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Sample records for nakopleniya iskusstvennykh radionuklidov

  1. Charge-storage techniques for pulse-height analysis; Techniques de stockage electrostatique pour l'analyse en amplitude d'impulsion; Metod nakopleniya zaryada dlya amplitudnogo analiza impul'sov; Tecnicas de almacenamiento de cargas para analisis de amplitud de impulsos

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    Costrell, L; Brueckmann, R E [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (United States)

    1962-04-15

    . Znachitel'naya chast' ehtoj raboty byla napravlena na sozdanie togo, chto my nazyvaem ''analizatorom nakopleniya zaryada'', osnovannogo na rabotakh, provodimykh v Natsional'nom byuro standartov. My zakonchili sozdanie analizatora nakopleniya zaryada, kotoryj ehkspluatiruetsya na sinkhrotrone Natsional'nogo byuro standartov moshchnost'yu 180 mehv pri provedenii ehksperimenta po yadernoj absorbtsii, na puti osushchestvleniya kotorogo, v inom sluchae, vstretilis' by ogromnye trudnosti. Analizator ispol'zuet vremennoe ehlektrostaticheskoe nakoplenie dlya sbora dannykh po amplitude impul'sov vo vremya mashinnykh vspyshek. Vo vremya mertvykh intervalov mezhdu vspyshkami soderzhanie vremennogo nakopleniya analiziruetsya i perevoditsya v obychnoe nakoplenie v magnitnykh serdechnikakh. Obsuzhdaetsya ispol'zovanie ehtogo metoda dlya nanosekundnykh impul'sov i predstavleny dannye, pokazyvayushchie ego osushchestvimost'. (author)

  2. On kinetics of paramagnetic radiation defects accumulation in beryllium ceramics; O kinetike nakopleniya paramagnitnykh radiatsionnykh defektov v berillievykh keramikakh

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    Polyakov, A I; Ryabikin, Yu A; Zashkvara, O V; Bitenbaev, M I; Petykhov, Yu V [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan)

    1999-07-01

    Results of paramagnetic radiation defects concentration dependence study in beryllium ceramics from gamma-irradiation dose ({sup 60}Co) within interval 0-100 Mrem are cited. Obtained dose dependence has form of accumulation curve with saturation typical of for majority of solids (crystals, different polymers, organic substances and others) , in which under irradiation occur not only formation of paramagnetic radiation defects, but its destruction due to recombination and interaction with radiation fields. Analysis of accumulation curve by the method of distant asymptotics allows to determine that observed in gamma-irradiated beryllium ceramics double line of electron spin resonance is forming of two types of paramagnetic radiation defects. It was defined, that sum paramagnetic characteristics of beryllium ceramics within 1-100 Mrad gamma- irradiation dose field change insignificantly and define from first type of paramagnetic radiation defects.

  3. Regularities of radiation defects build up on oxide materials surface; Zakonomernosti nakopleniya radiatsionnykh defektov na poverkhnosti oksidnykh materialov

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    Bitenbaev, M I; Polyakov, A I [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tuseev, T [Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of experimental data by radiation defects study on different oxide elements (silicon, beryllium, aluminium, rare earth elements) irradiated by the photo-, gamma-, neutron-, alpha- radiation, protons and helium ions show, that gas adsorption process on the surface centers and radiation defects build up in metal oxide correlated between themselves. These processes were described by the equivalent kinetic equations for analysis of radiation defects build up in the different metal oxides. It was revealed in the result of the analysis: number of radiation defects are droningly increasing up to limit value with the treatment temperature growth. Constant of radicals death at ionizing radiation increases as well. Amount of surface defects in different oxides defining absorbing activity of these materials looks as: silicon oxide{yields}beryllium oxide{yields}aluminium oxide. So it was found, that most optimal material for absorbing system preparation is silicon oxide by it power intensity and berylium oxide by it adsorption efficiency.

  4. About kinetics of paramagnetic radiation malformations in beryllium ceramics; O kinetike nakopleniya paramagnitnykh radiatsionnykh defectov v berillievykh keramikakh

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    Polyakov, A I; Ryabinkin, Yu A; Zashkvara, O V; Bitenbaev, M I [Fiziko-tekhniucheskij Inst. Ministerstva Nauki i Vysshego Obrazovaniya Respubliki Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Petukhov, Yu V [Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii Natsional' nogo Yadernogo Tsentra Respubliki Kazakhstan, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    1999-07-01

    This paper [1] specifies that {gamma}-radiation of the beryllium-oxide-based ceramics results in development of paramagnetic radiation malformations emerging the ESR spectrum in form of doublet with the splitting rate of oestrasid {delta}{approx}1.6 and g-factor of 2.008. This report presents evaluation outcomes of dependence of paramagnetic radiation malformations concentration in beryllium ceramics on gamma-radiation dose ({sup 60}Co) within the range of 0-100 Mrad. Total paramagnetic parameters of beryllium ceramics in the range 0-100 Mrad of gamma-radiation dose varied slightly, and were specified by the first type of paramagnetic radiation malformations.

  5. Fukci vozbuždenia dlja radionuklidov 44Sc, 46Sci, 47Sc, obrazovavšichsa pri oblučenii 45Sc dejtronami i 6He

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulko, A. A.; Skobelev, N. K.; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Daniel, A.V.; Demekhina, R.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Kugler, Andrej; Mrázek, Jaromír; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Piskoř, Štěpán; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Šimečková, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 4 (2011), s. 574-576 ISSN 0367-6765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/10/0310; GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : excitation functions * cross sections * radioactive beams Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. The determination of major radionuclides in the surroundings of thermal power plant Novaky; Stanovenie vyznamnych radionuklidov z okolia tepelnej elektrarne Novaky

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    Dvorska, L; Dulanska, S [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    An important and fundamental fact in the operation of nuclear power plants is that there is no production of greenhouse gases and pollutant emissions especially nitrogen oxides NO{sub x}, carbon oxides CO and CO{sub 2}, sulfur dioxide and fly ash. Alpha radionuclides in fly ash from thermal power Novaky {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 239,240} Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am were separated on extraction-chromatographic sorbents TRU Resin and Resin UTEVA involved in the vacuum box in tandem. Samples for the measurement of alpha radionuclides were measured on a double-chamber 576A spectrometer with ULTRA Alpha Detector 600, EG and G ORTEC. There was not detected any increased activity value of uranium isotopes comparing the activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 234}U with the Slovakian Collection of Laws 345/2006. (authors)

  7. On an aspect of kinetics both defects accumulation and gas absorption in an irradiated metals oxides; K voprosu o kinetike nakopleniya defektov i adsorbtsii gazov v obluchennykh oksidakh metallov

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    Tuseev, T [Mekhdunarodnyj Kazakhsko-Turetskij Univ. im. Kh.A. Yasavi, Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Polyakov, A I; Bitenbaev, M I [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2001-07-01

    In the work an analysis of experimental data during study both gases adsorption processes and radiation defects accumulation in irradiated (ultraviolet, gamma-, neutron-, alpha-particle- and proton radiation) in the oxides (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, BeO, Se{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Dy{sub 2}O{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is carried out. It is determined, that these processes are correlating with each other and equivalent kinetic equations for its description are proposed.

  8. Estimation of safety of radionuclide localization in temporary areas for radioactive waste localization in the Chernobyl estrangement zone.; Otsenka nadezhnosti lokalizatsii radionuklidov v punkte vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov Zony otchuzhdeniya ChAEhS.

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    Mishunina, I B; Ledenev, A I; Khvesik, O V [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Preliminary estimation of soil water contamination as a result of radionuclide migration from burials is described. The studies necessary to make trustworthy prediction of soil water contamination are outlined.

  9. Osnovnye zakonomernosti raspredelenija, migracii i nakoplenija radionuklidov v donnyh otlozhenijah Baltijskogo morja [The basic patterns of the distribution, migration and accumulation of radionuclides in the bottom sediment of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of certain factors on the contemporary distribution of natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40К and anthropogenic (137Cs, 60Co radionuclides in the sediments of the Baltic Sea. The results of the study suggest that the distribution of 137Cs is determined by the content of hydromica of silty-clay and clay grain-size fractions, while radiocaesium is mainly accumulated by silty fractions. The accumulation of 226Ra by bottom sediments is mainly determined by the pH geochemical barrier at the water-seafloor boundary. The accumulation of 232Th occurs mainly in clayey fractions of the sediment. The distribution and accumulation of 40K is predominantly determined by the ratio of potassium contained in hydromica minerals. Significant 60Co activity was registered only in a few samples.

  10. Testing-ground investigations of radionuclide migration in temporary area for radioactive waste localization << Ryzhy Les >>.; Poligonnye issledovaniya migratsii radionuklidov na uchastke punkta vremennoj lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov << Ryzhij les >>.

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    Dzhepo, S P; Skal` skij, A S; Bugaj, D A; Gudzenko, V V; Mogil` nyj, S A; Proskura, N I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Geologicheskikh Nauk; [Admyinyistratsyiya zoni vyidchuzhennya, Chernobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Experimental investigations carried out on testing grounds have permitted studying hydrogeological and geochemical conditions, contamination levels of ground waters and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in the areas of radioactive waste burial in sector 2.1 of temporary area for radioactive waste localization << Ryzhy Les >>. Distribution coefficients for {sup 137} Cs and {sup 90} Sr as well as chemical forms of sorbed radionuclides have been determined under in situ conditions. Lateral rates of radionuclide migration in ground waters are estimated.

  11. Determination of radionuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240} Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil using methods of extraction chromatography and coprecipitation; Stanovenie radionuklidov {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu, : 2{sup 38}Pu a {sup 241}Am v pode vyuzivajuce metody extrakcnej chromatografie a spoluzrazania

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    Gardonova, V.; Dulanska, S.; Bilohuscin, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra jadrovej chemie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    Ecosystems, which include soil and sediments, contain not only natural radionuclides but also radionuclides from deposits, mainly {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am, that originate from global fallout and nuclear facilities leaks worldwide. The goal of the work was optimization of separation and determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am in soil from Slovak Republic. The newest methods were applied for separation of selected radionuclides based on coprecipitation with oxalic salts and extraction chromatography using selective commercial sorbents. (authors)

  12. An Idea on the Maximum Permissible Concentrations of Radioactive Materials in Sea Water; Concentrations Maxima Admissibles des Substances Radioactives dans l'Eau de Mer; 041e 041c 0414 ; Concentracion Maxima Admisible de Materiales Radiactivos en las Aguas del Mar

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    Hiyama, Yoshio [University of Tokyo (Japan)

    1960-07-01

    sobre el analisis quimico de las aguas marinas y del cuerpo humano, trata; de encontrar una relacion entre el grado de contaminacion del agua del mar por varios radionuclidos y el grado de intensidad de la dosis de radiacion en el cuerpo humano causada por estos radionuclidos de origen marino. Sin, embargo, aunque los especialistas en oceanografia, salud publica, nutricion, radiobiologia y en otras materias reconozcan la conveniencia de efectuar; esos calculos habra que obtener mas datos sobre la cantidad de trazadores, en las aguas del mar, en los productos marinos y en el cuerpo humano, para confeccionar un cuadro de las concentraciones maximas admisibles de diversos radionuclidos en las aguas del mar. En la memoria, el autor se limita a enunciar la idea y a describir algunos ejemplos. (author) [Russian] V nastojashhem doklade avtor stremitsja najti svjaz' mezhdu urovnem zarazhennosti morskoj vody nekotorymi vidami radionuklidov i urovnem radiacionnoj dozy, poluchaemoj chelovekom v rezul'tate dejstvija radionuklidov morskogo proishozhdenija; avtor ispol'zuet pri jetom rekomendacii MKRZ i nekotorye dannye himicheskogo analiza morskoj vody i chelovecheskogo organizma, izvestnye emu. Odanko, esli ideja jetih raschetov budet priznana uchenymi v oblasti okeanografii, zdravoohranenija, pitanija, radiacionnoj biologii i dr., vse zhe potrebujutsja dopolnitel'nye dannye o kolichestvah metjashhih jelementov v morskoj vode, v produktah morja i v chelovecheskom organizme dlja togo, chtoby zavershit' tablicu maksimal'no dopustimyh koncentracij v morskoj vode razlichnyh vidov radionuklidov. Ideja, vyskazannaja v doklade, nosit chisto predvaritel'nyj harakter; v doklade takzhe dajutsja nekotorye primery. (author)

  13. Accumulation of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in lichens under experimental conditions

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    Nifontova, M G [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the accumulation from aqueous media of two long-lived radionuclides---/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs---by the thalluses of eight species of lichens of different ecological and morphological groups (soil bushy lichens and foliated forms; epiphytic bushy and foliated; epilytic foliated). Fhe efficiency of accumulation of radionuclides by the thalluses was determined from the accumulation coefficient (KN) (koehfitsient nakopleniya). There was a distinct difference in the radionuclide accumulation by the different species of lichens. Based on their radionuclide accumulation, the lichens were divided into three groups. It was shown that not only do different species of lichens differ in their accumulation of the same radionuclide, but also the thalluses of the same species are not the same in the sorption of different radionuclides. However, on an average, the bushy forms of lichens accumulated /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs more than the leafy types. The lichens studied may be arrangd according to their accumulation of /sup 90/Sr: epiphytes > soil types > epilytes, or their /sup 137/Cs accumulation: soil types > epilytes > epiphytes.

  14. Monitoring of Fresh Waters Used for Dispersal of Radioactive Wastes; Controle des Eaux Fluviales Utilisees pour la Dispersion des Dechets Radioactifs; 0418 0417 041c 0414 ; Monitoraje de las Aguas Dulces Utilizadas para la Dispersion de Desechos Radiactivos

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    Ophel, I. L. [Environmental Research and Radiation Dosimetry Branch, Division of Biology and Health Physics, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1960-07-01

    otnoshenijah jeta reka predstavljaet ozero. Jeffljujent razbavljaetsja bol'shimi ob{sup e}mami nizkoaktivnoj vody, ispol'zovannoj dlja ohlazhdenija, i postupaet v reku pri koncentracii radionuklidov, ne prevyshajushhih predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii dlja rabochih. Obshhaja koncentracija beta- i gamma-radionuklidov vverh po techeniju ot zavoda sostavljaet 2 x 10{sup -8} millikjuri/millilitr i 1,6 kilometra vniz po techeniju ot zavoda ravna 3 x 10{sup -8} millikjuri/millilitr. Vzjatie prob so dna reki pokazyvaet, chto radioaktivnost' ponizhaetsja v techenie celogo rjada let nesmotrja na postojannoe dobavlenie aktivnosti, osazhdajushhejsja na kolloidal'nom kremnii, vydeljajushhemsja iz vody. Iz rechnyh organizmov chelovekom upotrebljaetsja v pishhu tol'ko krupnaja ryba. Sledy stroncija-90 byli sluchajno obnaruzheny v kostjah, no ne v mjase. Maksimal'noe soderzhanie 10{sup -3} millikjuri R{sup 32}/g obshhego vesa bylo obnaruzheno v nebol'shih okunjah. Hotja fosfor-32 sostavljaet tol'ko 0,04% obshhej radioaktivnosti jeffljuenta, on predstavljaet 75-95% vseh radionuklidov obnaruzhennyh v bol'shinstve vzjatyh na issledovanie ryb. (author)

  15. Radioactive Metrology Methods in the USSR; Methodes de metrologie de la radioactivite en URSS; Metody metrologii radioaktivnosti v SSSR; Metodos de Metrologia de la Radiactividad Aplicados en la Union de Republicas Socialistas Sovieticas

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    Aglintsev, K K; Bochkarev, V V; Grablevskij, V N; Karavaev, F M

    1960-06-15

    }-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya iz radionuklidov , vybrannykh takim obrazom, chtoby obespechit' diapazon ehnergij ot 0,018 mehv do 2,3 mehv. Kontrol'nye {beta}-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya libo iz strontsiya-90 plyus ittrij-90, libo iz talliya-204, libo iz prometiya-147. EHti istochniki okhvatyvayut shirokij diapazon aktivnosti ot 20 do 10{sup 9} raspadov v minutu. Model'nye {gamma}-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya libo iz radiya, libo iz kobal'ta-60, libo iz tseziya-137. diapazon aktivnostej ehtikh ehtalonov okhvatyvaet velichiny ot 10-{sup 11} do 5 grammov-ehkvivalento v radiya. Kontrol'nye u-istochniki prigotovlyayuts ya iz vysheukazanny kh radionuklidov. Aktivnosti okhvatyvayut ochen' shirokij diapazon, poskol'ku istochniki imeyut ves'ma razlichnuyu formu i razmery. Nakonets, model'nye istochniki nejtronov byvayut dvukh vidov: radija-{alpha}-berillij (soderzhashchij ot 1 do 1000 mg radiya) i plutonij-{alpha}-berilli j (soderzhashchij ot 0,01 do 15 grammov plutoniya). Istochniki radij-{alpha}-berilli j prigotovlyayutsya iz pressovannoj smesi RaBr{sub 2} i poroshkovogo berilliya s vesovym sootnosheniem Ra/Be = 1/6. Istochniki plutonij-a-berilli j obrazuyutsya iz splava (PuBe{sub 13}) ehtikh dvukh metallov. (author)

  16. Pulse-form discrimination in organic scintillation crystals; Discrimination d'apres la forme de l'impulsion dans les cristaux organiques de scintillation; Diskriminatsiya formy impul'sov v organicheskikh stsintillyatsionnykh kristallakh; Discriminacion de la forma de los impulsos en los cristales de compuestos organicos para contadores de centelleo

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    De Vries, L J; Udo, F [Instituut voor Kernphysisch Onderzoek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1962-04-15

    ) [Spanish] Los autores presentan un circuito de discriminacion proton-electron basado en las diferencias de forma entre los impulsos de centelleo luminosos producidos por los protones y por los electrones, respectivamente, en los cristales de estilbeno. El circuito es estable y es capaz de distinguir los impulsos de protones de los electrones hasta con energias de protones de solamente 300 keV. El circuito discriminador, compuesto unicamente de elementos lineales, es sensible a errores inducidos por apilonamiento durante 0,1 {mu}s solamente, a partir de la llegada de un impulso. El circuito descrito se aplico en un espectrometro para neutrones de 1 a 30 MeV, basado en el retroceso de protones entre dos cristales de estilbeno. Se alcanzo un poder de resolucion de 10 por ciento, para una energia neutronica de 14 MeV, con un rendimiento de deteccion de 1,3 {center_dot} 10{sup -4}. Se podria usar un monitor neutronico basado tambien en un sistema de discriminacion lineal de la forma de los impulsos para medir una dosis neutronica igual al 10% de la dosis maxima admisible, en presencia de un flujo {gamma} cuatro veces mayor que la dosis maxima admisible. (author) [Russian] Opisyvaetsya kontur diskriminatsii protonov-ehlektronov, osnovannyj na raznitse formy stsintillyatsionnykh svetovykh impul'sov, navedennykh v stil'bene sootvetstvenno protonami i ehlektronami. EHtot kontur ustojchiv i otlichaet impul'sy protonov ot impul'sov ehlektronov dazhe pri padenii ehnergii protonov do 300 kehv. Diskriminiruyushchij kontur, sostoyashchij isklyuchitel'no iz linejnykh ehlementov, chuvstvitelen k obrazuyushchimsya iz-za nakopleniya oshibkam tol'ko v techenie 0,1 mikro-sekundy posle postupleniya impul'sa. Opisyvaemyj kontur byl ispol'zovan v spektrometre dlya nejtronov s ehnergiyami 1-30 mehv, osnovannom na otdache protonov mezhdu dvumya kristallami stil'bena. Pri ehnergii nejtronov v 14 mehv bylo polucheno ikh razreshenie s tochnost'yu do 10%, pri ehffektivnosti detektirovaniya v 1,3 x 10

  17. The Radioisotopic Determination of Diffusion Coefficients and Currents in Natural Waters. Surface Collection of Radioactive Fall-Out on a Large Alpine Lake; Determination par detection nucleaire des coefficients de diffusion et des courants dans les eaux naturelles. Evolution de la surface de collection d'un grand lac alpin pour les retombees radioactives; Opredelenie koehffitsienta diffuzii i skorosti techeniya estestvennykh vod pri pomoshchi yadernogo detektirovaniya. Ehvolyutsiya poverkhnosti sbora radioaktivnykh osadkov na bol'shom al'pijskom ozere; Determinacion por deteccion nuclear de los coeficientes de difusion y de las corrientes en las aguas naturales evolucion de la superficie de captacion de un gran lago alpino para las precipitaciones radiactivas

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    Chesselet, R.; Nordemann, D. [Service d' Electronique Physique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Dussart, B. [Centre de Recherches Hydrobiologiques, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1963-08-15

    precipitacione s radiactivas debidas a las explosiones nucleares en la atmosfera (octubre de 1961-enero de 1962). Midieron diariamente la radiactividad en muestras de agua del lago Leman tomadas a 0, 10 y 20 m de profundidad y en un colector de precipitaciones atmosfericas secas y humedas. A pesar de la complejidad del regimen de aportaciones en funcion del tiempo, la inter- pretacion de los diagramas obtenidos puede contribuir a resolver el problema del destino de los productos radiactivos en las condiciones de difusion y de corriente que reinan en la practica. La difusion de productos radiactivos en cantidad muy pequena, unida a la utilizacion de diversas tecnicas de deteccion nuclear de alta sensibilidad, permitiran obtener mas datos sobre la difusion in situ y el movimiento de las masas de aguas naturales. (author) [Russian] Na pervom ehtape avtory vyzvali diffuziyu ''in situ'' na radioaktivnom izluchatele, natrii-22, v vide Na{sup +}, s aktivnost'yu nizhe 1 millikyuri. Zakony diffuzii, primenennye v ehtom sluchae, legko pozvolyayut predvidet' skorost' ''radioaktivnogo Oblaka'' vo vremya diffuzii. Takim obrazom, registratsiya aktivnosti v zavisimosti ot vremeni, izmerennaya s pomoshch'yu dvukh nadlezhashchim obrazom raspolozhennykh gamma- detektorov, privela k otsenke koehffitsienta diffuzii dlya ispol'zuemogo izluchatelya i k izmereniyu skorosti techeniya v toj tochke, gde proizvodilos' izmerenie (v dannom sluchae ozero Leman). Na vtorom ehtape v sootvetstvii s geofizicheskim issledovaniem obshchej problemy radioaktivnogo vypadeniya, avtory ispol'zovali nakoplenie radioaktivnykh osadkov, voznikshikh v rezul'tate yadernykh ispytanij, provedennykh v atmosfere v oktyabre 1961 - yanvare 1962 g. Kazhdyj den' bralis' proby vody Lemanskogo ozera na glubinakh O, 10 i 20 m, a takzhe sukhikh i vlazhnykh atmosfernykh vypadenij. Nesmotrya na slozhnost' rezhima nakopleniya v zavisimosti ot pogody, tolkovanie poluchennoj-diagrammy mozhet sposobstvovat' razresheniyu problemy vypadeniya

  18. Linear capacity storage devices; Memoires lineaires a condensateurs; Linejnye kondensatornye nakopitel'nye ustrojstva; Dispositivos de almacenamiento de condensador, con caracteristicas lineales

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    Brovchenko, V G [Ordena Lenina Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Imeni I.V. Kurchatova AN, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1962-04-15

    nakopleniya informatsii kondensatornymi nakopitel'nymi ustrojstvami. Opisyvayutsya dve skhemy nakopitelej, rabotayushchikh linejno v bol'shom diapazone amplitud vykhodnykh signalov. V odnoj iz skhem signal oshibki izmeryaetsya differentsial'nym usilitelem. Blagodarya bol'shomu koehffitsientu usileniya usilitelya dostigaetsya vysokaya linejnost' raboty ehtogo ustrojstva. Vtoraya skhema skonstruirovana dlya raboty s impul'sami nanosekundnogo diapazona dlitel'nostej. Vkhodnye impul'sy standartnoj dlitel'nosti zapirayut pentod, v anode kotorogo raspolozhen kondensator pamyati. Tak kak zaryadka kondensatora proizvoditsya ot anodnogo pitaniya cherez generator toka, tok zaryadki ostaetsya pochti postoyannym pri izmenenii potentsiala kondensatora. Pentod imeet bol'shoe vnutrennee soprotivlenie, poehtomu posle okonchaniya vkhodnogo impul'sa tok cherez pentod pochti raven nachal'noj velichine, a zaryad, nakoplennyj kondensatorom, zapominaetsya. Dlitel'nost' pamyati informatsii ogranichena velichinami vykhodnogo soprotivleniya generatora toka i R{sub i} pentoda. Dlya uvelicheniya dlitel'nosti pamyati pered kondensatorom mozhet byt' vklyuchen diod. (author)

  19. Radioinitiation of Chain Branched Reactions and its Sensitization; Amorcage sous rayonnement des reactions par ramification en chaine; sensibilisation du processus; Radiatsionnoe initsiirovanie tsennykh razvetvlennykh reaktsij i ego sensibilizatsiya; Radioiniciacion de reacciones en cadena ramificadas y medios para aumentar su sensibilidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barelko, E V; Kartashova, L I; Komarov, P N; Proskurnin, M A [Karpov Physico-Chemical Institute, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1960-07-15

    avtouskoryayushchijsya kharakter i idet samoproizvol'no posle prekrashcheniya dejstviya izlucheniya. Podrobno issledovan protsess okisleniya benzola, dlya kotorogo kharakterna povyshennaya ustojchivost' k dejstviyu izlucheniya. Avtory sformulirovali printsip sensibilizatsii radiatsionnogo initsiirovaniya protsessa okisleniya radiatsionno-stojkikh veshchestv khimicheski inertnymi, radiatsionno-nestojkimi veshchestvami. Privedeny osnovnye kolichestvennye kharakteristiki protsessa radio liticheskogo okisleniya benzola : nakoplenie razlichnykh produktov reaktsii, vliyanie temperatury, davleniya, moshchnosti i dozy izlucheniya na protsess nakopleniya produktov reaktsii. Sdelany nekotorye vyvody o mekhanizme protsessa. Privedena konstruktsiya ustanovki, rabotayushchaya po tsirkulyatsionnomu sposobu. (author)

  20. 16-channel analyser with high time-resolution for multiple coincidence experiments; Selecteur a 16 canaux a temps de resolution eleve pour experiences de coincidences multiples; Ispol'zovanie shestiadtsatikanal'nogo analizatora s bol'shoj razreshayushchej sposobnost'yu po vremeni dlya opytov s mnogokratnymi sovpadeniyami; Analizador de 16 canales de elevado poder temporal de resolucion para experimentos de coincidencias multiples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, B; Cappeller, U [University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    promezhutki vremeni posle narastaniya issleduemogo impul'sa. Opisyvaetsya shestikanal'nyj amplitudnyj analizator impul'sov, pozvolyayushchij proizvodit' signaly amplitudy impul'sa cherez 2,5 x 10{sup -6} sekundy posle narastaniya impul'sa s predelom pogreshnosti menee, chem {+-} 2 x 10{sup -8} sekundy. Vremya razresheniya ne prevyshaet 5 x 10{sup -6} sekund; vo izbezhanie iskazheniya v rezul'tate nakopleniya impul'sov ehto vremya reguliruetsya kontrol'nym konturom. SHirina kanala reguliruetsya usilitelem s oknom, kotoryj mozhet regulirovat'sya v intervale ot 1 v do 7 v. Vysota kanala mozhet vybirat'sya cherez kazhdye 0,5 v v intervale ot 7 v do 103 v. (author)

  1. Distribution and removal of transuranic elements and cerium deposited by the inhalation route; Distribution et elimination des transuraniens et du cerium deposes par l'intermediaire des voies respiratoires; Raspredelenie transuranovykh ehlementov i tseriya, otkladyvayushchikhsya v rezul'tate vdykhaniya i ikh udalenie; Distribucion y eliminacion de elementos transuranicos y de cerio depositados por inhalacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W. J.; Tombropoulos, E. G.; Park, J. F. [Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1963-02-15

    kotorykh mozhno bylo by izbezhat'nakopleniya v drugikh, veroyatno, bolee radiochuvstvitel'nykh tkanyakh. Syuda vklyuchayutsya kompleksoobrazuyushchie reagenty, veshchestva, uvelichivayushchie sekretsiyu s,lizi, razdrazhayushchie, simpatomimeticheskie, parasimpatomimeticheskie, para-simpatoliticheskie i antigistaminnye preparaty. Diehtilentriaminopentauksusnaya kislota (DTPK), kompleksoobrazuyushchee veshchestvo, vvodimoe v vide aehrozolya ili vnutribryupshnno, vyzyvalo bystroe vyvedenie Ce{sup 144} -Pr{sup 144} iz legkikh i iz organizma s mochoj. U krys i sobak, poluchavshikh DTPK, cherez mesyats posle vvedeniya Ce{sup 144}O{sub 2} v organizme ostavalos' men'she 10% ot urovnya Ce{sup 144} -Pr{sup 144} u kontrol'nykh zhivotnykh, ne poduchavshikh DTPK. (author)

  2. Analyser for fast single events; Analyseur d'evenements rapides simples; Analizator bystrykh odnokratnykh yavlenij; Analizador de sucesos rapidos no recurrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlmeyer, J W; Patten, R B; Fussell, L Jr [Edgerton, Germeshausen And Grier, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1962-04-15

    otrezki dostigaetsya pri pomoshchi vremennogo selektornogo impul'sa i intervala vremeni mezhdu otborom obraztsov, prichem i tot i drugoj mogut regulirovat'sya nezavisimo drug ot druga, nachinaya priblizitel'no s 4 nanosekund. Intervaly vremeni mogut zadavat'sya v nelinejnom poryadke, a razbros mezhdu nimi ne prevyshaet 0,5 nanosekund. Do nastoyashchego vremeni skorost' otvetnoj reaktsii ogranichivaetsya kharakteristikami dioda. Kazhdoe otobrannoe napryazhenie rasshiryaetsya v konture, kotoryj sokhranyaet amplitudu ehtogo napryazheniya. Udalos' osushchestvit' rasshirenie po vremeni v 10{sup 8} raz s sokhraneniem khoroshej ustojchivosti. Tochki pokazanij mogut soobshchat'sya i peredavat'sya po otkrytomu provodu v nizkochastotnoe registriruyushchee ustrojstvo, oni mogut byt' prevrashcheny v tsifrovye dannye dlya bystroj ikh obrabotki s pomoshch'yu obychnogo oborudovaniya; krome togo, ili vmesto ehtogo, oni mogut byt' dany vizual'no. Analizator imeet preimushchestva po sravneniyu s vysokoskorostnoj ostsiloskopiej, kogda trebuetsya provodit' individual'nyj analiz bol'shogo chisla odnokratnykh perekhodyashchikh signalov; ehto trebuetsya pri izuchenii kolebanij otvetnykh reaktsij sistem ili pri proizvodstvennykh ispytaniyakh komponentov. Analizator imeet preimushchestva, kogda analiz dannykh dolzhen proizvodit'sya neposredstvenno za poyavleniem signala; otpadaet neobkhodimost' proyavlyat' plenki ili prochityvat' ikh. Analizator udoben takzhe v tekh sluchayakh, kogda schetno-analiziruyushchij tsentr raspolozhen daleko ot mesta poyavleniya signala. EHtot metod shiroko primenyaetsya v oblasti yadernoj ehnergii. Metod pul'siruyushchikh nejtronov mozhet byt' primenen dlya bystrogo izucheniya kolebanij rezhima reaktorov i podkriticheskikh sborok. Mogut byt' opredeleny parametry nakopleniya i raspada detektorov i odnovremenno provodit'sya analiz statisticheskikh dannykh i kolebanij. Mozhet izmeryat'sya forma impul'sov radiatsionnykh voln, proizvodimykh yadernymi uskoritelyami. S