samples from the flow stone covering the fossil-containing stratum, an age value of 350 +- 50 ka for the Nanjing Homo erectus stratum is evaluated, which means that the Nanjing Homo erectus appeared in the late stage of Peking Man and also in the stage of human evolution earlier than Hexian Homo erectus

  20. China's Recruitment of African University Students: Policy Efficacy and Unintended Outcomes

    Haugen, Heidi Østbø

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how Sino-African relations are affected by the growing number of Africans who pursue higher education in China. China actively recruits African university students in order to increase soft power and generate income from the export of education services. Semi-structured interviews with African university students suggest that…

  1. Scientific and Ethical Reflections on Academic Corruption in Universities: On the Science Research Evaluation System in China's Universities

    Xiaochun, Wu; Dan, Jia

    2007-01-01

    A study of the science research activities in China's institutions of higher learning in recent years indicates that there is a major connection between the current instances of corruption in scientific research at colleges and universities and the evaluations system for scientific research implemented at many of the colleges and universities.…

  2. Institutionalizing China's Research University through Academic Mobility: The Case of PKU

    Xiaoguang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Academic mobility is becoming a tread in academic life and a professional development globally, regionally and nationally. This article makes use of a case university--Peking University (PKU)--as an analytical approach to explore how and why academic mobility can happen in China's research universities. The author first presents an overview of the…

  3. Promoting University and Industry Links at the Regional Level: Comparing China's Reform and International Experience

    Po, Yang; Cai, Yuzhuo; Lyytinen, Anu; Hölttä, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    This paper intends to learn from international experiences in order to facilitating China's ongoing regional university transformation with an ultimate goal to enhance the role of university in regional economic development and innovation. In so doing, this paper compares major models of universities of applied sciences (UAS) around the world from…

  4. Study on Problems and Countermeasures of Textbook Management in China Universities

    Geng, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Textbook management in universities is an integral component of teaching management. With gradual development of university education teaching, textbook management in China universities can no longer keep pace with the steps of the teaching management, and the work of textbook management is faced up with new challenges. This article makes an…

  5. American Missionary Universities in China and the Middle East and American Philanthropy

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the interacting soft power of two important categories of American transnational actors: American missionary universities in China and the Middle East and American religious, foundation and individual philanthropy. These transnational actors have had and have soft power...... in the host societies. The universities and their philanthropic donors have strengthened US national soft power regarding milieu goals of elite attraction to education, language and liberal norms. However, US national soft power concerning possession goals of acceptance of foreign policies in China...

  6. Poor Physical Performance is Associated with Obesity Among University Students in China

    Du, Tianhua; Zhu, Ergang; Jiao, Suhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between physical performance and BMI (body mass index) of university students in China. Material/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating the physical performance and BMI of university students. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by the Working Group on Obesity references in China. Results A total of 2313 participants (978 males and 1335 females) were recruited in ou...

  7. How Universities Work: Understanding Higher Education Organization in Northwest China

    Berger, Joseph B.; Hudson, Katherine E.; Ramirez, Gerardo Blanco

    2013-01-01

    This study explores models of educational management used in postsecondary institutions in the five northwestern provinces of the People's Republic of China (Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang). As higher education in the People's Republic of China expands and undergoes significant changes, a nuanced understanding of the organizational…

  8. What China Inc. Can Learn from American Universities

    Fallows, James

    2012-01-01

    From afar, the boom in China's higher education system seems to be one more indication of its ceaseless rise overall. Potentially it is the most significant sign, since a China that could rival the existing American and Western-democratic dominance of the world's research and educational establishment might enjoy many other advantages as well.…

  9. What Makes a Good University? A Literature Review regarding the "Soft Power" of Colleges and Universities in China

    Han, Fu-Bin; Dong, Jian-Mei

    2011-01-01

    During the past few years, "soft power" has been widely discussed and studied in China. Higher education, one of the largest components of national soft power, has begun to play an active and important role. In this article, we review the literature on the soft power of colleges and universities and describe ways to enhance it; we also…

  10. Academic Identities and University Faculty Responses to New Managerialist Reforms: Experiences from China

    Huang, Yating; Pang, Sun-Keung; Yu, Shulin

    2018-01-01

    Chinese universities are being continually subjected to new managerial practices and technologies that have fundamental consequences on the university faculty's academic life. Within a predominantly communitarian theoretical framework of academic identity, this qualitative case study draws upon interviews with 25 academics in Mainland China to…

  11. Occupational stress and its related factors among university teachers in China.

    Sun, Wei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Lie

    2011-01-01

    University teachers in China are expected to suffer serious occupational stress due to the expanding enrollment in universities without a proportional increase in teacher resources and the fact that all promotions for university teachers are determined based on not only teaching but also the outcome of scientific research. This study was designed to assess the occupational stress among university teachers in China and clarify its risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in Liaoning Province, the centralized area of higher education in Northeast China. Eight universities (2 multidiscipline and 6 specialized) and 10% of academic staff each were randomly sampled. Questionnaires pertaining to occupational stress indicated by the Chinese Version Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ) and demographic characteristics, health status, work situations, and personal and social resources were distributed in October 2008. A total of 827 effective respondents (response rate 76.4%) became our participants. The average raw score of PSQ was 91.0 among the university teachers. General linear model analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with the PSQ score were, in standardized estimate (β) sequence, mental health, role overload, role insufficiency, social support, monthly income, role limitations due to physical problems, research finance and self-rated disease with adjustment for age and sex. We concluded that, in comparison to work-related factors and social support, mental health is a prominent risk factor for occupational stress in university teachers in China. Improvement of mental health and organizational climate should be considered to lessen the occupational stress of university teachers.

  12. Cultural Capital, Family Background and Education: Choosing University Subjects in China

    Sheng, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    This article employs Bourdieu's conceptual tools to unpack family influences on students' subject and university choices in China. This empirical study employed mixed research approaches, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, to examine students' choices of subjects and universities in a sample of secondary school students from the age…

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure, theoretical study and luminescence ...

    and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, P. R. China. cChina-Australia Joint ... School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, P. R. China e-mail: ..... The title complex is luminescent.

  14. U.S./China Bilateral Symposium on Extraordinary Floods

    Kirby, W.

    Accurate appraisal of the risk of extreme floods has long been of concern to hydrologists and water resources managers in both the United States and China. In order to exchange information, assess current developments, and discuss further needs in extreme flood analysis, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Bureau of Hydrology of the Ministry of Water Resources and Electric Power of the People's Republic of China (PRC) held the Bilateral Symposium on the Analysis of Extraordinary Flood Events, October 14-18, 1985, in Nanjing, China. Co-convenors of the symposium were Marshall E. Moss (USGS) and Hua Shiqian (Nanjing Research Institute of Hydrology). Liang Ruiju (East China Technical University of Water Resources) was executive secretary of the organizing committee. Participants included 23 U.S. delegates, 36 Chinese delegates, and five guests from other countries. Of the U.S. delegates, 13 were from federal agencies, seven were from universities, and three were private consultants. The U.S. National Science Foundation gave financial support to the nonfederal U.S. delegates. Major topics covered in the 52 papers presented included detection of historical floods and evaluation of the uncertainties in their peak discharges and times of occurrence,frequency analysis and design flood determination in the presence of extraordinary floods and historic floods, anduse of storm data in determining design storms and design floods, The symposium was followed by a 6-day study tour in central China, during which laboratories, field activities, and offices of various water resources agencies were visited and sites of documented historic floods on the Yangtze River and its tributaries were examined.

  15. [Using the concept of universal health coverage to promote the health system reform in China].

    Hu, S L

    2016-11-06

    The paper is systematically explained the definition, contents of universal health coverage (UHC). Universal health coverage calls for all people to have access to quality health services they need without facing undue financial burden. The relationship between five main attributes, i.e., quality, efficiency, equity, accountability and resilience, and their 15 action plans has been explained. The nature of UHC is belonged to the State and government. The core function is commitment with equality. The whole-of-system method is used to promoting the health system reform. In China, the universal health coverage has been reached to the preliminary achievements, which include universal coverage of social medical insurance, basic medical services, basic public health services, and the provision of essential medicines. China has completed millennium development goals (MDG) and is being stepped to the sustainable development goals (SDG).

  16. Delegation of Externado University Of Colombia Visits China

    2009-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, a 67-member delegation orga- nized and sent by the Externado University of Colombia visited Beijing, Xi’an, Shanghai, Suzhou, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hong Kong from June 29 to July 16. In

  17. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BM...

  18. In the Wake of China's Quickening Economy, Universities Struggle to Keep Pace

    Hennock, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In China the global challenges of fast-evolving technology and multidisciplinary studies are complicated by the newness of the market. Only 40 years ago, professors were condemned to manual labor if suspected of capitalist sympathies, and most universities were shut down during the decade-long Cultural Revolution. The government is preoccupied…

  19. China Confronts Kant When University Students Experience the Angst of Freedom

    Shaw, Robert Keith

    2016-01-01

    An existential interpretation of student angst in Chinese universities raises issues of autonomy and freedom. The governance arrangements in China create a conflict for Chinese students who in their coursework are urged to become critical-minded and open-minded. In this essay, Kant's moral theory provides access to this phenomenon. His theory of…

  20. Investigation and Reflection on the University-enterprise Cooperation Problem in the Western Region of China

    Yong He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The university-enterprise cooperation is the only way to the professionalization of higher education and the cultivating model of skilled talents at the same time. Now, colleges and universities in the western region of China are trying to promote the university-enterprise cooperation, while this kind of cooperation is facing great difficulties and challenges. Based on the field and questionnaire survey, the paper analyzes the form and the way of the current university-enterprise cooperation in the western region of China, as well as difficulties and challenges occurred. Meanwhile, based on the result of the survey, the paper puts forward the “dynamic factor analytic method” which should be adopted by the university-enterprise cooperation. In the end, based on the “dynamic factor analytic method”, the paper makes 3 suggestions in order to improve the strategy and the way of the university-enterprise cooperation in the western region of China and to promote its effect.

  1. La Cátedra Unesco de Cultura de Paz y Comunicación en China

    Javier Protzel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En la tercera semana de septiembre último, la Cátedra Unesco en Comunicación y Cultura de Paz de la Universidad de Lima fue invitada a participar en un encuentro mundial de cátedras Unesco de Comunicación en la República Popular de China, organizada por la Communications University of China (CUC, cuya sede en la ciudad de Nanjing celebró cinco años de fundación. A esta reunión asistieron, junto con la Universidad de Lima, delegados de unas quince cátedras. Además de la China y de la India, estuvieron presentes titulares, investigadores y consultores de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos, Sudán, Estonia, Bulgaria, Argentina, Finlandia, Sudáfrica y Guatemala, entre otros países.

  2. Prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity in university students from the region of Anhui (China).

    Ren, Xiaohua; Chen, Yan; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Tian, Li; Lu, Mi; Lu, Wei; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhognhua; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-12-16

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic worldwide. Our previous study found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in primary students is high. we sought to estimate whether the prevalence of overweight and obesity among university students is still high in China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for university students in 2013. The height and weight of students were measured, and BMI was calculated with height and weight, we estimated the underweight and obesity prevalence of university students using by two references [Working Group on Obesity references in China (2004) and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (2000)]. Depending on the China references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 14.7% and 4.2%, respectively; in female university students were 27.5%, 4.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Depending on the WHO references used, the overall prevalence of underweight, overweight (including obesity) and obesity in male university students were 14.2%, 11.5% and 2.5%, respectively, in female university students were 27.5%, 2.4% and 0.3%, respectively. An interesting observation made was that the underweight prevalence of university students has an increasing trend, especially in female. The study showed that the prevalence of underweight in university students, especially in female students has become a critical health issue. Related department of school and government should pay more attention to student's physical health. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for the rural population, and urban resident basic health insurance (URBMI), the cost of healthcare in China has also been rising rapidly at the annual rate of 17.0%% over the period of the past two decades years. The total health expenditure increased from 74.7 billion Chinese yuan in 1990 to 1998 billion Chinese yuan in 2010, while average health expenditure per capital reached the level of 1490.1 Chinese yuan per person in 2010, rising from 65.4 Chinese yuan per person in 1990. The repaid increased population coverage by government supported health insurance schemes has stimulated a rising use of healthcare, and thus given rise to more pressure on cost control in China. There are many effective measures of supply-side and demand-side cost control in healthcare available. Over the past three decades China had introduced many measures to control demand for health care, via a series of co-payment mechanisms. The paper introduces and discusses new initiatives and measures employed to control cost escalation of healthcare in China, including alternative provider payment methods, reforming drug procurement systems, and strengthening the application of standard clinical paths in treating patients at hospitals, and analyses the impacts of these initiatives and measures. The paper finally proposes ways forward to make universal health coverage in China more sustainable. PMID:22992484

  4. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success?

    Yu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    China successfully achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history. While the achievement is widely recognized, it is still largely unexplored why China was able to attain it within a short period. This study aims to fill the gap. Through a systematic political and socio-economic analysis, it identifies seven major drivers for China's success, including (1) the SARS outbreak as a wake-up call, (2) strong public support for government intervention in health care, (3) renewed political commitment from top leaders, (4) heavy government subsidies, (5) fiscal capacity backed by China's economic power, (6) financial and political responsibilities delegated to local governments and (7) programmatic implementation strategy. Three of the factors seem to be unique to China (i.e., the SARS outbreak, the delegation, and the programmatic strategy.) while the other factors are commonly found in other countries' insurance expansion experiences. This study also discusses challenges and recommendations for China's health financing, such as reducing financial risk as an immediate task, equalizing benefit across insurance programs as a long-term goal, improving quality by tying provider payment to performance, and controlling costs through coordinated reform initiatives. Finally, it draws lessons for other developing countries. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Bai Jingya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students’ physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China.

  6. Quantitative Analysis and Comparison of BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur University Students in Northwest China

    Jingya, Bai; Ye, He; Jing, Wang; Xi, Huanjiu; Tao, Hai

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To fully analyze and compare BMI among Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, to discuss the differences in their physical properties and physical health, and thus to provide some theoretical suggestions for the improvement of students' physical health. Methods. The cross-sectional random cluster sampling was used to investigate 10103 Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students, aged 20–24 in Northwest China, and their height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. The BMI classification criteria for Chinese established by Work Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) were used for screening. Results. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students show low obesity rates but high overweight rates. Han, Tibetan, and Uygur university students present a high rate of underweight, normal weight, and overweight, respectively. Female Han students show higher underweight and normal weight rates, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Han students. Female Tibetan students show higher normal weight rate, but lower overweight and obesity rates, than male Tibetan students. BMI increases with age for male students but decreases with age for female students. Male Uygur students show higher obesity rate than female Uygur students. Tibetan and Uygur university students have higher BMI than other minorities in South China. PMID:24453807

  7. Materialist value orientations as correlates of the new ecological paradigm among university students in China.

    Chang, Genying

    2015-04-01

    The new ecological paradigm is an ecocentric view of the relationship between humanity and nature. This study analyzed the correlates of the new ecological paradigm in China using the responses of 1,148 university students to a questionnaire. The participating students were from Lanzhou University and Liaocheng University in China and ranged in age from 16 to 26 years. This study showed that two materialist value orientations, economic precedence over the environment and trust in technology, were negatively correlated with the new ecological paradigm. The correlates of basic values with the new ecological paradigm were mediated by economic precedence over the environment. Female students were more concerned about the environment than were male students.

  8. Modulation instability of an intense laser beam in an unmagnetized ...

    Author Affiliations. San Qiu Liu1 Wei Tang1 Xiao Qing Li1 2. Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, People's Republic of China; Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210097, People's Republic of China ...

  9. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Chi, Xinli; Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response...

  10. Nuclear power: Looking to the future, 5 December 2006, Beijing, China. China's Tsinghua University

    ElBaradei, M.

    2006-01-01

    The need to ensure adequate and reliable energy supplies is directly relevant to development, and to national and international security. As such, energy issues will be a central feature of the global agenda for the foreseeable future. At the IAEA, we stand ready to assist China and our other partners around the world in finding solutions that are best suited to their needs and priorities

  11. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505

  12. Joint Universities as a Tool for Promoting the National Interests of Russia and China

    Elena Medyanik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the opening of joint educational institutions is one of the leading educational trends. It allows states to improve the quality of national human resources and the national education system. Thus, it is particularly important for transition economies in the context of an innovative model of development. Russia and China turned to this practice in 2010 after the launch of the SCO University, established by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation. Today joint educational institutions function not only multilaterally but also bilaterally. This article examines the Shenzhen MSU-BIT University, a joint Russian-Chinese university, as a tool to promote the national interests of the two countries. The author presents the basic history of Russian-Chinese cooperation in education in the second half of the 20th century. She argues that the Cultural Revolution and period the subsequent of difficult relations between the two countries had a negative impact on educational ties. Russia lost 17 years in China’s educational market, which was filled by other countries, primarily the United States. At the beginning of the 20th century, Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation was positive. The author relates the increase in the volume of Russian-Chinese educational exchange to the success of several events, including the large-scale projects of the Year of Russia in China and the Year of China in Russia, the Year of Chinese Language in Russia and Russian Language in China, the opening of the Russian Cultural Centre and the Chinese Cultural Centre, Russian centres and cabinets of the “Russian World” in China, and Confucius Institutes and classes in Russia. After analyzing the current situation, the author describes the new forms of cooperation, which include the opening of joint institutions. She assesses the interests and prospects of Russian and Chinese participation in the creation of the Shenzhen MSU-BIT University through the prism of national

  13. Identifying Critical Factors Influencing the Rents of Public Rental Housing Delivery by PPPs: The Case of Nanjing

    Jingfeng Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The occupancy rate of Public Rental Housing (PRH in China is relatively low due to the unreasonable rents. At the same time, the development of PRH using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs increases the complexity of the rents. Therefore, the critical factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs should be identified. Based on the comprehensive literature, this article identified a conceptual model for the factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs in China, composed of 14 factors grouped in three factor packages, and discussed the relationships among three factor packages. A survey based on Nanjing was conducted to assess the relative significance of 14 factors. According to the results, six critical factors were identified: construction costs, household income, floor area and structure, transportation, market rents in the same district and public facilities. In addition, the proposed conceptual model had a good fit. The results also supported two hypothetical relationships among three factor packages: (1 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of profits of private sectors; and (2 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of level of the characteristics of PRH units. For future research, six critical factors and the relationships among three factor packages can be used to determine the reasonable rents for PRH delivery by PPPs in China.

  14. A Study on the Application of STP Marketing Strategy in the MBA Education Program of Universities in China

    Zhang, Hongyi

    2008-01-01

    The MBA education has begun in America and now it has become mature after nearly one hundred years' development. Although China's MBA merely has a history of 17 years, it has already gained great achievements. In 1991, 9 universities in China had MBA program and 86 students enrolled in. In 2007, the two numbers were 127 and 59,776 respectively.…

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of neonatal hearing screening program in china: should universal screening be prioritized?

    Huang Li-Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal hearing screening (NHS has been routinely offered as a vital component of early childhood care in developed countries, whereas such a screening program is still at the pilot or preliminary stage as regards its nationwide implementation in developing countries. To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China, this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from 2007 to 2009 in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature. The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces. Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. Targeted strategy trended to be cost-effective in Guangxi, Jiangxi, Henan, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing from the level of 9%, 9%, 8%, 4%, 3%, 7%, 5%, and 2%, respectively; while universal strategy trended to be cost-effective in those provinces from the level of 70%, 70%, 48%, 10%, 8%, 28%, 15%, 4%, respectively. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces. This

  16. Poor Physical Performance is Associated with Obesity Among University Students in China.

    Du, Tianhua; Zhu, Ergang; Jiao, Suhua

    2017-05-05

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between physical performance and BMI (body mass index) of university students in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating the physical performance and BMI of university students. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by the Working Group on Obesity references in China. RESULTS A total of 2313 participants (978 males and 1335 females) were recruited in our study. The mean value of the 50-meter dash and standing long jump in male students was higher than in female students (Pobesity) and obesity for male students were 17.9% and 4.2%, respectively, and 5.1% and 0.5%, respectively, for female university students. BMI was weakly positively associated with the 50-meter dash score, but was negatively associated with the score for standing long jump and pull-ups. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggested that overweight and obesity are associated with physical performance of university students, especially in male students. University students should exercise more to improve physical health.

  17. Urinary phthalate metabolites and environmental phenols in university students in South China.

    Zhang, Xue-Mei; Lou, Xiang-Ying; Wu, Liu-Hong; Huang, Cong; Chen, Da; Guo, Ying

    2018-04-14

    In China, university students have unique lifestyles compared with the rest of the youth population, as they are almost entirely isolated in campuses. The number of university students is large, and since students represent the future of human reproduction, exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) may have a large impact on society. In this study, levels of several EEDs, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues, triclosan (TCS), and benzophenone-3, were determined in 169 urine samples collected from university students in Guangzhou, South China. In addition, to further understand the potential sources of EEDs in their daily lives, a survey of students' lifestyles was conducted. Based on the urinary concentrations of EEDs and the survey results, daily exposure doses of target EEDs and their potential sources were investigated. Our results indicated that nine phthalate metabolites, three parabens, and BPA were ubiquitous (detection frequency > 60%) in the urine of university students. The concentrations of total phthalates (median: 99.4 µg L -1 ) were orders of magnitude higher than those of total parabens (7.30 µg L -1 ) and of other environmental phenols (0.40 µg L -1 ). Significantly higher concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and TCS were found in female versus male students, partly due to the higher usage of personal care products (PCPs) by female students (p Chinese universities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. [Occupational mental health and job satisfaction in university teachers in Shenyang, China].

    Li, M Y; Wang, Z Y; Wu, H; Wang, J N; Wang, L

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of occupational mental health and job satisfaction in university teachers in Shenyang, China and related influencing factors. Methods: A total of 1500 teachers from 6 universities in Shenyang were randomly selected as study subjects from November 2013 to January 2014. Self-administered questionnaires were used to investigate mental health, including effort-reward imbalance questionnaire, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiological Survey-Depression Scale, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Results: Of all teachers, 58.9% had depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in university teachers were negatively correlated with the scores of psychological capital, supervisory commitment, and perceived organizational support ( r =-0.461, -0.306, and -0.366, all P university teachers in Shenyang, and psychological capital has a mediating effect on perceived organizational support, supervisory commitment, occupational stress, job satisfaction, and depressive symptoms.

  19. Improving equity in health care financing in China during the progression towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Chen, Mingsheng; Palmer, Andrew J; Si, Lei

    2017-12-29

    China is reforming the way it finances health care as it moves towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) after the failure of market-oriented mechanisms for health care. Improving financing equity is a major policy goal of health care system during the progression towards universal coverage. We used progressivity analysis and dominance test to evaluate the financing channels of general taxation, pubic health insurance, and out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. In 2012 a survey of 8854 individuals in 3008 households recorded the socioeconomic and demographic status, and health care payments of those households. The overall Kakwani index (KI) of China's health care financing system is 0.0444. For general tax KI was -0.0241 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0315 to -0.0166). The indices for public health schemes (Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, Urban Resident's Basic Medical Insurance, New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme) were respectively 0.1301 (95% CI: 0.1008 to 0.1594), -0.1737 (95% CI: -0.2166 to -0.1308), and -0.5598 (95% CI: -0.5830 to -0.5365); and for OOP payments KI was 0.0896 (95%CI: 0.0345 to 0.1447). OOP payments are still the dominant part of China's health care finance system. China's health care financing system is not really equitable. Reducing the proportion of indirect taxes would considerably improve health care financing equity. The flat-rate contribution mechanism is not recommended for use in public health insurance schemes, and more attention should be given to optimizing benefit packages during China's progression towards UHC.

  20. [Size distributions of aerosol during the Spring Festival in Nanjing].

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Li-Juan; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Ze-Feng; Yang, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to investigate the firework burning impacts on spectrum distribution of atmospheric aerosol during the Spring Festival in Nanjing, number concentration and mass concentration of aerosol as well as mass concentration of gas pollutants were measured during January 19-31, 2012. The results indicated that the concentration of aerosol between 10-20 nm decreased, aerosol concentration in the range of 50-100 nm, 100-200 nm and 200-500 nm increased during the firework burning period comparing to those during the non-burning period. However, there was no obvious variation for aerosol between 20-50 nm and 0.5-10 microm. The spectrum distribution of number concentration was bimodal during the non-burning period and unimodal during the burning period, with the peak value shifting to large diameter section. The mass concentration presented a bimodal distribution, the value of PM2.5/PM10 and PM10/PM10 increased by 10% during the burning period. The firework burning events had big influence on the density of aerosol between 1.0-2.1 microm.

  1. Association between Eating Out and Socio-Demographic Factors of University Students in Chongqing, China

    Ping Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Objective: We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2 Methods: We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3 Results: 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0% and improving diet (39.6%. Bistros (61.7% and hot-pot restaurants (41.1% were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%. (4 Conclusions: The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students’ perspectives.

  2. Association between Eating Out and Socio-Demographic Factors of University Students in Chongqing, China.

    Hu, Ping; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Lu; Zeng, Huan; Shi, Zu-Min; Sharma, Manoj; Xun, Lei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    (1) Objective : We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China. (2) Methods : We used self-administered questionnaires to collect information. There are 14 universities in Chongqing; four (Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing University, Chongqing Normal University, and Chongqing University of Science & Technology) were randomly selected. In each selected university, two disciplines were randomly selected. (3) Results : 4595 university students participated in the study. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends (56.0%) and improving diet (39.6%). Bistros (61.7%) and hot-pot restaurants (41.1%) were the favorite places for eating out. Only 36.0% of the participants said they considered nutrition and food safety when selecting restaurants. The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out (77.7%). (4) Conclusions : The higher the monthly living expenses were, the higher the frequency of eating out was. An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students' perspectives.

  3. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  4. Universal Health Coverage through Community Nursing Services: China vs. Hong Kong.

    Chan, Wai Yee; Fung, Ita M; Chan, Eric

    2017-01-30

    this article looks at how the development of community nursing services in China and Hong Kong can enhance universal health coverage. literature and data review have been utilized in this study. nursing services have evolved much since the beginning of the nursing profession. The development of community nursing services has expanded the scope of nursing services to those in need of, not just hospital-level nursing care, but more holistic care to improve health and quality of life. despite the one-country-two-systems governance and the difference in population and geography, Hong Kong and China both face the aging population and its complications. Community nursing services help to pave the road to Universal Health Coverage. este artigo analisa a forma como o desenvolvimento de serviços de enfermagem comunitários na China e Hong Kong pode melhorar a cobertura universal de saúde. literatura e revisão de dados foram utilizados neste estudo. serviços de enfermagem têm evoluído muito desde o início da profissão de enfermagem. O desenvolvimento dos serviços de enfermagem da comunidade ampliou o escopo dos serviços de enfermagem, para aqueles que precisam não apenas de cuidados de enfermagem de nível de hospital, mas cuidados mais holísticos para melhorar a saúde e qualidade de vida. apesar de ser "um-país-dois-sistemas" de governo, e as diferenças de população e geografia, Hong Kong e China enfrentam o envelhecimento da população e suas complicações. Os serviços de enfermagem da comunidade ajudam a pavimentar o caminho para a cobertura de saúde universal. este artículo analiza cómo el desarrollo de los servicios de enfermería comunitaria en China y Hong Kong pueden expandir la cobertura universal de salud. revisión de datos y literatura han sido utilizados en este estudio. los servicios de enfermería han evolucionado mucho desde el comienzo de la profesión. El desarrollo de los servicios de enfermería comunitaria han ampliado el alcance

  5. The development relation: University-government-enterprise. Comparative case Mexico, Korea and China

    Hugo Martín Moreno Zacarías

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over global world, the competitive of the nations must be an internal structure for increase and sustainable the rich of the people. This structure should make sustained growth through the generation of proprietary technology; have a facilitator for the creation and enterprise development. A university linked with companies to solve problems and a firm that helps companies to grow new businesses. A whole system (Government-University-Industry is called the Triple Helix of Development (THD. This paper reviews the actions of the Thd in recent years, in countries of Korea, China and Mexico. Korea have durable support of United States over the Civil War. At the end United States and Japan make cooperation for the creation of technology and export products to these countries. Providing capital to Korea to generate their own technology resources through foreign investment. China creates a model, which aims by 2020 to generate 30% of its own resources in basic research. Mexico begins to generate emerging technology products by supporting the Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises established the National System of Incubators and generates programs with universities and business entrepreneurs with the federal government creates financial support for the creation of industrial clusters.

  6. The Impact of Mass and Universal Higher Education on Curriculum and Instruction: Case Studies of China and Japan

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    Based on case studies of China and Japan, this study undertakes comparative research on major aspects of university curriculum and instruction-teaching activities of academics, their role in curriculum development, and their perceptions of these activities--between a mass and a universal higher education system. Major findings from the APA…

  7. Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education. A Case Study--the Nordic Centre at Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

    Holtermann, Sigrid

    1996-01-01

    The Nordic Centre at Fudan University (China) links it with Norwegian universities, and has resulted in: a new Norwegian School of Management program; a Chinese-Norwegian dictionary; short credit courses on Scandinavian affairs for Chinese students; language courses and examinations for Norwegian students of Chinese; establishment of a library on…

  8. Moral education and values education in curriculum reform In China

    Zhu Xiaoman

    2006-01-01

    In the new curriculum reform in China,moral education and values education have been defined from the angles of the integrity and conformity of curriculum functions.Accordingly, a new education concept based on complete/integral curriculum functions is established.By discussing the essences of the curriculum,the basis of moral and values education,integrated curriculum setting in instruction structure,the presence of emotional and attitudinal goals in the subject standards,and teaching methods,this text points out that this curriculum reform looks to moral and values education in schools.The reform also emphasizes and will guarantee moral and values education in schools.Finally,the article recommends to elementary and secondary schools the studies on moral education in class conducted by the Research Institute of Moral Education of Nanjing Normal University,one of the Key Bases for Humanities and Social Sciences Research for the Ministry of Education.

  9. Migraine attacks among medical students in Soochow University, Southeast China: a cross-sectional study

    Gu X

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiao Gu,1,2 Yaojie Xie1 1School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong; 2Intensive Care Unit, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Suzhou, China Purpose: Migraine is one of the most common primary headache disorders and is burdensome to both the individual and society, influencing the academic performance and quality of daily lives of medical students worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the migraine prevalence in a sample of university medical students in China and to examine the features and typical trigger factors of migraine among these students. Patients and methods: From May 2016 to August 2016, a total of 1,060 medical students who were enrolled in Soochow University in Jiangsu Province in China were chosen through stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire that included the ID MigraineTM for screening of migraine cases was used to collect data. The frequency, severity, duration of migraine attacks, and relevant trigger factors were measured for migraine cases. In total, 986 students completed the questionnaire. Results: The overall migraine prevalence among students was 7.91%, with 4.64% in male and 9.84% in female students. Junior-grade students had a higher migraine prevalence than senior students (prevalence of migraine of year 1 to year 5 undergraduates: 10.83%, 8.9% vs. 6.25%, 4.42%, 5.33%, P<0.05; prevalence of migraine of year 1 to year 3 graduates: 9.68%, 9.71% vs. 6.38%, P<0.05. Students with a positive family history were more likely to suffer migraine than those without (OR=8.48, 95% CI: 4.33–16.59. Stress (n=73, 93.59%, lack of sleep (n=72, 92.31%, and change of sleeping time (n=68, 87.18% were the top three trigger factors among the students. Conclusion: Migraine was common among medical students from a university in China, and especially higher in female and junior-grade students, and those with a family history of migraine. Reducing stress and improving sleep quality might be effective

  10. Distribution of 137Cs in sediments in Xiangshan, Xiamen and Yangpu harbours, China

    Pan, S.; Xu, Q.

    1999-01-01

    Xiangshan Harbour (Zhejing Province), Xiamen Harbour (Fujian Province) and Yangpu Harbour (Hainan Province) are tide-channel type bays, located on the southeast coast of China. Six sediment cores were collected in the Harbours in several projects respectively. Sediment samples were collected with a Lehigh gravity corer which utilized a 10.3 cm diameter, PVC core barrel. Styrofoam sediment core retainers were fitted into the top of the core barrel following core recovery to facilitate core sampling without loss of sediment from the barrel. The core barrels were split lengthwise using a circular saw. Following visual inspection for geological parameters (colour, texture, etc.) and photography of the cores, they were subsampled at 1-2 cm or 5 cm intervals for the entire length of the core. The sediment samples were stored in air-tight, plastic containers and returned to Nanjing University for 137 Cs and other types of analysis. The sediment samples were oven dried at approximately 100 deg. C. at the Nanjing University isotope laboratory and the % loss of water used to determine the wet and dry densities. The contents of 137 Cs were counted using an n-type HPGe γ-ray spectrometry system. The coaxial detector has an efficiency of 25%, with a lead shield 12 cm thick. Each sample was measured for 12h

  11. Universal neonatal hearing screening program in Shanghai, China: An inter-regional and international comparison.

    Fang, Xingang; Li, Xi; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Jin; Sun, Mei; Chang, Fengshui; Lü, Jun; Chen, Gang

    2016-11-01

    By comparing the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening (UNHS) program as implemented in Shanghai and other regions in China and countries around the world, this study makes an assessment of the Shanghai model and summarizes the experiences implementing the UNHS program, so as to provide a valuable reference for other countries or regions to carry out UNHS more effectively. Since Shanghai is one of the most developed regions in China, we also examined the relationship between economic development and the UNHS starting year and coverage rate. The study conducted a systematic review of published studies in Chinese and English on the program status of neonatal hearing screening to compare and analyze the implementation of the UNHS program in 20 cities or provinces in China and 24 regions or countries around the world. The literature search in Chinese was conducted in the three most authoritative publication databases, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), WANFANGDATA, and CQVIP (http://www.cqvip.com/). We searched all publications in those databases with the keywords "neonatal hearing screening" (in Chinese) between 2005 and 2014. English literature was searched using the same keywords (in English). The publication database included Medline and Web of Science, and the search time period was 2000-2014. Shanghai was one of the first regions in China to implement UNHS, and its coverage rate was among the top regions by international comparison. The starting time of the UNHS program had no relationship with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in the same year. Economic level serves as a threshold for carrying out UNHS but is not a linear contributor to the exact starting time of such a program. The screening coverage rate generally showed a rising trend with the increasing GDP per capita in China, but it had no relationship with the area's GDP per capita in selected regions and countries around the world. The system design of UNHS is the key factor

  12. Contextual influences affecting patterns of overweight and obesity among university students: a 50 universities population-based study in China.

    Yang, Tingzhong; Yu, Lingwei; Barnett, Ross; Jiang, Shuhan; Peng, Sihui; Fan, Yafeng; Li, Lu

    2017-05-08

    Many studies have examined childhood and adolescent obesity, but few have examined young adults and the effect of their home and current living environments on prevalence rates. The present study explores contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among university students in China and, in particular, focuses on how the SES-obesity relationship varies across different geographical contexts. Participants were 11,673 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in overweight and obesity. Overall the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study sample was 9.5% (95% CI 7.7, 11.3%). After controlling for individual factors, both attributes of the home location (regional GDP per capita and rurality) and the current university location (city population) were found to be important, thus suggesting that the different origins of students affect current levels of obesity. At the individual level, while students with more financial resources were more likely to be obese, the extent of this relationship was highly dependent upon area income and city size. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among young adults and indicate a need to take into account both past as well as present environmental influences when considering the role of contextual factors in models of the nutrition transition.

  13. Deep sea drilling in the Arabian Sea: Constraining tectonic-monsoon interactions in South Asia (Report)

    Pandey, D.K.; Clift, P.D.; Kulhanek, D.K.; Andò, S.; Bendle, J.A.P.; Bratenkov, S.; Griffith, E.M.; Gurumurthy, G.P.; Hahn, A.; Iwai, M.; Khim, B.-K.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.G.; Liddy, H.M.; Lu., H.; Lyle, M.W.; Mishra, R.; Radhakrishna, T.; Routledge, C.M.; Saraswat, R.; Saxena, R.; Scardia, G.; Sharma, G.K.; Singh, A.D.; Steinke, S.; Suzuki, K.; Tauxe, L.; Tiwari, M.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Z.

    Sciences University of Southern California 3651 Trousdale Parkway Los Angeles CA 90089 USA liddy@usc.edu Huayu Lu Sedimentologist School of Geographical and Oceanographical Sciences Nanjing University 163 Xianlin Avenue Nanjing 210023 China huayulu...

  14. First evidence of denitrification vis-a-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since late Miocene

    Tripathi, S.; Tiwari, M.; Lee, J.; Khim, B.-K.; Pandey, D.K.; Clift, P.D.; Kulhanek, D.K.; Ando, S.; Bendle, J.A.P.; Aharonovich, S.; Griffith, E.M.; Gurumurthy, G.P.; Hahn, A.; Iwai, M.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.G.; Liddy, H.M.; Lu, H.; Lyle, M.W.; Mishra, R.; Radhakrishna, T.; Routledge, C.M.; Saraswat, R.; Saxena, R.; Scardia, G.; Sharma, G.K.; Singh, A.D.; Steinke, S.; Suzuki, K.; Tauxe, L.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Z.

    of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, 3651 Trousdale Parkway Los Angeles CA 90089, USA. 15School of Geographical and Oceanographical Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China. 16College of Earth, Ocean...

  15. Foreign University Involvement in Sustainable New Town Planning in Provincial China

    David. J. Edelman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recent concern with sustainable urban development has focused on the widespread development of new towns and the expansion of cities throughout China. In recent decades, an increasing number of planning and design professionals in the United States and Europe have undertaken consulting work in China. This study examines the first instance of a Chinese city funding an American academic planning unit to create a conceptual plan for a new town. The School of Planning from the University of Cincinnati was commissioned to prepare the conceptual plan for the Anyang Eastern New Town. Prior to the drafting of the plan, faculty and students visited the site on a reconnaissance and data gathering mission, undertook research and studio work, organized presentations, and navigated the labyrinthine bureaucracy at the local, provincial, and national levels. These experiences differ considerably from those encountered in places such as Shanghai and the southern coastal plain region. This article identifies a number of issues that play a key role in the success of projects involving American or European Universities in conjunction with the Chinese government, particularly provincial authorities. This paper provides a valuable reference for any organization involved in such undertakings. KEYWORDS: Chinese urban planning, sustainable urban design, provincial planning

  16. The Association between Cultural Orientation and Drinking Behaviors among University Students in Wuhan, China

    Tang, Hongxiu; Cai, Weibin; Wang, Hongjing; Zhang, Qing; Qian, Ling; Shell, Duane F.; Newman, Ian M.; Yin, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR = 1.80, Pstudent being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR = 4.40, Pstudents (OR = 2.59, Pstudents from urban areas (OR = 1.79, Pstudents attending key universities (OR = 0.48, Pattending general universities. Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation. The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives. PMID:23359611

  17. Expert consensus on acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the People's Republic of China

    Cai BQ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bai-qiang Cai,1 Shao-xi Cai,2 Rong-chang Chen,3 Li-ying Cui,4 Yu-lin Feng,5 Yu-tong Gu,6 Shao-guang Huang,7 Rong-yu Liu,8 Guang-nan Liu,9 Huan-zhong Shi,10 Yi Shi,11 Yuan-lin Song,6 Tie-ying Sun,12 Chang-zheng Wang,13 Jing-lan Wang,1 Fu-qiang Wen,5 Wei Xiao,14 Yong-jian Xu,15 Xi-xin Yan,16 Wan-zhen Yao,17 Qin Yu,18 Jing Zhang,6 Jin-ping Zheng,3 Jie Liu,6 Chun-xue Bai6 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2Southern Medical University South Hospital, Guangzhou, 3The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College and Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Guangzhou, 4Affiliate Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehaote, 5Huaxi Hospital of Sichuan University, Chendu, 6Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University and Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Shanghai, 7Ruijing Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 8The First Affiliated University of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 9The First Affiliated University of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 10Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 11General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Nanjing, 12Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health, Beijing, 13Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 14Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 15Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 16The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University and Hebei Research Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Shijiazhuang, 17The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing, 18The First Affiliated University of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common disease that severely threatens human health. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD is a major cause of

  18. Acceptability of early infant male circumcision among chinese parents: strategy implications of HIV prevention for china

    Pan Lianjun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence has confirmed that circumcision can be performed as a preventive strategy for HIV and early infant male circumcision (EIMC is regarded to be safer than circumcision in adulthood; however, limited data are available in the literature about EIMC in China. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the willingness and attitudes of Chinese parents on newborn male circumcision so as to provide data for exploring the feasibility of implementing EIMC as an HIV prevention strategy in China. Methods Simple random sampling was used to draw participants from parents who had a newborn son delivered at Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, which is affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, between March and December 2010. A questionnaire was used to determine general medical knowledge or information about circumcision, attitudes about EIMC, and level of decision-making on circumcision for the newborn son. Results Data derived from 558 responses were analyzed and the ratio of respondents was 56.3% for fathers and 43.6% for mothers. Of the respondents, 34.4% agreed to circumcise their newborn son, and the level of agreement was 3.25 ± 1.17 (range, 1–5 with “1” being “reluctantly agree” and “5” being “very strongly agree”. The major reason for EIMC was for health (44.8%, followed by doctor’s advice (31.2%. The major reason not to agree to EIMC was concern about pain (50.5%, followed by the risk of the procedure (23.5%. Conclusion The willingness and acceptability of EIMC in China is low and the parents of newborn sons are usually not very affirmative when making a decision on such a procedure, suggesting that significant effort will be needed if EIMC is to be implemented as an HIV prevention strategy for China.

  19. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang

    2017-06-01

    This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster

  20. Psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior among university students in contemporary China.

    Tang, Fang; Byrne, Majella; Qin, Ping

    2018-03-01

    Psychological distress and suicidal behavior are important mental health problems among university students and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention in this young population. The present study aimed to assess psychological distress and suicidal behavior and to unravel their associations among university students. A total of 5972 undergraduate students, randomly selected from six universities in central China, comprised the sample. The Chinese version of the Symptom Checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess various psychological symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between psychological distress and risk for suicidal behavior. 40.7% of the university students reported positive in a least one of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions assessed by the SCL-90-R. 7.6% of the students reported suicidal behavior in the previous twelve months. The risk of suicidal behavior was significantly associated with psychological symptoms of all types, but there were notable differences by sex. For male students, depression and phobic anxiety increased the risk of suicidal behavior. Meanwhile, depression and obsessive-compulsiveness were positively associated with suicidal behavior in female students. Furthermore, increasing risk of suicidal behavior was associated with increasing positive symptom total (PST) score and a statistically significant trend was observed. Data collected from a cross-sectional survey does not allow any examination of causal inference. Psychological distress and suicidal behavior were both common among university students; and psychological distress was highly associated with suicidal behavior. The findings underscore the importance of mental health care for university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China

    Liu, Hongchun; Yansane, Alfa Ibrahim; Zhang, Yurong; Fu, Haijun; Hong, Nanrui; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to investigate burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students of Sun Yat-sen University, China. A total of 453 undergraduate students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire between January and February, 2016. Burnout and study engagement were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and the UTRECHT Work Engagement Scale-Students (UWES-S), respectively. Subjects who scored high in emotional exhaustion subscale, high in cynicism subscale, and low in professional efficacy subscale simultaneously were graded as having high risk of burnout. Independent sample t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the differences in burnout and work engagement between genders, majors, and grade levels. The means (standard deviations) of the MBI-SS subscales were 3.42 (1.45) for emotional exhaustion, 2.34 (1.64) for cynicism, and 3.04 (1.30) for professional efficacy. The means (standard deviations) of the UWES-S subscales were 3.13 (1.49) for vigor, 3.44 (1.47) for dedication and 3.00 (1.51) for absorption. Approximately 1 in 11 students experienced a high risk of burnout. There were no statistically significant gender differences in burnout and study engagement. There were also no statistically significant differences in burnout and study engagement subscales according to student major. Students in higher grades displayed increased burnout risk, higher mean burnout subscale score of cynicism, lower mean burnout subscale score of professional efficacy, and decreased mean study engagement subscale scores of dedication and absorption. There were strong correlations within study engagement subscales. Chinese medical students in this university experience a high level of burnout. Students at higher-grade level experience more burnout and decreased study engagement compared with students in lower

  2. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China.

    Chi, Xinli; Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2012-11-13

    In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic relationships and urban native

  3. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    Chi Xinli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students

  4. Prevalence and correlates of sexual behaviors among university students: a study in Hefei, China

    2012-01-01

    Background In China, sexual health and behaviors of young people have become a growing public concern but few studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of the phenomenon. Methods A self-reported questionnaire survey on youth sexual behaviors was conducted among 1,500 university students in 2011 at Hefei, a middle-size city in eastern China. A total of 1,403 students (age = 20.30 ± 1.27 years) completed the questionnaire with a high response rate of 93.5%. Results Among the respondents, 12.6% (15.4% of male versus 8.6% of female) students reported having pre-marital heterosexual intercourse; 10.8% (10.5% of males versus 11.2% females) had oral sex; 2.7% (3.4% of males versus 1.7% females) reported same-sex activities; 46% (70.3% of males versus 10.8% of females) reported masturbation behaviors; 57.4% (86.2% of males versus 15.6% females) students viewed pornography. In terms of sexual communication about sexual knowledge acquisition, 13.7% (10.7% of males versus 18% of females) talked to their parents about sex; 7.1% (6.1% of males versus 8.4% of females) students reported having conversation with parents on contraception. About forcing sexual behavior, 2.7% (4% of males versus 0.9% of females) reported forcing their sexual partners to have sex, and 1.9% (2.4% of males versus 1.2% of females) reported being forced to have sex. Gender was found to be significant predictor of sexual behaviors in university students: males reported more sexual behaviors including sexual fantasy, heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, viewing pornography and talking about sex with friends. Several correlates of sexual behaviors were identified for students of different gender separately. For males, having romantic relationships, past sex education experiences, low educational aspirations, time spent on the Internet, and urban native settings were significantly associated with more sexual behaviors. For female students, having romantic

  5. Home Medication Cabinets and Medication Taking Behavior of the Staffs in a University in China

    Xue, Chengbin; Ye, Juan; Dong, Yuzhen; Xu, Chunmei

    2018-01-01

    Background: A growing sum of medicines is stored in home medication cabinets in China, with the behavior of self-medication increasing. Although responsible self-medication can help prevent and treat ailments that do not need professional consultation, it bears the risk of misuse of medicines issued on prescription due to inadequate prescription medicine administration. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the condition and safety of medication storage and intended self-medication in a University in China. Method: The study was conducted over 10 month period (May 2015-March 2016) and involved a random sample of households. The questionnaire survey and personal insight into household medicine supplies was performed by a team of trained pharmacy staffs. Interviewees (N = 398, aged 16-88 y) were visited door to door and the home medication cabinets were catalogued after the participants were interviewed. Results: The majority (89.71%) households have home medicine cabinets. The total number of medicine items in the 398 households was 5600, with a median of 14 per household. The most frequently encountered categories of registered medicines were cough and cold medcines (47.8%), antibacterials for systemic use (30.0%), topical products for joint and muscular pain(26.1%), vitamins (23.2%), medication for functional gastrointestinal disorders (23.2%), oral and external forms have not kept separately(55.1%). The most treatment related problems recorded were curative effect not ideal (57.9%). 68% of the sample population would choose doctors as medication consultation object about medicines purchased. Conclusion: Large sum of medicines were found per household, with a high prevalence of cough and cold medcines. Public services in China, mainly government and health organizations, need put more effort on educating people on how to store medicines, as well as finding a way to raise awareness of the public in promoting behavioral change about medication

  6. The Developing Purposes of Low-Income College Students in China's Elite Universities: A Longitudinal Case Study of How Socioeconomic Background and University Culture Interact to Influence the Development and Realization of Low Income College Students' Goals

    Zhao, Wanxia

    2014-01-01

    In the process of China's transformation from a socialist to a post-socialist society, China's entire system of education has experienced breathtaking expansion and reform. In this context, first-tier universities increasingly accept students from more financially well off backgrounds. While second-tier universities are inclined to accept more…

  7. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    YUZHI CHEN1 2 XUDONG CHEN2 JINGWU BU3. Architectural Engineering Institute, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211169, China; College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hobai University, Nanjing 210098, China; College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing ...

  8. An Investigation of Creative Climate of University R&D Centers and Policy Implications for Innovation in China

    Zhou, Chunfang; Rasmussen, Palle; Chemi, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the influences of science and technology (S&T) policies on creative climate of university R&D centers in China that provide policy implications for improving roles of university R&D in innovation system. The empirical data came from two questionnaire surveys, one...... is with members from R&D centers, another with leaders of S&T fund management sectors in universities. The results demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses of creative climate of university R&D centers. This leads to implications such as to improve a more comprehensive innovation Measurement system and to build...

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding solar ultraviolet exposure among medical university students in Northeast China.

    Gao, Qian; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Yang

    2014-11-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and sun exposure among medical university students in Northeast China, 385 subjects were investigated on October 2013 using a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire. Most of the subjects knew the effects of UVR on skin cancer (95.6%) and sunburn (92.2%), but fewer knew of the eye damage that can result from UVR (27.8% cataract and 3.1% pterygium). Correspondingly, the main purpose of adopting sun protection was considered to be 'preventing sunburn' (55.4%), but 'preventing eye damage' was the least (1.8%). In actual behaviour, the eyes received the least protection as well. Although knowing the effects of UVR on vitamin D synthesis (87.3%), 66.8% of participants never or seldom increased sun exposure. Compared to men, women were more likely to reduce sun exposure (Pattractive. Considering the response variability to UVR in people with different skin colours, different sun protection programs should be provided. In China, especially in the North, the public should be educated to moderately increase sun exposure to maintain adequate vitamin D status while also protecting against eye damage from UVR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cycle Tracks and Parking Environments in China: Learning from College Students at Peking University.

    Yuan, Changzheng; Sun, Yangbo; Lv, Jun; Lusk, Anne C

    2017-08-18

    China has a historic system of wide cycle tracks, many of which are now encroached by cars, buses and bus stops. Even with these conditions, college students still bicycle. On campuses, students park their bikes on facilities ranging from kick-stand-plazas to caged sheds with racks, pumps and an attendant. In other countries, including Canada, some of the newer cycle tracks need to be wider to accommodate an increasing number of bicyclists. Other countries will also need to improve their bike parking, which includes garage-basement cages and two-tiered racks. China could provide lessons about cycle tracks and bike parking. This study applied the Maslow Transportation Level of Service (LOS) theory, i.e., for cycle tracks and bike parking, only after the basic needs of safety and security are met for both vehicle occupants and bicyclists can the higher needs of convenience and comfort be met. With random clustering, a self-administered questionnaire was collected from 410 students in six dormitory buildings at Peking University in Beijing and an environmental scan of bicycle parking conducted in school/office and living areas. Cycle tracks (1 = very safe/5 = very unsafe) shared with moving cars were most unsafe (mean = 4.6), followed by sharing with parked cars (4.1) or bus stop users (4.1) ( p racks and bicycle parking services (pumps, etc.). If parking were improved, three quarters indicated they would bicycle more. While caged sheds were preferred, in living areas with 1597 parked bikes, caged sheds were only 74.4% occupied. For the future of China's wide cycle tracks, perhaps a fence-separated bus lane beside a cycle track might be considered or, with China's recent increase in bike riding, shared bikes and E-bikes, perhaps cars/buses could be banned from the wide cycle tracks. In other countries, a widened cycle track entrance should deter cars. Everywhere, bike parking sheds could be built and redesigned with painted lines to offer more space and order, similar

  11. Availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China under universal health coverage : an empirical study in Hangzhou and Baoji

    Huang, Yunyu; Jiang, Youfen; Zhang, Luying; Mao, Wenhui; van Boven, Job F M; Postma, Maarten J; Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China following the 2009 Health Care System Reform that included implementation of universal health coverage (UHC). METHODS: This longitudinal study was performed in Hangzhou (high income, eastern

  12. Availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China under universal health coverage : an empirical study in Hangzhou and Baoji

    Huang, Yunyu; Jiang, Youfen; Zhang, Luying; Mao, Wenhui; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China following the 2009 Health Care System Reform that included implementation of universal health coverage (UHC). Methods: This longitudinal study was performed in Hangzhou (high income, eastern

  13. Assessment Planning within the Context of University English Language Teaching (ELT) in China: Implications for Teacher Assessment Literacy

    Xu, Yueting

    2016-01-01

    Teacher assessment literacy (AL) is a concern for both educational assessment and teacher education research. As part of teacher AL, teacher competency of assessment planning has remained underexplored. To address this gap, this study explored how a group of 20 contest-winning university English teachers in China planned for assessment through…

  14. A Study on the Measurement of Job-Related Stress among Women Academics in Research Universities of China

    Zhang, Lili

    2010-01-01

    This study intends to gain an understanding of the sources of stress among women academics in research universities of China. Studies have shown that, compared with their male counterparts, women report higher level of stress in work/family conflicts, gender barriers and career development. Based on the results of this study, the following…

  15. Tensions in School-University Partnership and EFL Pre-Service Teacher Identity Formation: A Case in Mainland China

    He, Peichang; Lin, Angel M. Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we discuss an ethnographic case study of the teaching practice (practicum) experience of a student teacher, Lynn, in a university partnership school in mainland China. Drawing on Activity Theory, we conceptualise Lynn's practicum as boundary-crossing between two different activity systems: those of the school community and the…

  16. Prevalence, risk factors and microorganisms of urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study in China

    He K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ke He,1,2,* Yun Hu,2,* Jun-Cheng Shi,2 Yun-Qing Zhu,2 Xiao-Ming Mao2 1Department of Endocrinology, Wuxi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuxi Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Wuxi, China; 2Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs occur more frequently in diabetic patients. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence, risk factors and microorganisms of UTIs in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D.Patients and methods: A total of 3,652 Chinese inpatients with T2D were reviewed and data on their clinical characteristics, symptoms of UTIs, random blood glucose, HbA1c, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, insulin autoantibody, albumin excretion rate in 24-hour urine, urine culture and susceptibility to antibiotics, and so on were collected. Binary logistic analysis was performed to look for risk factors of UTIs.Results: There were 409 (11.2% patients suffering from UTIs. Gender, age, random blood glucose, insulin autoantibody and albumin excretion rate in 24-hour urine were the risk factors of UTIs in diabetic patients. The percentage of positive urine cultures was higher in the asymptomatic bacteriuria patients than in symptomatic patients (P<0.001. The incidence of septicemia was considerable in the UTIs and asymptomatic bacteriuria groups. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogenic microorganism isolated in diabetic patients with UTIs, and one-half of the E. coli infections were multidrug resistant. Furthermore, meropenem was the most effective antibiotic on E. coli.Conclusion: We suggest that a routine urine analysis or urine culture should be conducted in patients with T2D diabetes who have the identified risk factors. The UTIs might affect the islet function or blood glucose control in patients with T2D. Before a doctor decides to prescribe

  17. The association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students in Wuhan, China.

    Hongxiu Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside. METHODS: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey collected data from 1279 university students from six universities in central China. Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers. Bicultural orientation (OR = 1.80, P<0.05 and marginal orientation (OR = 1.64, P<0.05 increased the likelihood of the student being regular drinking, compared to students with traditional orientations. Males (OR = 4.40, P<0.05 had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than females, graduate students (OR = 2.59, P<0.05 had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than undergraduates, students from urban areas (OR = 1.79, P<0.05 had a higher likelihood of regular drinking than those from towns/rural areas, and students attending key universities (OR = 0.48, P<0.05 had a lower likelihood of regular drinking than those attending general universities. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender

  18. Network-based landscape of research strengths of universities in Mainland China

    Liu, Zihua; Xiao, Qin; Zhan, Qian; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2017-07-01

    A landscape of a complex system presents a quantitative measure of its global state. The profile of research strength in Mainland China is investigated in detail, by which we illustrate a complex network based framework to extract a landscape from detailed records. First, a measure analogous to the Jaccard similarity is proposed to calculate from the presided funds similarities between the top-ranked universities. The neighbor threshold method is employed to reconstruct the similarity network of the universities. Second, the network is divided into communities. In each community the node with the largest degree and the smallest average shortest path length is taken as the representative of the community, called central node. The node bridging each pair of communities is defined to be a boundary. The central nodes and boundaries cooperatively give us a picture of the research strength landscape. Third, the evolutionary behavior is monitored by the fission and fusion probability matrices, elements of which are the percentage of a community at present time that joins into every community at the next time, and the percentage of a community at next time that comes from every present community, respectively. The landscapes in three successive 4-year durations are identified. It was found that some types of universities, such as the medicine&pharmacy and the finance&economy, conserve in single communities in the more than ten years, respectively. The agriculture&forest universities tend to cluster into one community. Meanwhile the engineering type distributes in different communities and tends to mix with the comprehension type. This framework can be used straightforwardly to analyze temporal networks. It provides also a new network-based method for multivariate time series analysis.

  19. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China

    Ping Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively. As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China.

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong

    2016-07-12

    In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.

  1. Prediction and analysis of the secreteomic in Corynebacterium ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Life ... Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, P.R. China. ..... of particular interest for future experimental study.

  2. Turning around Low-Performing Private Universities in China: A Perspective of Organisational Ecology

    Li, Xiaofan

    2012-01-01

    While China has a long history of private institutions of higher learning, they disappeared almost entirely after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and did not re-emerge until the 1980s. Their reappearance is one of the ramifications of economic marketisation and privatisation in China. But private higher education…

  3. [Scale effect of Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern and connectivity analysis.

    Yu, Ya Ping; Yin, Hai Wei; Kong, Fan Hua; Wang, Jing Jing; Xu, Wen Bin

    2016-07-01

    Based on ArcGIS, Erdas, GuidosToolbox, Conefor and other software platforms, using morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) and landscape connectivity analysis methods, this paper quantitatively analysed the scale effect, edge effect and distance effect of the Nanjing urban green infrastructure network pattern in 2013 by setting different pixel sizes (P) and edge widths in MSPA analysis, and setting different dispersal distance thresholds in landscape connectivity analysis. The results showed that the type of landscape acquired based on the MSPA had a clear scale effect and edge effect, and scale effects only slightly affected landscape types, whereas edge effects were more obvious. Different dispersal distances had a great impact on the landscape connectivity, 2 km or 2.5 km dispersal distance was a critical threshold for Nanjing. When selecting the pixel size 30 m of the input data and the edge wide 30 m used in the morphological model, we could get more detailed landscape information of Nanjing UGI network. Based on MSPA and landscape connectivity, analysis of the scale effect, edge effect, and distance effect on the landscape types of the urban green infrastructure (UGI) network was helpful for selecting the appropriate size, edge width, and dispersal distance when developing these networks, and for better understanding the spatial pattern of UGI networks and the effects of scale and distance on the ecology of a UGI network. This would facilitate a more scientifically valid set of design parameters for UGI network spatiotemporal pattern analysis. The results of this study provided an important reference for Nanjing UGI networks and a basis for the analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of medium-scale UGI landscape networks in other regions.

  4. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits. PMID:29584626

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing

    Dongyang Nie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5 over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL attributable to PM2.5, and mortality benefits due to PM2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF, stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD, lung cancer (LC and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQG of 10 μg/m3, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  6. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associated Health Burden in Nanjing.

    Nie, Dongyang; Chen, Mindong; Wu, Yun; Ge, Xinlei; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Kai; Ge, Pengxiang

    2018-03-27

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a serious environmental problem in Nanjing and poses great health risks to local residents. In this study, characteristics of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) over Nanjing were analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM 2.5 concentrations and meteorological parameters collected from nine national monitoring sites during the period of March 2014 to February 2017. Then, the integrated exposure-response (IER) model was applied to assess premature mortality, years of life lost (YLL) attributable to PM 2.5 , and mortality benefits due to PM 2.5 reductions. The concentrations of PM 2.5 varied among hours, seasons and years, which can be explained by differences in emission sources, secondary formations and meteorological conditions. The decreased ratio of PM 2.5 to CO suggested that secondary contributions decreased while the relative contributions of vehicle exhaust increased from increased CO data. According to the values of attributable fractions (AF), stroke was the major cause of death, followed by ischemic heart disease (IHD), lung cancer (LC) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The estimated total deaths in Nanjing due to PM 2.5 were 12,055 and 10,771, leading to 98,802 and 87,647 years of life lost in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The elderly and males had higher health risks than youngsters and females. When the PM 2.5 concentrations meet the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) of 10 μg/m³, 84% of the premature deaths would be avoided, indicating that the Nanjing government needs to adopt more stringent measure to reduce PM pollution and enhance the health benefits.

  7. Spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on climatic suitability using the Universal Thermal Climate Index

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Xueming; Xi, Jianchao; Feng, Zhangxian

    2017-11-01

    As a result of global warming and the gradual exacerbation of the urban heat island effect, vacationing in the summer to escape the heat has become a compelling tourism demand. This study examines the spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on meteorological observations and tourism resources data from 1960 to 2014. The Universal Thermal Climate Index and analytic hierarchy process model were used to analyze climatic suitability. The findings are as follows. First, the spatial distribution of China's summer tourism resources exhibits a double-peak characteristic, with concentrations in the mid- and high-latitude and high-altitude regions. Second, the most influential destinations in China based on the composite index were Guiyang, Qingdao, Harbin, and Dalian. These findings can helpful for people who are planning their summer vacations, as well as tourism managers who benefit from such increases in the number of tourists.

  8. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    ... YU1 JUAN QIN2 JIAQI ZHANG1 FULIN CHENG1 WENLIANG WU1. College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China; Technology and Finance Service Center of Jiangsu Province, Productivity Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, People's Republic of China ...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning self-medication with antibiotics among university students in western China.

    Lv, Bing; Zhou, Zhongliang; Xu, Guiping; Yang, Dingkun; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Jiang, Minghuan; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Guilan; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviours of university students on the use of antibiotics. A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to undergraduate students of Xi'an Jiaotong University, comprising 18 schools/colleges in Shaanxi Province, western China. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify risk factors associated with self-medication with antibiotics. Of the 731 respondents (response rate = 73.1%), 294 (40.2%) had self-medicated with antibiotics in the past 6 months. Most of the antibiotics (59.2%) for self-medication were purchased without prescription in retail pharmacies. The median score of students' knowledge about antibiotics was 4 (IQR: 3-6) of a maximum possible score of 10. Students had moderately accurate beliefs towards antibiotics. More than half of the students (56.5%) were storing antibiotics frequently. During self-medication, 16.7% of students claimed to have experienced adverse reactions, and 30.6% had used antibiotics to prevent common colds. The majority preferred to use broad-spectrum antibiotics, and nearly half preferred intravenous antibiotics. Over 44% of students had changed antibiotic dosage, and 36.5% had switched to another antibiotic during the treatment course. Logistic regression analysis identified college and home town as independent risk factors for self-medication with antibiotics (P students had inadequate knowledge, moderately accurate beliefs and inappropriate practices concerning antibiotics, and a high rate of self-medication. This highlights the need for focused educational intervention and stricter governmental regulation concerning antibiotic use and sale in retail pharmacies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Infection Rate in 1033 Elective Neurosurgical Procedures at a University Hospital in South China.

    Zhu, Hongwei; Liu, Xiyao; Wang, Zhanxiang

    2017-09-01

    Objective  Infection following surgery is a serious complication, especially in neurosurgery. The aim of the study is to report the change of incidence rates of infection in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures at a university hospital in South China as well as the risk factors. Material and Methods  The medical records and postoperative courses for patients undergoing 1,033 neurosurgical procedures from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed retrospectively to determine the incidence of neurosurgical infection, the identity of the offending organisms, and the factors associated with infection. Results  A total of 33 patients (40 cases) experienced postoperative infection representing 3.19% of the study population. Twenty cases were incision infections (1.94%), and 20 were cranial/spinal infections (1.94%) including 15 intracranial infections and 5 intraspinal infections. The 2.4-fold greater incidence of postoperative infection in 2008 to 2010 was compared with that in 2011 to 2014 with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis ( p neurosurgery (1.08%). The most common offending organism was Staphylococcus aureus (27.5%). Foreign body implantation, operative time > 4 hours, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak (13 infections in 158 patients; p <0.001) were risk factors for infections ( p <0.05). Conclusion  The neurosurgical infection rate is usually low with perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis even in developing countries. Less foreign body implantation, shorter operative times, and controlling CSF leak could reduce infection rates. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. China

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  12. On Reflective Teaching of EFL Teachers in Local Universities of China--A Case Study of Leshan Normal University, Sichuan

    Li, Zou; Ye, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Presently, China plays a vital role in the world. Therefore, Chinese passion for English has reached an unprecedented level. Nevertheless, various problems occur in EFL teaching. Thus, EFL teachers must make the teaching qualities better by reflective teaching, an effective way to improving EFL teaching. The paper is to study the definitions,…

  13. ICU-Onset Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in China: a prospective cohort study.

    Xiaohui Wang

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted to investigate the incidence, clinical profiles and outcome of ICU-onset CDI in a 50-bed medical ICU at a university hospital in China. Stools were collected from patients who developed ICU-onset diarrhea and was screened for tcdA (toxin A gene and tcdB (toxin B gene by PCR. CDI cases were compared with the ICU-onset non-CDI diarrhea cases for demographics, comorbidities, potential risk factors, major laboratory findings and outcomes. Stool samples from CDI cases were subjected to C. difficile culture and C. difficile isolates were screened for tcdA, tcdB and the binary toxin genes (cdtA and cdtB using multiplex PCR. Strain typing of toxigenic C. difficile isolates was performed using multilocus sequence typing. There were 1,277 patients in the ICU during the study period and 124 (9.7% developed ICU-onset diarrhea, of which 31 patients had CDI. The incidence of ICU-onset CDI was 25.2 cases per 10,000 ICU days. ICU-onset CDI cases had similar features with ICU-onset non-CDI diarrhea cases including the use of proton pump inhibitors and antibacterial agents. The crude mortality rate of ICU-onset CDI was 22.6%, but the attributable mortality rate of ICU-onset CDI was only 3.2% here. Toxigenic C. difficile isolates were recovered from 28 out of the 31 patients with CDI. cdtA and cdtB were found in two strains. Seventeen STs including 11 new STs were identified. All of the 11 new STs were single-locus variants of known STs and the 17 STs identified here could be clustered into 3 clades. The incidence of ICU-onset CDI here is similar to those in Europe and North America, suggesting that CDI is likely to be a common problem in China. Toxigenic C. difficile here belonged to a variety of STs, which may represent a significant clonal expansion rather than the true clonal diversity.

  14. Pengajaran Bahasa Melayu sebagai Bahasa Asing kepada Pelajar dari Negara China : Perkongsian Pengalaman di Universiti Sains Malaysia

    Mazlina Baharudin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM is one of the earliest public university which was established in Malaysia after Universiti Malaya. USM is also the first university that has been given the Apex status in Malaysia which is the highest recognition  and trust granted by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia to USM. USM has received students from different countries such as China, Libya, Sudan, Egypt, Nigeria, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Korea and other countries. However, this research focuses only on the international students from China who were registered as undergraduates in USM. This paper is based on the writer’s experiences in  teaching Bahasa Malaysia III (LKM 300 as a university course that the students must pass as a requirement for international students to graduate. The main dimension of this research is to examine the effectiveness of teaching Malay language as a foreign language to international students (China by using a teaching model that uses the Bahasa Malaysia III (LKM300 course module as determined by the School of Languages, Literacies and Translation. The research method used is full literature where the writers had referred to 43 international student’s final exam scripts that have taken the LKM300 course in the first semester of the 2012/2013 academic session. Their final exam result was taken for full analysis based on the different sections in the exam paper to be used as a source to conclude the research. This research is hoped to be able to provide an explanation of the effective results of the successful usage of the course module and students’ achievement.

  15. Recent progress in distributed optical fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Yi; Gong, Huaping; Yu, Xiangdong; Liu, Honglin; Jin, Yongxing; Kang, Juan; Li, Chenxia; Zhang, Wensheng; Zhang, Wenping; Niu, Xiaohui; Sun, Zhongzhou; Zhao, Chunliu; Dong, Xinyong; Jin, Shangzhong

    2012-06-01

    A brief review of recent progress in researches, productions and applications of full distributed fiber Raman photon sensors at China Jiliang University (CJLU) is presented. In order to improve the measurement distance, the accuracy, the space resolution, the ability of multi-parameter measurements, and the intelligence of full distributed fiber sensor systems, a new generation fiber sensor technology based on the optical fiber nonlinear scattering fusion principle is proposed. A series of new generation full distributed fiber sensors are investigated and designed, which consist of new generation ultra-long distance full distributed fiber Raman and Rayleigh scattering photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, auto-correction full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on Raman correlation dual sources, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors based on a pulse coding source, full distributed fiber Raman photon temperature sensors using a fiber Raman wavelength shifter, a new type of Brillouin optical time domain analyzers (BOTDAs) integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier for replacing a fiber Brillouin amplifier, full distributed fiber Raman and Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Raman amplifier, and full distributed fiber Brillouin photon sensors integrated with a fiber Brillouin frequency shifter. The Internet of things is believed as one of candidates of the next technological revolution, which has driven hundreds of millions of class markets. Sensor networks are important components of the Internet of things. The full distributed optical fiber sensor network (Rayleigh, Raman, and Brillouin scattering) is a 3S (smart materials, smart structure, and smart skill) system, which is easy to construct smart fiber sensor networks. The distributed optical fiber sensor can be embedded in the power grids, railways, bridges, tunnels, roads, constructions, water supply systems, dams, oil and gas pipelines and other

  16. Association between serum uric acid levels and obesity among university students (China).

    Duan, Ying; Liang, Wei; Zhu, Lijun; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhognhua; Chen, Yan; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the association between serum uric acid and obesity among university students who participated in routine health screening in 2013. In this cross-sectional study, 3529 subjects were analyzed. Obesity categories were classified by BMI levels references in China. And serum uric acid levels were classified by serum uric acid quartiles. Two-sample T-test and Wilcoxon Rank sum test were used to compare age, biochemical and anthropometric parameters of subjects of two genders. Rank correlation used to analyze relationship between serum uric acid and obesity. There were 1285 males (mean age, 19.8 ± 1.3 years) and 2244 females (mean age, 19.9 ± 1.3 years) in this study. Association between 2nd serum uric acid quartile and normal in male are significant and coefficient was 0.519. The 3rd serum uric acid quartile and normal in female was associated significantly (r = 0.173, p = 0.010). And associations between overweight and 3rd and 4th serum uric acid quartiles in female were significant (r = 0.128, p = 0.038 in 1st quartile and r = 0.282, p = 0.004 in 4th quartile). The 4th serum uric acid quartile and Obesity in two gender groups were significantly associated (r = 0.291, p = 0.000 in male and r = 0.484, p = 0.001 in female). High serum uric acid was positively associated with obesity in overweight and obesity group. However, the association was weak between two variables because serum uric acid influenced obesity with other related factors together. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk perception of heat waves and its spatial variation in Nanjing, China

    Huang, Lei; Yang, Qianqi; Li, Jie; Chen, Jin; He, Ruoying; Zhang, Can; Chen, Kai; Dong, Steven Guanpeng; Liu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The intensity, frequency, and duration of heat waves are expected to increase with climate change. In this study, we found a significant difference of public perceived effects of heat waves and trust in government among urban, suburban, and rural districts. Rural residents had a significant higher effect perception than urbanites and also showed stronger willingness to have medical insurance or regular physical examinations. Meanwhile, suburban residents had the lowest trust perception in government among these three districts, which may be due to suburban districts' unique social structure and complex social issues. Besides, we assessed the relationship between the factor effect and demographic variables. The results showed that urban respondents' effect perception was significantly related to heat wave experiences. Suburban respondents' effect perception was significantly related to age, income, and heat wave experiences. And rural respondents' effect perception was significantly related to income and chronic diseases. Based on our results, much more attention needs to be paid to rural districts. The government should strengthen infrastructure construction such as cooling centers, improve emergency response plans and mechanisms, and increase reserves of emergency supplies in rural districts. Also, targeted risk communication is of the equal importance to aid the policy-makers improving the relationship with the public and regaining the public's trust and support.

  18. Risk perception of heat waves and its spatial variation in Nanjing, China

    Huang, Lei; Yang, Qianqi; Li, Jie; Chen, Jin; He, Ruoying; Zhang, Can; Chen, Kai; Dong, Steven Guanpeng; Liu, Yang

    2018-05-01

    The intensity, frequency, and duration of heat waves are expected to increase with climate change. In this study, we found a significant difference of public perceived effects of heat waves and trust in government among urban, suburban, and rural districts. Rural residents had a significant higher effect perception than urbanites and also showed stronger willingness to have medical insurance or regular physical examinations. Meanwhile, suburban residents had the lowest trust perception in government among these three districts, which may be due to suburban districts' unique social structure and complex social issues. Besides, we assessed the relationship between the factor effect and demographic variables. The results showed that urban respondents' effect perception was significantly related to heat wave experiences. Suburban respondents' effect perception was significantly related to age, income, and heat wave experiences. And rural respondents' effect perception was significantly related to income and chronic diseases. Based on our results, much more attention needs to be paid to rural districts. The government should strengthen infrastructure construction such as cooling centers, improve emergency response plans and mechanisms, and increase reserves of emergency supplies in rural districts. Also, targeted risk communication is of the equal importance to aid the policy-makers improving the relationship with the public and regaining the public's trust and support.

  19. Access to homeownership in urban China : A comparison between skilled migrants and skilled locals in Nanjing

    Cui, Can; Geertman, Stan; Hooimeijer, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Radical economic restructuring has resulted in a large flow of skilled migrants into ever-expanding Chinese cities in the past decade. Dreaming of owning a home in the destination city, skilled migrants compete with locals on the housing market. It is important to know how and when people acquire

  20. Green apartments in Nanjing China : Do developers and planners understand the valuation by residents?

    Hu, H.; Geertman, S.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government promotes green construction as part of the strategy to reduce energy consumption. In practice, green construction can be impeded because various stakeholders valuate green attributes in different ways. This paper uses the analytic hierarchy process to analyse the extent to

  1. A model of destination image promotion with a case study of Nanjing, P. R. China

    Xiang Li; Hans Vogelsong

    2003-01-01

    Destination image has long been a popular research topic in tourism studies. However, methods used to integrate image in real marketing practice and evaluating the market performance in a systematic way are still puzzling to practitioners. A destination image promotion model is proposed in this paper as an effort to solve the problem. The roles of some major factors...

  2. Risk Factors of Building Apartments for University Talent through the Agent Construction Mode in China: Interrelationship and Prioritization

    Zhengrong Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apartments for university talent (AUT, are apartments provided to staff at non-market price, in order to attract outstanding scholars from around the world to work in universities and improve educational quality. This has been a critical issue in achieving social sustainability in China during rapid urbanization and industrialization. The agent construction mode has been adopted to build AUT because universities usually lack relevant management experience. The agent construction mode is a type of turnkey engineer construction based on the principal-agent model, project bidding mode, engineering contracting projects, and project supervision system. Risk factors are important considerations for both universities and agent construction companies. Although some studies have investigated the risk factors, only a few studies have identified the hierarchical structure of relevant risk factors. Therefore, the interrelationship and prioritization of the risk factors remain unknown, and this situation presents a barrier to better risk management. This paper investigates the interrelationship of risk factors with interpretative structural modeling (ISM. In addition, fuzzy MICMAC (matric d’impacts croises-multiplication appliqué a un classemen analysis was conducted to prioritize the risk factors. The findings provide useful references for better risk management of building AUT through the agent construction mode. Although this study focuses on China, the analytical process can also be generalized to other research topics and other countries.

  3. Gender role attitudes, awareness and experiences of non-consensual sex among university students in Shanghai, China.

    Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Lian, Qiguo; Shah, Iqbal H

    2018-03-15

    Non-consensual sex (NCS) among young people, an important subject with public health and human rights implications, was less studied in China. This study is to investigate the NCS awareness and victimization of university students in Shanghai, China and whether they were associated with adolescent gender-role attitudes. Gender-role attitudes, awareness and victimization of different forms of NCS were examined among 1099 undergraduates (430 males and 669 females) in four universities in Shanghai using computer-assisted self-interview approach. University students held relatively egalitarian attitude to gender roles. Gender difference existed that girls desired to be more equal in social status and resource sharing while more endorsed the submissiveness for women in sexual interaction than boys. They held low vigilance on the risk of various forms of NCS, with the mean score on perception of NCS among boys (5.67) lower than that among girls (6.37). Boys who adhered to traditional gender norms were less likely to aware the nature of NCS (β = - 0.6107, p = 0.0389). Compared with boys, higher proportion of girls had been the victims of verbal harassment, unwanted touch, fondling, and penetrative sexual intercourse. Multivariable analysis revealed that girls who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were more vulnerable to physical NCS (OR = 1.41, p = 0.0558). The weakening but still existing traditional gender norms had contributions in explaining the gender difference on the low vigilance of NCS and higher prevalence of victimization among university students in Shanghai, China. Interventions should be taken to challenge the traditional gender norms in individual and structural level, and promote the society to understand the nature of NCS better as well as enhance negotiation skills of adolescents and young people that prevent them from potentially risky situations or relationships.

  4. Acceptability of Male Circumcision among College Students in Medical Universities in Western China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Junjun Jiang

    Full Text Available Male circumcision (MC has been shown to reduce the risk of female to male transmission of HIV. The goal of this survey was to explore MC's acceptability and the factors associated with MC among college students in medical universities in western China.A cross-sectional study was carried out in three provinces in western China (Guangxi, Chongqing and Xinjiang to assess the acceptability of MC as well as to discover factors associated with the acceptability among college students in medical universities. A total of 1,790 uncircumcised male students from three medical universities were enrolled in this study. In addition, 150 students who had undergone MC were also enrolled in the survey, and they participated in in-depth interviews.Of all the uncircumcised participants (n = 1,790, 55.2% (n = 988 were willing to accept MC. Among those who accepted MC, 67.3% thought that MC could improve their sexual partners' hygiene, 46.3% believed that HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs could be partially prevented by MC. The multivariable logistic regression indicates that MC's acceptability was associated with three factors: the redundant foreskin (OR = 10.171, 95% CI = 7.629-13.559, knowing the hazard of having a redundant foreskin (OR = 1.597, 95% CI = 1.097-2.323, and enhancing sexual pleasure (OR = 1.628, 95% CI = 1.312-2.021. The in-depth interviews for subjects who had undergone MC showed that the major reason for having MC was the redundant foreskin (87.3%, followed by the benefits and the fewer complications of having MC done. In addition, most of these participants (65.3% said that the MC could enhance sexual satisfaction.MC's acceptance among college students in medical universities is higher than it is among other populations in western China. An implementation of an MC programme among this population is feasible in the future.

  5. [To promote universal eye health to push forward sustaining development of the prevention of blindness in China].

    Zhao, Jialiang

    2014-03-01

    Action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment for 2014-2019 endorsed by 66(th) World Health Assembly is an important document for promoting the global prevention of blindness. This action plan summarized the experiences and lessons in the global prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment from 2009 to 2013, raised the global goal for the prevention of blindness-the reduction in prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by 2019 from the baseline of 2010, set up the monitoring indicators for realizing the global goal. This document can be served as a roadmap to consolidate joint efforts aimed at working towards universal eye health in the world. This action plan must give a deep and important impact on the prevention of blindness in China.We should implement the action plan for the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment for 2014-2019 to push forward sustaining development of the prevention of blindness in China.

  6. Toward Universal Financial Inclusion in China : Models, Challenges, and Global Lessons

    World Bank Group; People's Bank of China

    2018-01-01

    China has achieved remarkable success in financial inclusion. China’s rate of account ownership – a basic metric of financial inclusion – has increased significantly in the past two decades and is now on par with that of other G-20 countries. Traditional financial service providers have dramatically increased the reach of the formal financial sector, including through the world’s largest agent banking network. China has also been an established leader in the fintech revolution, with new techn...

  7. Exophiala asiatica, a new species from a fatal case in China

    Li, D.M.; Li, R.Y.; de Hoog, G.S.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new species, Exophiala asiatica, isolated from an infection of the pharynx in a 20-year-old, immunocompetent woman in Nanjing, China. The infection was initiated by a fishbone prick in the pharynx, soon developed with facial nodules but subsequently seemed to have disappeared. Tonsil

  8. Medical curriculum reform in Sun Yat-sen University: implications from the results of GMER evaluation in China.

    Xiao, Haipeng; Xian, Liqing; Yu, Xueqing; Wang, Jianping

    2007-09-01

    Created by interlocking economies, a global language, the informatics revolution and rapid travel, globalization has penetrated all aspects of human life including science, environment, public health and medicine. Physicians are now members of a global community. The global physician should possess universal core essential competences required for medical practice throughout the world. The Institute for International Medical Education (IIME), created by the China Medical Board (CMB) of New York, has developed the " global minimal essential requirements" (GMER) that define the knowledge, skills, professional behavior and ethics that all physicians must have regardless of where they received their general medical education and training. The IIME initiated a pilot project in China in October, 2003, to evaluate the graduates of the 7- or 8-year track program of eight leading medical schools, including Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. The results of GMER evaluation indicated strengths and areas for improvement of our school in relation to international standards, which greatly re-invigorate our enthusiasm on medical curriculum reform on the new 8-year track program in Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. The modifications of our medical curriculum for the new 8-year track program based on the results of GMER evaluation are discussed in this paper.

  9. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  10. [A Survey for Colton and Other 3 Rare Blood Group Systems in Chinese Nanjing Han Population].

    Chen, Yan; Ma, Ling; Liu, Yan-Chun

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the distribution of Colton, Diego, Kell and Yt rare blood groups in Chinese Nanjing Han population, so as to improve the transfusion capability of patients with rare blood group and to further enrich the rare-blood-donor bank. A total of 2 015 blood samples from the blood donors were selected randomly to screen the presence of K⁺ and Kp(c+) (Kell), Yt(b+) (Yt), Co(b+) (Colton), Di(a+b+) and Di(a+b-) (Digeo) antigen allele by using PCR and multiplex PCR. Out of 2005 samples, 1 case with K⁺ gene, 8 cases with Yt(b+) gene and 100 cases with Di(a+b+) gene, 2 cases with Di(a+b-) were identified, while no Kp(c+) and Co(b+) were detected. The frequencies of K⁺, Yt(b+) and Di(a+), Di(b+) are 0.0003, 0.0013 and 0.0258, 0.9742, respectively. They are very rare blood groups in Chinese Nanjing Han population.

  11. [A survey of the level of AIDS knowledge among people concerned in Nanjing City].

    Sun, Ze-Yu; Zhu, Ning; Li, Ping; Fang, Qun; Chen, Hui-Ling; Tang, Xiao-Ning; Yu, Hong-Bo; Wei, Zhong-Qing; Xu, Zhi-Peng

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the level of AIDS knowledge among people concerned in Nanjing city in order to provide scientific evidence and constructive suggestions for the government to formulate relevant policies for AIDS control. Three sets of questionnaires on AIDS knowledge were designed, the scores calculated, and the results evaluated. Of the 2,500 questionnaires issued to 4 different groups of people, 2,436 were collected back with effective answers, 991 from medical and health-related workers with the mean score of 58, 473 from college students with the mean score of 39.9, 524 from common city residents with the mean score of 42.3, and 448 from those working in high risk environment with the mean score of 47. The level of AIDS knowledge among people concerned in Nanjing city was far below the requirement of the nation, especially among medical and health-related workers. Efforts must be made to raise the level of AIDS knowledge of people concerned so as to enhance the prevention and treatment of the disease.

  12. System construction of urban landscape infrastructures for rainwater management: Nanjing as a case study

    Xiao-ning Hua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Un sistema di urban landscape spaces (spazi del paesaggio urbano può rappresentare un nuovo sistema di infrastrutture in grado di assorbire e limitare le alluvioni nelle stagioni delle piogge. Tale sistema sarà composto da elementi paesaggistici e spaziali riferiti a diverse scale e riconducibili a tre livelli: la micro scala (edificio e sito, la media scala (blocco e distretto e la macro scala (regione e metropoli. Per costruire tale sistema, specialmente su media scala, è fondamentale determinare la quantità, la distribuzione spaziale, l’area di servizio e il volume dell’acqua raccolta in questi landscape spaces. Il volume di acqua piovana e il tempo di raccolta sono due premesse di base. Il volume dell’acqua piovana conduce alla quantità e all’estensione degli spazi aperti. Il tempo di raccolta deriva dalla velocità e dall’estensione dei percorsi di deflusso dell’acqua piovana, mentre la velocità è determinata dalla morfologia, dall’altitudine e dalla resistenza superficiale. La distanza è determinata dalla posizione degli spazi aperti all’interno della rete stradale urbana. Analisi basate su sistemi GIS e DEM dovrebbero essere integrate per valutare l’area di servizio e il volume da dedicare alla raccolta delle acque di ogni spazio aperto. Questo approccio tecnico è applicato nella valutazione degli spazi aperti del vecchio quartiere di Nanjing, e alla valutazione della distribuzione degli spazi aperti esistenti nel distretto di Qinglong, Nanjing.

  13. Research on spatial structure of regional tourism resources——Taking Nanjing city as an example

    Liu Binglin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structure of tourism resources can help to understand the spatial distribution characteristics of tourism resources,and then guide the tourism planning and improve the competitive advantage of tourism area.Based on the relevant data released by Jiangsu Provincial Tourism Bureau,taking advantage of the ArcGIS platform,the development and utilization of tourism resources and the problems in the spatial structure of tourism resources were analyzed by using the superiority index,Nearest Neighbor Index and Traffic Connectivity Index.The results show that:1 the spatial distribution of tourism resources in Nanjing is clustered;the distribution of the main urban area is relatively dense,and the resource level is higher;2 the spatial distribution of the traffic network between the tourist resources is in the middle and lower levels,and the traffic loops are poor and the accessibility is not high.The accessibility degree shows ‘center high,four weeks low’ and ‘east and west high,north and south low’.3The resource of Nanjing tourism can be optimized by optimization of the transport network;by determining the core of tourism,clarifying the level of scenic spots;increasing the efforts of tourism development and developing tourism products in depth;integration of the tourism resources,construction of the clusters and zones of tourism resources;and other aspects.

  14. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  15. The Relative Efficiencies of Research Universities of Science and Technology in China: Based on the Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Chuanyi, Wang; Xiaohong, Lv; Shikui, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies data envelopment analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to explore the relative efficiency of China's research universities of science and technology. According to the finding, when talent training is the only output, the efficiency of research universities of science and technology is far lower than that of…

  16. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  17. Evaluation of Real-Time Convection-Permitting Precipitation Forecasts in China During the 2013-2014 Summer Season

    Zhu, Kefeng; Xue, Ming; Zhou, Bowen; Zhao, Kun; Sun, Zhengqi; Fu, Peiling; Zheng, Yongguang; Zhang, Xiaoling; Meng, Qingtao

    2018-01-01

    Forecasts at a 4 km convection-permitting resolution over China during the summer season have been produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting model at Nanjing University since 2013. Precipitation forecasts from 2013 to 2014 are evaluated with dense rain gauge observations and compared with operational global model forecasts. Overall, the 4 km forecasts show very good agreement with observations over most parts of China, outperforming global forecasts in terms of spatial distribution, intensity, and diurnal variation. Quantitative evaluations with the Gilbert skill score further confirm the better performance of the 4 km forecasts over global forecasts for heavy precipitation, especially for the thresholds of 100 and 150 mm d-1. Besides bulk characteristics, the representations of some unique features of summer precipitation in China under the influence of the East Asian summer monsoon are further evaluated. These include the northward progression and southward retreat of the main rainband through the summer season, the diurnal variations of precipitation, and the meridional and zonal propagation of precipitation episodes associated with background synoptic flow and the embedded mesoscale convective systems. The 4 km forecast is able to faithfully reproduce most of the features while overprediction of afternoon convection near the southern China coast is found to be a main deficiency that requires further investigations.

  18. The real world of blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system running in China teaching hospital.

    Li, Feng-Fei; Xie, Yun; Shi, Bing-Yin; Niu, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Li; Yan, Reng-Na; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Chen, Li-Ming; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2018-06-01

     The blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system is important in the decision-making process involving patients suspected of having hypoglycemia. To investigate the real world of the POCT system being used in teaching hospitals in China. The survey was conducted by Hisend Research Group from May 2015 to July 2015 in four teaching hospitals in China. The survey questions were referred to the ISO 15197:2013 standard requirements for the use of the POCT system in a hospital setting. A total of 170 subjects were included from 4 hospitals, which included nursing staff, nurse unit managers, employees from the department of medical instruments, and staff members employed by the clinical laboratories in the Tianjin Metabolism Hospital, Nanjing First Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, and the First hospital affiliated with the Xi'an Transportation University. The average score for the four hospitals surveyed in this study was 66.6, which varied from 46.1 to 79.7. The main factors influencing the scores were the multiple choices of blood-glucose meters, and the quality control assessment. Our data indicates that the real world use of the POCT system in hospital settings in China needs more closer adherence to a quality management framework.

  19. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    ... XIONG1 WEIHUA ZHU1 HEMING XIAO1. Institute for Computation in Molecular and Materials Science and Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, ...

  20. Emerging Regulatory Regionalism in University Governance: A Comparative Study of China and Taiwan

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    High EdWell aware of the growing importance of the global university ranking exercises, many governments in East Asia have introduced different strategies to benchmark with leading universities in order to enhance the global competitiveness of their universities. With strong determination to do better in such global ranking exercises, universities…

  1. Thoughts on the Role of Government in the Development of World-Class Universities in China

    Guangcai, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Looking at the rise of world-class universities through history, creating an institutional environment in which universities are relatively autonomous, while also ensuring effective material support from the government is essential for the formation of world-class universities. It is worth examining the deteriorating academic environment in China…

  2. Promoting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in China: Enhancing Research and Transforming University Curriculum

    Mok, Ka Ho; Kan, Yue

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades or so, China has managed to become the second largest economy in the world, especially after engaging in economic reforms since the late 1970s. Despite being a "world factory" and playing a very significant role in manufacturing products and exporting to different parts of the globe, the Chinese government has…

  3. Marketing University Programmes in China: Innovative Experience in Executive and Professional Education

    Liu, Ning Rong; Crossley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the limited amount of research in the realm of programme marketing in the Chinese higher education sector. Original field research examines the emergence of marketing principles and strategies with specific reference to the experience of three higher education institutions in China. The development and promotion of executive…

  4. Trilingual Education in China: Perspectives from a University Programme for Minority Students

    Liu, Jie; Edwards, Viv

    2017-01-01

    Attention to trilingual education programmes in China has tended to focus on basic education; there had been little attention to date on the higher education sector. This paper will attempt to bridge this gap by exploring a Yi-English-Chinese trilingual education programme through case studies of three Yi students, using the "River of…

  5. Is the bias for function-based explanations culturally universal? Children from China endorse teleological explanations of natural phenomena

    Schachner, Adena; Zhu, Liqi; Li, Jing; Kelemen, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Young children in Western cultures tend to endorse teleological (function-based) explanations broadly across many domains, even when scientifically unwarranted. For instance, in contrast to Western adults, they explicitly endorse the idea that mountains were created for climbing, just like hats were created for warmth. Is this bias a product of culture, or a product of universal aspects of human cognition? In two studies, we explored whether adults and children in Mainland China, a highly secular, non-Western culture, show a bias for teleological explanations. When explaining both object properties (Exp. 1) and origins (Exp. 2), we found evidence that they do. While Chinese adults restricted teleological explanations to scientifically warranted cases, Chinese children endorsed them more broadly, extending them across different kinds of natural phenomena. This bias decreased with rising grade level across first, second and fourth grade. Overall, these data provide evidence that children’s bias for teleological explanations is not solely a product of Western Abrahamic cultures. Instead, it extends to other cultures including the East Asian secular culture of modern-day China. This suggests that the bias for function-based explanations may be driven by universal aspects of human cognition. PMID:28110152

  6. Impact of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution on health behaviors: a longitudinal study of university students in Beijing, China.

    An, R; Yu, H

    2018-03-19

    Poor air quality has become a national public health concern in China. This study examines the impact of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air pollution on health behaviors among college students in Beijing, China. Prospective cohort study. Health surveys were repeatedly administered among 12,000 newly admitted students at Tsinghua University during 2012-2015 over their freshman year. Linear individual fixed-effect regressions were performed to estimate the impacts of ambient PM 2.5 concentration on health behaviors among survey participants, adjusting for various time-variant individual characteristics and environmental measures. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was found to be negatively associated with time spent on walking, vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior in the last week, but positively associated with time spent on nighttime/daytime sleep among survey participants. An increase in the ambient PM 2.5 concentration by one standard deviation (36.5 μg/m³) was associated with a reduction in weekly total minutes of walking by 7.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.3-9.4), a reduction in weekly total minutes of vigorous physical activity by 10.1 (95% CI = 8.5-11.7), a reduction in daily average hours of sedentary behavior by 0.06 (95% CI = 0.02-0.10) but an increase in daily average hours of nighttime/daytime sleep by 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04-1.11). Ambient PM 2.5 air pollution was inversely associated with physical activity level but positively associated with sleep duration among college students. Future studies are warranted to replicate study findings in other Chinese cities and universities, and policy interventions are urgently called to reduce air pollution level in China's urban areas. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Predictive Method of Teacher's Structure in China's University (1985--2000)

    Chen Ling; Pen Guozhong

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, a predictive model is designed to provide the Educational Department of China with the information necessary to draw up the program (1985--2000) for education development. This model contains two submodels, that is, the predictive model to the annual teacher's number of each title and the fuzzy predictive model to the annual teacher's number of each age. The first submodel is a Markov Chain model and the second submodel is a fuzzy predictive model. Before establishing the secon...

  8. Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction among University Teachers in Northeastern Region of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Pan, Bochen; Shen, Xue; Liu, Li; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Teachers’ job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be the primary variable by which the effectiveness of an organization’s human resource is evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction among university teachers and to clarify the associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities in Shenyang, China were randomly sampled. The job satisfaction scale Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), perceived organizational support (POS), psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), and effort-reward imbalance scale (ERI) together with questions about demographic and working factors were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1500 university teachers. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the related factors. Results: 1210 effective responses were obtained (effective respondent rate 80.7%). The average score of overall job satisfaction was 69.71. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that turnover intention, occupational stress and chronic disease all had negative impacts on job satisfaction, whereas perceived organizational support, psychological capital and higher monthly income were positively associated with job satisfaction among the university teachers. Age was also linked to the level of job satisfaction. All the variables explained 60.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. Conclusions: Chinese university teachers had a moderate level of job satisfaction. Demographic and working characteristics were associated factors for job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support showed the strongest association with job satisfaction. Results of the study indicate that improving the perceived organizational support may increase the level of job satisfaction for university teachers. PMID:26473906

  9. Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction among University Teachers in Northeastern Region of China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Bochen Pan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teachers’ job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be the primary variable by which the effectiveness of an organization’s human resource is evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction among university teachers and to clarify the associated factors. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities in Shenyang, China were randomly sampled. The job satisfaction scale Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ, perceived organizational support (POS, psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24, and effort-reward imbalance scale (ERI together with questions about demographic and working factors were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1500 university teachers. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the related factors. Results: 1210 effective responses were obtained (effective respondent rate 80.7%. The average score of overall job satisfaction was 69.71. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that turnover intention, occupational stress and chronic disease all had negative impacts on job satisfaction, whereas perceived organizational support, psychological capital and higher monthly income were positively associated with job satisfaction among the university teachers. Age was also linked to the level of job satisfaction. All the variables explained 60.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. Conclusions: Chinese university teachers had a moderate level of job satisfaction. Demographic and working characteristics were associated factors for job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support showed the strongest association with job satisfaction. Results of the study indicate that improving the perceived organizational support may increase the level of job satisfaction for university teachers.

  10. Factors Associated with Job Satisfaction among University Teachers in Northeastern Region of China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Pan, Bochen; Shen, Xue; Liu, Li; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-10-14

    Teachers' job satisfaction is one of the key factors in institutional dynamics and is generally considered to be the primary variable by which the effectiveness of an organization's human resource is evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of job satisfaction among university teachers and to clarify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and January 2014. Teachers from six universities in Shenyang, China were randomly sampled. The job satisfaction scale Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), perceived organizational support (POS), psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), and effort-reward imbalance scale (ERI) together with questions about demographic and working factors were administered in questionnaires distributed to 1500 university teachers. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the related factors. 1210 effective responses were obtained (effective respondent rate 80.7%). The average score of overall job satisfaction was 69.71. Hierarchical linear regression analysis revealed that turnover intention, occupational stress and chronic disease all had negative impacts on job satisfaction, whereas perceived organizational support, psychological capital and higher monthly income were positively associated with job satisfaction among the university teachers. Age was also linked to the level of job satisfaction. All the variables explained 60.7% of the variance in job satisfaction. Chinese university teachers had a moderate level of job satisfaction. Demographic and working characteristics were associated factors for job satisfaction. Perceived organizational support showed the strongest association with job satisfaction. RESULTS of the study indicate that improving the perceived organizational support may increase the level of job satisfaction for university teachers.

  11. Burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Liu, Hongchun; Yansane, Alfa Ibrahim; Zhang, Yurong; Fu, Haijun; Hong, Nanrui; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate burnout and study engagement among medical students at Sun Yat-sen University, China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate medical students of Sun Yat-sen University, China. A total of 453 undergraduate students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire between January and February, 2016. Burnout and study engagement were measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) and the UTRECHT Work Engagement Scale-Students (UWES-S), respectively. Subjects who scored high in emotional exhaustion subscale, high in cynicism subscale, and low in professional efficacy subscale simultaneously were graded as having high risk of burnout. Independent sample t tests and chi-square tests were used to compare the differences in burnout and work engagement between genders, majors, and grade levels.The means (standard deviations) of the MBI-SS subscales were 3.42 (1.45) for emotional exhaustion, 2.34 (1.64) for cynicism, and 3.04 (1.30) for professional efficacy. The means (standard deviations) of the UWES-S subscales were 3.13 (1.49) for vigor, 3.44 (1.47) for dedication and 3.00 (1.51) for absorption. Approximately 1 in 11 students experienced a high risk of burnout. There were no statistically significant gender differences in burnout and study engagement. There were also no statistically significant differences in burnout and study engagement subscales according to student major. Students in higher grades displayed increased burnout risk, higher mean burnout subscale score of cynicism, lower mean burnout subscale score of professional efficacy, and decreased mean study engagement subscale scores of dedication and absorption. There were strong correlations within study engagement subscales.Chinese medical students in this university experience a high level of burnout. Students at higher-grade level experience more burnout and decreased study engagement compared with students in lower level.

  12. A Research on the Construction of University R&D Management Team in China

    Jia, Ning

    2007-01-01

    The system of Chinese universities R&D as a branch of the system of the whole country R&D, has a great effect on the development and innovation of the country's science and technique. Consequently, it's important to construct an effective management team with high diathesis for University R&D management. Based on the statistics of the…

  13. The Effects of University Mergers in China since 1990s: From the Perspective of Knowledge Production

    Mao, Ya-qing; Du, Yuan; Liu, Jing-juan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discover and better understand the efficiency of university mergers from the perspective of knowledge production, with the research capability as the point of contact. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 20 colleges and universities directly under the central ministries that merged in 2000 were taken as…

  14. University Students' Views on Political Influences and the Status of Law in Post-Reform China: A Moderation and Mediation Analysis.

    Jiang, Guoping; Lo, T Wing

    2016-07-01

    Scholars categorize societies into "rule of man" societies, "rule by law" societies, and "rule of law" societies on the basis of a status of law. After 1978, China's leaders invoked law as an alternative to the arbitrariness of the Cultural Revolution. In this study, we used quantitative methods to explore university students' views on the status of law in post-reform China. Surveys were conducted in three national universities located in different regions of China. Responses from university students show that their perceptions of well-developed legislation and perceptions of the publicity of law are associated with their perceptions of equality before the law, which could be the consequence of a "rule of law" system. However, the study found that university students are of the view that the political nature of legislation and interference in law enforcement moderate the relationship between legislation and equality before the law. The political nature of legislation also moderates the mediation effect of interference in law enforcement between law publicity and equality before the law. As such, the article concludes that although university students are no longer primary movers in China's social and political development after the Tiananmen incident, they are still knowledgeable if not critical about the status of law and its political implications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. The Localization Characteristic of the Idea and Mission of Private Universities in China

    Fan Jixuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea and mission of college and university are always assuming a fluxion accompanied with social upheaval. The Chinese private universities' idea and mission take on local characteristic: “As the foundation of a nation, education should meet the needs of social development, should take the responsibility of practical application and take service for the community”, “Education should place people first, attach great importance to the improvement of the students' individual quality and put heavy emphasis on the service quality”, which have become the important content of the faith of Chinese private universities; “To strengthen the internationalization and to open running college”, which is the new direction of faith of Chinese private universities. It became those private universities’ bounden duty to translate normal human resources into quality human capital. So, those private universities have the responsibilities and missions to construct human resources powerful nation, to popular higher education with high standard satisfied by people.

  16. Towards universal access to skilled birth attendance: the process of transforming the role of traditional birth attendants in Rural China.

    Jiang, Hong; Qian, Xu; Chen, Lili; Li, Jian; Escobar, Erin; Story, Mary; Tang, Shenglan

    2016-03-21

    Institution-based childbirth, with the ultimate goal of universal access to skilled birth attendance (SBA), has been selected as a key strategy to reduce the maternal mortality rate in many developing countries. However, the question of how to engage traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the advocacy campaign for SBA poses a number of challenges. This paper aims to demonstrate how TBAs in rural regions of China have been integrated into the health system under a policy of institutional delivery. Research was conducted through literature and document reviews and individual in-depth interviews with stakeholders of the safe motherhood program in rural Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A total of 33 individual interviews were conducted with regional and local politicians, policy makers, health managers, health providers, civil society members, village cadres for women affairs, former TBAs, village maternal health workers, mothers and their mother-in-laws. Since 1998, TBA's traditional role of providing in-home care during childbirth has been restructured and their social role has been strengthened in rural Guangxi. TBAs were redesigned to function as the linkage between women and the health system. A new policy in 1999 shifted the role of TBAs to village maternal health workers whose responsibilities were mainly to promote perinatal care and institution-based delivery of pregnant women. This successful transformation involved engaging with government and other actors, training TBAs for their new role, and providing incentives and sanctions for human resources management. The China experience of transforming the role of TBAs in Guangxi rural area is an example of successfully engaging TBAs in promoting institution-based childbirth.

  17. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional contextual influences on short sleep duration: a 50 universities population-based multilevel study in China.

    Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.

  19. JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on atomic and molecular processes in plasma

    Koike, Fumihiro [Kitasato Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Dong, Chenzhong [Northwest Normal Univ., Lanzhou (China)

    2005-02-01

    As one of the activities of JSPS-CAS Core University Program, Japan-China Joint Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Processes in Plasma was held on March 6 - 11, 2004 in Lanzhou, China. The total number of the officially registered participants was 29, in which 17 from Japan, 10 from China, and 2 from Germany. In the nuclear fusion plasma, there are quite a variety of atomic processes such as ionization, excitation, radiative recombination, non-radiative recombination (di-electronic recombination, collisional electron transfer), cascade radiation, and cascade Auger decay over the wide range of plasma temperature. The knowledge of such the processes is indispensable for the evaluation and improvement of the plasma properties, which is desirable to be investigated by international collaboration groups. The present Japan-China Joint Seminar constitutes one of such the activities to realize the above stated aim. The 21 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Evolution of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology competition in China

    Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Wang, XiaoPing; Zheng, XiaoDong; Lin, YuanFang; Wang, Kaiwei

    2017-08-01

    The goal of National University Students' Optical-Science-Technology Competition (NUSOSTC) is to provide a nation-wide platform for students from the colleges and universities, which have majors in the field of optics and photonics, to communicate and learning each other. Meanwhile, it works on pushing forward the popularity of optoelectronic knowledge, cultivating the students' teamwork and innovation ability, promoting higher education personnel training mode and practice teaching reform, and then improving the quality of talent training. The founding, organizational structure development and overall organizational arrangements of NUSOSTC were introduced in this paper. Besides, the competition logo, theme, title, final date, numbers of participating universities, undertaking universities and cities of the five NUSOSTCs held during 2008 to 2016 and the progress had been made were given in detail.

  1. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  2. Motivational and Cultural Correlates of Second Language Acquisition: An Investigation of International Students in the Universities of the People's Republic of China

    Yu, Baohua; Watkins, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationships among motivational factors, cultural correlates and second language proficiency. The participants, from both Western and Asian backgrounds, were learning Chinese at university level in the People's Republic of China. 115 students (35 Western students and 80 Asian students) ranging from beginning to…

  3. The role of entrepreneurship education in university students' entrepreneurial intentions in China

    Zhang, Y.; Duysters, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have updated Shapero’s intention-based model by embedding entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurship knowledge. We analyzed 494 questionnaires received from 10 Chinese universities, and we have six major findings: (1) Entrepreneurship education plays a more important role than

  4. Correlation between Family Environment and Suicidal Ideation in University Students in China

    Hui Zhai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183. Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students.

  5. Correlation between family environment and suicidal ideation in university students in China.

    Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie

    2015-01-27

    This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183). Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students' suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students.

  6. Correlation between Family Environment and Suicidal Ideation in University Students in China

    Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183). Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students. PMID:25633031

  7. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and its correlates among medical students in China: a national survey in 33 universities.

    Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Ying; Zhao, Yun; Hu, Jun-Mei; Li, Si-Qi; Zhang, Shao-Kai; Li, Xiang-Yun; Chang, Hong; Xue, Qing-Ping; Zhao, Zhi-Mei; Gu, Yan; Li, Chang-Chang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Chun-Xia; Fu, Christine

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a national survey among medical students in China to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and explore associated risk factors based on an established questionnaire composed of demographic information, life events in the past four weeks before survey, and the validated Chinese version of the 21-item Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean age of enrolled 9010 students was 20.7 (standard deviation: 1.6) years. BDI scores indicated that 19.9% had depressive symptoms based on the cut-off score of 14. Socioeconomic factors and student characteristics such as male sex, low monthly income per capita, father's poor education background, and higher year of study were associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students. Students who studied in comprehensive universities were more likely to have depressive symptoms compared with those from medical universities. Habitual smoking and alcohol drinking, sleep deprivation, and hospitalization or medication for one week or more in the last four weeks also predisposed students to higher risk of depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that depressive symptoms are becoming a highly prevalent health problem among Chinese medical students. Primary and secondary prevention should be prioritized to tackle this issue based on potential risk factors.

  8. Towards Universal Health Coverage via Social Health Insurance in China: Systemic Fragmentation, Reform Imperatives, and Policy Alternatives.

    He, Alex Jingwei; Wu, Shaolong

    2017-12-01

    China's remarkable progress in building a comprehensive social health insurance (SHI) system was swift and impressive. Yet the country's decentralized and incremental approach towards universal coverage has created a fragmented SHI system under which a series of structural deficiencies have emerged with negative impacts. First, contingent on local conditions and financing capacity, benefit packages vary considerably across schemes, leading to systematic inequity. Second, the existence of multiple schemes, complicated by massive migration, has resulted in weak portability of SHI, creating further barriers to access. Third, many individuals are enrolled on multiple schemes, which causes inefficient use of government subsidies. Moral hazard and adverse selection are not effectively managed. The Chinese government announced its blueprint for integrating the urban and rural resident schemes in early 2016, paving the way for the ultimate consolidation of all SHI schemes and equal benefits for all. This article proposes three policy alternatives to inform the consolidation: (1) a single-pool system at the prefectural level with significant government subsidies, (2) a dual-pool system at the prefectural level with risk-equalization mechanisms, and (3) a household approach without merging existing pools. Vertical integration to the provincial level is unlikely to happen in the near future. Two caveats are raised to inform this transition towards universal health coverage.

  9. Cultural Orientation and Its Associations with Alcohol Use by University Students in China

    Wang, Shiyuan; Shell, Duane F.

    2016-01-01

    Cultural orientation is defined as an individual’s cultural preferences when encountering imported culture while still living in the native culture. Data was analyzed from 1305 Chinese university students attending universities in Beijing, Kunming, and Wuhan. Cultural orientation was assessed with the Chinese Cultural Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses both Western and Traditional Chinese cultural orientations. The analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with nondrinkers as the reference group and controlling for demographic factors (age, gender, and urban/rural background). Western cultural orientation was found to significantly increase the odds of recent drinking. The results indicated that higher Western cultural orientation was, after gender, the second most important factor associated with Chinese college student drinking frequency. Traditional Chinese cultural orientation was not associated with drinking frequency. This study highlights an unexpected outcome of globalization on students who have not left their home cultures. PMID:27806096

  10. Cultural Orientation and Its Associations with Alcohol Use by University Students in China.

    Shiyuan Wang

    Full Text Available Cultural orientation is defined as an individual's cultural preferences when encountering imported culture while still living in the native culture. Data was analyzed from 1305 Chinese university students attending universities in Beijing, Kunming, and Wuhan. Cultural orientation was assessed with the Chinese Cultural Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses both Western and Traditional Chinese cultural orientations. The analysis used hierarchical logistic regression with nondrinkers as the reference group and controlling for demographic factors (age, gender, and urban/rural background. Western cultural orientation was found to significantly increase the odds of recent drinking. The results indicated that higher Western cultural orientation was, after gender, the second most important factor associated with Chinese college student drinking frequency. Traditional Chinese cultural orientation was not associated with drinking frequency. This study highlights an unexpected outcome of globalization on students who have not left their home cultures.

  11. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  12. Influencing Factors of University Students’ Use of Social Network Sites: An Empirical Analysis in China

    Liqiong Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the influencing factors of Chinese university students in accepting and using social networking sites (SNS to propose measures and recommendations that can guide and help these students correctly use SNS. In addition, this paper aims to provide theoretical support in increasing user loyalty for the SNS service providers and attract new users. The correlation and multiple regression analyses showed that perceived value, enjoyment, and influence positively influence the intention of individuals to use SNS.

  13. Correlation between Family Environment and Suicidal Ideation in University Students in China

    Hui Zhai; Bing Bai; Lu Chen; Dong Han; Lin Wang; Zhengxue Qiao; Xiaohui Qiu; Xiuxian Yang; Yanjie Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were quest...

  14. Becoming Global Citizens through Bilingualism: English Learning in the Lives of University Students in China

    Yangguang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing globalisation has led to a tremendous expansion of the English language. With China striving to become part of the world economy since the late 1970's, there has been a great emphasis placed on the education of young people to become a world citizen with fluent English. “Being a global citizen” is having strong interests in global issues, cultivating the understanding and appreciation of diverse values, and enhancing country's competitiveness. All this however needs to be realized through communication in English, the world language. Improving communicative competence among Chinese learners of English depends on how English is learnt in the FL classroom and how it gets practiced outside the classroom. Data drawn from English corners, English clubs and English church all show that those informal learning settings have a complentary role to play especially when the formal English classroom is found having various deficits. Data also confirm that informal settings offer the opportunity to close the gap between L1 and L2 learning processes, and nurtutre learners' communicative competence through social intercourse and intercultural exchanges. Moreover, EFL learning is inherently intercultural, which facilitate cross cultural perspectives through bilingualism and bridges over the indigenous cultural traditions and the western democratic values.

  15. Air Quality and Control Measures Evaluation during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing and its Surrounding Cities

    Hui Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution had become a vital concern for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing. In order to control air pollutant emissions and ensure better air quality during the Games, the Nanjing municipal government took a series of aggressive control measures to reduce pollutant emissions in Nanjing and its surrounding cities during the Youth Olympic Games. The Air Quality Index (AQI is an index of air quality which is used to inform the public about levels of air pollution and associated health risks. In this study, we use the AQI and air pollutant concentrations data to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of control measures. The results suggest that the emission reduction measures significantly improved air quality in Nanjing. In August 2014, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 were 42.44 μg·m−3, 59.01 μg·m−3, 11.12 μg·m−3, 31.09 μg·m−3, 0.76 mg·m−3 and 38.39 μg·m−3, respectively, and fell by 35.92%, 36.75%, 20.40%, 15.05%, 8.54% and 47.15%, respectively, compared to the prophase mean before the emission reduction. After the emission reduction, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and O3 increased by 20.81%, 41.84%, 22.84%, 21.16% and 60.93%, respectively, which is due to the cancellation of temporary atmospheric pollution control measures. The air pollutants diurnal variation curve during the emission reduction was lower than the other two periods, except for CO. In addition, the AQI of Nanjing and its surrounding cities showed a downward trend, compared with July 2014. The most of effective method to control air pollution is to implement the measures of regional cooperation and joint defense and control, and reduce local emissions during the polluted period, such as airborne dust, coal-burning, vehicle emissions, mobile sources and industrial production.

  16. U.S. China Carbon Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia University

    Fletcher, Jerald

    2013-12-31

    The original overall objective of this activity was to undertake resource evaluation and planning for CCS projects and to describe and quantify the geologic, environmental, and economic challenges to successful development of large-scale CCS in China’s coal sector. Several project execution barriers were encountered in the course of this project, most notably a project stop/delay due to funds availability/costing restrictions from the US State Department to the US Department of Energy at the end of CY2012, which halted project execution from January 2, 2013 to April 1, 2013. At the resolution of this project delay, it was communicated to the project team that the overall project period would also be reduced, from a completion date of February 28, 2014 to December 31, 2013. The net impact of all these changes was a reduction in the project period from 24 months (3/1/2012-2/28/2014) to 22 months (3/1/2012-12/31/2013), with a 3 month stop from 1/1/2013-3/31/2013. The project team endeavored to overcome these project time impacts, focusing heavily on technoeconomic modeling that would be deliverable under Task 3 (Ordos Basin Feasibility Study), and choosing to abandon the full investigation into the Demonstration Site (Task 4) due to the reduced project time. The ultimate focus of this project changed to work with the Chinese on a carbon atlas/geologic characterization, and on mechanisms for CO2 storage options from high-quality streams within China.

  17. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Author Affiliations. AI-PING ZHOU1 XIAO-QING LI2. School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China; Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China ...

  18. AT-algebras and extensions of AT-algebras

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 2. A T -Algebras and Extensions of A T ... School of Science, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210014, People's Republic of China; Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, People's Republic of China ...

  19. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals.

  20. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  1. Perception of foreign cigarettes and their advertising in China: a study of college students from 12 universities.

    Zhu, S H; Li, D; Feng, B; Zhu, T; Anderson, C M

    1998-01-01

    To examine how deeply foreign cigarette advertising had penetrated the Chinese market when a new ban on cigarette advertising was enacted in February 1995. A survey using self-completion questionnaires administered in college classrooms from November 1994 to March 1995. Eight universities and four medical schools in three Chinese cities: Beijing, Wenzhou, and Hangzhou. 1896 college students who agreed to complete a written questionnaire. The mean age was 21.2 years; 39.5% of respondents were female. Four of the top eight cigarette brands most familiar to the respondents were foreign: Marlboro, 555, Kent, and Hilton. Advertisements for the foreign brands were much more likely to be seen than those for the domestic brands; those for Marlboro were reported most often (29.7%), followed by 555 (21.8%) and Kent (18.1%). Among smokers, Marlboro was the most preferred foreign brand, by 44.2%. The preference for Marlboro was also correlated with smokers having seen its advertisements. Most respondents, 71.8%, believed that cigarette advertising should be banned. The previous restrictions on cigarette advertising in China failed to prevent a large portion of the population from seeing and understanding the advertisements. Before the 1995 advertising ban took effect, strict limitations on imports of foreign cigarettes notwithstanding, certain highly advertised brands such as Marlboro achieved wide recognition and even consumer preference. Stricter restrictions are suggested as previous ones have failed to achieve their intended effects.

  2. JSPS-CAS Core University Program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on atomic and molecular processes in plasma

    Koike, Fumihiro; Dong Chenzhong

    2010-02-01

    As one of the activities of JSPS-CAS Core University Program, Japan-China Joint Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Processes in Plasma was held on October 26 - 31, 2009 in Xi'an, China. The total number of the officially registered participants was 54, in which 18 from Japan, 35 from China, and 1 from USA. And this seminar is an extension of the last two seminars that were held on March 6 - 11, 2004 in Lanzhou, China, and on October 6 - 12, 2007 in Dunhuang, China. In the nuclear fusion plasma, there are quite a variety of atomic processes such as ionization, excitation, radiative recombination, non-radiative recombination (di-electronic recombination, collisional electron transfer), cascade radiation, and cascade Auger decay over the wide range of plasma temperature. The knowledge of those processes is indispensable for the evaluation and improvement of the plasma properties. Because of the diversity of the subject, it is desirable to investigate them by international collaboration groups. The present seminar may contribute to realize the above stated aim; especially it has given an opportunity for the collaborative workers to illustrate their achievements. This seminar summarizes the collaborative researches for the last decade and propose the issues for the future prospect. The 30 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Social meaning of alcohol-related flushing among university students in China.

    Newman, Ian M; Jinnai, Izumi; Zhao, Jie; Huang, Zhaoqing; Pu, Jia; Qian, Ling

    2013-09-01

    This study explored drinking patterns, alcohol-related flushing, and ways students themselves and other people respond to flushing in drinking situations. Of 1080 Chinese undergraduate university students given the survey questionnaire, 725 (67.1%) returned the completed surveys. Eighty percent of the students were drinkers (93% of males and 69% of females); 68% of the drinkers were flushers. Most of the students (59.3%) said flushing had no special meaning, that is, would ignore flushing; 54% of the flushers said they could keep drinking "but less" when they flush; 27% of the students said that a flushing person should stop drinking; however, if the flushing person is a girl, 89% of the students said the girl should drink less or stop. If the flushing person was a boy, 61% of students said he should drink less or stop. The data do suggest gender differences in the understanding of and social reaction to alcohol-related flushing, and these differences raise interesting questions as to how flushing acts as a potential protective factor against alcohol misuse.

  4. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People’s Republic of China

    Zhu, Ling-ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Ling-ling Zhu,1 Wei Li,2 Ping Song,3 Quan Zhou3 1Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 2Division of Medical Administration, 3Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors origi...

  5. [Influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students in Nanjing].

    Li, X S; Fang, K; Zhang, M; Du, G P; Wu, S S; Song, Y; Xu, Y Y; Yan, W J; Ge, Y; Ji, Y; Wei, P M

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To analyze the influence of growing experience on non-heterosexual orientation among male college students. Methods: From October to November in 2015, a total of 2 535 male students from 96 classes in 14 colleges/departments were recruited from two colleges that participated in the experimental work of AIDS prevention by cluster random sampling method. A structured questionnaire was administered in this study, including general demographic information, growing experience and Kinsey scale (to evaluate sexual orientation). Out of 2 500 questionnaires distributed in this study, 2 332 effective copies were withdrew, with the effective rate at 93.3%. Chi square test was used to analyze the differences of non-heterosexual orientation among the individuals with different social demographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of non-heterosexual orientation. Results: Among the 2 332 individuals, the proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual was 6.2% (144).The proportions of male students who identify as non-heterosexual from freshman to junior year were 5.2%(63/1216),6.9%(65/941),11.7%(13/111) and 4.7%(3/64), respectively (χ(2)=9.06, P= 0.029). Compared with the individuals of very good relationship with parents, those with bad relationship ( OR= 3.3, 95 %CI: 1.7-6.5) and general relationship ( OR= 1.7, 95 %CI: 1.0-2.9) with parents had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation, respectively. Those encountered sexual assault had a higher risk of non-heterosexual orientation than those without encountered sexual assault ( OR= 5.9, 95 %CI: 3.2-10.9). Conclusions: This study reported a high proportion of self-reported non-heterosexual among college male students in Nanjing, and highlighted the importance of targeting students with poor parental relationships and who subjected to sexually abused.

  6. [Microphysics of atmospheric aerosols during winter haze/fog events in Nanjing].

    Yang, Jun; Niu, Zhong-qing; Shi, Chun-e; Liu, Duan-yang; Li, Zi-hua

    2010-07-01

    Intensive field observations of fog/haze events, including simultaneous measurements of aerosol particle and fog droplet size distributions, were conducted in Nanjing in November, 2007. Four weather conditions (fog, mist, wet haze and haze) were distinguished based on visibility and liquid water content firstly. Then, the microphysical characteristics of coarse and fine particles in each condition were investigated. The results showed the dominant sequence of the four weather conditions was hazemist-->wet haze-->fog-->, wet haze-->misthaze. The lasting time of pre-fog wet haze was longer than that of post-fog wet haze. The number, surface area and volume concentration of coarse particles with diameter larger than 2.0 micron in fog were much higher than those in the other three conditions, and the smallest concentrations were observed in haze. The size distributions of surface area and volume concentration exhibited multi-peak in fog droplets, while it showed single peak for coarse particles in haze, mist and wet haze. For the fine particles with diameter larger than 0.010 microm, the spectral shapes of surface area concentration are similar in fog (mist) and wet haze (haze) condition. The dominant size ranges of fine particle number concentration were in 0.04-0.13 microm and 0.02-0.14 microm for fog and wet haze, separately. The same dominant size ranges located in 0.02-0.06 microm for both mist and haze. During the transition processes from haze, mist and wet haze to fog, the concentration of smaller particles (less than 0.060-0.090 microm) reduced and vice versa for the corresponding larger particles. Temporal variation of aerosol number concentration correlated well with the root mean diameters negatively during the observation period. The number concentration of aerosol was the lowest and the mean diameter was the largest in fog periods.

  7. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  8. Universe

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  9. JSPS-CAS core university program seminar. Proceedings of Japan-China joint seminar on atomic and molecular processes in plasma

    Koike, Fumihiro; Dong Chenzhong

    2008-03-01

    As one of the activities of JSPS-CAS Core University Program, Japan-China Joint Seminar on Atomic and Molecular Processes in Plasma was held on October 8 - 12, 2007 in Dunhuang, China. The total number of the officially registered participants was 41, in which 12 from Japan, 25 from China, and 4 from EU. And this seminar is an extension of the last seminar that was held on March 6 - 11, 2004 in Lanzhou, China. In the nuclear fusion plasma, there are quite a variety of atomic processes such as ionization, excitation, radiative recombination, non-radiative recombination (di-electronic recombination, collisional electron transfer), cascade radiation, and cascade Auger decay over the wide range of plasma temperature. The knowledge of such processes is indispensable for the evaluation and improvement of the plasma properties, which is desirable to be investigated by international collaboration groups. The present seminar constitutes one of such activities to realize the above stated aim; especially it has given an opportunity for the collaborative workers to illustrate their achievements. The 32 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Change of the structure and the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck during processing.

    Du, Xiaojing; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Wang, Ying; Ou, Changrong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the change of bioavailability and structure of myofibrillar proteins during Nanjing dry-cured duck processing, carbonyl content, sulfhydryl (SH) group, disulfide (SS) group, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures and in vitro digestibility were determined. During processing, carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased; SH turned into SS group; α-helix turned into β-sheet and random coil fractions. Protein degradation occurred during dry-curing and drying-ripening stages. The in vitro digestibility of pepsin and pancreatic proteases increased during the salt curing stage and decreased during the drying-ripening stage. The increase of digestibility could be attributed to the mild oxidation, degradation and unfolding of proteins while the decrease of digestibility was related to the intensive oxidation and aggregation of proteins. Protein degradation was not a main factor of digestibility during the drying-ripening stage. Results demonstrated that the bioavailability loss of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck occurred during the stage of drying-ripening instead of curing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Size distributions and source apportionment of soluble ions in aerosol in Nanjing].

    Xue, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Hong-Lei

    2014-05-01

    To explore the seasonal variation and source apportionment of soluble ions in PM10, PM2.1 and PM1.1, the aerosol mass. concentration and soluble ion concentration were investigated during a one-year observation in the urban-district and north suburb. As the results showed, (1)The concentrations of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 were in the order of winter > spring > autumn > summer. In spring, summer and autumn, the concentrations of PM10, PM2.1, PM1.1 in the north suburb were higher than in the urban, while the situation, was opposite in winter. (2) SO(2-)(4), NO(-)(3), Ca2+, NH(+)(4), Cl-, K+, Na+, F-, NO;, Mg2+ were measured, and their total concentration in PM10 was 46 microg.m -3 in urban sites and 39.6 microg m in north suburbs. Mass fraction percentage o f water soluble ion in PM2.1-10, PM1 1-2.1, PM1.1 in the urban district increased from 20.4% to 49.5% and 56% , and the value in the north suburb increased from 18.3% to 37. 9% and 42.5%. (3) Major ions, SO(2-)(4), NO(-)(3) , NH(+)(4) , second components and Ca2+ , had significant seasonal variation. In the urban district, the highest concentrations were observed in winter, and the lowest in summer, while in the. north suburb, the highest concentrations were observed in spring, and the lowest in summer. The seasonal changing climate in Nanjing and different anthropogenic influences with land surface in urban-suburb may be the major factors for the ions' seasonal variation. (4) NH(+)(4) , SO(2-)(4) , NO(-)(3) came from secondary chemical reactions of NH3, SO2, NO,, and these precursors mostly came from automobile exhaust in Summer while equally came from automobile exhaust and fossil fuel in winter. Cl- came from biomass burning in Winter . while transported from sea salt with Na+ in Summer. Ca2+ and Mg2+ came from ground dust and construction dust. K+, F- , NO(-)(2) may come from biomass burning and industrial emissions.

  12. Impact of universal medical insurance system on the accessibility of medical service supply and affordability of patients in China

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Liang; Jin, Si

    2018-01-01

    Background China’s universal medical insurance system (UMIS) is designed to promote social fairness through improving access to medical services and reducing out-of-pocket (OOP) costs for all Chinese. However, it is still not known whether UMIS has a significant impact on the accessibility of medical service supply and the affordability, as well as the seeking-care choice, of patients in China. Methods Segmented time-series regression analysis, as a powerful statistical method of interrupted time series design, was used to estimate the changes in the quantity and quality of medical service supply before and after the implementation of UMIS. The rates of catastrophic payments and seeking-care choices for UMIS beneficiaries were selected to measure the affordability and medical service flow of patients after the implementation of UMIS. Results China’s UMIS was established in 2008. After that, the trending increase of the expenditure of the UMIS was higher than that of increase in revenue compared to previous years. Up to 2014, the UMIS had covered 97.5% of the entire population in China. After introduction of the UMIS, there were significant increases in licensed physicians, nurses, and hospital beds per 1000 individuals. In addition, hospital outpatient visits and inpatient visits per year increased compared to the pre-UMIS period. The average fatality rate of inpatients in the overall hospital and general hospital and the average fatality rate due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in general hospitals was significantly decreased. In contrast, no significant and prospective changes were observed in rural physicians per 1000 individuals, inpatient visits and inpatient fatality rate in the community centers and township hospitals compared to the pre-UMIS period. After 2008, the rates of catastrophic payments for UMIS inpatients at different income levels were declining at three levels of hospitals. Whichever income level, the rate of catastrophic payments for

  13. Skin Depigmentation Activity of Crocus sativus Extract Cream

    All rights reserved. ... 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China, ... targeting the needs of consumers with dry skin. ... The use of cosmetics can be safe if, no kind of.

  14. China energy databook

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them

  15. Source and Ecological Risk Characteristics of PAHs in Sediments from Qinhuai River and Xuanwu Lake, Nanjing, China

    Zhenhua Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the residual characteristics, sources, and ecological risk of PAHs in sediment from urban rivers, the sediments of 15 typical sites from Qinhuai River and Xuanwu Lake, which are typical urban rivers and lake, were collected from October 2015 to July 2016; the sources of PAHs in sediment were also identified by several methods. Results showed that ∑PAHs concentration in sediment ranged from 796.2 ng/g to 10,470 ng/g with an average of 2,713.8 ng/g. High molecular weight PAHs with 4-5 rings were most prominent in the sediment during all four seasons. Source characterization studies based on the analysis of diagnostic ratio (triangular plot method, cluster analysis, and positive factor matrix analysis suggested that the PAHs of Qinhuai River Basin were mainly from pyrogenic origin (biomass and coal combustion and vehicular emission, and the petroleum source also cannot be ignored (specially in summer. Most individual PAHs occasionally affect the aquatic organisms. The highest benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent doses (BaPeq dose appear at the sites of sewage discharge and heavy traffic. So, the PAHs pollution sources of urban water body have obvious seasonal-dependent and human activities-dependent characteristics.

  16. [Effects of biochar and nitrification inhibitor incorporation on global warming potential of a vegetable field in Nanjing, China].

    Li, Bo; Li, Qiao-Ling; Fan, Chang-Hua; Sun, Li-Ying; Xiong, Zheng-Qin

    2014-09-01

    The influences of biochar and nitrification inhibitor incorporation on global warming potential (GWP) of a vegetable field were studied using the static chamber and gas chromatography method. Compared with the treatments without biochar addition, the annual GWP of N2O and CH4 and vegetable yield were increased by 8.7%-12.4% and 16.1%-52.5%, respectively, whereas the greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were decreased by 5.4%-28.7% following biochar amendment. Nitrification inhibitor significantly reduced the N2O emission while had little influence on CH4 emission, decreased GWP by 17.5%-20.6%, increased vegetable yield by 21.2%-40.1%, and decreased the GHGI significantly. The combined application of biochar and nitrification inhibitor significantly increased both vegetable yield and GWP, but to a greater extent for vegetable yield. Therefore, nitrification inhibitor incorporation could be served as an appropriate practice for increasing vegetable yield and mitigating GHG emissions in vegetable field.

  17. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  18. Canada's Industry-University Co-Op Education Accreditation System and Its Inspiration for the Evaluation of China's Industry-University-Institute Cooperative Education

    Qiubo, Yang; Shibin, Wang; Zha, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The high degree of interest that higher education systems around the world have in employability has driven the profound development of industry-university cooperative education. Canada's industry-university co-op education system has served as a model for global cooperative education, and its accreditation system guarantees the high quality of…

  19. A community-based approach to non-communicable chronic disease management within a context of advancing universal health coverage in China: progress and challenges.

    Xiao, Nanzi; Long, Qian; Tang, Xiaojun; Tang, Shenglan

    2014-01-01

    Paralleled with the rapid socio-economic development and demographic transition, an epidemic of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) has emerged in China over the past three decades, resulting in increased disease and economic burdens. Over the past decade, with a political commitment of implementing universal health coverage, China has strengthened its primary healthcare system and increased investment in public health interventions. A community-based approach to address NCDs has been acknowledged and recognized as one of the most cost-effective solutions. Community-based strategies include: financial and health administrative support; social mobilization; community health education and promotion; and the use of community health centers in NCD detection, diagnosis, treatment, and patient management. Although China has made good progress in developing and implementing these strategies and policies for NCD prevention and control, many challenges remain. There are a lack of appropriately qualified health professionals at grass-roots health facilities; it is difficult to retain professionals at that level; there is insufficient public funding for NCD care and management; and NCD patients are economically burdened due to limited benefit packages covering NCD treatment offered by health insurance schemes. To tackle these challenges we propose developing appropriate human resource policies to attract greater numbers of qualified health professionals at the primary healthcare level; adjusting the service benefit packages to encourage the use of community-based health services; and increase government investment in public health interventions, as well as investing more on health insurance schemes.

  20. JCSC_128_12_1855_1860_SI.doc

    Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type reaction. PENG HUANa, HU YULINb, XING RONGa, b and FANG DONG*,a, b. a College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009, P.R. China. bSchool of Chemistry & Environmental Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, ...

  1. Location choice of Chinese urban fringe residents on employment, housing, and urban services: A case study of Nanjing

    Xingping Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringe area is the most important space for city development. It includes several complicated elements, such as population, space, and management organization. On the basis of local population attributes in the city fringe area combined with people’s movement characteristics in time and space, this article reclassifies basic public service facilities and discusses the relationship between facility layout and housing, employment, and commuter transportation. Through a questionnaire survey in Qiaobei District of the urban fringe area in Nanjing and on the basis of comparative analysis, we discuss the impact factor on the choice of housing, urban services, and the tolerance of commuting time. Our findings indicate mutual promoting and restricting connections among living, employment, and services. Workers’ living situation determines their daily behavior, such as dining, shopping, and entertainment. Furthermore, different income levels have a great influence on residents’ choices with regard to places to live and develop their careers.

  2. Analysis of extinction properties as a function of relative humidity using a κ-EC-Mie model in Nanjing

    Z. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    coefficient in Nanjing was due to particles in the 0.2–1.0 µm size range. Under dry conditions, the higher mass fraction of particles in the 0.2–1.0 µm size range caused the higher extinction coefficient. An increase in RH led to a significant increase in the extinction coefficient, although the increases differed among the different size segments. For λ = 550 nm, the extinction coefficient from the 0.01–0.2, 0.2–0.5, and 1.0–2.0 µm size ranges increased significantly with the increase in RH, whereas the extinction contributions from the 0.5–1.0 and 2.0–10.0 µm size ranges to the extinction coefficient decreased slightly.

  3. Universal Beliefs and Specific Practices: Students' Math Self-Efficacy and Related Factors in the United States and China

    Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students' mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables…

  4. A Study on Changes of Supervision Model in Universities and Fostering Creative PhD Students in China

    Luo, Lingling; Zhou, Chunfang; Zhang, Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the changes of supervision model in higher education in relation to fostering creative Ph.D. students in China. The changes are being made from the traditional Apprentice Master Model (AMM) to the modern Collaborative Cohort Model (CCM). According to the results...

  5. Time perspective, optimistic bias, and self-control among different statuses of university smokers in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Xu, Ying; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao

    2018-01-09

    Risk behavior often seems 'self-defeating' to the observers. Most people understand the basic health-related knowledge, but some of them still choose to continue risk behaviors, especially for the young. This study aimed to examine time perspective, optimism bias and self control correlated with smoking behavior in Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey enrolling 3016 university students in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China. Influence Factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Prevalence of current smoking was 20.92% (631 smokers), including 272 daily smokers (9.02%) and 359 non-daily smokers (11.90%). Future-oriented time perspective, general capacity for self-discipline, reliability and ethnicity were protective factors of smoking behavior. Possibility of self-suffering diseases and gender were risk factors of smoking behavior. Smoking in University of Chengdu, China is a severe problem. Results in this research have suggested that irrespective of the smoking level, improving health-related knowledge, time management awareness and self-control ability may contribute to reducing the prevalence of smoking behavior.

  6. Early initiation of sexual activity: a risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection, and unwanted pregnancy among university students in China

    Ravari Shahrzad

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.

  7. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People's Republic of China

    Zhu LL

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ling-ling Zhu,1 Wei Li,2 Ping Song,3 Quan Zhou3 1Geriatric VIP Ward, Division of Nursing, 2Division of Medical Administration, 3Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1 improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2 complications associated with vascular access; 3 incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4 liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety. Keywords

  8. [Detection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus and human parvovirus 4 infections in blood samples among 95 patients with liver disease in Nanjing by nested PCR].

    Tong, Rui; Zhou, Wei-Min; Liu, Xi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Lou, Yong-Liang; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the infection of human parvovirus B19, human bocavirus (HBoV) and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) in blood samples among patients with liver disease in Nanjing by molecular detection. Nested PCR assays were designed and validated to detect B19, HBoV and PARV4, respectively. The assays were used to screen three parvoviruses in blood samples from 95 patients with different liver disease in Nanjing. The parvovirus infection was analyzed statistically. The detection limits were 10 copies of genomic DNA equivalents per reaction for each assays and the good specificity were observed. The frequency of B19 and HBoV were 2/95 (2.1%) and 9/95 (9.5%) in blood samples respectively. No PARV4 was detected. HBoV was detected in 3/5 patients with drug-induced hepatitis. Both B19 and HBoV infection were detected in blood from patients with liver disease.

  9. Low self-esteem as a vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of depression in university students in China: A 6-month longitudinal study.

    Zheng, Xinyue; Wang, Danyang; Yu, Ping; Yao, Shuqiao; Xiao, Jing

    2014-12-01

    This 6-month longitudinal study examined how self-esteem as a vulnerability differentially predicts symptom dimensions of depression in a sample of university students from Hunan Province, China. Baseline and 6-month follow-up data were obtained from 659 university students. During an initial assessment, participants completed measures assessing their low self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of daily hassle. Participants subsequently completed measures assessing daily hassle and depressive symptoms once per month for 6 months. Higher low self-esteem scores were associated with greater increases in the somatic complaints and positive affect dimensions, but not the depressed affect and interpersonal problem dimensions of depressive symptoms following daily hassle in Chinese university students. The results of the current study suggest that low self-esteem plays a significant role in the etiology and course of depressive symptoms that develop in response to exposure to daily hassles. Consistent with the vulnerability-stress model of depression, the results suggest that low self-esteem serves as a risk factor and daily hassles serve as a precipitating factor. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Papers published from 1995 to 2012 by six Traditional Chinese Medicine universities in China: a bibliometric analysis based on science citation index.

    Gao, Kuo; Tian, Guihua; Ye, Qing; Zhai, Xing; Chen, Jianxin; Liu, Tiegang; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhao, Jingyi; Ding, Shengyun

    2013-12-01

    The quality and quantity of published research papers are important in both scientific and technology fields. Although there are several bibliometric studies based on citation analysis, very few have focused on research related to Traditional Chinese Medicine in China. The bibliometric method used in this study included the following focuses: publication outputs for each year, paper type, language of publication, distribution of internationally collaborative countries, sources of funding, authorization number, distribution of institutes regarding collaborative publications, research fields, distribution of outputs in journals, citation, data, and h-index. A total of 3809 papers published from 1995 to 2012 were extracted from the science citation index (SCI). The cumulative number of papers from all six universities is constantly increasing. The United States attained the dominant position regarding complementary and alternative medicine research. The Chinese Academy of Sciences was the greatest participator in collaborative efforts. Research field analysis showed that the research mainly focused on pharmacology pharmacy, chemistry, integrative complementary medicine, plant sciences, and biochemistry molecular biology. The Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine had the most citations. In recent years, in terms of SCI papers, the six Traditional Chinese Medicine universities studied here have made great advances in scientific research.

  11. Placenta accreta spectrum disorder trends in the context of the universal two-child policy in China and the risk of hysterectomy.

    Zeng, Chanjuan; Yang, Mengyuan; Ding, Yiling; Duan, Siqi; Zhou, Yang

    2018-03-01

    To identify both the trends in placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders in the context of the universal two-child policy in China and risk factors for hysterectomy. The present retrospective analysis included confirmed PAS disorders during cesarean delivery at a tertiary hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China, from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2016. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the risk of hysterectomy. During the 10-year study period, the overall incidence of cesarean delivery was 51.6% (13 530/26 214) and that of PAS disorders was 1.2% (302/26 214). The PAS rate increased from 0.1% (5/4617) in 2007-2008 to 2.1% (133/6351) in 2015-2016, alongside a rise in elective repeat cesarean delivery from 5.0% (106/2124) to 38.4% (1385/3603). Previous cesarean delivery greatly increased the likelihood of PAS disorders (odds ratio [OR] 97.4; PChina. The main predictor of hysterectomy was invasive depth. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  12. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    A. J. Ding; C. B. Fu; X. Q. Yang; J. N. Sun; T. Petäjä; V.-M. Kerminen; T. Wang; Y. N. Xie; E. Herrmann; L. F. Zheng; W. Nie; X. L. Wei; M. Kulmala

    2013-01-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural ...

  13. Health Insurance In China: After Declining In The 1990s, Coverage Rates Rebounded To Near-Universal Levels By 2011.

    Li, Yanping; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed trends in rates of health insurance coverage in China in the period 1991-2011 and the association of health insurance with hypertension and diabetes based on data from eight waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The rate of coverage fell from 32.3 percent in 1991 to 21.9 percent in 2000, rebounding to 49.7 percent in 2006 and then rapidly climbing to 94.7 percent in 2011. Our study indicated that neither the prevalence of diabetes nor that of hypertension was significantly associated with health insurance coverage. When patients were aware of their condition or disease, those with insurance had a significantly higher likelihood of treatment for diabetes and hypertension, compared to those without insurance. We observed an association between health insurance coverage and seeking preventive care and receiving medical treatment when patients were aware of their condition or disease. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Construction of microsatellite-based linkage map and mapping of ...

    Gossypium tomentosum, a wild tetraploid cotton species with AD genomes, possesses genes conferring strong fibers and high heat tolerance. ... State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Cotton Research Institute, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China ...

  15. Tunable plasmonic filter with circular metal–insulator–metal ring ...

    School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, Jiangsu, China; Paul Scherrer ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various ...

  16. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Jianchang Du1 Xingna Wang1 2 Mingsheng Zhang1 Dacheng Tian1 Yong-Hua Yang1. State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; Center for Drug Discovery and Design, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia ...

  17. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Author Affiliations. Ruoxue Liu1 Beibei Lü1 Xiaomeng Wang1 Chunling Zhang1 Shuping Zhang1 Jun Qian1 Lei Chen1 Haojie Shi1 Hansong Dong1. State Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China ...

  18. Experience and levels of satisfaction with the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system in China: a prospective multicenter survey

    Zhao S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shuping Zhao,1 Jihong Deng,2 Yan Wang,3 Shiliang Bi,4 Xiaoye Wang,5 Wen Qin,6 Zirong Huang,7 Li Li,8 Xin Mi,9 Liping Han,10 Qing Chang,11 Jian Li12 1The Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College Qingdao University, Qingdao, 2Kunming Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Kunming, 3Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Wuhan, 4West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 5Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 6Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, 7The Affiliated Women’s Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 8Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou, 9Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Shunyi District, Beijing, 10The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan, 11Southwest Hospital, Chongqing City, Chongqing, 12Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although surveys conducted in Western countries have shown that the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS; Mirena® is well accepted by European women, its acceptance by Chinese women is not yet clearly known. The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences and levels of satisfaction with Mirena among Chinese women living in 12 different cities. Methods: In total, 1,021 women who attended 21 medical centers for insertion of Mirena were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their contraceptive decision at baseline (preinsertion, and two further questionnaires on their experience and satisfaction with Mirena at 3–6 months and 1 year after insertion. Results: At baseline, 36% of women self-reported heavy or very heavy menstrual bleeding, while 41% reported normal bleeding. The majority of women (98% were satisfied with the preinsertion counseling, during which contraceptive reliability was identified as the most important reason for

  19. The mediating effects of parental and peer pressure on the migration intentions of graduates in Nanjing

    Cui, C.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the migration intentions of university graduates using the Theory of Planned Behaviour not just to unravel their intention but also to uncover how subjective perceptions enter the decision-making process. The results suggest that perceived parental and peer pressures have strong

  20. Effect of nano packaging on preservation quality of Nanjing 9108 rice variety at high temperature and humidity.

    Wang, Fan; Hu, Qiuhui; Mugambi Mariga, Alfred; Cao, Chongjiang; Yang, Wenjian

    2018-01-15

    A nano packaging material containing nano Ag, nano TiO 2 , nano attapulgite and SiO 2 was prepared, and its impact on quality of Nanjing 9108 rice at 37°C and 85% relative humidity was studied. Effects of the packaging on ambient gases and chromatic aberration of rice were determined. Moreover, oxidation level, molds growth and flavor of rice were also analyzed. Results showed that nano packaging material had antimicrobial effects and maintained low O 2 and high CO 2 content in the packages. The packages thereby inhibited the growth of molds and the production of fatty acids, restrained the increase of lipase activity, and reduced the oxidation of fats and proteins. As a result, the production of yellow and white-belly rice were inhibited. Furthermore, the color and flavor of rice were maintained. Therefore, the nano-packing material could be applied for preservation of rice to improve preservation quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An industry in the making: the emergence of institutional elder care in urban china.

    Feng, Zhanlian; Zhan, Heying Jenny; Feng, Xiaotian; Liu, Chang; Sun, Mingyue; Mor, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    Demographic shifts in China pose unprecedented challenges in the care of a rapidly growing older population. Sporadic reports suggest the recent emergence of institutional elder care in China, but little is currently known about this phenomenon. This study documents the growth, ownership, financing, staffing, and resident characteristics of elder care institutions using survey data collected in 2009 from Nanjing, China, supplemented with government registry data from seven additional major Chinese cities. Between one-half and two-thirds of facilities operating in these cities were founded in the last decade, primarily in the non-government sector. In Nanjing, government ownership dominated homes built before 1990 (96%) but was increasingly rare in the 1990s (60%) and in the 2000s (23%), a pattern observed in the other seven cities as well. In Nanjing, the average home now draws more than 80% of its daily operating revenues from private-pay or other non-government sources, and this share increases sharply with the recency of facility establishment. The majority (85%) of non-government-owned homes are receiving ongoing per-bed subsidies from the government. The lack of clinical staff characterizes the majority of study facilities; most care staff are rural migratory workers. There is considerable variability across facilities in the case-mix of residents in terms of functional dependence and acuity levels. These findings portray the emergence and rapid growth of a nascent industry of institutional long-term care in urban China and a fundamental shift in institutional ownership, financing, and clientele. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Towards a More Appropriate University English Curriculum in China in the Context of English as an International Language

    Xiaoqiong, Betsy Hu; Jing, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and wide spread of English has given rise to its lingua franca status, which in turn, changes the nature of English and English teaching at the tertiary level. This paper, based on a survey, discusses some of the problems with the current English curriculum used in Chinese universities and proceeds to offer some suggestions for a more…

  3. Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety among China Chinese Students Undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia

    Ampalagan, Meghavaani d/o; Sellupillai, Mogana d/o; Yap, Sze Sze

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between foreign language classroom anxiety (communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation) among Mainland Chinese students undergoing the Laureate English Programme in INTI International University, Malaysia. The participants of this study consisted of 75…

  4. Injection device-related risk management toward safe administration of medications: experience in a university teaching hospital in The People's Republic of China.

    Zhu, Ling-Ling; Li, Wei; Song, Ping; Zhou, Quan

    2014-01-01

    The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People's Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan-do-check-act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety.

  5. Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM2.5 during winter haze period around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival at Nanjing: Insights of source changes, air mass direction and firework particle injection.

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Li; Yin, Yan; Chen, Kui; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Yingjie; Shan, Yunpeng; Ji, Yaqin

    2015-07-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Nanjing around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF) and analyzed for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS. Comparison of PAH concentrations during different periods, with different air mass origins and under different pollution situations was done. Sources were analyzed by diagnostics ratios and principal component analysis (PCA). The threat of PAHs was assessed by BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The averaged PAHs for pre-SF, SF and after SF periods were 50.6, 17.2 and 29 ng m(-3), indicating the variations of PAH sources, with reduced traffic, industrial and construction activities during SF and gradually re-starting of them after-SF. According to PAH mass concentrations, their relative abundance to particles, ratio of PAHs (3-ring+4-ring)/PAHs(5-ring+6-ring), mass concentrations of combustion-derived and carcinogenic PAHs, fireworks burning is an important source for PAHs during SF. The ILCR values for Chinese New Year day were 0.68 and 3.3 per 100,000 exposed children and adults. It suggested the necessity of controlling fireworks burning during Chinese SF period which was always companied with serious regional haze pollution. PAH concentrations exhibited decreasing trend when air masses coming from the following directions as North China Plain (63.9 ng m(-3))>Central China (53.0 ng m(-3))>Shandong Peninsula (46.6 ng m(-3))>Northwest China (18.8 ng m(-3))>Sea (15.8 ng m(-3)). For different pollution situations, they decreased as haze (44.5 ng m(-3))>fog-haze (28.4 ng m(-3))>clear (12.2 ng m(-3))>fog day (9.2 ng m(-3)). Coal combustion, traffic emission, industrial processes and petroleum (only for non-SF holiday periodss) were the main sources of PM2.5 associated PAHs. Fireworks burning contributed 14.0% of PAHs during SF period. Directly measurement of PAHs from fireworks burning is urgently needed for source apportionment studies in

  6. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China.

    Qing, Yunbo; Hu, Guijie; Chen, Qingyun; Peng, Hailun; Li, Kailan; Wei, Jinling; Yi, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs), the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs) starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33%) had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55%) had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  7. Universal health coverage in emerging economies: findings on health care utilization by older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa.

    Peltzer, Karl; Williams, Jennifer Stewart; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Snodgrass, James Josh; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Thiele, Liz; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Biritwum, Richard Berko; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of universal health coverage (UHC) in emerging economies is a high priority within the global community. This timely study uses standardized national population data collected from adults aged 50 and older in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation, and South Africa. The objective is to describe health care utilization and measure association between inpatient and outpatient service use and patient characteristics in these six low- and middle-income countries. Secondary analysis of data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health Wave 1 was undertaken. Country samples are compared by socio-demographic characteristics, type of health care, and reasons for use. Logistic regressions describe association between socio-demographic and health factors and inpatient and outpatient service use. In the pooled multi-country sample of over 26,000 adults aged 50-plus, who reported getting health care the last time it was needed, almost 80% of men and women received inpatient or outpatient care, or both. Roughly 30% of men and women in the Russian Federation used inpatient services in the previous 3 years and 90% of men and women in India used outpatient services in the past year. In China, public hospitals were the most frequently used service type for 52% of men and 51% of women. Multivariable regression showed that, compared with men, women were less likely to use inpatient services and more likely to use outpatient services. Respondents with two or more chronic conditions were almost three times as likely to use inpatient services and twice as likely to use outpatient services compared with respondents with no reported chronic conditions. This study provides a basis for further investigation of country-specific responses to UHC.

  8. Factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among 4,669 clinical medical students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China

    Yunbo Qing

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To produce competent undergraduate-level medical doctors for rural township health centers (THCs, the Chinese government mandated that medical colleges in Central and Western China recruit rural-oriented, tuition-waived medical students (RTMSs starting in 2010. This study aimed to identify and assess factors that influence the choice to work in rural township health centers among both RTMSs and other students from five medical universities in Guangxi, China. Methods: An internet-based self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with medical students in Guangxi province. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the attitudes toward work in a rural township health center. Results: Among 4,669 medical students, 1,523 (33% had a positive attitude and 2,574 (55% had a neutral attitude toward working in THCs. Demographic characteristics, personal job concerns, and knowledge of THCs were associated with the choice of a career in THCs. The factors related to a positive attitude included the following: three-year program, a rural-oriented medical program, being male, an expectation of working in a county or township, a focus on medical career development, some perceived difficulty of getting a job, having family support, sufficient knowledge of THCs, optimism toward THC development, seeking lower working pressure, and a lower expected monthly salary. Conclusion: Male students in a three-year program or a rural-oriented tuition-waived medical education program were more likely to work in THCs. Selecting medical students through interviews to identify their family support and intentions to work in THCs would increase recruitment and retention. Establishing favorable policies and financial incentives to improve living conditions and the social status of rural physicians is necessary.

  9. Factors affecting catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment from medical expenses in China: policy implications of universal health insurance.

    Li, Ye; Wu, Qunhong; Xu, Ling; Legge, David; Hao, Yanhua; Gao, Lijun; Ning, Ning; Wan, Gang

    2012-09-01

    To assess the degree to which the Chinese people are protected from catastrophic household expenditure and impoverishment from medical expenses and to explore the health system and structural factors influencing the first of these outcomes. Data were derived from the Fourth National Health Service Survey. An analysis of catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment from medical expenses was undertaken with a sample of 55 556 households of different characteristics and located in rural and urban settings in different parts of the country. Logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure. The rate of catastrophic health expenditure was 13.0%; that of impoverishment was 7.5%. Rates of catastrophic health expenditure were higher among households having members who were hospitalized, elderly, or chronically ill, as well as in households in rural or poorer regions. A combination of adverse factors increased the risk of catastrophic health expenditure. Families enrolled in the urban employee or resident insurance schemes had lower rates of catastrophic health expenditure than those enrolled in the new rural corporative scheme. The need for and use of health care, demographics, type of benefit package and type of provider payment method were the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure. Although China has greatly expanded health insurance coverage, financial protection remains insufficient. Policy-makers should focus on designing improved insurance plans by expanding the benefit package, redesigning cost sharing arrangements and provider payment methods and developing more effective expenditure control strategies.

  10. International telepathology consultation: Three years of experience between the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and KingMed Diagnostics in China

    Chengquan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Telepathology is increasingly being employed to support diagnostic consultation services. Prior publications have addressed technology aspects for telepathology, whereas this paper will address the clinical telepathology experience of KingMed Diagnostics, the largest independent pathology medical laboratory in China. Beginning in 2012 the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC and KingMed Diagnostics partnered to establish an international telepathology consultation service. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study that summarizes the telepathology experience and diagnostic consultation results between UPMC and KingMed over a period of 3 years from January 2012 to December 2014. Results: A total of 1561 cases were submitted for telepathology consultation including 144 cases in 2012, 614 cases in 2013, and 803 in 2014. Most of the cases (61.4% submitted were referred by pathologists, 36.9% by clinicians, and 1.7% by patients in China. Hematopathology received the most cases (23.7%, followed by bone/soft tissue (21.0% and gynecologic/breast (20.2% subspecialties. Average turnaround time (TAT per case was 5.4 days, which decreased from 6.8 days in 2012 to 5.0 days in 2014. Immunostains were required for most of the cases. For some difficult cases, more than one round of immunostains was needed, which extended the TAT. Among 855 cases (54.7% where a primary diagnosis or impression was provided by the referring local hospitals in China, the final diagnoses rendered by UPMC pathologists were identical in 25.6% of cases and significantly modified (treatment plan altered in 50.8% of cases. Conclusion: These results indicate that international telepathology consultation can significantly improve patient care by facilitating access to pathology expertise. The success of this international digital consultation service was dependent on strong commitment and support from leadership, information technology expertise, and

  11. Perceived challenges to achieving universal health coverage: a cross-sectional survey of social health insurance managers/administrators in China.

    Shan, Linghan; Wu, Qunhong; Liu, Chaojie; Li, Ye; Cui, Yu; Liang, Zi; Hao, Yanhua; Liang, Libo; Ning, Ning; Ding, Ding; Pan, Qingxia; Han, Liyuan

    2017-06-02

    China has achieved over 96% health insurance coverage. However, universal health coverage (UHC) entails population coverage and the range of services covered and the extent to which health service costs are covered. This study aimed to determine the performance of the health insurance system in China in terms of its role in UHC and to identify challenges in the progress of UHC as perceived by health insurance managers/administrators. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Beijing, Ningbo, Harbin and Chongqing over the period of 2014 and 2015. A stratified cluster random sampling strategy was adopted to select study participants. A total of 1277 (64.8%) respondents who reported familiarity with the current health insurance system and the requirements of UHC provided valid data for analyses. They gave a rating on the role of the current health insurance system in achieving UHC. A multivariate logistic regression model was developed to determine the associations between the rating and the features of insurance arrangements. There was consensus among the respondents on the performance of the current health insurance system in terms of its role in UHC, regardless who they were and what responsibility they held in their organisation (ie, policy development, managing fund transactions, and so on). Overall, about 45% of the respondents believed that there is a long way to go to achieve UHC. The low rating was found to be associated with limited financial protection (OR=1.656, 95% CI 1.279 to 2.146), healthcare inequity (OR=1.607, 95% CI 1.268 to 2.037), poor portability (OR=1.347, 95% CI 1.065 to 1.703) and ineffective supervision and administration of funds (OR=1.339, 95% CI 1.061 to 1.692) as perceived by the respondents. Health insurance managers/administrators in China are pessimistic about the achievements of the current health insurance system. They are concerned about the overall lack of benefit that insurance programmes bring to members

  12. Fulltext PDF

    2013-02-01

    Feb 1, 2013 ... 1College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, ... chaotic systems means that all the state variables of the drive system ..... of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China, 2004).

  13. Modernity versus postmodernity in China. The debate between “Asian values” and “universal values”

    Seán Golden

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Chinese society, a debate is developing on “Western values”, also called “universal values”, versus “Asian values”, which are presented as an alternative to the former. To demand a Chinese “postmodernity” which will foster the development of the country,there is a rejection of “Western modernity”, the values of which served to justify imperialism and now appear to justify an economic neo-imperialism. Before going into the analysis of these concepts, the author outlines their historical and ideological framework.

  14. Fluctuation traits of Litchi wholesale price in China

    Yan, F. F.; Qi, W. E.; Ouyang, X.

    2017-07-01

    This paper chose the wholesale price of litchi as research object based on the daily data of 11 main sales markets in China -- Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hefei, Jiaxing, Nanjing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Changsha, Zhengzhou and Chongqing from April 1, 2012 to September 30, 2016. After analyzing the fluctuation characteristics with BP filter method and H-P filter method, and the fluctuation trends of litchi wholesale price in China obtained by BP filter are roughly consistent with the trends obtained by H-P filter. The main conclusions are as follows: there is strong cyclicality in the fluctuation of litchi wholesale price; the period of fluctuations of litchi wholesale prices are not repeatable; litchi wholesale price fluctuates asymmetrically in one fluctuation cycle.

  15. Fast food consumption and its associations with obesity and hypertension among children: results from the baseline data of the Childhood Obesity Study in China Mega-cities

    Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Liang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Background China has seen rapid increase in obesity and hypertension prevalence and fast food consumption over the past decade. We examined status and risk factors for Western- and Chinese fast food consumption and their associations with health outcomes in Chinese children, and examined how maternal factors were associated with child health outcomes. Methods Data of 1626 students aged 7–16 (11.6 ± 2.0) years and their parents in four mega-cities across China (Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and ...

  16. [Quality of life and related social support for men who have sex with men among university students in Chongqing, China].

    Chen, Jiang-peng; Wang, Hong; Liu, Liang

    2013-09-01

    To study the status of quality of life(QOL) on men who have sex with men (MSM) and it's relationship with social support among university students in Chongqing. Snowball sampling was applied to recruit the subjects on MSM for this study and multistage stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit ordinary male college students. WHOQOL-BREF and SSRS questionnaires were used to collect information from both MSM and ordinary male college students. Scores from the physiological, psychological, social relations and environmental domains for QOL and total QOL were 13.82 ± 2.25, 13.14 ± 2.51, 13.24 ± 2.96, 12.44 ± 2.49 and 13.12 ± 2.16, respectively. Scores for all domains of QOL on MSM were lower than figures from ordinary male college students (P social relations were the main factors that influencing the social support and quality of life in this population, respectively. The improvement of subjective feelings and proper use of social support and targeted interventions among this MSM population should accord to the different demographic characteristics, especially for those who did not have regular sexual partner or in gay circles, and for those who practice passive role during sexual act(as "0"), seemed to be helpful to improve their quality of life.

  17. The current status of utilization of research reactors in China

    Luzheng, Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Seminars on utilization of research reactors were held to enhance experience exchanging among institutes and universities in China. The status of CARR (China Advanced Research Reactor) project is briefly described. The progress in BNCT program in China is introduced. (author)

  18. Knowledge and willingness toward living organ donation: a survey of three universities in Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

    Zhang, L; Li, Y; Zhou, J; Miao, X; Wang, G; Li, D; Nielson, K; Long, Y; Li, J

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify the knowledge and attitudes of Chinese university students regarding living organ donation and analyze the determinants impacting their decisions. A questionnaire was delivered to college students chosen by random assignment. The data was analyzed by Statistics Package for Social Science (SPSS) software. Of 434 participants, 49.8% indicated they would be willing to be living organ donors, 58.4% believed living organ donation could ease the organ shortage, 48.2% thought that the recovery rate of recipients of living organ donors transplants was equal to or even better than deceased donation, 62.4% designated relatives as their most probable recipients, 48.0% argued that partial compensation was an effective method to increase live organ donation, and 53.7% wished to donate through transplantation centers. According to univariate analysis, attitudes regarding the value of life, relationship between body integrity and health as well as body integrity and conventional culture were factors that impacted on an individual's decision. Students' knowledge of the value of living organ transplantation and their economic background were considered to be determinants of individual willingness. Furthermore, the operation's impact on quality of life and postoperative complications were additional concerns. Multivariate analysis indicated that other factors influencing students' willingness to donate included attitudes toward the relationship between body integrity and health, beliefs regarding body integrity and conventional culture, value of living donor organ transplantation, economic background of students, and anxiety about the impact on postoperative complications. Numerous students were willing to participate in living organ donation. At the same time, social education and advertisements for living organ donation were far from adequate, having little or no influence on the decision-making process.

  19. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Cross-sectional surveys on the use of recreational drug nitrous-acid-ester rush-poppers in men who have sex with men, Nanjing].

    Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M; Xu, Y Y; Xu, W J; Liu, L; Wu, S S; Guo, L; Li, X

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of recreational drug nitrous acid ester inhaler-rush poppers use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: From April to June in 2014, October to December in 2014, April to June in 2015, three round cross-sectional surveys were conducted in MSM recruited in Nanjing by means of serum test and questionnaire survey. Results: Of the 1 721 MSM surveyed in three round, 19.3% (332/1 721) had ever used rush poppers, the proportions of MSM who used rush poppers in three round surveys showed an increasing trend (liner by liner χ (2)= 14.879, P =0.000), which was 12.6% (86/681), 27.6% (121/439) and 20.8% (125/601) respectively. Rush poppers use was associated with HIV infection significantly ( OR =1.676, 95 %CI : 1.201-2.339, P =0.002). Compared with MSM without rush poppers use, the MSM with rush poppers use were mainly aged poppers use. Conclusion: Rush poppers use was related with HIV infection in MSM in Nanjing.

  1. China energy databook. Revision 2, 1992 edition

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them.

  2. 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China

    Qian, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China collects selected papers from the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China held in Nanjing on October 16-19, 2012. The book features state-of-the-art studies on spacecraft TT&C in China with the theme of “Shared and Flexible TT&C Systems”. The selected works can help  promote development of spacecraft TT&C technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of aerospace engineering and communication engineering can benefit from the book. Rongjun Shen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering; Weiping Qian is the Director General of Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology.

  3. Canine Babesiosis in China Caused by Babesia gibsoni: A Molecular Approach.

    Da-Wei Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To provide a point of reference to study the epidemiology and clinical expression of canine babesiosis in China.A total of 30 dogs infected with canine babesiosis were evaluated by mean of clinical history, physical examination, hematological, restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR products (PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis.The most prevalent clinical abnormalities were lethargy (100%, anorexia (100%, pale or icteric mucous membranes (80%, fever (70% and dark urine (70%. Hematology parameters revealed that anemia and thrombocytopenia were the major abnormalities in blood of dogs infected with canine babesia. The results of PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis indicated that B. gibsoni was the main species responsible for canine babesiosis cases at the time of the study in Nanjing, China.The results provide valuable information for better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in China.

  4. Doctoral level research and training capacity in the social determinants of health at universities and higher education institutions in India, China, Oman and Vietnam: a survey of needs.

    Ali, Farhad; Shet, Arun; Yan, Weirong; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Atkins, Salla; Lucas, Henry

    2017-09-02

    Research capacity is scarce in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. Social determinants of health research (SDH) is an area in which research capacity is lacking, particularly in Asian countries. SDH research can support health decision-makers, inform policy and thereby improve the overall health and wellbeing of the population. In order to continue building this capacity, we need to know to what extent training exists and how challenges could be addressed from the perspective of students and staff. This paper aims to describe the challenges involved in training scholars to undertake research on the SDH in four Asian countries - China, India, Oman and Vietnam. In-depth interviews were conducted with research scholars, research supervisors and principal investigators (n = 13) at ARCADE partner institutions, which included eight universities and research institutes. In addition, structured questionnaires (n = 70) were used to collect quantitative data relating to the courses available, teaching and supervisory capacity, and related issues for students being trained in research on SDH. Simple descriptive statistics were calculated from the quantitative data and thematic analysis applied to the qualitative data. We identified a general lack of training courses focusing on SDH. Added to this, PhD students studying related areas reported inadequate supervision, with limited time allocated to meetings and poor interpersonal communication. Supervisors cited interpersonal communication problems and student lack of skills to perform high quality research as challenges to research training. Further challenges reported included a lack of research funding to include SDH-related topics. Finally, it was suggested that there was a need for institutions to define clear and appropriate standards regarding admission and supervision of students to higher education programs awarding doctoral degrees. There are gaps in training for research on the SDH at the surveyed

  5. Job burnout and organizational justice among medical interns in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

    Jin WM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Min Jin,1 Ying Zhang,2 Xiao-Ping Wang1 1Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital, 2Department of Neuroscience, Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: New challenges are occurring in the medical education in Mainland China, and the main risk is the loss of excellent physician candidates. This is due to lack of respect; a large, strong labor force; relatively low remuneration; unstable relationships between patients and doctors; pressures from the public media; and the possible existence of organizational injustice within the hospital. The study reported here looked at one of the in-hospital risks, psychological job burnout and organizational justice, to identify the possible internal cause–effect relationship at the two major general hospitals both affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine.Objective: The aim of the reported study was to analyze the related factors associated with job burnout in Chinese medical interns in Shanghai and to provide some suggestions to better their occupational development.Methods: A total of 135 medical interns were investigated and assessed by the Organizational Justice Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey.Results: There was a statistically significant negative correlation between organizational justice and job burnout (r=-0.298, P=0.000, suggesting the existence of job burnout among the participant interns. In particular, emotional exhaustion and cynicism were statistically more significant; the comparison between the N group (from Nanjing and S group (Shanghai showed significant difference in participation and reduced professional efficacy (P<0.05, with reduced professional efficacy in N group more significant than in S group, and participation in S group more significant than in N group.Conclusion: Job burnout existed among Chinese medical interns, and was associated

  6. Effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to care for sputum-smear-positive multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: a before-and-after study.

    Li, Renzhong; Ruan, Yunzhou; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Xiexiu; Chen, Mingting; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Yanlin; Zhao, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Caihong; Su, Wei; Pang, Yu; Cheng, Jun; Chi, Junying; Wang, Qian; Fu, Yunting; Huan, Shitong; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Yu; Chin, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    China has a quarter of all patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) worldwide, but less than 5% are in quality treatment programmes. In a before-and-after study we aimed to assess the effect of a comprehensive programme to provide universal access to diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up for MDRTB in four Chinese cities (population 18 million). We designated city-level hospitals in each city to diagnose and treat MDRTB. All patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed in Center for Disease Control (CDC) clinics and hospitals were tested for MDRTB with molecular and conventional drug susceptibility tests. Patients were treated with a 24 month treatment package for MDRTB based on WHO guidelines. Outpatients were referred to the CDC for directly observed therapy. We capped total treatment package cost at US$4644. Insurance reimbursement and project subsidies limited patients' expenses to 10% of charges for services within the package. We compared data from a 12 month programme period (2011) to those from a retrospective survey of all patients with MDRTB diagnosed in the same cities during a baseline period (2006-09). 243 patients were diagnosed with MDRTB or rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis during the 12 month programme period compared with 92 patients (equivalent to 24 per year) during the baseline period. 172 (71%) of 243 individuals were enrolled in the programme. Time from specimen collection for resistance testing to treatment initiation decreased by 90% (from median 139 days [IQR 69-207] to 14 days [10-21]), the proportion of patients who started on appropriate drug regimen increased 2·7 times (from nine [35%] of 26 patients treated to 166 [97%] of 172), and follow-up by the CDC after initial hospitalisation increased 24 times (from one [4%] of 23 patients to 163 [99%] of 164 patients). 6 months after starting treatment, the proportion of patients remaining on treatment increased ten times (from two [8%] of 26 patients to 137 [80

  7. Analyzing public awareness and acceptance of alternative fuel vehicles in China: The case of EV

    Zhang Yong; Yu Yifeng; Zou Bai

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze consumers' awareness towards electric vehicle (EV) and examine the factors that are most likely to affect consumers' choice for EV in China. A comprehensive questionnaire survey has been conducted with 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. Three binary logistic regression models were used to determine the factors that contribute to consumers' acceptance of EVs, their purchase time and their purchase price. The results suggest that: (1)Whether a consumer chooses an EV is significantly influenced by the number of driver's licenses, number of vehicles, government policies and fuel price. (2)The timing of consumers' purchases of an EV is influenced by academic degree, annual income, number of vehicles, government policies, the opinion of peers and tax incentives. (3)The acceptance of purchase price of EVs is influenced by age, academic degree, number of family members, number of vehicles, the opinion of peers, maintenance cost and degree of safety. These findings will help understand consumer's purchase behavior of EVs and have important policy implications related to the promotions of EVs in China. - Highlights: → We survey 299 respondents from various driving schools in Nanjing. → We analyze consumer's awareness towards electric vehicle (EV). → The factors affecting consumers' choice for EV are examined by three binary logistic models. → Factors contributing to consumers' acceptance of EVs, purchase time and purchase price are indicated.

  8. [Pollution Characteristics and Light Extinction Effects of Water-soluble Ions in PM2.5 During Winter Hazy Days at North Suburban Nanjing].

    Zhou, Yao-yao; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Cui, Fen-ping; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and their contribution to light extinction in haze days, on-line monitoring of PM2.5. was conducted at North Suburban Nanjing from 25 January through 3 February, 2013. Water-soluble components were collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS), and analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) for the contents of SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ Simultaneously particle size distributions were measured using scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The absorption and scattering coefficients were measured by three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3). Trace gases (SO2, NO2 etc.) were also monitored. The results showed that the average concentrations of total water-soluble ions were 70.3 and 22.9 microg x m(-3) in haze and normal days, respectively. Secondary hygroscopic components including SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ were the major ionic pollutants. Hazy days favored the conversion of SO2 and NOx, to SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively, and in particular the oxidation of NOx. Using multiple linear regression statistical method, the empirical relationship between the dry aerosol extinction coefficient and the chemical composition was established. NH4NO3 was found to be the largest contributor to aerosol extinction in winter in Nanjing, followed by (NH4)2SO4, OC and EC. In two heavy pollution events, the increase of ion concentrations was influenced by the increase of primary emissions and secondary transformation.

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    2008-08-13

    Aug 13, 2008 ... Peng-Fei Yin1 2 Li-Li Sun1 3 You-Lu Gao2 Sheng-Yue Wang2. College of Science, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, P.R. China; Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, P.R. China; Department of Physics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, P.R. ...

  10. d-?-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate/Solutol HS 15 mixed micelles for the delivery of baohuoside I against non-small-cell lung cancer: optimization and in vitro, in vivo evaluation

    Yan, Hongmei; Zhang, Zhenhai; Jia, Xiaobin; Song, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Hongmei Yan,1,2 Zhenhai Zhang,2 Xiaobin Jia,1,2 Jie Song1,2 1College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 2Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Third School of Clinical Medical of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Baohuoside I, extracted from the Herba epimedii, is an effective but a poorly soluble antitumor drug. To improve its solubility, formulation of baohuoside I-load...

  11. Pension Reform in China.

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent.

  12. IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T 2012) Proceedings (25th, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, April 17-19, 2012)

    IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Proceedings (MS), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) is the premier international peer-reviewed conference, sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Computer Society, which addresses all major areas related to software engineering education, training, and professionalism. This year, as…

  13. Interpretation of Forest Resources at the Individual Tree Level at Purple Mountain, Nanjing City, China, Using WorldView-2 Imagery by Combining GPS, RS and GIS Technologies

    Songqiu Deng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to measure forest resources at the individual tree level using high-resolution images by combining GPS, RS, and Geographic Information System (GIS technologies. The images were acquired by the WorldView-2 satellite with a resolution of 0.5 m in the panchromatic band and 2.0 m in the multispectral bands. Field data of 90 plots were used to verify the interpreted accuracy. The tops of trees in three groups, namely ≥10 cm, ≥15 cm, and ≥20 cm DBH (diameter at breast height, were extracted by the individual tree crown (ITC approach using filters with moving windows of 3 × 3 pixels, 5 × 5 pixels and 7 × 7 pixels, respectively. In the study area, there were 1,203,970 trees of DBH over 10 cm, and the interpreted accuracy was 73.68 ± 15.14% averaged over the 90 plots. The numbers of the trees that were ≥15 cm and ≥20 cm DBH were 727,887 and 548,919, with an average accuracy of 68.74 ± 17.21% and 71.92 ± 18.03%, respectively. The pixel-based classification showed that the classified accuracies of the 16 classes obtained using the eight multispectral bands were higher than those obtained using only the four standard bands. The increments ranged from 0.1% for the water class to 17.0% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 4.8% for the 16 classes. In addition, to overcome the “mixed pixels” problem, a crown-based supervised classification, which can improve the classified accuracy of both dominant species and smaller classes, was used for generating a thematic map of tree species. The improvements of the crown- to pixel-based classification ranged from −1.6% for the open forest class to 34.3% for Metasequoia glyptostroboides, with an average value of 20.3% for the 10 classes. All tree tops were then annotated with the species attributes from the map, and a tree count of different species indicated that the forest of Purple Mountain is mainly dominated by Quercus acutissima, Liquidambar formosana and Pinus massoniana. The findings from this study lead to the recommendation of using the crown-based instead of the pixel-based classification approach in classifying mixed forests.

  14. Estimating Forest Aboveground Biomass by Combining ALOS PALSAR and WorldView-2 Data: A Case Study at Purple Mountain National Park, Nanjing, China

    Songqiu Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced methods are required for mapping the forest aboveground biomass (AGB over a large area in Chinese forests. This study attempted to develop an improved approach to retrieving biomass by combining PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar and WorldView-2 data. A total of 33 variables with potential correlations with forest biomass were extracted from the above data. However, these parameters had poor fits to the observed biomass. Accordingly, the synergies of several variables were explored to identify improved relationships with the AGB. Using principal component analysis and multivariate linear regression (MLR, the accuracies of the biomass estimates obtained using PALSAR and WorldView-2 data were improved to approximately 65% to 71%. In addition, using the additional dataset developed from the fusion of FBD (fine beam dual-polarization and WorldView-2 data improved the performance to 79% with an RMSE (root mean square error of 35.13 Mg/ha when using the MLR method. Moreover, a further improvement (R2 = 0.89, relative RMSE = 17.08% was obtained by combining all the variables mentioned above. For the purpose of comparison with MLR, a neural network approach was also used to estimate the biomass. However, this approach did not produce significant improvements in the AGB estimates. Consequently, the final MLR model was recommended to map the AGB of the study area. Finally, analyses of estimated error in distinguishing forest types and vertical structures suggested that the RMSE decreases gradually from broad-leaved to coniferous to mixed forest. In terms of different vertical structures (VS, VS3 has a high error because the forest lacks undergrowth trees, while VS4 forest, which has approximately the same amounts of stems in each of the three DBH (diameter at breast height classes (DBH > 20, 10 ≤ DBH ≤ 20, and DBH < 10 cm, has the lowest RMSE. This study demonstrates that the combination of PALSAR and WorldView-2 data is a promising approach to improve biomass estimation.

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061, China; Food and Drug Department, Qingyuan Polytechnic, Qingyuan 511510, P. R. China; Department of City Science, The City Vocational College of Jiangsu, Nanjing 210017, China; Department of Science and Technology, ...

  16. The EU and China

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  17. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  18. Antitumor effect of a Pt-loaded nanocomposite based on graphene quantum dots combats hypoxia-induced chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Wei Z

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zheng Wei,1,2,* Xiteng Yin,1,2,* Yu Cai,2,3 Wenguang Xu,1,2 Chuanhui Song,1,2 Yufeng Wang,1,2 Jingwei Zhang,4 An Kang,5 Zhiyong Wang,1,2 Wei Han1,2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; 2Central Laboratory of Stomatology, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China; 3Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics and Institute of Advanced Materials, Jiangsu National Synergetic Innovation Center for Advanced Materials, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, China; 4Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China; 5School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the chemoresistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Hypoxia in the microenvironment is one of the important factors that contributes to OSCC chemoresistance; therefore overcoming hypoxia-mediated chemoresistance is one of the great challenges in clinical practice. Methods: In this study, we developed a drug delivery system based on Pt-loaded, polyethylene glycol-modified graphene quantum dots via chemical oxidation and covalent reaction. Results: Our results show that synthesized polyethylene glycol-graphene quantum dots-Pt (GPt is about 5 nm in diameter. GPt sensitizes OSCC cells to its treatment in both normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry assay shows that GPt enhances Pt accumulation in cells, which leads to a notable increase of S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of OSCC cells in both normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Finally, compared with free cisplatin, GPt exhibits a strong inhibitory effect on the tumor growth with less systemic drug toxicity in an OSCC xenograft mouse tumor model

  19. The Investigation and Analysis of Chinese University Students' Current Situation of Entrepreneurship and the Countermeasures--The Reflection from a Special Investigation in Pearl Delta in China

    Lifang, Li

    2012-01-01

    This research has chosen some students and undergraduates from 35 colleges and universities, which are national, local and professional colleges or universities with different entrepreneurship needs and different educational functions in the same area. The research reveals that the undergraduates or students are in strong desire of career…

  20. Examining the Role of Ideological and Political Education on University Students' Civic Perceptions and Civic Participation in Mainland China: Some Hints from Contemporary Citizenship Theory

    Zhang, Chong; Fagan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    A long existing compulsive curriculum of ideological and political education is employed by the Chinese government to promote citizenship education among Chinese university students. This article builds on the findings of a mixed-methods research that examined the role of ideological and political education on university students' civic…

  1. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Energy saving project for Jingling Petrochemical Corp. Nanjing Refinery; 1999 nendo Jingling sekiyu kako koji Nanjing seiyusho shoene project chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A survey is conducted for the above named plant under an energy saving project expected to link to the clean development mechanism (CDM) of COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Studies are conducted about the refurbishment of the existing power recovering facilities in the wake of a plan for enhancing FCC (fluid catalytic cracker) processing capability and about power recovery from unused exhaust gas from the RFCC (residual fluid catalytic cracker) second catalyst regeneration tower. A modification plan was drafted and rough designs were prepared therefor, and it was found that power recovery from RFCC would be technologically and economically unfeasible because of the high temperature and extremely small quantity of the recoverable gas. It was then concluded that the plan be abandoned. Thanks to the refurbishment of the existing power recovering facilities to go out of service under the new operating conditions after FCC facility modification and to the installation of a new exhaust gas processor for air pollution prevention, there will be 10.6MW to be recovered for a reduction in fuel for in-house power generation. The consequential reduction in energy consumption will result in a CO2 reduction of 70,000 tons/year. Though China has not yet ratified the COP3 protocol, it is hoped that it will consider emission tradings and participate in the project when designated as a CDM country. (NEDO)

  2. Biotechnology in China

    Hamer, Dean H; Kung, Shain-dow

    1989-01-01

    ... and Shain-dow Kung Center for Agricultural Biotechnology Maryland Biotechnology Institute Department of Botany University of Maryland College Park, Maryland Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China National Academy of Sciences National Academy Press Washington, DC 1989 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from bo...

  3. [Effect of water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control Oncomelania hupensis snails in rivers connecting with Yangtze River in Pukou District, Nanjing City].

    Qiang, Zhou; Li-Xin, Wan; De-Rong, Hang; Qi-Hui, You; Jun, You; Yu-Lin, Zhang; Zhao-Feng, Zhu; Yi-Xin, Huang

    2017-12-07

    To evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control Oncomelania hupensis snails in the rivers connecting with the Yangtze River. The water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects of Zhujiashan River, Qili River and Gaowang River were chosen as the study objects in Pukou District, Nanjing City. The data review method and field investigation were used to evaluate the effect of the water conservancy schistosomiasis control projects combined with molluscicide to control O. hupensis snails. After the projects of the water level control and concrete slope protection and mollusciciding were implemented, the snails in the project river sections were completely eliminated. The snail diffusion did not happen in the inland irrigation area too. In the outside of the river beach, though the snails still existed, the snail densities plunged below 1.0 snail per 1.0 m 2 . The comprehensive measures of the combination of water level control, concrete slope protection and mollusciciding can effectively control and eliminate the snails, and prevent the snails from spreading.

  4. Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.

    Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. External Knowledge Acquisition Needs a Hand? The Dual Effects of Industry-University Collaborations on High-Tech Firms’ Innovation Capability in China

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Salomo, Søren

    2012-01-01

    , the available licensing data to public starts from 2000 to 2009. We limit our sample to those firms who engaged in foreign technology licensing-in activities during 2000 to 2003, which resulted in a sample of 91 Chinese licensee firms in high-tech sector. This period is chosen in order to obtain an appropriate....... According to the ‘Administration of Record Filing of Technology Licensing’, the SIPO is authorized to fill the records of technology licensing in China. A record contains more valuable information: names of licensor, licensee, and licensed patents, contracting number, date, and license type. So far...

  6. Equity in health financing of Guangxi after China's universal health coverage: evidence based on health expenditure comparison in rural Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region from 2009 to 2013.

    Qin, Xianjing; Luo, Hongye; Feng, Jun; Li, Yanning; Wei, Bo; Feng, Qiming

    2017-09-29

    Healthcare financing should be equitable. Fairness in financial contribution and protection against financial risk is based on the notion that every household should pay a fair share. Health policy makers have long been concerned with protecting people from the possibility that ill health will lead to catastrophic financial payments and subsequent impoverishment. A number of studies on health care financing equity have been conducted in some provinces of China, but in Guangxi, we found such observation is not enough. What is the situation in Guagnxi? A research on rural areas of Guangxi can add knowledge in this field and help improve the equity and efficiency of health financing, particularly in low-income citizens in rural countries, is a major concern in China's medical sector reform. Socio-economic characteristics and healthcare payment data were obtained from two rounds of household surveys conducted in 2009 (4634 respondents) and 2013 (3951 respondents). The contributions of funding sources were determined and a progressivity analysis of government healthcare subsidies was performed. Household consumption expenditure and total healthcare payments were calculated and incidence and intensity of catastrophic health payments were measured. Summary indices (concentration index, Kakwani index and Gini coefficient) were obtained for the sources of healthcare financing: indirect taxes, out of pocket payments, and social insurance contributions. The overall health-care financing system was regressive. In 2013, the Kakwani index was 0.0013, the vertical effect of all the three funding sources was 0.0001, and some values exceeded 100%, indicating that vertical inequity had a large influence on causing total health financing inequity. The headcount of catastrophic health payment declined sharply between 2009 and 2013, using total expenditure (from 7.3% to 1.2%) or non-food expenditure (from 26.1% to 7.5%) as the indicator of household capacity to pay. Our study

  7. Chinese University EFL Teachers’ Knowledge of and Stance on Plagiarism = Conocimientos y actitudes ante el plagio del profesorado de lengua inglesa en universidades chinas

    Hu, Guangwei; Sun, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism has engendered increasing concern in academia in the past few decades. While previous studies have investigated student plagiarism from various perspectives, how plagiarism is understood and responded to by university teachers, especially those in English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) writing contexts, has been under-researched. As academic insiders and educators of future academics, university teachers play a key role in educating students against plagiarism and upholding academic i...

  8. All projects related to China | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    Under "Healthy China 2020," universal basic healthcare coverage will be provided to all ... ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, HEALTH SYSTEM, PUBLIC HEALTH, HEALTH POLICY ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Brazil, China.

  9. The Emergence and Epidemiology of Haff Disease in China

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haff disease is a rare syndrome of unexplained myalgia and rhabdomyolysis occurring within 24 h of consumption of certain types of cooked freshwater fish or crustacean. It is caused by a yet unidentified heat-stable toxin. In the present review of published case studies and official press releases, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of Haff disease in China. Haff disease first occurred in Beijing in 2000 and in Lianzhou and Liannan, Guangdong Province in 2009. Subsequent outbreaks mostly occurred in the Jiangsu Province—Nanjing, Yangzhou, Huai’an, and Yancheng. Isolated outbreaks occurred in other cities since 2010—Shijiazhuang, Yueyang, Shanghai, Wuhu, Baoding, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong (imported cases from Shenzhen. Outbreaks occurred predominately in the summer. Crayfish accounted for almost all the outbreaks. Two large outbreaks occurred in Lianzhou and Liannan in 2009 (n = 54 after eating pomfrets and in Nanjing in 2010 (n = 42 after eating crayfish. Other reports or outbreaks involved only 1–9 subjects (median 2 subjects. Variability in individual susceptibility and attack rates were noted, with many subjects remaining asymptomatic despite sharing the same seafood meal as the index cases. Adults were predominately involved. Symptoms occurred within 3–20 h of seafood ingestion, including myalgia, weakness, and, less frequently, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Myalgia and muscle weakness should normally subside within 2–3 days. Serum creatine phosphokinase became normal within 5–6 days. Abnormal renal function was uncommon. Serious complications (renal failure, multi-organ failure, and prolonged myopathy and death were rare. In any subjects with unexplained myalgia and rhabdomyolysis, seafood consumption should be included in the history. All suspected cases of Haff disease, including milder presentations, should be reported to public health authorities.

  10. Banking on the Future: Everything you always wanted to know about sperm donation in China

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2018-01-01

    Excerpt from Wahlberg, A. 2018. Good Quality - the Routinization of Sperm Banking China, Berkley: University of California Press......Excerpt from Wahlberg, A. 2018. Good Quality - the Routinization of Sperm Banking China, Berkley: University of California Press...

  11. China's community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples´ preconception health status.

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2016-12-28

    Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the

  12. Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.

    Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-03-15

    In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (price samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Retrieval of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities and aerosol optical properties form MAXDOAS measurements in Yangtze River Delta, China

    Hao, Nan; Van. Roozendael, Michel; Ding, Aijun; Zhou, Bin; Hendrick, François; Shen, Yicheng; Wang, Tin; Valks, Pieter

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is one of the most important environmental problems in developing Asian countries like China. Due to huge consumption of fossil fuels and rapid increase of traffic emissions in the past decades, many regions in China have been experiencing heavy air pollution. The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region includes the mega-city Shanghai and the well-industrialized and urbanized areas of Zhejiang Province and Jiangsu Province, with over ten large cities, such as Hangzhou, Suzhou and Nanjing. Covering only 2% land area, this region produces over 20% of China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which makes it the most densely populated region and one of the most polluted regions in China. For instance, there more than 60% of a year was haze days with poor visibility in Shanghai over the last few years. In the YRD region, knowledge gaps still exist in the understanding of the source and transport of air pollutants because only few measurement studies have been conducted. MAX-DOAS measurements were performed in Shanghai city center and Wujiang (border of Shanghai and Jiangsu Province) from 2010 to 2012 and in Nanjing (capital of Jiangsu Province) from April 2013. A retrieval algorithm, based on an on-line implementation of the radiative transfer code LIDORT and the optimal estimation technique, has been used to provide information on aerosol extinction vertical profiles. The total aerosol optical depths (AODs) calculated from the retrieved profiles were compared to MODIS, AERONET and local PM measurements. The aerosol information was input to LIDORT to calculate NO2 air mass factors. The retrieved tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) were compared to in-situ and satellite NO2 measurements.

  14. Building World Class Universities in China: Exploring Faculty's Perceptions, Interpretations of and Struggles with Global Forces in Higher Education

    Kim, Dongbin; Song, Quirong; Liu, Ji; Liu, Qingqin; Grimm, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Employing a glonacal (global, national and local) heuristic as a theoretical lens, and a qualitative analysis with interview data, this study highlights how Chinese faculty members interpret the definitions and implications of pursuing world class universities (WCUs) and struggle with the multiple dimensions of their academic lives across global,…

  15. A Washback Study of the "Test for English Majors for Grade Eight" (TEM8) in China--From the Perspective of University Program Administrators

    Zou, Shen; Xu, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Washback and fairness are interrelated in validity research, and thus an investigation into washback inevitably involves fairness. This article reports Phase One of a washback study of "Test for English Majors for Grade Eight" (TEM8). Phase One was a questionnaire survey administered to university program administrators. Two research…

  16. [Statistics and analysis on acupuncture and moxibustion projects of the National Natural Science Foundation of China of traditional Chinese medicine universities and colleges in recent 10 years: taking the General Program and National Science Fund for Young Scholars as examples].

    Li, Qingling; Ma, Qiang; Li, Dan; Liu, Nana; Yang, Jiahui; Sun, Chun; Cheng, Cheng; Jia, Xuezhao; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yonglei

    2018-03-12

    To analyze statistically the situation of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) from 2007 to 2016 in the field of acupuncture and moxibustion for supporting the national Universities colleges of traditional Chinese medicine on the General Program (GP) and the National Science Fund for Young Scholars (NSFYS). In view of five aspects, named fund, supporting units, key words, method, disorder and signal path, the differences were compared between GP and NSFYS, the following characteristics were summarized. ① The fund aid was increased from 2007 through 2013 and down-regulated from 2013 through 2016. In recent ten years, the funding condition was fluctuated, but increasing in tendency generally. ② The relevant projects of the same research direction had been approved continuously for over 3 years in a part of TCM universities, in which, the research continuity was the hot topic. ③ Regarding the therapeutic methods, acupuncture was the chief therapy; electroacupuncture, moxibustion and acupoints were involved as well. ④ The disorders involved in the research were cerebral ischemia, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. It is suggested that the ischemic disorder is predominated in the research. ⑤ The signal path occupied the main research index system, including cell proliferation, metabolism, immune, apoptosis and autophagy. The researches on the other aspects were less.

  17. Influence of pollution control on lead inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5: A case study of 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing.

    Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Hong-Bo; Luo, Jun; Li, Hui-Ming; Qian, Xin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Bi, Jun; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-09-01

    Pollution controls were implemented to improve the air quality for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in Nanjing. To investigate the influence of pollution control on Pb inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5, samples were collected before, during, and after YOG. The objectives were to identify Pb sources in PM2.5 using stable isotope fingerprinting technique and compare Pb inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 using two simulated lung fluids. While artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) simulates interstitial fluid at pH 7.4, Gamble's solution simulates fluid in alveolar macrophages at pH 4.5. The Pb concentration in PM2.5 samples during YOG (88.2ngm(-3)) was 44-48% lower than that in non-YOG samples. Based on stable Pb isotope ratios, Pb in YOG samples was mainly from coal combustion while Pb in non-YOG samples was from coal combustion and smelting activities. While Pb bioaccessibility in YOG samples was lower than those in non-YOG samples (59-79% vs. 55-87%) by ALF, it was higher than those in non-YOG samples (11-29% vs. 5.3-21%) based on Gamble's solution, attributing to the lower pH and organic acids in ALF. Different Pb bioaccessibility in PM2.5 between samples resulted from changes in Pb species due to pollution control. PbSO4 was the main Pb species in PM2.5 from coal combustion, which was less soluble in ALF than PbO from smelting activities, but more soluble in Gamble's solution. This study showed it is important to consider Pb bioaccessibility during pollution control as source control not only reduced Pb contamination in PM2.5 but also influenced Pb bioaccessibility. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Research on the influence of urban land use structure and pattern on nitrogen, phosphorus of wetland water environment in Xianlin New Town of Nanjing].

    Cai, Chun-Xiao; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; Wang, Cong; Hou, Ming-Hang

    2014-08-01

    The 10 typical wetlands in Xianlin New Townof Nanjing were classified into three categories, including rural wetland, suburban wetland, and urban wetland according to the influence of urbanization as well as the characteristics of wetland and LUCC of catchment regions. RDA was used to analyse the relationships between nitrogen and phosphorus in urban wetland and various types and patterns of land use. It was found that the water quality of the urban wetlands presented to be worse than that from rural wetlands, followed by sub urban wetlands. Secondly, according to all investigated wetlands, TP and TN turned out to be higher during the wet seasons than dry seasons. In addition, significant differences of TP were observed between wet and dry seasons for rural and suburban wetlands, and it was not so obvious for urban wetlands. However, the differences of TN was opposite to that of TP. Thirdly, factors affecting the water quality of wetlands were comprised of types and patterns of land use, and thus significant positive relationships were found between the concentrations of TN and TP and the impervious land, while negative correlations for meadows, woodlands and wetlands. What's more, higher remarkable differences were found in wetlands than those from meadows and woodlands. Regarding to patterns of land use, TP, TN concentrations were negatively correlated with the average patch shape in the dry and wet seasons, whereas positively relationships were observed for patch density and diversity index; furthermore, with refer to the impact of adjacent landscape, significant relationships were found between the content of TN and the patterns of land use and thus, a negative correlation in the wet season and a positive correlation in the dry season were observed, respectively.

  19. An Evaluation of the preservice English teacher education in a university in China: Pros and cons from an insider’s journey of learning

    Ping Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the paper is to reveal how well-prepared pre-service teachers think they are. It aims at reviewing the 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 cohorts studying for a BA in TEFL at a university by examining the impact and the effectiveness of four- -year pre-service English education in a Chinese university context, and what needs to be improved and maintained from the perspective of trainees. Questionnaires were used, followed by semi-structured interviews. The questionnaires were completed by 300 participants, 200 of whom were then randomly chosen as interviewees. Despite finding some inconsistency in the four-year BA TEFL program, the result obtained from investigation of the cohort of student teachers is still satisfying.

  20. Prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules before and after implementation of the universal salt iodization program in mainland China from 1985 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We comprehensively estimated the prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules (TNs before and after the implementation of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI program in mainland China and provided information for creating effective health policies. METHODS: PubMed, Google Scholar, CNKI, Chinese Wanfang and Chongqing VIP databases were searched for relevant studies from Jan 1985 to Feb 2014. Data from eligible citations were extracted by two independent reviewers. All analyses were performed with Stata 11.0 and SPSS 17.0. RESULTS: Eligible articles (N = 31; 4 in English and 27 in Chinese included 52 studies (15 about goiter rates made before 1996 and 14 afterwards, and 23 about TNs. Our meta-analysis suggests a pooled prevalence for goiter before and after 1996 and for TNs of 22.8% (95% CI: 15.3%, 30.3%, 12.6% (95% CI: 9.4%, 15.8% and 22.7% (95% CI: 18.3%, 27.0%, respectively. Egger's test of three independent categories revealed no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.101, 0.148 and 0.113, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of goiter was reduced by almost half after 1996 in mainland China, so the USI program was considered beneficial. However, subgroup analysis suggests that both insufficient and excess iodine may be associated with goiter. The prevalence of goiter and TNs increased significantly after 2002, suggesting a risk of excessive iodine intake. Thus, salt iodization standardizations should be set according to local conditions.

  1. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions. PMID:28469587

  2. A Study of Teacher Stereotypes: How Do Tuition-Free Teacher Candidates and General Undergraduates Think about Middle School and University Teachers in China?

    Zuo, Youxia; Zhao, Yufang; Peng, Chunhua; Chen, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A tuition-free teacher candidate is an undergraduate who receives tuition-free teacher education and must work as a teacher in a middle school after their graduation. Tuition-free candidates are of the focus of many researchers; however, no study reports how tuition-free teacher candidates think about teachers. The present study explored stereotypes about middle school and university teachers held by teacher candidates. Specifically, we looked for the differences between the stereotypes held by the teacher candidates and general undergraduates. This study attempted to provide a potential tool to predict the actual willingness of teacher candidates to work as middle school teachers. University and middle school teachers were evaluated using descriptive phrases or words on a five-point Likert scale by 116 tuition-free teacher candidates and 155 general undergraduates. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a three-factor stereotype model including occupational cognition, occupational personality, and occupational emotion. Compared with general undergraduates, teacher candidates held more positive occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers; they held more negative occupational emotions toward university teachers. Further, the undergraduates' willingness to be middle school teachers positively correlated with positive occupational emotions and negatively correlated with negative occupational personality and emotions toward middle school teachers. This supported previous studies that individuals' professional willingness were influenced by their stereotypes about professions.

  3. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Department of Gastroenterology, Jiangsu Taizhou People's Hospital, Taizhou, People's Republic of China; Department of Paediatrics, Jiangsu Taizhou People's Hospital, Taizhou, People's Republic of China; Department of Gastroenterology, Huai'an First People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an, People's ...

  4. Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars Ligong ...

    Position Angle Changes of Inner-Jets in a Sample of Blazars. Ligong Mi1,3,∗ & Xiang Liu1,2. 1Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, CAS, 150 Science 1-Street, Urumqi 830011,. People's Republic of China. 2Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, CAS, Nanjing 210008, People's Republic of China. 3University of Chinese ...

  5. Enhanced effect and mechanism of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system of hydroxysafflor yellow A

    Qi, Jianping; Ping ,Qineng

    2011-01-01

    Jianping Qi1,2, Jie Zhuang1, Wei Wu2, Yi Lu2, Yunmei Song3, Zhetao Zhang1, Jia Jia1, Qineng Ping11School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, AustraliaBackground: A microemulsion is an effective formulation for improving the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. ...

  6. 6th conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics

    2017-01-01

    The 6th Conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics (AOM 2017) Nanjing, China April 23 - 26, 2017 Conference Co-Chairs: Yiping Cui - Southeast University, China Xiaocong Yuan - Shenzhen University, China Shining Zhu - Nanjing University, China WELCOME Journal of physics: Conference Series is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 6 th Conference on Advances in Optoelectronics and Micro/nano-optics (AOM 2017), which is an OSA topical meeting that started in 2009. AOM 2017, organized by The Optical Society of America, Southeast University, and Jiangsu Optical Society, was successfully held at Nanjing, China from April 23 th -26 th , 2017. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of optoelectronics and micro/nano-optics, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Located in Yangtze River Delta area and the center of east China, Nanjing is the capital of Jiangsu province and the second largest city in the east China region, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this international conference. The conference program included plenary talks, invited talks, oral and poster contributions. From numerous submissions, 64 of the most promising and IOP-relevant contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 300 qualified and high-level researchers and experts, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we

  7. Testimony before the US-China Economic Security Review Commission: China's Agriculture Policy and US Access to China's Market

    Dermot J. Hayes

    2013-01-01

    Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission on April 25, 2013, by Dermot Hayes, professor of Economics and Finance, Iowa State University. Testimony covers impacts on food demand from China's rising incomes and urbanization; the viability of China's attempt to remain self-sufficient in meat and key staple crop production under inherent supply constraints, and the possible technological- and policy-based measures they may pursue in regard of such constraints; and, the...

  8. University Teaching around the World.

    Ballantine, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    Explores the concept of good teaching in universities worldwide by interviewing professors and exchange students from USSR, England, Spain, Yugoslavia, the Soviet Union, Turkey, India, Malaysia, the Philippines, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan. Finds that teaching receives low priority in elite institutions while universities with open access…

  9. Monitoring, Human Health Risk Assessment and Optimized Management for Typical Pollutants in Indoor Air from Random Families of University Staff, Wuhan City, China

    Xiyao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 31 workers at a university were randomly selected for indoor environmental monitoring in Wuhan. Two indicators, formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC, and using 139 monitoring points, monitored the indoor environment (including home and workplace as well as the interior space of the main furniture. This study carried out the environmental quality assessment for TVOC based on the dB index method and the health risk assessment of indoor formaldehyde for the university staff receptors and, then focused on health risk in home environment to carry out detailed environmental health management. The results showed that TVOC in the three types of home spaces exceeded about 80% of the national standard. The excessive formaldehyde ratios for kitchens (79%, bedrooms (77% and living rooms (74% were calculated. Formaldehyde health risks all exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency, (USEPA acceptable risk threshold. The formaldehyde concentrations in workplaces were about 0.03 mg·m−3. While the risk contribution of the home environment to the total average health risk (0.0014, whether male and female is about 96%. For the adapted and unadapted persons, 90% and 55% of the monitoring points were located within the long-term tolerable range of TVOC decibel application, respectively. Long-term exposure to such an environment can lead to the Sick Building Syndrome (SBS. On the other hand, through comparison of the concentration of pollutants in the interior spaces of furniture and home spaces, it was determined tentatively that the pollutants were mainly concentrated in rarely used furniture. In summary, the air pollution in the studied homes of university staff was much serious than that in workplaces, which showed a need to manage TVOC and formaldehyde pollution by the three means: the purchase of green products, removal of internal pollution from furniture, and creating a good indoor volatile diffusion

  10. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  11. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students.

    Janet Junqing Chu

    Full Text Available University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP. The aim of this study was to assess (1 whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2 whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students.A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international students at two Chinese universities in 2010-2011. Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 and Stock and Kraemer's Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately.The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11-1.74 with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08-2.02 than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89-1.77. NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09-1.73. Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found.To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration.

  12. Only-Child Status in Relation to Perceived Stress and Studying-Related Life Satisfaction among University Students in China: A Comparison with International Students

    Chu, Janet Junqing; Khan, Mobarak Hossain; Jahn, Heiko J.; Kraemer, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives University students in general face multiple challenges, which may affect their levels of perceived stress and life satisfaction. Chinese students currently face specific strains due to the One-Child Policy (OCP). The aim of this study was to assess (1) whether the levels of perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction are associated with only-child (OC) status after controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics and (2) whether these associations differ between Chinese and international students. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional health survey based on a self-administrated standardised questionnaire was conducted among 1,843 (1,543 Chinese, 300 international) students at two Chinese universities in 2010–2011. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) and Stock and Kraemer’s Studying-related Life Satisfaction Scale were used to measure perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations of OC status with perceived stress and studying-related life satisfaction by sex for Chinese students and international students separately. Results The Chinese non-only-children (NOCs) were more likely to come from small cities. Multivariable regression models indicate that the Chinese NOCs were more stressed than OCs (OR = 1.39, 1.11–1.74) with a stronger association in men (OR = 1.48, 1.08–2.02) than women (OR = 1.26, 0.89–1.77). NOCs were also more dissatisfied than their OC fellows in the Chinese subsample (OR = 1.37, 1.09–1.73). Among international students, no associations between OC status and perceived stress or studying-related life satisfaction were found. Conclusions To promote equality between OCs and NOCs at Chinese universities, the causes of more stress and less studying-related life satisfaction among NOCs compared to OCs need further exploration. PMID:26675032

  13. International Conference on Grey Systems and intelligent Services (IEEE GSIS 2009)

    Liu, Sifeng; Advances in Grey Systems Research

    2010-01-01

    This book contains contributions by some of the leading researchers in the area of grey systems theory and applications. All the papers included in this volume are selected from the contributions physically presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, November 11 – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This event was jointly sponsored by IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, Natural Science Foundation of China, and Grey Systems Society of China. Additionally, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics also invested heavily in this event with its direct and indirect financial and administrative supports.

  14. The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China: Innovation, Defense Transformation, and China’s Place in the Global Technology Order

    2016-02-12

    Stockmann, Xiao Qiang. Changing Media, Changing China , New York: Oxford University Press, (01 2011) Dieter Ernst. Indigenous Innovation and...2211 China , science, technology, dual use, defense, security, innovation REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...ABSTRACT Final Report: The Evolving Relationship Between Technology and National Security in China : Innovation , Defense Transformation, and China’s

  15. Distribution, provenance, and onset of the Xiashu Loess in Southeast China with paleoclimatic implications

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Wu, Jiang; Hou, Xiaoxue; Fu, Yu; Geng, Junyan

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits are important archives of past climate change in subtropical China, where long-term terrestrial records are scarce. However, only a few long-term records with reliable dating were reported in Jiangsu Province, where loess deposits in southeastern China were first discovered and designated as the Xiashu Loess. Moreover, the provenance of the Xiashu Loess is still controversial. This study presents the magnetostratigraphy and detrital zircon U-Pb age results of loess deposits at Zhoujiashan in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. To date, this section (with basal age of approximately 0.88 Ma) may be the oldest loess deposits discovered in southeastern China. Based on the detrital zircon U-Pb ages of the Zhoujiashan section, together with published results of geochemistry, geomorphology, sedimentology, and meteorology, we propose that the Xiashu Loess has two mixed sources. Local materials derived from the Yangtze River Basin (including exposed river/lake beds, floodplains, and mountains) served as a major contributor. The distal eolian dust that originated from the arid areas of North China (including deserts, piedmont alluvial fans, and drylands) played a minor role in the formation process of the Xiashu Loess. The nearly synchronous onset age (approximately 0.88-0.85 Ma) of the Xiashu Loess was attributed to a regional environmental event during the middle Pleistocene transition.

  16. First Molecular Characterization of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Domestic Cats from Mainland China.

    Zhang, Jilei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jing; Kelly, Patrick; Price, Stuart; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a retrovirus of the Lentivirus genus that was initially isolated from a colony of domestic cats in California in 1986 and has now been recognized as a common feline pathogen worldwide. To date, there is only one recent serology-based report on FIV in mainland China which was published in 2016. We designed this study to investigate the molecular prevalence and diversity of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in domestic cats from mainland China. We studied the prevalence of FIV in whole blood samples of 615 domestic cats in five cities (Beijing, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Shanghai and Yangzhou) of mainland China and examined them using FRET-PCR (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Polymerase Chain Reaction) and regular PCRs for the gag and env genes. Overall, 1.3% (8/615) of the cats were positive for provirus DNA with nucleotide analysis using PCRs for the gag and env sequences showing the cats were infected with FIV subtype A. This is the first molecular characterization of FIV in mainland China and the first description of subtype A in continental Asia.

  17. Translating China : Henri Borel (1869-1933)

    Heijns, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how Dutch sinologist Henri Borel ‘translated’ China, by examining his renditions of Chinese literature and the writings about China that he produced over a period of forty years. Borel studied Hokkien Chinese at Leiden University and in Xiamen toward a career as Chinese

  18. China Emerging

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  19. Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) held its annual Pacific symposium on Asian Perspectives on the Challenges of China" at the National Defense University in Washington on March 7 and 8, 2000...

  20. China's quest for management of academic medicine.

    Butler, W T; Ruma, S J

    1990-08-01

    The China Medical Board organized a management conference for the presidents of China's national medical universities. A three-person consulting team arranged by the Association of American Medical Colleges led the conference. Designed as a preliminary examination of the management problems faced by the national medical universities, the conference covered content similar to that of the AAMC Executive Development Seminars, including governance, financial management, faculty practice plans, technology transfer, information management, and organizational diagnosis. China's national medical universities are strategically managed by the Ministry of Public Health in Beijing, and for several years the ministry has increasingly decentralized the management and operational planning and control of these universities. The universities do not have enough properly trained personnel to absorb the additional management responsibilities, and the university presidents feel that they and their senior staffs need extensive training in adapting western-style management principles and practice to the Chinese setting.

  1. Satellite Remote Sensing of Severe Haze Pollution over Eastern China on June, 2012

    Christopher, S. A.; Feng, N.; Guo, Y.; Hong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Severe yellow haze hit a vast portion of Eastern China during the second week on June, 2012, as large area in Hubei, Henan, Hunan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Jiangxi, Shandong, Zhejiang provinces and Shanghai city were covered by lingering haze. This massive haze conditions caused considerable inconvenience to people's daily lives. Previous global air quality studies have also shown that Eastern China is one of regions with highest fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations around the world. In this study, we estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations using satellite observations of this severe haze pollution on June, 2012. Satellite derived Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), sites measured hourly PM2.5 and meteorological fields from surface are statistically correlated based on a multiple regression model. We also explore the utility of higher spatial resolution aerosol retrieval from MODIS. Both satellite-derived and in-situ values have peak daily mean concentrations of approximately 400 μg m-3 on June 12th, 2012 in the City of Wuhan, which is nearly 10 times of the primary standard of PM2.5 concentration of China's "Ambient Air Quality Standards" (35 μg m-3). Cities in the Eastern China, e.g. Nanjing, Hangzhou and Nanchang, have also witnessed similar peak values, along with heavy smog during the same period. Satellite observations in this case study demonstrate that the transport of smoke plumes can be one of the main drivers of regional haze pollution over Eastern China. Comparing to the U.S., current limited ground-based stations is one of the biggest problem to develop the PM2.5 monitoring program over China. Our results may suggest the potential of combining satellite remote sensing with atmospheric model to map the PM2.5 spatial concentration over the nationwide level, which can further accelerate the construction of PM2.5 monitoring network over China.

  2. From energy efficiency to integrated sustainable urbanism in residential development in China

    Zhichang Cai

    2010-06-15

    China has adopted Sustainable Development as a national strategy for all industries. In civil construction sector, sustainability is regarded as the development of Green Building in China. Since 2000, China has introduced a series of policies and laws to promote Green Building. Green Building was defined as buildings that are 'energy-efficient, land-efficient, water-efficient, and material-efficient' and emit 'minimal pollution' in during its entire life cycle, and meets a specified standard for indoor environment at the same time. However, energy efficiency is the central issue of current Green Building development in China, while issues of resources and pollution are neglected, which is partly due to China's energy structure. Social and economic aspects are also always ignored. The main aim of this thesis is to map pathways towards more comprehensive frameworks for how residential areas in China could be constructed in a more sustainable way in hot summer and cold-winter area. Case study was the main method used to examine the specifications of Green Residential Building in China. This paper offers a general overview of the current green trend in China and presents a specific analysis on three cases to search for the proper approach for China's unique situation by three specific cases representing three types of Green Building: Modern Vernacular Architecture, Eco-office and Mass-housing, according to their features in scale, location and function. This paper then presents a specific integrated sustainability analysis of the Landsea Housing Project in Nanjing, a hot-summer/cold-winter zone. Hammarby Sjoestad, a cutting edge project in Stockholm, is also discussed as a reference area from which experiences can be drawn for China. The aim was to improve the framework for construction of residential buildings in China in a more sustainable way, from energy efficiency to integrated sustainability. The paper also discusses the relationship

  3. Satellite SAR wind resource mapping in China (SAR-China)

    Badger, M.

    2009-07-15

    The project 'Off-Shore Wind Energy Resource Assessment and Feasibility Study of Off-Shore Wind Farm Development in China' is funded by the EU-China Energy and Environment Programme (EEP) and runs for one year (August 2008 - August 2009). The project is lead by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and supported by SgurrEnergy Ltd. Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (Risoe DTU) has been commissioned to perform a satellite based wind resource analysis as part of the project. The objective of this analysis is to map the wind resource offshore at a high spatial resolution (1 km). The detailed wind resource maps will be used, in combination with other data sets, for an assessment of potential sites for offshore wind farm development along the coastline from Fujian to Shandong in China. (au)

  4. Innovation of University Teaching Faculty Management Mode

    Han, Yuzheng; Wang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of university reform in China, the traditional teaching faculty management mode has been exposed more and more defects. To make innovation of the university teaching faculty management mode becomes the voice of the times. Universities should conduct careful research on this issue in the development. Starting from the…

  5. University Students' Attitudes toward Physical Education Teaching

    Li, Fengjuan; Chen, Junjun; Baker, Miles

    2014-01-01

    While there have been many studies into students' attitudes toward Physical Education at the school level, far fewer studies have been conducted at the university level, especially in China. This study explored 949 students' attitudes toward their university Physical Education experiences in four Chinese universities. An intercorrelated model of…

  6. Minxin Pei, China's Crony Capitalism: The Dynamics of Regime Decay

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Minxin Pei, China's Crony Capitalism: The Dynamics of Regime Decay. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2016. 365 pp., including references and index. ISBN 9780674737297.......Book review of: Minxin Pei, China's Crony Capitalism: The Dynamics of Regime Decay. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2016. 365 pp., including references and index. ISBN 9780674737297....

  7. Arthur R. Kroeber: China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Arthur R. Kroeber: China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. i-xii + 319 pp. including references and index. ISBN. 978-0-19023903-9.......Review of: Arthur R. Kroeber: China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. i-xii + 319 pp. including references and index. ISBN. 978-0-19023903-9....

  8. Modernizing Information Training in China.

    Campbell, Harry

    1985-01-01

    Discusses strains on China's existing library resources and personnel as affected by modernization, growth of foreign literature collections, Chinese publishing expansion, and increase in educated population. Training facilities available in Beijing and Shanghai, activities of national information college at Wuhan University, and opportunities for…

  9. Applicability research on passive design of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Passive design has long been a concern as an effective way of building energy efficiency. However, different urban climate characteristics determine the time-effectiveness of passive design. According to the climate characteristics of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, this research chose five cities, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing and Changsha, to analyze their residential building energy consumption and thermal environment conditions. Based on Weather Tool calculation and analysis, the purpose of this research is to put forward the concept of Suitable Degree (SD), namely the applicability of the passive design. In addition, five cities’ SD of passive design technology had been analyzed from aspect of ventilation, temperature, solar radiation and envelope, then passive design strategies and methods of five cities’ residential building were discussed.

  10. 国外高校教师专业伦理建设及对我国的启示%The Construction of Teachers' Professional Ethics in Colleges and Universities Abroad and the Enlightenment to China

    任为民; 吴淑萍; 王悦

    2012-01-01

    对国内外高校教师专业伦理建设情况进行比较,发现国外高校教师专业伦理研究比较广泛和深入、专业伦理规范具体而细化、专业伦理教育方面的实践经验也相对成熟.而我国高校虽重视教师专业发展,但专业伦理建设仍存在理论研究较为滞后、专业伦理规范质量不高、专业伦理教育实效性不强的问题,对此,提出在结合我国实际的基础上应借鉴国外经验,促进教师专业自主发展;提高专业伦理规范的质量;加强专业伦理教育.%After comparing the current situation of the teachers'professional ethics construction at home and a-broad, we conclude that research on teachers'professional ethics in colleges and universities abroad is more extensive and in - depth, professional ethics regulation is specific and refined, experience on professional ethics education is relatively mature. Although teachers'professional development in China has been put the important place, professional ethics construction still has some problems, such as theory research is lagged, professional theory ethics quality is not high, the professional ethics education effectiveness is not strong, and so forth. Thus based on the current situation, we should leam from the experience of other countries, promote the autonomy development of teachers'professional; improve the quality of professional ethics; strengthen professional ethical education.

  11. Remagnetization mechanisms in Triassic red beds from South China

    Jiang, Zhaoxia; Liu, Qingsong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhao, Xiang; Roberts, Andrew P.; Yang, Zhenyu; Jin, Chunsheng; Liu, Jianxing

    2017-12-01

    Paleogeographic reconstructions based on paleomagnetic data rely on the reliability of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) as a primary geomagnetic signal. Remagnetizations, however, can be common in many rock types, including late Paleozoic and Mesozoic red beds, and they complicate paleogeographic interpretations. Extracting the primary NRM from partially remagnetized rocks, and understanding the remagnetization mechanism are important in these contexts. We carried out a systematic paleomagnetic study of red bed samples from the Triassic Huangmaqing Formation, Nanjing (32.0°N, 118.9°E), South China. Two NRM components carried by secondary and primary hematite are isolated in 47 of the 94 samples studied, where the latter component has a direction in stratigraphic coordinates of D = 29.2 °, I = 34.6 ° (α95 = 10.9 °, 47 samples from 6 sites) that yields a paleopole of λ = 60.8°N, ϕ = 228.1°E, dp / dm = 12.5 / 7.2, which is consistent with Triassic pole positions for the South China Block. A secondary chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) (D = 227.1 °, I = 80.8 °, α95 = 7.3 °) is documented in all 94 samples from 10 sites and is carried by pigmentary hematite that is inferred to have been generated by magnetite oxidation during orogenic activity. This secondary component has steep inclinations and is interpreted to have been influenced by a combination of the remanence carried by original parent magnetite, the orogenic stress field, and the prevailing geomagnetic field direction during deformation. This CRM direction is recorded commonly by red beds from the South China Block, and is significant for regional tectonic studies in the area.

  12. The development of a dynamic IT cluster in Nanjing: Differences between the traditional manufacturing and modern IT clusters and how to sustain a dynamic and competitive cluster

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research (Van Dijk, 2005) suggests that China can also advance in nontraditional industries, such as IT and software production, although it goes at a high price in terms of investments dedicated to this and largely financed by the government. The first effort made to develop

  13. The Coupling Strategy Research of Urban Public Space and Traffic for Improving the Residents’ Low-Carbon Travel Accessibility: A Case Study of Hexi New City Central Area in Nanjing

    Caiyun Qian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Under the current model of advocating urban intensive development and updating built-up areas, promoting the coupling optimization of space and public transport in built-up areas is an important way to realize sustainable urban development. Apart from researching the space and accessibility of the central area in Hexi new city of Nanjing and analyzing problems from various aspects, i.e., urban land use, road network planning, bus station distribution, non-motorized traffic, and space and environment design, combining with the OD (Origin & Destination survey, this paper further put forward the corresponding improvement strategy for the public space accessibility of different levels and optimized design of non-motorized traffic.

  14. Analysis the organochlorine insecticide residual quantity in traditional Chinese herbs and soil around Nanjing%南京周边地区中药材及土壤有机氯杀虫剂残留分析

    张良; 王韶阳

    2004-01-01

    Using gas chromatography, the organochlorine insecticide residual quantity was determined in some traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and soil samples gathered from three plantations in Qixia, Jiangning and Jurong around Nanjing City of Jiangsu Province. The results show that the amount of organochlorine insecticide in all soil samples is less than 0.5mg·kg-1, and that in crude drugs of Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl., Isatis indigotica Fort. and Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC. is less than 0.1mg·kg-1. The soil condition reached the second standard of GB 15618—1995. It suggests that Yuanxiang town in Jurong is more suitable for planting traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

  15. Effects of insulin analogs and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on proliferation and cellular energy metabolism in papillary thyroid cancer

    He, Liang; Zhang, Siliang; Zhang, Xiaowen; Liu, Rui; Guan, Haixia; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Liang He,1,* Siliang Zhang,2,* Xiaowen Zhang,3 Rui Liu,2 Haixia Guan,2 Hao Zhang1 1Department of Thyroid Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Endocrine Institute and The Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Endocrine Diseases, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Drum Tower Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University Medical Schoo...

  16. Late Carboniferous and Early Permian algal microflora (Liuzhou, South China)

    Li Chun (Nanjing Inst. of Geology and Paleontology, Nanjing (China)); Mamet, B. (Montreal Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    Paleozoic algae are important contributors to the formation of carbonate sediments. A study was conducted to compare an Upper Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate succession of South China with what is generally observed in the Tethys Sea and North America. The sequence studied was in the Maping Limestone at the Loutishan section in Liuzhou, with some additional information derived from the Maping Limestone at Shangxinping and from the Chuanshan Limestone at Yuhuangshan and in the Nanjing Hills. In the Late Carboniferous, the beresellid algae are important builders and the Tubiphytes-Archaeolithophyllum community is locally replaced by a Tubiphytes-Ungdarella association. Early Permian oncolites were formed by complex Osagia, then by Esmerella. The Asselian Sphaeroschwagerina fauna is underlined by the outburst of epimastoporid dasycladales and phylloid Anchicodiaceae. Microcodium is observed at the contact of the Sphaeroschwagerina moelleri/sphaerica Zones. The overlying and paraconformable Chihsia Limestone is characterized by a Gymnocodium-Gyroporella-Mizzia flora. In most cases, the base of the fusulinid zones, therefore, coincides with an important local floristic change. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  17. China Biobanking.

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  18. Government funded renewable energy innovation in China

    Huang, Cui; Su, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Sui, Jigang; Ru, Peng; Zhang, Hanwei; Wang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the economy, China is facing pressures caused by traditional energy deficiency and environmental pollution in recent years, which has forced the Chinese government to start to pay attention to the development and utilization of renewable energy (RE). This article, based on data and statistics available up to 2008, studies features of China's RE technology innovation and problems thereof. It finds that national science and technology programs are the main aspect of China's RE technology innovation, and most of R and D funds for the RE technology come from China's three main national programs. Besides, the overall expenditures on RE technology innovation constitute only a small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding and seem not enough. This paper also finds that, compared with research and development stages of RE technology, the demonstration and diffusion of RE technology in China are given less attention and thus are relatively less sufficient. Furthermore, influenced by China's traditional scientific research system, there appears lack of sufficient incentives and opportunities for private sectors to fully participate in RE technology innovation because most national programs are undertaken by universities or research institutes. - Highlights: ► We study statistically China's renewable energy technology innovation (RETI). ► National science and technology (S and T) programs are the main aspect of China's RETI. ► Most of R and D funds come from China's three main national (S and T) programs. ► The overall expenditure on RETI is small proportion of China's total domestic R and D funding. ► The demonstration and diffusion of RETI in China are relatively less sufficient.

  19. China's revival

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  20. China White

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  1. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  2. Political, Economic, Socio-Cultural, and Educational Challenges of Administering a Sino-US Joint Venture Campus in China

    Ozturgut, Osman

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the political, economic, socio-cultural, and educational challenges of administering a Sino-U.S. joint-venture campus in the People's Republic of China. China American University (CAU) is an educational joint venture between China Investment Company (CIC) and American University (AU) in the U.S. that resulted in…

  3. Réglementation du marché du travail en Chine : politiques en ...

    Le projet de recherche, qui est dirigé par le China Institute of Income Distribution, a pour but ... la Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, la Nanjing University of Economics and Finance, ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action ... IDRC invests in research and knowledge to empower women in India.

  4. Major decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in the Union of ...

    main drug for malaria treatment and prophylaxis. This was in line with ... 2 Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of International Economics and Trade, China Pharmaceutical University,. Nanjing ... Trends and comparisons in malaria incidence and case fatality rates for all age groups, including under-5 ...

  5. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to promote vegetative growth ...

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 39; Issue 1. Hpa1 harpin needs nitroxyl terminus to ... Hansong Dong1 Chunling Zhang1. State Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests, Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu, 210095, China ...

  6. Taobao Rules the Country,Indie Movies Muddle Though,Grads in the Job Market,and a Nanjing Night Market

    Tyler; Roney

    2017-01-01

    The rise of online shopping,selling,and logistics has perhaps been one of the most important changes to modern life in China,and while we here in the TWOC offices are more than happy to receive daily packages of garbage we can’t afford,the effect of e-commerce entrepreneurship in China’s rural areas has been transformative.Villages that once farmed now make,package,and ship their goods all around the country.We visit one of China’s

  7. Implementation of environmental management in China

    Håkansson, Susanna

    2005-01-01

    This thesis project was carried out within the cooperation between theIndustrial Ecology Department at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),Stockholm, Sweden and Center for Space Thermal Science of ShandongUniversity, Jinan, China. The aim of this thesis report is to investigate Environmental ManagementSystem (EMS) and its support system, give a general view of theenvironmental work in companies in China, and make recommendation forSwedish joint ventures how they should work with environmental...

  8. Information inefficiency and willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient technology: A stated preference approach for China Energy Label

    Zhou, Hui; Bukenya, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which consumers' willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient room air conditioners may be altered by correcting the information inefficiency on the China Energy Label. The data are collected from a discrete choice experiment with two alternatives (variable-speed and constant-speed room air conditioners) characterized by attributes of brand, purchase price and energy grade. Three versions of the questionnaires with choice sets differing only in energy consumption indicators were distributed randomly to 1602 potential consumers in Nanjing, China and a sample of 1569 was obtained after dropping missing data. The analysis with multinomial and mixed logit models reveal that the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for a variable-speed room AC over a constant-speed room AC increases significantly when energy consumption information becomes comparable and additional energy-related information is provided. Furthermore, the impact of information on WTP varies under different energy-saving scenarios. It is suggested that China Energy Label should correct information inefficiency by adopting same energy indicators for room ACs with different technologies and providing energy consumption information based on different climate zones. - Highlights: • Choice experiments were carried out to examine the effect of information on WTP. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if information is comparable. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if more information is provided. • The impact of information on WTP is significant when energy saving is considerable. • Some demographics influence people's WTP.

  9. An outbreak of multiple norovirus strains on a cruise ship in China, 2014.

    Wang, X; Yong, W; Shi, L; Qiao, M; He, M; Zhang, H; Guo, B; Xie, G; Zhang, M; Jin, M; Ding, J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cause of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that occurred on a cruise ship sailing along the Yangzi River from Chongqing to Nanjing, China. Noroviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in rectal swabs from 34 of 54 subjects tested (63·0%). Sequencing and genotyping showed that noroviruses of up to seven different genotypes circulated in this outbreak: noroviruses GI.1, GI.2, GI.3, GI.4, GI.8, GI.9 and an uncommon strain GII.17. Common genotypes were not identified in this event. None of the food or water samples were tested positive for noroviruses. We suspected that it was a point-source infection due to contaminated water or food harvested from contaminated water, taking account of the co-existence of diverse norovirus genotypes. In this study, we presented the molecular investigation of a norovirus outbreak on a cruise in China. We revealed that the outbreak was caused by several different norovirus genotypes and analysed the possible source of infection as well, thus facilitating the evaluation of epidemiological issues regarding noroviruses in this area. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Variation of Main Phenophases in Phenological Calendar in East China and Their Response to Climate Change

    Fengyi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the phenological data from China Phenological Observation Network, we compiled the phenological calendars of 3 phenological observation stations (Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hefei in East China for 1987–1996 and 2003–2012 according to the sequences of mean phenophases. We calculated the correlated coefficient and the root mean square error (RMSE between phenophases and the beginning of meteorological seasons to determine the beginning date of phenological season. By comparing new phenological calendars with the old ones, we discussed the variation of phenophases and their responses to temperature. The conclusions are as follows. (1 The beginning dates of spring and summer advanced, while those of autumn and winter delayed. Thus, summers got longer and winters got shorter. (2 The beginning time of the four phenological seasons was advancing during 1987–1996, while it was delaying during 2003–2012. (3 Most spring and summer phenophases occur earlier and most autumn and winter phenophases occur later in 2003–2012 than in 1987–1996. (4 The beginning time of phenological seasons was significantly correlated with temperature. The phenological sensitivities to temperature ranged from −6.49 to −6.55 days/°C in spring, −3.65 to −5.02 days/°C in summer, 8.13 to 10.27 days/°C in autumn, and 4.76 to 10.00 days/°C in winter.

  11. Practice on medical support in dealing with abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese army in China

    Liu LIU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese abandoned chemical weapons (JACWs are a momentous and eventful historical issue for both China and Japan. Large quantities of chemical weapons abandoned by the Japanese invaders still remain on Chinese soil after 1945 when Japanese invaders were defeated and surrendered. Up to date, JACWs have been found in 19 provinces (cities or districts of mainland China. The types of JACWs include chemical bombs, chemical aerial bombs, gas cylinders and loose packed barrels. The types of toxic agents include mustard gas, irritant agents, choking agents, systemic poisoning agents and etc. In order to eliminate JACWs to reduce injuries produced by toxic agents, Chinese government, in cooperation with Japanese government, organized a special troop to search, excavate, retrieve, and destroy JACWs. Up to date, about 50,000 pieces of poisonous chemical had retrieved and destroyed. The first operation was officially begun in Nanjing in October 2010. The main points of medical support on the operation of destroying JACWs include proper treatment of the newly discovered patients caused by JACWs, preparedness for handling the emergency medical rescue, and to actively provide routine medical support for JACWs operation field.

  12. The American University of Beirut

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2016-01-01

    with American society through its board of trustees. American civil society has been a major financial partner since the missionary days to modern day foundation philanthropy. American business has supported the university and recruited its graduates. American government has supported the university financially...... and politically. The chapter compares the transnational relations of the AUB, the other classical American overseas universities with missionary roots in the Middle East (AUC and LAU), the more than 20 American higher education institutions founded in China around 1900 (which did not survive the Korean War...

  13. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  14. Is China different?

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  15. Is China Different?

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  16. The Survey on Barriers of Oral English Learning for College Students in China

    Wei, Yuehong; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    With the development of society, oral English teaching and learning has been the top in English teaching and learning in china. This paper reports a survey conducted at North China Electric Power University on the barriers for learners of oral English learning in China. Questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed…

  17. Internships: Tapping into China's Next Generation of Talent

    Rose, Philip

    2013-01-01

    At the current juncture of China's economic development, the mismatch between the supply of university graduates and contemporary organizations' staffing demands is becoming increasingly evident. Thus, student participation in internships and their use by organizations, as means to recruit and select graduate talent in China has undergone rapid…

  18. Three new species of Mesonemoura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from China.

    Li, Weihai; Cui, Jianxin; Yang, Ding

    2017-05-29

    Three new species of the stonefly genus Mesonemoura, M. bispina sp. nov., M. trapezoidea sp. nov., and M. zwicki sp. nov., are described from China. Genitalic similarities with related species are discussed. The types are deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University, Beijing and Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, respectively.

  19. Comparison of Engineering Education in Norway and China

    Sun, Xiaodong; Jia, Yanrui; Li, Zhenchun; Song, Yu

    2018-01-01

    The Washington Accord is an internationally recognized agreement in engineering education of undergraduates. China joined the agreement as the 18th member country in 2016. The exploration technology and engineering major of China University of Petroleum has obtained the professional certification from international engineering education system and…

  20. Programmes of Educational Technology in China: Looking Backward, Thinking Forward

    Fuyin, Xu; Jianli, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    There is a history of programmes in educational technology in colleges and universities in China going back about 70 years. This paper briefly reviews the developmental history of the educational technology programme in China, elaborates the status-quo of the programme and looks ahead into the future trends of educational technology development in…

  1. An Empirical Study of Faculty Mobility in China

    Yan, Guangcai; Yue, Ying; Niu, Menghu

    2015-01-01

    With the implementation of position appointment and contract system in China, faculty become more mobile than before in this emerging academic market, though in terms of mobility frequency and rate, they are still less active than their counterparts in the West. Using the data collected from 50 renowned research universities throughout China, this…

  2. Strengthening Equity in China through Policy Evaluations and ...

    Under "Healthy China 2020," universal basic healthcare coverage will be provided to all Chinese by 2020. To realize the reform's goals, the Chinese government's 2011-2015 five-year plan builds on previous efforts. One of the key objectives is to improve equity in health care. China's 18th Communist Party Congress has ...

  3. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  4. Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation | IDRC ...

    Healthy China 2020 : Policy and Technology Evaluation ... aimed at providing a blueprint for universal basic healthcare coverage for all by 2020. ... Implementing clinical pathway management and reforming compensation mechanism in rural ...

  5. Forging a unique nursing partnership with China.

    Munn, Flavia

    2017-07-12

    When members of a London nursing faculty forged a learning partnership with a Chinese counterpart they likely did not expect to be discussing the benefits of using Florence Nightingale lamps to decorate hospital walls. But there is nothing ordinary about the collaboration between King's College London and Nanjing Health School.

  6. Accuracy of epidemiological inferences based on publicly available information: retrospective comparative analysis of line lists of human cases infected with influenza A(H7N9) in China.

    Lau, Eric H Y; Zheng, Jiandong; Tsang, Tim K; Liao, Qiaohong; Lewis, Bryan; Brownstein, John S; Sanders, Sharon; Wong, Jessica Y; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Rivers, Caitlin; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yu; Yu, Jianxing; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Peng, Zhibin; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Luzhao; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2014-05-28

    Appropriate public health responses to infectious disease threats should be based on best-available evidence, which requires timely reliable data for appropriate analysis. During the early stages of epidemics, analysis of 'line lists' with detailed information on laboratory-confirmed cases can provide important insights into the epidemiology of a specific disease. The objective of the present study was to investigate the extent to which reliable epidemiologic inferences could be made from publicly-available epidemiologic data of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus. We collated and compared six different line lists of laboratory-confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in the 2013 outbreak in China, including the official line list constructed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention plus five other line lists by HealthMap, Virginia Tech, Bloomberg News, the University of Hong Kong and FluTrackers, based on publicly-available information. We characterized clinical severity and transmissibility of the outbreak, using line lists available at specific dates to estimate epidemiologic parameters, to replicate real-time inferences on the hospitalization fatality risk, and the impact of live poultry market closure. Demographic information was mostly complete (less than 10% missing for all variables) in different line lists, but there were more missing data on dates of hospitalization, discharge and health status (more than 10% missing for each variable). The estimated onset to hospitalization distributions were similar (median ranged from 4.6 to 5.6 days) for all line lists. Hospital fatality risk was consistently around 20% in the early phase of the epidemic for all line lists and approached the final estimate of 35% afterwards for the official line list only. Most of the line lists estimated >90% reduction in incidence rates after live poultry market closures in Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou. We demonstrated that analysis of

  7. Coeliac disease in China: a field waiting for exploration Enfermedad celiaca en Chica: Un campo pendiente de ser explorado

    J. Wu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: no systematic studies on the prevalence of coeliac disease (CD have been reported from China. In western populations CD is more common in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM and in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS. We have screened patients with these conditions presenting to the outpatient department of a large hospital of "Traditional Chinese Medicine" (TCM in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, P.R. China. Methods: we tested sera of 78 unrelated Han Chinese patients (5 IDDM and 73 D-IBS, using ELISA serological tests for IgG anti-gliadin antibodies (IgG-AGA and IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG. Results: six out of 78 patients (7.7% were positive for IgG-AGA (two men and four women and two (2.6% were positive for IgA-tTGs. One of the latter patients was negative for IgG-AGA. Besides, one patient had a dubious IgA-tTG antibody and a positive IgG-AGA. None of the six patients agreed to undergo duodenal biopsy. Two out of these six patients followed a gluten-free diet for one year. In one patient the diarrhoea ceased and his body weight increased. Another stopped losing weight. Conclusions: this study previously published as a letter in GUT (Wu J, Xia B, von Blomberg BME, Zhao C, Yang XW, Crusius JBA, Peña AS. Coeliac disease: emerging in China? Gut 2010; 59(3: 418-9 demonstrated that CD may exist in the Jiangsu province of P.R. China. The present article draws attention to the difficulties of following a standard protocol in China such as established in western countries and highlights important factors less well known in the west in relation to the development of CD in China. Wheat production became significant in China between 1600 and 1300 B.C. After the Han dynasty (500-200 B.C., wheat was one of the main cereals in China. One the major wheat fields in China is located in the Jiangsu province where the research for this article was performed. A review of Chinese literature

  8. China Energy Primer

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  9. The Analysis of the Disease Spectrum in China

    Xin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the related risks of disease provides a scientific basis for disease prevention and treatment, hospital management, and policy formulation by the changes in disease spectrum of patients in hospital. Retrospective analysis was made to the first diagnosis, age, gender, daily average cost of hospitalized patients, and other factors in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University during 2006–2013. The top 4 cases were as follows: cardiovascular disease, malignant tumors, lung infections, and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. By the age of disease analysis, we found a younger age trend of cardiovascular disease, and the age of onset of cancer or diabetes was somewhat postponed. The average daily cost of hospitalization and the average daily cost of the main noncommunicable diseases were both on the rise. Noncommunicable diseases occupy an increasingly important position in the constitution of the disease, and they caused an increasing medical burden. People should pay attention to health from the aspects of lifestyle changing. Hospitals should focus on building the appropriate discipline. On the other hand, an integrated government response is required to tackle key risks. Multiple interventions are needed to lower the burden of these diseases and to improve national health.

  10. China Pop

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  11. Nuclear physics at Peking University

    Wang, Ruo Peng

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The teaching program of nuclear physics at Peking University started in 1955, in answer to the demand of China's nuclear program. In 1958, the Department of Atomic Energy was founded. The name of this department was changed to the Department of Technique Physics in 1961. Graduates in nuclear physics and technical physics had great contribution in China's nuclear program. The nuclear physics specialty from the Department of Technique Physics merged into the School of Physics in 2001. At present, nuclear physics is not any more a major for undergraduate students in the school of physics, but there are Master programs and Ph. D programs in nuclear physics, nuclear techniques and heavy ion physics. About 200 new students are admitted each year in the School of Physics at Peking University. About 20 graduates from the School of Physics work or continue to study in nuclear physics and related fields each year. (author)

  12. Highly effective photothermal chemotherapy with pH-responsive polymer-coated drug-loaded melanin-like nanoparticles

    Zhang C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chengwei Zhang,1 Xiaozhi Zhao,1 Suhan Guo,2 Tingsheng Lin,1 Hongqian Guo1 1Department of Urology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Institute of Urology, Nanjing University, 2School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Dopamine is a neurotransmitter commonly used in clinical treatment. Polydopamine (PDA has excellent histocompatibility and biosafety and can efficiently convert near-infrared reflection (NIR to thermal energy. In this study, PDA was used as a promising carrier, and pH-responsive polymer-coated drug-loaded PDA nanoparticles (NPs; doxorubicin@poly(allylamine-citraconic anhydride [Dox@PAH-cit]/PDA NPs were developed. As expected, the Dox@PAH-cit/PDA NPs exhibited excellent photothermal efficiency. In addition, at a low pH condition, the loaded Dox was released from the NPs due to the amide hydrolysis of PAH-cit. Upon NIR exposure (808 nm, the temperature of the NP solution rapidly increases to kill tumor cells. Compared with unbound chemotherapy drugs, the NPs have a stronger cell uptake ability. In vivo, the PDA NPs were able to efficiently accumulate at the tumor location. After intravenous administration and NIR exposure, tumor growth was significantly inhibited. In summary, the present investigation demonstrated that the Dox@PAH-cit/PDA NPs presented highly effective photothermal chemotherapy for prostate cancer. Keywords: prostate cancer, photothermal therapy, near-infrared reflection, dopamine, PAH-cit, drug delivery 

  13. China opens the door

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  14. The current state of PET spread in China

    Zhang Hong

    2009-01-01

    Chinese nuclear medicine has 53 years history since 1956, and now is spreading in the country with the development of economy. Positron emission tomography (PET) has a rapid development in China, especially in the application of oncology, neurological and cardiologic diseases. The research of molecular imaging including PET also has been initiated. Zhejiang University as the largest university in China, has established the center of excellence in molecular imaging to improve the development of molecular imaging, which has active partnership and collaborative relationship with Japan, USA and European countries. The future of molecular imaging including PET in China is bright. (author)

  15. In China, Thinking like an American Lawyer

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Temple University's program with Tsinghua University, now in its 10th year, is the oldest of its kind in China. It may take years to understand how a program that trains a few dozen legal professionals a year may affect the legal rights of 1.3 billion Chinese. But there is no question about the benefits that this program has produced for Temple's…

  16. Universe symmetries

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  17. Peripheral inflammation/immune indicators of chemosensitivity and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Qian Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yi Qian,1,* Jing Tao,1,2,* Xiuqing Li,3 Hua Chen,1 Qi Lu,1 Junzhe Yang,1 Hong Pan,1 Cong Wang,4 Wenbin Zhou,1 Xiaoan Liu1 1Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China; 2Department of General Surgery, Nanjing Pukou Hospital, Nanjing, China; 3Department of Pathology, Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China; 4Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC has become a standard treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the predictive value of different peripheral inflammation/immune biomarker responses to NAC and prognosis in breast cancer patients. Materials and methods: A total of 180 breast cancer patients treated with NAC in the First Affiliated Hospital with Nanjing Medical University between January 2008 and March 2015 were enrolled in the study. The associations between inflammation/immune indicators and pathological complete response (pCR were determined, and the prognostic value of inflammation/immune indicators was also evaluated. Results: In the univariate analysis, patients with a high pretreatment peripheral lymphocyte count (>2.06×109/L showed a higher pCR rate than those with a low lymphocyte count (23.9% vs 10.4%, P=0.023. The pCR rate of patients with a neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio ≤2.15 was significantly higher than that of patients with a high neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (20% vs 7.8%; P=0.03. However, multivariate analysis revealed that only the high lymphocyte count was predictive for pCR (odds ratio: 4.375, 95% CI: 1.429–13.392, P=0.010. In the survival analysis, patients with a higher neutrophil count (>2.65×109/L were confirmed to have a shorter disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 4.322, 95% CI: 1.028–18.174, P=0.046, and the

  18. Fiscal 1998 research report. Feasibility study on the CO{sub 2} reduction project by residue power generation at the oil refinery in China; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Chugoku no seiyusho ni okeru zansa hatsuden ni yoru CO{sub 2} sakugen project ni kansuru F/S chosa

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the basic research on joint project promotion, this feasibility study supposed introduction of IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) to Nanjing oil refinery of Jinling Petrochemical Corp. (JPC) in China, estimated the CO{sub 2} emission reduction effect by in-refinery efficient power generation using petroleum coke residue as fuel, and assessed the feasibility of the project together with a cost benefit. The feasibility study result showed the effectiveness of IGCC introduction to the oil refinery for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, occupying the interest of JPC. However, Nanjing oil refinery already making a decision to adopt another system (BTG) answered that early adoption of this project is difficult. The feasibility study result also showed that efficient operation of IGCC is difficult because of lower generation efficiency of petroleum coke residue, and achievement of the supposed CO{sub 2} emission reduction effect and profitability is difficult. The project based on this feasibility study result is probably difficult to be realized. (NEDO)

  19. Psychological pathway to suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in China: A structural equation model.

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Chenchang; Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2017-11-29

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicide than does the general population. It is critical to interpret the intricate relationships among various psychological variables that increase the risk of suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from Jul to Aug 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-reporting questionnaire. A total of 465 PLWHA participated. Sociodemographic, psychological variables and suicide information about the participants were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM)-path analysis was used to analyze the cross-sectional data. The final structural equation model had a highly satisfactory fit. Among PLWHA, perceived stigma had the greatest accumulated total effect on suicidal ideation, with both a direct effect and indirect effect through self-esteem and depression. Additionally, self-esteem had the second greatest total effect on suicidal ideation and was influenced by social support. Depression contributed directly to suicidal ideation and partly mediated the association of perceived stigma and self-esteem with suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that self-esteem and depression, particularly perceived stigma, play important roles in suicidal ideation among PLWHA. Enhancing personal self-esteem or social support might also reduce perceived stigma and may be an important target for intervention to decrease suicidal ideation among PLWHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment and source identification of trace metals in the soils of greenhouse vegetable production in eastern China.

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong; Mao, Mingcui

    2013-11-01

    Worldwide concern about the occurrence of trace metals in greenhouse vegetable production soils (GVPS) is growing. In this study, a total of 385 surface GVPS samples were collected in Shouguang and four vegetable production bases in Nanjing, Eastern China, for the determination of As and Hg using atomic fluorescence spectrometry and Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Geo-accumulation indices and factor analysis were used to investigate the accumulation and sources of the trace metals in soils in Eastern China. The results revealed that greenhouse production practices increased accumulation of the trace metals, particularly Cd, Zn, and Cu in soils and their accumulation became significant with increasing years of cultivation. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was also found in soils from organic greenhouses. The GVPS was generally less polluted or moderately polluted by As, Cu, Zn, and Pb but heavily polluted by Cd and Hg in some locations. Overall, accumulation of Cd, Zn, and Cu in GVPS was primarily associated with anthropogenic activities, particularly, application of manure. The high level of Hg found in some sites was related to historical heavy application of Hg containing pesticides. However, further identification of Hg sources is needed. To reduce accumulation of the trace metals in GVPS, organic fertilizer application should be suggested through development and implementation of reasonable and sustainable strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in eastern China

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Liu, Q.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of air pollutants, especially aerosols, on regional and global climate has been widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies report their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect of how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in the air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease in the solar radiation intensity by more than 70%, a decrease in the sensible heat by more than 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change in rainfall during both daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution-weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather via air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloud feedbacks. This study highlights cross-disciplinary needs to investigate the environmental, weather and climate impacts of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in East China.

  2. CHINA‘S RADIO AND TV UNIVERSITIES AND THE BRITISH OPEN UNIVERSITY: A Comparative Study

    Reviewed by Desmond KEEGAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This book is a major contribution to the fields of distance education research, the field of comparative education and to the history of Chinese and British education.The book undertakes an impossible task: the comparative study of China‘s Radio and TV universities and of the British Open University. The task is impossible because the two entities to be compared are essentially disparate. The British Open University (OUUK is a single university set up at Milton Keynes in the United Kingdom by Royal Charter. China‘s Radio and TV universities, known as the Dianda system, is a network of 45 open universities set up all over China. The essence of the success of the British Open University was its creation as a full university, offering its own university degrees on the same level as all the other universities in the country. The Dianda institutions were set up in what Wei calls the ‗adult higher education sector‘ in China, offering what Wei calls sub-degrees and always regarded as inferior both to the great Chinese universities (Beijing University, Qinghua University, Fudan

  3. Determination of Key Risk Supervision Areas around River-Type Water Sources Affected by Multiple Risk Sources: A Case Study of Water Sources along the Yangtze’s Nanjing Section

    Qi Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To provide a reference for risk management of water sources, this study screens the key risk supervision areas around river-type water sources (hereinafter referred to as the water sources threatened by multiple fixed risk sources (the risk sources, and establishes a comprehensive methodological system. Specifically, it comprises: (1 method of partitioning risk source concentrated sub-regions for screening water source perimeter key risk supervision areas; (2 approach of determining sub-regional risk indexes (SrRI, which characterizes the scale of sub-regional risks considering factors like risk distribution intensity within sub-regions, risk indexes of risk sources (RIRS, characterizing the risk scale of risk sources and the number of risk sources; and (3 method of calculating sub-region’s risk threats to the water sources (SrTWS which considers the positional relationship between water sources and sub-regions as well as SrRI, and the criteria for determining key supervision sub-regions. Favorable effects are achieved by applying this methodological system in determining water source perimeter sub-regions distributed along the Yangtze’s Nanjing section. Results revealed that for water sources, the key sub-regions needing supervision were SD16, SD06, SD21, SD26, SD15, SD03, SD02, SD32, SD10, SD11, SD14, SD05, SD27, etc., in the order of criticality. The sub-region with the greatest risk threats on the water sources was SD16, which was located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River. In general, sub-regions along the upper Yangtze reaches had greater threats to water sources than the lower reach sub-regions other than SD26 and SD21. Upstream water sources were less subject to the threats of sub-regions than the downstream sources other than NJ09B and NJ03.

  4. China: the long wait

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The repercussions of Tiananmen Square coupled with worse than expected balance of payments problems have been made it even more difficult than usual to discern the likely future direction of China's nuclear power programme. Currently there are three power reactors under construction, an indigenously designed 300MWe PWR at Qinsham and the two 900MWe Framatome units at Daya Bay, Guang-dong. Prior to the events of June the most likely way forward, beyond these units under construction, appeared to be development of 600MWe units for Chinese conditions in a joint venture with Western companies. There are strong pressures to ''go indigenous'', and attempt to develop a home grown 600MWe design or, perhaps more likely, go for repeats of the 300 MWe plant - assuming it can be operated successfully, a point on which some factions of the Chinese nuclear industry have their doubts. Nuclear district heating still has strong advocates, as an environmentally sound way of meeting the country's huge projected increases in primary energy consumption over the coming years. Construction of a 5MWt district heating reactor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, started in 1986, entered operation at the end of 1989 following a test phase and is now supplying 3MWt to heating of university buildings. (author)

  5. Our Universe

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  6. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children: The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities.

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-07-01

    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban China. Data were collected in 2015 from 1648 students in 16 primary and middle schools in four mega-cities in China (4 schools/city): Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an. Cluster robust negative binomial regression models were fit to assess family correlates of pocket money, associations of pocket money with child eating behaviors and weight outcomes, and possible modifying effects of schools' unhealthy food restrictions. Sixty-nine percent of students received pocket money weekly. Students received more pocket money if mothers frequently ate out of home (IRR=2.28 [1.76, 2.94]) and/or family rarely had dinner together (IRR=1.42, 95%=[1.01, 1.99]). Students got less pocket money if parents were concerned about child's future health due to unhealthy eating (IRR=0.56 [0.32,0.98]). Students with more pocket money more frequently consumed (by 25-89%) sugary beverages, snacks, fast food, or at street food stalls, and were 45-90% more likely to be overweight/obese. Associations of pocket money with unhealthy eating and overweight/obesity were weaker in schools with unhealthy food restrictions. Pocket money is a risk factor for unhealthy eating and obesity in urban China. School policies may buffer pocket money's negative influence on students' eating and weight status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Spatiotemporal distribution and short-term trends of particulate matter concentration over China, 2006-2010.

    Yao, Ling; Lu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Air quality problems caused by atmospheric particulate have drawn broad public concern in the global scope. In the paper, the spatiotemporal distributions of fine particle (PM2.5) and inhalable particle (PM10) concentrations estimated with the artificial neural network (ANN) over China during 2006 to 2010 have been discussed. Most high PM10 concentration appears in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Hubei, and parts of Inner Mongolia. The distribution of PM2.5 concentration is consistent with China's three gradient terrains. The seasonal variations of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations both indicate that they are higher in north China in spring and winter, lowest in summer. In autumn, most provinces in south China appear high value. In particular, high PM2.5 concentration appears in the southeast coastal cities while high PM10 concentration prefers the central regions in south China. On this basis, seasonal Mann-Kendall test method is utilized to analyze the short-term trends. The results also show significant changes of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations of China in the past 5 years, and most provinces present the tendency of reduction (3-5 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 10-20 μg/m(3) for PM10 per year) while a fraction of provinces appear the increasing trend of 8-16 μg/m(3) (PM2.5) and 16-30 μg/m(3) (PM10). Simultaneously, PM2.5 population exposure is discussed with the combination of population density-gridded data. Municipalities get much higher exposure level than other provinces. Shanghai suffers the highest population exposure to PM2.5, followed by Beijing and then Tianjin, Jiangsu province. Most provincial capitals, such as Guangzhou, Nanjing, Chengdu, and Wuhan, face much higher exposure level than other regions of their province. Moreover, the PM2.5 exposure situation is more serious in southeast than northwest regions for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Also, per capita PM2.5 concentration and population-weighted PM2.5 concentration are calculated. The former shows that

  8. Mining Data from Weibo to WeChat: A Comparative Case Study of MOOC Communities on Social Media in China

    Zhang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with an overview on China's MOOC phenomenon and social media, and then reports a comparative, multiple case study on three selected MOOC communities that have emerged on social media in China. These representative MOOC communities included: (a) MOOC Academy, the largest MOOC community in China, (b) Zhejiang University of…

  9. Comparison of long-term clinical outcome between patients with chronic versus acute type B aortic dissection treated by implantation of a stent graft: a single-center report

    Chen SL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shao-Liang Chen, Jian-Cheng Zhu, Xiao-Bo Li, Fei Ye, Jun-Jie Zhang, Zhi-Zhong Liu, Nai-Liang Tian, Song Lin, Cheng-Yu Lv Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China Background: Stent grafting for treatment of type B aortic dissection has been extensively used. However, the difference in the long-term clinical outcome between patients with chronic versus acute type B aortic dissection remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the difference in long-term clinical outcome after endovascular repair for patients with chronic (93% complete false-lumen thrombosis. Untreated tear and type I endoleak were predictors of clinical events during follow-up. Conclusion: Comparable long-term clinical results were achieved in patients with chronic or acute type B aortic dissection after implantation of a stent graft. Keywords: aortic dissection, endovascular repair, procedure-related events, propensity score matching

  10. IDRC in China

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  11. Have Fun in China

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  12. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  13. Regional contribution to PM1 pollution during winter haze in Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yunjiang; Qin, Wei; Wang, Zhuang; Chen, Wentai; Hua, Yan; Yang, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-15

    To quantify regional sources contributing to submicron particulate matter (PM1) pollution in haze episodes, on-line measurements combining two modeling methods, namely, positive matrix factorization (PMF) and backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM), were conducted for the period of one month in urban Nanjing, a city located in the western part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. Several multi-day haze episodes were observed in December 2013. Long-range transport of biomass burning from the southwestern YRD region largely contributed to PM1 pollution with more than 25% of total organics mass in a lasting heavy haze. The LPDM analysis indicates that regional transport is a main source contributing to secondary low-volatility production. The high-potential source regions of secondary low-volatility production are mainly located in areas to the northeast of the city. High aerosol pollution was mainly contributed by regional transport associated with northeastern air masses. Such regional transport on average accounts for 46% of total NR-PM1 with sulfate and aged low-volatility organics being the largest fractions (>65%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High resolution luminescence chronology for Xiashu Loess deposits of Southeastern China

    Yi, Shuangwen; Li, Xusheng; Han, Zhiyong; Lu, Huayu; Liu, Jinfeng; Wu, Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Loess deposits in Xiashu are representative of such deposits in Southeastern China that are mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley. These loess-paleosol sequences provide a key archive of past climate change in humid, subtropical regions. However, the ages of the sequences are not well constrained. In this study, the standard quartz single-aliquot regenerative (SAR) dose optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and K-feldspar post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR290) methods are used to date two loess sequences in Nanjing region. Our results show that quartz SAR OSL and K-feldspar pIRIR290 ages are more or less indistinguishable from one another up to ∼50 ka. Beyond this age, the K-feldspar pIRIR ages increased systematically with deposition depth, agreeing well with the expected ages as far as ∼200 ka. On the basis of a fully independently-dated timescale, we are therefore able to propose, for the first time, a new age model for the Xiashu Loess deposits accumulated since the penultimate interglacial period. Using our newly obtained luminescence dating ages, we observe a marked difference between the loess accumulation rates in the two sequences, potentially forced by regional depositional processes and loess preservation.

  15. Using Moss to Assess Airborne Heavy Metal Pollution in Taizhou, China

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. To understand the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn in Taizhou, East China, samples of moss (Haplocladium microphyllum were collected from 60 sites selected by a systematic sampling method during the summer of 2012, and the concentrations of these heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. The results suggested that the concentrations of these metals varied moderately among different sites, indicating a similar contamination level for each element throughout the monitoring region. The mean values under investigation were higher than those from neighboring cities, such as Wuxi, Xuzhou, and Nanjing, and much higher than those in Europe based on a 2010 survey. Significant (p < 0.01 correlations were identified among some of the heavy metals, suggesting that these originated from identical sources. There was no statistically significant correlation between Hg and all the other elements. Spatial distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were created using Arc-GIS 9.0. The potential ecological risk index indicated that the air was heavily polluted by Cd and Hg, and that there was a considerable potential ecological risk from all the heavy metals studied.

  16. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  17. A case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation in China

    Ye, S.; Guo, J.; Wu, J.; Wang, J.; Chien, C.; Stahl, R.; Mack, E.; Grosso, N.

    2013-12-01

    A field site in Nanjing, China was selected for a case study of risk assessment in contaminated site remediation. This site is about 100m long and 100m wide. A chemical plant (1999-2010) at the site manufactured optical brightener PF, 2-Amino-4-methylphenol and 2-Nitro-4-methylphenol, totally three products. Soil and groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for PPL 126 (126 pollutants in the 'Priority Pollutants List' issued by US EPA). Values of the Dutch Standards were used as the screening criteria for soil and ground water. Low levels of ethylbenezene, chlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4- dichlorobenzene were detected in one soil sample. Concentrations above Dutch Target Value (DTV) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, and/or 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, phenol, and/or 2,4-dichlorophenol were exhibited in two groundwater samples. The ground water was especially highly impacted by bichlorobenzenes and trichlorobenzenes. The maximum concentration of impacts was 7.3 mg/L of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in groundwater which was 730 times higher than Dutch Intervention Values (DIV). Risk of soil and groundwater at this site was assessed according to the guidelines issued by Chinese MEP and US EPA, respectively. Finally, remedy techniques were selected according to the result of risk assessment and the characteristics of hydrogeology conditions and contaminants.

  18. Evaluation of low impact development approach for mitigating flood inundation at a watershed scale in China.

    Hu, Maochuan; Sayama, Takahiro; Zhang, Xingqi; Tanaka, Kenji; Takara, Kaoru; Yang, Hong

    2017-05-15

    Low impact development (LID) has attracted growing attention as an important approach for urban flood mitigation. Most studies evaluating LID performance for mitigating floods focus on the changes of peak flow and runoff volume. This paper assessed the performance of LID practices for mitigating flood inundation hazards as retrofitting technologies in an urbanized watershed in Nanjing, China. The findings indicate that LID practices are effective for flood inundation mitigation at the watershed scale, and especially for reducing inundated areas with a high flood hazard risk. Various scenarios of LID implementation levels can reduce total inundated areas by 2%-17% and areas with a high flood hazard level by 6%-80%. Permeable pavement shows better performance than rainwater harvesting against mitigating urban waterlogging. The most efficient scenario is combined rainwater harvesting on rooftops with a cistern capacity of 78.5 mm and permeable pavement installed on 75% of non-busy roads and other impervious surfaces. Inundation modeling is an effective approach to obtaining the information necessary to guide decision-making for designing LID practices at watershed scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. US-China Collaboration on Landslide Research and Student Training

    Wang, G.

    2016-12-01

    Funded by a NSF International Research Experience for Students (IRES) project (OIA: 1460034) at the University of Houston (http://ires.nsm.uh.edu), the author brought eight U.S. students to China in the summer of 2016. The host university at the China side is the China University of Geoscience at Wuhan. The international collaborative project is designed to expose U.S. students to the international landslide research community at an early stage of their careers. The NSF IRES program will support minimum 18 U.S. students (two graduates and four undergraduates per year) to conduct advanced landslide research in the Three Gorges area in China during the summers (eight weeks) of 2016, 2017, and 2018. The 2016 summer program includes a one-week-long pre-training at the University of Houston, a two-week-long intensive Chinese language and cultural course at the main campus of the China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), a four-week-long landslide field investigation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, and a one-week-long wrap-up at the University of Houston. This presentation will introduce the experiences and lessons that we learned from the first-year activities of the international collaborative project.

  20. Intelligent Universe

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  1. Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Services in China

    Wu, J.; Han, X.; Zhou, Y.; Yue, P.; Wang, X.; Lu, J.; Jiang, W.; Li, J.; Tang, H.; Wang, F.; Li, X.; Fan, J.

    2018-04-01

    The Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service(DIMERS) project was kicked off in 2017 in China, with the purpose to improve timely responsive service of the institutions involved in the management of natural disasters and man-made emergency situations with the timely and high-quality products derived from Space-based, Air-based and the in-situ Earth observation. The project team brought together a group of top universities and research institutions in the field of Earth observations as well as the operational institute in typical disaster services at national level. The project will bridge the scientific research and the response services of massive catastrophe in order to improve the emergency response capability of China and provide scientific and technological support for the implementation of the national emergency response strategy. In response to the call for proposal of "Earth Observation and Navigation" of 2017 National Key R&D Program of China, Professor Wu Jianjun, the deputy chairman of Faculty of Geographical Science of Beijing Normal University, submitted the Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service (DIMERS) project, jointly with the experts and scholars from Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, China Institute of Earthquake Forecasting of China Earthquake Administration and China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Science. After two round evaluations, the proposal was funded by Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  2. Institutionalized Mutuality in Canada-China Management Education Collaboration

    Wei, Shuguang; Liu, Xianjun

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the Canada-China Management Education Program (CCMEP, 1983-1996) between the University of Toronto (UT) and Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). In this paper, we create a "Three Levels/Four Parameters" analytical framework, based on the concept of mutuality from Johan Galtung (1980) and the concept…

  3. Institutional Influences on R&D Collaboration in China

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2014-01-01

    that simultaneously builds trust in the sequence of affect-based trust followed by cognition-based trust. Thereby, good results can be created in collaboration with Chinese universities. The paper illustrates institutional influences on R&D collaboration between foreign invested R&D and local universities in China...

  4. Global China Insights

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  5. On China dream

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  6. Debating China's assertiveness

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re...

  7. Global China Insights

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  8. Hong Kong's Cross-System University Partnerships

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Yunyun, Qin; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the special case of Hong Kong higher education's institutional partnerships in the Chinese mainland. After noting the rise of cross-system university partnership in Asia, it provides a neoinstitutional perspective on the differences between the two China higher education systems. Finally, a case study of the experience of the…

  9. USAID University

    US Agency for International Development — USAID University is USAID's learning management system. Features include 1) Access online courses 2) Register for instructor-led courses 3)Access your student...

  10. Runaway universe

    Davies, P

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the emerging universe (general introduction, history of astronomical and cosmological research, origins, the expanding universe, stars, galaxies, electromagnetic radiation); primeval fire (the big bang model, origin of the elements, properties of the elements and of sub-atomic particles); order out of chaos (galactic evolution, star formation, nuclear fusion, the solar system, origin of life on Earth); a star called Sol (properties of the sun and of other stars); life in the universe; the catastrophe principle (the rise and fall of cosmic order); stardoom (star evolution, neutron stars); black holes and superholes (gravitational collapse); technology and survival; the dying universe (second law of thermodynamics); worlds without end (cosmological models).

  11. Rhodes University

    Samridhi Sharma

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... been taken may improve the reception, by the target audience, of the intended communication. This may ... alcohol marketing. Similarly .... of the intended users (Rhodes University support staff ..... Digital Human Modeling and.

  12. Undulant Universe

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  13. The Drop-Out Problem in Primary Education: Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific--Some Case Studies: China, India, Peninsular Malaysia, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The ways in which six developing countries in Asia are dealing with the problem of children dropping out of elementary school are discussed in these essays. One of the persistent problems that has deterred universalization of primary education is the early dropping out of children from schools. Case studies describing the magnitude and causes of…

  14. China's Organic Revolution

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  15. Green markets in China?

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  16. Headache care in China.

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  17. Proof-of-principle that a decoy virus protects oncolytic measles virus against neutralizing antibodies

    Xu C; Goß AV; Dorneburg C; Debatin KM; Wei J; Beltinger C

    2018-01-01

    Chun Xu,1,2,* Annika Verena Goß,1,* Carmen Dorneburg,1 Klaus-Michael Debatin,1 Jiwu Wei,2 Christian Beltinger1 1Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Section of Experimental Pediatric Oncology, University Medical Center Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 2Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School of Nanjing University, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase cl...

  18. Plasma universe

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  19. Baby universes

    Strominger, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation

  20. New opinion on the subtypes of poststroke depression in Chinese stroke survivors

    Yue Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yingying Yue,1,2 Rui Liu,3 Yin Cao,4 Yanfeng Wu,5 Shining Zhang,6 Huajie Li,7 Jijun Zhu,8 Wenhao Jiang,1,2 Aiqin Wu,9 Yonggui Yuan1,2 1Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, 2Institute of Psychosomatics, Medical school of Southeast university, Nanjing, 3School of Information Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 4Department of Neurology, Changzhou Second People’s Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, 5Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 6Department of Psychiatry, Nanjing Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 7Department of Neurology, Changzhou First People’s Hospital, Changzhou, 8Department of Neurology, Yancheng Third People’s Hospital, Yancheng, 9Department of Psychosomatics, The Affiliated First Hospital of Suzhou University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China Aim: Poststroke depression (PSD is the most common complication of stroke. However, some stroke survivors with depression cannot meet the diagnostic criteria of PSD. The aim of this study was to propose the new conception of stroke patients with depression and then make them to receive reasonable diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We first put forward the opinion that the general PSD should consist of PSD disorder (PSDD and PSD symptoms (PSDS according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder – Fifth Edition (DSM-5 and ZhongDa diagnostic criteria – first edition (ZD-1, respectively. The ZD-1 was established based on the suggestions of 65 Chinese chief doctors considering that the symptoms of PSDS might be different from those of PSDD and the duration of DSM-5 was too strict. Then, 166 stroke inpatients were recruited, and the study was conducted using the diagnosis and classification of PSD to verify the new concept. Results: A total of 24 (14.46% and 80 (48.19% stroke

  1. Teaching Styles and Occupational Stress among Chinese University Faculty Members

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching style among university faculty members. A sample of 144 faculty members from a large university in the People's Republic of China rated themselves on three ability scales and responded to the Thinking Styles in Teaching Inventory and to four…

  2. School environment and policies, child eating behavior and overweight/obesity in urban China: the childhood obesity study in China megacities.

    Jia, P; Li, M; Xue, H; Lu, L; Xu, F; Wang, Y

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity is rising rapidly in China, especially in urban areas. Knowledge about how school environment and policies (SEPs) may have contributed to the epidemic remains limited. We examined SEP and their associations with students' eating behaviors and overweight/obesity in urban China. Data were collected from 1648 students (plus their parents and schools) in 16 primary and middle schools (4 schools per city) in four megacities across China: Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing and Xi'an. We examined nutrition-related SEP such as unhealthy food restriction, healthy food promotion, price control and nutrition guideline in school cafeterias (SCs), campus food stores (CFS), school vicinity food stalls (SVFS); SEP on physical activity, physical education (PE) and physical examination. Cluster robust regression models were fit to assess associations of SEP with child eating behaviors and overweight/obesity (defined based on body mass index, from measured weight and height). All 16 schools had regular PE classes and annual physical examination. Most schools (n=12; 75%) had food policies in SC; few had policies on CFS (n=1; 6.25%) or SVFS (n=4; 25%). Local governments had a major role in regulating food prices, setting nutrition guidelines and regulating SVFS. Policies on CFS and SVFS were associated with less frequent intake of sugary beverage (odds ratio (OR)=0.54 (0.47-0.61); OR=0.70 (0.61-0.80)), snack (OR=0.84 (0.74-0.95); OR=0.78 (0.67-0.92)) and fast food (OR=0.58 (0.42-0.81); OR=0.56 (0.39-0.80)). The associations were stronger for boys. Policies on SC, CFS and SVFS were associated with lower likelihood for overweight/obesity (OR=0.60 (0.46-0.79); OR=0.74 (0.62-0.90); OR=0.51 (0.35-0.73)) and central obesity (OR=0.79 (0.70-0.89); OR=0.67 (0.48-0.92); OR=0.63 (0.48-0.84)) in boys. Policies on SC were associated with lower overweight/obesity odds (OR=0.48 (0.28-0.82)) for girls. SEP are heterogeneous in the four Chinese megacities, high-income areas. They affect

  3. Ibsen and Peking Women's High Normal University

    Sun Jian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the great influence of Ibsen and especially his play A Doll House on the young Chinese girls studying at Peking Women’s High Normal University established for the first time in China at the beginning of the 20th century to educate girls. In its short history, the girls at the university were exposed widely to the progressive ideas and literature from the West. Ibsen, the most popular writer at that time, inspired the girls tremendously whose performance of A Doll House aroused a heated debate among the well-known scholars on such important issues as women’s rights, women’s liberation, new culture, art and literature. Consequently there appeared at the university first group of modern Chinese women writers who picked up their pens and wrote about themselves and about women in China, describing themselves as “Chinese Noras”.

  4. Stiegler's University

    Featherstone, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mark Featherstone proposes to explore Bernard Stiegler's work through the lens of the politics of education and in particular the idea of the university, which becomes a pharmacological space of, on the one hand, utopian possibility, and, on the other hand, dystopian limitation, destruction, and death in his recent "States of…

  5. Molecular characterization and multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi from captive red kangaroos (Macropus Rufus in Jiangsu province, China.

    Zhijun Zhong

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common pathogen of microsporidian species infecting humans worldwide. Although E. bieneusi has been found in a variety of animal hosts, information on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos in China is limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in captive kangaroos. A total of 61 fecal specimens (38 from red kangaroos and 23 from grey kangaroos were collected from Nanjing Hongshan Forest Zoo and Hongshan Kangaroo Breeding Research Base, Jiangsu province, China. Using the nested PCR amplification ITS gene of rRNA of E. bieneusi, totally 23.0% (14/61 of tested samples were PCR-positive with three genotypes (i.e. one known genotype, CHK1, and two novel genotypes, CSK1 and CSK2. Multi-locus sequence typing using three microsatellites (MS1, MS3, and MS7 and one minisatellite (MS4 revealed one, five, two, and one types at these four loci, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, the two genotypes, CHK1 and CSK1, were clustered into a new group of unknown zoonotic potential, and the novel genotype CSK2 was clustered into a separate clade with PtEb and PtEbIX. To date, this is the first report on the presence of E. bieneusi in captive red kangaroos in Jiangsu province, China. Furthermore, a high degree of genetic diversity was observed in the E. bieneusi genotype and seven MLGs (MLG1-7 were found in red kangaroos. Our findings suggest that infected kangaroo may act as potential reservoirs of E. bieneusi and be source to transmit infections to other animal.

  6. The effect of community-based health management on the health of the elderly: a randomized controlled trial from China

    Chao Jianqian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An aging population poses significant challenges to health care in China. Health management has been implemented to reduce the costs of care, raise health service utilization, increase health knowledge and improve quality of life. Several studies have tried to verify the effectiveness of health management in achieving these goals worldwide. However, there have been insufficient randomized control trials (RCTs to draw reliable conclusions. The few small-scale studies conducted in China include mostly the general population rather than the elderly. Our study is designed to evaluate the impact of community-based health management on the health of the elderly through an RCT in Nanjing, China. Methods Two thousand four hundred participants, aged 60 or older and who gave informed consent, were randomly allocated 1:1 into management and control groups, the randomization schedule was concealed from community health service center staff until allocation. Community-based health management was applied in the former while the latter was only given usual care. After 18 months, three categories of variables (subjective grading health indices, objective health indices and health service utilization were measured based on a questionnaire, clinical monitoring and diagnostic measurements. Differences between the two groups were assessed before and after the intervention and analyzed with t-test, χ2-test, and multiple regression analysis. Results Compared with the control group, the management group demonstrated improvement on the following variables (P Conclusion Community-based health management improved both subjective grading health indices, objective health indices and decreased the number of outpatient clinic visits, demonstrating effectiveness in improving elderly health. Trial registration ChiCTR-OCH-11001716

  7. Functional miRNAs in breast cancer drug resistance

    Hu WZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Weizi Hu,1–3,* Chunli Tan,1–3,* Yunjie He,4 Guangqin Zhang,2 Yong Xu,3,5 Jinhai Tang1 1Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 2School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 3Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, 4The First Clinical School of Nanjing Medical University, 5Jiangsu Key Lab of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Owing to improved early surveillance and advanced therapy strategies, the current death rate due to breast cancer has decreased; nevertheless, drug resistance and relapse remain obstacles on the path to successful systematic treatment. Multiple mechanisms responsible for drug resistance have been elucidated, and miRNAs seem to play a major part in almost every aspect of cancer progression, including tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In recent years, exosomes have emerged as novel modes of intercellular signaling vehicles, initiating cell–cell communication through their fusion with target cell membranes, delivering functional molecules including miRNAs and proteins. This review particularly focuses on enumerating functional miRNAs involved in breast cancer drug resistance as well as their targets and related mechanisms. Subsequently, we discuss the prospects and challenges of miRNA function in drug resistance and highlight valuable approaches for the investigation of the role of exosomal miRNAs in breast cancer progression and drug resistance. Keywords: microRNA, exosome, breast cancer, drug resistance

  8. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    Zhang Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Zhang,1 Hanqing Qian,2 Mi Yang,2 Rutian Li,2 Jing Hu,1 Li Li,1 Lixia Yu,2 Baorui Liu,1,2 Xiaoping Qian1,2 1Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Abstract: Gambogic acid (GA is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe­rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm, and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier. Keywords: gambogic acid, nanocarriers, RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles, colorectal cancer

  9. Poliomyelitis eradication in China: 1953-2012.

    Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Xu, Wen-Bo; Liang, Xiao-Feng; Luo, Hui-Ming; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    Poliomyelitis has historically been endemic in China and has been considered an important cause of disability and death. We reviewed strategies and measures of poliomyelitis control and eradication from 1953 to 2012. Data from notifiable disease and routine immunization reporting systems and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance were analyzed. About 20 000 poliomyelitis cases were reported annually in the prevaccine era. During 1965-1977, live, attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) was administered to children through annual mass campaigns in the winter, and the number of poliomyelitis cases started to decline. A cold chain system was established during 1982, and OPV coverage increased during the early stage of the Expanded Programme on Immunization, from 1978 to 1988. Between 1989 and 1999, routine immunization was strengthened, supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) were conducted, and the AFP surveillance system was established. China reported a last indigenous poliomyelitis case in 1994 and was certified as free of polio in 2000. To maintain its polio-free status, China kept >90% coverage of 3 doses of OPV, conducted SIAs in high-risk areas, and maintained high-quality of AFP surveillance. China succeeded in stopping the outbreak in Xinjiang in 2011. China's polio-free status was achieved and maintained through strengthening routine immunization and implementing SIAs and AFP surveillance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Medical missionaries to China: the antecedents.

    Fu, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Notwithstanding the traditional belief that disciples of Jesus Christ introduced Christianity into China, conclusive evidence showed that it was the Nestorian missionaries who entered China in AD 635. Alongside commercial contacts between the West and China during the prosperous T'ang dynasty (618-906), trepanation, bloodletting and the universal antidote theriac were introduced from the Byzantium Empire. Nestorian Christians built churches throughout China and offered some form of medical services. During the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1260-1368), foreign physicians were present in the Royal Court; the most famous was the astronomer, linguist and physician Ai-hsieh (Isaiah), Head of the Imperial Medical Bureau. With the fall of this dynasty, Christianity, being primarily the faith of a foreign community, naturally fell into oblivion. It was not until the sixteenth-century's Age of Discovery when a safe sea route to China was found that a new phase of Christian missionaries began. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Fiscal 1999 technical survey report. Model project implementation feasibility study in China on effective utilization of cement waste heat; 1999 nendo Chugoku ni okeru cement hainetsu yuko riyo model jigyo jisshi kanosei chosa hokokusho

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Although China ranks first in the world in the manufacture of cement, yet the energy consumption rate is high and there remains room for improvement. Effective utilization of energy at cement making plants will not only profit the industry but also contribute to the stabilization of energy supply for China. The model project on power generation using cement waste heat implemented at Ningguo Cement Plant was concluded successfully. For the purpose of enabling China to domestically manufacture the equipment, the installation of such equipment at Zhujiang Cement Plant and Liuzhou Cement Plant in Guangxi Zhuangzu Zizhiqu was assumed, and their locations and plant operating conditions were studied. In addition, surveys were conducted of manufacturers of important components of the power generation equipment such as boilers, steam turbines, generators, and breaker boards. Two manufacturers were visited for each of the components, and they were checked for records of manufacturing similar equipment, quality assurance and process management capabilities, and for ability to satisfy required specifications. Among the visited manufacturers were Nanjing Turbine and Electric Machinery Co., Jinan Power Equipment Factory, and Hangzhou Boiler Works. Based on the results of the surveys, it was concluded that the model project may be implemented. (NEDO)

  12. Socioeconomic Drivers of PM2.5 in the Accumulation Phase of Air Pollution Episodes in the Yangtze River Delta of China

    Cai-Rong Lou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in PM2.5 sources show that anthropogenic emissions are the main contributors to haze pollution. Due to their essential roles in establishing policies for improving air quality, socioeconomic drivers of PM2.5 levels have attracted increasing attention. Unlike previous studies focusing on the annual PM2.5 concentration (Cyear, this paper focuses on the accumulation phase of PM2.5 during the pollution episode (PMAE in the Yangtze River Delta in China. This paper mainly explores the spatial variations of PMAE and its links to the socioeconomic factors using a geographical detector and simple linear regression. The results indicated that PM2.5 was more likely to accumulate in more developed cities, such as Nanjing and Shanghai. Compared with Cyear, PMAE was more sensitive to socioeconomic impacts. Among the twelve indicators chosen for this study, population density was an especially critical factor that could affect the accumulation of PM2.5 dramatically and accounted for the regional difference. A 1% increase in population density could cause a 0.167% rise in the maximal increment and a 0.214% rise in the daily increase rate of PM2.5. Additionally, industry, energy consumption, and vehicles were also significantly associated with PM2.5 accumulation. These conclusions could serve to remediate the severe PM2.5 pollution in China.

  13. Quality of life of young clinical doctors in public hospitals in China's developed cities as measured by the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP).

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Hanwei; Tao, Xiaojun

    2015-09-24

    In contemporary Chinese society, obstacles such as frequent violence against medical workers and tense doctor-patient relationships affect the health of Chinese doctors. This study attempted to explore the quality of life (QOL) of young clinical doctors in public hospitals in China's developed cities to study the psychometric properties of QOL and related risk factors of doctors' health. This study sampled young doctors aged 15-45 in 18 public hospitals of three cities in East China (Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou, N = 762). The Nottingham Health Profile was used to measure QOL, the dependent variable of this study. Methodologies such as reliability analysis, mean comparison, and exploratory factor analysis were used to study related psychometric properties. Almost 90 % of young Chinese clinical doctors have a bachelor's degree or above. Approximately 70.4 % of the doctors have relatively low job titles. Among the sample, 76.1 % have a monthly income ranging from USD 326 to USD 1139, and 91.3 % work over eight hours daily. These respondents have poor sleeping habits and mental functions, but have relatively good physical functions. Being female, low education, low job title, low salary, and long work hours are factors associated with doctors' poor QOL. Regression analysis results emphasize the great effect of high education on the improvement of QOL. Young clinical doctors in public hospitals in Chinese developed cities have poor QOL. Reforms on the current medical health system, improving the working environment of doctors and relieve their occupational stress should be required.

  14. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5 with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM 2.5 . However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Coping Strategies and Benefit-finding in the Relationship between Non-disclosure and Depressive Symptoms among Breast Cancer Survivors in China.

    Lee, Minsun; Song, Yuan; Zhu, Lin; Ma, Grace X

    2017-07-01

    Open communication about cancer diagnosis and relevant stress is frequently avoided among breast cancer survivors in China. Non-disclosure behavior may lead to negative psychological consequences. We aimed to examine the relationship between non-disclosure and depressive symptoms, and the role of coping strategies and benefit-finding in that relationship among Chinese breast cancer survivors. Using convenience sampling, we recruited 148 women in an early survivorship phase (up to 6 years post-treatment) in Nanjing, China. Participants were asked to complete a set of questionnaires in Chinese language, regarding sociodemographic characteristics, depressive symptoms, disclosure views, coping strategies, and benefit-finding. A higher level of non-disclosure was associated with more depressive symptoms. This relationship was mediated by self-blame and moderated by benefit-finding. Specifically, non-disclosure was associated with depressive symptoms through self-blame. The impact of non-disclosure was minimized among the women with a higher level of benefit-finding. Unexpressed cancer-related concern may increase self-blame, which leads to emotional distress among Chinese breast cancer survivors. Practicing benefit-finding may reduce the negative impact of non-disclosure. As a culturally appropriate way of disclosure, written expression may be beneficial to Chinese breast cancer patients.

  16. Intense atmospheric pollution modifies weather: a~case of mixed biomass burning with fossil fuel combustion pollution in the eastern China

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Zheng, L. F.; Nie, W.; Wei, X. L.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of air pollutants, particularly aerosols, on regional and global climate is widely investigated, but only a very limited number of studies reports their impacts on everyday weather. In this work, we present for the first time direct (observational) evidence of a clear effect how a mixed atmospheric pollution changes the weather with a substantial modification in air temperature and rainfall. By using comprehensive measurements in Nanjing, China, we found that mixed agricultural burning plumes with fossil fuel combustion pollution resulted in a decrease of solar radiation by more than 70%, of sensible heat flux over 85%, a temperature drop by almost 10 K, and a change of rainfall during daytime and nighttime. Our results show clear air pollution - weather interactions, and quantify how air pollution affects weather with the influence of air pollution-boundary layer dynamics and aerosol-radiation-cloudy feedbacks. This study highlights a cross-disciplinary needs to study the environmental, weather and climate impact of the mixed biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion sources in the East China.

  17. An exploration of computer game-based instruction in the "world history" class in secondary education: a comparative study in China.

    Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Wei Hua; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    So far, many studies on educational games have been carried out in America and Europe. Very few related empirical studies, however, have been conducted in China. This study, combining both quantitative with qualitative research methods, possibly compensated for this regret. The study compared data collected from two randomly selected classes (out of 13 classes) under computer game-based instruction (CGBI) and non-computer game-based instruction (NCGBI), respectively, in a senior high school located in Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province, in China. The participants were 103 students, composed of 52 boys and 51 girls (aged 17-18 years old). The following conclusion was reached: (1) participants under CGBI obtained significantly greater learning achievement than those under NCGBI; (2) participants were significantly more motivated by CGBI compared with NCGBI; (3) there were no significant differences in learning achievement between boys and girls; although (4) boys were significantly more motivated by CGBI than girls. Both disadvantages and advantages were discussed, together with directions for future research.

  18. An Exploration of Computer Game-Based Instruction in the “World History” Class in Secondary Education: A Comparative Study in China

    Yu, Zhonggen; Yu, Wei Hua; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    So far, many studies on educational games have been carried out in America and Europe. Very few related empirical studies, however, have been conducted in China. This study, combining both quantitative with qualitative research methods, possibly compensated for this regret. The study compared data collected from two randomly selected classes (out of 13 classes) under computer game-based instruction (CGBI) and non-computer game-based instruction (NCGBI), respectively, in a senior high school located in Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province, in China. The participants were 103 students, composed of 52 boys and 51 girls (aged 17-18 years old). The following conclusion was reached: (1) participants under CGBI obtained significantly greater learning achievement than those under NCGBI; (2) participants were significantly more motivated by CGBI compared with NCGBI; (3) there were no significant differences in learning achievement between boys and girls; although (4) boys were significantly more motivated by CGBI than girls. Both disadvantages and advantages were discussed, together with directions for future research. PMID:24816635

  19. Understanding China's Transformations

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  20. Innovation in China

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  1. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  2. 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology

    Ouyang, Yun; Xu, Min; Yang, Li; Ouyang, Yujie

    2017-01-01

    This book includes a selection of reviewed papers presented at the 2016 China Academic Conference on Printing, Packaging Engineering & Media Technology, held on November 25-27, 2016 in Xi’an, China. The conference was jointly organized by China Academy of Printing Technology, Xi’an University of Technology and Stuttgart Media University of Germany. The proceedings cover the recent outcomes on color science and technology, image processing technology, digital media technology, digital process management technology in packaging and packaging etc. They will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in graphic communications, packaging, color science, image science, material science, computer science, digital media and network technology fields.

  3. South China Sea Dispute

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  4. China's renewables law

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  5. Nuclear Parity with China?

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  6. Prof. Wu Xiaoqiu:China Is Striving for the World's Most Developed Capital Market

    Sun Yongjian; Zhang Yue

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's capital market is a hot issue in the new year. The best strategy to develop the Chinese capital market in the coming 15 to 20 years was discussed in the China Capital Market Forum, which was held in China at Renmin University on January 13. Government officials, scholars, and entrepreneurs commented that by 2020, the Chinese capital market will develop into one of the best capital markets in the world,not only in terms of size, but also asset quality, liquidity and dynamic trade. Is this a realistic goal? What steps should we take to pursue this target? With these questions in mind, after the forum, China's Foreign Trade interviewed Prof. Wu Xiaoqiu, Vice President of Renmin University of China,and the Director of the Finance & Securities Institute of Renmin University.

  7. Should Latin America Fear China?

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  8. University writing

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  9. Universe unfolding

    King, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered the setting; looking at the stars; the earth; time, place and the sky; our satellite, the moon; orbits and motion; the motions of the planets; the Copernican revolution; the planets; the other bodies of the solar system; ages, origins, and life; introducing the stars; sorting out the stars; binary stars--two are better than one; variable stars--inconstancy as a virtue; the secrets of starlight--unraveling the spectrum; the sun--our own star; the structure of a star; interstellar material; the Milky Way, our home galaxy; galaxies--the stellar continents; cosmic violence--from radio galaxies to quasars; the universe; and epilogue. The primary emphasis is on how we have come to know what we know about the universe. Star maps are included

  10. University physics

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  11. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  12. China Report, Economic Affairs

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  13. China's Economic Conditions

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Special Talent Exams at School of Physcial Education and Sport of Two Universities in Different Countries: Gazi University and Pekin University Samples

    M i h r i a y MUSA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze comparatively the students participated in special talent exams made for entering physical education programmes by universities and key criterions of selection in Turkey and China such as School of Pyhsical Education and Sport of Gazi University and Pekin University. The po licies and acceptance conditions of students, schooling goals and conditions, content of the physical fitness - testings, departments, pointing scoring system and national athletes regulation in China is investigated and evaluated by comparing them with Turk ey’s current situation. In this study screening model was used and data of research w ere obtained from web resources and Special Talent Exams Guide. It is pointed out that methods have differences in terms of special talent exams and schooling goals and co nditions between Turkey and China. At the end of the study some suggestions are offered.

  15. Human universe

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  16. REVIEW: EXPLORERS AND SCIENTISTS IN CHINA'S BORDERLANDS

    Gregory Rohlf

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Denise M Glover, Stevan Harrel, Charles F McKhann, and Margaret Byrne Swain (eds). 2011. Explorers and Scientists in China's Borderlands, 1880-1950. Seattle: University of Washington Press. This collection of eight biographical essays from a 2007 symposium makes for engaging reading and holds together well as a book. The authors, mainly anthropologists, examine the lives of ten explorers who were active primarily in the first half of the twentieth century. Some worked for d...

  17. Determination of strontium in rat plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate by ...

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... 2Jiangsu Institute For Food and Drug Control, Nanjing 210008, People's ... Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing University of Technology, .... including the raising, feeding, and the whole manipulative process ... Instrumentation.

  18. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  19. Providing Equal Access to Education--A Formidable Challenge for China

    Jones, Narelle; Maxwell, Bev; Palmer, Bill

    1996-01-01

    The People's Republic of China has seen a dramatic growth in its economy in recent years. It has a rapidly increasing population of approximately 1.2 billion people, though the population is still largely rural with about 80% of people living outside urban areas. China in its Education Law (1995) restated its commitment to universal education. In…

  20. Two new species of the nemourid genus Amphinemura (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from China.

    Li, Weihai; DU, Kaishu; Yang, Ding

    2017-04-19

    Two new species of the nemourid genus Amphinemura, A. dabanshana sp. nov. and A. kuankuoshui sp. nov., are described from Qinghai and Guizhou provinces of China. These two new species are compared with related taxa. The types of the new species are deposited in the Entomological Museum of China Agricultural University, Beijing and Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, respectively.