WorldWideScience

Sample records for nam predstoit deklarirovat

  1. Verify MesoNAM Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The AMU conducted an objective analysis of the MesoNAM forecasts compared to observed values from sensors at specified KSC/CCAFS wind towers by calculating the following statistics to verify the performance of the model: 1) Bias (mean difference), 2) Standard deviation of Bias, 3) Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and 4) Hypothesis test for Bias = O. The 45 WS LWOs use the MesoNAM to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at KSC and CCAFS had not been measured objectively. The analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point to the observed values from the sensors on wind towers. The data were stratified by tower sensor, month and onshore/offshore wind direction based on the orientation of the coastline to each tower's location. The model's performance statistics were then calculated for each wind tower based on sensor height and model initialization time. The period of record for the data used in this task was based on the operational start of the current MesoNAM in mid-August 2006 and so the task began with the first full month of data, September 2006, through May 2010. The analysis of model performance indicated: a) The accuracy decreased as the forecast valid time from the model initialization increased, b) There was a diurnal signal in T with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, c) There was a diurnal signal in Td with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night, and d) The model parameters at each vertical level most closely matched the observed parameters at heights closest to those vertical levels. The AMU developed a GUI that consists of a multi-level drop-down menu written in JavaScript embedded within the HTML code. This tool allows the LWO to easily and efficiently navigate among the charts and spreadsheet files containing the model performance statistics. The objective statistics give the LWOs knowledge of the model's strengths and

  2. Field Survey of Cinnamon in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Michiho, Ito; Yasuo, Shimada; Fumiyuki, Kiuchi; Tran Kim, Qui; Gisho, Honda; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University; Mitsuboshi Pharmacutical Co.; Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Health Siences, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; Research Center for Applied Chemistry, National University; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University

    2004-01-01

    A field survey of cinnamon in Viet Nam was performed during the period from 1999 till 2001. Interviews were carried out three times covering most of the famous cinnamon producing sites in Viet Nam. Through the interviews, various aspects of current status of cinnamon production were told by the villagers and it turned out that there might be two types of cinnamon trees in Viet Nam, one is the Tra My type andthe other is the Thanh Hoa type. They are very similar in the morphological characteri...

  3. Nam June Paik / Nam June Paik ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paik, Nam June

    2006-01-01

    Korea-ameerika kunstnikust Nam June Paikist (sünd. 1932), telefoniintervjuu kunstnikuga tema talvekodus Floridas 20.01.2001. Nam June Paiki töödest "Participation TV" (1963), "Video Synthesizer" (1969/70),sateliidiperformance'itest "Good Morning, Mr. Orwell!" (1980), "Bye Bye, Kipling" (1987) ja "Wrap around the World" (1988), näitusest "Electronic Superhighway" (1994) jm. Nam June Paik ka Internetist, Interneti-kunstist, töötamisest laseriga

  4. British firms mark progress off Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    British companies are making more inroads in exploring for oil and gas off Viet Nam. British Gas plc won a 25 year production sharing contract for a license off southern Viet Nam in the South China Sea. Meantime, London independent Lasmo plc started seismic surveys on the block adjoining the British Gas block. Separately, Thailand and Viet Nam have reached agreement to jointly explore for and develop oil and gas found in waters claimed by both countries. Plans call for the two countries to draw up joint development plans covering oil and gas resources in the southeastern fringe of the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok officials say they would have preferred to delineate maritime boundaries with Hanoi, but opted for the joint development accord, noting that Thailand and Malaysia had taken 12 years to resolve a similar dispute

  5. Deforestation in Viet Nam | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased soil erosion, reduced water-storage capacity, changes in microclimates, and loss of nutrients have led to a decline in the productivity of marginal lands and the impoverishment of local communities. In Viet Nam, the situation is particularly urgent. Continuing soil degradation poses an ominous threat to that ...

  6. Viet Nam national report: Greenhouse gas limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuong, Le Nguyen; Hieu, Nguyen Khac.

    1998-01-01

    Viet Nam ratified the UNFCCC on 16 November 1994. The Hydro meteorological Service (HMS) has been assigned by the Government to take full responsibility for Climate Change issues and for implementing programs related to the objectives of the UNFCCC. The mount of GHG emission in Viet Nam is 111.7 Tg of CO 2 equivalent. It is expected that the amount will be increased dramatically in the coming decades because of fossil fuel consumption to meet energy demand in the country. Total CO 2 emissions would be increased from 101 Tg in 2000, to 139 Tg, 224 Tg and 433 Tg in 2010, 2020 and 2030 respectively. 13 GHG abatement options including 7 energy options and 6 non-energy options have been developed for this study. (EG)

  7. MesoNAM Verification Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2011-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts to support launch weather operations. In Phase I, the performance of the model at KSC/CCAFS was measured objectively by conducting a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature, and dew point to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. In Phase II, the AMU modified the current tool by adding an additional 15 months of model output to the database and recalculating the verification statistics. The bias, standard deviation of bias, Root Mean Square Error, and Hypothesis test for bias were calculated to verify the performance of the model. The results indicated that the accuracy decreased as the forecast progressed, there was a diurnal signal in temperature with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, and there was a diurnal signal in dewpoint temperature with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night.

  8. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  9. Tuberculosis case notification data in Viet Nam, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Hennig, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and Viet Nam ranks 12 among the 22 high-TB burden countries. This study analyses surveillance data of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Viet Nam for the six-year period 2007 to 2012. During the study period, 598,877 TB cases (all forms) were notified, and 313,225 (52.3%) were new smear-positive cases. The case notification rate of new smear-positive cases was decreased, from 65 per 100,000 population in 2007 to 57 per 100,000 population in 2012; this decrease was observed for males and females in all age groups except males aged 0-14 and females aged 15-24 years. The male-to-female ratio of new smear-positive TB cases increased from 2.85 in 2007 to 3.02 in 2012. The average annual cure rate of new smear-positive cases was 90.3%. The high male-to-female ratio for new smear-positive TB cases in this notification data was lower than that from the 2007 TB prevalence survey in Viet Nam, suggesting a lower case detection for males. The decrease in new smear-positive case notification rates may reflect a decline in TB incidence in Viet Nam as several programmatic improvements have been made, although further research is required to increase case detection among young males and children.

  10. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  11. Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Viet Nam has undergone remarkable change, evidenced by significant poverty reduction, sustained high growth, trade liberalization and transition to a market economy. However, changes in the structure of economic (and political) governance have not proceeded apace, leaving the economy exposed to external shocks.

  12. Ecological modernisation of industrial estates in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phung Thuy Phuong,

    2002-01-01

    This research provides insights into environmental policy-making and management in Viet Nam, with special reference to industrial estates. It analyses the reasons behind the weaknesses of environmental policy-making and management in dealing

  13. Deforestation in Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deforestation in Viet Nam reports on a innovative and timely study by a team of Vietnamese and Canadian researchers. It presents a labourious historical analysis of the smallest changes affecting soil use, forest cover, population, and political and socioeconomic characteristics. The book concludes with suggestions for ...

  14. Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past decade, Viet Nam has undergone remarkable change, evidenced by significant poverty reduction, sustained high growth, trade liberalization and transition to a market economy. However, changes in ... Dossiers. VERN policy brief : capitalising on the changing role of non-farm household enterprises in Vietna.

  15. All projects related to Viet Nam | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-03-16

    The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. Start Date: March 16, 2010. End Date: May 31, 2012. Topic: SMOKING, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS. Region: Asia, Far East Asia, Viet Nam.

  16. Educating the educators at Hue Medical College, Hue, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, A L; Zygmont, D; Bender, P; Black, K

    2008-06-01

    In June 2005, four faculty members from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA, conducted a nursing educator workshop in Hue, Viet Nam. Didactic and clinical instruction addressed paediatric, maternity, psychiatric and surgical nursing content as well as instructional methods and student evaluation techniques. This educator workshop was requested as means of increasing the professionalization of nursing in Viet Nam. Student nurses in Viet Nam are taught by physician-faculty. Between the cultural and economic factors that contribute to the current status and practice of nursing in Viet Nam and the lack of nurse educator role models, the nursing profession has many obstacles to overcome in their quest for increased autonomy. During the workshop, in addition to modelling interactive teaching methods as they taught the classroom and clinical content, these authors also demonstrated the level of knowledge expected of nurses in the USA. Despite much advance planning for this workshop, there were many challenges for the USA faculty. Some of the lessons learned which might help others included having a sense of humour, maintaining flexibility in teaching styles and content, being prepared for the cultural and religious influences on health care, and utilizing all of one's nursing skills to find creative solutions when teaching nursing in another country.

  17. Brain MR image segmentation using NAMS in pseudo-color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Chuanbo; Fang, Shaohong; Zhao, Shengrong

    2017-12-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in various biomedical applications. In general, the segmentation of brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is mainly used to represent the image with several homogeneous regions instead of pixels for surgical analyzing and planning. This paper proposes a new approach for segmenting MR brain images by using pseudo-color based segmentation with Non-symmetry and Anti-packing Model with Squares (NAMS). First of all, the NAMS model is presented. The model can represent the image with sub-patterns to keep the image content and largely reduce the data redundancy. Second, the key idea is proposed that convert the original gray-scale brain MR image into a pseudo-colored image and then segment the pseudo-colored image with NAMS model. The pseudo-colored image can enhance the color contrast in different tissues in brain MR images, which can improve the precision of segmentation as well as directly visual perceptional distinction. Experimental results indicate that compared with other brain MR image segmentation methods, the proposed NAMS based pseudo-color segmentation method performs more excellent in not only segmenting precisely but also saving storage.

  18. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les directeurs. Peter Boothroyd est directeur du Centre des établissements humains à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique, à Vancouver, au Canada. Pham Xuan Nam est professeur au Centre national des sciences sociales et humaines à Hanoi, au Vietnam. Il est aussi rédacteur en chef de la Vietnam Social Science ...

  19. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  20. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  1. Two Integrator Loop Filters: Generation Using NAM Expansion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC; six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.

  2. Phylogeography of recently emerged DENV-2 in southern Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia A Rabaa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.

  3. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  4. Walking the Line: Quality Assurance Policy Development and Implementation in Vi?t Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meggan

    2014-01-01

    Although Vi?t Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Vi?t Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education…

  5. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam: Hanoi et Hô Chi Minh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With an annual income of approximately $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. It has been repetitively devastated by armed conflicts and frequent large-scale natural disasters for over 50 years. Viet Nam's population is estimated to approximately 70 million, 80% of ...

  6. Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    ... Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Book cover Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Author(s):. K. Bezanson, J. Annerstedt, K. Chung, D. Hopper, G. Oldham, and F. Sagasti. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print. 160 pages. e-ISBN: 1552502848.

  7. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H.

    2003-08-01

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development

  8. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H

    2003-08-15

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development.

  9. My Folkloristic History of the Việt Nam War: A Non-communist Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Long S

    2015-01-01

    Like many families who were on the “wrong” side of the Việt Nam war, my family history has effectively been “displaced” from official discourse in Việt Nam when the country was “reunified” in 1975, as well as in the discourse of public history in the U.S. which has overwhelmingly emphasized the “lessons” of the “American Experience” in Việt Nam. Using my family history as an index of historical processes, I hope to introduce windows on the continuities of what noncommunist Vietnamese do and ...

  10. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess...... unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more...... common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months...

  11. South China sea off Viet Nam to see more exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    British and Japanese operators are posed for exploration campaigns off southern Viet Nam. This paper reports that a 50-50 partnership of Lasmo International Ltd., London, and C. Itoh Exploration Co. of Japan signed a heads of agreement covering Block 04-2, and AEDC Vietnam Oil Development Co. and Teikoku Oil Co. acquired Block 05-3 under a production sharing contract. AEDC is a unit of AOC Energy Development Co., a subsidiary of Arabian Oil Co. (AOC) of Japan. Both tracts are in the Con Son basin in the South China Sea. Site is 15 km north of 500 million bbl Dai Hung (Big Bear) oil field for which state owned Petrovietnam is evaluating bids to place on production. A unit of the Royal Dutch/shell Group acquired a west offset, Block 10, early this year. The Lasmo-C. Itoh acreage is among five blocks offered in Vietnam's second round of offshore licensing. All are in the area that once was reserved entirely for Vietsovpetro, a partnership of Petrovietnam and the former Soviet Union

  12. Family planning in Viet Nam: a vigorous approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, M T

    1994-01-01

    Viet Nam, a country in transition, is vigorously implementing its population and family planning policies and plans, despite the fact that increased government expenditure for family planning only amounts to some US $0.15 per capita, far short of the minimum $0.60 required. An increased range of family planning methods will be offered to the population through a "cafeteria" approach. Genital tract infections will be reduced, as well as the incidence of abortion. Research continues on injectable and implanted contraceptives, and the use of quinacrine nonsurgical female sterilization. In the long term, a mix of imported and locally-produced contraceptives is envisaged to achieve greater sustainability. Family planning will be closely linked to economic development and poverty alleviation, with mass organizations developing family planning-linked credit, savings and income generating schemes. Pilot experience has indicated value if integrated approach linking family planning, nutrition, and parasite control. The health manpower and health services systems are being overhauled, with plans to appoint family planning focal points at commune level, linked to mobile district teams and grassroots motivators. Medical equipment, contraceptives and essential drugs for family planning and reproductive health services are in short supply at an estimated 60% of commune health stations. Both the public sector and the growing private sector will need to face the challenge of providing the population with high-quality reproductive health services and family planning options suited to individual needs and preferences.

  13. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, M N T; Tiemersma, E W; Kremer, K; de Haas, P; Lan, N T N; Buu, T N; Sola, C; Cobelens, F G J; van Soolingen, D

    2013-11-01

    The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests. We quantified the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains lacking IS6110 in rural Viet Nam and studied their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Consecutively diagnosed adult TB patients in rural Southern Viet Nam submitted two sputum samples for culture, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) spoligotyping and 15-loci variable number tandem repeat typing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm the absence of IS6110 elements in strains lacking IS6110 hybridisation in RFLP. Among 2664 TB patient isolates examined, 109 (4.1%) had no IS6110 element. Compared to other strains, these no-copy strains were less often resistant to anti-tuberculosis drugs, particularly to streptomycin (adjusted OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5), and showed significant geographic variation. No associations with TB history or demographic factors were found. Strains without the IS6110 target pose a problem in Viet Nam as regards false-negative molecular TB diagnosis in PCR. Compared to other strains circulating in Viet Nam, no-copy strains are more susceptible to anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  14. Costs of providing tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, H V; Mai, V Q; Nhung, N V; Hoi, L V; Giang, K B; Chung, L H; Kien, V D; Duyen, N T; Ngoc, N B; Anh, T T; Phuong, T B; Ngan, T T; Khanh, P H

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the cost of providing tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment packages at different levels of health facilities in Viet Nam. This was a retrospective costing study from the providers' perspective using a standard costing approach. We included typical services for TB diagnosis and treatment based on standard protocols. The least expensive TB service was the 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy regimen for latent tuberculous infection provided by district health centres (US$7.20-14.30, accounting for 0.3-0.7% of Viet Nam's per capita gross domestic product [GDP] of US$2052.30 in 2014). The cost of diagnosing and treating a patient with drug-susceptible TB (the most common type of TB) ranged between US$51.20 and US$180.70, and represented 2.5-8.8% of Viet Nam's per capita GDP in 2014. The most expensive TB service was the diagnosis and treatment of a multidrug-resistant TB case (US$1568.20-2391.20), accounting for 76.4-116.5% of Viet Nam's per capita GDP in 2014). The cost of TB diagnosis and treatment services in Viet Nam varied according to level of health facility, type of TB, different costing options, and different staff cost scenarios.

  15. Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and precipitation of the Nam Co region, central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Sun, Junying; Kang, Shichang; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    A continuous air and precipitation sampling for carbonaceous particles was conducted in a field observatory beside Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau during July of 2006 through January of 2007. Organic carbon (OC) was the dominant composition of the carbonaceous particles both in the atmosphere (1660 ng/m3) and precipitation (476 ng/g) in this area, while the average elemental carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and precipitation were only 82 ng/m3 and 8 ng/g, respectively. Very high OC/BC ratio suggested local secondary organic carbon could be a dominant contribution to OC over the Nam Co region, while BC could be mainly originated from Southern Asia, as indicated by trajectory analysis and aerosol optical depth. Comparison between the BC concentrations measured in Lhasa, those at "Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P)" site on the southern slope of the Himalayas, and Nam Co suggested BC in the Nam Co region reflected a background with weak anthropogenic disturbances and the emissions from Lhasa might have little impact on the atmospheric environment here, while the pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Basin of Southern Asia could be transported to the Nam Co region by both the summer monsoon and the westerly.

  16. My Folkloristic History of the Việt Nam War: A Non-communist Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long S. Le

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like many families who were on the “wrong” side of the Việt Nam war, my family history has effectively been “displaced” from official discourse in Việt Nam when the country was “reunified” in 1975, as well as in the discourse of public history in the U.S. which has overwhelmingly emphasized the “lessons” of the “American Experience” in Việt Nam. Using my family history as an index of historical processes, I hope to introduce windows on the continuities of what noncommunist Vietnamese do and think. My family folklore is utilized as a way to create opportunities for other non-communist Vietnamese here and elsewhere to connect, articulate, or remind them of a pattern from the past that can provide a contemporary coherence with an ethic workable for the future.

  17. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Practice, Oxford University Press. Flifel, Kaouther., (2012), Financial Markets between Efficiency and. Persistence : Empirical Evidence on Daily Data, Asian Journal of. Finance and Accounting. Huy, Dinh T.N., (2013), Estimating Beta of Viet Nam Listed Public Utilities,. Natural Gas and Oil Company Groups During and After ...

  18. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M. N. T.; Tiemersma, E. W.; Kremer, K.; de Haas, P.; Lan, N. T. N.; Buu, T. N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; van Soolingen, D.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests.

  19. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Kremer, K.; Haas, P. de; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F.G.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    SETTING: The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular

  20. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative

  1. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  2. Viet Nam : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Autonomisation des femmes au moyen de lieux de travail humains : Ateliers de confection en Asie du SudEst. Project. En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, ... Sujet: MALNUTRITION, INTERVIEWS. Région: Thailand, Viet Nam. Programme: Agriculture and Food Security. Financement ...

  3. A contextual ICA stakeholder model approach for the Namibian spatial data infrastructure (NamSDI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinvula, KM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available , the International Cartographic Association (ICA) model was used to identify the stakeholders in and around NamSDI, which is still at the infancy stage of development. The application of a high-level ICA model proved to be relevant and useful in discriminating...

  4. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics

  5. Reliability analysis of the Red River dikes system in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Quang, T.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the applications of probabilistic-based frameworks in geotechnical and hydraulic engineering, for the assessment of the Red River dikes in Viet Nam. Dike along rivers often spread over the deltaic environment and its earthen structures are parts of a long civilian history,

  6. Assessing the peel colour behaviour of mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' during cool storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' recently became the number-one exported mango of Thailand. It has an attractive appearance, with a golden-yellow peel colour at harvest and slight colour development during ripening. Its peel colour could possibly be used as an indicator for ripeness. Assessing the

  7. Viet Nam - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Doan Phac; Nguyen Tien Nguyen; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Huu Thanh; Nguyen Anh Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The Government of Viet Nam has recently formulated a national energy programme entitled Strategy and Policy of Sustainable Energy Development. Its aim is to define a development policy for the country for the period from 2000 to 2020. The main objectives of the national energy programme are: 1. Increasing energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) 2. Expanding rural electrification 3. Defining an energy price policy (e.g. pricing such that revenues cover costs) 4. Minimizing environmental impacts 5. Encouraging private investment in the energy and electricity sectors 6. Energy supply security 7. Diversifying energy sources, and 8. Exploring the potential role of nuclear power in Viet Nam. In formulating this programme, one of the objectives has been to minimize environmental impacts, including those caused by the electricity sector. Nevertheless, the shortage of investment capital in Viet Nam and the difficulty of securing favourable financial arrangements are crucial obstacles to the introduction of new technology options to mitigate GHG emissions. Viet Nam views CDM as an opportunity to find ways to overcome such problems and expects that all GHG mitigating technologies will be considered equally under the CDM

  8. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emerging stock market in Viet Nam has been developed since 2006 and was affected by the financial crisis 2007-2009. This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail industry as it becomes necessary. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods to ...

  9. Cooperative learning vs confucian heritage culture's collectivism. The analysis in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, A.

    2005-01-01

    Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC) such as Viet Nam, China, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore are proven to share characteristics of Collectivist society. Researchers agree that this collectivist mentality supports cooperation, that CHC’s learners/workers best perform in groups. Not satisfied

  10. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  11. Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Aaron; Passmore, Jonathon; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Nguyen, Thi Hong Tu; Nguyen, Phuong Nam

    2009-05-01

    To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and chi2 was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90-99% among adults, from 15-53% among children 7 but helmet. Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions.

  12. Climate change and development responses on agriculture in Quang Nam Province Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2011-01-01

    , forestry and aquaculture and consequently different kinds of adaptations have been introduced. We wanted to study the development in agriculture in order to scrutinize if climate events had major impacts on productivity of the three sectors. An overview of agricultural changes was provided through...... statistics and interviews and important climate impacts and adaptations were identified and assessed. An energy flow method was used to describe the agricultural situation. During the last decade the study showed that farmers in the agricultural field had increased the productivity and they performed strong...... to document the influence of climate change on the agriculture of Quang Nam. Administratively, agriculture in Quang Nam includes the three sectors: farming, forestry and aquaculture. From interviews we found that many Vietnamese authorities and farmers were convinced that today climate changes impact farming...

  13. Health and access to health services of rural-to-urban migrant populations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2013-01-01

    Viet Nam has increasing internal migration since the Renovation (Doi Moi) in 1986. Migration flows – particularly rural-to-urban migration – have positive and negative effects to migrants, their family, and socio-economics in their places of origin and of destination. On the one hand, migration is an opportunity for improving wages of migrants, for ensuring economic security of their family, and for contributing to social and economic developments of the country. On the other hand, migration ...

  14. The association of estimated salt intake with blood pressure in a Viet Nam national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Paul N.; Bao, Tran Quoc; Huong, Tran Thi Thanh; Heckbert, Susan R.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; LoGerfo, James P.; Ngoc, Truong Le Van; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. Design and setting Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25–65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was e...

  15. Oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses: surveillance in northern Viet Nam, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiviral resistance has been reported in seasonal influenza A viruses and avian influenza A(H5N1 viruses in Viet Nam, raising concerns about the efficacy of treatment. Methods: We analysed specimens from two sources during the period 2009–2012: influenza-positive samples from influenza-like illness patients at sentinel clinics in northern Viet Nam and isolates from patients with confirmed A(H5N1 infections. Pyrosequencing was used to detect mutations: H275Y [for A(H1N1 and A(H5N1], E119V [for A(H3N2] and I117V [for A(H5N1]. A neuraminidase inhibition assay was used to determine the Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50 values for all influenza A and B isolates. Results: There were 341 influenza A positive samples identified; influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was identified most frequently (n = 215. In 2009, oseltamivir resistance was observed in 100% (19 of 19 of seasonal A(H1N1 isolates and 1.4% (3/215 of A(H1N1pdm09 isolates. This H275Y mutation was not found in influenza subtypes A(H5N1 or A(H3N2 isolates. Discussion: In Viet Nam, seasonal and A(H5N1 influenza vaccines are not currently available; thus, effective treatment is required. The presence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses is therefore a concern. Active surveillance for oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses circulating in Viet Nam should be continued.

  16. Criteria for prioritization of HIV programs in Viet Nam: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Pavlova, Milena; Son, Vo Hai; Phuong, Huynh Lan; Groot, Wim

    2017-11-13

    With the decline in funding for Viet Nam's response to the HIV epidemic, there is a need for evidence on the criteria to guide the prioritization of HIV programs. There is a gap in the research on the relative importance of multiple criteria for prioritizing a package of interventions. This study elicits preferences and the trade-offs made between different HIV programs by relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in Viet Nam. It also pays attention to how differences in social and professional characteristics of stakeholders and their agency affiliations shape preferences for HIV program criteria in Viet Nam. This study uses self-explicated ranking and discrete choice experiments to determine the relative importance of five criteria - effectiveness, feasibility, cost-effectiveness, rate of investment and prevention/treatment investment ratio - to stakeholders when they evaluate and select hypothetical HIV programs. The study includes 69 participants from government, civil society, and international development partners. Results of the discrete choice experiment show that overall the feasibility criterion is ranked highest in importance to the participants when choosing a hypothetical HIV program, followed by sustainability, treatment to prevention spending ratio, and effectiveness. The participant's work in management, programming, or decision-making has a significant effect on the importance of some criteria to the participant. In the self-explicated ranking effectiveness is the most important criterion and the cost-effectiveness criterion ranks low in importance across all groups. This study has shown that the preferred HIV program in Viet Nam is feasible, front-loaded for sustainability, has a higher proportion of investment on prevention, saves more lives and prevents more infections. Similarities in government and civil society rankings of criteria can create common grounds for future policy dialogues between stakeholders. Innovative models of planning should

  17. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  18. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Tan, Le Van; Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E; Holmes, Edward C; Van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71

  19. Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kinh Van; Thi Do, Nga Thuy; Chandna, Arjun; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Pham, Ca Van; Doan, Phuong Mai; Nguyen, An Quoc; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Larsson, Mattias; Escalante, Socorro; Olowokure, Babatunde; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Gelband, Hellen; Horby, Peter; Thi Ngo, Ha Bich; Hoang, Mai Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2013-12-10

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions.Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Our working group conducted a situation analysis of the current patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in Viet Nam. International publications and local reports published between 1-1-1990 and 31-8-2012 were reviewed. All stakeholders analyzed the findings at a policy workshop and feasible recommendations were suggested to improve antibiotic use in Viet Nam.Here we report the results of our situation analysis focusing on: the healthcare system, drug regulation and supply; antibiotic resistance and infection control; and agricultural antibiotic use. Market reforms have improved healthcare access in Viet Nam and contributed to better health outcomes. However, increased accessibility has been accompanied by injudicious antibiotic use in hospitals and the community, with predictable escalation in bacterial resistance. Prescribing practices are poor and self-medication is common - often being the most affordable way to access healthcare. Many policies exist to regulate antibiotic use but enforcement is insufficient or lacking.Pneumococcal penicillin-resistance rates are the highest in Asia and carbapenem-resistant bacteria (notably NDM-1) have recently emerged. Hospital acquired infections, predominantly with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms, place additional strain on

  20. Potent L-lactic acid assimilation of the fermentative and heterothallic haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a lifelong learning society through reading promotion: Opportunities and challenges for libraries and community learning centres in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-04-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day" - a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its importance for the development of knowledge and skills. Viet Nam also aims to implement lifelong learning (LLL) activities in libraries, museums, cultural centres and clubs. The government of Viet Nam currently operates more than 11,900 Community Learning Centres (CLCs) and is in the process of both renovating and innovating public libraries and museums throughout the country. In addition to the work undertaken by the Viet Nam government, a number of enterprises have been initiated by non-governmental organisations and non-profit organisations to promote literacy and lifelong learning. This paper investigates some government initiatives focused on libraries and CLCs and their impact on reading promotion. Proposing a way forward, the paper confirms that Viet Nam's libraries and CLCs play an essential role in promoting reading and building a LLL Society.

  2. RapidNAM: generative manufacturing approach of nasoalveolar molding devices for presurgical cleft lip and palate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz Xaver; Schönberger, Markus; Gattinger, Johannes; Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich; Rau, Andrea; Güll, Florian Dieter; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2017-08-28

    Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) is an accepted treatment strategy in presurgical cleft therapy. The major drawbacks of the treatment listed in the literature relate to the time of the treatment and the coordination of the required interdisciplinary team of therapists, parents, and patients. To overcome these limitations, we present the automated RapidNAM concept that facilitates the design and manufacturing process of NAM devices, and that allows the virtual modification and subsequent manufacture of the devices in advance, with a growth prediction factor adapted to the patient's natural growth. The RapidNAM concept involves (i) the prediction of three trajectories that envelope the fragmented alveolar segments with the goal to mimic a harmonic arch, (ii) the extrusion from the larger toward the smaller alveolar segment along the envelope curves toward the harmonic upper alveolar arch, and (iii) the generation of the NAM device with a ventilation hole, fixation pin, and fixation points for the nasal stents. A feasibility study for a vector-based approach was successfully conducted for unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. A comparison of the modified target models with the reference target models showed similar results. For further improvement, the number of landmarks used to modify the models was increased by a curve-based approach.

  3. The association of estimated salt intake with blood pressure in a Viet Nam national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul N; Bao, Tran Quoc; Huong, Tran Thi Thanh; Heckbert, Susan R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; LoGerfo, James P; Ngoc, Truong Le Van; Mokdad, Ali H

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25-65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was estimated from fasting mid-morning spot urine samples. Associations of salt consumption with systolic blood pressure and prevalent hypertension were assessed using adjusted linear and generalized linear models. Interaction terms were tested to assess differences by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and rural/urban status. The analysis included 2,333 participants (mean age: 37 years, 46% male, 33% urban). The average estimated salt consumption was 10g/day. No associations of salt consumption with blood pressure or prevalent hypertension were observed at a national scale in men or women. The associations did not differ in subgroups defined by age, smoking, or alcohol consumption; however, associations differed between urban and rural participants (p-value for interaction of urban/rural status with salt consumption, p = 0.02), suggesting that higher salt consumption may be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in urban residents but lower systolic blood pressure in rural residents. Although there was no evidence of an association at a national level, associations of salt consumption with blood pressure differed between urban and rural residents in Viet Nam. The reasons for this differential association are not clear, and given the large rate of rural to urban migration experienced in Viet Nam, this topic warrants further investigation.

  4. The association of estimated salt intake with blood pressure in a Viet Nam national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Jensen

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption.Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25-65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was estimated from fasting mid-morning spot urine samples. Associations of salt consumption with systolic blood pressure and prevalent hypertension were assessed using adjusted linear and generalized linear models. Interaction terms were tested to assess differences by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and rural/urban status.The analysis included 2,333 participants (mean age: 37 years, 46% male, 33% urban. The average estimated salt consumption was 10g/day. No associations of salt consumption with blood pressure or prevalent hypertension were observed at a national scale in men or women. The associations did not differ in subgroups defined by age, smoking, or alcohol consumption; however, associations differed between urban and rural participants (p-value for interaction of urban/rural status with salt consumption, p = 0.02, suggesting that higher salt consumption may be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in urban residents but lower systolic blood pressure in rural residents.Although there was no evidence of an association at a national level, associations of salt consumption with blood pressure differed between urban and rural residents in Viet Nam. The reasons for this differential association are not clear, and given the large rate of rural to urban migration experienced in Viet Nam, this topic warrants further investigation.

  5. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; pa predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; pa' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.

  6. El inefable sendero del budismo zen electrónico: Nam June Paik

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-01-01

    Nam June Paik conoce en 1958 en Alemania al músico vanguardista John Cage, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Este compositor norteamericano no sólo convencerá al artista coreano para que oriente su carrera musical hacia la vanguardia, sino que impulsará su interés por el budismo zen. También, su temprana unión con Beuys, Maciunas y otros artistas del movimiento Fluxus le dieron la necesaria libertad para introducirse en el arte más experimental desde principios de los a...

  7. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml-1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml-1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  8. Water Isotope framework for lake water balance monitoring and modelling in the Nam Co Basin, Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Kang

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus typing from foot-and-mouth outbreaks in the central provinces of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Luong Hien

    2000-01-01

    A total of 167 tissue samples were collected from Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected animals from 57 FMD outbreaks to detect the sero-type of the FMD virus by the ELISA technique. The ELISA kit has been prepared and standardised by the World Reference Laboratory (WRL), UK and supplied under a Research Contract as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project. Eight tissue samples from cattle and one tissue sample from pig were sent to WRL for further study on the sero-type and to characterize the FMD viruses present in Viet Nam. The study was carried out from March 1996 to May 1998 in the central region of Viet Nam and the FMD type O virus was detected in these outbreaks only. The FMD type O virus from cattle and the FMD type O virus from pig are two distinct FMD type O viruses in Viet Nam. (author)

  10. Drug profiling: a new scientific contribution to law enforcement operations in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H M; Tien, N D; Truong, N X

    2005-01-01

    Since 1995 heroin sample comparisons have been carried out in Viet Nam to establish links between wholesalers and retailers. To that end, the physical and chemical characteristics of samples are analysed: their colour, the packaging material, including fingerprints, diacetylmorphine (heroin) content and the composition of some main alkaloids. At the beginning of 2002, having acquired expertise on impurity profiling and with the support of new instruments, the Institute of Forensic Sciences of Viet Nam introduced the routine impurity profiling of seized heroin and methamphetamine and later undertook to explain that process to national law enforcement bodies. Since then, 375 heroin and 29 methamphetamine samples have been analysed for major and minor impurities. Substances detected in the analysis of illicit heroin include diacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, 06-monoacetylmorphine and acetylcodeine as well as adulterants such as paracetamol and caffeine. Since methamphetamine impurity profiling began, 29 samples have so far been analysed, and some samples have been grouped through the application of cluster analysis. In the case of heroin, impurity profiling has established a link between two major trafficking groups suspected of obtaining heroin from the same source of production. Analysis has also revealed a link between one wholesaler and several retailers in one region. In addition, impurity profiling provides new information on the preparation and production of some methamphetamine and fake Ecstasy tablets.

  11. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  12. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  13. No evidence for ideological asymmetry in dissonance avoidance : Unsuccessful close and conceptual replications of Nam, Jost, and van Bavel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Timothy P.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Brandt, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Nam, Jost, and van Bavel (2013) found that conservatives were more likely than liberals to avoid dissonance-arousing situations (viz., writing counter-attitudinal essays in a high-choice situation). A close replication of this original research was unsuccessful, as both liberals and conservatives

  14. A Self-Sustained Education System for a Developing Country: The Case of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dien Ngoc

    Viet Nam's average annual population growth rate is 2.6%, which accounts for a large youth population: 37.7% of the total population is under age 15, compared with an average of 20% in developed or newly industrialized countries. A free basic education for all children is almost impossible to provide. With consideration of the Vietnamese people's…

  15. Towards a Lifelong Learning Society through Reading Promotion: Opportunities and Challenges for Libraries and Community Learning Centres in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…

  16. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dunford

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective

  17. Basin classification and tectonic framework of the Nam Pat Group, Uttaradit Province, Thailand: Implications for the Nan Suture Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsada Moonpa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nam Pat Group of the Nam Pat Basin, Uttaradit Province, Thailand is situated in the Nan Suture Zone. Two contrasting tectonic framework models of the Nan Suture have previously been proposed: as a main Paleo-Tethyan suture and as a remnant of a closed back-arc basin. The goal of this study is to analyze the tectonic framework of the Nan Suture and reevaluate the existing tectonic models. This research infers the tectonic setting of the basin based on basin-filled lithofacies distributions, provenance, and paleocurrents. Three facies groups are identified. Facies A, B, and C are polymictic conglomerate, interbedded sandstone and mudstone, and mudstone with thin-bedded sandstone, respectively. Generally, the strata strike NE-SW, steeply dip NW, and fine toward the SE. Petrographic results of sandstone samples show that the majority of lithic fragments are volcanic rocks with lesser amount of metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. The modal compositions of sandstones are analyzed on QFL, QmFLt, QmPK, LmLvLs, and QpLvmLsm ternary diagrams. The plots indicate that the sandstones of the Nam Pat Group have high proportions of volcanic-arc detritus. Paleocurrents, determined from the orientation of clast imbrications and cross-stratification, are toward the SE. The results suggest that large quantities of sediment traveled southeastward from a nearby volcanic arc into the basin. The Nam Pat Group stratigraphically overlies the Pak Pat Volcanics. The chemical features of the Pak Pat Volcanics, located to the west of the basin, show that they are andesitic volcanic rocks formed as a magmatic arc. Thus, the nearby Pak Pat Volcanics are the main sediment source of the Nam Pat Group, and the basin is best interpreted as back-arc basin rather than as a forearc basin.

  18. Basin classification and tectonic framework of the Nam Pat Group, Uttaradit Province, Thailand: Implications for the Nan Suture Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonpa, Kritsada; Motanated, Kannipa

    2018-01-01

    The Nam Pat Group of the Nam Pat Basin, Uttaradit Province, Thailand is situated in the Nan Suture Zone. Two contrasting tectonic framework models of the Nan Suture have previously been proposed: as a main Paleo-Tethyan suture and as a remnant of a closed back-arc basin. The goal of this study is to analyze the tectonic framework of the Nan Suture and reevaluate the existing tectonic models. This research infers the tectonic setting of the basin based on basin-filled lithofacies distributions, provenance, and paleocurrents. Three facies groups are identified. Facies A, B, and C are polymictic conglomerate, interbedded sandstone and mudstone, and mudstone with thin-bedded sandstone, respectively. Generally, the strata strike NE-SW, steeply dip NW, and fine toward the SE. Petrographic results of sandstone samples show that the majority of lithic fragments are volcanic rocks with lesser amount of metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. The modal compositions of sandstones are analyzed on QFL, QmFLt, QmPK, LmLvLs, and QpLvmLsm ternary diagrams. The plots indicate that the sandstones of the Nam Pat Group have high proportions of volcanic-arc detritus. Paleocurrents, determined from the orientation of clast imbrications and cross-stratification, are toward the SE. The results suggest that large quantities of sediment traveled southeastward from a nearby volcanic arc into the basin. The Nam Pat Group stratigraphically overlies the Pak Pat Volcanics. The chemical features of the Pak Pat Volcanics, located to the west of the basin, show that they are andesitic volcanic rocks formed as a magmatic arc. Thus, the nearby Pak Pat Volcanics are the main sediment source of the Nam Pat Group, and the basin is best interpreted as back-arc basin rather than as a forearc basin.

  19. Private standards and labour productivity in the food sector in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    A rising number of firms from developing countries have adopted voluntary private standards in the last decade. This has become an area of active research, especially in terms of the impact of private standards on trade, organizational performance, and employee outcomes. This paper analyses how...... standards affect labour productivity of small and medium firms from the food sector in Viet Nam. The results based on a 3-year panel show that the application of private standards improves labour productivity. These gains primarily occur to firms operating above a threshold labour-intensity level. Firms...... with low labour intensity are not likely to experience gains in labour productivity from standards. This implies that employee compensation increase due to standards is a likely mechanism for labour productivity gains. The results are robust to several specification changes and instrumental variable...

  20. On stable ground: Tackling soil erosion with nuclear techniques in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Dao Thanh Canh never studied physics or chemistry in school, but he understands a thing or two about nuclear isotopes. Until a couple of years ago, much of his five acre farm on the hills of central Viet Nam was gradually sliding away. Thanks to nuclear techniques used in determining the exact cause and source of soil erosion, his land is now stable, and his coffee plantation profitable. “We were very worried as uncertainty loomed,” he said. “A few centimetres of the soil disappeared every year when we had big hail storms.” Thanh Canh is not alone. Soil degradation affects 1.9 billion hectares of land worldwide, close to two thirds of global soil resources.

  1. Skin disease among farmers using wastewater in rice cultivation in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Thuy Trang; van der Hoek, Wim; Nguyen, Dang Tuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of skin disease among farmers occupationally exposed to wastewater. METHODS: One-year follow-up study with monthly assessments of wastewater exposure and skin disease in Nam Dinh, northern Vietnam, in two adjacent communes with contrasting levels of wastewater use....... In each commune, 200 households were randomly selected. RESULTS: Of the 1103 individuals aged > or =15 years, 381 reported a skin problem at baseline or at any of the monthly visits, primarily dermatitis (eczema) and superficial fungal infections. Among the 874 subjects who were free from skin disease...... at baseline and who could be followed up > or =11 months, 183 developed a new skin disease (cumulative incidence 21%). Exposure to wastewater was a major risk factor for skin disease with a relative risk (RR) of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.57] in multivariable analysis. Other risk factors...

  2. Foreign Direct Investment and the Survival of Domestic Private Firms in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Thang, Tran Toan

    2014-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) may benefit local firms in the host country through various kinds of spillovers, but it may also raise competition and result in the crowding out of domestic firms. Using detailed firm-level data for the period 2001–2008, this paper examines the aggregate effect...... of FDI on the survival of domestic private firms in Viet Nam. We estimate the impact of both horizontal and vertical FDI and explore how the presence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) influences the exit hazard for private firms. The results suggest that horizontal and upstream FDI raise the exit hazard...... significantly, while downstream FDI may reduce the hazard. The presence of SOEs has a direct negative effect on the survival odds of local private firms in the same industry, but there is also an indirect impact on the exit hazard from FDI. Local firms are more vulnerable to foreign entry in sectors with high...

  3. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... (artisanal) vessels and a few large (industrial) vessels. The methodology is the "sample-based approach" - the manual does not deal with a methodology that assumes complete enumeration. The data collection methodology presented attempts to utilize whatever information can be obtained in practice......This manual deals with the practical implementation of a routine data collection programme. This programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery. The issues are dealt...

  4. EIA models and capacity building in Viet Nam: an analysis of development aid programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doberstein, Brent

    2004-01-01

    There has been a decided lack of empirical research examining development aid agencies as 'agents of change' in environmental impact assessment (EIA) systems in developing countries, particularly research examining the model of environmental planning practice promoted by aid agencies as part of capacity building. This paper briefly traces a conceptual framework of EIA, then introduces the concept of 'EIA capacity building'. Using Viet Nam as a case study, the paper then outlines the empirical results of the research, focusing on the extent to which aid agency capacity-building programs promoted a Technical vs. Planning Model of EIA and on the coherence of capacity-building efforts across all aid programs. A discussion follows, where research results are interpreted within the Vietnamese context, and implications of research results are identified for three main groups of actors. The paper concludes by calling for development aid agencies to reconceptualise EIA capacity building as an opportunity to transform developing countries' development planning processes

  5. The online measured black carbon aerosol and source orientations in the Nam Co region, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai

    2017-11-01

    Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m 3 , reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m 3 ) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.

  6. La sexualidad en adolescentes de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" Sexuality of adolescent students in "Viet Nam" junior high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Puentes Rizo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad existe en los adolescentes una temprana iniciación de las relaciones sexuales y cambios en la actitud social hacia la sexualidad. Objetivo: identificar las particularidades y conocimientos sobre sexualidad en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en adolescentes entre los 12 y 15 años, de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, durante los años 2009-2010. El universo estuvo constituido por 296 estudiantes y la muestra por 150, seleccionados mediante sorteo hasta completar 50 estudiantes de cada año. La información se obtuvo de una encuesta validada por el Ministerio de Educación. Todos los seleccionados expresaron su consentimiento para participar en la investigación. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino y los adolescentes de 15 años. El inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue a los 14 años en los muchachos y a los 15 en las muchachas; 72 (56,69 % adolescentes utilizaron el condón en su "primera vez". Las principales vías de obtención de información fueron los padres, profesores y la información televisiva. Hubo mayor conocimiento sobre VIH-sida, gonorrea y sífilis y menor sobre, herpes simple y clamidia. El condón resultó ser el método anticonceptivo más conocido. Conclusiones: hay un inicio precoz en las relaciones sexuales y poco conocimiento acerca de los métodos anticonceptivos biológicos o naturales, lo que pudiera estar indicando la importancia que tiene la familia, sobre todo los padres, los profesores y médicos de familia, en incrementar y mantener la labor educativa con los jóvenes en relación con la sexualidad.Introduction: there exists an early onset of sexual relations in adolescents at present, together with changes in the social attitude towards sexuality. Objective: to identify the particularities of and the knowledge on sexuality in adolescents. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive research study was

  7. Enterovirus D68 in Viet Nam (2009-2015 [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Han Ny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Methods: Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR. The included samples were derived from 3 different observational studies conducted at referral hospitals across central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out using a MiSeq based approach. Phylogenetic reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary rate and recombination were carried out in BEAST and Recombination Detection Program, respectively. Results: EV-D68 was detected in 21/625 (3.4% enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory samples but in none of the 15 CSF. All the EV-D68 patients were young children (age range: 11.8 – 24.5 months and had moderate respiratory infections. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Vietnamese sequences clustered with those from Asian countries, of which 9 fell in the B1 clade, and the remaining sequence was identified within the A2 clade. One intra sub-clade recombination event was detected, representing the second reported recombination within EV-D68. The evolutionary rate of EV-D68 was estimated to be 5.12E-3 substitutions/site/year. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was imported into Viet Nam in 2008. Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time EV-D68 has been circulating at low levels in Viet Nam since 2008, associated with moderate acute respiratory infection in children. EV-D68 in Viet Nam is most closely related to Asian viruses, and clusters

  8. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Cong Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  9. The effects of minimum wage hikes on employment and wages in Viet Nam's micro, small, and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, Phan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about the extent to which wage and employment offsetting behaviours change by firm size to mitigate the detrimental effects of minimum wage regulation. Do micro establishments react more aggressively to minimum wage shocks compared to small and medium establishments? To answer this question, this paper examines the impact of minimum wage hikes on employment and wages in Viet Nam's micro enterprises, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), respectively. In particular, I e...

  10. Back to the roots? Namíbia, Não!, de Aldri Anunciação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Thorau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the “black comedy” Namíbia, Não!, by the young playwright Aldri Annunciation, from Bahia, elaborates the last consequences of the famous Brazilian racial democracy and of the human rights, and how it goes until the limits of the “politically correct” post-colonialist discourse in Brazil of the XXI century.

  11. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach; La, Buoi thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Findings Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20–34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19–3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05–10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44–7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Conclusion Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential

  12. Worlds Apart: Nam Le’s The Boat and Ali Alizadeh’s Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Brown

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reads Ali Alizadeh’s transnational book of short stories (Transactions, 2013 as a curious and pointed response to the kind of literary internationalism seen in Nam Le’s The Boat (2008. Le’s work was first published in the same year as Alizadeh’s The New Angel (which was set during the Iranian revolution. There is a sense in which the spectacular success of Le’s book ‘overshadowed’ the publicity for Alizadeh’s novel in the year of its arrival. But Le’s also work contains a story about an American woman visiting Tehran, and his mimicry perhaps signifies a more problematic representational point of comparison. With this in mind, this paper examines Alizadeh’s Transactions exploring the ways in which Alizadeh’s brutally connected global vision is coded through certain aesthetic choices (including structural, tonal and descriptive that offer something very different to the artisanal and paratactic sensibility of The Boat.

  13. Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam [15 April 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-13

    This document reprints Viet Nam's 1992 Constitution, which "stipulates the political, economic, cultural, social, national defense, and security systems; the basic rights and duties of citizens; and the structure and the organizational and operational principles of various state agencies. It institutionalizes the system of relations by which the party is the leader, the people the master, and the state the manager." The first chapter outlines the country's political system, and chapter 2 describes the economic system. Chapter 3 deals with culture, education, science, and technology; while the fourth chapter covers national defense. Chapter 5 sets forth the fundamental rights and duties of citizens and provides that all human rights are respected and that citizens are equal before the law. Citizens also have the right to education and to health care, and discrimination against women is forbidden while pay equity is assured. This chapter also describes families as the "cells of society" and affords state protection to marriage and families while setting reciprocal standards of care for children and parents. Chapter 6 describes the duties and powers of the National Assembly, and chapter 7 those of the president of the state. Chapter 8 describes the role of the governments the executive organ of the National Assembly, and the ninth chapter details the work of People's Councils and People's Committees. Chapter 10 sets up the People's Courts and the People's Organs of Control, while the final chapter explains the legal force of the constitution and the amendment process.

  14. Adapting the Melon Production Model to Climate Change in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo, AT.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  15. Co-existence of Paragonimus harinasutai and Paragonimus bangkokensis metacercariae in fresh water crab hosts in central Viet Nam with special emphasis on their close phylogenetic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Hien, Hoang Van; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-09-01

    During our epidemiological surveys for Paragonimus species in central Viet Nam, we found four morphologically different Paragonimus metacercariae in mountainous crabs. They were identified as metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani, P. bangkokensis, P. proliferus, and P. harinasutai in the order of their prevalence in crab hosts. This is the first discovery of P. harinasutai in Viet Nam, co-inhabiting with P. bangkokensis and other species. Metacercariae of P. harinasutai were given orally to a cat to obtain adult worms. Then, ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adults of P. harinasutai, and metacercariae of P. bangkokensis collected from the same place were determined for analyses of phylogenetic relationships to other P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis populations as well as related species. The results of molecular analyses showed that P. harinasutai from Quang Binh province of central Viet Nam was almost completely identical with those from Vientiane, Lao PDR; P. bangkokensis from Quang Binh, Viet Nam was also almost completely identical with those from Lao PDR and from Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam. Except for one P. harinasutai isolate from China, all populations of P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis from Thailand, Lao and Viet Nam make a single clade in both ITS2 and CO1 trees. In ITS2 sequences, AT deletion and ATC insertion were observed in some isolates of both species, indicating recent gene flow between P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis. Moreover, because of their extremely high genetic similarities and their co-inhabitation in the same crab hosts found in Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, they should be considered as the sister species at the early stage of divergence. In addition, P. microrchis previously described from Yunnan, China should be placed as the synonym of P. harinasutai, because of their morphological and molecular similarities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  17. Effect of land use change on water discharge in Srepok watershed, Central Highland, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.

  18. Breeding for high N2 fixation in groundnut and soybean in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Xuan Hong

    1998-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Mer.) are grown mainly on two types of soil in Viet Nam: coastal-sandy and upland-degraded soils. These soils are deficient in N, and considering that fertilizer N is not only costly to farmers but also a threat to the environment, it is important to maximize productivity by exploiting the ability of these legumes to fix N 2 symbiotically in their root nodules. We initiated programmes of breeding and selection to combine high N 2 fixation and high grain-yielding capacity. In the spring of 1992, breeding lines of groundnut and soybean were tested under greenhouse conditions for varietal differences in the capacity to fix N 2 using the acetylene reduction assay and the 15 N-dilution technique, with upland rice as reference plants. Varietal differences were found in nitrogenase activity, and percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) ranged from 11 to 63% for groundnut and from 9 to 79% for soybean. Field experiments in the autumn-winter season of 1992 again revealed significant varietal differences; %Ndfa ranged from 36 to 56% for groundnut and from 28 to 58% for soybean. Gamma-irradiated seeds of soybean were propagated in bulk from M 1 to M 4 . Five high-yielding mutant lines of both species were selected from the M 5 populations, and N 2 fixation was estimated using the 15 N-dilution technique. The average values for %Ndfa of the mutants were 55 and 57%, significant improvements over the parent-cultivar values of 25 and 29% for soybean and groundnut, respectively

  19. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong Cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  20. Immunological and viral determinants of dengue severity in hospitalized adults in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the infecting dengue serotype, primary and secondary infection, viremia and dengue severity remain unclear. This cross-sectional study examined these interactions in adult patients hospitalized with dengue in Ha Noi.158 patients were enrolled between September 16 and November 11, 2008. Quantitative RT-PCR, serology and NS1 detection were used to confirm dengue infection, determine the serotype and plasma viral RNA concentration, and categorize infections as primary or secondary. 130 (82% were laboratory confirmed. Serology was consistent with primary and secondary infection in 34% and 61%, respectively. The infecting serotype was DENV-1 in 42 (32%, DENV-2 in 39 (30% and unknown in 49 (38%. Secondary infection was more common in DENV-2 infections (79% compared to DENV-1 (36%, p<0.001. The proportion that developed dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF was 32% for secondary infection compared to 18% for primary infection (p = 0.14, and 26% for DENV-1 compared to 28% for DENV-2. The time until NS1 and plasma viral RNA were undetectable was shorter for DENV-2 compared to DENV-1 (p≤0.001 and plasma viral RNA concentration on day 5 was higher for DENV-1 (p = 0.03. Plasma viral RNA concentration was higher in secondary infection on day 5 of illness (p = 0.046. We didn't find an association between plasma viral RNA concentration and clinical severity.Dengue is emerging as a major public health problem in Ha Noi. DENV-1 and DENV-2 were the prevalent serotypes with similar numbers and clinical presentation. Secondary infection may be more common amongst DENV-2 than DENV-1 infections because DENV-2 infections resulted in lower plasma viral RNA concentrations and viral RNA concentrations were higher in secondary infection. The drivers of dengue emergence in northern Viet Nam need to be elucidated and public health measures instituted.

  1. Collaborative GIS for flood susceptibility mapping: An example from Mekong river basin of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in Vietnam. Floods have caused serious damages to people and made adverse impact on social economic development across the country, especially in lower river basin where there is high risk of flooding as consequences of the climate change and social activities. This paper presents a collaborative platform of a combination of an interactive web-GIS framework and a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) tool. MCE is carried out in server side through web interface, in which parameters used for evaluation are groups into three major categories, including (1) climatic factor: precipitation, typhoon frequency, temperature, humidity (2) physiographic data: DEM, topographic wetness index, NDVI, stream power index, soil texture, distance to river (3) social factor: NDBI, land use pattern. Web-based GIS is based on open-source technology that includes an information page, a page for MCE tool that users can interactively alter parameters in flood susceptible mapping, and a discussion page. The system is designed for local participation in prediction of the flood risk magnitude under impacts of natural processes and human intervention. The proposed flood susceptibility assessment prototype was implemented in the Mekong river basin, Viet Nam. Index images were calculated using Landsat data, and other were collected from authorized agencies. This study shows the potential to combine web-GIS and spatial analysis tool to flood hazard risk assessment. The combination can be a supportive solution that potentially assists the interaction between stakeholders in information exchange and in disaster management, thus provides for better analysis, control and decision-making.

  2. Le pluralisme médicamenteux face à l’épidémie de VIH/sida au Viêt Nam Drug Pluralism Confronted by HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Viêt Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de la place du pluralisme médicamenteux au Viêt Nam dans le contexte de l’épidémie de VIH/sida et de la mise en place d’une nouvelle politique du médicament qui mène à la régulation du médicament traditionnel. Un des principaux problèmes dans la prise en charge du VIH/sida au Viêt Nam fut l’absence de médicaments appropriés, efficaces et accessibles. Contrairement à la Chine, la médecine traditionnelle au Viêt Nam ne s’est pas adaptée, ni n’a réussi à développer durablement de produits spécifiques. Pourtant, l’OMS favorise et incite les thérapeutes traditionnels à participer et à proposer des solutions et pas seulement dans le cadre de soins complémentaires ou palliatifs. On a pu parfois même observer des attitudes plutôt répressives de la part des autorités vietnamiennes à l’égard d’un médicament traditionnel qui n’était pas passé par l’evidence based medicine. En revanche, contrairement à la Chine, le Viêt Nam s’est orienté vers une production locale de médicaments génériques pour répondre aux besoins locaux et baisser le coût de la prise en charge du VIH.À l’aide d’une analyse de contenu de la presse vietnamienne sur le sujet nous tenterons de comprendre les enjeux politiques, économiques et culturels qui se cachent derrière le faible développement de médicaments traditionnels dans le cadre de la prise en charge du VIH/sida.Nous montrerons que l’occidentalisation pendant la période coloniale, l’ouverture du pays depuis le début des années 1990, la globalisation (vue ici comme la multiplication des échanges avec les pays occidentaux et l’intégration du Viêt Nam au reste du monde et à l’ASEAN et la chaîne de production du médicament pharmaceutique ont modifié les pratiques de pluralisme médicamenteux ainsi que la politique nationale en matière de santé, avec des implications à plus ou moins long terme sur les pratiques

  3. Completeness and reliability of mortality data in Viet Nam: Implications for the national routine health management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tran Thi; Phuong Hoa, Nguyen; Walker, Sue M; Hill, Peter S; Rao, Chalapati

    2018-01-01

    Mortality statistics form a crucial component of national Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). However, there are limitations in the availability and quality of mortality data at national level in Viet Nam. This study assessed the completeness of recorded deaths and the reliability of recorded causes of death (COD) in the A6 death registers in the national routine HMIS in Viet Nam. 1477 identified deaths in 2014 were reviewed in two provinces. A capture-recapture method was applied to assess the completeness of the A6 death registers. 1365 household verbal autopsy (VA) interviews were successfully conducted, and these were reviewed by physicians who assigned multiple and underlying cause of death (UCOD). These UCODs from VA were then compared with the CODs recorded in the A6 death registers, using kappa scores to assess the reliability of the A6 death register diagnoses. The overall completeness of the A6 death registers in the two provinces was 89.3% (95%CI: 87.8-90.8). No COD recorded in the A6 death registers demonstrated good reliability. There is very low reliability in recording of cardiovascular deaths (kappa for stroke = 0.47 and kappa for ischaemic heart diseases = 0.42) and diabetes (kappa = 0.33). The reporting of deaths due to road traffic accidents, HIV and some cancers are at a moderate level of reliability with kappa scores ranging between 0.57-0.69 (preliability of COD recorded in the A6 death registers, for which VA methods could be effective. Focussed consultation among stakeholders is needed to develop a suitable mechanism and process for integrating VA methods into the national routine HMIS A6 death registers in Viet Nam.

  4. Iodine status in late pregnancy and psychosocial determinants of iodized salt use in rural northern Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach; Biggs, Beverley; Tran, Tuan; Dwyer, Terry; Casey, Gerard; Tho, Dang Hai; Hetzel, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish iodine status among pregnant women in rural northern Viet Nam and explore psychosocial predictors of the use of iodized salt in their households. Methods This prospective study included pregnant women registered in health stations in randomly-selected communes in Ha Nam province. At recruitment (partner relationship, family violence, symptoms of common mental disorders and use of micronutrient supplements were assessed. During a second assessment (> 28 weeks of gestation) a urine specimen was collected to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodized salt use was assessed. Predictors were explored through univariable analyses and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Findings The 413 pregnant women who provided data for this study had a median UIC of 70 µg/l; nearly 83% had a UIC lower than the 150 µg/l recommended by the World Health Organization; only 73.6% reported using iodized salt in any form in their households. Iodized salt use was lower among nulliparous women (odds ratio, OR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32–0.96); less educated women (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16–0.71); factory workers or small-scale traders (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31–0.86), government workers (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13–0.89) and women with common mental disorders at recruitment (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.98). Conclusion The decline in the use of iodized salt in Viet Nam since the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme was suspended in 2005 has placed pregnant women and their infants in rural areas at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. PMID:22084527

  5. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  6. A world-class target for ICDP drilling at Lake Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau, China: progresses and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Wang, J.; Daut, G.; Spiess, V.; Haberzettl, T.; Schulze, N.; Ju, J.; Lü, X.; Bergmann, F.; Haberkern, J.; Schwalb, A.; Mäusbacher, R.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Nam Co (ca. 2000 km2, 4718 m a.s.l., maximum depth: 100 m) is located at the interaction zone of the Westerlies and the Indian monsoon on the central Tibetan Plateau. It was part of a mega-lake during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 before the Last Glacial Maximum. A long term sedimentary record from Nam Co could therefore provide an excellent paleo-environmental sequence for regional and global comparative studies. This will to deepen our understanding of large scale atmospheric circulation shifts and the environmental links between the Tibetan Plateau at low latitudes and the North Atlantic region at high latitudes. A Nam Co deep drilling will fill the gap in two large scale ICDP/IODP drilling transects (N-S: Lake Baikal, Lake Qinghai, Bay of Bengal; W-E: Lake Van, Lake Issyk-Kul, South China Sea, Lake Towuti), which will show the great significance of monsoon dynamics on a long-term scale. Multidisciplinary researches have been conducted since 2005 by a Sino-German cooperative team. The progresses during the last decade are: 1) Detailed bathymetric surveying, including a shallow sediment profiler investigation (Innomar SES 2000 light, ca. 30 m sediment penetration); 2) Paleo-environmental reconstructions covering the past 24 ka; 3) Modern sediment distribution covering the entire lake; 4) Monitoring including water temperature profiles, sediment traps, seasonal airborne pollen collection; 5) Deep seismic survey penetrating up to 800 meters of lake sediments. Based on sediment rates from reference core NC08/01, seismic results show that an age of 500 ka may be reached at 500 m, and >1 Ma at the observed base. Faulting can be clearly detected in the seismic profiles, especially from MIS 5 to early Holocene, and shows the characteristics of normal faults or strike-slip faults. Both rotation of the layers and the close spacing, along with negative and positive offsets of the faults make a transtensional origin of the basin likely. An ICDP workshop proposal was

  7. Osmanlı Devletinin Son Yıllarında Ağnam Vergisine Yapılan Zamlar Rise In Ağnam (Sheep Tax In The Recent Years Of Ottoman State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal TAŞKIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People generally known as rayah in Ottoman State had some responsibilities to state. Among these responsibilities there were tax figures to be paid about agricultural and husbandry facilities. Each rayah doing husbandry facilities made payments in certain rates according to animal breed fed. Known as the tax of sheep and goat in the classical time of state, sheep tax gained a more general meaning and was subject to new regulations. It was initiated to be collected with a method called mukataa and expressing a certain amount determined in advance since the XVII. century of Ottoman State. Called as sheep tax mukataa, this income became one the most important figure of central treasury. Since the XIX. by abandoning the collection in kind method additional taxes with various names were also abolished.The price determined as the amount of tax was too much for some regions of the state because of regional differences in sheep prices. Because of this it was initiated to determine how much income was gained from the milk and wool of sheep and goat according to each region with the new regulation since the second part of the XIX. century. Determined by local administrations seperately, the tax figure of these amounts were determined in central office.As the rise in the taxes caused a negative effect on public, they were read justed towards the end of XIX. century. Reasons such as the current social situation of state, the worry of fund raising and political events caused changes in the encashment of taxes called as ağnam group. In ourwork the eight fold rise in ağnam tax which is accepted as one of the most important sources for recovering budget deficit of Ottoman State is goingto be studied. Osmanlı Devleti’nde reaya genel adıyla bilinen halkın, devletekarşı birtakım mükellefiyetleri vardı. Bu mükellefiyetler içerisinde,tarım ve hayvancılık faaliyetlerinden kaynaklı, ödenmesi gereken vergikalemleri mevcuttu. Hayvanc

  8. Dy3+-activated NaM4(VO4)3 (M = Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphor for near-UV solid-state lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Roshani; Dhoble, S J

    2011-01-01

    We report the photoluminescence characterization of Dy(3+)-activated NaM(4)(VO(4))(3) (M = Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphors prepared by a solid-state method. The synthesis was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization and photoluminescence (PL) emission results showed sharp blue and yellow bands for NaM(4)(VO(4))(3) (M = Ca, Ba, Sr):Dy(3+) phosphors at the excitation wavelength of 323 nm, which is near-UV excitation. Thus, these phosphors could be applicable for near-UV excited solid-state lighting devices. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  10. Detection of potentially novel paramyxovirus and coronavirus viral RNA in bats and rats in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, A.; Anh, P. H.; Carrique-Mas, J. J.; Simmonds, P.; van Cuong, N.; Tue, N. T.; van Dung, N.; Woolhouse, M. E.; Smith, I.; Marsh, G. A.; Bryant, J. E.; Thwaites, G. E.; Baker, S.; Rabaa, M. A.; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Boni, Maciej F.; Phu, Bui Duc; Campbell, James I.; Hung, Dang Manh; Huong, Dang Thao; Oanh, Dang Tram; Day, Jeremy N.; van Tan, Dinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Han, Duong An; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Trang, Hau Thi Thu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Long, Hoang Bao; van Duong, Hoang; Thu, Huynh Thi Kim; Cuong, Lam Chi; Hung, Manh; Phuong, Thanh; Phuc, Thi; Phuong, Thi; Luat, Xuan; Ha, Luu Thi Thu; van Chuong, Ly; Loan, Mai Thi Phuoc; Nadjm, Behzad; Bao, Ngo Thanh; Tu, Nguyen Canh; Thuan, Nguyen Dac; Dong, Nguyen; Chuyen, Nguyen Khac; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Vinh, Nguyen Ngoc; Hung, Nguyen Quoc; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Minh, Nguyen Thanh; Binh, Nguyen Thi; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Tien, Nguyen Thi Hong; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Le Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Lien; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chau, Nguyen Thi Song; Chi, Nguyen Thi Yen; Trinh, Nguyen Thieu; van, Nguyen Thu; van Hung, Nguyen; van Kinh, Nguyen; van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; van My, Nguyen; van Thang, Nguyen; van Thanh, Nguyen; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Xang, Nguyen; My, Pham Ha; Khoa, Pham Thi Minh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van Lao, Pham; van Minh, Pham; van Be Bay, Phan; Rahman, Motiur; Thompson, Corinne; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Chau, Tran Hoang Minh; Toan, Tran Khanh; Phuc, Tran My; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Thanh, Tran Thi Thanh; Minh, Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Tran Thua; Hien, Tran Tinh; Tri, Trinh Quang; Hien, Vo Be; Tai, Vo Nhut; Cuong, Vo Quoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Wertheim, Heiman; Bogaardt, Carlijn; Brierley, Liam; Chase-Topping, Margo; Ivens, Al; Lu, Lu; Rambaut, Andrew; Woolhouse, Mark; Cotten, Matthew; Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Kellam, Paul; Phan, My Vu Tra; van der Hoek, Lia; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Farsani, Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri; Saylors, Karen; Wolfe, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Bats and rodents are being increasingly recognized as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. Various studies have investigated bat viruses in tropical regions, but to date there are no data regarding viruses with zoonotic potential that circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. To address

  11. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were

  12. Art as a Political Act: Expression of Cultural Identity, Self-Identity, and Gender by Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Hwa Young Choi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored the lives of two contemporary Korean/Korean American women artists--Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min--who live in Seoul, South Korea, and Los Angeles, California. The author's research focused on the artists' identity formation, artistic expression, professional achievements, and the role of art as a political act.…

  13. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin : A case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, B.; Babel, M.S.; Maskey, S.; Van Griensven, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Green, A.; Akkharath, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation) from four general circulation models (GCMs) that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS)

  14. The Warming of Large Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence From a Lake Model Simulation of Nam Co, China, During 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Ju, Jianting; Daut, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    Lakes are considered as indicators of climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In the present study, we use the General Lake Model to simulate water temperature changes in Nam Co, the second largest lake on the central TP, for the period 1979-2012. The calibration and validation results demonstrate that this model is well suited for thermal simulation of Nam Co. The simulation results indicate that Nam Co has responded to the recent warming climate. The average summer surface water temperature fluctuated yearly, but its trend is positive at a rate of 0.52 ± 0.25°C per decade. At the same time, the onset of summer stratification advanced by 4.20 ± 2.02 d per decade, and the duration increased at a rate of 6.00 ± 3.54 d per decade. To explore the roles of air temperature and longwave radiation in lake warming, three sensitivity experiments are conducted by removing long-term trends from time series of air temperature and longwave radiation in the forcing data. These experiments prove that both increased air temperature and downward longwave radiation are two driving factors responsible for the warming of Nam Co.

  15. GHG budget in a young subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Guérin, F.; Serça, D.; Descloux, S.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamics of major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) has been studied in a new subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (impounded in 2009), Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The main pathways of emission were quantified, i.e., ebullition (bubbling), surface diffusion, downstream emissions (diffusion and degassing) and emissions from the drawdown area (up to 370 km2 for a 450km2 in the case of NT2). All presented results are coming from five field campaigns conducted from May 2009 to June 2011, and a monthly monitoring on 35 stations. Additional laboratory work in controlled conditions helped to assess production rates of CH4, CO2 and N2O, and aerobic CH4 oxidation rates. The ebullition of CH4 is in the same order as from other tropical reservoirs, varying with depth and atmospheric pressure. Measured diffusive fluxes of CH4 and CO2 cover the whole range of reported fluxes for other tropical reservoirs, depending on the season. Diffusive fluxes of N2O, and CH4 downstream (degassing and diffusion) emissions are in the lower range as reported before for tropical reservoirs. On the opposite, the drawdown area would represent a significant contribution to N2O emission. Our results for the year 2010 show that diffusive emission from the reservoir surface is the main contributor (46%) to total GHG emissions from the NT2 reservoir. With 25% and 19% of total GHG emissions, bubbling and drawdown area emissions also contributed significantly respectively. Downstream emissions from NT2 reservoir contributed around 10% of total GHG emissions, a percentage lower than reported for other reservoirs. With 963 Gg CO2eq yr-1 and 986 Gg CO2eq yr-1respectively, CH4 and CO2 have almost the same contributions (48 and 49%) of the total GHG budget, N2O accounting for less than 3% with 64 Gg CO2eq yr-1. With a total emissions from NT2 reservoir of 2013 Gg CO2eq yr-1, gross NT2 emission are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 Gg CO2eq yr-1). Net emission

  16. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  17. Completeness and reliability of mortality data in Viet Nam: Implications for the national routine health management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Hoa, Nguyen; Walker, Sue M.; Hill, Peter S.; Rao, Chalapati

    2018-01-01

    Background Mortality statistics form a crucial component of national Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). However, there are limitations in the availability and quality of mortality data at national level in Viet Nam. This study assessed the completeness of recorded deaths and the reliability of recorded causes of death (COD) in the A6 death registers in the national routine HMIS in Viet Nam. Methodology and findings 1477 identified deaths in 2014 were reviewed in two provinces. A capture-recapture method was applied to assess the completeness of the A6 death registers. 1365 household verbal autopsy (VA) interviews were successfully conducted, and these were reviewed by physicians who assigned multiple and underlying cause of death (UCOD). These UCODs from VA were then compared with the CODs recorded in the A6 death registers, using kappa scores to assess the reliability of the A6 death register diagnoses. The overall completeness of the A6 death registers in the two provinces was 89.3% (95%CI: 87.8–90.8). No COD recorded in the A6 death registers demonstrated good reliability. There is very low reliability in recording of cardiovascular deaths (kappa for stroke = 0.47 and kappa for ischaemic heart diseases = 0.42) and diabetes (kappa = 0.33). The reporting of deaths due to road traffic accidents, HIV and some cancers are at a moderate level of reliability with kappa scores ranging between 0.57–0.69 (p<0.01). VA methods identify more specific COD than the A6 death registers, and also allow identification of multiple CODs. Conclusions The study results suggest that data completeness in HMIS A6 death registers in the study sample of communes was relatively high (nearly 90%), but triangulation with death records from other sources would improve the completeness of this system. Further, there is an urgent need to enhance the reliability of COD recorded in the A6 death registers, for which VA methods could be effective. Focussed consultation among

  18. Low methane (CH4) emissions downstream of a monomictic subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Labat, David; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Guédant, Pierre; Rode, Wanidaporn; Godon, Arnaud; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs could represent a significant fraction of global CH4 emissions from inland waters and wetlands. Although CH4 emissions downstream of hydroelectric reservoirs are known to be potentially significant, these emissions are poorly documented in recent studies. We report the first quantification of emissions downstream of a subtropical monomictic reservoir. The Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (NT2R), located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, was flooded in 2008 and commissioned in April 2010. This reservoir is a trans-basin diversion reservoir which releases water into two downstream streams: the Nam Theun River below the dam and an artificial channel downstream of the powerhouse and a regulating pond that diverts the water from the Nam Theun watershed to the Xe Bangfai watershed. We quantified downstream emissions during the first 4 years after impoundment (2009-2012) on the basis of a high temporal (weekly to fortnightly) and spatial (23 stations) resolution of the monitoring of CH4 concentration. Before the commissioning of NT2R, downstream emissions were dominated by a very significant degassing at the dam site resulting from the occasional spillway discharge for controlling the water level in the reservoir. After the commissioning, downstream emissions were dominated by degassing which occurred mostly below the powerhouse. Overall, downstream emissions decreased from 10 GgCH4 yr-1 after the commissioning to 2 GgCH4 yr-1 4 years after impoundment. The downstream emissions contributed only 10 to 30 % of total CH4 emissions from the reservoir during the study. Most of the downstream emissions (80 %) occurred within 2-4 months during the transition between the warm dry season (WD) and the warm wet season (WW) when the CH4 concentration in hypolimnic water is maximum (up to 1000 µmol L-1) and downstream emissions are negligible for the rest of the year. Emissions downstream of NT2R are also lower than expected because

  19. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus; Ordon, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  20. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars. PMID:29370232

  1. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei in barley using nested association mapping (NAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vatter

    Full Text Available The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  2. The mangrove's contribution to people: Interdisciplinary pilot study of the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-Salem, Marie-Christine; Van Trai, Nguyen; Burgos, Ariadna; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Bettarel, Yvan; Klein, Judith; Duc Huy, Hoang; Panfili, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this pilot study, conducted in June 2015 in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (Can Gio MBR, Viet Nam), was to develop an interdisciplinary approach to assess some key services provided by reforested mangroves subject to external pressures and varying management policies. We focused on the abundance of viruses, bacteria, endo- and epi- and macrofauna and the diversity of crabs in the mangrove and the exploitation of its resources. The main social finding was that the local inhabitants are aware of the levels of protection of the different zones within the Can Gio MBR and respect them. The core and the buffer zones seem to present a similar ecological status. Genotyping showed a low level of crab diversity although there were many different morphotypes. In the future, we need to understand the stakeholders' general perception of the biodiversity and environment changes by developing an integrated, multi-scale approach.

  3. Introduction : Vingt ans de recherches sur le Việt Nam (1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Klein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourquoi Moussons consacre-t-elle un double numéro au Việt Nam ? Simplement parce que depuis les deux dernières décennies, ce champ particulier des sciences sociales que sont les études vietnamiennes a connu à travers le monde et en France en particulier un renouvellement considérable. Il était donc largement temps non pas d’en dresser un bilan, la vague n’ayant pas encore fini de déferler, mais, simplement, de tenter de présenter un bref panorama de ce renouveau en construction.Deux remarque...

  4. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts. PMID:26962856

  5. MALACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FULLY OPERATIONAL NAM THEUN 2 HYDROELECTRIC DAM PROJECT IN KHAMMOUANE PROVINCE, CENTRAL LAO PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Limpanont, Yanin; Surinthwong, Pornpimol; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Brey, Paul T

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a malacological investigation in four districts of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric dam project area, Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR (Nakai, Gnommalath, Mahaxai and Xe Bang Fai), after the first and second years of full operation in March 2010 and November 2011 to determine health risks for humans. A total 10,863 snail specimens (10 families/23 species) from 57 sampling stations and 12,902 snail specimens (eight families/21 species) from 66 sampling stations were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Neotricula aperta (gamma race), the intermediate host for Schistosoma mekongi, was found in large numbers (5,853 specimens) in 2010 in Nam Gnom (downstream) at Station 25 (Mueang Gnommalath: Gnommalath District) and in fewer numbers (170 specimens) at Station 26 (Ban Thathod: Gnommalath District). In 2011, significantly fewer numbers (434 specimens) of N. aperta were found at Station 25. No snails were found to be infected with S. mekongi; however, 3.6% and 0.45% of Bithynia (D.). s. goniomphalos specimens collected were found to be infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (human liver fluke) during 2010 and 2011, respectively. Pomacea canaliculata, the rice crop pest, the intermediate host of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) cantonensis, was found in the greatest numbers during 2010 and 2011; the prevalence increased significantly from 1.3% in 2010 to 53.3% in 2011. We also found seasonal variation in snail populations in terms of abundance and diversity. The snail fauna and risk for transmission of parasitic diseases need to be monitored continuously to evaluate the long-term impact of the dam project.

  6. Study design and the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV: lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Groot, Wim; Pavlova, Milena

    2018-01-30

    Estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV is a key activity in the surveillance of the HIV epidemic. The existing framework for considering future research needs may provide decision-makers with a basis for a fair process of deciding on the methods of the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV. This study explores the extent to which stakeholders involved with population size estimation agree with this framework, and thus, the study updates the framework. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with key informants from city and provincial governments, NGOs, research institutes, and the community of people at risk of HIV. Transcripts were analyzed and reviewed for significant statements pertaining to criteria. Variations and agreement around criteria were analyzed, and emerging criteria were validated against the existing framework. Eleven themes emerged which are relevant to the estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV in Viet Nam. Findings on missing criteria, inclusive participation, community perspectives and conflicting weight and direction of criteria provide insights for an improved framework for the prioritization of population size estimation methods. The findings suggest that the exclusion of community members from decision-making on population size estimation methods in Viet Nam may affect the validity, use, and efficiency of the evidence generated. However, a wider group of decision-makers, including community members among others, may introduce diverse definitions, weight and direction of criteria. Although findings here may not apply to every country with a transitioning economy or to every emerging epidemic, the principles of fair decision-making, value of community participation in decision-making and the expected challenges faced, merit consideration in every situation.

  7. Wheat Grain Filling Is Limited by Grain Filling Capacity rather than the Duration of Flag Leaf Photosynthesis: A Case Study Using NAM RNAi Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrill, Philippa; Fahy, Brendan; Smith, Alison M; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that delayed leaf senescence can extend grain filling duration and thus increase yields in cereal crops. We found that wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM RNAi plants with delayed senescence carried out 40% more flag leaf photosynthesis after anthesis than control plants, but had the same rate and duration of starch accumulation during grain filling and the same final grain weight. The additional photosynthate available in NAM RNAi plants was in part stored as fructans in the stems, whereas stem fructans were remobilised during grain filling in control plants. In both genotypes, activity of starch synthase was limiting for starch synthesis in the later stages of grain filling. We suggest that in order to realise the potential yield gains offered by delayed leaf senescence, this trait should be combined with increased grain filling capacity.

  8. Wheat Grain Filling Is Limited by Grain Filling Capacity rather than the Duration of Flag Leaf Photosynthesis: A Case Study Using NAM RNAi Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrill, Philippa; Fahy, Brendan; Smith, Alison M.; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that delayed leaf senescence can extend grain filling duration and thus increase yields in cereal crops. We found that wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM RNAi plants with delayed senescence carried out 40% more flag leaf photosynthesis after anthesis than control plants, but had the same rate and duration of starch accumulation during grain filling and the same final grain weight. The additional photosynthate available in NAM RNAi plants was in part stored as fructans in the stems, whereas stem fructans were remobilised during grain filling in control plants. In both genotypes, activity of starch synthase was limiting for starch synthesis in the later stages of grain filling. We suggest that in order to realise the potential yield gains offered by delayed leaf senescence, this trait should be combined with increased grain filling capacity. PMID:26241955

  9. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge : field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Tri, Le

    1996-01-01


    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out difficulties encountered. Actual conditions for four major areas were described including variabilities. Four representative areas: Tan Thanh, Tri Ton, Phung Hiep, and Hong Dan in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam...

  10. Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E.coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dong Tu

    2006-01-01

    Summary Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E. coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam Background: Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) disease is more prevalent in infants and children is a very important cause of sporadic diarrhoea cases and diarrhoea outbreaks in many countries. Currently, DEC also stands as a chief causal factor for diarrhoea among travellers. DEC disease is usually transmitted through food or wa...

  11. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and

  12. Study of the natural radiation background affected on the human body in some areas of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Van Thanh

    2008-01-01

    The author had studied the natural radiation background in 68 districts belong 40 provinces and cities of Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. The estimated results clearly show that the average external irradiation dose levels and the average annual external radiation equivalent dose affected on the human body are 0.181± 0.0189 μSv/h and 1599 ± 171.8 μSv/year respectively, both are in normal limit; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Buon Ma Thuot city (DakLak province), Phuoc Son district (Quang Nam province), Tan An district (Long An province). The radon concentration in the human being and the average annual internal inhalation irradiation equivalent dose affected on the human beings are 26.9 ± 15.89 Bq/m 3 and 392.88 ± 231.99 μSv/year respectively; the maximums are in Nha Trang city (Khanh Hoa province), Bac Binh district (Binh Phuoc province); the minimums are in Vung Tau city (Ba Ria- Vung Tau province), Tan An district (Long An province), Rach Gia district (Kien Giang province). The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations in the cereals, foodstuffs (rice, meat, vegetables), water, earth and the average annual internal irradiation equivalent dose are 829.2 ± 38.06 Bq/kg and 229.3 ± 67.70 μSv/year respectively; the highest levels are in Phong Tho district (Lai Chau province), Dien Bien city; the lowest levels are in Dong Xoai district (Binh Phuoc province), Tan An district (Long An province). The average total annual natural radiation background effective equivalent dose level affected on the human body is 2206.9 ± 529.30 μSv/year; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Tan An district (Long An province). The 14 maps of Natural Radiation Background in several localized regions belong 40 provinces and cities of Viet Nam had been set up. These results can reserve for serviceman and public health in the both wartime and peacetime. (author)

  13. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1 among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Chi Dung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1 in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1 specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1 among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1 viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3. The highest proportion (7.2% was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3% were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1 requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1 in Viet Nam.

  14. Psychological and Social Factors Associated with Late Pregnancy Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Rural Viet Nam: A Population-Based Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Casey, Gerard J.; Hanieh, Sarah; Simpson, Julie Anne; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. Methods Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1). They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2). IDA was defined as Haemoglobin partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. Conclusions Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants. PMID:24167605

  15. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  16. Total iron concentrations in waters and fish tissues in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir area (Lao PDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Guédant, Pierre; Godon, Arnaud; Cerdan, Philippe; Vigouroux, Régis

    2015-08-01

    Data on total iron concentrations in waters and freshwater fish tissues in man-made reservoirs are scarce, especially in Southeast Asia. Changes in total iron concentrations in water and in fish tissues were studied after the impoundment of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (central Lao PDR). Water quality parameters were monitored at 11 stations (reservoir, upstream area and downstream areas) from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 and 2010, total iron concentrations were measured in three different fish tissues (viscera, gills and flesh) from 14 species belonging to the omnivorous and carnivorous feeding groups. The results indicated that iron concentrations in the water were influenced by the reservoir impoundment during the first year after the creation of the reservoir. Intra-annual variations of the total iron concentration in these waters appeared to be driven by the soil leaching processes mainly during the wet season. In fish, total iron accumulated preferentially in viscera, followed by gills and flesh. Iron concentration was highly species dependant and related to the ecology of the species whereas feeding habits (omnivorous or carnivorous) did not influence total iron concentration in fish tissues. Finally, reservoir impoundment did not affect iron concentrations in fish from the reservoir and from both downstream areas.

  17. Three new species of earthworms in the Amynthas (Clitellata: Megascolecidae from Nam Xam National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm specimens collected from the Nam Xam National Protected Area, Laos, belong to three new species of megascolecid earthworms: Amynthas xamtaiensis sp. nov., Amynthas vanhyai sp. nov., and Amynthas multipapillatus sp. nov. The authors provide a new record for Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867. All three new species key to the gracilis (hawayanus group in Sims and Easton (1972, defined by having three pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6–7/8. A. xamtaiensis sp. nov. has male pores superficial in thickened areas, containing two genital papillae medial to the male pores. A. vanhyai sp. nov. has male pores equatorial oval pads at sixth setal lines, and shallowly pinnate intestinal ceca having 6–10 lobes on each edge. A. multipapillatus sp. nov. has male pores on small longitudinal shallow invaginations at lateral margins of the ventrum, and more than 100 small genital papillae covering the ventral surface from 16/17 to 17/18.

  18. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  19. The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Wangpimool

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.

  20. Des habitations à bon marché au Việt Nam. La question du logement social en situation coloniale Public Housing Projects in Việt Nam: the Problem of Habitation in a Colonial Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Herbelin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La crise du logement dans les grandes villes du Việt Nam est récurrente pendant toute la colonisation. Elle touche les Européens, mais surtout les populations locales qui vivent en majorité dans des habitats précaires. A partir des années 1920, face à l’ampleur de la situation, le gouvernement général décide d’adapter dans la colonie les récentes lois françaises en faveur du logement social. Si quelques prototypes d’habitations à bon marché vont être mis en place par la municipalité de Hanoi dans les années 1930, ce n’est que dans les années 1950, pour répondre à la crise sociale que les politiques de logement vont commencer à être significatives. Entre inertie et projets enthousiastes, les politiques de logement révèlent les contradictions du système colonial face à un problème aussi crucial que complexe, mettant en jeu différents acteurs à différents niveaux : le gouvernement général d’Indochine, la résidence supérieure du Tonkin, les municipalités, les associations privées et dans une moindre mesure les sociétés de construction. Du point de vue architectural, les projets mis en place sont des créations hybrides qui montrent une volonté manifeste de s’adapter au style de vie vietnamien.During the colonial period, the main cities of Việt Nam periodically experienced social housing crises. While Europeans did not remain immune from the consequences of a lack of adequate housing, local populations, who constituted the majority in these makeshift constructs, were most deeply affected. Beginning in the 1920s, faced with the urgency of this problem, the general government sought to adapt contemporaneous French laws in favor of social housing to the local colonial situation. Even though some prototypes of affordable housing were constructed by the Hanoi municipality in the 1930s, it was only in the 1950s that government efforts began to have a significant impact. The politics of housing, and

  1. Knowing when but not how!--mothers' perceptions and use of antibiotics in a rural area of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfvarsson, J; Heijne, N; Ljungman, P; Ham, M N; Holmgren, G; Tomson, G

    2000-01-01

    Given the world-wide focus on how to rationally use antibiotics, national drug policy programmes have been developed in many countries in order to minimize the environmental antibiotic pressure and thereby hopefully limit increasing bacterial resistance. This study investigated perceptions of antibiotics in a health system with weak drug regulation. The study was conducted in two rural communes in Viet Nam, with a drug market characterized by the increased accessibility and consumption of pharmaceuticals. The study focused on rural mothers' perceptions and use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children 5 years and under. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods were used including key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and interviews with mothers and drug vendors. The study demonstrated that using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods gives a better understanding of the prevailing perceptions and use of antibiotics in communities. The results showed that the mothers recognized well the signs of severe ARI and that antibiotics were reserved for more severe illness episodes, where penicillin V and ampicillin were first drugs of choice. However, the mothers' perceptions and use of antibiotics reflects indigenization of antibiotics into traditional Vietnamese thinking and medical practice. This resulted in self-medication and a respect for antibiotics from the mothers' point of view. A first step towards the rational use of antibiotics is already taken where mothers, as the health decision-maker, know when to initiate antibiotic treatment and try to limit unnecessary use of antibiotics. The next step is to develop a well-functioning health education programme in order to promote the correct use of antibiotics for a successful clinical outcome. This requires acknowledgement of the mothers' culture based behaviour.

  2. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  3. Fool’s Gold: Understanding Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts from Gold Mining in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extractive industries are often claimed to contribute to both poverty reduction and economic growth. Yet, there is also a body of research that suggests natural resource dependence can result in limited development, environmental degradation and social upheaval. This paper examines differences in the socioeconomic and environmental state of mining and non-mining communities in rural Vietnam in order to understand the extent to which mining contributes to livelihood development and socioeconomic well-being. In particular, we examine the role that “corporate social responsibility” (CSR plays in supporting community development in Phuoc Son and Phu Ninh districts, Quang Nam province. Content analysis of newspapers, government documents and mining company reports provided a contextual overview of mining operations and community relations in each study area. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from local and regional stakeholders to further understand perceived impacts of mining operations on local communities. Our study finds that in comparison to non-mining communities, communities with active mines demonstrated increased job development, decreased poverty rates, enhanced infrastructure and social development along with increased incidences of CSR initiatives. However, a number of adverse effects from mining activities were reported including environmental degradation (e.g., deforestation, water pollution, etc. increased criminal activity and drug addiction. Dependence on mine-related employment in local communities becomes acutely apparent when temporary mine closures result in widespread unemployment. Local governments may be the greatest beneficiaries of mining with increased tax revenues and enhanced management potential of leased land. Non-mining communities without direct benefits from mining activities maintained economic diversity and were therefore more resilient to economic shocks such as nearby mine closures.

  4. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1 in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Saksena

    Full Text Available Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID, the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs.

  5. Psychological and social factors associated with late pregnancy iron deficiency anaemia in rural Viet Nam: a population-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam.Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1. They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2. IDA was defined as Haemoglobin < 11 g/dL and serum ferritin < 15 ng/mL. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders (CMD were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam (EPDS-V. Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses.A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 9.8-16.7. Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7 pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA.Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants.

  6. Psychological and social factors associated with late pregnancy iron deficiency anaemia in rural Viet Nam: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Casey, Gerard J; Hanieh, Sarah; Simpson, Julie Anne; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1). They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2). IDA was defined as Haemoglobin Vietnam (EPDS-V). Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses. A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.8-16.7). Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7) pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants.

  7. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we measured independently CH4 ebullition and diffusion in the footprint of an eddy covariance system (EC) measuring CH4 emissions in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. We showed a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1), whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emissions was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice as high as during nighttime. Additionally, more than 4800 discrete measurements of CH4 ebullition were performed at a weekly/fortnightly frequency, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems. Methane ebullition varies significantly seasonally and depends mostly on water level change during the warm dry season, whereas no relationship was observed during the cold dry season. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and ranged from 0 to 201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network (ANN) model could explain up to 46% of seasonal variability of ebullition by considering total static pressure (the sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the total static pressure, and bottom temperature as controlling factors. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition on the reservoir scale and performance of gap filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the

  8. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: ngtthuy02@yahoo.com [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morita, Kouichi [Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  9. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.

  10. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: moving toward effective harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-04-06

    Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.

  11. Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Saensouk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species, of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each. A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in the IUCN Red List, while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rare Zingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011. Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover, Etlingera yunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

  12. Deforestation in Viet Nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This being said, it must be remembered that the major providers of forest products on the world market are by far Canada, Russian Federation, and the United States. ... Only fairly recently, during the 1920s, under the French colonial administration, did planned-colonization programs contribute, with very limited success ...

  13. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf…

  14. Impacts on Breastfeeding Practices of At-Scale Strategies That Combine Intensive Interpersonal Counseling, Mass Media, and Community Mobilization: Results of Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluations in Bangladesh and Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009–2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam. In Bangladesh, IPC was delivered through a large non-governmental health program; in Viet Nam, it was integrated into government health facilities. This study evaluated the population-level impact of intensified IPC, MM, CM, and PA (intensive) compared to standard nutrition counseling and less intensive MM, CM, and PA (non-intensive) on breastfeeding practices in these two countries. Methods and Findings A cluster-randomized evaluation design was employed in each country. For the evaluation sample, 20 sub-districts in Bangladesh and 40 communes in Viet Nam were randomized to either the intensive or the non-intensive group. Cross-sectional surveys (n ~ 500 children 0–5.9 mo old per group per country) were implemented at baseline (June 7–August 29, 2010, in Viet Nam; April 28–June 26, 2010, in Bangladesh) and endline (June 16–August 30, 2014, in Viet Nam; April 20–June 23, 2014, in Bangladesh). Difference-in-differences estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated, adjusting for clustering. In Bangladesh, improvements were significantly greater in the intensive compared to the non-intensive group for the proportion of women who reported practicing EBF in the previous 24 h (DDE 36.2 percentage points [pp], 95% CI 21.0–51.5, p evaluation lacked a “pure control” area with no MM or national/provincial PA. Conclusions At-scale interventions combining intensive IPC with MM, CM, and PA had greater positive impacts on

  15. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W; Brey, Paul T

    2013-06-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.

  16. Removal of emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters using nature and synthesized (Na A and Nam) zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modirshahla, N.; Tabatabaii, S.

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this study was to compare the natural and synthetic (Na A and Nam) zeolites as absorbents in removing emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds, which appear in the wastewater of power plants, refinery and petrochemical complexes. The specific objections of the work was: a) to select the best species that have the highest amount of absorption; b) to measure the rate of absorption of traces organic compounds and emulsions on the natural and synthesized zeolites; c) to establish the absorption isotherms for the organics and emulsions with selected samples; d) to select readily available regenerants, and e ) to examine the ph dependence of the process and to establish a simple and practical method to detect and to measure the pollution after the treatment process. The BOD and COD of the treated and feed waters were compared

  17. Use of eschar swabbing for the molecular diagnosis and genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhiem Le Viet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to detect O. tsutsugamushi DNA in whole blood and eschar swab specimens of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Among the 20 patients for whom both eschar and whole blood were obtained, 17 (85% of the eschar specimens and 5 (25% of the whole blood specimens tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Genetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene sequences demonstrated that the 14 sequences obtained in this study, including 12 eschar swabs and 2 whole blood specimens, were related to 4 groups: Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam (JG-v and TG-v and TA716. The majority (9/14; 64.4% of contemporary O. tsutsugamushi genotypes in Quang Nam province were related to the Karp group.These results suggest that polyclonal antigen pools used for serological testing in the future should contain at least Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam and TA716 antigens for Vietnamese patients, as well as patients who have traveled to Vietnam. qPCR after eschar swabbing should be considered for molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus in endemic patients as well as in travelers, since it is easy to perform and appears very useful for the rapid detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in the early phase of infection.

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [fr

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [es

  1. High-resolution OSL chronology of a sediment core from Lake Nam Co on the southern Tibetan Plateau: Comparison with radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Haberzettl, Torsten; Fuchs, Markus; Frechen, Manfred; Wang, Junbo

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies on lake sediment cores from the Tibetan Plateau aimed to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes of the late Glacial and Holocene monsoon variations, which are characterized by fluctuations in precipitation and expansion of monsoonal air masses across the Plateau. Accurate and reliable dating of lacustrine deposits is of crucial importance in both the reconstruction of palaeolake and palaeoclimate evolution and the understanding of the mechanisms for climate changes, especially abrupt changes of regional-hemispheric hydrological circulation. Radiocarbon dating is the most commonly used method for establishing chronologies of lake sediments. However, 14C dating of such sediments could be problematic due to the lack of organic matter or a reservoir effect, which appears common in radiocarbon dating of lacustrine sediments from the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, ca. 10.5 m long core (NC core) was retrieved from the water depth of 93 m at Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest saline lake in China, located on the southern Tibetan Plateau. For this core, high-resolution samples (23 samples) were obtained for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Quartz of fine-grain (4-11 μm) fraction were extracted from this samples for OSL dating, which is compared with the 14C chronology of NC core based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of bulk organic matter of 22 samples. The sample from the top of NC core was dated to approximate zero age, indicating the sediments bleached well before deposition. Luminescence behaviors of the study samples further confirmed the robustness of OSL ages. Comparison between OSL and 14C ages suggested that: (1) two kinds of ages are in agreement within error from top to 1.8 m, (2) from 1.8 m to the base of NC core, the 14C ages show a general trend to ca. 4 ka higher ages than the OSL ages. Although 14C dating overestimate the ages from 1.8 m to base, they still show the general trend in sedimentation rate

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions from the flat bottom and shallow Nam Theun 2 Reservoir: drawdown area as a neglected pathway to the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deshmukh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater reservoirs are a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere. CO2 is known to be emitted at the reservoir surface by diffusion at the air–water interface and downstream of dams or powerhouses by degassing and along the river course. In this study, we quantified total CO2 emissions from the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Lao PDR in the Mekong River watershed. The study started in May 2009, less than a year after flooding and just a few months after the maximum level was first reached and lasted until the end of 2013. We tested the hypothesis that soils from the drawdown area would be a significant contributor to the total CO2 emissions.Total inorganic carbon, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and CO2 concentrations were measured in 4 pristine rivers of the Nam Theun watershed, at 9 stations in the reservoir (vertical profiles and at 16 stations downstream of the monomictic reservoir on a weekly to monthly basis. CO2 bubbling was estimated during five field campaigns between 2009 and 2011 and on a weekly monitoring, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems in 2012 and 2013. Three field campaigns in 2010, 2011 and 2013 were dedicated to the soils description in 21 plots and the quantification of soil CO2 emissions from the drawdown area. On this basis, we calculated total CO2 emissions from the reservoir and carbon inputs from the tributaries. We confirm the importance of the flooded stock of organic matter as a source of carbon (C fuelling emissions. We show that the drawdown area contributes, depending on the year, from 40 to 75 % of total annual gross emissions in this flat and shallow reservoir. Since the CO2 emissions from the drawdown zone are almost constant throughout the years, the large interannual variations result from the significant decrease in diffusive fluxes and downstream emissions between 2010 and 2013. This overlooked pathway in terms of gross emissions would require

  3. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.

  4. Physical and chemical properties of Nam Prig Noom, a Thai green-chili paste, following ultra-high pressure and thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Srisajjalertwaja, Siriwan; Chaikham, Pittaya; Hirun, Sathira

    2013-03-01

    A study of processing green-chili pastes (Nam Prig Noom) by pressurization (100-600 MPa/30-50°C/20 min), pasteurization (90°C/3-5 min) or sterilization (121°C/4 min), subsequently, their physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities as well as the sensory acceptance were assessed. It was found that pressure at low levels (100-300 MPa) could improve activities of enzyme peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and lypoxygenase (LOX) in the chili paste by more than 100%, while pressures above 500 or 300 MPa combined with heat would significantly inactivate these enzyme activities. Both color parameters and enzyme activities illustrated that though some enzymatic browning occurred with the pressurized products indicated by b* (yellowish) parameter, the magnitude of these browning was still milder than those thermally treated products indicated by-a* (greenness) and L (lightness) parameters, presumably as a consequence of the Maillard reaction. Moreover, the sensory scores were found in accordance with color parameters, firmness and capsaicin contents.

  5. Simulating the Impact of Future Land Use and Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Deposition in the Mae Nam Nan Sub-Catchment, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Tripathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible impacts of climate change and land use change and its combined effects on soil loss and net soil loss (erosion and deposition in the Mae Nam Nan sub-catchment, Thailand. Future climate from two general circulation models (GCMs and a regional circulation model (RCM consisting of HadCM3, NCAR CSSM3 and PRECIS RCM ware downscaled using a delta change approach. Cellular Automata/Markov (CA_Markov model was used to characterize future land use. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and sedimentation modeling in Idrisi software were employed to estimate soil loss and net soil loss under direct impact (climate change, indirect impact (land use change and full range of impact (climate and land use change to generate results at a 10 year interval between 2020 and 2040. Results indicate that soil erosion and deposition increase or decrease, depending on which climate and land use scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion and deposition in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods. The combined climate and land use change analysis revealed that land use planning could be adopted to mitigate soil erosion and deposition in the future, in conjunction with the projected direct impact of climate change.

  6. Evaluation of the integrated clinic model for HIV/AIDS services in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, V; Nguyen, S T; Tieu, V T T; Nguyen, T T T; Duong, T H; Lyss, S; Oeltmann, J E

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014. We used a pre-post study design to compare service-related outcomes from routinely collected data at health facilities 6 months before and 6 months after integration. Results: The proportion of HIV-infected persons linked from VCT to OPCs was unchanged or increased following integration. A higher percentage of patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were started on ART. The proportion of ART patients lost to follow-up remained unchanged. The proportions of MMT patients who tested positive for heroin or other substances decreased or were unchanged. Conclusions: VCT, OPC and MMT service delivery quality remained the same or improved during the 6 months following the integration. Expansion of the integrated model should be considered for HIV-related services.

  7. Report of year 2000 version on feasibility study. Feasibility study on the diffusion of fluidized bed cement kiln system in Socialist Republic of Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Evaluations were given on the possibility of saving energies and reducing CO2 emission by renewing the shaft kilns operated in four factories in Viet Nam into fluidized bed kilns. The feasibility study is intended to be linked to the clean development mechanism (CDM) in the future. The fluidized bed kiln is a most advanced technology developed to deal with social, economic and technological demands such as global environment preservation, energy conservation, effective utilization of resources, enhancement of economic performance, and diversification of cement needs. The technology is capable of largely reducing greenhouse effect gases, eliminating the problem of dust scattering from sintering facilities, producing stabilized and high-quality clinker, making possible of using inexpensive fuels including low-order coal, using less installation space, and reducing the production cost. The amount of energy reduction in all of the four factories is calculated 8,101 to 9,551 toe/year at an energy saving effect rate of 37 to 44%. CO2 emission is reduced as a result of reduction in fuel for sintering furnaces and in electric power consumption. The reduction amount would be 24,393 to 38,794 tons/year (converted into CO2), and the reduction effect rate would be 36 to 44%. The investment effect looks sufficient as payout of 10 to 12 years if the environment special Yen loan is used. Trial calculation was also performed for the nation-wide proliferation effect. (NEDO)

  8. Bērnu ar uzvedības traucējumiem problēmu risinājums bērnu namā

    OpenAIRE

    Degterjova, Ella

    2012-01-01

    Izvēlētā diplomdarba tēma ir „Bērnu ar uzvedības traucējumiem problēmu risinājums bērnu namā”. Izvirzītais diplomdarba mērķis ir pētīt uzvedības traucējumu problēmu risināšanas veidus ilgstošās sociālās aprūpes un sociālās rehabilitācijas institūcijās dzīvojošiem bērniem ar uzvedības traucējumiem. Diplomdarbs sastāv no četrām darba nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā ir teorētiski analizēti bērnu uzvedības traucējumu veidi un bērnu uzvedības traucējumu jēdziens. Otrajā nodaļā autore analizē bērnu uz...

  9. Phytoplankton functional groups for ecological assessment in young sub-tropical reservoirs: case study of the Nam-Theun 2 Reservoir, Laos, South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Martinet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The early stages following the creation of reservoirs are typically physical and biological unstable periods due to the conversion from a lotic to a lentic ecosystem. The sub-tropical Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos was impounded in 2008. Several limnological parameters were monitored from March 2009 to December 2011 in order to understand the evolution of the phytoplankton community. A strong inter annual variability of hydrodynamic pattern was observed. Rainfall and hydraulic balance were the main physical factors driving the community structure. Periods of highest hydraulic stability led to a phytoplankton biomasses increase. The first assemblages were dominated by the S-C-strategists reaching high biomasses but low diversity. Over the three years, phytoplankton became more diverse due to a diversification of ecological niches, mostly explained by a greater water transparency and a more stable thermal stratification. The applicability of functional groups for biomonitoring in this young sub-tropical reservoir was investigated and compared to a classical taxonomical approach. The dominant functional groups (Lo, A, E, F, N and P characterized the NT2 Reservoir as meso-oligotrophic with a tolerance to low nutrients supply. Our results support the hypothesis that a functional group approach is more informative than a species-based approach to assess trophic level and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in such reservoirs.

  10. The use of public participation and economic appraisal for public involvement in large-scale hydropower projects: Case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirumachi, Naho; Torriti, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    Gaining public acceptance is one of the main issues with large-scale low-carbon projects such as hydropower development. It has been recommended by the World Commission on Dams that to gain public acceptance, public involvement is necessary in the decision-making process (). As financially-significant actors in the planning and implementation of large-scale hydropower projects in developing country contexts, the paper examines the ways in which public involvement may be influenced by international financial institutions. Using the case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in Laos, the paper analyses how public involvement facilitated by the Asian Development Bank had a bearing on procedural and distributional justice. The paper analyses the extent of public participation and the assessment of full social and environmental costs of the project in the Cost-Benefit Analysis conducted during the project appraisal stage. It is argued that while efforts were made to involve the public, there were several factors that influenced procedural and distributional justice: the late contribution of the Asian Development Bank in the project appraisal stage; and the issue of non-market values and discount rate to calculate the full social and environmental costs. - Highlights: ► Public acceptance in large-scale hydropower projects is examined. ► Both procedural and distributional justice are important for public acceptance. ► International Financial Institutions can influence the level of public involvement. ► Public involvement benefits consideration of non-market values and discount rates.

  11. The net GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) footprint of a newly impounded subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Delon, Claire; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Tardif, Raphael; Godon, Arnaud; Guédant, Pierre; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Zouiten, Cyril; Oliva, Priscia; Audry, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    There is a rising concern over the contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to global anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. We present here the first comprehensive assessment of GHGs footprint associated with the creation of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric reservoir in subtropical region of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. This assessment is the results of a monthly monitoring that have been conducted over 4 year (2008-to date). The carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources and sinks were quantified before and after impoundment, which began in May 2008. Before impoundment, the landscape to be flooded was a sink of carbon dioxide (-73 ± 225 Gg CO2eq yr-1),roughly neutral in terms of methane (7 ± 11 Gg CO2eq yr-1), and a source of nitrous oxide (345 ± 158 Gg CO2eq yr-1). After impoundment, total CO2 and CH4 emissions increased and N2O emissions decreased. For the year 2010, CO2 (791 ± 54 Gg CO2eq yr-1) and CH4 (644 ± 124 Gg CO2eq yr-1) contributed equally to the total gross GHG emissions from NT2 (54 and 43% for CO2 and CH4, respectively) whereas N2O contributed only 3% (47 ± 29 Gg CO2eq yr-1). The GHG emissions remained constant in 2011. Our results indicate that most of the GHG (around 90%) were emitted from reservoir water surface and the drawdown area, and only 10% were emitted by degassing at the turbines and from diffusive emissions downstream of the turbines and the dam, a percentage lower than reported for other hydroelectric reservoirs. With a total emissions of 1482 ± 207 and 1298 ± 200 Gg CO2eq yr-1 for year 2010 and 2011, gross NT2 emissions are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 ± 393 Gg CO2eq yr-1). With a net GHG emissions of 1203 ± 601 (2010) and 1022 ± 594 (2011) Gg CO2eq yr-1, and an annual power generation of about 6 TWh, GHG emission factor equal to 0.20 (2010) and 0.17 (2011) Mg CO2eq MWh-1 for NT2 which is up to five times lower than the emission factor

  12. Semidiurnal and seasonal variations in methane (CH4) emissions from a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir) measured by eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Serça, Dominique; Tardif, Raphael; Demarty, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Guédant, Pierre; Guérin, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs have globally been identified as a significant source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, especially in the tropics. Assessing these emissions and their variations at small and large time scale represent important scientific challenges. In this context, the objectives of this work are (i) to compare different methodologies used to assess CH4 emissions. (ii) to determine the temporal variations in these emissions at different scales i.e. from daily to seasonal, and link these variations to environmental controlling factors. Measurements of CH4 emissions were made in a recently impounded (May 2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir, Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The sampling strategy included three different types of flux measurement techniques: floating chambers (FC), submerged funnels (SF), and the eddy covariance technique (EC). Flux measurements were carried out during four field campaigns conducted between May 2009 and June 2011. Eddy covariance system, composed by a 3D sonic anemometer coupled with a DLT-100 fast methane analyzer (Los Gatos Inc®), was deployed on a mast erected in a large surface of open water. Diffusive and bubbling fluxes were measured using respectively the FC and the SF techniques within the footprint of the EC station. Results from the four field campaigns show individual EC fluxes (30min) varying over 4 orders of magnitude (from 0.01 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1). Individual diffusive fluxes measured by floating chambers ranged between 0.2 and 3.2 mmol.m-2.day-1. Bubbling fluxes were found to be highly sporadic, with individual daily flux values varying from 0 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1. For all field campaigns, EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + bubbling fluxes = EC fluxes), indicating that the eddy covariance system picked-up both diffusive and bubbling emissions from the reservoir, which is a very new and encouraging result for further studies

  13. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019) has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN) susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146) while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p 95%) thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world. PMID:21669011

  14. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019 has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146 while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p pfcrt76T and wild-type pfmdr1 (> 95% thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world.

  15. Prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients treated within and outside the National Tuberculosis Programme in Pham Ngoc Thach hospital, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Khanh, Pham H; Chinh, Nguyen V; Hennig, Cornelia M

    2014-09-01

    To describe and analyse the prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients managed within Green Light Committee (GLC) and outside (non-GLC) the National TB programme in Viet Nam. Retrospective cohort study with two elements: (i) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with clinical doctors, hospital pharmacists, and the non-GLC patients with MDR-TB; (ii) review of treatment cards and patients' charts of all GLC and non-GLC patients with MDR-TB put on treatment during 2010. Of 282 patients with MDR-TB, comprising 79 (28%) GLC patients MDR-TB and 203 (72%) non-GLC patients with MDR-TB, were enrolled in the study. Treatment delay was significantly higher in the GLC group (12.8 days) than the non-GLC group (2.3 days), (P = 0.004). The success rate was significantly better in GLC patients (84.8%) than in non-GLC patients (53.7%) (P < 0.001). The default rate was significantly higher in non-GLC patients than in GLC patients (25.6% vs. 6.3%), (P < 0.001). The risk of unsuccessful outcome was higher in non-GLC patients (Hazard ratio = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.8-11.8). The treatment outcomes of patients with MDR-TB in the GLC group were significantly better than in the non-GLC group. Reasons for the high default rate in non-GLC patients with MDR-TB must be further investigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille N. Z. Coudrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA, central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099, Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed; Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018 and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017. We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  18. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  19. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin: a case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation from four general circulation models (GCMs that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS are downscaled using a delta change approach. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used to assess future changes in sediment flux attributable to climate change. Results indicate up to 3.0 °C shift in seasonal temperature and 27% (decrease to 41% (increase in seasonal precipitation. The largest increase in temperature is observed in the dry season while the largest change in precipitation is observed in the wet season. In general, temperature shows increasing trends but changes in precipitation are not unidirectional and vary depending on the greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES, climate models, prediction period and season. The simulation results show that the changes in annual stream discharges are likely to range from a 17% decrease to 66% increase in the future, which will lead to predicted changes in annual sediment yield ranging from a 27% decrease to about 160% increase. Changes in intra-annual (monthly discharge as well as sediment yield are even greater (−62 to 105% in discharge and −88 to 243% in sediment yield. A higher discharge and sediment flux are expected during the wet seasons, although the highest relative changes are observed during the dry months. The results indicate high uncertainties in the direction and magnitude of changes of discharge as well as sediment yields due to climate change. As the projected climate change impact on sediment varies remarkably between the different climate models, the uncertainty should be taken into account in both sediment management and climate change adaptation.

  20. Effect of the mGluR5-NAM Basimglurant on Behavior in Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: FragXis Phase 2 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Eriene A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Czech, Christian; Hagerman, Randi J; Hessl, David; Wong, Chin Y; Rabbia, Michael; Deptula, Dennis; John, Amy; Kinch, Russell; Drewitt, Philip; Lindemann, Lothar; Marcinowski, Moritz; Langland, Rachel; Horn, Carsten; Fontoura, Paulo; Santarelli, Luca; Quiroz, Jorge A

    2018-02-01

    Preclinical data suggest that inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptor might hold therapeutic benefits in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Treatment of Fmr1 knockout mice with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been reported to correct a broad range of phenotypes related to FXS. The early short-term clinical trials with mGluR5 NAMs, including basimglurant, assessing the effects in individuals with FXS, were supportive of further exploration in larger, well-controlled trials. We evaluated basimglurant, a potent and selective mGluR5 NAM, in a 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study of 183 adults and adolescents (aged 14-50, mean 23.4 years) with FXS. Individuals with an FMR1 full mutation were randomized to placebo or one of two doses of basimglurant. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in behavioral symptoms using the Anxiety Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS) total score. All treatment arms showed marked behavioral improvements from baseline to week 12 with less improvement in the basimglurant 1.5 mg arm than placebo; however, basimglurant 0.5 mg was inferior to placebo in the ADAMs total score. Treatment with basimglurant was overall well-tolerated. A higher incidence of adverse events classified as psychiatric disorders were reported in patients treated with basimglurant, including three patients with hallucinations or psychosis. In this phase 2 clinical trial, basimglurant did not demonstrate improvement over placebo. Evaluation of the overall risk-benefit in younger patient populations is an important consideration for the design of potential further investigations of efficacy with this class of medications.

  1. Bui Tran Phuong, Viêt Nam 1918-1945, genre et modernité : Émergence de nouvelles perceptions et expérimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Tran Phuong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pourquoi ce sujet ?D’abord pour combler un vide. Si l’on ne considère que l’historiographie vietnamienne, ce dont dispose le public vietnamien dans le pays, malgré une abondance apparente à un certain moment, l’histoire contemporaine reste déplorablement pauvre sur le plan cognitif. Elle renseigne peu sur les hommes (et encore moins sur les femmes en société, dans l’espace et dans le temps. Dans la recherche internationale sur le Viêt Nam, jusqu’à très récemment les femmes ne figuraient pas ...

  2. Modeling The Hydrology And Water Allocation Under Climate Change In Rural River Basins: A Case Study From Nam Ngum River Basin, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, D. L.; Kaluarachchi, J.; Kim, U.

    2011-12-01

    Rural river basins with sufficient water availability to maintain economic livelihoods can be affected with seasonal fluctuations of precipitation and sometimes by droughts. In addition, climate change impacts can also alter future water availability. General Circulation Models (GCMs) provide credible quantitative estimates of future climate conditions but such estimates are often characterized by bias and coarse scale resolution making it necessary to downscale the outputs for use in regional hydrologic models. This study develops a methodology to downscale and project future monthly precipitation in moderate scale basins where data are limited. A stochastic framework for single-site and multi-site generation of weekly rainfall is developed while preserving the historical temporal and spatial correlation structures. The spatial correlations in the simulated occurrences and the amounts are induced using spatially correlated yet serially independent random numbers. This method is applied to generate weekly precipitation data for a 100-year period in the Nam Ngum River Basin (NNRB) that has a land area of 16,780 km2 located in Lao P.D.R. This method is developed and applied using precipitation data from 1961 to 2000 for 10 selected weather stations that represents the basin rainfall characteristics. Bias-correction method, based on fitted theoretical probability distribution transformations, is applied to improve monthly mean frequency, intensity and the amount of raw GCM precipitation predicted at a given weather station using CGCM3.1 and ECHAM5 for SRES A2 emission scenario. Bias-correction procedure adjusts GCM precipitation to approximate the long-term frequency and the intensity distribution observed at a given weather station. Index of agreement and mean absolute error are determined to assess the overall ability and performance of the bias correction method. The generated precipitation series aggregated at monthly time step was perturbed by the change factors

  3. Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Tran D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners

  4. Effect of sporadic destratification, seasonal overturn and artificial mixing on CH4 emissions at the surface of a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, F.; Deshmukh, C.; Labat, D.; Pighini, S.; Vongkhamsao, A.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Godon, A.; Chanudet, V.; Descloux, S.; Serça, D.

    2015-07-01

    Inland waters in general and specifically freshwater reservoirs are recognized as source of CH4 to the atmosphere. Although the diffusion at the air-water interface is the most studied pathway, its spatial and temporal variations are poorly documented. We measured fortnightly CH4 concentrations and physico-chemical parameters at nine stations in a subtropical monomictic reservoir which was flooded in 2008 (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR). Based on these results, we quantified CH4 storage in the water column and diffusive fluxes from June 2009 to December 2012. We also compared emissions with aerobic methane oxidation calculated from Deshmukh et al. (2015). In this monomictic reservoir, the seasonal variations of CH4 concentration and storage were highly dependant of the thermal stratification. Hypolimnic CH4 concentration and CH4 storage reached their maximum in the warm dry season (WD) when the reservoir was stratified. They decreased during the warm wet (WW) season and reached its minimum after the reservoir overturned in the cool dry season (CD). The sharp decreases of the CH4 storage were concomitant with sporadic extreme diffusive fluxes (up to 200 mmol m-2 d-1). These hot moments of emissions occurred mostly in the inflow region in the WW season and during the overturn in the CD season in the area of the reservoir that has the highest CH4 storage. Although they corresponded to less than 10 % of the observations, these CH4 extreme emissions (> 5 mmol m-2 d-1) contributed up to 50 % of total annual emissions by diffusion. Based on our fortnightly monitoring, we determined that accurate estimation of the emissions can be determined from measurements made at least at a monthly frequency. During the transition between the WD and WW seasons, a new hotspot of emissions was identified upstream of the water intake where diffusive fluxes peaked at 600 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2010 down to 200 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2012. In the CD season, diffusive fluxes from this area were the

  5. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T.; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City. PMID:26781954

  6. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design: We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model. Results: High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52, females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21, people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63, and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28. Conclusions: In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.

  7. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1998-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  8. VIET NAM at the CROSSROADS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For example, companies will invest in research in one country, industrial design and engineering development in another, production in a third, initial sales in a fourth, and the headquarters of .... Deregulation — The core element of deregulation is the abolition of national controls over the cross-border movement of capital.

  9. Social entrepreneurship in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phi, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Despite its rapid growth, tourism has shown only modest success in addressing the issues of poverty and hunger in Asia and the Pacific. Community-based tourism (CBT) is a type of social entreprise that fosters cross-sectoral partnerships between government, business and the community. This chapter...

  10. K nam prijezzhajet "Tramvai "Zhelanije""...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    5.-7. juulini toimuvad Estonia teatris Moskva Mossoveti-nim. Teatri külalisetendused. Juri Jerjomini lavastus Tennessee Williamsi järgi "Tramm nimega Iha" : Blanche - Jevgenija Krjukova ja Stella - Jekaterina Gusseva,

  11. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For a long time, the real motivations behind the record growth rate in the rural economy following the land reform were not thoroughly researched, analyzed, ...... Private house construction companies are not sufficiently mature to take the initiatives required to supply the property market with housing for sale or rent.

  12. Biomass Business Opportunities Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwebe, D. [SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2012-03-15

    The goal of this survey is to provide a more specific and integral perspective in which niches, relevant policy development by the Vietnamese government, legislation and sustainability criteria are clearly addressed to benefit both the Dutch Private sector as well as to stimulate Dutch-Vietnamese cooperation and support the Vietnamese government in its search for tangible options to develop the desired enabling environment for a sustainable biomass/biofuel market. The following activities are defined to be executed to reach the goal of the project: Biomass availability in Vietnam (Chapter 2); Government of Vietnam and Energy (Chapter 3); The opportunities and barriers to enter the market in Vietnam (Chapter 4 and 5); Stakeholder analysis of the bio-energy sector (Chapter 6); and Recommendations (Chapter 7)

  13. Ne nuzhen nam bereg Turetskii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli õppejõu Lembo Tanningu raamat "Armeenia probleem" ja Hollandi välisministri Bernard Rudolf Boti välisministeeriumi pressikeskuses peetud loeng "Estonia, the Netherlands and our common European Future" seonduvad mõlemad Türgiga

  14. Review of monograph of Doctor of Medicine, Professor Prokopov V.O. «Drinking water of Ukraine: medical-ecologic and sanitary-hygiene aspects» edited by Doctor of Medicine, Academician of NAMS of Ukraine A.M. Serdiuk. – K.: Academic Press «Medicine», 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Review of monograph of Doctor ofMedicine, Professor Prokopov V.O. «Drinking water ofUkraine: medical-ecologic and sanitary-hygiene aspects»edited by Doctor of Medicine, Academician of NAMS ofUkraine A.M. Serdiuk. – K.: Academic Press «Medicine»,2016. – 400 p.

  15. Semidiurnal and seasonal variations in methane emissions from a sub-tropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2, Laos) measured by eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serca, D.; Guerin, F.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Descloux, S.; Chanudet, V.; Pighini, S.; Godon, A.; Guedant, P.

    2012-12-01

    The quantification of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) have become an important scientific issue. Hydroelectric reservoirs have been identified as considerable methane (CH4) sources to the atmosphere, especially in the tropics. Assessing these emissions and their variations on small and large time scale represent important challenges in our understanding of water-atmosphere exchange. In this context, objectives of this study are (i) to quantify the CH4 emissions, (ii) to determine the variations in the emissions on daily and seasonal time scale, and link these variations to environmental driving forces (iii) to compare different methodologies to assess CH4 emissions. Measurements of CH4 emissions were made in a recently impounded (in 2009) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir, Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The sampling strategy included three different types of flux measurement techniques: floating chambers, submerged funnels, and a micrometeorological station allowing for flux determination based on the eddy covariance technique (EC). We carried out flux measurements during four intensive field campaigns conducted in between May 2009 and June 2011. Eddy covariance system, composed by a 3D sonic anemometer coupled with a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer, was deployed on the mast in a large surface of open water corresponding to an homogeneous ecosystem (floodplain). Diffusive and bubbling fluxes were measured using respectively floating chambers and submerged funnel techniques around the mast. Our results from the all four field campaigns show that individual 30-min EC fluxes varied by 4 order of magnitude (from 0.01 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1). Average EC fluxes of individual campaigns varied inversely with water depth, from 5±3.5 to 28±16 mmol.m-2.day-1 for respectively from 10.5 to 2 m of water depths. Diffusive fluxes measured by floating chambers ranged between 0.2 and 3.2 mmol.m-2.day-1. Bubbling fluxes were found to be highly

  16. French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam Les politiques françaises envers les Chinois du Viêt Nam : études des migrations et des réponses du colonisateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramses Amer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the patterns of Chinese migration to and from Vietnam as well as the demographic changes relating to the Chinese residing in the country. It also outlines how the French authorities responded to the arrival of the Chinese and how they treated them. The focus is on the period of French control over the whole of Vietnam from 1883 to 1954. The French authorities did pay considerable attention to the Chinese migration to Vietnam. The policies of the French aimed at keeping a close surveillance on the Chinese. To administer the Chinese communities the French opted to maintain the system of indirect control introduced by the Vietnamese Emperors. During the period of French rule the Chinese population grew considerably. Chinese migration to and from Vietnam was influenced by the political evolution in China and by repercussions of international economic developments. Thus, the French authorities could influence the migrants when they arrived or departed, but the decision to migrate was primarily due to other factors.Cette étude examine les modèles de la migration chinoise à destination et en provenance du Viêt Nam de même que les changements démographiques concernant les Chinois résidant dans le pays. Elle précise également les réponses des autorités françaises à l’arrivée des Chinois et le traitement qui leur était réservé. Elle traite tout spécialement la période du contrôle français sur le Viêt Nam de 1883 à 1954. Car les autorités françaises ont porté un intérêt considérable à la migration des Chinois au Viêt Nam. La politique française consistait à surveiller de près les Chinois. Pour l’administration des communautés chinoises les Français ont choisi de conserver le système de contrôle indirect mis en place par les empereurs vietnamiens. La population chinoise connut une croissance considérable pendant la période française. La migration vers et depuis le Viêt Nam était influenc

  17. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keawrayup S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758, S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2% and S. calcitrans (49.5%. S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%. The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05. The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00 during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies.

  18. Namık Kemal’in Sanat/Sanatçı Algısında Romantizm ve Victor Hugo Etkisi Influence of Romanticism and Victor Hugo on Namık Kemal’s Perception of Art/Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalim AYDIN

    2012-09-01

    ağdaşlaşma, yenilenme ihtiyacıyla yüzünü Batı’ya çevirdiği bir yapılanma dönemidir. Tanzimat edebiyatı da bu sürecin edebi tarafını oluşturmuştur. Dönemin diğer yazarları gibi bu edebiyatın en büyük simalarından N. Kemal’in üzerinde de romantizmin ve özellikle Hugo’nun etkilerinin büyük boyutlarda olduğu bilinen bir şeydir. Hugo’nun şiirlerini de okumakla beraber tiyatroları ve romanlarına daha büyük ilgi duyan N. Kemal’de bu ilginin sonuçları kendini göstermekte gecikmez. Eserlerinde, büyük bir Hugo hayranlığı sonucu, romantizmin ve şefinin etkileri aslında artık herkesin bildiği “Hernani-Zavallı Çocuk” ve “Cromwell Önsözü-Celaleddin Önsözü” ile sınırlı değildir. Ama bu çalışmada asıl üzerinde durmak istediğimiz şey, N. Kemal’in sanat ve sanatçı algısında romantizm ve Hugo’nun etki veya katkısının mahiyetidir. Klasik okulun akılcılığı, kuralcılığı ve hitapta benimsediği seçkinciliğine karşı bir devrim gerçekleştiren romantik okulla, edebiyatı geniş bir perspektife yaymakla beraber bir tezin savunulması (litterature engagée biçiminde de algılayan Hugo’nun yazarımız üzerindeki etki ve/ya yönlendirmelerin ne kadar etkin olduğu çalışmamızın cevabını bulmaya çalıştığı temel soru olacaktır. Çalışmada da üzerinde durduğumuz gibi, esasen Hugo tarzı sanat ve edebiyat yapma biçimi Namık Kemal’in edebiyattan beklentilerine büyük ölçüde uyuyordu. Ne de olsa o da Hugo gibi, kemal de yeni bir toplum oluşturmada sanat ve edebiyatın büyük rolüne inanıyordu. Bu bağlamda, “Realizme ve temsilcilerine yönelseydi acaba bu gün karşımızda yine aynı Kemal’i bulur muyduk? Kemal’in gür halkçı sesiyle romantik bireyciliği nasıl bağdaştırmalı?” gibi sorular çalışmada bizi meşgul edecek sorulardır.

  19. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  20. Išreikštinės ir neišreikštinės žinios pasyviųjų namų statyboje, žinių modeliai pasaulyje ir Lietuvoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenija Rutė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lietuvoje ypač aktualus tampa pastato eksploatacinių išlaidų optimizavimas. Žmonės renkasi šiltesnį būstą, domisi naujausiais inžinerinių sistemų sprendimais. Išlaidų šildymui sumažinti ne 10–20 %, bet bent kelis kartus, ieškomas geriausias šildymo išlaidų optimizavimo būdas. Straipsnyje aptarti pasaulyje atlikti pasyvaus būsto moksliniai tyrimai, bei pasyvaus namo modeliai. Išaiškinti ir palyginti įvairių šalių pasyvių namų statybos ypatumai, priklausomai nuo klimato sąlygų. Daugelyje šalių yra palaikomos ankstesnės statybų tradicijos. Puikių pasyviojo namo šiluminės varžos ir ekonomiškumo rezultatų galima pasiekti kompleksiškai taikant optimalius architektūrinius, statybinius ir inžinerinius sprendimus, siekti geresnių medžiagų panaudojimo, tobulinti ir kaupti praktikos įgūdžius statyboje. Jei rinkos sąlygos leidžia, turimas žinias reikia struktūrinti. Pastebima, kad Lietuvoje ir pasaulyje statybos pramonės viduje išreikštinių ir neišreikštinių žinių sąvokos vis dar stokoja pakankamo dėmesio, neatsižvelgiant į tai, kad tinkamas supratimas ir turimų išteklių vadyba turi didžiulę reikšmę siekiant geresnių tendencijų projektavime, o taip pat neišreikštų žinių generavime ir panaudojime statyboje.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  1. Na koi nam "Nokia" / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2008-01-01

    OÜ Krimelte, AS-i Estonia Klaverivabrik, AS-i Silbet, AS-i Standard, AS-i Wendre, BLRT Grupi ja Viru Keemia Grupi kui Eesti olulisemate ettevõtete majandusnäitajatest ning kohast Eestis ja maailmaturul. Lisa: Juhtivate eksportijate mitteametlik reiting

  2. Gaz nam ne ukaz / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Valitsuse eitavast otsusest Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme uuringute taotlusele, välisminister Urmas Paeti kommentaaridest pressikonverentsil. Välisminister leiab, et antud olukorras oli valitsuse otsus ainuõige

  3. Livan ne po nam / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet tutvustas ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu Liibanoni resolutsiooni täitmise käiku. Eestil puudub hetkel ressurss sõjaväelaste saatmiseks pingekoldesse, kuid ollakse valmis osutama humanitaarabi

  4. Finnõ nam pomogut / Andrei Sharomov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharomov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Narva linnavolikogu esimees Mihhail Stalnuhhin, linnavolikogu liige Vladimir Homjakov, Riigikogu liige Eldar Efendijev ja energeetika ekspert Lev Kelman tutvusid Helsingis soojusenergiat tootva ettevõtte tööga

  5. Sladkaja zhizn oboidjotsja nam dorogo / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2006-01-01

    Kui pärast Nõukogude Liidu lagunemist oldi mures ajude äravoolu pärast, siis praegu teeb muret töökäte lahkumine ja kvalifitseeritud spetsialistide puudus. Mitteametlikel andmetel töötavad ligi 30 000 Eesti elanikku välisriikides. Töökäte puudus on kaasa toonud kiire palgatõusu, millega omakorda kaasneb tarbimise kasv. Välistööjõud Eesti turul

  6. Fish marketing and credit in Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lem, Audun

    2004-01-01

    .... State-owned financial institutions play a major role in financing capital expenditure while working capital requirements are mainly met by informal sources of credit. However, future investment requirements and credit needs are greater than currently available.

  7. Viet Nam National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Vietnam National Atomic Energy Commission (VINATOM) is a governmental body in charge of organizing and coordinating activities related to use of nuclear energy for peaceful purpose. VINATOM in structure consists of the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat), the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Hanoi), the Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements (Hanoi), and the Centre for Nuclear Technique Application (Ho Chi Minh City). This catalogue introduces profiles of nuclear R and D activities under management by VINATOM. (N.H.A)

  8. Tshto god grjadushtshii nam... / Lev Golub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Golub, Lev

    2008-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Eesti majanduse hetkeolukorda ja tulevikku. Ta leiab, et meie valitsus ja peaminister ei näe riigi majanduses mingeid erilisi probleeme ja raskusi, räägitakse nn. pehmest maandumisest

  9. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40

  10. Phylogenomic analyses of Tsukamurella: reclassification of Tsukamurella spongiae Olson et al. 2007, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Park et al. 2009 and Tsukamurella sunchonensis Seong et al. 2008 as later heterotypic synonyms of Tsukamurella pulmonis Yassin et al. 1996, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens Yassin et al. 1997 and Tsukamurella pseudospumae Nam et al. 2004, respectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade LL Teng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the highly similar phenotypic profiles, protein spectra and 16S rRNA gene sequences observed between three pairs of Tsukamurella species (Tsukamurella pulmonis/Tsukamurella spongiae, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens/Tsukamurella carboxydivorans and Tsukamurella pseudospumae/Tsukamurella sunchonensis, we hypothesize that and the six Tsukamurella species may have been misclassified and that there may only be three Tsukamurella species. In this study, we characterized the type strains of these six Tsukamurella species by tradition DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH and digital DDH after genome sequencing to determine their exact taxonomic positions. Traditional DDH showed 81.2±0.6% to 99.7±1.0% DNA-DNA relatedness between the two Tsukamurella species in each of the three pairs, which was above the threshold for same species designation. Digital DDH based on Genome-To-Genome Distance Calculator (GGDC and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI for the three pairs also showed similarity results in the range of 82.3-92.9% and 98.1-99.1% respectively, in line with results of traditional DDH. Based on these evidence and according to Rules 23a and 42 of the Bacteriological Code, we propose that T. spongiae Olson et al. 2007 should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of T. pulmonis Yassin et al. 1996, T. carboxydivorans Park et al. 2009 as a later heterotypic synonym of T. tyrosinosolvens Yassin et al. 1997, and T. sunchonensis Seong et al. 2008 as a later heterotypic synonym of T. pseudospumae Nam et al. 2004. With the advancement of genome sequencing technologies, classification of bacterial species can be readily achieved by digital DDH than traditional DDH.

  11. Le Recul de la Forêt au Viet Nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La voie de recherche et les outils d'analyse utilisés dans le cadre de ce projet étaient nouveaux pour les Vietnamiens, et les conditions sur le terrain étaient nouvelles pour les Canadiens; c'est donc dire que tous les participants ont réalisé un apprentissage important. L'expérience a démontré l'efficacité et l'utilité de telles ...

  12. Nam garantirujut zashtshitu i pokrovitelstvo / Juri Mishin ; interv. Jekaterina Moskalenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mishin, Juri

    2002-01-01

    Eesti delegatsioon koosseisus külastasid J. Mishin, J. Tomberg, A. Jakushev, P. Rozhok, E. Shur, V. Ivanov, S. Kalinkin ja L. Kashnova Venemaa Riigiduumat, kus arutati kaasmaalaste probleeme SRÜ riikides ja Baltimaades

  13. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En 1986, le Vietnam a commencé à libéraliser de façon générale tous les secteurs de son économie auparavant rigide, centralisée et fermée. Appelée doi moi, cette " rénovation " a modifié du tout au tout la vie des agriculteurs et des travailleurs vietnamiens, de même que celle de leur famille. La production agricole a ...

  14. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam: The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They examine how the policy shift of doi moi has affected rural development, urban housing, household economy, and social welfare. Collaborating with Canadian scholars, they draw upon original field surveys, historical documents, and census material to study the evolution of doi moi and its implications for the future ...

  15. Ljudi, kotorõhh nam opredelili / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2002-01-01

    Autor analüüsib president Arnold Rüütli, välisminister Kristiina Ojulandi, sotsiaalminister Siiri Oviiri ja kaitseminister Sven Mikseri tööd. Pealk. ajalehes Molodjozh Estonii (2002/Oct/12) lk. 15: "Tsõpljat po oseni stshitajut". Tõlgitud ajalehest Eesti Ekspress (2002/Oct/3): "Inimesed, kes on meile määratud"

  16. Tshto nam dast Jevroparlament? / Siiri Oviir ; interv. Nelli Kuznetsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oviir, Siiri, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Siiri Oviir vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema eesmärke ja töösuundi Euroopa Parlamendis, kuulumist liberaalide fraktsiooni, Toomas Hendrik Ilvese valimist europarlamenti, migratsioonilaine võimalikkust, Eesti vene saadikute kõrvalejäämist europarlamendist,

  17. Dorogi, kotorõje nam võbirajut / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2005-01-01

    Eestis jätkub aktiivne elamu- ja tee-ehitus, suuri probleeme ehitusmaterjalide tarnimisega elamuehituse või tee-ehituse tarbeks sel aastal ei ole olnud. Ehitusmaterjalide tootmise probleemideks on kujunemas loodusressursside kaevandamise perspektiivid ja planeeritav keskkonnamaksude tõus

  18. Nam ljubõje dorogi dorogi / Sergei Kolikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolikov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    Tänavu on remonditakse Tallinn-Tartu maanteed 183 miljoni krooni eest, 60 kilomeetrise Tallinn-Peterburi maanteelõigu rekonstrueerimiseks määras Euroopa Komisjon küll 392 miljonit krooni, kuid töö lükkub järgmisse aastasse. Teetööde vähenemine võib mõned ettevõtted viia pankroti piirile

  19. Vse teatrõ v gosti k nam / Irina Butjajeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Butjajeva, Irina

    2005-01-01

    25.-27. märtsini toimub Vene Kultuurikeskuses esimene rahvusvaheline festival "Baltiiski bereg" (Balti kallas). Tutvustatakse festivalil osalevaid lasteteatreid. Ürituse organisaatoriks on Teater Grotesk

  20. Kto s ognjom k nam prijedjet... / Vladimir Fridljand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fridljand, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    22. septembril Tallinnas Tõnismäe pronkssõduri juures kavandatavast fašismi ohvritele pühendatud üritusest, mille initsiaatoriteks on Eesti neonatsismi ja rahvustevahelise vaenu vastane komitee ning Venemaa partei Ühtne Venemaa Peterburi regionaalne osakond. Eesti poliitikute reageeringutest

  1. Rossiiskije artistõ objavili nam boikot? / Nikolai Karajev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karajev, Nikolai, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Venemaa artistid ei soovi tulla Eestisse külalisesinemistele poliitilistel põhjustel ja väidetavalt valmistub Venemaa suurejooneliseks propagandasõjaks, kaitstes pronkssõduri jäämist samale kohale

  2. Synthesis of Cascadable DDCC-Based Universal Filter Using NAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Duy Tran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel systematic approach for synthesizing DDCC-based voltage-mode biquadratic universal filters is proposed. The DDCCs are described by infinity-variables’ models of nullor-mirror elements which can be used in the nodal admittance matrix expansion process. Applying the proposed method, the obtained 12 equivalent filters offer the following features: multi-input and two outputs, realization of all five standard filter functions, namely lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch and allpass, high-input impedance, employing only grounded capacitors and resistors, orthogonal controllability between pole frequency and quality factor, and cascadable, low active and passive sensitivities. The workability of some synthesized filters is verified by HSPICE simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    -39 kg weight bracket received insufficient dosages. This was almost entirely attributable to patients at the end of the weight bracket. Nevertheless, no significant association was found between treatment failure and death, body weight and insufficient RMP dosage. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to national...

  4. Tshto nesjot nam mirnõi atom / Julia Zalutskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zalutskaja, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Kui Eestisse otsustatakse rajada tuumaelektrijaam, ei lähe see ekspluatatsiooni enne 2025. aastat. Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive hinnangul ei asendaks tuumaelektrijaam ei põlevkivienergeetikat, vaid need täiendaksid teineteist

  5. Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. This is largely due to less systematic maintenance of medical records, and death and disease registries, and lower levels of chronic care services than in higher income ...

  6. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viêt-nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La pollution peut être identifiée à trois sources : les rejets industriels, les rejets des hôpitaux et les rejets domestiques. ...... et la malnutrition n'a pas été au-delà du maintien et du respect de la sécurité publique et de l'ordre social à rencontre des pauvres qui travaillent comme porteurs aux stations de bus et au marché.

  7. V Kieve vesna, snova nam ne do sna... / Dmitri Bõkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bõkov, Dmitri

    2006-01-01

    Võrreldes 2004. a. nn oranzhi revolutsiooniga on Ukraina sisepoliitiline olukord rahunenud, Venemaa osa protsessides, sisepoliitilisest olukorrast riigis enne 26. märtsil toimuvaid parlamendivalimisi

  8. Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... During the war, however, the region was a frequent target of chemical defoliants and bombs, which destroyed much of its natural forest cover. ... limited education; rapid population growth (six people per household, on average); decreasing natural resources; severe flooding and unstable water resources.

  9. The energy and electric development in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Khac, Nhan

    2015-11-01

    After a description of the Vietnamese geography and economy, this report presents the Vietnamese energy system, comments the status and origin of electricity production in this country (shares of hydraulic, gas turbine, coal production, and imports). Then, the author presents the various aspects defined within the electric energy development plan for 2011-2020 with a projection until 2030: development principles, objectives, instructions for production plants and for grids, and investments. He proposes a focus on hydroelectricity (meteorological data regarding precipitations, status and power of existing dams, situation and negotiation about the Mekong, problems associated with the development of hydroelectricity in Vietnam), and a focus on the relationship between nuclear energy and climate change (safety issues due to climate change, nuclear plant projects are postponed, the only strategic choice is a massive exploitation of renewable energies). In the last part, the author discusses predictions regarding energy demand, and the associated planning and programming to face this increasing demand

  10. Penser le nationalisme révolutionnaire au Việt Nam : Identités politiques et itinéraires singuliers à la recherche d’une hypothétique « Troisième voie » Conceptualizing Vietnam’s Revolutionary Nationalism: Political Identities and Singular Itineraries in Search of a Hypothetical « Third Way »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Guillemot

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Principalement à partir des sources vietnamiennes, cet article se propose de présenter succinctement les différents courants politiques non communistes qui ont marqué le xxe siècle au Viêt-Nam. Plus particulièrement, il s’attache à rendre compte de la vigueur du courant nationaliste révolutionnaire incarné principalement par les mouvements nationalistes VNQDĐ, Đại Việt ou Cần Lao, d’en identifier les fondateurs (Trương Tử Anh, Lý Đông A, Ngô Đình Diệm ou les acteurs et de les replacer dans le processus historique de la révolution vietnamienne. L’étude de ces personnages et mouvements oubliés de l’historiographie officielle est une des clés de compréhension majeure de l’histoire politique du Viêt-Nam au xxe siècle. L’article présente un volet historiographique, un volet identification (mouvements, doctrines, fondateurs, acteurs et se termine par une mise en perspective sur un près d’un siècle de luttes des années vingt jusqu’à nos jours. Il apparaît ainsi nettement que les nouveaux mouvements politiques clandestins d’aujourd’hui s’inscrivent dans une certaine continuité historique. La conclusion interroge l’échec de cette élite révolutionnaire dans ses tentatives d’instauration d’une « Troisième voie » de type national progressiste qui plonge ses racines dans le nationalisme révolutionnaire de Phan Bội Châu.Primarily from Vietnamese sources, this article aims to briefly introduce the various non-communist political movements that marked the 20th century in Vietnam. More particularly, it focuses on the vitality of revolutionary nationalist movements mainly embodied by nationalist groups such as VNQDD, Dai Viet or Can Lao to identify the founders (Truong Tu Anh, Ly Dong A, Ngo Dinh Diem and actors, as well as to situate them in the historical process of the Vietnamese revolution. The study of these political figures and movements, forgotten by official

  11. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat and gold mine Daksa.

  12. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment: examples from Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparre, Per

    2000-01-01

    .... The data collection programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery...

  13. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  14. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Alex [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31

    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (askatz@berkeley.edu), in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States.

  15. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam : Hanoi et Hô Chi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'enquête a d'abord tenté d'identifier et de qualifier la pauvreté urbaine à Hanoi et à Hô Chi Minh-Ville. Elle est plus diffuse et moins reconnue à Hanoi; elle est concentrée sur les canaux à Hô Chi Minh-Ville où existe depuis longtemps une " culture de la pauvreté ". L'apport le plus important des recherches a été la mise en ...

  16. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages

  17. Culture and cooperation: cooperative learning in Asian Confucian heritage cultures. The case of Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is

  18. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    will have budget to finance public expenditures but the income tax burden could reduce both demand and supply, as well as the output, jobs and compensation. Our calculations give the results of two betas: equity and asset beta which can be used in the CAPM model and in WACC formula to estimate cost of equity.

  19. SOME SOLUTIONS TO RESPOND CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE MEKONG DELTA, VIET NAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Mekong River Delta has suffered quite significant impacts of climate change. Fluctuations of weather elements and sea level rises have caused adverse changes, namely: the appearance of unusual high and low levels of annual floods, more and more intense storms, more severe droughts, forest fires, river erosion, cyclones, and tidal surges appear increasingly more dangerous. Traditional adaptation measures to the environmental conditions may be unsuitable in the context of climate change in the Mekong River Delta. This paper summarizes some of the new adaptation measures that scientists and policy planners have proposed for the area to cope with the negative impacts of climate change.

  20. Livelihood strategies under the constraints of climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most.......This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most....

  1. Le recul de la forêt au Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage précoce lors du forum sur la condition des femmes à l'ONU. Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme. Voir davantageUn débat d'experts organisé par ...

  2. Võ k nam, a mõ k vam... / Nelli Kuznetsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuznetsova, Nelli

    2008-01-01

    Vene Kunstnike Ühenduse 10. aastapäevale pühendatud kevadnäitus toimus Würthi galeriis ja Kohtla-Järve Linnagaleriis. Filmi näituste avamistest, eksponeeritud töödest ja aruteludest näidati Vene kultuurikeskuses. Slava Semerikovi, Anatoli Strahhovi ja Valeri Smirnovi maalidest. Vene Kunstnike Ühenduse tegemisi kommenteerib Valeri Smirnov

  3. Skoro nam pjatnadtsat. Mõ belõje i pushistõje? / Arvo Sirendi ; interv. Tatjana Opekina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sirendi, Arvo, 1939-

    2006-01-01

    Põllumajandusdoktor, ERL-i liige vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Eesti taasiseseisvumisega, toimunud muutustega maaelus ja põllumajanduses ning tervishoius viimasel viieteistkümnel aastal, Eesti-Vene suhetega

  4. Paet : "Nam ne vsjo ravno, kto investirujet v ER" / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet viitas välispoliitika arutelul Riigikogus vajadusele kontrollida Vene välisinvesteeringute julgeolekuriske, seda peamiselt tundlikes valdkondades nagu energeetika ja infrastruktuurid

  5. Kak eto nam poljubitsa, ili Ljubov i nenavist Timofeja Sopoleva / Timofei Sopoljov ; interv. Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sopoljov, Timofei

    2006-01-01

    William Shakespeare'i "Kuidas teile meeldib", lavastaja Timofei Sopoljov, muusika autor helilooja Aleksei Shelõgin. Lavastaja meenutab ka oma teatriõpinguid lavastaja ja teatripedagoogi Andrei Gontsharovi käe all

  6. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  7. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay

    2011-01-01

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all ...

  8. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Viet Nam. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nguyen Ba; Long, Vu Van; Tam, Phan Thanh; Sinh, Nguyen Thi

    Vietnam started market reforms earlier than other countries in Southeast Asia and is used as a role model by the Asian Development Bank. Nevertheless, complicated bureaucracy and regional differences hinder improvements in financial management in education. The budgeting process, in particular, is cumbersome. This book presents a report of a…

  9. CASE STUDY: Viet Nam — Emphasis on people, not things, calms ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Dec 15, 2010 ... Aquaculture boom threatens livelihoods and the environment The unregulated expansion of aquaculture in a huge coastal lagoon was making it impossible for poor mobile fishers to make a living, and threatening the environment of the lagoon itself. With local government officials unable or unwilling to act, ...

  10. Peinamine, a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from arrow tips (pei-namô) of the Upper Orinoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeffi, C; Scarpetti, P; Marini-Bettolo, G B

    1977-09-01

    A new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid has been isolated from a curare of the Upper Orinoco region. The curare is made by Indians from an unknown plant (probably Menispermacea) and is kept on arrow tips. The structure of the alkaloid, named peinamine, has been elucidated on the basis of its chemical reactions and spectroscopic data (N.M.R., M.S. and O.R.D.).

  11. Nam et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2018) 15 (1): 183 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-29

    , compared to that of 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, 100 µM), a known agonist of TRPV3. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PC and BC extracts have therapeutic potential to improve skin barrier abnormalities in ...

  12. Vietnamese Refugee. Orientation Handbook. (Nguoi Ti Nan Viet Nam. Sach Chi Dan.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Family Assistance.

    This is a bilingual orientation handbook for Vietnamese refugees in the United States. The handbook provides information on refugee status, its legal definition and obligations. General information presented about the United States includes a description of the land, climate, people, government, and a list of national holidays. Living conditions…

  13. Livelihood strategies under climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability......Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability...

  14. TLALOCNet continuous GPS-Met Array in Mexico supporting the 2017 NAM GPS Hydrometeorological Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Vivoni, E. R.; Grutter, M.; Serra, Y. L.; DeMets, C.; Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a network of continuous GPS and meteorology stations in Mexico to study atmospheric and solid earth processes. This recently completed network spans most of Mexico with a strong coverage emphasis on southern and western Mexico. This network, funded by NSF, CONACyT and UNAM, recently built 40 cGPS-Met sites to EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory standards and upgraded 25 additional GPS stations. TLALOCNet provides open and freely available raw GPS data, and high frequency surface meteorology measurements, and time series of daily positions. This is accomplished through the development of the TLALOCNet data center (http://tlalocnet.udg.mx) that serves as a collection and distribution point. This data center is based on UNAVCO's Dataworks-GSAC software and also works as part of UNAVCO's seamless archive for discovery, sharing, and access to GPS data. The TLALOCNet data center also contains contributed data from several regional GPS networks in Mexico for a total of 100+ stations. By using the same protocols and structure as the UNAVCO and other COCONet regional data centers, the scientific community has the capability of accessing data from the largest Mexican GPS network. This archive provides a fully queryable and scriptable GPS and Meteorological data retrieval point. In addition, real-time 1Hz streams from selected TLALOCNet stations are available in BINEX, RTCM 2.3 and RTCM 3.1 formats via the Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) for real-time seismic and weather forecasting applications. TLALOCNet served as a GPS-Met backbone for the binational Mexico-US North American Monsoon GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017 campaign experiment. This innovative experiment attempts to address water vapor source regions and land-surface water vapor flux contributions to precipitation (i.e., moisture recycling) during the 2017 North American Monsoon in Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona. Models suggest that moisture recycling is a large contributor to summer rainfall. This experiment represents a first attempt to quantify the surface water vapor flux contribution to GPS-derived precipitable water vapor. Preliminary results from this campaign are presented.

  15. Samozvantsev nam ne nado, komandirom budu ja / Maksim Shmeljov, Aleksandr Tshaplõgin, Leivi Sher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmeljov, Maksim

    2007-01-01

    Kas Konstitutsioonipartei nimekirjas parlamendivalimistel kandideeriv Dmitri Linter ja tema kaaslased võivad kasutada liikumise Notshnoi dozor brändi ND omakasupüüdlikel eesmärkidel, küsivad autorid

  16. Karkasinių namų šiluminės izoliacijos savybių tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Gailiušis, Šarūnas

    2016-01-01

    In final master degree work I research thermal insulation characteristics for wooden frame house. The final master degree work consist three main parts. In the first one I explain the conception of wooden frame house and main thermal insulation used in wooden frame house are detailed in it. In the second part I analyze thermal insulations fire proof properties, density and the absorption of the water. In the third part I examine properties of three main thermal insulation brand companies: ...

  17. Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Interested readers will include government officials and policymakers in science and technology; academics, researchers, professors,and university students in development studies, policy studies, and Asian studies; public and private businesses involved, or interested in becoming involved, in the changing economy of Viet ...

  18. Uranium leaching and recovery from sandstone ores of Nong Son Basin (Viet Nam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H.T.; Le, Q.T.; Dinh, M.T.; Than, V.L.; Le, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Sandstone ores containing uranium in Nong Son area were treated to recover uranium in the form of MDU. These ores are classified into 3 categories depending on the weathering degree, giving different chemical composition as shown. The amount of calcium carbonate (g CaCO 3 /100g of ore) reacted with HCI under different conditions of temperature and time shows that stirring method requires high acid consumption. The results obtained from static leaching of the 3 ore categories shows that leaching efficiency largely depends on the weathering degree and particle size of ore. The lowest leaching efficiency was observed for non-weathered ore. In order to increase uranium extraction this ore was ground to the size of max. 2.5mm, and then incubated by 40% H 2 SO 4 for 48 hours with the addition of KCIO 3 (3 kg/tone of ore) as oxidant. The results of acid pugging showed that uranium extraction efficiency reached min. 92%. The proposed flow-sheet for obtaining yellowcake is presented. The leaching experiments were carried out under the following conditions: Particle size of ore: Weathered: max. 30mm, Semi-weathered: max. 10mm, Non-weathered: max. 2.5mm (incubated by 40% H 2 SO 4 ); Temperature 25-30 deg. C; Redox potential; pH1, acid consumption: 40-50 kg/ore tone. Leaching efficiency reached 90%. Uranium concentration in the solution after 8-stage counter-current leaching was min. 4 g/L, uranium content in solid waste 0.01%. Leaching solution was filtered and directly neutralized through two stages to precipitate yellowcake. Experimental data showed that the uranium recovery reached 90%. Yellowcake product met the relevant specifications and had U 3 O 8 content of minimum 76%

  19. Globos namų auklėtinių adaptacijos mokykloje ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Samašonok, Kristina; Gudonis, Vytautas; Žukauskienė, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Factors determining undesirable adaptation of children living in foster homes, such as unfavourable conditions of self-development in the family, living conditions at foster homes, negative influence of school and peer groups are analysed in the paper. The research aims to determine the differences of evaluation levels of emotional problems, social status in the same age group and academic achievements of teenagers living in foster homes and teenagers living with both parents. Besides, the re...

  20. Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. This is largely due to less systematic maintenance of medical records, and death and disease registries, and lower levels of chronic care services than in higher income ...

  1. Viet Nam at the Crossroads : The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI et l' ACDI ont répondu en confiant à une équipe de spécialistes une mission qui avait les objectifs suivants : évaluer l'impact que les politiques sur les sciences et la technologie en vigueur au Vietnam ont sur le développement économique et social du pays;. comparer l'expérience du Vietnam dans le domaine des ...

  2. Explaining tourists satisfaction and intention to revisit Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thi Ai Cam

    2011-01-01

    The first purpose of the thesis is to find how visitors evaluate the quality of different facets or attributes of a destination image of Nha Trang, how satisfied they are with Nha Trang, loyalty intention to revisit and willingness to recommend Nha Trang to others. The second is to investigate what “image” is most important to explain global satisfaction with visiting Nha Trang. The third is to investigate how perceived quality, satisfaction and other motivational or dismotivational factors ...

  3. Neoliberalizm polskich 'gender studies'. Czy to 'backlash' odbiera nam słuchaczki/słuchaczy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Duda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available "Neoliberalism of Polish 'gender studies'. Is 'backlash' a reaction, which collects our students?" In this text I present today’s condition of Polish gender studies that are conducted as postgraduate studies. In most of the cities it is impossible to form groups of students. It is believed that “responsible” for this state are backlash and campaign called “gender ideology”. Unfortunately these problems with enrollment have appeared earlier. In my presentation I describe the neoliberal shape of chargeable postgraduate studies that are conducted in large cities. Joining these groups depends on economic factors and free time of the students. An important aspect is also practical dimension of gender studies – students should develop themselves and their abilities. In accordance with the guidelines of postgraduate studies students should improve their professional skills. There is also a problem with the language of information/promotion campaign, as we use it as an instrument to encourage people to take part in these group activities. The language very often uses capitalist and stereotypical concepts profit and investment in yourself. The presentation is the critical voice of lecturer, who was teaching gender studies in Warsaw and was participating in forming “genders” in Poznan and Szczecin.

  4. Evaluation of microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay for diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thi Minh Ha; Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Lan; Wolbers, Marcel; Vo, Sy Kiet; Hoang, Thi Thanh Hang; Nguyen, Hong Duc; To, My Huong; Vuong, Minh Bach; Nguyen, Thi Phuong Thao; Tran, Van Quyet; Nguyen, Thi Bich Tuyen; Vo, Thi Ha; Nguyen, Thi Nho; Dai, Viet Hoa; Phan, Thi Hoang Anh; Nguyen, Huy Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Caws, Maxine

    2012-03-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay as a direct rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for MDR-TB screening in sputum samples All adult TB suspects, who were newly presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital from August to November 2008 were enrolled into the study. Processed sputum samples were used for DST by MODS (DST-MODS) (Rifampicin (RIF) 1 μg/ml and Isoniazid (INH) 0.4 μg/ml), MGIT culture (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube) and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture. Cultures positive by either MGIT or LJ were used for proportional DST (DST-LJ) (RIF 40 μg/ml and INH 0.2 μg/ml). DST profiles on MODS and LJ were compared. Discrepant results were resolved by multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Seven hundred and nine TB suspects/samples were enrolled into the study, of which 300 samples with DST profiles available from both MODS and DST-LJ were analyzed. Cording in MODS was unable to correctly identify 3 Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) isolates, resulting in 3 false positive TB diagnoses. None of these isolates were identified as MDR-TB by MODS. The sensitivity and specificity of MODS were 72.6% (95%CI: 59.8, 83.1) and 97.9% (95%CI: 95.2, 99.3), respectively for detection of INH resistant isolates, 72.7% (95%CI: 30.9, 93.7) and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9), respectively for detecting RIF resistant isolates and 77.8% (95%CI: 39.9, 97.1) and 99.7% (95%CI: 98.1, 99.9), respectively for detecting MDR isolates. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of DST-MODS were 87.5% (95%CI: 47.3, 99.6) and 99.3% (95%CI: 97.5, 99.9) for detection of MDR isolates; and the agreement between MODS and DST-LJ was 99.0% (kappa: 0.8, P drug resistance detection was probably due to low bacterial load samples and the high INH concentration (0.4 μg/ml). The low PPV of DST-MODS may be due to the low MDR-TB rate in the study population (3.8%). The turnaround time of DST-MODS was 9 days and 53 days for DST-LJ. The DST-MODS technique is rapid with low contamination rates. However, the sensitivity of DST-MODS for detection of INH and RIF resistance in this study was lower than reported from other settings.

  5. Atos de memória : as comemorações herero em Okahandja, Namíbia

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Josué Tomasini

    2009-01-01

    Esta dissertação explora as relações entre memória e identidade. Para tanto tomo as comemorações herero em Okahandja como o espaço etnográfico para análise, refletindo sobre a criação de um projeto identitário herero que tem como princípio articulador a memória do colonialismo alemão e, mais tarde, sul-africano. Nesse sentido, penso em atos de memória como atos de identidade procurando abordar tanto memória como identidade a partir de uma perspectiva processual, isto é, focando em processos d...

  6. Situation analysis of quality of abortion care in the main maternity hospital in Hai Phòng, Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My H Ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    cultural values influenced quality of care. A quantitative and qualitative approach was employed: a three-part structured survey with 748 women before and after they had an abortion, 20 in-depth interviews with women just after abortion, seven informal interviews with health care staff and 100 participant...

  7. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; van, Tan Le; Song, Diep To; Thi, Phuong Le; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance; Loi, Tran Quoc; Son, Nguyen Truong; Bay, Phan Van Be; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Phuong, Le Thi; Tri, Le Trung; Binh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Du, Doan Cong; Thao, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Tien, Truong Thi My; La, Tran Thi Phi; Cong, Bui Van; Diep, Pham Ngoc; Dong, Duong Phuoc; Lanh, Tran Thi Mong; Dom, Pham Van; Dung, Tran Quang; Tri, Phan Nhut; Ho, Tang Thi; Tai, Nguyen Anh; Luc, Quach Van; Phuoc, Dinh Xuan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date

  8. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange in a tropical dry forest as influenced by the North American Monsoon System (NAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the effects and relationship between precipitation, net ecosystem carbon dioxide (NEE) and water vapor exchange (ET), we report a study conducted in the tropical dry forest (TDF) in the northwest of Mexico. Ecosystem gas exchange was measured using the eddy correlation technique...

  9. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Van Luong, Vo; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1% female respondents ever consumed alcohol. Males reporting sexual behaviors (vaginal, anal, oral sex) had a significantly higher calculated peak BAC o...

  10. Vliv tepelného namáhání na interakci moravské droby s vodou

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Handzelová, B.; Martinec, Petr; Ščučka, Jiří; Vičarová, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 31-38 ISSN 1804-4824 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : greywacke * water absorption * evaporation * thermal stability * porosity Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.fast.vsb.cz/export/sites/fast/cs/veda-a-vyzkum/odborna-cinnost-fakulty/sbornik-vedeckych-praci/archiv-vydanych-sborniku/sbornik-vsb-tuo-fast-2013-1.pdf

  11. Vliv typu vazby historického zdiva na jeho teplotní namáhání

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2013), s. 248-253 ISSN 1805-2576 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : thermal expansion * masonry * thermal stress * compatibility Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://www.stavebniobzor.cz/clanek/vliv-typu-vazby-historickeho-zdiva-na-jeho-teplotni-namahani/

  12. Managing Hotel’s Operation in Viet Nam in Global Economic Crisis : A case study on cost reduction in hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research for this thesis is to find out the costs which can be reduced in hotels in Vietnam to copes with difficulties and challenges from the global economic crisis. The idea is to find out what kinds of cost can be reduced and how they are reduced to minimize expenditures of hotel, how the costs reduction affect quality of hotel’s products and services. In order to achieve goals of the research, two structure telephone interviews were conducted in a case study in the Huu Ngh...

  13. Vulnerability and Risk of Agro-ecosystems Facing Increased Salinity Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, F.; Sebesvari, Z.; Nguyen, M. T.; Hagenlocher, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Vietnamese portion of the Mekong Delta increasingly suffers from salinity intrusion in its freshwater system, as exemplified by the historically high salinity levels recorded during the 2016 dry season. Although this exceptional situation was linked to the El Niño phenomena, many factors contribute to an increasing salinization of coastal areas. Salinity intrusion is a natural process in this tidal area but its extent is increasing and projected to worsen due to increased demand for water, diversion/storage of water flows in the Mekong river and its tributaries, land subsidence linked to groundwater over-abstraction, changes in land use and water management in coastal areas, and sea level rise. The Mekong Delta remains predominantly an agricultural landscape which contributes the majority of the rice, aquaculture, and fruit production of the country. These systems will need to be adapted to increased salinity levels. We will present results from two research projects, DeltAdapt and DELTAS, which were designed to allow understanding of, respectively (1) the main drivers of change of agro-ecosystems in coastal areas of the delta and (2) the relative vulnerabilities and risks deltaic social-ecological systems face with respect to various environmental hazards. We used the Global Delta Vulnerability Index developed within the DELTAS project to characterize the vulnerabilities and risks faced by coastal provinces of the delta with respect to salinity intrusion. The analysis allows us to understand which social, economic, and ecological variables index explain the relative vulnerability of the provinces. In addition, drivers of change (e.g. policy, economic, social, environmental) of coastal agro-ecosystems were systematically analyzed through 80 interviews and 7 focus group discussions in the provinces of Kien Giang and Soc Trang within the DeltAdapt project. This was combined with the analysis of Vietnamese policies to determine which are the important drivers of change in the region and how these contribute (or not) to the adaptation of agro-ecosystems facing increased salinity intrusion. By combining these results, we will point to potential policies that could be considered by various authorities to allow for a greater adaptability of agro-ecosystems in the coastal provinces of the region.

  14. Yield-related salinity tolerance traits identified in a nested association mapping (NAM) population of wild barley

    KAUST Repository

    Saade, Stephanie

    2016-09-02

    Producing sufficient food for nine billion people by 2050 will be constrained by soil salinity, especially in irrigated systems. To improve crop yield, greater understanding of the genetic control of traits contributing to salinity tolerance in the field is needed. Here, we exploit natural variation in exotic germplasm by taking a genome-wide association approach to a new nested association mapping population of barley called HEB-25. The large population (1,336 genotypes) allowed cross-validation of loci, which, along with two years of phenotypic data collected from plants irrigated with fresh and saline water, improved statistical power. We dissect the genetic architecture of flowering time under high salinity and we present genes putatively affecting this trait and salinity tolerance. In addition, we identify a locus on chromosome 2H where, under saline conditions, lines homozygous for the wild allele yielded 30% more than did lines homozygous for the Barke allele. Introgressing this wild allele into elite cultivars could markedly improve yield under saline conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. The Impact of Hydrodynamics in Erosion - Deposition Process in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, South Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Luong, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve is always considered as a friendly green belt to protect and bring up the habitants. However, recently some mangrove areas in the Dong Tranh estuary are being eroded seriously. Based on the field measurements in SW and NE monsoons as well as data of topography changes in 10 years, it is proved that hydrodynamics of waves, tidal currents and riverine currents are the main reasons for erosion-deposition processes at the studied site. The erosion-deposition process changes due to monsoon. The analysed results show that high waves and tidal oscillation cause the increase of the erosion rate in NE monsoon. However, high sediment deposition occurs in SW monsoon due to weak waves and more alluvium from upstream. Many young mangrove trees grow up and develop in the SW monsoon. From the research, it is strongly emphasized the role of mangrove forests in soil retention and energy dissipation.

  16. Seasonality and depth zonation of intertidal Halophila ovalis and Zostera japonica in Ha Long Bay (Northern Viet Nam)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huong, T.T.L.; Vermaat, J.E.; Terrados, J.T.; Tien, N.V.; Duarte, C.M.; Borum, J.; Tri, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    Seasonality and depth zonation of two common intertidal northern Vietnamese seagrass species, Halophila ovalis and Zostera japonica, were investigated in a 50 m long intertidal transect from 1999 till 2001. Z. japonica occurred in the middle intertidal (1.2 m above mean chart datum to mean sea level

  17. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  18. Gender, Alcohol Consumption Patterns, and Engagement in Sexually Intimate Behaviors among Adolescents and Young Adults in Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie S.; Zhan, Min; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Lostutter, Ty W.; Tho, Le Huu; Luong, Vo Van; Minh, Truong Tan

    2011-01-01

    A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was conducted with 880 youth (16 to 24 years) in Nha Trang City to assess relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual behaviors. A timeline followback method was employed. Chi-square, generalized logit modeling and logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the sample, 78.2% male and 56.1%…

  19. Emergence of the Asian 1 genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 in viet nam: in vivo fitness advantage and lineage replacement in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Ty Hang Vu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A better description of the extent and structure of genetic diversity in dengue virus (DENV in endemic settings is central to its eventual control. To this end we determined the complete coding region sequence of 187 DENV-2 genomes and 68 E genes from viruses sampled from Vietnamese patients between 1995 and 2009. Strikingly, an episode of genotype replacement was observed, with Asian 1 lineage viruses entirely displacing the previously dominant Asian/American lineage viruses. This genotype replacement event also seems to have occurred within DENV-2 in Thailand and Cambodia, suggestive of a major difference in viral fitness. To determine the cause of this major evolutionary event we compared both the infectivity of the Asian 1 and Asian/American genotypes in mosquitoes and their viraemia levels in humans. Although there was little difference in infectivity in mosquitoes, we observed significantly higher plasma viraemia levels in paediatric patients infected with Asian 1 lineage viruses relative to Asian/American viruses, a phenotype that is predicted to result in a higher probability of human-to-mosquito transmission. These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs.

  20. Constraints on efficiency of artificial insemination and effect of nutrition on reproductive performance of dairy cattle in small holder farms in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Anh Dzung; Le Xuan Cuong; Vuong Ngoc Long; Dinh Van Cai; Dang Phuoc Chung; Pham Ho Hai

    2001-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey on 564 cows subjected to artificial insemination (AI) from March 1995 to March 1996 in 4 districts around Ho Chi Minh City. Four inseminators filled in questionnaires relating to farms, semen batches, cows and inseminations done. Milk samples were collected and analysed for progesterone by radioimmunoassay (RIA). All raw data were stored and analysed by the computer program AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application). Conception rate at first service (FSCR) was 61.7% and overall conception rate (OCR) was 68.4%. The intervals from calving to first service (CSI) and calving to conception (CCI) were 108 days 119 days respectively. Cows with lower percentage of Holstein-Friesian (HF) blood had shorter CSI and CCI than those with higher percentage of HF blood. Other factors which influenced OCR, CSI and CCI were parity, high milk yield (>20 L/cow/day), inappropriate heat signs, slight degree of uterine tone, feeding without green grass, too early or too late intervals from heat signs to AI, time of AI and difficulty in passage of AI pipette. Progesterone measurement in 796 sets of milk samples indicated that AI in 546 cows (68.6%) resulted in conception and they were subsequently diagnosed pregnant, while 24 animals (3%) conceived but underwent late embryo mortality. In 146 cows (18.3%) AI was done in the follicular phase but conception did not occur. There were 73 cows (9.1%) where progesterone values were intermediate (1-3 nmol/L). Ninety-four Holstein crossbred cows (F1 and F2) were assigned into three groups by different metabolisable energy (ME) ratios between demand and supply in order to determine effect of nutritive value of rations on reproduction. The cows in ME-balanced group were also divided into two sub-groups by different quantity of green grass in the ration to evaluate influence of the latter on fertility. Results showed that only cows fed with balanced rations in ME achieved good fertility (calving to first heat 59 days, CSI 74 days, CCI 96 days and services/conception 1.63). Moreover, when the feed fully provided ME and green grass (≥20 kg/head/day) reproductive performance increased considerably (calving to first heat reduced to 50 days, CSI to 64 days, CCI to 82 days and services/conception to 1.4). (author)

  1. Od naměřených dat k jejich matematickému popisu pomocí funkce - a zase zpátky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Segeth, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 133-147 ISSN 0032-2423 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : measurement * interpolation * approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://hdl.handle.net/10338.dmlcz/144407

  2. Longitudinal Household Trends in Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation in Chi Linh Town, Hai Duong Province, Viet Nam and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to characterize household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitaton in Chi Linh Town, Hai Duong Province, Vietnam, and to identify factors affecting those trends. Method: Data were extracted from the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS database from 2004–2014, which included household access to improved water sources, household access to improved sanitation, and household demographic data. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinominal logistic regression were used. The results showed that over a 10-year period (2004–2014, the proportion of households with access to improved water and improved sanitation increased by 3.7% and 28.3%, respectively. As such, the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation were met. However, 13.5% of households still had unimproved water and sanitation. People who are retired, work in trade or services, or other occupations were 1.49, 1.97, and 1.34 times more likely to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities than farming households, respectively (p < 0.001. Households living in urban areas were 1.84 times more likely than those living in rural areas to have access to improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities (OR =1.84; 95% CI = 1.73–1.96. Non-poor households were 2.12 times more likely to have access to improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities compared to the poor group (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 2.00–2.25. More efforts are required to increase household access to both improved water and sanitation in Chi Linh Town, focusing on the 13.5% of households currently without access. Similar to situations observed elsewhere in Vietnam and other low- and middle- income countries, there is a need to address socio-economic factors that are associated with inadequate access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities.

  3. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province...

  4. On the Armillary Sphere of NAM Byeong-Cheol-II: Translation of a chapter on how to use an armillary sphere in Uigijipseol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyuk Kim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is about , which constitutes Honcheonui(an armillary sphere part of "Uigijipseol" (Volume I together with and -dealt with earlier than this subject. The study's construction on the text of is organized into 15 categories, including installation, observations, instructions for use, astronomical theories and formulas, etc. This study provides easy-to-understand illustrations of the figures shown in the original and contains detailed descriptions of the related calculation procedures. In the ``Instructions for Use of Honcheonui" discussed here, the readers are introduced to astronomical computation systems, mainly based on spherical trigonometry and proportional methods. The section also provides systematic and detailed reviews of astronomical theories and calculation procedures, allowing you to assess the level of astronomy knowledge at that time.

  5. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge : field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quang Tri, Le

    1996-01-01


    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out

  6. Integrated soil and water management in acid sulphate soils : balancing agricultural production and environmental requirements in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, Q.M.

    1996-01-01


    The objectives of this study in the Mekong delta, Vietnam, were: (1) to obtain a better understanding of the effects of soil physical properties and flow types on solute transport in ASS emphasing aluminum; (2) to quantify environmental hazards resulting from amelioration activities in

  7. Experimental investigation and modelling approach of the impact of urban wastewater on a tropical river ; a case study of the Nhue River, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Duc, T. A.; Vachaud, G.; Bonnet, Marie-Paule; Prieur, N.; Loi, V. D.; Anh, L. L.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of water quality and flow regime in combination with laboratory studies and ecological modelling were used to assess the water quality impact of pollution from to To Lich River that drains through Hanoi City and greatly contaminates the Nhue River. With an average discharge of 26.2 m(3)/s, the Nhue River receives about 5.8 m(3)/s of untreated domestic water from the city's main open-air-sewer - the To Lich River. The studies during 2002-2003 showed high concentrations of BOD (70 mg O...

  8. Experimental investigation and modelling approach of the impact of urban wastewater on a tropical river; a case study of the Nhue River, Hanoi, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Trinh Anh; Vachaud, Georges; Bonnet, Marie Paule; Prieur, Nicolas; Loi, Vu Duc; Anh, Le Lan

    2007-02-01

    SummaryAnalyses of water quality and flow regime in combination with laboratory studies and ecological modelling were used to assess the water quality impact of pollution from to To Lich River that drains through Hanoi City and greatly contaminates the Nhue River. With an average discharge of 26.2 m 3/s, the Nhue River receives about 5.8 m 3/s of untreated domestic water from the city's main open-air-sewer - the To Lich River. The studies during 2002-2003 showed high concentrations of BOD (70 mg O 2/l), DOC (15 mg C/l), coliform (2.4e 6 MNP/100 ml), total phosphorus (3.5 mg P/l), and total nitrogen (31.6 mg N/l) in the To Lich, while DO level was less than 1 mg O 2/l. Such high loads of untreated wastewater impacted water quality in the Nhue River where DO decreased at times to as low as 1 mg O 2/l. The accumulation of particulate organic matter and micro-organisms in the sediments of the Nhue represented substantial sources of nutrients and sinks for DO. They are also considerable production of dissolved carbon dioxide at concentrations up to two orders of magnitude higher than pressure. Such pressures ( EpCO 2) are expected in polluted environments, but the results presented here are new for Vietnam and much of developing countries. A number of factors linked to field monitoring and laboratory measurements clearly indicate the importance of autotrophic over heterotrophic biological processes and sediments. An ecological model for management purposes has been developed that reliably estimates of the pollutant loads. An opportunity was taken to examine the changing impacts and processes when the To Lich was diverted from the Nhue. The monitoring and modelling of this opportunity showed low dissolved oxygen levels even if the impact from the To Lich was lessened. Alternatives are proposed to alleviate problems of water quality in the Nhue. It is concluded that the treatment of the To Lich River's water is highly recommended; otherwise a reduction to one third of current wastewater discharge is needed to bring water quality back to the environmental standard.

  9. Economic critique of Nam Theun-Hinboun Hydropower Project and electricity development in Laos: proposal for an alternative path to development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.

    1996-01-01

    A proposed alternative to the development of a large-scale hydropower project in Laos was presented. The alternative is intended to help make electricity development sustainable over the long term and to benefit the citizens of Laos. The author carefully analyzed the Asian Development Bank report RRP: Laos 27325 of October 1994. He concluded that as presently constituted, the project is likely to fail as an investment and is likely to result in a significant net financial liability. Water resources are one of Laos' greatest assets and the future uses of Laotian rivers could be lost in order to achieve near-term electricity development. It was suggested that Laos should follow three key principles in the development of its electricity sector: maximize economic efficiency, ensure that the government acts as a regulator and not as an investor, and ensure the protection of property rights of citizens and investors. Relevant aspects of the experience with electricity development in Canada were also outlined

  10. SEA SNAKES (HYDROPHIIDAE) OF THE GULF OF TONKIN (NORTHERN VIET-NAM) (MORSKIE ZMEI (HYDROPHIIDAE) TONKINSKOGO (SEVERO-V’ETNAMSKOGO) ZALIVA),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven species of sea snakes have been found in the Tonking Bay: Pelamis platurus , Lapemis hardwickii, Hydrophis fasciatus, H. Cyanocinctus, H...litoral. P. platurus has been found in the open parts of the bay. H. fasciatus enjoys an intermediate position between the two mentioned species. Such...sea snakes move towards more shallow areas. Mainly pelagic species were not observed (P. platurus and H. fasciatus) in the utmost western and northern sections of the bay owing to the decreased salinity. (Author)

  11. Dengue Virus in Sub-tropical Northern and Central Viet Nam: Population Immunity and Climate Shape Patterns of Viral Invasion and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    each region as representative of the influence of that region in attracting migration from other locations (Model 3, Population) [41–44], and (iv) a...donor locations, in which distance and population size act as repelling and attracting forces, respectively (Model 4: Gravity Model) [17,45]. Prior human...aegypti ( Diptera : Culicidae) in Thailand and Puerto Rico: blood feeding frequency. J Med Entomol 37: 89–101. 24. Watts DM, Burke DS, Harrison BA

  12. Soil knowledge for farmers, farmer knowledge for soil scientists : the case of acid sulphate soils in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    1996-01-01


    Half the Mekong delta in Vietnam, i.e. around 2 million hectares, suffers soil related problems due to acid sulphate soils. These soils generate sulphuric acid due to the oxidation of pyrite after aeration. Pyrite is most easily formed in tidal swamps. Human interference through land

  13. Emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 and other carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex among patients in hospitals in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D N; Tran, H H; Matsui, M; Suzuki, M; Suzuki, S; Shibayama, K; Pham, T D; Van Phuong, T T; Dang, D A; Trinh, H S; Loan, C T; Nga, L T V; van Doorn, H R; Wertheim, H F L

    2017-02-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. We identified 23/582 isolates (4 %) (11 from hospital A, five from hospital B, and seven from hospital C) that were NDM-1 positive, and among them 18 carried additional carbapenemase genes, including seven isolates carrying NDM-1, IMP-1, and OXA-58 with high MICs for carbapenems. Genotyping indicated that NDM-1 carrying A. baumannii have expanded clonally in these hospitals. Five new STs (ST1135, ST1136, ST1137, ST1138, and ST1139) were identified. One isolate carried NDM-1 on a plasmid belonging to the N-repA replicon type; no NDM-1-positive plasmids were identified in the other isolates. We have shown the extent of the carbapenem resistance and the local clonal spread of A. baumannii carrying NDM-1 in these hospitals; coexistence of NDM-1 and IMP-1 is reported for the first time from Vietnam here, and this will further seriously limit future therapeutic options.

  14. Emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 and other carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex among patients in hospitals in Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, D.N.; Tran, H.H.; Matsui, M.; Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, S.; Shibayama, K.; Pham, T.D.; Phuong, T.T. Van; Dang, D.A.; Trinh, H.S.; Loan, C.T.; Nga, L.T.; Doorn, H.R. van; Wertheim, H.F.L.

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in

  15. Progress report on research of nuclear data and applied nuclear physics at nuclear research institute Viet Nam. For the period January 1 - December 31 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    1997-03-01

    This report contains information on activities of nuclear data and applied physics at the Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat, Vietnam for the period January 1st-December 31st 1996. The specific topics covered are the following: Development of filtered neutron beams. Investigation of average characteristics of nuclei in the unresolved enrgy region, Nuclear structure, Nuclear data for applications, Neutron beam utilization for applications, Nuclear analytical techniques and sedimentology

  16. Senescence-associated barley NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC) transcription factor interacts with radical-induced cell death 1 through a disordered regulatory domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Trine; Jensen, Michael K; Christiansen, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Senescence in plants involves massive nutrient relocation and age-related cell death. Characterization of the molecular components, such as transcription factors (TFs), involved in these processes is required to understand senescence. We found that HvNAC005 and HvNAC013 of the plant-specific NAC...... as a transcriptional activator suggesting that an involvement of HvNAC013 and HvNAC005 in senescence will be different. HvNAC013 interacted with barley radical-induced cell death 1 (RCD1) via the very C-terminal part of its TRD, outside of the region containing the LP motif. No significant secondary structure...

  17. Drill bit seismic, vertical seismic profiling, and seismic depth imaging to aid drilling decisions in the Tho Tinh structure, Nam Con Son basin, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, W.; Hayashida, N.; Kusaka, H.; Leaney, W.; Nakanishi, S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews the problem of overpressure, a common reason for acquiring look-ahead VSPs, and the seismic trace inversion problem, a fundamental issue in look-ahead prediction. The essential components of intermediate VSPs were examined from acquisition through processing to inversion, and recently acquired real data were provided, which were indicative of the advances being made toward developing an exclusive high resolution VSP service. A simple interpretation method and an end product of predicted mud weight versus depth were also presented, which were obtained from the inverted acoustic impedance and empirical relations. Of paramount importance in predicting the depth to a target was the velocity function used below the intermediate TD. The use of empirical or assumed density functions was an obvious weak link in the procedure. The advent of real-time time-depth measurements from drill bit seismic allowed a continuously updated predicted target depth below the present bit depth. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Dnes mě to mluvení namáhá. Moderní literatura mezi pokračováním a rozpadem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšovský, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 14 (2017), s. 18-19 ISSN 1803-6635 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : modern literature * writing * evidence Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision OBOR OECD: Specific literatures

  19. Presurgical nasoalveolar molding therapy in cleft lip and palate individuals: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan H Gandedkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasoalveolar molding (NAM therapy is advocated to reduce the severity of alveolar cleft and nasal deformity. NAM therapy has demonstrated to be an effective method for reducing cleft and improve nose anatomy. This paper presents a case report of three cleft lip and palate individuals treated with NAM therapy. Furthermore, the paper highlights the advantages of NAM therapy along with an enumeration of literature suggesting in favor of NAM therapy and otherwise. Regardless of controversies and divergent views involved with NAM therapy, the immediate success of NAM therapy facilitating primary lip repair surgery cannot be under-emphasized.

  20. Influence of nasoalveolar molding on skeletal development in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate at 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Arisan, Arda; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the influence of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (NAM) on skeletal development in patients with operated unilateral cleft lip and palate at 5 years of age. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 26 unilateral cleft lip and palate patients who had undergone presurgical NAM (NAM group) and 20 unilateral cleft lip and palate patients who did not have any presurgical NAM (non-NAM group) were analyzed. The radiographs were digitally traced using Quick Ceph Studio software (version 3.5.1.r (1151); Quick Ceph Systems, San Diego, Calif). Independent samples t tests were performed for statistical analysis. No significant differences were observed in sagittal and vertical skeletal measurements between the NAM and non-NAM groups. NAM resulted in no significant difference in skeletal development in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients compared with those without NAM in early childhood. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK242268 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 1e-40 ...

  2. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK288271 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 5e-25 ...

  3. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243514 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 2e-36 ...

  4. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243585 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 6e-18 ...

  5. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287666 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 1e-40 ...

  6. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK287632 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 5e-11 ...

  7. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK243244 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n contains Pfam PF02365: No apical meristem (NAM) domain; No apical meristem gene (NAM), required for pattern formation in embryos and flowers-Petunia hybrida, PATCHX:E205713 2e-26 ...

  8. 31 CFR 500.410 - Currency, coins, and postage and other stamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... postage and other stamps issued by North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam are merchandise of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin subject to § 500.204(a)(1). ...

  9. North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Series-2016 Video Series-2017 Commercial Supporters Advertise in Menopause NAMS Corporate Liaison Council Outreach Opportunities ... menopause source Menopause Guidebook Sexual Health Module MenoPro Mobile App Hormone Therapy MenoNote NAMS Video Series Homepage ...

  10. Tropical orchids as an endangered plant group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de E.F.

    1976-01-01

    ”A dramatic offering of three new Paphiopedilum species from the remote jungles of central Viet Nam (Annam) ... India ... Philippines. VIET NAM (ANNAM): The story of how our collectors managed to locate, collect and transport this rare species from the ravaged jungles of Viet Nam is still cloaked in

  11. What we do | Page 163 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II. Over the past decade, Viet Nam has undergone remarkable change, evidenced by significant poverty reduction, sustained high growth, trade liberalization and transition to a market economy. Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia. PROJECT ...

  12. Review of the odd chrysidid genus Loboscelidia Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae, Loboscelidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The chrysidid genus Loboscelidia is reviewed and 11 new species are described, including L. cinnamonea (Borneo, L. fulgens (Viet Nam, L. fulva (Thailand, L. incompleta (India, L. kafae (Borneo, L. laminata (Viet Nam, L. meifungae (Borneo, L. nasiformis (Thailand, L. nitidula (Thailand, L. pecki (Viet Nam, and L. sisik (Borneo. A key to males of the species of Loboscelidia is given.

  13. Population aging: opportunity for business expansion, an invitational paper presented at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) International Workshop on Adaptation to Population Aging Issues, July 17, 2017, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensberg, Mary Beth

    2018-04-10

    A longer life brings opportunities for older adults and their families as well as for their communities. Commercial businesses can be successful in innovating on these opportunities and achieving business expansion when they better understand the market dynamics and spectrum of older adults as consumers and view them more as assets rather than as burdens to society. While there is no "typical" older adult consumer, some traits, characteristics, and physical realities may be more common, including those related to family and community, the shopping experience, brand marketing and packaging, food and nutrition, and health. The opportunities of longer life are impacted by health and underscore the importance of positive, healthy aging-related behaviors like good nutrition and active lifestyles. Healthy aging also requires a sustained commitment and action from country leaders to formulate evidence-based polices--like systematic nutrition screening and intervention-and healthcare workforce training and education that can strengthen and support an active aging population. In addition, governments should consider engaging commercial businesses to help set sustainable policies that can advance products for older adults. Finally, governments should set national and local goals to incentivize commercial business development and investment in public-private partnerships to improve quality of care, promote healthy aging, and impact outcomes for noncommunicable diseases, ultimately benefitting population health for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) countries.

  14. Tko nam to dolazi? Korištenje informacijske i komunikacijske tehnologije (ICT) i stilovi učenja kod novoupisanoga naraštaja studenata FER-a

    OpenAIRE

    Lisek, Jadranka; Brkljačić, Tihana

    2013-01-01

    Tijekom ljeta 2011. novoupisanim studentima FER-a ponuđen je mrežni portal www.fer.unizg.hr/dobrodosli kao elektronička premosnica od srednjoškolskog prema akademskom obrazovanju. Anonimnim mrežnim anketnim upitnikom nastojalo se istražiti zadovoljstvo ponuđenim portalom te otkriti obilježja novoupisanoga naraštaja studenata tj. u kojem obimu njihov profil odgovara nazivima kojima su u literaturi imenovani (Homo zappiens, digitalni urođenici/digitalni domaćini, net generacija, ygeneracija, mi...

  15. Taḥyâ as-sînamâ ! Produire du sens : les enjeux politiques de l’expression dans l’espace public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Boëx

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose d’identifier les enjeux politiques de l’expression dans l’espace public en Syrie et plus spécifiquement ceux relatifs à l’expression artistique, au prisme du dernier festival de cinéma de Damas, événement catalyseur mais aussi réceptacle des différentes formes de la politisation de la culture. Cet angle d’approche nous permet de mettre en lumière les tentatives d’un régime autoritaire pour contrôler la production du sens et imposer ses interprétations des événements. Ce contexte n’a cependant nullement empêché l’existence de pratiques expressives polymorphes, voire contestataires, rendues possibles par diverses stratégies de contournement, de mises à distance, dont nous donnons des exemples dans des registres différents : les dernières mobilisations patriotiques anti-Mehlis et l’expression cinématographique qui a eu un rôle précurseur dans la publicisation de remises en question de la référence politique dominante.

  16. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 4: Chemistry = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 4: Hoa Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh-Van, Tran Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  17. Specialiųjų globos namų ugdytinių psichosocialinės sveikatos ir požiūrio į mokymąsi sąsajos

    OpenAIRE

    Kardelis, Kęstutis; Kardelienė, Laimutė

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a research that sought to identify the expression of psychosocial health and approach to learning of special children education and foster house and to reveal their mutual links. The research included 24 teenagers (boys) of special children education and foster house whose average age was 14.29 years. Research on approach to learning showed that the majority of teenagers surveyed (62.5 percent) learn slackly or satisfactorily (their progressiveness is influenced by social...

  18. Transcriptional regulation by an NAC (NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2) transcription factor attenuates ABA signalling for efficient basal defence towards Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael K; Hagedorn, Peter H; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Grant, Murray R; Rung, Jesper H; Collinge, David B; Lyngkjaer, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    ATAF1 is a member of a largely uncharacterized plant-specific gene family encoding NAC transcription factors, and is induced in response to various abiotic and biotic stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previously, we showed that a mutant allele of ATAF1 compromises penetration resistance in Arabidopsis with respect to the non-host biotrophic pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). In this study, we have used genome-wide transcript profiling to characterize signalling perturbations in ataf1 plants following Bgh inoculation. Comparative transcriptomic analyses identified an over-representation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, including the ABA biosynthesis gene AAO3, which is significantly induced in ataf1 plants compared to wild-type plants following inoculation with Bgh. Additionally, we show that Bgh inoculation results in decreased endogenous ABA levels in an ATAF1-dependent manner, and that the ABA biosynthetic mutant aao3 showed increased penetration resistance to Bgh compared to wild-type plants. Furthermore, we show that ataf1 plants show ABA-hyposensitive phenotypes during seedling development and germination. Our data support a negative correlation between ABA levels and penetration resistance, and identify ATAF1 as a new stimuli-dependent attenuator of ABA signalling for the mediation of efficient penetration resistance in Arabidopsis upon Bgh attack.

  19. Analýza naměřených vibračních projevů v kostelní věži

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), s. 53-61 ISSN 1803-1447 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : resonant vibration * wavelet decomposition * seismic record Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure www.caag.cz

  20. News and Views: Life on Mars? Astronomical model is world's biggest; Prizes for identifying dark matter; NAM 2013: call for sessions; Paintballing to save the planet; Happy Birthday ESO; Dark sky park grows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The University of Edinburgh, crowdsourcing website Kaggle and Winton Capital Management have joined forces to launch a competition to identify dark matter haloes. The Scientific Organizing Committee of the RAS National Astronomy Meeting 2013, the UK Solar Physics and Magnetosphere, Ionosphere and Solar-Terrestrial meetings, are seeking nominations for parallel discussion session themes. A winner of the 2012 Move an Asteroid Technical Paper Competition suggests painting asteroids white in order to boost their albedo and take advantage of solar radiation pressure to alter their orbits.

  1. Transcriptional regulation by an NAC (NAM-ATAF1,2-CUC2) transcription factor attenuates ABA signalling for efficient basal defence towards Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Krogh; Hagedorn, Peter; De Torres-Zabala, Marta

    2008-01-01

    -representation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, including the ABA biosynthesis gene AAO3, which is significantly induced in ataf1 plants compared to wild-type plants following inoculation with Bgh. Additionally, we show that Bgh inoculation results in decreased endogenous ABA levels in an ATAF1-dependent manner...

  2. Bajorų namų ūkis Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje XVI a. – XVII a. I pusėje

    OpenAIRE

    Dambrauskaitė, Neringa

    2017-01-01

    The household understood as both a space – the house – and its residents, is an extremely important issue revealing in multiple aspects the significance of the basic unit of society as well as the basic economic unit. The goal of the dissertation is to explore the structure and development of noble household in the GDL in the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century. Tasks for the research: 1) to examine the aspects of the development and differentiation of noble manor homesteads t...

  3. LES CHANGEMENTS DE L'OCCUPATION DU SOL DANS LE BASSIN VERSANT DE LA RIVIÈRE CÂU (VIÊT-NAM) : Essai sur une approche diachronique

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Kim Huong; Bernier, Monique; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The objectives of our research were to detect changes in land cover from multi-temporal remote sensing data and to estimate the impact of these changes on the quality of water resources in the watershed. The diachronic method of comparison of classifications was used. An object-oriented classification approach (contextual) from pseudo-bands (PCA, NDVI) was applied. The overalls accuracies obtained are 69% (1993), 80% (1999) and 78% (2003). These results allowed identif...

  4. Insights from ANA-grade angiosperms into the early evolution of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialette-Guiraud, Aurélie C M; Adam, Hélène; Finet, Cédric; Jasinski, Sophie; Jouannic, Stefan; Scutt, Charles P

    2011-06-01

    The closely related NAC family genes NO APICAL MERISTEM (NAM) and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON3 (CUC3) regulate the formation of boundaries within and between plant organs. NAM is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR164, whereas CUC3 is not. To gain insight into the evolution of NAM and CUC3 in the angiosperms, we analysed orthologous genes in early-diverging ANA-grade angiosperms and gymnosperms. We obtained NAM- and CUC3-like sequences from diverse angiosperms and gymnosperms by a combination of reverse transcriptase PCR, cDNA library screening and database searching, and then investigated their phylogenetic relationships by performing maximum-likelihood reconstructions. We also studied the spatial expression patterns of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues in female reproductive tissues of Amborella trichopoda, the probable sister to all other flowering plants. Separate NAM and CUC3 orthologues were found in early-diverging angiosperms, but not in gymnosperms, which contained putative orthologues of the entire NAM + CUC3 clade that possessed sites of regulation by miR164. Multiple paralogues of NAM or CUC3 genes were noted in certain taxa, including Brassicaceae. Expression of NAM, CUC3 and MIR164 orthologues from Am. trichopoda was found to co-localize in ovules at the developmental boundary between the chalaza and nucellus. The NAM and CUC3 lineages were generated by duplication, and CUC3 was subsequently lost regulation by miR164, prior to the last common ancestor of the extant angiosperms. However, the paralogous NAM clade genes CUC1 and CUC2 were generated by a more recent duplication, near the base of Brassicaceae. The function of NAM and CUC3 in defining a developmental boundary in the ovule appears to have been conserved since the last common ancestor of the flowering plants, as does the post-transcriptional regulation in ovule tissues of NAM by miR164.

  5. Search Results | Page 816 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Results 8151 - 8160 of 8491 ... Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Viet Nam continues to emerge on the world stage, as does its new and developing market economy. Publication Date. January 1, 1999 ... Developing countries unprepared for ballooning elderly population, experts say. Books.

  6. Experimental analysis of current conduction through thermally ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A372, 529 (2008). [10] Kuan Yew Cheong, Jeong Hyun Moon, Hyeong Joon Kim, Wook Bahng and Nam-. Kyun Kim, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 084113 (2008). [11] Doo Seok Jeong and Cheol Seong Hwang, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113701 (2005). [12] Kuan Yew Cheong, Jeong Hyun Moon, Hyeong Joon Kim, Wook Bahng and Nam-.

  7. Search Results | Page 809 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-08-31

    Results 8081 - 8090 of 8491 ... Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam: Hanoi et Hô Chi Minh-Ville. With an annual income of approximately $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. Publication Date. August 31, 1997. Research in Action. Disease control Climate ...

  8. Search Results | Page 164 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many people in Burkina Faso are excluded from health services due to lack of financial means. However, ideas on how to give the poorest access to health services are very limited. Project. Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II. Over the past decade, Viet Nam has undergone remarkable change, ...

  9. Search Results | Page 6 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Remove Mongolia filter Mongolia; China 367 Apply China filter · Indonesia 245 Apply Indonesia filter · Thailand 216 Apply Thailand filter · Philippines 213 Apply Philippines filter · Viet Nam 198 Apply Viet Nam filter · Cambodia 149 Apply Cambodia filter · South of Sahara 1913 Apply South of Sahara filter · North of Sahara ...

  10. Books | Page 27 | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Viet Nam ... Editor(s): The State Science and Technology Commission (People's Republic of China), IDRC ... The integration of environmental, social, and economic policies is viewed as the cornerstone of sustainable and equitable development.

  11. Search Results | Page 43 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 411 - 420 of 420 ... China 49 Apply China filter · Philippines 30 Apply Philippines filter · Viet Nam 28 Apply Viet Nam filter · Cambodia 27 Apply Cambodia filter · Thailand 26 Apply Thailand filter · Indonesia 25 Apply Indonesia filter · Laos 12 Apply Laos filter · Malaysia 12 Apply Malaysia filter · Singapore 7 Apply ...

  12. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/040/08/2411-2428. Keywords. Conceptual hydrological NAM model; calibration; sensitivity analysis; validation; Tapi basin; Purna catchment. Abstract. In present study, a lumped conceptual hydrological model, NAM (MIKE11), is calibrated while optimizing the runoff ...

  13. Asian Partnership for Avian Influenza Research : Effectiveness of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam for collaboration on research and research capacity building in avian influenza prevention and control. This grant will allow APAIR to investigate the effectiveness of the measures employed by China, Thailand and Viet Nam and evaluate the factors contributing to their success or failure.

  14. Flower of the Dragon: An Example of Applied Humanistic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhart, R. Wayne

    1977-01-01

    Focuses primarily upon the applications of the tools of humanistic psychology with Viet Nam era veterans. The Flower of the Dragon, a self-help project seeking to facilitate the growth of Viet Nam era veterans, is one example of a means by which humanistic psychology can build a stronger foundation for itself and for society at large. (Author)

  15. Dysplastic vs. Common Naevus-associated vs. De novo Melanomas: An Observational Retrospective Study of 1,021 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gorgojo, Alejandro; Requena, Celia; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Traves, Victor; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo

    2018-02-13

    The aim of this case-case study was to determine the differences between dysplastic and common naevus-associated melanomas (NAM) and de novo melanomas. A total of 1,021 prospectively collected patients with invasive cutaneous melanoma from an oncology referral centre were included in the study. Of these, 75.51% had de novo melanomas, 12.93% dysplastic NAM, and 11.56% common NAM. Dysplastic NAM, compared with de novo melanomas, were associated with intermittently photo-exposed sites, atypical melanocytic naevi, decreased tumour thickness, and presence of MC1R non-synonymous variants. Common NAM were more frequent on the trunk and of superficial spreading type. Comparison of dysplastic with common NAM showed significant difference only with regard to mitoses. Both subtypes of NAM shared less aggressive traits than de novo melanomas, albeit with no significant differences in survival after multivariate adjustment. In conclusion, NAM present with less aggressive traits, mostly due to a greater awareness among patients of changing moles than due to their intrinsic biological characteristics.

  16. Search Results | Page 816 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 8151 - 8160 of 8490 ... Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Viet Nam continues to emerge on the world stage, as does its ... on Sustainable Human Development. The 20th century has been a remarkable age of material advancement and sociopolitical transformation. Publication Date.

  17. Search Results | Page 181 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Viet Nam 44 Apply Viet Nam filter · Burkina Faso 42 Apply Burkina Faso filter · United Kingdom 42 Apply United Kingdom filter · Egypt 41 Apply Egypt filter · Indonesia 40 Apply Indonesia filter · Nigeria 40 Apply Nigeria filter · Lebanon 39 Apply Lebanon filter · Philippines 39 Apply Philippines filter · Bolivia 38 Apply Bolivia ...

  18. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia Concerning the Cooperation in the Field of Population and Family Planning [11 April 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    This document contains the text of a 1992 Memorandum of Understanding between the governments of Indonesia and Viet Nam concerning their cooperation in the field of population and family planning. This Memorandum signals Indonesia's intent to share its experiences in developing population and family planning policies and programs with Viet Nam, assist in training of personnel, and make contraceptives available.

  19. Nuclear analyses in biology and medical science. Measuring on nucleii in stead of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Goeij, J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the use of nuclear analyses in life sciences. Features of nuclear analytical methods (NAMs) are grouped into four categories: physical basis, isotopic analyses rather than elemental analyses, no interference of electronic and molecular structure, and penetrating character of nuclear radiation. Obstacles in applying NAMs in the life sciences are outlined. 1 tab

  20. Extrême-Orient | Page 102 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Viet Nam continues to emerge on the world stage, as does its new and developing market economy. In this spirit, Viet Nam's Minister of Science, Technology and Environment approached the International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) and the Canadian International Development Agency ( CIDA ) in January ...

  1. Livres | Page 24 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and Impact. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and Impact of Doi Moi. Maison(s) d'édition : ISEAS, CRDI. ISBN: Épuisé. Couverture du livre Les politiques sociales transnationales : Les nouveaux défis de la ...

  2. Lumped conceptual hydrological model for Purna river basin, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 8 ... Conceptual hydrological NAM model; calibration; sensitivity analysis; validation; Tapi basin; Purna catchment. ... In present study, a lumped conceptual hydrological model, NAM (MIKE11), is calibrated while optimizing the runoff simulations on the basis of minimization of ...

  3. 77 FR 73430 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Export Joint Stock Company, Nam A Hamico Export Joint Stock Company, and Linh Sa Hamico Company Limited.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Case History On December 29, 2011, the Department received a countervailing duty (CVD... of South East Asia Hamico Export Joint Stock Company (SEA Hamico), Nam A Hamico Export Joint Stock...

  4. Die New Age beweging - oorsig en beoordeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. de Bruyn

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The New Age Movement (NAM is a leaderless but powerful network, working to bring about radical change in the world. In fact the NAM is a transplantation of Hindu philosophy, with Buddist elements from the East to the West. This article explicates the origin of the NAM and describes its mystic, occult and feminist character. In the article it is stated that the NAM rests on monistic and astrological pillars and that its main doctrines are as follows: pantheism, emanation (instead of creation, reincarnation and the fact that Christ is one of the great Masters controlling the world. The views and doctrines of the NAM are then judged in the light of Scripture.

  5. Nicotinamide treatment induces behavioral recovery when administered up to 4 hours following cortical contusion injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, M R; Pierce, J L; Holland, M A; Anderson, G D

    2008-06-26

    Recent studies have demonstrated nicotinamide (NAM), a soluble B-group vitamin, to be an effective treatment in experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, research on this compound has been limited to administration regimens starting shortly after injury. This study was conducted to establish the window of opportunity for NAM administration following controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the frontal cortex. Groups of rats were assigned to NAM (50 mg/kg), saline (1 ml/kg), or sham conditions and received contusion injuries or sham procedures. Injections of NAM or saline were administered at 15 min, 4 h, or 8 h post-injury, followed by five boosters at 24 h intervals. Following the last injection, blood was taken for serum NAM analysis. Animals were tested on a variety of tasks to assess somatosensory performance (bilateral tactile adhesive removal and vibrissae-forelimb placement) and cognitive performance (reference and working memory) in the Morris water maze. The results of the serum NAM analysis showed that NAM levels were significantly elevated in treated animals. Behavioral analysis on the tactile removal test showed that all NAM-treated groups facilitated recovery of function compared with saline treatment. On the vibrissae-forelimb placing test all NAM-treated groups also were significantly different from the saline-treated group. However, the acquisition of reference memory was only significantly improved in the 15-min and 4-h groups. In the working memory task both the 15-min and 4-h groups also improved working memory compared with saline treatment. The window of opportunity for NAM treatment is task-dependent and extends to 8 h for the sensorimotor tests but only extends to 4 h post-injury in the cognitive tests. These results suggest that a 50 mg/kg treatment regimen starting at the clinically relevant time point of 4 h may result in attenuated injury severity in the human TBI population.

  6. Tiềm năng lớn của vệ tinh siêu nhỏ đáp ứng nhu cầuquản lý hàng hải của Việt Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Trong, Thu; Pham Quang, Hung; Nguyen Hoang, Giang; Nguyen, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Trong 10 năm gần đây, loại vệ tinh siêu nhỏ có kích thước 10x10x10 cm và trọng lượng 1 kg với tên gọi CubeSat từ công cụ thực hành của sinh viên đại học đang dần trở thành nền tảng cho những vệ tinh có khả năng ứng dụng trong thực tiễn. Ngày nay, người sử dụng có thể tự thiết kế hoặc mua sẵn linh kiện điện tử và cơ khí lắp thành vệ tinh cỡ 1, 2, 3... kg với các tính năng mong muốn. Ưu điểm của loại vệ tinh siêu nhỏ này là thời gian chế tạo ngắn, chi phí thấp và càng phát huy năng lực khi sử d...

  7. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 3: Geography = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 3: Dia Ly Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngu, Nguyen Khac; Khanh-Van, Tran Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  8. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 5: Natural Science = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 5: Van Vat Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Tran Duc; Han, Nguyen Thi

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  9. English-Vietnamese Scientific Terminology for High School and Junior College Students. Book 2: Physics = Danh Tu Khoa Hoc Anh-Viet Danh Cho Cac Hoc Sinh Trung Hoc Va Cac Sinh Vien Nam Thu Nhat Dai Hoc. Quyen 2: Vat Ly Hoc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Pham Cao

    Vietnamese students now enrolled in American high schools incur an extremely special need in English. After being taught subject matter disciplines in Vietnamese for many years, and while English is still a foreign language for them, these students are bound to go through two linguistic processes. First, while reading or sitting through lectures…

  10. Phylogenomic analyses of Tsukamurella: reclassification of Tsukamurella spongiae Olson et al. 2007, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Park et al. 2009 and Tsukamurella sunchonensis Seong et al. 2008 as later heterotypic synonyms of Tsukamurella pulmonis Yassin et al. 1996, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens Yassin et al. 1997 and Tsukamurella pseudospumae Nam et al. 2004, respectively

    OpenAIRE

    Jade LL Teng; Jade LL Teng; Jade LL Teng; Jade LL Teng; Ying Tang; Yi Huang; Feng-Biao Guo; Wen Wei; Jonathan H. K. Chen; Samson S. Y. Wong; Samson S. Y. Wong; Samson S. Y. Wong; Samson S. Y. Wong; Susanna K. P. Lau; Susanna K. P. Lau

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the highly similar phenotypic profiles, protein spectra and 16S rRNA gene sequences observed between three pairs of Tsukamurella species (Tsukamurella pulmonis/Tsukamurella spongiae, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens/Tsukamurella carboxydivorans and Tsukamurella pseudospumae/Tsukamurella sunchonensis), we hypothesize that and the six Tsukamurella species may have been misclassified and that there may only be three Tsukamurella species. In this study, we characterized the type strains of t...

  11. Réformes, croissance, et augmentation des inégalités dans le delta du fleuve Rouge – Việt Nam (1980-2000 Reform, Growth and Increase of Inequalities in the Red River delta - Vietnam (1980-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Gironde

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est une analyse de l’évolution des inégalités dans les campagnes vietnamiennes, basée sur une recherche de terrain dans le delta du fleuve Rouge. Les transformations respectives des systêmes d’activités productives des foyers étudiées dans la province de Hưng Yên remettent en cause l’idée dominante selon laquelle l’augmentation des inégalités serait faible et récent. L’accumulation réalisée par un quart des exploitations et la prolétarisation partielle d’une majorité de la population rurale révèlent, quelques années après la distribution des terres de 1994, une différenciation significative en termes de richesses et d’accès aux ressources. Les mécanismes de cette différenciation se sont mis en place dès les premières mesures de la décollectivisation de l’agriculture au tournant des années 1970-1980, contrairement à une autre idée courante selon laquelle les réformes n’auraient pas eu d’effet sur les inégalités à l’intérieur des campagnes. Les inégalités de départ augmentent avec la croissance, et sont aggravées par les orientations du gouvernement, et notamment l’action des pouvoirs locaux.Based on a field research in the Red River delta, this article analyses the augmentation and accentuation of inequalities within rural Vietnam. The various changes of livelihood systems in Hung Yen province challenge the mainstream idea whereby inequalities have increased only slightly and are of recent date. In the second half of the 1990s, the widening gap between wealth accumulation among one fourth of households, and the gradual proletarianization of a majority of the rural population is already significant. Contrary to another common idea whereby institutional reforms have been associated with almost no change in inequality within rural areas, I argue that the mechanisms inciting this differentiation were set in motion during the implementation of the first decollectivisation measures in the early 1980s. Inequality from the start have increased with economic growth and are aggravated by government-led economic orientations, in particular local authority actions.

  12. Nicotinamide clearance by Pnc1 directly regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher M; Smith, Daniel L; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2004-02-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sir2 protein is an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) that functions in transcriptional silencing and longevity. The NAD(+) salvage pathway protein, Npt1, regulates Sir2-mediated processes by maintaining a sufficiently high intracellular NAD(+) concentration. However, another NAD(+) salvage pathway component, Pnc1, modulates silencing independently of the NAD(+) concentration. Nicotinamide (NAM) is a by-product of the Sir2 deacetylase reaction and is a natural Sir2 inhibitor. Pnc1 is a nicotinamidase that converts NAM to nicotinic acid. Here we show that recombinant Pnc1 stimulates Sir2 HDAC activity in vitro by preventing the accumulation of NAM produced by Sir2. In vivo, telomeric, rDNA, and HM silencing are differentially sensitive to inhibition by NAM. Furthermore, PNC1 overexpression suppresses the inhibitory effect of exogenously added NAM on silencing, life span, and Hst1-mediated transcriptional repression. Finally, we show that stress suppresses the inhibitory effect of NAM through the induction of PNC1 expression. Pnc1, therefore, positively regulates Sir2-mediated silencing and longevity by preventing the accumulation of intracellular NAM during times of stress.

  13. The Caenorhabditis elegans nicotinamidase PNC-1 enhances survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Armando; Schavemaker, Jolanda M; Pellis-van Berkel, Wendy; Burgering, Boudewijn M T

    2007-04-01

    In yeast, increasing the copy number of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase Sir2 extends lifespan, which can be inhibited by nicotinamide (Nam), the end-product of Sir2-mediated NAD-breakdown. Furthermore, the yeast pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase PNC-1 can extend yeast lifespan by converting Nam. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), increased dosage of the gene encoding SIR-2.1 also increases lifespan. Here, we report that knockdown of the C. elegans homologue of yeast PNC-1 as well as growing worms on Nam-containing medium significantly decreases adult lifespan. Accordingly, increased gene dosage of pnc-1 increases adult survival under conditions of oxidative stress. These data show for the first time the involvement of PNC-1/Nam in the survival of a multicellular organism and may also contribute to our understanding of lifespan regulation in mammals.

  14. Phenylacetic acid co-crystals with acridine, caffeine, isonicotinamide and nicotinamide: Crystal structures, thermal analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2017-07-01

    Co-crystals of phenylacetic acid (PAA) with acridine (ACR), caffeine (CAF), isonicotinamide (INM) and nicotinamide (NAM) have been successfully prepared and characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The ACR, INM and NAM co-crystals with PAA exhibit the carboxylic acid-pyridine heterosynthon. Furthermore the amide-amide supramolecular homosynthon is observed in the PAA co-crystals with INM and NAM as well as Nsbnd H⋯O interactions between the acid and the respective base. The CAF co-crystal exhibits hydrogen bonding between the imidazole nitrogen and the COOH group of the PAA. The compounds demonstrate different stoichiometries; for PAA·ACR and PAA·INM a 1:1 ratio is displayed, a 2:1 in 2PAA·CAF and a 2:2 in the case of 2PAA·2NAM.

  15. Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procurement, and usage are expected from rabies biological suppliers in both India and Viet Nam. Once complete, ... as part of a Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation project led by WHO, recently showed that a reduction ...

  16. The Campus Community and the Futureless Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoben, Jr., Edward J.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses discontent of students in light of ideological differences concerning Viet Nam, pollution, overpopulation, racial strife. First of two in depth articles, in same issue, on college students. (CJ)

  17. All projects related to | Page 471 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , Senegal, Viet Nam, Togo, Burkina Faso, Zambia, United Kingdom. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 408,414.00. Competition and Regulation in West Africa. Project. Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) ...

  18. What we do | Page 52 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job creation in Southeast Asia. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Viet Nam. PROJECT ...

  19. The More Extreme Nature of North American Monsoon Precipitation in the Southwestern United States as Revealed by a Historical Climatology of Simulated Severe Weather Events

    KAUST Repository

    Luong, Thang M.

    2017-07-03

    Long-term changes in North American monsoon (NAM) precipitation intensity in the southwestern United States are evaluated through the use of convective-permitting model simulations of objectively identified severe weather events during

  20. canada : tous les projets | Page 22 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: FOREIGN INVESTMENT, DIRECT INVESTMENT, INVESTMENT POLICY, INVESTMENT PROMOTION, INVESTMENT RETURNS, Poverty alleviation, Economic and social development, ECONOMIC EQUITY, SOCIAL EQUITY. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Far East Asia, Viet Nam, South Africa, North ...

  1. Canada : tous les projets | Page 17 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: FOREIGN INVESTMENT, DIRECT INVESTMENT, INVESTMENT POLICY, INVESTMENT PROMOTION, INVESTMENT RETURNS, Poverty alleviation, Economic and social development, ECONOMIC EQUITY, SOCIAL EQUITY. Région: Canada, North and Central America, Far East Asia, Viet Nam, South Africa, North ...

  2. All projects related to China | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: INTENSIVE FARMING, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS, Pollution, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, HEALTH HAZARDS. Region: China, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Canada. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 4,000,000.00.

  3. Extrême-Orient | Page 54 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Pharmaceutical Innovation, Incremental Patenting and Compulsory Licensing. Langue English. Read more about Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet Nam. Langue English. Read more about Gouvernance et gestion des ressources communes au Vietnam. Langue French.

  4. All projects related to tanzania | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: HEALTH SURVEYS, HEALTH STATISTICS, DATA COLLECTING, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTERS. Region: Bangladesh, India, Viet Nam, Tanzania, Canada. Program: Foundations for Innovation. Total Funding: CA$ 65,200.00. Free and Open Source Management Information Systems and ...

  5. All projects related to | Page 511 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: COMMUNITY FACILITIES, INFORMATION CENTRES, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTERS, Internet. Region: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Total Funding: CA$ 137,926.00. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011. Project.

  6. Sleep Medicine Education in India: Policy Initiatives of National Academy of Medical Sciences (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mohan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of National academy of Medical Sciences in initiating policy for sleep education and research in India through the NAMS Regional symposium and its further dissemination through various academic research.

  7. Malaysia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , Far East Asia, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam ... Promotion de la recherche sur l'entrepreneuriat en Asie du Sud-Est - application du Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Projet ... Sujet: ECONOMIC POLICY, Economic and social development.

  8. What we do | Page 52 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Social and Ecological Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Orotoy Watershed, Colombia. In Colombia, extreme ... Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Entrepreneurship has ... Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Viet Nam. PROJECT ...

  9. All projects related to Bangladesh | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Total Funding: CA$ ... Topic: TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, INFORMATION CENTRES, COMMUNITY FACILITIES. Region: Far ... Topic: TOBACCO, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, CROP DIVERSIFICATION. Region: ...

  10. 50 CFR Appendix A to Chapter I - Codes for the Representation of Names of Countries (Established by the International Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Papua New Guinea PG. Paraguay PY. Peru PE. Philippines PH. Poland PL. Portugal PT. Qatar QA. Republic of... Tanzania TZ. United States of America US. Upper Volta HV. Uruguay UY. Vanuatu VU. Venezuela VE. Viet Nam VN...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2070 - Identification of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) EPA Approved regulations... revision to the RI SIP regarding ozone monitoring. RI will modify its SLAMS and its NAMS monitoring systems...

  12. All projects related to | Page 446 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESEARCH CAPACITY, ECONOMIC RESEARCH, SOCIAL RESEARCH, Social Policy, LABOUR LEGISLATION, LABOUR ECONOMICS, COMPETITION, COMPETITIVENESS, ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INCOME DISTRIBUTION. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Laos, Viet Nam. Program: ...

  13. Accelerating the Pace of Chemical Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, Robert J; Bahadori, Tina; Barton-Maclaren, Tara S; Gwinn, Maureen R; Rasenberg, Mike; Thomas, Russell S

    2018-04-06

    Changes in chemical regulations worldwide have increased the demand for new data on chemical safety. New approach methodologies (NAMs) are defined broadly here as including in silico approaches and in chemico and in vitro assays, as well as the inclusion of information from the exposure of chemicals in the context of hazard [European Chemicals Agency, " New Approach Methodologies in Regulatory Science ", 2016]. NAMs for toxicity testing, including alternatives to animal testing approaches, have shown promise to provide a large amount of data to fill information gaps in both hazard and exposure. In order to increase experience with the new data and to advance the applications of NAM data to evaluate the safety of data-poor chemicals, demonstration case studies have to be developed to build confidence in their usability. Case studies can be used to explore the domains of applicability of the NAM data and identify areas that would benefit from further research, development, and application. To ensure that this science evolves with direct input from and engagement by risk managers and regulatory decision makers, a workshop was convened among senior leaders from international regulatory agencies to identify common barriers for using NAMs and to propose next steps to address them. Central to the workshop were a series of collaborative case studies designed to explore areas where the benefits of NAM data could be demonstrated. These included use of in vitro bioassays data in combination with exposure estimates to derive a quantitative assessment of risk, use of NAMs for updating chemical categorizations, and use of NAMs to increase understanding of exposure and human health toxicity of various chemicals. The case study approach proved effective in building collaborations and engagement with regulatory decision makers and to promote the importance of data and knowledge sharing among international regulatory agencies. The case studies will be continued to explore new ways

  14. Partial mGlu₅ Negative Allosteric Modulators Attenuate Cocaine-Mediated Behaviors and Lack Psychotomimetic-Like Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Robert W; Amato, Russell J; Bubser, Michael; Joffe, Max E; Nedelcovych, Michael T; Thompson, Analisa D; Nickols, Hilary H; Yuh, Johannes P; Zhan, Xiaoyan; Felts, Andrew S; Rodriguez, Alice L; Morrison, Ryan D; Byers, Frank W; Rook, Jerri M; Daniels, John S; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Emmitte, Kyle A; Lindsley, Craig W; Jones, Carrie K

    2016-03-01

    Cocaine abuse remains a public health concern for which pharmacotherapies are largely ineffective. Comorbidities between cocaine abuse, depression, and anxiety support the development of novel treatments targeting multiple symptom clusters. Selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) targeting the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) subtype are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders and have shown promise in preclinical models of substance abuse. However, complete blockade or inverse agonist activity by some full mGlu5 NAM chemotypes demonstrated adverse effects, including psychosis in humans and psychotomimetic-like effects in animals, suggesting a narrow therapeutic window. Development of partial mGlu5 NAMs, characterized by their submaximal but saturable levels of blockade, may represent a novel approach to broaden the therapeutic window. To understand potential therapeutic vs adverse effects in preclinical behavioral assays, we examined the partial mGlu5 NAMs, M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy, in comparison with the full mGlu5 NAM MTEP across models of addiction and psychotomimetic-like activity. M-5MPEP, Br-5MPEPy, and MTEP dose-dependently decreased cocaine self-administration and attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy also demonstrated antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity. Dose-dependent effects of partial and full mGlu5 NAMs in these assays corresponded with increasing in vivo mGlu5 occupancy, demonstrating an orderly occupancy-to-efficacy relationship. PCP-induced hyperlocomotion was potentiated by MTEP, but not by M-5MPEP and Br-5MPEPy. Further, MTEP, but not M-5MPEP, potentiated the discriminative-stimulus effects of PCP. The present data suggest that partial mGlu5 NAM activity is sufficient to produce therapeutic effects similar to full mGlu5 NAMs, but with a broader therapeutic index.

  15. Lansdale, Magsaysay, America and the Philippines: A Case Study of Limited Intervention Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    biographical sketch of Dr. Taruc see Appendix D. 34Edward G. Lansdale, “A Comparison: Viet Nam and the Philippines,” Lansdale Papers, Box 74, Hoover...provided peasant conflict resolution, performed civil functions such as marriages , and provided law and order.36 When liberation forces entered Central...larger agrarian base extant in the Philippines at the time. Lansdale, A Comparison: Viet Nam and the Philippines, 3-4. 261Luis Taruc, He Who Rides the

  16. Dynamic Analysis of the Flexible Boom in the N-ROSS Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    ZSLOP(LCN= ’DEQ’ RU = ILI=I) ZSL.OP( PO=0.,A-X,= OMIT-.R = 2.Lf= 2),. ZSLOP( P0= ..AX= OMI~T,RU =3.LI = 3) LABEL ( Gil) APPLIED TORQUE L- ABEL (012...School Monterey, CA 93943) 146 14. Kane Choone soon 7 P.O.-ox 17 Kang Nam Gu. Ban Po 2 Dong Kane Nam Won. 11yo Sung Villa 5;201 Scot. Republic of Korea 15

  17. Understanding the influence of topography on the dynamics of the North American monsoon in climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varuolo-Clarke, A. M.; Medeiros, B.; Reed, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    This project examines the influence of topography on the dynamics of the North American monsoon (NAM), including the genesis, peak, and demise of the monsoon. The monsoon season occurs from July to September in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico and is characterized by an increase in rainfall that accounts for 40-80% of the total annual rainfall. We use a simple "monsoon index" and show that simulations with the Community Atmosphere model capture the essential nature of the NAM. Comparing standard low-resolution (1o latitude x 1o longitude) simulations where the topography over North America is either retained or removed we evaluate the models' representations of the NAM. To understand the origin of differences between the simulations we analyze the moist static energy budget in the monsoon region. Our preliminary results from simulations with realistic topography indicate that the simulated NAM is driven by locally-generated convection, with advection processes being secondary; this is consistent with the NAM being a result of the thermal contrast between the hot, summertime continent and relatively cool ocean. When topography is removed the simulated NAM will be relatively weak and be driven primarily by locally-generated convection. A better understanding of the monsoon dynamics and the impact topography has on these dynamics will allow for a more accurate representation of the monsoon in projections of future climate.

  18. Muscle type-specific responses to NAD+ salvage biosynthesis promote muscle function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablik, Tracy L; Wang, Wenqing; Upadhyay, Awani; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2011-01-15

    Salvage biosynthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) from nicotinamide (NAM) lowers NAM levels and replenishes the critical molecule NAD(+) after it is hydrolyzed. This pathway is emerging as a regulator of multiple biological processes. Here we probe the contribution of the NAM-NAD(+) salvage pathway to muscle development and function using Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans males with mutations in the nicotinamidase pnc-1, which catalyzes the first step of this NAD(+) salvage pathway, cannot mate due to a spicule muscle defect. Multiple muscle types are impaired in the hermaphrodites, including body wall muscles, pharyngeal muscles and vulval muscles. An active NAD(+) salvage pathway is required for optimal function of each muscle cell type. However, we found surprising muscle-cell-type specificity in terms of both the timing and relative sensitivity to perturbation of NAD(+) production or NAM levels. Active NAD(+) biosynthesis during development is critical for function of the male spicule protractor muscles during adulthood, but these muscles can surprisingly do without salvage biosynthesis in adulthood under the conditions examined. The body wall muscles require ongoing NAD(+) salvage biosynthesis both during development and adulthood for maximum function. The vulval muscles do not function in the presence of elevated NAM concentrations, but NAM supplementation is only slightly deleterious to body wall muscles during development or upon acute application in adults. Thus, the pathway plays distinct roles in different tissues. As NAM-NAD(+) biosynthesis also impacts muscle differentiation in vertebrates, we propose that similar complexities may be found among vertebrate muscle cell types. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The qEEG Signature of Selective NMDA NR2B Negative Allosteric Modulators; A Potential Translational Biomarker for Drug Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Keavy

    Full Text Available The antidepressant activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor channel blocker, ketamine, has led to the investigation of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs selective for the NR2B receptor subtype. The clinical development of NR2B NAMs would benefit from a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker that demonstrates brain penetration and functional inhibition of NR2B receptors in preclinical species and humans. Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG is a translational measure that can be used to demonstrate pharmacodynamic effects across species. NMDA receptor channel blockers, such as ketamine and phencyclidine, increase the EEG gamma power band, which has been used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker in the development of NMDA receptor antagonists. However, detailed qEEG studies with ketamine or NR2B NAMs are lacking in nonhuman primates. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects on the qEEG power spectra of the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil (CP-101,606 and BMT-108908 in nonhuman primates, and to compare them to the NMDA receptor channel blockers, ketamine and lanicemine. Cynomolgus monkeys were surgically implanted with EEG radio-telemetry transmitters, and qEEG was measured after vehicle or drug administration. The relative power for a number of frequency bands was determined. Ketamine and lanicemine increased relative gamma power, whereas the NR2B NAMs traxoprodil and BMT-108908 had no effect. Robust decreases in beta power were elicited by ketamine, traxoprodil and BMT-108908; and these agents also produced decreases in alpha power and increases in delta power at the doses tested. These results suggest that measurement of power spectra in the beta and delta bands may represent a translational pharmacodynamic biomarker to demonstrate functional effects of NR2B NAMs. The results of these studies may help guide the selection of qEEG measures that can be incorporated into early clinical evaluation of NR2B NAMs in healthy humans.

  20. Response of the North American monsoon to regional changes in ocean surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, John A.; Metcalfe, Sarah E.; Addison, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), an onshore wind shift occurring between July and September, has evolved in character during the Holocene largely due to changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation. Published paleoproxy and modeling studies suggest that prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, the NAM affected a broader region than today, extending westward into the Mojave Desert of California. Holocene proxy SST records from the Gulf of California (GoC) and the adjacent Pacific provide constraints for this changing NAM climatology. Prior to ∼8000 cal years BP, lower GoC SSTs would not have fueled northward surges of tropical moisture up the GoC, which presently contribute most of the monsoon precipitation to the western NAM region. During the early Holocene, the North Pacific High was further north and SSTs in the California Current off Baja California were warmer, allowing monsoonal moisture flow from the subtropical Pacific to take a more direct, northwesterly trajectory into an expanded area of the southwestern U.S. west of 114°W. A new upwelling record off southwest Baja California reveals that enhanced upwelling in the California Current beginning at ∼7500 cal year BP may have triggered a change in NAM climatology, focusing the geographic expression of NAM in the southwest USA into its modern core region east of ∼114°W, in Arizona and New Mexico. Holocene proxy precipitation records from the southwestern U.S. and northwestern Mexico, including lakes, vegetation/pollen, and caves are reviewed and found to be largely supportive of this hypothesis of changing Holocene NAM climatology.

  1. Nicotinamide impairs entry into and exit from meiosis I in mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Riepsamen

    Full Text Available Following exit from meiosis I, mammalian oocytes immediately enter meiosis II without an intervening interphase, accompanied by rapid reassembly of a bipolar spindle that maintains condensed chromosomes in a metaphase configuration (metaphase II arrest. Here we study the effect of nicotinamide (NAM, a non-competitive pan-sirtuin inhibitor, during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. Sirtuins are a family of seven NAD+-dependent deacetylases (Sirt1-7, which are involved in multiple cellular processes and are emerging as important regulators in oocytes and embryos. We found that NAM significantly delayed entry into meiosis I associated with delayed accumulation of the Cdk1 co-activator, cyclin B1. GVBD was also inhibited by the Sirt2-specific inhibitor, AGK2, and in a very similar pattern to NAM, supporting the notion that as in somatic cells, NAM inhibits sirtuins in oocytes. NAM did not affect subsequent spindle assembly, chromosome alignment or the timing of first polar body extrusion (PBE. Unexpectedly, however, in the majority of oocytes with a polar body, chromatin was decondensed and a nuclear structure was present. An identical phenotype was observed when flavopiridol was used to induce Cdk1 inactivation during late meiosis I prior to PBE, but not if Cdk1 was inactivated after PBE when metaphase II arrest was already established, altogether indicating that NAM impaired establishment rather than maintenance of metaphase II arrest. During meiosis I exit in NAM-treated medium, we found that cyclin B1 levels were lower and inhibitory Cdk1 phosphorylation was increased compared with controls. Although activation of the anaphase-promoting complex-Cdc20 (APC-Cdc20 occurred on-time in NAM-treated oocytes, Cdc20 levels were higher in very late meiosis I, pointing to exaggerated APC-Cdc20-mediated proteolysis as a reason for lower cyclin B1 levels. Collectively, therefore, our data indicate that by disrupting Cdk1 regulation, NAM impairs entry into

  2. Analysis on clinical features of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi LI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical manifestations and auxiliary examination features of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM. Methods According to the inclusion criteria from European Neuromuscular Center (ENMC International Workshop on idiopathic inflammatory myopathies published in 2004, 57 patients were diagnosed as NAM from 107 patients with necrotizing myopathy (NM. The risk factors, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, electrocardiography (ECG, electromyography (EMG, skeletal muscle MRI and muscle pathology were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were more female patients than male patients (male∶female = 1.00∶1.59, with the peak onset age during 40 to 59 years old (43.86% , 25/57 in this study. Clinical types included idiopathic NAM, NAM with connective tissue disease, statin-associated NAM and NAM with cancer. Muscle weakness mainly affected proximal muscle, while it may simultaneously affect distal muscle (28.07% , 16/57. Serum creatine kinase (CK elevated apparently (420-15 320 U/L. Serum anti-signal recognition particle (SRP antibodies were detected in 24 out of 44 patients (54.55%. A total of 41 in 45 patients (91.11% were detected myogenic damage on EMG, and 15 patients (33.33%, 15/45 also had spontaneous potentials. Thigh muscle MRI showed edema in 25 out of 27 patients (92.59% and fatty infiltration in 16 out of 27 patients (59.26% . Other than necrotic fibers, major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-1 on sarcolemma were positive in 98.25% (56/57 cases, and membrane attack complex (MAC deposition on capillary walls was detected in 92.98% (53/57 cases. Conclusions NAM can happen in all ages, mainly during 40 to 59 years old. Idiopathic NAM is the main type. Its main manifestation involves weakness of proximal muscle, sometimes with distal muscle. Extra-muscle symptoms are rare. Serum anti-SRP antibodies are common in NAM and edema is prominent change in thigh MRI. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.10.009

  3. Unvoiced Speech Recognition Using Tissue-Conductive Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heracleous Panikos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of stethoscope and silicon NAM (nonaudible murmur microphones in automatic speech recognition. NAM microphones are special acoustic sensors, which are attached behind the talker's ear and can capture not only normal (audible speech, but also very quietly uttered speech (nonaudible murmur. As a result, NAM microphones can be applied in automatic speech recognition systems when privacy is desired in human-machine communication. Moreover, NAM microphones show robustness against noise and they might be used in special systems (speech recognition, speech transform, etc. for sound-impaired people. Using adaptation techniques and a small amount of training data, we achieved for a 20 k dictation task a word accuracy for nonaudible murmur recognition in a clean environment. In this paper, we also investigate nonaudible murmur recognition in noisy environments and the effect of the Lombard reflex on nonaudible murmur recognition. We also propose three methods to integrate audible speech and nonaudible murmur recognition using a stethoscope NAM microphone with very promising results.

  4. Recent and possible future variations in the North American Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Barlow, Mathew; Shukla, Shraddhanand

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics and recent and possible future changes of the June–September rainfall associated with the North American Monsoon (NAM) are reviewed in this chapter. Our analysis as well as previous analyses of the trend in June–September precipitation from 1948 until 2010 indicate significant precipitation increases over New Mexico and the core NAM region, and significant precipitation decreases over southwest Mexico. The trends in June–September precipitation have been forced by anomalous cyclonic circulation centered at 15°N latitude over the eastern Pacific Ocean. The anomalous cyclonic circulation is responsible for changes in the flux of moisture and the divergence of moisture flux within the core NAM region. Future climate projections using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models, as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), support the observed analyses of a later shift in the monsoon season in the presence of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere under the RCP8.5 scenario. The CMIP5 models under the RCP8.5 scenario predict significant NAM-related rainfall decreases during June and July and predict significant NAM-related rainfall increases during September and October.

  5. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  6. A study of the Chinese organic–inorganic hybrid sealing material used in “Huaguang No.1” ancient wooden ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Shiqiang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Bingjian; Wei, Guofeng; Li, Guoqing; Zhou, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. ► The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. ► This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. ► Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic–inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in “Huaguang No.1” ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca 2+ from the Ca(OH) 2 and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  7. Nicotinamide supplementation phenocopies SIR2 inactivation by modulating carbon metabolism and respiration during yeast chronological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Ivan; Pellegrino Coppola, Damiano; Strippoli, Maurizio; Ronzulli, Rossella; Vai, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B 3 , is a byproduct and noncompetitive inhibitor of the deacetylation reaction catalyzed by Sirtuins. These represent a family of evolutionarily conserved NAD + -dependent deacetylases that are well-known critical regulators of metabolism and aging and whose founding member is Sir2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we investigated the effects of NAM supplementation in the context of yeast chronological aging, the established model for studying aging of postmitotic quiescent mammalian cells. Our data show that NAM supplementation at the diauxic shift results in a phenocopy of chronologically aging sir2Δ cells. In fact, NAM-supplemented cells display the same chronological lifespan extension both in expired medium and extreme Calorie Restriction. Furthermore, NAM allows the cells to push their metabolism toward the same outcomes of sir2Δ cells by elevating the level of the acetylated Pck1. Both these cells have the same metabolic changes that concern not only anabolic pathways such as an increased gluconeogenesis but also respiratory activity in terms both of respiratory rate and state of respiration. In particular, they have a higher respiratory reserve capacity and a lower non-phosphorylating respiration that in concert with a low burden of superoxide anions can affect positively chronological aging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides in Helicobacter pylori by fusogenic liposomes in the presence of gastric mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rita S; Dakwar, George R; Zagato, Elisa; Brans, Toon; Figueiredo, Céu; Raemdonck, Koen; Azevedo, Nuno F; De Smedt, Stefaan C; Braeckmans, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    The rising antimicrobial resistance contributes to 25000 annual deaths in Europe. This threat to the public health can only be tackled if novel antimicrobials are developed, combined with a more precise use of the currently available antibiotics through the implementation of fast, specific, diagnostic methods. Nucleic acid mimics (NAMs) that are able to hybridize intracellular bacterial RNA have the potential to become such a new class of antimicrobials and additionally could serve as specific detection probes. However, an essential requirement is that these NAMs should be delivered into the bacterial cytoplasm, which is a particular challenge given the fact that they are charged macromolecules. We consider these delivery challenges in relation to the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, the most frequent chronic infection worldwide. In particular, we evaluate if cationic fusogenic liposomes are suitable carriers to deliver NAMs across the gastric mucus barrier and the bacterial envelope. Our study shows that DOTAP-DOPE liposomes post-PEGylated with DSPE-PEG (DSPE Lpx) can indeed successfully deliver NAMs into Helicobacter pylori, while offering protection to the NAMs from binding and inactivation in gastric mucus isolated from pigs. DSPE Lpx thus offer exciting new possibilities for in vivo diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Phosphoenzyme Mimic, Overlapping Catalytic Sites and Reaction Coordinate Motion for Human NAMPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, E.; Ho, M; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is highly evolved to capture nicotinamide (NAM) and replenish the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) pool during ADP-ribosylation and transferase reactions. ATP-phosphorylation of an active-site histidine causes catalytic activation, increasing NAM affinity by 160,000. Crystal structures of NAMPT with catalytic site ligands identify the phosphorylation site, establish its role in catalysis, demonstrate unique overlapping ATP and phosphoribosyltransferase sites, and establish reaction coordinate motion. NAMPT structures with beryllium fluoride indicate a covalent H247-BeF3- as the phosphohistidine mimic. Activation of NAMPT by H247-phosphorylation causes stabilization of the enzyme-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate complex, permitting efficient capture of NAM. Reactant and product structures establish reaction coordinate motion for NAMPT to be migration of the ribosyl anomeric carbon from the pyrophosphate leaving group to the nicotinamide-N1 while the 5-phosphoryl group, the pyrophosphate moiety, and the nicotinamide ring remain fixed in the catalytic site.

  10. Using Body-Conducted Acoustic Sensors for Human-Robot Communication in Noisy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panikos Heracleous

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of alternative acoustic sensors in human-robot communication is investigated. In particular, a Non-Audible Murmur (NAM microphone was applied in tele-operating the Geminoid HI-1 robot in noisy environments. The current study introduces the methodology and the results of speech intelligibility subjective tests when a NAM microphone was used in comparison with using a standard microphone. The results show the advantage of using a NAM microphone when the operation takes place in adverse environmental conditions. In addition, the effect of Geminoid's lip movements on speech intelligibility is also investigated. Subjective speech intelligibility tests show that the operator's speech can be perceived with higher intelligibility scores when the operator's audio speech is perceived along with the lip movements of robots.

  11. Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi

    2010-08-23

    To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5+/-6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1+/-3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 18.0+/-5.2 and 21.5+/-2.7 nAm with left-eye and right-eye stimulation of the infero-medial quadrant visual field, respectively. Thus, the dipole moment was higher when the dominant eye was stimulated, which implies that ocular dominance is regulated by the ipsilateral occipital lobe.

  12. Vietnam and Britain agree to forced return of Vietnamese boat people in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-31

    On 29 October 1991, the Governments of the United Kingdom and Viet Nam reached an Agreement on the return of certain categories of Vietnamese "boat people," i.e., persons who fled from Viet Nam to Hong Kong. Under the Agreement, Vietnamese who arrive in Hong Kong after the date of the Agreement and who do not qualify for refugee status will be returned first. The determination of such status is to occur within six weeks of their arrival. Later, Vietnamese in Hong Kong who have already failed to qualify for refugee status will be returned. The Agreement follows an Agreement earlier in October to return Vietnamese arriving in Hong Kong who are known as "double backers," i.e., persons who had previously voluntarily been repatriated to Viet Nam only to return to Hong Kong.

  13. Market testing of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Ho Minh

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam has emerged as one of the three top producers and exporters of rice in the world. Tropical climate and poor infrastructure of preservation and storage lead to huge losses of food grains, onions, dried fish and fishery products. Based on demonstration irradiation facility pilot scale studies and marketing of irradiated rice, onions, mushrooms and litchi were successfully undertaken in Viet Nam during 1992-1998. Irradiation technology is being used commercially in Viet Nam since 1991 for insect control of imported tobacco and mould control of national traditional medicinal herbs by both government and private sectors. About 30 tons of tobacco and 25 tons of herbs are irradiated annually. Hanoi Irradiation Centre has been continuing open house practices for visitors from school, universities and various different organizations and thus contributed in improved public education. Consumers were found to prefer irradiated rice, onions, litchi and mushrooms over those nonirradiated. (author)

  14. Stac3 is a component of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery and mutated in Native American myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Eric J.; Linsley, Jeremy W.; Dowling, James J.; Hauser, Michael A.; McDonald, Kristin K.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Saint-Amant, Louis; Satish, Akhila; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Sprague, Shawn M.; Stamm, Demetra S.; Powell, Cynthia M.; Speer, Marcy C.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Hirata, Hiromi; Kuwada, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling, the process that regulates contractions by skeletal muscles, transduces changes in membrane voltage by activating release of Ca2+ from internal stores to initiate muscle contraction. Defects in EC coupling are associated with muscle diseases. Here we identify Stac3 as a novel component of the EC coupling machinery. Using a zebrafish genetic screen, we generate a locomotor mutation that is mapped to stac3. We provide electrophysiological, Ca2+ imaging, immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence that Stac3 participates in excitation-contraction coupling in muscles. Furthermore, we reveal that a mutation in human STAC3 as the genetic basis of the debilitating Native American myopathy (NAM). Analysis of NAM stac3 in zebrafish shows that the NAM mutation decreases excitation-contraction coupling. These findings enhance our understanding of both excitation-contraction coupling and the pathology of myopathies. PMID:23736855

  15. OGLAŠEVANJE NA FACEBOOKU

    OpenAIRE

    Renko, Katica

    2013-01-01

    V magistrskem delu smo se seznanili z oglaševanjem na Facebooku. S pregledom gradiva, ki nam je ponujeno, smo preverili pogoje, načine, oblike … oglaševanja, ki pa smo jih s pregledom situacije v praksi preverili in dopolnili. Ob zaključku dela lahko rečemo, da je oglaševanje preko FB enostavnejše, cenejše, dostopnejše, omogoča nam ažurnost in samo komunikacijo z naslovniki, ki so potencialni kupci naših ponudb. Množični mediji nam omogočajo mnogotero obliko oglaševanja. Izbrana oblika ponuja...

  16. Kinome-wide Decoding of Network-Attacking Mutations Rewiring Cancer Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M; Simpson, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire pathological phenotypes through accumulation of mutations that perturb signaling networks. However, global analysis of these events is currently limited. Here, we identify six types of network-attacking mutations (NAMs), including changes in kinase and SH2 modulation, network...... rewiring, and the genesis and extinction of phosphorylation sites. We developed a computational platform (ReKINect) to identify NAMs and systematically interpreted the exomes and quantitative (phospho-)proteomes of five ovarian cancer cell lines and the global cancer genome repository. We identified......-inactivating hotspots in cancer. Our method pinpoints functional NAMs, scales with the complexity of cancer genomes and cell signaling, and may enhance our capability to therapeutically target tumor-specific networks....

  17. Nicotinamide sensitizes human breast cancer cells to the cytotoxic effects of radiation and cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Gómez, G; Díaz-Chávez, J; Chávez-Blanco, A; Gonzalez-Fierro, A; Jiménez-Salazar, J E; Damián-Matsumura, P; Gómez-Quiroz, L E; Dueñas-González, A

    2015-02-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors enhance the effect of DNA alkylating agents on BRCA1‑ and BRCA2-deficient cell lines. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the PARP inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) on breast cancer cells with different BRCA1 expression or function, such as BRCA1‑deficient MDA-MB-436 cells, low expression BRCA1 MCF-7 cells, and the BRCA1 wild‑type MDA-MB-231 cells, to demonstrate its effects as a chemo‑ or radiosensitizing agent. PARP activity was analyzed in MDA-MB-436, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells subjected or not to NAM. Inhibition of PARP by NAM in the presence of DNA damage was examined by Alexa Fluor 488 immunofluorescence. Crystal violet assays were used to test growth inhibition and the chemo‑ and radiosensitization effects of NAM were investigated using clonogenic assays. Significant differences among data sets were determined using two-tailed ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. We demonstrated that NAM reduces PARP activity in vitro, and in cells subjected or not to DNA damage, it also reduces the viability of breast cancer cell lines and synergyzes the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in MDA-MB-436 and MCF-7 cells. Downregulation of PARP1 with siRNA led to modest growth inhibition, which was further increased by cisplatin. Nicotinamide also induced radiosensitization in MDA-MB-436 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, NAM may be used as a chemo‑ or radiosensitizing agent regardless of the BRCA1 status in breast cancer.

  18. PGC1α-dependent NAD biosynthesis links oxidative metabolism to renal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Mei T.; Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna K.; Berg, Anders H.; Khankin, Eliyahu V.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Kim, Wondong; Clish, Clary B.; Stillman, Isaac E.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Rhee, Eugene P.; Parikh, Samir M.

    2016-01-01

    The energetic burden of continuously concentrating solutes against gradients along the tubule may render the kidney especially vulnerable to ischemia. Indeed, acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 3% of all hospitalized patients.1,2 Here we show that the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, PGC1α,3,4 is a pivotal determinant of renal recovery from injury by regulating NAD biosynthesis. Following renal ischemia, PGC1α−/− mice developed local deficiency of the NAD precursor niacinamide (Nam), marked fat accumulation, and failure to re-establish normal function. Remarkably, exogenous Nam improved local NAD levels, fat accumulation, and renal function in post-ischemic PGC1α−/− mice. Inducible tubular transgenic mice (iNephPGC1α) recapitulated the effects of Nam supplementation, including more local NAD and less fat accumulation with better renal function after ischemia. PGC1α coordinately upregulated the enzymes that synthesize NAD de novo from amino acids whereas PGC1α deficiency or AKI attenuated the de novo pathway. Nam enhanced NAD via the enzyme NAMPT and augmented production of the fat breakdown product beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), leading to increased prostaglandin PGE2, a secreted autocoid that maintains renal function.5 Nam treatment reversed established ischemic AKI and also prevented AKI in an unrelated toxic model. Inhibition of β-OHB signaling or prostaglandins similarly abolished PGC1α-dependent renoprotection. Given the importance of mitochondrial health in aging and the function of metabolically active organs, the results implicate Nam and NAD as key effectors for achieving PGC1α-dependent stress resistance. PMID:26982719

  19. Atmospheric behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a Japanese remote background site, Noto peninsula, from 2004 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Hakamata, Mariko; Sato, Kousuke; Okada, Yumi; Yang, Xiaoyang; Tatematsu, Michiya; Toriba, Akira; Kameda, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-11-01

    Total suspended particulates were collected at a Japanese remote background site (Noto Air Monitoring Station; NAMS) on the Noto Peninsula from September 2004 to June 2014. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particulates (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The mean total concentrations of the nine PAHs in the cold season (November to May for the years 2004-2014) was 670 pg m-3 (range 37-4100 pg m-3). The mean total concentration in the warm season (June to October for the same period) was 170 pg m-3 (range 31-960 pg m-3). The atmospheric PAH level at NAMS decreased in recent years, although no significant change was found in the warm season. An analysis of meteorological conditions showed that the atmospheric PAHs at NAMS were long range transported from Northeast China in the cold seasons and were contributed to by Japanese domestic sources in the warm seasons. Lower concentration ratios of reactive PAHs to their isomers at NAMS also supported these results. Activities associated with the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2008 and reconstruction after the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake may have contributed to the yearly variations of atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS during the period 2007-2009. Source control measures implemented by the Chinese and Japanese governments appear to have been effective in decreasing the atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS in recent years.

  20. Analiza parametrov mlečnosti in plodnosti na govedorejski kmetiji

    OpenAIRE

    Štampar, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Na kmetiji, izbrani za to raziskavo, se redno izvaja mesečna kontrola mlečnosti. Z analizo smo ugotovili, da je osnovni krmni obrok sestavljen neustrezno, saj v njem primanjkuje prebavljivih surovih beljakovin. Rezultati kontrol mlečnosti so nam pokazali nepravilnosti prehrane. Porazdelitev krav v polja glede razmerja med maščobo in beljakovinami v mleku (M/B) nam je pokazala, da je bilo decembra 2008 v optimalnem polju B2M/B več krav kot leta 2007. Tudi vsebnost sečnine je bila pri obroku le...

  1. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  2. P161 Improved Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance Assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Chou, Shih-Hung; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    For over 6 years, AIRS radiances have been assimilated operationally into National (e.g. Environmental Modeling Center (EMC)) and International (e.g. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)), operational centers; assimilated in the North American Mesoscale (NAM) since 2008. Due partly to data latency and operational constraints, hyperspectral radiance assimilation has had less impact on the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system used in the NAM and GFS. Objective of this project is to use AIRS retrieved profiles as a proxy for the AIRS radiances in situations where AIRS radiances are unable to be assimilated in the current operational system by evaluating location and magnitude of analysis increments.

  3. Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: An MEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5±6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1±3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of...

  4. N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY—Major Metabolite of Nicotinamide: An Update on an Old Uremic Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Lenglet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2PY, a major metabolite of nicotinamide, NAM was recently identified as a uremic toxin. Recent interventional trials using NAM to treat high levels of phosphorus in end-stage renal disease have highlighted new potential uremic toxicities of 2PY. In the context of uremia, the accumulation of 2PY could be harmful—perhaps by inhibiting poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 activity. Here, we review recently published data on 2PY’s metabolism and toxicological profile.

  5. OSINT - študija primera WIKILEAKS in študija primera SUPERVIZOR : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Mahne, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Supervizor na nacionalni in Wikileaks na svetovni ravni danes predstavljata sredstvi za lažje finančno, politično ali vse svetovno poznavanje dogajanja v državi ali v svetu. Aplikacija Supervizor nam omogoča, da lahko kadarkoli preverimo, koliko denarja je dobila osnovna šola v našem kraju ali morda koliko je podjetje našega soseda prejelo od države za urejanje vrtov. V nasprotju s finančnimi tokovi nam Wikileaks razkriva, kaj sta se na poslovnem kosilu pogovarjala ameriški minister in na...

  6. Nuclear asset management. Slide notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puglia, W.; Bailey, H.; Kubinova, J.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear asset management is defined as the process for making resource allocation and risk management decisions at all levels of nuclear generation business to maximize value/profitability for all stakeholders while maintaining plant safety. In the presentation, the NAM concept is explained, financial benefits achieved in US industry over the past 12 years are outlined, Data Systems and Solutions (DS and S) is presented as a joint venture between Rolls-Royce and SAIC, and NAM benefits in nuclear industry from DS and S client experience are demonstrated. (P.A.)

  7. Influenza in het seizoen 1994/'95: vaccinsamenstelling voor het seizoen 1995/'96.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, E.C.J.; Jong, J.C. de; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Rimmelzwaan, G.F.; Wijngaarden, J.K. van; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

    1995-01-01

    Het influenzaseizoen 1994/'95 werd in Nederland gekenmerkt door geringe influenza-activiteit, die zich pas eind februari manifesteerde. De influenza-activiteit bleef verhoogd tot eind april, hetgeen ongewoon laat is, en nam alleen in het zuiden van het land epidemische vormen aan. Zowel

  8. : tous les projets | Page 479 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HEALTH SURVEYS, HEALTH STATISTICS, DATA COLLECTING, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTERS. Région: Bangladesh, India, Viet Nam, Tanzania, Canada. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 65,200.00. Health Bridge - Les TIC au profit de la cueillette et de la gestion ...

  9. Top astronomers head to the city. Experts to talk on exciting quasar discoveries.

    CERN Multimedia

    Grant, S

    2002-01-01

    The UK National Astronomy Meeting - NAM 2002 - is at Bristol University this week. The meeting is one of the most important regular gatherings of astronomers in the UK. Sponsored by the Royal Astronomical Society and PPARC, it should attract about 300 astronomers from the UK and beyond.

  10. Asie du sud | Page 107 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In this spirit, Viet Nam's Minister of Science, Technology and Environment approached the International Development Research Centre ( IDRC ) and the ... of social difference is needed to find answers to the questions of who participates and how, and who benefits and how from development interventions, projects, ...

  11. All projects related to malaysia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, South Asia, Far East Asia, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and ...

  12. The 2012 hormone therapy position statement of: The North American Menopause Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This position statement aimed to update the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in 2010 regarding recommendations for hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women. This updated position statement further distinguishes the emerging differences in the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio between estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) at various ages and time intervals since menopause onset. An Advisory Panel of expert clinicians and researchers in the field of women's health was enlisted to review the 2010 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel's recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. Current evidence supports the use of HT for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women when the balance of potential benefits and risks is favorable for the individual woman. This position statement reviews the effects of ET and EPT on many aspects of women's health and recognizes the greater safety profile associated with ET. Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms and to prevent osteoporosis in women at high risk of fracture. The more favorable benefit-risk ratio for ET allows more flexibility in extending the duration of use compared with EPT, where the earlier appearance of increased breast cancer risk precludes a recommendation for use beyond 3 to 5 years.

  13. Polarized Raman scattering in single crystals of Nd0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. Experimental. The single crystal was grown in an infrared image furnace by the floating zone technique. Raman measurements were performed in the spectral .... [3] C Xiong, Q Li, H L Ju, S N Mao, L Senapati, X X Xi, R L Green and T Venkatesan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1427 (1995). [4] N H Nam, R Mathieu, P Nordblad, N V ...

  14. Publications | Page 426 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 4251 - 4260 of 6381 ... Research results : analyzing the impact of introducing an automated management information system within microfinance institutions (restricted access) · Science and technology innovations in health for the Base of the Pyramid in Cambodia, Philippines, and Viet Nam (restricted access).

  15. Pnc1p-mediated nicotinamide clearance modifies the epigenetic properties of rDNA silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Julie M; Gallo, Christopher M; Smith, Daniel L; Matecic, Mirela; Hontz, Robert D; Buck, Stephen W; Racette, Frances G; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2008-10-01

    The histone deacetylase activity of Sir2p is dependent on NAD(+) and inhibited by nicotinamide (NAM). As a result, Sir2p-regulated processes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae such as silencing and replicative aging are susceptible to alterations in cellular NAD(+) and NAM levels. We have determined that high concentrations of NAM in the growth medium elevate the intracellular NAD(+) concentration through a mechanism that is partially dependent on NPT1, an important gene in the Preiss-Handler NAD(+) salvage pathway. Overexpression of the nicotinamidase, Pnc1p, prevents inhibition of Sir2p by the excess NAM while maintaining the elevated NAD(+) concentration. This growth condition alters the epigenetics of rDNA silencing, such that repression of a URA3 reporter gene located at the rDNA induces growth on media that either lacks uracil or contains 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA), an unusual dual phenotype that is reminiscent of telomeric silencing (TPE) of URA3. Despite the similarities to TPE, the modified rDNA silencing phenotype does not require the SIR complex. Instead, it retains key characteristics of typical rDNA silencing, including RENT and Pol I dependence, as well as a requirement for the Preiss-Handler NAD(+) salvage pathway. Exogenous nicotinamide can therefore have negative or positive impacts on rDNA silencing, depending on the PNC1 expression level.

  16. What we do | Page 118 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Equitap, a developing country-led research network, has systematically documented the performance of 15 national health systems in Asia since 2000, with a significant impact on both researchers and ... The Greater Mekong countries of Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam are among the lowest income countries in Asia.

  17. genetic analysis of resistance to soybean rust disease abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda .... pollinating crops like soybean depends on the .... Resistant. UG5. -. Uganda. Resistant. Kabanyolo 1. Mutant of Clark 63. Uganda. Susceptible. Nam 1. Hales x P1307-861. Colombia. Susceptible. Wondersoya.

  18. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to enhance understanding of national policy-making process with respect to two critical issues: poultry vaccination and antiviral drugs for humans. Researchers will examine the content, context and process of antiviral drug and poultry vaccination policies in Indonesia, Thailand and Viet Nam, comparing ...

  19. A comparison of the intensive care experiences of emergency and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-11

    Sep 11, 2015 ... emergency and elective cardiac surgery patients. SB Göktas, T Yıldız1, SK Nargiz2, O Gur1. Department of Nursing, Surgical Nursing, Medipol University, Faculty of Health Science, Istanbul, 1 Department of. Cardiovasculer Surgery, School of Health, Namık Kemal University, Tekirdag, 2Department of ...

  20. Mekong Economic Research Network (MERN) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Greater Mekong countries of Cambodia, Laos and Viet Nam are among the lowest income countries in Asia. Although recent market-oriented reforms have greatly accelerated economic development in all three countries, they face numerous challenges to achieving inclusive growth. Such challenges include the need ...

  1. Search Results | Page 14 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 131 - 140 of 209 ... The Economic Committee of the National Assembly (ECNA) of Viet Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs (including banking), and to supervise the implementation of state. Project ...

  2. Nanomechanical Infrared Spectroscopy with Vibrating Filters for Pharmaceutical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Carnoy, Matthias; Larsen, Peter Emil

    2017-01-01

    response of a nanomechanical resonator, which enables the chemical analysis of picograms of analyte directly from a liquid solution in only a few minutes. Herein, we present NAM-IR using perforated membranes (filters). The method was tested with the pharmaceutical compound indomethacin to successfully...

  3. All projects related to India | Page 15 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Consumer Unity &Trust Society (CUTS International) is an international research, advocacy and networking organization based in India, with resource centres in Kenya, Viet Nam, the United Kingdom and Zambia. Start Date: July 1, 2008. End Date: March 24, 2011. Topic: COMPETITION LAW, COMPETITION POLICY, ...

  4. Search Results | Page 841 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    Results 8401 - 8410 of 8491 ... Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. Publication Date. August 29, 2009. Books.

  5. Determination of elements by nuclear analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, H P; Görner, W; Hedrich, M

    2001-01-01

    The working principle of nuclear analytical methods (NAMs) is not influenced by the chemical bond. Consequently, they are independent counterparts to the well-known chemical procedures. NAMs obey fundamental laws or can be described and understood thoroughly. This qualifies them as candidates for reference methods. Although following similar nuclear reaction schemes, they comprise bulk analyzing capability (neutron and photon activation analysis) as well as detection power in surface near regions of solids (ion beam techniques). Prominent features of NAMs are sensitivity, selectivity, multielement determination and linearity of the calibration function covering a concentration range of several orders of magnitude. Moreover, ion beam techniques allow depth profiling with nm-resolution in several cases while the ion microprobe additionally offers a lateral resolution in the micron-scale. As NAMs require expensive apparatus (nuclear reactor, accelerator in radioactive control areas) their availability is restricted to a small number of suitably equipped institutes. However, they are able to solve complex analytical tasks, take part in key comparisons and play an essential role in the certification of reference materials.

  6. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5. Diurnal ... North American Mesoscale (NAM)model forecasts for the summers of 2004 to 2006 were evaluated using observations. ... This feature is attributed to model physics not capturing cloud –radiation interaction processes dominant during nights.

  7. All projects related to | Page 349 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-02-25

    The Economic Committee of the National Assembly (ECNA) of Viet Nam is mandated to review drafts of legislation related to economic management, business activity and monetary affairs (including banking), and to supervise the implementation of state plans for socioeconomic development. Start Date: February 25, 2010.

  8. Experiment list: SRX1038541 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1695734: H8083 Red1 ChIP in pREC8-SCC1 biological replicate 1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; ChIP-Seq source_nam...e=Red1 ChIP in pREC8-SCC1 biological replicate 1 || strain=sk1 || meiotic timepoint=3 hour || genotype=pREC8

  9. Experiment list: SRX1038537 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1695730: H6200 Red1 ChIP in rec8 delta biological replicate 1; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; ChIP-Seq source_nam...e=Red1 ChIP in rec8 delta biological replicate 1 || strain=sk1 || meiotic timepoint=3 hour || genotype=rec8

  10. Experiment list: SRX1038542 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1695735: H8083 Red1 ChIP in pREC8-SCC1 biological replicate 2; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; ChIP-Seq source_nam...e=Red1 ChIP in pREC8-SCC1 biological replicate 2 || strain=sk1 || meiotic timepoint=3 hour || genotype=pREC8

  11. All projects related to | Page 400 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, China, India, Philippines, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 341,600.00. Intergenerational Transfers, Aging and Social Protection in Asia. Project. Asian countries are experiencing, in varying degrees, low fertility and increasing life ...

  12. All projects related to | Page 33 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, ...

  13. All projects related to | Page 331 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South America, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Philippines, Switzerland, South Africa, Lebanon, Burkina Faso, Bangladesh, Kenya, Viet Nam, Ethiopia, Peru, United Kingdom. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 3,430,000.00. Strengthening Equity ...

  14. Employment and Growth | Page 27 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). Language English. Read more about Microfinance and reducing poverty in Central Africa. Language English. Read more about Asia-Pacific Research and ...

  15. Central Asia | Page 61 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. Read more about Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). Language English. Read more about Mondialisation, ajustement et défi de la croissance partagée (Indonésie, Philippines et Vietnam). Language French. Read more about ...

  16. All projects related to | Page 34 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. Region: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam, South Asia, Far East Asia, United States, ...

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (86th, Kansas City, Missouri, July 30-August 2, 2003). Critical and Cultural Studies Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Critical and Cultural Studies Division of the proceedings contains the following 6 papers: "Examining Diversity in Cable Television: A Proposal for Linking Diversity of Content to Diversity of Ownership" (Siho Nam); "'The Agency': Naturalizing Terrorism" (Sue Lawrence); "Television News and Gender-Relevant Visual…

  18. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  19. Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). This project seeks to better understand the challenge of inclusive growth in the context of ... the productivity-business cycle interaction. Dossiers. Industry churning, the labor market and workers' welfare. Dossiers.

  20. cambodia : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. Programme de recherche sur ...

  1. : tous les projets | Page 539 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE FACILITATION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 300,000.00. Partage des avantages ...

  2. paleoenvironmental settings and assemblage changes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kasanzu

    formed during the breakup of Gondwana and after the drifting of ..... high peak from NAM 05. On the overall, the identified foraminifera types .... Vol. 43(1), 2017. 75. Plate 1(continuing):. Examples of observed palynomorphs at different sample intervals across the TDP 11 borehole. DISCUSSIONS. Foraminifera assemblages.

  3. All projects related to | Page 562 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 5,093,453.00. Integrated Program on Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa (IPMA) ...

  4. Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, in the Netherlands in 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens LC; Koedijk FDH; van den Broek IVF; Vriend HJ; Op de Coul ELM; van Sighem AI; Stirbu-Wagner I; van Benthem BHB; SOA; I&V

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 hebben meer mensen zich bij een soa-poli laten testen op een seksueel overdraagbare aandoening (soa) dan in voorgaande jaren. Ook is bij meer mensen een soa geconstateerd. Vooral het percentage mensen met een chlamydia- en gonorroe-infectie nam toe. Deze tendensen zijn zichtbaar bij zowel de

  5. JPRS Report, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Biographic Information on Officials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-17

    PASASON (Aug 85) BOUNTHAMALI BOUNSUAI Deputy head of Culture & Art Department (Dec 77). i BOUNTHAN Secretary of Nam Bak District party committee...committee; vice chairman of municipal LFNC committee (Jan 88). CHANPHONG Representative of Cultural & Arts Department (Feb 78). CHANSAI PHANTHAVONG...CHANTHAVONG PATHOUMSAI Head of Vientiane Municipality Embroidery & Handicrafts Factory (Jan 87). CHANTHI DEUANSAVAN Deputy editor in chief of

  6. : tous les projets | Page 512 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, PROPHYLAXIS. Région: China, Far East Asia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 874,349.00. Étude du Partenariat de recherche sur l'influenza aviaire en Asie sur l'efficacité des mesures de lutte.

  7. : tous les projets | Page 470 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand ... Ce projet vise à réduire la vulnérabilité des populations pauvres en Afrique subsaharienne au changements climatiques en mobilisant les scientifiques et l'ensemble des acteurs concernés afin d'éclairer la prise de ...

  8. Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) to Local Communities and Environment in Hop Tien Commune, Dong Hy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2008-01-01

    This case-study is designed to support the development of the Viet Nam – Netherlands Water Partnership on Water for Food and Ecosystems. The partnership is between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality

  9. All projects related to Malaysia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: PRIVATE SECTOR, GOVERNMENT, DIET, FOOD INDUSTRY, POLICY MAKING, FOOD POLICY, SOUTHEAST ASIA, STRATEGIC PLANNING. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 323,900.00. Job Prospects in ...

  10. All projects related to | Page 628 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SMOKING, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS. Region: Far East Asia, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 186,450.00. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco Farming. Project. In an attempt to block policies aimed ...

  11. Telecentre Network Startup : Bangladesh - Mission 2011 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second generation of telecentres has seen the emergence of national-level networks in various parts of the word including the Ugandan Telecentre Network, Mission ... It is expected that the BTN will serve as a model of telecentre networking for medium-sized Asian countries such as Malaysia, Thailand and Viet Nam.

  12. The Disruptive Effect of Lysozyme on the Bacterial Cell Wall Explored by an "In-Silico" Structural Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano D.; Otero, Lisandro H.; Ruiz, Francisco; Klinke, Sebastián; Giordano, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall…

  13. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region. 591. Figure 16. WRF forecast local 10 m winds for 1900 Z on 10 August 2001. the analysis should be done with more stations to draw a more robust conclusion on the success of the NAM model. 5. Numerical simulation of convection,. 9–11 August 2001.

  14. Spatio-temporal variations in surface characteristics over the North American Monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we summarize the surface characteristics for six locations in western Mexico and southwestern USA (from a subhumid climate in Jalisco, Mexico to the Sonoran Desert climate in Arizona, USA),that lie along a meridional transect within the North American Monsoon (NAM) core region using av...

  15. Asie centrale | Page 97 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased soil erosion, reduced water-storage capacity, changes in microclimates, and loss of nutrients have led to a decline in the productivity of marginal lands and the impoverishment of local communities. Read more about Deforestation in Viet Nam. Langue English. Au tout début du siècle, les gibbons, qui étaienttrès ...

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of an E-class MADS-box gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... 38: 484-489. Sung SK, Yu GH, Nam J, Jeong DH, An G (2000). Developmentally regulated expression of two MADS-box genes, MdMADS3 and. MdMADS4, in the morphogenesis of flower buds and fruits in apple. Planta, 210: 519-528. Theissen G, Saedler H (1995). MADS-box genes in plant ontogeny and.

  17. : tous les projets | Page 526 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Immunization, VACCINATION, BIRDS, HEALTH POLICY, Disease control. Région: Far East Asia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Canada. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 496,200.00.

  18. : tous les projets | Page 626 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 750,000.00. Grippe aviaire chez les oiseaux migrateurs : réseau régional de surveillance et de suivi.

  19. : tous les projets | Page 527 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Immunization, VACCINATION, BIRDS, HEALTH POLICY, Disease control. Région: Far East Asia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Canada. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 496,200.00.

  20. Chine : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, PROPHYLAXIS. Région: China, Far East Asia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 874,349.00. Risque de grippe aviaire : caractérisation et dynamique de l'élevage de volaille dans les arrière-cours ...

  1. Gebruikswaardeonderzoek : Liquidambar styraciflua 'Worplesdon'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetten, van J.; Slingerland, L.

    2013-01-01

    De laatste tien jaar wint Liquidambar styraciflua 'Worplesdon' aan populariteit. PPO in Lisse nam de cultivar op in het gebruikswaardeonderzoek straat- en laanbomen. 'Worplesdon' blijkt een fraai, sterke straatboom die het ook nabij de kust goed doet. Maar er doen zich in de praktijk ook problemen

  2. The New Pacific Security Environment: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Kong, Tokyo, and Taipei. He is currently co-editing the Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War. 113 114 THE NEW PACIFIC nam. The ruling Politburo has a game...friends complain that there is not enough cricket coverage. Andrew T. C. Ma is Assistant Director. Hong Kong Trade Development Council. where he has

  3. What we do | Page 177 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and Monitoring Network. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Viet Nam, ...

  4. Hääleta oma ostukorviga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kakaouba kasvatav Kavokiva kooperatiiv Elevandiluurannikul on Fairtrade'i lisatasu eest saanud maksta oma liikmetele aastapreemiaid ning investeerida hariduse ja meditsiini kättesaadavuse parandamisse. Põhja-Vietnami Nam Lanh'i küla elanikud, kes müüvad õiglase kaubanduse tingimustel teed, on saadud lisatasude eest ehitanud kooli

  5. Wein-Duo Yang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Wein-Duo Yang. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 36 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 779-788. Study on photocatalysis of TiO2 nanotubes prepared by methanol-thermal synthesis at low temperature · Chau Thanh Nam Wein-Duo Yang Le Minh Duc.

  6. Acemetacin cocrystal structures by powder X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystals of acemetacin drug (ACM with nicotinamide (NAM, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, valerolactam (VLM and 2-pyridone (2HP were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures determined by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction. The powerful technique of structure determination from powder data (SDPD provided details of molecular packing and hydrogen bonding in pharmaceutical cocrystals of acemetacin. ACM–NAM occurs in anhydrate and hydrate forms, whereas the other structures crystallized in a single crystalline form. The carboxylic acid group of ACM forms theacid–amide dimer three-point synthon R32(9R22(8R32(9 with three different syn amides (VLM, 2HP and caprolactam. The conformations of the ACM molecule observed in the crystal structures differ mainly in the mutual orientation of chlorobenzene fragment and the neighboring methyl group, being anti (type I or syn (type II. ACM hydrate, ACM—NAM, ACM–NAM-hydrate and the piperazine salt of ACM exhibit the type I conformation, whereas ACM polymorphs and other cocrystals adopt the ACM type II conformation. Hydrogen-bond interactions in all the crystal structures were quantified by calculating their molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surfaces. Hirshfeld surface analysis of the cocrystal surfaces shows that about 50% of the contribution is due to a combination of strong and weak O...H, N...H, Cl...H and C...H interactions. The physicochemical properties of these cocrystals are under study.

  7. Fermentative production and application of acid phytase by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... phytase by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CY strain. Man-Jin In1, Sung-Won Seo2 and Nam-Soon Oh2*. 1Department of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Chungwoon University, Hongseong 350-701, South Korea. 2Department of Food Science and Technology, Kongju National University, Yesan 340-802, ...

  8. Drie-fasenvoedering bij eenden getest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisonjé, de F.E.; Enting, H.; Wemmers, A.

    1999-01-01

    In dit onderzoek naar de eiwit- en lysinebehoefte van vleeseenden in verschillende fasen van de mestperiode gaf drie-fasenvoedering dezelfde technische resultaten en een iets betere slachtkwaliteit dan het gebruikelijke twee-fasen programma, maar de stikstofaanvoer via het voer nam bij toepassing

  9. Overtopping on Grass Covered Dikes : Resistance and Failure of the Inner Slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    A large part of the Vietnamese population is living close to the coast. The sea is an essential source for supporting lives. Coastal flooding, on the other hand, threatens the people, land and infrastructures every year. Some hundreds years ago, the first sea dikes were built in Thai Binh and Nam

  10. Fight against fracking in rural Netherlands: from community meetings to decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Velderman, Willem-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In late 2014, in our home region of Twente, the Netherlands, the local newspaper reported that the Dutch National Oil Company (NAM) was meeting with local citizens to give them information about the injection of waste water from oil drilling operations (an extraction technique similar to fracking)

  11. India : tous les projets | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00. Vérification publique des fonds ... End Date: 24 juin 2009. Sujet: POLITICIANS, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, CORRUPTION, Governance. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ...

  12. Le Minh Duc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. Le Minh Duc. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 36 Issue 5 October 2013 pp 779-788. Study on photocatalysis of TiO2 nanotubes prepared by methanol-thermal synthesis at low temperature · Chau Thanh Nam Wein-Duo Yang Le Minh Duc · More Details ...

  13. : tous les projets | Page 221 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: EPIDEMIOLOGY, HEALTH SURVEYS, HEALTH HAZARDS, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, HEALTH SYSTEM, HEALTH POLICY. Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Viet Nam. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 403,600.00. Effets de la culture du tabac sur ...

  14. Governance and Management of Common Pool Resources in Viet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry to examine issues related to common pool resource management and poverty in the context of decentralization in central Viet Nam. The project will take place on two sites. Tam Giang Lagoon has experienced rapid development of fishing and aquaculture, ...

  15. China : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, POPULATION AGEING, AGE DISTRIBUTION, CARE OF THE AGED. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, China, India, Philippines, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 341,600.00. Droits des migrants dans la province du Fujian, ...

  16. All projects related to | Page 52 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Malaysia, Viet Nam, Thailand. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 323,900.00. Skills for Employment: Scaling Up Technical and Vocational Training. Project. This project will help prepare youth in East and Southern Africa for economic opportunities, ...

  17. india : tous les projets | Page 15 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Viet Nam, Thailand. Financement total : CA$ 137,926.00. Vérification publique des fonds ... End Date: 24 juin 2009. Sujet: POLITICIANS, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, CORRUPTION, Governance. Région: India, Central Asia, Far East Asia, ...

  18. Sexospécificités | Page 35 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it. Read more about Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization: Research and ...

  19. : tous les projets | Page 195 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: China, South Asia, Far East Asia, Indonesia, Laos, Viet Nam, Thailand. Programme: Food, Environment, and Health. Financement total : CA$ 2,411,000.00. Resserrement des réseaux pour la lutte contre les maladies infectieuses émergentes en Asie du Sud-Est et en Chine - 2e phase de l'APEIR. Projet.

  20. Armigeres subalbatus colonization of damaged pit latrines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.; Hirooka, R.; Vongphayloth, K.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Grandadam, M.; Brey, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    During the resettlement of 6500 persons living around the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project in Laos, more than 1200 pour-flush latrines were constructed. To assess the role of these latrines as productive larval habitats for mosquitoes, entomological investigations using Centers for Disease

  1. Hydrology and flow forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijling, J.K.; Kwadijk, J.; Van Duivendijk, J.; Van Gelder, P.; Pang, H.; Rao, S.Q.; Wang, G.Q.; Huang, X.Q.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied and applied the statistic model (i.e. MMC) and hydrological models to Upper Yellow River. This report introduces the results and some conclusions from the model. The three models, MMC, MWBM and NAM, have be applied in the research area. The forecasted discharge by the three models

  2. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. Jasjeet Bagla works at the. Harish-Chandra Research. Institute, Allahabad. His research is mainly on cosmology and he is interested in all areas of physics. Keywords. Cosmology, Big Bang, expan- sion of universe. H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith ...

  3. Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization: Research and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-08-29

    Aug 29, 2009 ... Drawing from field research in Cameroon, Ghana, Viet Nam, and the Amazon forests of Brazil, Bolivia, and Peru, this book explores the relationship between gender and land, revealing the workings of global capital and of people's responses to it.

  4. Technology Is the Answer, But What Was the Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Cao Thanh

    1974-01-01

    Cao Thanh Tung reports on a one month Seminar/Workshop on Planning for the Use of Educational Broadcast Media for National Development, which was sponsored by UNESCO and held in South Viet Nam in June 1974. The seminar placed emphasis on the importance of integrating educational media technology into programs for educational change, rather than…

  5. All projects related to | Page 576 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-05-17

    Start Date: May 17, 2007. End Date: July 31, 2011. Topic: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, WOMEN WORKERS, INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION, MIGRATION POLICY, MIGRATION LAW. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Viet Nam, Taiwan, South Korea. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 361,300.00 ...

  6. Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globalization, Adjustment and the Challenge of Inclusive Growth (Indonesia, Philippines and Viet Nam). This project seeks to better understand the challenge of inclusive growth in the context of increasing economic integration and pressure for industrial upgrading in East Asia and the members of the Association of ...

  7. Micropropagation of rose cultivar 'Pareo'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Serik Mukhambetzhanov*, Svetlana Nam, Valentina Mursalieva and Izbasar Rakhimbaev. Laboratory of Clonal Propagation, Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan. Accepted 1 July, 2011. A protocol was developed for micropropagation of rose cv. 'Pareo'. Nodal segments ...

  8. Spatio-temporal examination of precipitation isotopes from the North American monsoon in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah from 2014 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulley-Cordova, C. L.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    A significant summertime feature of climate in the southwestern United States (US) is the North American monsoon (NAM), also known as the Mexican monsoon, Arizona monsoon, and the southwestern United States monsoon. NAM is a crucial contributor to total annual precipitation in the Four Corners region of the US. Modern investigation of NAM in this region using stable isotopes has been poorly studied. This study characterizes the spatio-temporal changes of NAM based on stable isotopic results from 40 sites, located within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation, in Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah from 2014 to 2017. Sample collections were collected monthly at each site from May to October. Examination of temporal trends of precipitation revealed strong monthly and interannual changes; spatial analysis showed weak large-scale relationships across the study area. Analysis of stable isotopes in precipitation, surface, ground, and spring waters can be used to interpret the isotopic differences in the modern hydro-climate of the Navajo Nation and Colorado Plateau to help predict future hydro-climate changes and its implications on future water resources.

  9. Measurement of mango firmness by non-destructive limited compression technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Srilaong, V.; Kanlayanarat, S.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Tansakul, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thai mango 'Nam Dok Mai Si-Thong' has an attractive golden yellow skin colour even in immature fruit, not ready for consumption. Firmness becomes an important quality attribute to assess the ripening stage of the fruit during storage. In this study, the possibility of a non-destructive method

  10. China : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: China, Far East Asia, Indonesia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Canada. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 769,150.00. Partage des avantages découlant des améliorations en matière de transport dans la grande sous-région du Mékong. Projet.

  11. Développement | Page 13 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Viet Nam's population is estimated to approximately 70 million, 80% of which live in rural areas. Its two biggest cities, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh-Ville account for 7 million of the total population. Their central wards have more than 20,000 inhabitants per square kilometre and offer precarious hygiene and housing conditions.

  12. All projects related to Laos | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Low-income economies depend greatly on agriculture, and growth in this sector delivers more poverty reduction than any other sectors. Topic: Gender. Region: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 708,181.00. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia.

  13. National Dam Inspection Program. Star Junction Number 1 Dam (NDI Number PA-00198, PennDER Number 26-30) Ohio River Basin, Washington Run, Fayette County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    end and erosion K of the training dike has occurred. g. Instrumentation : No instrumentation was observed during the inspection. h. Downstream...DATE: 19 MAR 80 RN TDZ: 10.30.40 NATIONAL PROGR FOR TEM INSPEC ION OF NON-FEERAL DM HXDROLOMC AND MRAILIC ANALISIS OF STAR JUNCTION NamR 1 DAm PROBABLE

  14. Central Asia | Page 178 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased soil erosion, reduced water-storage capacity, changes in microclimates, and loss of nutrients have led to a decline in the productivity of marginal lands and the impoverishment of local communities. Read more about Deforestation in Viet Nam. Language English. Au tout début du siècle, les gibbons, qui étaienttrès ...

  15. Afrique du Sud : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: LAND TENURE, CULTURAL FACTORS, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Région: ... Région: Guatemala, North and Central America, Jamaica, Malawi, Peru, South America, Far East Asia, Viet Nam, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, South Asia, West Indies, Canada.

  16. Reference: 281 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 281 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u16212605i Kawasaki T...t journal Boyes Douglas C|Dangl Jeffery L|Holt Ben F 3rd|Hubert David A|Kawasaki Tsutomu|Nam Jaesung|Wiig Aaron

  17. Hydration adjacent to a deeply subducting slab: The roles of nominally anhydrous minerals and migrating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Laura B.; Montési, Laurent G. J.

    2013-11-01

    transport of water into the mantle has significant dynamical and geochemical implications. Dehydration of hydrous phases within the slab can introduce water into the transition zone and lower mantle, potentially hydrating nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) and impacting the viscosity and density structure of the mantle over a wide area. We present models of fluid transport and mantle hydration in the vicinity of a deeply subducting slab, focusing on the fate of water released by deep dehydration reaction in the subducted serpentinized mantle. A sharp decrease in water storage capacity across the lower boundary of the transition zone may produce "secondary dehydration" of hydrated NAM, leading to precipitation of a hydrous fluid and heterogeneous hydration of the transition zone. Rapid fluid migration relative to the solid flow field can lead to a broad region of diffuse hydration within the upper mantle wedge and the potential for localized melt regions at the top of the transition zone coincident with fluid pathways. Slower fluid migration instead implies that the fluid phase can be transported deep into the lower mantle. Water stabilized in NAM and as a free fluid can initiate upwelling within and above the transition zone. A less abrupt change in water storage capacity across the base of the transition zone leads to high NAM water contents in a channel adjacent to the slab where viscosity is reduced. However, seismic and electromagnetic observations of hydration in the transition zone are most compatible with a sudden drop of water storage capacity.

  18. The 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objective This position statement aimed to update the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in 2010 regarding recommendations for hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women. This updated position statement further distinguishes the emerging differences in the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio between estrogen therapy (ET) and combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT) at various ages and time intervals since menopause onset. Methods An Advisory Panel of expert clinicians and researchers in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the 2010 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. Results Current evidence supports the use of HT for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women when the balance of potential benefits and risks is favorable for the individual woman. This position statement reviews the effects of ET and EPT on many aspects of women’s health and recognizes the greater safety profile associated with ET. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms and to prevent osteoporosis in women at high risk of fracture. The more favorable benefit-risk ratio for ET allows more flexibility in extending the duration of use compared with EPT, where the earlier appearance of increased breast cancer risk precludes a recommendation for use beyond 3 to 5 years. PMID:22367731

  19. Proceedings: 2001 Nuclear Asset Management Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The fourth annual EPRI Nuclear Asset Management Workshop helped decision makers at all levels of nuclear enterprises to keep informed about developing nuclear asset management (NAM) processes, methods, and tools. The goal is to operate nuclear plants with enhanced profitability, while maintaining safety

  20. 75 FR 77922 - Nuveen Asset Management, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ...] Nuveen Asset Management, et al.; Notice of Application December 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange...: Applicants request an order to permit open- end management investment companies relying on rule 12d1-2 under the Act to invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: Nuveen Asset Management (``NAM...