WorldWideScience

Sample records for naked singularity formation

  1. Naked singularity formation in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Atazadeh, Khedmat [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Yaser, E-mail: am.ziaie@mail.sbu.ac.i, E-mail: k-atazadeh@sbu.ac.i, E-mail: tavakoli@ubi.p [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d' Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha (Portugal)

    2010-04-07

    Gravitational collapse of the Brans-Dicke scalar field with non-zero potential in the presence of matter fluid obeying the barotropic equation of state, p = wrho, is studied. Utilizing the concept of the expansion parameter, it is seen that the cosmic censorship conjecture may be violated for w=-1/3 and w=-2/3 which correspond to the cosmic string and domain wall, respectively. We have shown that physically, it is the rate of collapse that governs the formation of a black hole or a naked singularity as the final fate of dynamical evolution and only for these two cases can the singularity be naked as the collapse end state. Also the weak energy condition is satisfied by the collapsing configuration.

  2. Timelike naked singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2004-01-01

    We construct a class of spherically symmetric collapse models in which a naked singularity may develop as the end state of collapse. The matter distribution considered has negative radial and tangential pressures, but the weak energy condition is obeyed throughout. The singularity forms at the center of the collapsing cloud and continues to be visible for a finite time. The duration of visibility depends on the nature of energy distribution. Hence the causal structure of the resulting singularity depends on the nature of the mass function chosen for the cloud. We present a general model in which the naked singularity formed is timelike, neither pointlike nor null. Our work represents a step toward clarifying the necessary conditions for the validity of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture

  3. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  4. Dressing up a Kerr naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1979-06-11

    The evolution of a naked singularity surrounded by an accreting disk of matter is studied; two kinds of disks are considered: the standard thin-disk model and the thick barytropic model, for several initial conditions. It is shown that any Kerr naked singularity slows down in a finite time to a maximal Kerr black hole. The final mass, the luminosity and the time of evolution of the singularity are evaluated.

  5. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Casals

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space–time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress–energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space–time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak cosmic censorship.

  6. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  7. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Following Papapetrou [1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)], a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture. (author)

  8. Naked singularities and cosmic censorship: comment on the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The current discussion is mainly concerned with how, or indeed, whether space-times possessing naked singularities can be ruled out as being too unrealistic or not being singular at all. The present position is summarized, with references, under the following headings: the Hawking-Penrose existence theorems, hydrodynamical singularities and the strength of naked singularities. (UK)

  9. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  10. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  11. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity

  12. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-01-01

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (Γ-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold

  13. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, I.H. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics); Joshi, P.S. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1989-11-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author).

  14. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author)

  15. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension

  16. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-11-01

    Following Papapetrou (1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)), a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture.

  17. Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Z.; Pugliese, D.; Schee, J.; Kučáková, H.

    2015-09-01

    We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularities. These are spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the modified Hořava quantum gravity, characterized by a dimensionless parameter ω M^2, combining the gravitational mass parameter M of the spacetime with the Hořava parameter ω reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of ω M^2, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures, demonstrating clear distinction to the properties of the torii in the Schwarzschild spacetimes. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an "antigravity" sphere where matter can stay in a stable equilibrium position, which is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures. The signature of the K-S naked singularity is given by the properties of marginally stable tori orbiting with the uniform distribution of the specific angular momentum of the fluid, l= const. In the K-S naked singularity spacetimes with ω M^2 > 0.2811, doubled tori with the same l= const can exist; mass transfer between the outer torus and the inner one is possible under appropriate conditions, while only outflow to the outer space is allowed in complementary conditions. In the K-S spacetimes with ω M^2 < 0.2811, accretion from cusped perfect fluid tori is not possible due to the non-existence of unstable circular geodesics.

  18. Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Z.; Pugliese, D.; Schee, J.; Kucakova, H. [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularities. These are spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the modified Horava quantum gravity, characterized by a dimensionless parameter ωM{sup 2}, combining the gravitational mass parameter M of the spacetime with the Horava parameter ω, reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of ωM{sup 2}, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures, demonstrating clear distinction to the properties of the torii in the Schwarzschild spacetimes. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an @gantigravity@h sphere where matter can stay in a stable equilibrium position, which is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures. The signature of the K-S naked singularity is given by the properties of marginally stable tori orbiting with the uniform distribution of the specific angular momentum of the fluid, l = const. In the K-S naked singularity spacetimes with ωM{sup 2} > 0.2811, doubled tori with the same l = const can exist; mass transfer between the outer torus and the inner one is possible under appropriate conditions, while only outflow to the outer space is allowed in complementary conditions. In the K-S spacetimes with ωM{sup 2} < 0.2811, accretion from cusped perfect fluid tori is not possible due to the non-existence of unstable circular geodesics. (orig.)

  19. Invariant identification of naked singularities in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R

    2012-01-01

    The study of generic naked singularities and their implications for the cosmic censorship conjecture is still an open issue in the framework of general relativity. One of the obstacles can be traced to the procedures for identifying naked singularities. Usually, the methods applied are not only model and coordinate dependent, but they very often rely in some strong assumptions on the degree of differentiability of the physical magnitudes of the model (such as the mass, density, etc) in the singularity. In this paper, we present a coordinate independent framework for identifying naked singularities based on invariants which is also devoid of strong differentiability requirements. The approach is intended to analyse whole families of models and to provide general results related to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Moreover, since the framework has a strict geometrical nature it can be used with alternative theories of gravitation as long as they assume the existence of a Lorentzian manifold. We exemplify its strength by applying it to the study of the collapse of radiation in radiative coordinates and the collapse of dust in comoving coordinates. (paper)

  20. Naked singularities in four-dimensional string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1993-04-01

    It is shown that gauged nonlinear sigma models can be always deformed by terms proportional to the field strength of the gauge fields (nonminimal gauging). These deformations can be interpreted as perturbations, by marginal operators, of conformal coset models. When applied to the SL(2, R)xSU(2)/U(1)xU(1)) WZWN model, a large class of four-dimensional curved spacetime backgrounds are obtained. In particular, a naked singularity may form at a time when the volume of the universe is different from zero. (orig.)

  1. Naked singularity in the global structure of critical collapse spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.; Pen, U.-L.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the global structure of scalar field critical collapse spacetimes using a characteristic double-null code. It can integrate past the horizon without any coordinate problems, due to the careful choice of constraint equations used in the evolution. The limiting sequence of sub- and supercritical spacetimes presents an apparent paradox in the expected Penrose diagrams, which we address in this paper. We argue that the limiting spacetime converges pointwise to a unique limit for all r>0, but not uniformly. The r=0 line is different in the two limits. We interpret that the two different Penrose diagrams differ by a discontinuous gauge transformation. We conclude that the limiting spacetime possesses a singular event, with a future removable naked singularity

  2. Constraints on the structure of naked singularities in classical general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.P.A.; Joshi, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    The known examples of naked singularities in general relativity are, in a certain sense, either gravitationally or causally innocuous. A cosmic censorship theorem is formulated and proved to the effect that this behaviour is characteristic of naked singularities in general spacetimes which do not deviate too far from spherical symmetry. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  3. Stationary spherical shells around Kerr-Newman naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenek Stuchlik; Stanislav Hledik

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that in the field of some Kerr-Newman naked singularities a stationary spherical shell of charged dust can exist, with the specific charge being the same for all particles of the dusty shell. Gravitational attractions acting on the particles are balanced by electromagnetic repulsion in such a way that the shell is stable against radial perturbations. Particles of the shell move along orbits with constant latitude and radius. Rotation of the shell is differential. The shell is corotating relative to static observers at infinity, but it is counter rotating relative to the family of locally non-rotating observers. No such a shell can exist in the field of Kerr-Newman black holes. (authors)

  4. The fields of a naked singularity and a black hole in mutual equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Armando; Pizzi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently Alekseev and Belinski have presented a new exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equation which describes two Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) sources in reciprocal equilibrium (no struts nor strings) one source is a naked singularity, the other is a black hole. In this paper we use the Alekseev-Belinki solution in the special case in which the charge of the black hole is zero-therefore we have a naked singularity near a neutral black hole. We give the plots of the electric force lines in both the cases in which the naked singularity has a mass comparable with the black hole and in which it is much smaller. The analysis of this latter case confirm the goodness of the Hanni-Ruffini approximation.

  5. On the variably-charged black holes in general relativity: Hawking's radiation and naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibohal, Ng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper variably-charged non-rotating Reissner-Nordstrom and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes are discussed. Such a variable charge e with respect to the polar coordinate r in the field equations is referred to as an electrical radiation of the black hole. It is shown that every electrical radiation e(r) of the non-rotating black hole leads to a reduction in its mass M by some quantity. If one considers such electrical radiation taking place continuously for a long time, then a continuous reduction of the mass may take place in the black-hole body and the original mass of the black hole may be evaporated completely. At that stage, the gravity of the object may depend only on the electromagnetic field, not on the mass. Immediately after the complete evaporation of the mass, if the next radiation continues, there may be creation of a new mass leading to the formation of a negative mass naked singularity. It appears that this new mass of the naked singularity would never decrease, but might increase gradually as the radiation continues forever. A similar investigation is also discussed in the case of a variably-charged rotating Kerr-Newman black hole. Thus, it has been shown by incorporating Hawking's evaporation of radiating black holes in the form of spacetime metrics, every electrical radiation of variably-charged rotating and non-rotating black holes may produce a change in the mass of the body without affecting the Maxwell scalar

  6. Stability of naked singularity arising in gravitational collapse of Type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    particular case of radial pressure pr(r) has been illustrated in details to get a ... In §2, we briefly summarize the analysis given in [3] and state the conditions on ...... taken for other shells to reach the singularity can be determined from the Taylor.

  7. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes.

  8. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias–Sfetsos naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias–Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes. (paper)

  9. The initial value problem for linearized gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Gleiser, Reinaldo J [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-07

    The coupled equations for the scalar modes of the linearized Einstein equations around Schwarzschild's spacetime were reduced by Zerilli to a (1+1) wave equation partial deriv{sup 2}PSI{sub z} /partial derivt{sup 2} +HPSI{sub z} =0, where H= -partial deriv{sup 2} /partial derivx{sup 2} + V(x) is the Zerilli 'Hamiltonian' and x is the tortoise radial coordinate. From its definition, for smooth metric perturbations the field PSI{sub z} is singular at r{sub s} = -6M/(l - 1)(l +2), with l being the mode harmonic number. The equation PSI{sub z} obeys is also singular, since V has a second-order pole at r{sub s}. This is irrelevant to the black hole exterior stability problem, where r > 2M > 0, and r{sub s} < 0, but it introduces a non-trivial problem in the naked singular case where M < 0, then r{sub s} > 0, and the singularity appears in the relevant range of r (0 < r < infinity). We solve this problem by developing a new approach to the evolution of the even mode, based on a new gauge invariant function, PSI-circumflex, that is a regular function of the metric perturbation for any value of M. The relation of PSI-circumflex to PSI{sub z} is provided by an intertwiner operator. The spatial pieces of the (1 + 1) wave equations that PSI-circumflex and PSI{sub z} obey are related as a supersymmetric pair of quantum Hamiltonians H and H-circumflex. For M < 0,H-circumflex has a regular potential and a unique self-adjoint extension in a domain D defined by a physically motivated boundary condition at r = 0. This allows us to address the issue of evolution of gravitational perturbations in this non-globally hyperbolic background. This formulation is used to complete the proof of the linear instability of the Schwarzschild naked singularity, by showing that a previously found unstable mode belongs to a complete basis of H-circumflex in D, and thus is excitable by generic initial data. This is further illustrated by numerically solving the linearized equations for

  10. Particle Collision Near 1 + 1-Dimensional Horava-Lifshitz Black Hole and Naked Singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halilsoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unbounded center-of-mass (CM energy of oppositely moving colliding particles near horizon emerges also in 1+1-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz gravity. This theory has imprints of renormalizable quantum gravity characteristics in accordance with the method of simple power counting. Surprisingly the result obtained is not valid for a 1-dimensional Compton-like process between an outgoing photon and an infalling massless/massive particle. It is possible to achieve unbounded CM energy due to collision between infalling photons and particles. The source of outgoing particles may be attributed to an explosive process just outside the horizon for a black hole and the naturally repulsive character for the case of a naked singularity. It is found that absence of angular momenta in 1+1-dimension does not yield unbounded energy for collisions in the vicinity of naked singularities.

  11. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity

  12. Circular geodesics of naked singularities in the Kehagias-Sfetsos metric of Hořava's gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Schee, Jan; Kluźniak, Włodek; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Abramowicz, Marek

    2014-07-01

    We discuss photon and test-particle orbits in the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) metric of Hořava's gravity. For any value of the Hořava parameter ω, there are values of the gravitational mass M for which the metric describes a naked singularity, and this is always accompanied by a vacuum "antigravity sphere" on whose surface a test particle can remain at rest (in a zero angular momentum geodesic), and inside which no circular geodesics exist. The observational appearance of an accreting KS naked singularity in a binary system would be that of a quasistatic spherical fluid shell surrounded by an accretion disk, whose properties depend on the value of M, but are always very different from accretion disks familiar from the Kerr-metric solutions. The properties of the corresponding circular orbits are qualitatively similar to those of the Reissner-Nordström naked singularities. When event horizons are present, the orbits outside the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole are qualitatively similar to those of the Schwarzschild metric.

  13. Naked singularities, branes and Chern-Simons couplings: The dark side of the 2+1 black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanelli, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Branes are naked singularities, analogous to linear or planar defects in crystals. Zero-branes in AdS spacetimes are n egative mass black holes , which can be generalized to higher-dimensional branes. When these solutions are endowed with angular momentum, the extremal spinning branes correspond to BPS states. On the other hand, the 2p-branes, spanning a (2p + 1)-dimensional worldsheet, provide a naturally coupling to CS field theories defined on a D-dimensional spacetime, with D > 2p + 1. In this picture, the field that lives in the D-dimensional spacetime, as well as the sources that couple to it are made out of the same stuff -an SO(D - 1,2) connection. The fact that on the brane the AdS group is necessarily broken down to SO(2p, 2), brings in a number of tensor fields that play the role of charged matter living on the brane.

  14. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. I. The naked T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein X-ray observations of regions of active star formation in Taurus, Ophiuchus, and Corona Australis show a greatly enhanced surface density of stellar X-ray sources over that seen in other parts of the sky. Many of the X-ray sources are identified with low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars which are not classical T Tauri stars. The X-ray, photometric, and spectroscopic data for these stars are discussed. Seven early K stars in Oph and CrA are likely to be 1-solar-mass post-T Tauri stars with ages of 10-million yr. The late K stars in Taurus are not post-T Tauri, but naked T Tauri stars, which are coeval with the T Tauri stars, differing mainly in the lack of a circumstellar envelope. 72 references

  15. Gravitational collapse and naked singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suppose we have a one-parameter family of initial data sets ... the scaling law MBH ∝ |p − p∗|γ, where γ is a positive constant called a critical exponent. ... by more straightforward work [19], in which the causal structure of the critical solution ...

  16. Is it really naked? On cosmic censorship in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in string theory using a characteristic double-null code, which penetrates horizons and is capable of resolving the spacetime all the way to the singularity. We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of the evolution of negative mass initial scalar field profiles, which were argued to provide a counterexample to cosmic censorship conjecture for AdS-asymptotic spacetimes in five-dimensional supergravity. In no instances formation of naked singularity is seen. Instead, numerical evidence indicates that black holes form in the collapse. Our results are consistent with earlier numerical studies, and explicitly show where the 'no black hole' argument breaks

  17. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Philip, Geo M; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  18. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  19. On singularity formation of a 3D model for incompressible Navier–Stokes equations

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Thomas Y.; Shi, Zuoqiang; Wang, Shu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the singularity formation of a 3D model that was recently proposed by Hou and Lei (2009) in [15] for axisymmetric 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with swirl. The main difference between the 3D model of Hou and Lei and the reformulated 3D Navier–Stokes equations is that the convection term is neglected in the 3D model. This model shares many properties of the 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. One of the main results of this paper is that we prove rigorously th...

  20. C-point and V-point singularity lattice formation and index sign conversion methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Pal, Sushanta; Ruchi; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2017-06-01

    The generic singularities in an ellipse field are C-points namely stars, lemons and monstars in a polarization distribution with C-point indices (-1/2), (+1/2) and (+1/2) respectively. Similar to C-point singularities, there are V-point singularities that occur in a vector field and are characterized by Poincare-Hopf index of integer values. In this paper we show that the superposition of three homogenously polarized beams in different linear states leads to the formation of polarization singularity lattice. Three point sources at the focal plane of the lens are used to create three interfering plane waves. A radial/azimuthal polarization converter (S-wave plate) placed near the focal plane modulates the polarization states of the three beams. The interference pattern is found to host C-points and V-points in a hexagonal lattice. The C-points occur at intensity maxima and V-points occur at intensity minima. Modulating the state of polarization (SOP) of three plane waves from radial to azimuthal does not essentially change the nature of polarization singularity lattice as the Poincare-Hopf index for both radial and azimuthal polarization distributions is (+1). Hence a transformation from a star to a lemon is not trivial, as such a transformation requires not a single SOP change, but a change in whole spatial SOP distribution. Further there is no change in the lattice structure and the C- and V-points appear at locations where they were present earlier. Hence to convert an interlacing star and V-point lattice into an interlacing lemon and V-point lattice, the interferometer requires modification. We show for the first time a method to change the polarity of C-point and V-point indices. This means that lemons can be converted into stars and stars can be converted into lemons. Similarly the positive V-point can be converted to negative V-point and vice versa. The intensity distribution in all these lattices is invariant as the SOPs of the three beams are changed in an

  1. Educational process their different contents, singularities to the sculpture the Formation integral in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Margarita Fernández-Martínez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently article is approached important relating theoretical the in artistic education, that facilitate the formation integral in university students, the educational process their different contents, singularities to the sculpture artistic manifestation, with which one works methodologically. However, it is necessary to establish a methodological theoretical position in this respect to be able to evidence the relationship education-culture the understanding of the artistic education in that relationship and their contribution to the formation integral. From the didactic point of view, it is sustained in the basics of the teaching-learning process, related with the Didactics of the Superior Education and in the analysis and valuation of the components of the process of teaching learning where the dynamics of the relationships is revealed among these that it is constituted in a dialectical process where starting from the created conditions the fellow appropriates of the necessary tools for interaction with the reality.

  2. ROCK inhibitor is not required for embryoid body formation from singularized human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinato, Giuseppe; Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S; Zhang, Ning; Wen, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three embryonic germ layers and tissues derived from each of the germ layers. This simplified hEB production technique offers homogeneity in hEB size and shape to support synchronous differentiation, elimination of the ROCKi xeno-factor and rate-limiting centrifugation treatment, and low-cost scalability, which will directly support automated, large-scale production of hEBs and hESC-derived cells needed for clinical, research, or therapeutic applications.

  3. Singular deposit formation in PWR due to electrokinetic phenomena - application to SG clogging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillodo, M.; Muller, T.; Barale, M.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre (France); Clinard, M.-H.; Brun, C.; Chahma, F. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group (France); Corredera, G.; De Bouvier, O. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise de I' inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation (France)

    2009-07-01

    The deposits which cause clogging of the 'foils' of the tube support plates (TSP) in Steam Generators (SG) of PWR present two characteristics which put forward that the mechanism at the origin of their formation is different from the mechanism that drives the formation of homogeneous deposits leading to the fouling of the free spans of SG tubes. Clogging occurs near the leading edge of the TSP and the deposits appear as diaphragms localized between both TSP and SG tubing materials, while the major part of the tube/TSP interstice presents little or no significant clogging. This type of deposit seems rather comparable to the ones which were reproduced in Lab tests to explain the flow rate instabilities observed on a French unit during hot shutdown in the 90's. The deposits which cause TSP clogging are owed to a discontinuity of the streaming currents in the vicinity of a surface singularity (orifices, scratches ...) which, in very low conductivity environment, produce local potential variations and/or current loop in the metallic pipe material due to electrokinetic effects. Deposits can be built by two mechanisms which may or not coexist: (i) accumulation of particles stabilized by an electrostatic attraction due to the local variation of electrokinetic potential, and (ii) crystalline growth of magnetite produced by the oxidation of ferrous ions on the anodic branch of a current loop. Lab investigations carried out by AREVA NP Technical Centre since the end of the 90's showed that this type of deposit occurs when the redox potential is higher than a critical value, and can be gradually dissolved when the potential becomes lower than this value which depends on the 'Material - Chemistry' couple. Special emphasis will be given in this paper to the TSP clogging of SG in PWR secondary coolant dealing particularly with the potential strong effect of electrokinetic phenomena in low conductive environment and in high temperature conditions

  4. Charged singularities: the causality violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-12-01

    A search is made for examples of particle trajectories which, approaching a naked singularity from infinity, make up for lost time before going back to infinity. In the Kerr-Newman metric a whole family of such trajectories is found showing that the causality violation is indeed a non-avoidable pathology.

  5. Noncrossing timelike singularities of irrotational dust collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.T.

    1979-01-01

    Known naked singularities in spherical dust collapse are either due to shell-crossing or localized to the central world line. They will probably be destroyed by pressure gradients or blue-shift instabilities. To violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis in a more convincing and general context, collapse solutions with naked singularities that are at least nonshell-crossing and nonlocalized need to be constructed. Some results concerning the probable structure of a class of nonshellcrossing and nonlocalized timelike singularities are reviewed. The cylindrical dust model is considered but this model is not asymptotically flat. To make these noncrossing singularities viable counter examples to the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the occurrence of such singularities in asymptotically flat collapse needs to be demonstrated. (UK)

  6. Cosmic censorship and the strengths of singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the principal definitions concerning limiting curvature strength on geodesics, and on non-spacelike geodesics in particular. They are formulated in terms of focussing conditions. Two definitions suggest themselves, and these are given in terms of a concept of a generalized Jacobi field. An historical survey is presented on some important developments concerning examples of naked singularities. The historical context is recalled in which these models, and cosmic censorship in general, have arisen. It is the author's opinion that one can expect to obtain theoretical limitations on the strengths of any naked singularities which do occur

  7. Naked Black Hole Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-Han

    2016-04-22

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  8. Naked Black Hole Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N.; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-04-01

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  9. Nakedly singular non-vacuum gravitating equilibrium states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woszczyna, Andrzej; Kutschera, Marek; Kubis, Sebastian; Czaja, Wojciech; Plaszczyk, Piotr; Golda, Zdzisław A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-vacuum static spherically symmetric spacetimes with central point-like repulsive gravity sources are investigated. Both the symmetries of spacetime and the degree of irregularity of curvature invariants, are the same as for the Schwarzschild case. The equilibrium configurations are modelled using the neutron star polytrope equation of state.

  10. Controlled formation of Ni(DMG)2 microrods/tubes by manipulating the kinetics of chemical reactions and their application in naked-eye sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated controlled preparation of Ni(DMG)2 microrods/tubes via chemical reaction method. By manipulating the reaction kinetics via the concentration of reactants, shapes of the resulting microstructures can be easily tuned from microrods to microtubes. Size of the resulting products can also be controlled through changing the reaction temperatures. It was proposed that under high reactants' concentrations, molecules will prefer to grow at corners or edges of nuclei with high free energies, to reduce the total energy in the system, which would lead to partial or complete hollow interiors and eventually resulted in mircotubes. The fact that DMG show high selectivity with Ni2+ and accompanied with obvious color change enable us to fabricate test strip for naked-eye detection of Ni2+. Benefit from the large surface areas of DMG nanoparticles on the test strip, the detection limit is improved by two orders over that of conventional solution method. This strategy is sensitive, simple and easy to handle, thus expected to possess potentials for the practical Ni2+ detection applications.

  11. Singularidade e formação (Bildung em Schopenhauer como educador de Nietzsche Singularity and formation (Bildung in Schopenhauer as educator of Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes Weber

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do escrito Schopenhauer como educador, buscar-se-á explicitar a dimensão modelar de Schopenhauer, tanto para a constituição do ideal de filósofo e pensador que Nietzsche cria para si, quanto para a edificação da sua teoria da formação (Bildung. Isso será dado, num primeiro momento, pela apresentação do pendor crítico do pensamento schopenhaueriano e da sua insubmissão às tendências filosóficas e culturais do seu tempo; num segundo momento, pela elucidação da especificidade da teoria nietzschiana do autoconhecimento e da sua concepção da singularidade, com o que se revelará sua teoria do fundamento metafísico da natureza, que o leva a conceber o filósofo, o artista e o santo como os tipos singulares por excelência nos quais a natureza justifica os seus esforços e supera a mera necessidade. Essas tipologias revelam as tarefas que a educação deve, ao juízo de Nietzsche, perseguir se não quiser se tornar mero abstracionismo ou mera aderência acrítica ao mundo: jamais condescender aos modismos culturais; não separar pensamento e vida com o que se diz, também, que teoria e prática não estão separadas; incorporar a singularidade como aquilo que a educação promove; e, por fim, eleger a autossuperação como a tarefa mais imperiosa para a constituição do humano no seu sentido mais pleno.Based on Nietzsche's Schopenhauer as Educator, the text seeks to unveil Schopenhauer's model dimension both in the constitution of the ideal of philosopher and thinker that Nietzsche creates to himself, and in the construction of his theory of formation (Bildung. The objective of the article is pursued firstly through the presentation of the critical disposition of the Schopenhauerian thinking and of his refusal to conform to the philosophical and cultural tendencies of his time; then, in a second movement, the text elucidates the specificity of the Nietzschean theory of self-knowledge, and of his concept of singularity

  12. On important precursor of singular optics (tutorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, Peter V.; Felde, Christina V.; Bogatyryova, Halina V.; Konovchuk, Alexey V.

    2018-01-01

    The rise of singular optics is usually associated with the seminal paper by J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 336, 165-189 (1974)]. Intense development of this area of modern photonics has started since the early eighties of the XX century due to invention of the interfrence technique for detection and diagnostics of phase singularities, such as optical vortices in complex speckle-structured light fields. The next powerful incentive for formation of singular optics into separate area of the science on light was connectected with discovering of very practical technique for creation of singular optical beams of various kinds on the base of computer-generated holograms. In the eghties and ninetieth of the XX century, singular optics evolved, almost entirely, under the approximation of complete coherency of light field. Only at the threshold of the XXI century, it has been comprehended that the singular-optics approaches can be fruitfully expanded onto partially spatially coherent, partially polarized and polychromatic light fields supporting singularities of new kinds, that has been resulted in establishing of correlation singular optics. Here we show that correlation singular optics has much deeper roots, ascending to "pre-singular" and even pre-laser epoch and associated with the concept of partial coherence and polarization. It is remarcable that correlation singular optics in its present interpretation has forestalled the standard coherent singular optics. This paper is timed to the sixtieth anniversary of the most profound precursor of modern correlation singular optics [J. Opt. Soc. Am., 47, 895-902 (1957)].

  13. Topological Signals of Singularities in Ricci Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Alsing

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We implement methods from computational homology to obtain a topological signal of singularity formation in a selection of geometries evolved numerically by Ricci flow. Our approach, based on persistent homology, produces precise, quantitative measures describing the behavior of an entire collection of data across a discrete sample of times. We analyze the topological signals of geometric criticality obtained numerically from the application of persistent homology to models manifesting singularities under Ricci flow. The results we obtain for these numerical models suggest that the topological signals distinguish global singularity formation (collapse to a round point from local singularity formation (neckpinch. Finally, we discuss the interpretation and implication of these results and future applications.

  14. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  15. Black holes, singularities and predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The paper favours the view that singularities may play a central role in quantum gravity. The author reviews the arguments leading to the conclusion, that in the process of black hole formation and evaporation, an initial pure state evolves to a final density matrix, thus signaling a breakdown in ordinary quantum dynamical evolution. Some related issues dealing with predictability in the dynamical evolution, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Singular stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cherny, Alexander S

    2005-01-01

    The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types.

  17. ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS OF SINGULAR ISOTHERMAL QUADRUPOLE LENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Zhe; Lin, W. P.; Yang Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Using an analytical method, we study the singular isothermal quadrupole (SIQ) lens system, which is the simplest lens model that can produce four images. In this case, the radial mass distribution is in accord with the profile of the singular isothermal sphere lens, and the tangential distribution is given by adding a quadrupole on the monopole component. The basic properties of the SIQ lens have been studied in this Letter, including the deflection potential, deflection angle, magnification, critical curve, caustic, pseudo-caustic, and transition locus. Analytical solutions of the image positions and magnifications for the source on axes are derived. We find that naked cusps will appear when the relative intensity k of quadrupole to monopole is larger than 0.6. According to the magnification invariant theory of the SIQ lens, the sum of the signed magnifications of the four images should be equal to unity, as found by Dalal. However, if a source lies in the naked cusp, the summed magnification of the left three images is smaller than the invariant 1. With this simple lens system, we study the situations where a point source infinitely approaches a cusp or a fold. The sum of the magnifications of the cusp image triplet is usually not equal to 0, and it is usually positive for major cusps while negative for minor cusps. Similarly, the sum of magnifications of the fold image pair is usually not equal to 0 either. Nevertheless, the cusp and fold relations are still equal to 0 in that the sum values are divided by infinite absolute magnifications by definition.

  18. Quantum evolution across singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to consider evolution across space-time singularities often lead to quantum systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians developing an isolated singularity as a function of time. Examples include matrix theory in certain singular time-dependent backgounds and free quantum fields on the two-dimensional compactified Milne universe. Due to the presence of the singularities in the time dependence, the conventional quantum-mechanical evolution is not well-defined for such systems. We propose a natural way, mathematically analogous to renormalization in conventional quantum field theory, to construct unitary quantum evolution across the singularity. We carry out this procedure explicitly for free fields on the compactified Milne universe and compare our results with the matching conditions considered in earlier work (which were based on the covering Minkowski space)

  19. Introduction to singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Shihoko

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to singularities for graduate students and researchers. It is said that algebraic geometry originated in the seventeenth century with the famous work Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences by Descartes. In that book he introduced coordinates to the study of geometry. After its publication, research on algebraic varieties developed steadily. Many beautiful results emerged in mathematicians’ works. Most of them were about non-singular varieties. Singularities were considered “bad” objects that interfered with knowledge of the structure of an algebraic variety. In the past three decades, however, it has become clear that singularities are necessary for us to have a good description of the framework of varieties. For example, it is impossible to formulate minimal model theory for higher-dimensional cases without singularities. Another example is that the moduli spaces of varieties have natural compactification, the boundar...

  20. Quantum singularities in (2+1) dimensional matter coupled black hole spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unver, O.; Gurtug, O.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum singularities considered in the 3D Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime by Pitelli and Letelier [Phys. Rev. D 77, 124030 (2008)] is extended to charged BTZ and 3D Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes. The occurrence of naked singularities in the Einstein-Maxwell extension of the BTZ spacetime both in linear and nonlinear electrodynamics as well as in the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity spacetimes are analyzed with the quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. We show that with the inclusion of the matter fields, the conical geometry near r=0 is removed and restricted classes of solutions are admitted for the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. Hence, the classical central singularity at r=0 turns out to be quantum mechanically singular for quantum particles obeying the Klein-Gordon equation but nonsingular for fermions obeying the Dirac equation. Explicit calculations reveal that the occurrence of the timelike naked singularities in the considered spacetimes does not violate the cosmic censorship hypothesis as far as the Dirac fields are concerned. The role of horizons that clothes the singularity in the black hole cases is replaced by repulsive potential barrier against the propagation of Dirac fields.

  1. Properties of kinematic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coley, A A [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada); Hervik, S [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Lim, W C [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); MacCallum, M A H, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.c, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.n, E-mail: wclim@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: m.a.h.maccallum@qmul.ac.u [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-07

    The locally rotationally symmetric tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type V cosmological model provides examples of future geodesically complete spacetimes that admit a 'kinematic singularity' at which the fluid congruence is inextendible but all frame components of the Weyl and Ricci tensors remain bounded. We show that for any positive integer n there are examples of Bianchi type V spacetimes admitting a kinematic singularity such that the covariant derivatives of the Weyl and Ricci tensors up to the nth order also stay bounded. We briefly discuss singularities in classical spacetimes.

  2. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  3. Coloured phase singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    For illumination with white light, the spectra near a typical isolated phase singularity (nodal point of the component wavelengths) can be described by a universal function of position, up to linear distortion and a weak dependence on the spectrum of the source. The appearance of the singularity when viewed by a human observer is predicted by transforming the spectrum to trichromatic variables and chromaticity coordinates, and then rendering the colours, scaled to constant luminosity, on a computer monitor. The pattern far from the singularity is a white that depends on the source temperature, and the centre of the pattern is flanked by intensely coloured 'eyes', one orange and one blue, separated by red, and one of the eyes is surrounded by a bright white circle. Only a small range of possible colours appears near the singularity; in particular, there is no green. (author)

  4. The Big Bang Singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  5. Surface Plasmon Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Martínez-Niconoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to compare the physical features of the electromagnetic field, we describe the synthesis of optical singularities propagating in the free space and on a metal surface. In both cases the electromagnetic field has a slit-shaped curve as a boundary condition, and the singularities correspond to a shock wave that is a consequence of the curvature of the slit curve. As prototypes, we generate singularities that correspond to fold and cusped regions. We show that singularities in free space may generate bifurcation effects while plasmon fields do not generate these kinds of effects. Experimental results for free-space propagation are presented and for surface plasmon fields, computer simulations are shown.

  6. Algorithms in Singular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Schonemann

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Some algorithms for singularity theory and algebraic geometry The use of Grobner basis computations for treating systems of polynomial equations has become an important tool in many areas. This paper introduces of the concept of standard bases (a generalization of Grobner bases and the application to some problems from algebraic geometry. The examples are presented as SINGULAR commands. A general introduction to Grobner bases can be found in the textbook [CLO], an introduction to syzygies in [E] and [St1]. SINGULAR is a computer algebra system for computing information about singularities, for use in algebraic geometry. The basic algorithms in SINGULAR are several variants of a general standard basis algorithm for general monomial orderings (see [GG]. This includes wellorderings (Buchberger algorithm ([B1], [B2] and tangent cone orderings (Mora algorithm ([M1], [MPT] as special cases: It is able to work with non-homogeneous and homogeneous input and also to compute in the localization of the polynomial ring in 0. Recent versions include algorithms to factorize polynomials and a factorizing Grobner basis algorithm. For a complete description of SINGULAR see [Si].

  7. Numerical method of singular problems on singular integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huaiguo; Mou Zongze

    1992-02-01

    As first part on the numerical research of singular problems, a numerical method is proposed for singular integrals. It is shown that the procedure is quite powerful for solving physics calculation with singularity such as the plasma dispersion function. Useful quadrature formulas for some class of the singular integrals are derived. In general, integrals with more complex singularities can be dealt by this method easily

  8. Naked-eye astronomy in mass tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of developing astro-tourism in small countries such as Serbia and other Balkan countries, with "discreet" astro-tourism reduced to naked-eye astronomy as part of mass tourism rather than elite tourism that is realized through specialized programs with spacecraft and space stations, spectacular planetariums and observatories with giant telescopes. The specific relationship between the virtual and the real world is highlighted in this paper especially when considering younger generations. Furthermore, the differences in the way stars are perceived by astronomers and "ordinary" tourists or non-astronomers is also emphasized. Tourists are not enchanted by celestial bodies themselves, but by a complete scene, which consists of integrated skyscapes and landscapes, as a complex stage where in various combinations and forms these celestial bodies are observed, and of their own experience. These complex sky-earth landscapes, astro-landscapes, present astro-tourism resources of the small countries like Serbia, provided that a tourist can "read" their astronomical text. In this regard, Belgrade was used as the example for drafting a "package" of astronomical information that can be easily prepared and adapted according to the needs of a particular group, so that every tourist may know what can be seen, where and when. With the help of a rotating star map (planisphere, visitors may observe the sky with the naked eye.

  9. Singularities in Free Surface Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet Suresh

    Free surface flows where the shape of the interface separating two or more phases or liquids are unknown apriori, are commonplace in industrial applications and nature. Distribution of drop sizes, coalescence rate of drops, and the behavior of thin liquid films are crucial to understanding and enhancing industrial practices such as ink-jet printing, spraying, separations of chemicals, and coating flows. When a contiguous mass of liquid such as a drop, filament or a film undergoes breakup to give rise to multiple masses, the topological transition is accompanied with a finite-time singularity . Such singularity also arises when two or more masses of liquid merge into each other or coalesce. Thus the dynamics close to singularity determines the fate of about-to-form drops or films and applications they are involved in, and therefore needs to be analyzed precisely. The primary goal of this thesis is to resolve and analyze the dynamics close to singularity when free surface flows experience a topological transition, using a combination of theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. The first problem under consideration focuses on the dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling applications that are relevant to pharmaceutical and consumer products industry, using numerical techniques based on Galerkin Finite Element Methods (GFEM). The second problem addresses the dual flow behavior of aqueous foams that are observed in oil and gas fields and estimates the relevant parameters that describe such flows through a series of experiments. The third problem aims at understanding the drop formation of Newtonian and Carreau fluids, computationally using GFEM. The drops are formed as a result of imposed flow rates or expanding bubbles similar to those of piezo actuated and thermal ink-jet nozzles. The focus of fourth problem is on the evolution of thinning threads of Newtonian fluids and suspensions towards singularity, using computations based on GFEM and experimental

  10. Singularities in FLRW spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    het Lam, Huibert; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2017-12-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept following that geodesic. That indicates a breakdown of the particle's description, which is why we should not consider those trajectories for the definition of an initial singularity. When one only considers test particles that do not have this breakdown of their trajectory, it turns out that the only singular FLRW spacetimes are the ones that have a scale parameter that vanishes at some initial time.

  11. Pseudospherical surfaces with singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of constant Gauss curvature −1 surfaces in Euclidean 3-space, based on Lorentzian harmonic maps, that we call pseudospherical frontals. We analyse the singularities of these surfaces, dividing them into those of characteristic and non-characteristic type. We give methods...

  12. Supersymmetry in singular spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric

    2002-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry in spaces with a boundary, i.e. singular spaces. In particular, we discuss the situation in ten and five dimensions. In both these cases we review the construction of supersymmetric domain wall actions situated at the boundary. These domain walls act as sources inducing a

  13. Singularities in FLRW Spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Huibert het; Prokopec, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We point out that past-incompleteness of geodesics in FLRW spacetimes does not necessarily imply that these spacetimes start from a singularity. Namely, if a test particle that follows such a trajectory has a non-vanishing velocity, its energy was super-Planckian at some time in the past if it kept

  14. Singular potentials in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Koo, E. Ley

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a review of some mathematical methods as recently developed and applied to deal with singular potentials in Quantum Mechanics. Regular and singular perturbative methods as well as variational treatments are considered. (author). 25 refs

  15. Genome Stability Maintenance in Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruseva, I O; Evdokimov, A N; Lavrik, O I

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance. Despite the fact that the naked mole-rat lives under genotoxic stress conditions (oxidative, etc.), the main characteristics of its genome and proteome are a high stability and effective functioning. Replicative senescence in the somatic cells of naked mole-rats is missing, while an additional p53/pRb-dependent mechanism of early contact inhibition has been revealed in its fibroblasts, which controls cell proliferation and its mechanism of arf- dependent aging. The unique traits of phenotypic and molecular adaptations found in the naked mole-rat speak to a high stability and effective functioning of the molecular machinery that counteract damage accumulation in its genome. This review analyzes existing results in the study of the molecular basis of longevity and high cancer resistance in naked mole-rats.

  16. Singularities: the Brieskorn anniversary volume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brieskorn, Egbert; Arnolʹd, V. I; Greuel, G.-M; Steenbrink, J. H. M

    1998-01-01

    ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Main theorem ... 3 Ideals of ideal-unimodal plane curve singularities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References ... Gert-Martin Greuel and Gerhard Pfister...

  17. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Well-known examples are singularities inside black holes and initial or final singularities in expanding or contracting universes. In recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which may lead to an understanding of these in the standard framework of time evolution in quantum mechanics.

  18. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbón, José L.F. [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13, Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Madrid 28049 (Spain); Rabinovici, Eliezer [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2016-01-15

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  19. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbón, José L.F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  20. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppe, Nils [Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science andDepartment of Physics, Cornell University,122 Sciences Drive, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kolly, Allison [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University,805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H3A 0B9 (Canada); Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor [Department of Physics and Winnipeg Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Winnipeg,515 Portage Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B 2E9 (Canada)

    2016-10-17

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071102, the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  1. The cosmological singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Belinski, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Written for researchers focusing on general relativity, supergravity, and cosmology, this is a self-contained exposition of the structure of the cosmological singularity in generic solutions of the Einstein equations, and an up-to-date mathematical derivation of the theory underlying the Belinski–Khalatnikov–Lifshitz (BKL) conjecture on this field. Part I provides a comprehensive review of the theory underlying the BKL conjecture. The generic asymptotic behavior near the cosmological singularity of the gravitational field, and fields describing other kinds of matter, is explained in detail. Part II focuses on the billiard reformulation of the BKL behavior. Taking a general approach, this section does not assume any simplifying symmetry conditions and applies to theories involving a range of matter fields and space-time dimensions, including supergravities. Overall, this book will equip theoretical and mathematical physicists with the theoretical fundamentals of the Big Bang, Big Crunch, Black Hole singula...

  2. Deformations of surface singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Szilárd, ágnes

    2013-01-01

    The present publication contains a special collection of research and review articles on deformations of surface singularities, that put together serve as an introductory survey of results and methods of the theory, as well as open problems, important examples and connections to other areas of mathematics. The aim is to collect material that will help mathematicians already working or wishing to work in this area to deepen their insight and eliminate the technical barriers in this learning process. This also is supported by review articles providing some global picture and an abundance of examples. Additionally, we introduce some material which emphasizes the newly found relationship with the theory of Stein fillings and symplectic geometry.  This links two main theories of mathematics: low dimensional topology and algebraic geometry. The theory of normal surface singularities is a distinguished part of analytic or algebraic geometry with several important results, its own technical machinery, and several op...

  3. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  4. Dyslexia singular brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habis, M.; Robichon, F.; Demonet, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Of late ten years, neurologists are studying the brain of the dyslectics. The cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography) has allowed to confirm the anatomical particularities discovered by some of them: asymmetry default of cerebral hemispheres, size abnormally large of the white substance mass which connect the two hemispheres. The functional imagery, when visualizing this singular brain at work, allows to understand why it labors to reading. (O.M.)

  5. Stochastic singular optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Roux Presented at the International Conference on Correlation Optics 2013 Chernivtsi, Ukraine 18-20 September 2013 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/24 Contents ⊲ Defining Stochastic Singular Optics (SSO) ⊲ Tools of Stochastic... of vortices: topological charge ±1 (higher order are unstable). Positive and negative vortex densities np(x, y, z) and nn(x, y, z) ⊲ Vortex density: V = np + nn ⊲ Topological charge density: T = np − nn – p. 4/24 Subfields of SSO ⊲ Homogeneous, normally...

  6. Cosmological models without singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, W.

    1981-01-01

    A previously studied theory of gravitation in flat space-time is applied to homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models. There exist two different classes of models without singularities: (i) ever-expanding models, (ii) oscillating models. The first class contains models with hot big bang. For these models there exist at the beginning of the universe-in contrast to Einstein's theory-very high but finite densities of matter and radiation with a big bang of very short duration. After short time these models pass into the homogeneous and isotropic models of Einstein's theory with spatial curvature equal to zero and cosmological constant ALPHA >= O. (author)

  7. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  8. Residues and duality for singularity categories of isolated Gorenstein singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Murfet, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We study Serre duality in the singularity category of an isolated Gorenstein singularity and find an explicit formula for the duality pairing in terms of generalised fractions and residues. For hypersurfaces we recover the residue formula of the string theorists Kapustin and Li. These results are obtained from an explicit construction of complete injective resolutions of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules.

  9. Singular Poisson tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structures discovered by Morrison and Greene for various fluid equations were obtained by guessing a Hamiltonian and a suitable Poisson bracket formula, expressed in terms of noncanonical (but physical) coordinates. In general, such a procedure for obtaining a Hamiltonian system does not produce a Hamiltonian phase space in the usual sense (a symplectic manifold), but rather a family of symplectic manifolds. To state the matter in terms of a system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, the family of symplectic manifolds is parametrized by a set of Casimir functions, which are characterized by having vanishing Poisson brackets with all other functions. The number of independent Casimir functions is the corank of the Poisson tensor J/sup ij/, the components of which are the Poisson brackets of the coordinates among themselves. Thus, these Casimir functions exist only when the Poisson tensor is singular

  10. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John; Park, Thomas J

    2009-12-09

    Mammalian brains have extremely high levels of aerobic metabolism and typically suffer irreversible damage after brief periods of oxygen deprivation such as occur during stroke or cardiac arrest. Here we report that brain tissue from naked mole-rats, rodents that live in a chronically low-oxygen environment, is remarkably resistant to hypoxia: naked mole-rat neurons maintain synaptic transmission much longer than mouse neurons and can recover from periods of anoxia exceeding 30 min. We suggest that brain tolerance to hypoxia may result from slowed or arrested brain development in these extremely long-lived animals.

  11. Black hole formation in perfect fluid collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S

    2004-01-01

    We construct here a special class of perfect fluid collapse models which generalizes the homogeneous dust collapse solution in order to include nonzero pressures and inhomogeneities into evolution. It is shown that a black hole is necessarily generated as the end product of continued gravitational collapse, rather than a naked singularity. We examine the nature of the central singularity forming as a result of endless collapse and it is shown that no nonspacelike trajectories can escape from the central singularity. Our results provide some insights into how the dynamical collapse works and into the possible formulations of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, which is as yet a major unsolved problem in black hole physics

  12. Nonlinear wave equations, formation of singularities

    CERN Document Server

    John, Fritz

    1990-01-01

    This is the second volume in the University Lecture Series, designed to make more widely available some of the outstanding lectures presented in various institutions around the country. Each year at Lehigh University, a distinguished mathematical scientist presents the Pitcher Lectures in the Mathematical Sciences. This volume contains the Pitcher lectures presented by Fritz John in April 1989. The lectures deal with existence in the large of solutions of initial value problems for nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations. As is typical with nonlinear problems, there are many results and few general conclusions in this extensive subject, so the author restricts himself to a small portion of the field, in which it is possible to discern some general patterns. Presenting an exposition of recent research in this area, the author examines the way in which solutions can, even with small and very smooth initial data, "blow up" after a finite time. For various types of quasi-linear equations, this time de...

  13. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  14. Singularity resolution in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husain, Viqar; Winkler, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    We examine the singularity resolution issue in quantum gravity by studying a new quantization of standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometrodynamics. The quantization procedure is inspired by the loop quantum gravity program, and is based on an alternative to the Schroedinger representation normally used in metric variable quantum cosmology. We show that in this representation for quantum geometrodynamics there exists a densely defined inverse scale factor operator, and that the Hamiltonian constraint acts as a difference operator on the basis states. We find that the cosmological singularity is avoided in the quantum dynamics. We discuss these results with a view to identifying the criteria that constitute 'singularity resolution' in quantum gravity

  15. The theory of singular perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    De Jager, E M

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this textbook is the mathematical theory of singular perturbations, which despite its respectable history is still in a state of vigorous development. Singular perturbations of cumulative and of boundary layer type are presented. Attention has been given to composite expansions of solutions of initial and boundary value problems for ordinary and partial differential equations, linear as well as quasilinear; also turning points are discussed. The main emphasis lies on several methods of approximation for solutions of singularly perturbed differential equations and on the mathemat

  16. Productive performance of naked neck, frizzle and dwarf laying hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of major genes for feather reduction (naked neck and frizzle) and body size reduction (dwarf) in a dual-purpose layer strain was evaluated in the subtropical coastal region of southeast Africa (Maputo, Mozambique). The experimental material consisted of ight different genetic groups, two diets ...

  17. Two-Laser Interference Visible to the Naked Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa

    2012-01-01

    An experimental setup allowing the observation of two-laser interference by the naked eye is described. The key concept is the use of an electronic phase lock between two external cavity diode lasers. The experiment is suitable both for undergraduate and graduate students, mainly in atomic physics laboratories. It gives an opportunity for…

  18. Van Hove singularities revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyaloshinskii, I.

    1987-07-01

    Beginning with the work of Hirsch and Scalapino the importance of ln 2 -Van Hove singularity in T c -enhancement in La 2 CuO 4 -based compounds was realized, which is nicely reviewed by Rice. However, the theoretical treatment carried out before is incomplete. Two things were apparently not paid due attention to: interplay of particle-particle and particle-hole channels and Umklapp processes. In what follows a two-dimensional weak coupling model of LaCuO 4 will be solved exactly in the ln 2 -approximation. The result in the Hubbard limit (one bare charge) is that the system is unstable at any sign of interaction. Symmetry breaking moreover is pretty peculiar. Of course, there are separate singlet superconducting pairings in the pp-channel (attraction) and SDW (repulsion) and CDW (attraction) in the ph-channel. It is natural that Umklapps produce an SDW + CDW mixture at either sign of the interaction. What is unusual is that both the pp-ph interplay and the Umklapps give rise to a monster-coherent SS + SDW + CDW mixture, again at either sign of the bare charge. In the general model where all 4 charges involved are substantially different, the system might remain metallic. A more realistic approach which takes into account dopping in La-M-Cu-O and interlayer interaction provides at least a qualitative understanding of the experimental picture. 10 refs, 5 figs

  19. Singularity: Raychaudhuri equation once again

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology; Raychaudhuri equation; Universe; quantum gravity; loop quan- tum gravity ... than the observation verifying the prediction of theory. This gave .... which was now expanding, would have had a singular beginning in a hot Big Bang.

  20. Local and nonlocal space-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The necessity to subdivide the singularities into two classes: local and nonlocal, each of them to be defined independently, is proved. Both classes of the singularities are defined, and the relation between the definitions introduced and the standard definition of singularities, based on space-time, incompleteness, is established. The relation between definitions introduced and theorems on the singularity existence is also established

  1. Structural studies of human Naked2: A biologically active intrinsically unstructured protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tianhui; Krezel, Andrzej M.; Li Cunxi; Coffey, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Naked1 and 2 are two mammalian orthologs of Naked Cuticle, a canonical Wnt signaling antagonist in Drosophila. Naked2, but not Naked1, interacts with transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) and escorts TGFα-containing vesicles to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Full-length Naked2 is poorly soluble. Since most functional domains, including the Dishevelled binding region, EF-hand, vesicle recognition, and membrane targeting motifs, reside in the N-terminal half of the protein, we expressed and purified the first 217 residues of human Naked2 and performed a functional analysis of this fragment. Its circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed no evidence of secondary and/or tertiary structure. The fragment did not bind calcium or zinc. These results indicate that the N-terminal half of Naked2 behaves as an intrinsically unstructured protein

  2. David Cronenberg, author of naked lunch: Intersemiotic translation as transcreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Fachel de Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the intersemiotic translation process performed by filmmaker David Cronenberg of William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch, and the intertextual bifurcations involved in this process. Investigating the similarities and differences between the creative worlds of both artists and how they reframe each other. For this, are used as the theoretical the idea of transcreation proposed by Haroldo de Campos, and the notion of the translator as a reader proposed by Jorge Luis Borges.

  3. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, A; Schaefke, R

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE εu ' Φ(x, u, a, ε), x, u element of C, ε > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot

  4. On the singularities of solutions to singular perturbation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchard, A [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Informatique et Applications, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Haute Alsace, 4 rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse cedex (France); Schaefke, R [Departement de Mathematiques, Universite Louis Pasteur, 7 rue Rene-Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    We consider a singularly perturbed complex first order ODE {epsilon}u ' {phi}(x, u, a, {epsilon}), x, u element of C, {epsilon} > 0 is a small complex parameter and a element of C is a control parameter. It is proven that the singularities of some solutions are regularly spaced and that they move from one to the next as a runs about a loop of index one around a value of overstability. This gives a positive answer to a question of J. L. Callot.

  5. Is the cosmological singularity compulsory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.; Meisels, A.

    1980-01-01

    The cosmological singularity is inherent in all conventional general relativistic cosmological models. There can be no question that it is an unphysical feature; yet there does not seem to be any convervative way of eliminating it. Here we present singularity-free isotropic cosmological models which are indistinguishable from general relativistic ones at late times. They are based on the general theory of variable rest masses that we developed recently. Outside cosmology this theory simulates general relativity well. Thus it provides a framework incorporating those features which have made geneal relativity so sucessful while providing a way out of singularity dilemma. The cosmological models can be made to incorporate Dirac's large numbers hypothesis. G(now)/G(0)approx.10 -38

  6. A 1 + 5-dimensional gravitational-wave solution. Curvature singularity and spacetime singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Zhu [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Li, Wen-Du [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Dai, Wu-Sheng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University and Tianjin University, LiuHui Center for Applied Mathematics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-12-15

    We solve a 1 + 5-dimensional cylindrical gravitational-wave solution of the Einstein equation, in which there are two curvature singularities. Then we show that one of the curvature singularities can be removed by an extension of the spacetime. The result exemplifies that the curvature singularity is not always a spacetime singularity; in other words, the curvature singularity cannot serve as a criterion for spacetime singularities. (orig.)

  7. Singularities in geodesic surface congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seung; Hong, Soon-Tae

    2008-01-01

    In the stringy cosmology, we investigate singularities in geodesic surface congruences for the timelike and null strings to yield the Raychaudhuri type equations possessing correction terms associated with the novel features owing to the strings. Assuming the stringy strong energy condition, we have a Hawking-Penrose type inequality equation. If the initial expansion is negative so that the congruence is converging, we show that the expansion must pass through the singularity within a proper time. We observe that the stringy strong energy conditions of both the timelike and null string congruences produce the same inequality equation.

  8. Singular perturbation of simple eigenvalues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenlee, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    Two operator theoretic theorems which generalize those of asymptotic regular perturbation theory and which apply to singular perturbation problems are proved. Application of these theorems to concrete problems is involved, but the perturbation expansions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors are developed in terms of solutions of linear operator equations. The method of correctors, as well as traditional boundary layer techniques, can be used to apply these theorems. The current formulation should be applicable to highly singular ''hard core'' potential perturbations of the radial equation of quantum mechanics. The theorems are applied to a comparatively simple model problem whose analysis is basic to that of the quantum mechanical problem

  9. Singularity Theory and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian; Mond, David; Montaldi, James

    1991-01-01

    A workshop on Singularities, Bifuraction and Dynamics was held at Warwick in July 1989, as part of a year-long symposium on Singularity Theory and its applications. The proceedings fall into two halves: Volume I mainly on connections with algebraic geometry and volume II on connections with dynamical systems theory, bifurcation theory and applications in the sciences. The papers are original research, stimulated by the symposium and workshop: All have been refereed and none will appear elsewhere. The main topic of volume II is new methods for the study of bifurcations in nonlinear dynamical systems, and applications of these.

  10. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary. (orig.)

  11. Ambient cosmology and spacetime singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach to the issues of spacetime singularities and cosmic censorship in general relativity. This is based on the idea that standard 4-dimensional spacetime is the conformal infinity of an ambient metric for the 5-dimensional Einstein equations with fluid sources. We then find that the existence of spacetime singularities in four dimensions is constrained by asymptotic properties of the ambient 5-metric, while the non-degeneracy of the latter crucially depends on cosmic censorship holding on the boundary.

  12. Singular moduli and Arakelov intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Lin.

    1994-05-01

    The value of the modular function j(τ) at imaginary quadratic arguments τ in the upper half plane is usually called singular moduli. In this paper, we use Arakelov intersection to give the prime factorizations of a certain combination of singular moduli, coming from the Hecke correspondence. Such a result may be considered as the degenerate one of Gross and Zagier on Heegner points and derivatives of L-series in their paper [GZ1], and is parallel to the result in [GZ2]. (author). 2 refs

  13. Singularities in minimax optimization of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used in the li......A theoretical treatment of singularities in nonlinear minimax optimization problems, which allows for a classification in regular and singular problems, is presented. A theorem for determining a singularity that is present in a given problem is formulated. A group of problems often used...

  14. String theory and cosmological singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recent times, string theory is providing new perspectives of such singularities which .... holes appear as stacks of a large number of D-branes wrapped in internal .... results into a well-known measure factor which makes the wave function into a.

  15. Interval matrices: Regularity generates singularity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Shary, S.P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 540, 1 March (2018), s. 149-159 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : interval matrix * regularity * singularity * P-matrix * absolute value equation * diagonally singilarizable matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  16. Polarization singularities of the object field of skin surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelsky, O V; Ushenko, A G; Ushenko, Yu A; Ushenko, Ye G

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of formation mechanisms of laser radiation polarization structure scattered by an optically thin surface layer of human skin in two registration zones: a boundary field and a far zone of Fraunhofer diffraction. The conditions of forming polarization singularities by such an object in the scattered radiation field have been defined. Statistical and fractal polarization structure of object fields of physiologically normal and pathologically changed skin has been studied. It has been shown that polarization singularities of radiation scattered by physiologically normal skin samples have a fractal coordinate structure. It is characteristic for fields of pathologically changed skin to have a statistical coordinate structure of polarization singularities in all diffraction zones

  17. Computation at a coordinate singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusa, Joseph M.

    2018-05-01

    Coordinate singularities are sometimes encountered in computational problems. An important example involves global atmospheric models used for climate and weather prediction. Classical spherical coordinates can be used to parameterize the manifold - that is, generate a grid for the computational spherical shell domain. This particular parameterization offers significant benefits such as orthogonality and exact representation of curvature and connection (Christoffel) coefficients. But it also exhibits two polar singularities and at or near these points typical continuity/integral constraints on dependent fields and their derivatives are generally inadequate and lead to poor model performance and erroneous results. Other parameterizations have been developed that eliminate polar singularities, but problems of weaker singularities and enhanced grid noise compared to spherical coordinates (away from the poles) persist. In this study reparameterization invariance of geometric objects (scalars, vectors and the forms generated by their covariant derivatives) is utilized to generate asymptotic forms for dependent fields of interest valid in the neighborhood of a pole. The central concept is that such objects cannot be altered by the metric structure of a parameterization. The new boundary conditions enforce symmetries that are required for transformations of geometric objects. They are implemented in an implicit polar filter of a structured grid, nonhydrostatic global atmospheric model that is simulating idealized Held-Suarez flows. A series of test simulations using different configurations of the asymptotic boundary conditions are made, along with control simulations that use the default model numerics with no absorber, at three different grid sizes. Typically the test simulations are ∼ 20% faster in wall clock time than the control-resulting from a decrease in noise at the poles in all cases. In the control simulations adverse numerical effects from the polar

  18. Remarks on gauge variables and singular Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Janica-de-la-Torre, R.; Kalnay, A.J.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Rodriguez-Nunez, J.; Tascon, R.

    1977-01-01

    The relevance is discussed of gauge theory, based on a singular Lagrangian density, to the foundations of field theory. The idea that gauge transformations could change the physics of systems where the Lagrangian is singular is examined. (author)

  19. Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singular multiparameter dynamic equations with distributional potentials on time scales. ... In this paper, we consider both singular single and several multiparameter ... multiple function which is of one sign and nonzero on the given time scale.

  20. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years1–3. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years4,5. In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer2,6. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole-rat’s cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high molecular weight HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues due to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signaling, as the naked mole rat cells have a higher affinity to HA than the mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signaling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high molecular weight HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, Hyal2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumors in mice. We speculate that naked mole-rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. PMID:23783513

  1. Magnetic islands and singular currents at rational surfaces in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loizu, J., E-mail: joaquim.loizu@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Hudson, S.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Using the recently developed multiregion, relaxed MHD (MRxMHD) theory, which bridges the gap between Taylor's relaxation theory and ideal MHD, we provide a thorough analytical and numerical proof of the formation of singular currents at rational surfaces in non-axisymmetric ideal MHD equilibria. These include the force-free singular current density represented by a Dirac δ-function, which presumably prevents the formation of islands, and the Pfirsch-Schlüter 1/x singular current, which arises as a result of finite pressure gradient. An analytical model based on linearized MRxMHD is derived that can accurately (1) describe the formation of magnetic islands at resonant rational surfaces, (2) retrieve the ideal MHD limit where magnetic islands are shielded, and (3) compute the subsequent formation of singular currents. The analytical results are benchmarked against numerical simulations carried out with a fully nonlinear implementation of MRxMHD.

  2. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years 1–3 . This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years 4,5 . In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single inci...

  3. Analysis of singularity in redundant manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Koichi

    2000-03-01

    In the analysis of arm positions and configurations of redundant manipulators, the singularity avoidance problems are important themes. This report presents singularity avoidance computations of a 7 DOF manipulator by using a computer code based on human-arm models. The behavior of the arm escaping from the singular point can be identified satisfactorily through the use of 3-D plotting tools. (author)

  4. The starry room naked eye astronomy in the intimate universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This inspiring and enriching book, a collection of essays that evokes the beauty and wonder of the night sky, explains to beginning skywatchers how to find and where to look for specific celestial objects. Author Fred Schaaf, once described as a naturalist in the tradition of Henry David Thoreau and John Burroughs, reveals an intense love of his subject and a keen knowledge of the optimum ways of viewing astronomical phenomena with the naked eye. Schaaf not only describes such special sights as an eyelash-thin moon, a shooting star, streaking comets, and a lunar eclipse, but he also explains w

  5. Energy conditions and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, a number of theorems are proven which collectively show that singularities will occur in spacetime under weaker energy conditions than the strong energy condition. In particular, the Penrose theorem, which uses only the weak energy condition but which applies only to open universes, is extended to all closed universes which have a Cauchy surface whose universal covering manifold is not a three-sphere. Furthermore, it is shown that the strong energy condition in the Hawking-Penrose theorem can be replaced by the weak energy condition and the assumption that the strong energy condition holds only on the average. In addition, it is demonstrated that if the Universe is closed, then the existence of singularities follows from the averaged strong energy condition alone. It is argued that any globally hyperbolic spacetime which satisfies the weak energy condition and which contains a black hole must be null geodesically incomplete

  6. Multidimensional singular integrals and integral equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mikhlin, Solomon Grigorievich; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Multidimensional Singular Integrals and Integral Equations presents the results of the theory of multidimensional singular integrals and of equations containing such integrals. Emphasis is on singular integrals taken over Euclidean space or in the closed manifold of Liapounov and equations containing such integrals. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of some theorems on linear equations in Banach spaces, followed by a discussion on the simplest properties of multidimensional singular integrals. Subsequent chapters deal with compounding of singular integrals

  7. Fundamental solutions of singular SPDEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selesi, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fundamental solutions of linear SPDEs are constructed. → Wick-convolution product is introduced for the first time. → Fourier transformation maps Wick-convolution into Wick product. → Solutions of linear SPDEs are expressed via Wick-convolution with fundamental solutions. → Stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved. - Abstract: This paper deals with some models of mathematical physics, where random fluctuations are modeled by white noise or other singular Gaussian generalized processes. White noise, as the distributional derivative od Brownian motion, which is the most important case of a Levy process, is defined in the framework of Hida distribution spaces. The Fourier transformation in the framework of singular generalized stochastic processes is introduced and its applications to solving stochastic differential equations involving Wick products and singularities such as the Dirac delta distribution are presented. Explicit solutions are obtained in form of a chaos expansion in the Kondratiev white noise space, while the coefficients of the expansion are tempered distributions. Stochastic differential equations of the form P(ω, D) ◊ u(x, ω) = A(x, ω) are considered, where A is a singular generalized stochastic process and P(ω, D) is a partial differential operator with random coefficients. We introduce the Wick-convolution operator * which enables us to express the solution as u = s*A ◊ I ◊(-1) , where s denotes the fundamental solution and I is the unit random variable. In particular, the stochastic Helmholtz equation is solved, which in physical interpretation describes waves propagating with a random speed from randomly appearing point sources.

  8. Why the Singularity Cannot Happen

    OpenAIRE

    Modis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Singularity as described in Ray Kurzweil's book cannot happen for a number of reasons. One reason is that all natural growth processes that follow exponential patterns eventually reveal themselves to be following S-curves thus excluding runaway situations. The remaining growth potential from Kurzweil's ''knee'', which could be approximated as the moment when an S-curve pattern begins deviating from the corresponding exponential, is a factor of only one order of magnitude grea...

  9. On singularities of lattice varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Himadri

    2013-01-01

    Toric varieties associated with distributive lattices arise as a fibre of a flat degeneration of a Schubert variety in a minuscule. The singular locus of these varieties has been studied by various authors. In this article we prove that the number of diamonds incident on a lattice point $\\a$ in a product of chain lattices is more than or equal to the codimension of the lattice. Using this we also show that the lattice varieties associated with product of chain lattices is smooth.

  10. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  11. Quantum propagation across cosmological singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil

    2017-05-01

    The initial singularity is the most troubling feature of the standard cosmology, which quantum effects are hoped to resolve. In this paper, we study quantum cosmology with conformal (Weyl) invariant matter. We show that it is natural to extend the scale factor to negative values, allowing a large, collapsing universe to evolve across a quantum "bounce" into an expanding universe like ours. We compute the Feynman propagator for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds exactly, identifying curious pathologies in the case of curved (open or closed) universes. We then include anisotropies, fixing the operator ordering of the quantum Hamiltonian by imposing covariance under field redefinitions and again finding exact solutions. We show how complex classical solutions allow one to circumvent the singularity while maintaining the validity of the semiclassical approximation. The simplest isotropic universes sit on a critical boundary, beyond which there is qualitatively different behavior, with potential for instability. Additional scalars improve the theory's stability. Finally, we study the semiclassical propagation of inhomogeneous perturbations about the flat, isotropic case, at linear and nonlinear order, showing that, at least at this level, there is no particle production across the bounce. These results form the basis for a promising new approach to quantum cosmology and the resolution of the big bang singularity.

  12. Mathematical models with singularities a zoo of singular creatures

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    The book aims to provide an unifying view of a variety (a 'zoo') of mathematical models with some kind of singular nonlinearity, in the sense that it becomes infinite when the state variable approaches a certain point. Up to 11 different concrete models are analyzed in separate chapters. Each chapter starts with a discussion of the basic model and its physical significance. Then the main results and typical proofs are outlined, followed by open problems. Each chapter is closed by a suitable list of references. The book may serve as a guide for researchers interested in the modelling of real world processes.

  13. Imaging a non-singular rotating black hole at the center of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Gourgoulhon, E.; Paumard, T.; Vincent, F. H.

    2018-06-01

    We show that the rotating generalization of Hayward’s non-singular black hole previously studied in the literature is geodesically incomplete, and that its straightforward extension leads to a singular spacetime. We present another extension, which is devoid of any curvature singularity. The obtained metric depends on three parameters and, depending on their values, yields an event horizon or not. These two regimes, named respectively regular rotating Hayward black hole and naked rotating wormhole, are studied both numerically and analytically. In preparation for the upcoming results of the Event Horizon Telescope, the images of an accretion torus around Sgr A*, the supermassive object at the center of the Galaxy, are computed. These images contain, even in the absence of a horizon, a central faint region which bears a resemblance to the shadow of Kerr black holes and emphasizes the difficulty of claiming the existence of an event horizon from the analysis of strong-field images. The frequencies of the co- and contra-rotating orbits at the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) in this geometry are also computed, in the hope that quasi-periodic oscillations may permit to compare this model with Kerr’s black hole on observational grounds.

  14. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  15. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  16. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-12-15

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Naked Gold Nanoparticles and hot Electrons in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Khashayar; Wang, Furong; Landry, Cody; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2018-05-08

    The ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of gold nanoparticles, stabilized by electrostatic non-covalent intermolecular forces and steric interactions, with antimicrobial compounds, are investigated with picosecond pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an aqueous solution containing very low concentrations of gold nanoparticles with naked surfaces available in water (not obstructed by chemical bonds), a change to Cerenkov spectrum over a large range of wavelengths are observed and pre-solvated electrons are captured by gold nanoparticles exclusively (not by ionic liquid surfactants used to stabilize the nanoparticles). The solvated electrons are also found to decay rapidly compared with the decay kinetics in water. These very fast reactions with electrons in water could provide an enhanced oxidizing zone around gold nanoparticles and this could be the reason for radio sensitizing behavior of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy.

  18. Trial watch: Naked and vectored DNA-based anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Aranda, Fernando; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    One type of anticancer vaccine relies on the administration of DNA constructs encoding one or multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The ultimate objective of these preparations, which can be naked or vectored by non-pathogenic viruses, bacteria or yeast cells, is to drive the synthesis of TAAs in the context of an immunostimulatory milieu, resulting in the (re-)elicitation of a tumor-targeting immune response. In spite of encouraging preclinical results, the clinical efficacy of DNA-based vaccines employed as standalone immunotherapeutic interventions in cancer patients appears to be limited. Thus, efforts are currently being devoted to the development of combinatorial regimens that allow DNA-based anticancer vaccines to elicit clinically relevant immune responses. Here, we discuss recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of this therapeutic paradigm.

  19. Symmetry generators in singular theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrov, P.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1989-01-01

    It is proved that in the singular nondegenerate theories any symmetry of the lagrangian under non-point transformations of lagrangian variables with the open (in the general case) algebra in the hamiltonian approach generates corresponding transformations of canonical variables the generator of which is the Noether charge with respect to the Dirac brackets. On the surface of all constraints these transformations leave the hamiltonian invariant and the algebra of the Noether charges is closed. As a consequence it is shown that the nilpotent BRST charge operator always exists in gauge theories of the general form (if possible anomalies are not taken into account)

  20. Naked-eye sensor for rapid determination of mercury ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Dapeng; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-11-15

    A naked-eye paper sensor for rapid determination of trace mercury ion in water samples was designed and demonstrated. The mercury-sensing rhodamine B thiolactone was immobilized in silica matrices and the silica matrices were impregnated firmly and uniformly in the filter paper. As water samples flow through the filter paper, the membrane color will change from white to purple red, which could be observed obviously with naked eye, when concentration of mercury ions equals to or exceeds 10nM, the maximum residue level in drinking water recommended by U.S. EPA. The color change can also be recorded by a flatbed scanner and then digitized, reducing the detection limit of Hg(2+) down to 1.2 nM. Moreover, this method is extremely specific for Hg(2+) and shows a high tolerance ratio of interferent coexisting ions. The presence of Na(+) (2 mM), K(+) (2 mM), Fe(3+) (0.1 mM), Zn(2+) (0.1 mM), Mg(2+) (0.1 mM), Ni(2+) (50 μM), Co(2+) (50 μM), Cd(2+) (50 μM), Pb(2+) (50 μM), Cu(2+) (50 μM) and Ag(+) (3.5 μM) did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+) (25 nM). Finally, the present method was applied in the detection of Hg(2+) in mineral water, tap water and pond water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-01

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  2. Topological resolution of gauge theory singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracco, Fabio; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Torroba, Gonzalo

    2013-08-21

    Some gauge theories with Coulomb branches exhibit singularities in perturbation theory, which are usually resolved by nonperturbative physics. In string theory this corresponds to the resolution of timelike singularities near the core of orientifold planes by effects from F or M theory. We propose a new mechanism for resolving Coulomb branch singularities in three-dimensional gauge theories, based on Chern-Simons interactions. This is illustrated in a supersymmetric S U ( 2 ) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory. We calculate the one-loop corrections to the Coulomb branch of this theory and find a result that interpolates smoothly between the high-energy metric (that would exhibit the singularity) and a regular singularity-free low-energy result. We suggest possible applications to singularity resolution in string theory and speculate a relationship to a similar phenomenon for the orientifold six-plane in massive IIA supergravity.

  3. Singularities of Type-Q ABS Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Atkinson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The type-Q equations lie on the top level of the hierarchy introduced by Adler, Bobenko and Suris (ABS in their classification of discrete counterparts of KdV-type integrable partial differential equations. We ask what singularities are possible in the solutions of these equations, and examine the relationship between the singularities and the principal integrability feature of multidimensional consistency. These questions are considered in the global setting and therefore extend previous considerations of singularities which have been local. What emerges are some simple geometric criteria that determine the allowed singularities, and the interesting discovery that generically the presence of singularities leads to a breakdown in the global consistency of such systems despite their local consistency property. This failure to be globally consistent is quantified by introducing a natural notion of monodromy for isolated singularities.

  4. The geometry of warped product singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    In this article, the degenerate warped products of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds are studied. They were used recently by the author to handle singularities occurring in General Relativity, in black holes and at the big-bang. One main result presented here is that a degenerate warped product of semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifolds with the warping function satisfying a certain condition is a semi-regular semi-Riemannian manifold. The connection and the Riemann curvature of the warped product are expressed in terms of those of the factor manifolds. Examples of singular semi-Riemannian manifolds which are semi-regular are constructed as warped products. Applications include cosmological models and black holes solutions with semi-regular singularities. Such singularities are compatible with a certain reformulation of the Einstein equation, which in addition holds at semi-regular singularities too.

  5. The dominant balance at cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Barrow, John D

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of a finite-time singularity of a vector field and then discuss a technique suitable for the asymptotic analysis of vector fields and their integral curves in the neighborhood of such a singularity. Having in mind the application of this method to cosmology, we also provide an analysis of the time singularities of an isotropic universe filled with a perfect fluid in general relativity

  6. Exact solutions and singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We construct two new classes of exact solutions to string theory which are not of the standard plane wave of gauged WZW type. Many of these solutions have curvature singularities. The first class includes the fundamental string solution, for which the string coupling vanishes near the singularity. This suggests that the singularity may not be removed by quantum corrections. The second class consists of hybrids of plane wave and gauged WZW solutions. We discuss a four-dimensional example in detail

  7. Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.

    2011-01-01

    Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.

  8. On local invariants of singular symplectic forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrz, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    We find a complete set of local invariants of singular symplectic forms with the structurally stable Martinet hypersurface on a 2 n-dimensional manifold. In the C-analytic category this set consists of the Martinet hypersurface Σ2, the restriction of the singular symplectic form ω to TΣ2 and the kernel of ω n - 1 at the point p ∈Σ2. In the R-analytic and smooth categories this set contains one more invariant: the canonical orientation of Σ2. We find the conditions to determine the kernel of ω n - 1 at p by the other invariants. In dimension 4 we find sufficient conditions to determine the equivalence class of a singular symplectic form-germ with the structurally smooth Martinet hypersurface by the Martinet hypersurface and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to it. We also study the singular symplectic forms with singular Martinet hypersurfaces. We prove that the equivalence class of such singular symplectic form-germ is determined by the Martinet hypersurface, the canonical orientation of its regular part and the restriction of the singular symplectic form to its regular part if the Martinet hypersurface is a quasi-homogeneous hypersurface with an isolated singularity.

  9. Coupled singular and non singular thermoelastic system and double lapalce decomposition methods

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Gadain; Hassan Gadain

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the double Laplace decomposition methods are applied to solve the non singular and singular one dimensional thermo-elasticity coupled system and. The technique is described and illustrated with some examples

  10. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Wale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked molerat in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected through direct observation and interview and Chi-square at 95% confidence interval was used for significance test. Results: Naked mole-rat was identified in Fafan, City/Shinele, Eastern Hararghe Zone and Dire Dawa Administrative. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. From a total of 100 respondents, 92% of them considered naked mole-rat as pest as a result that 46% of them participated in direct killing. Literacy rate significantly affects the willingness to participate in the conservation of naked mole-rat (χ2 = 7.478, df = 1, P < 0.05. From a total of 26% respondents who did not show the willingness to participate in the conservation, 80.8% of them were illiterate. Conclusions: Naked mole-rat is fairly common in many of the study sites. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat. Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species.

  11. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  12. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  13. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  14. The Semantics of Plurals: A Defense of Singularism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I defend "semantic singularism", which is the view that syntactically plural terms, such as "they" or "Russell and Whitehead", are semantically singular. A semantically singular term is a term that denotes a single entity. Semantic singularism is to be distinguished from "syntactic singularism", according to which…

  15. Stable singularities in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspinwall, P.S.; Morrison, D.R.; Gross, M.

    1996-01-01

    We study a topological obstruction of a very stringy nature concerned with deforming the target space of an N=2 non-linear σ-model. This target space has a singularity which may be smoothed away according to the conventional rules of geometry, but when one studies the associated conformal field theory one sees that such a deformation is not possible without a discontinuous change in some of the correlation functions. This obstruction appears to come from torsion in the homology of the target space (which is seen by deforming the theory by an irrelevant operator). We discuss the link between this phenomenon and orbifolds with discrete torsion as studied by Vafa and Witten. (orig.). With 3 figs

  16. Economías singulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Alccinelli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo pretendemos mostrar que le conjunto de las economías singulares, si bien pequeño desde el punto de vista de la topología y/o desde el punto de vista de la teoría de la medida, tiene importantes efectos en el desarrollo de los regímenes económicos. Es el responsable de los cambios abruptos en los estados de equilibrio y de la multiplicidad de tales estados. Permite además establecer a partir de los tipos de singularidades posibles, una partición del conjunto de economías según tenga lugar uno u otro tipo de singularidad cuya presencia o no, caracteriza el comportamiento posible de la economía en cuestión.

  17. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick, E-mail: sebastian.bramberger@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: thomas.hertog@kuleuven.be, E-mail: jlehners@aei.mpg.de, E-mail: yannick.vreys@kuleuven.be [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  18. Coulomb branches with complex singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyres, Philip C.; Martone, Mario

    2018-06-01

    We construct 4d superconformal field theories (SCFTs) whose Coulomb branches have singular complex structures. This implies, in particular, that their Coulomb branch coordinate rings are not freely generated. Our construction also gives examples of distinct SCFTs which have identical moduli space (Coulomb, Higgs, and mixed branch) geometries. These SCFTs thus provide an interesting arena in which to test the relationship between moduli space geometries and conformal field theory data. We construct these SCFTs by gauging certain discrete global symmetries of N = 4 superYang-Mills (sYM) theories. In the simplest cases, these discrete symmetries are outer automorphisms of the sYM gauge group, and so these theories have lagrangian descriptions as N = 4 sYM theories with disconnected gauge groups.

  19. Quantum transitions through cosmological singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick

    2017-01-01

    In a quantum theory of cosmology spacetime behaves classically only in limited patches of the configuration space on which the wave function of the universe is defined. Quantum transitions can connect classical evolution in different patches. Working in the saddle point approximation and in minisuperspace we compute quantum transitions connecting inflationary histories across a de Sitter like throat or a singularity. This supplies probabilities for how an inflating universe, when evolved backwards, transitions and branches into an ensemble of histories on the opposite side of a quantum bounce. Generalising our analysis to scalar potentials with negative regions we identify saddle points describing a quantum transition between a classically contracting, crunching ekpyrotic phase and an inflationary universe.

  20. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...

  1. Building Reproducible Science with Singularity Containers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Michael Bauer first began working with containers at GSI national lab in Darmstadt, Germany, in 2017 while taking a semester off of school at the University of Michigan. Michael met Greg Kurtzer, project lead of Singularity, during his time at GSI and he began contributing heavily to the Singularity project. At the start of summer 2017, Greg hired Michael to work at the ...

  2. Reasons for singularity in robot teleoperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhenke, Ilka; Fischer, Kerstin; Savarimuthu, Thiusius Rajeeth

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the causes for singularity of a robot arm in teleoperation for robot learning from demonstration are analyzed. Singularity is the alignment of robot joints, which prevents the configuration of the inverse kinematics. Inspired by users' own hypotheses, we investigated speed and dela...

  3. The Geometry of Black Hole Singularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Cristinel Stoica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results show that important singularities in General Relativity can be naturally described in terms of finite and invariant canonical geometric objects. Consequently, one can write field equations which are equivalent to Einstein's at nonsingular points but, in addition remain well-defined and smooth at singularities. The black hole singularities appear to be less undesirable than it was thought, especially after we remove the part of the singularity due to the coordinate system. Black hole singularities are then compatible with global hyperbolicity and do not make the evolution equations break down, when these are expressed in terms of the appropriate variables. The charged black holes turn out to have smooth potential and electromagnetic fields in the new atlas. Classical charged particles can be modeled, in General Relativity, as charged black hole solutions. Since black hole singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction, this should affect Feynman's path integrals. Therefore, it is expected that singularities induce dimensional reduction effects in Quantum Gravity. These dimensional reduction effects are very similar to those postulated in some approaches to make Quantum Gravity perturbatively renormalizable. This may provide a way to test indirectly the effects of singularities, otherwise inaccessible.

  4. Singularities in the nonisotropic Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.; Martiarena, M.L.; Zanette, D.

    1987-09-01

    We consider solutions of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation (NLBE) with anisotropic singular initial conditions, which give a simplified model for the penetration of a monochromatic beam on a rarified target. The NLBE is transformed into an integral equation which is solved iteratively and the evolution of the initial singularities is discussed. (author). 5 refs

  5. Cold atoms in singular potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, J. P.

    1998-09-01

    We studied both theoretically and experimentally the interaction between cold Li atoms from a magnetic-optical trap (MOT) and a charged or current-carrying wire. With this system, we were able to realize 1/r 2 and 1/r potentials in two dimensions and to observe the motion of cold atoms in both potentials. For an atom in an attractive 1/r 2 potential, there exist no stable trajectories, instead there is a characteristic class of trajectories for which atoms fall into the singularity. We were able to observe this falling of atoms into the center of the potential. Moreover, by probing the singular 1/r 2 potential with atomic clouds of varying size and temperature we extracted scaling properties of the atom-wire interaction. For very cold atoms, and very thin wires the motion of the atoms must be treated quantum mechanically. Here we predict that the absorption cross section for the 1/r 2 potential should exhibit quantum steps. These quantum steps are a manifestation of the quantum mechanical decomposition of plane waves into partial waves. For the second part of this work, we realized a two dimensional 1/r potential for cold atoms. If the potential is attractive, the atoms can be bound and follow Kepler-like orbits around the wire. The motion in the third dimension along the wire is free. We were able to exploit this property and constructed a novel cold atom guide, the 'Kepler guide'. We also demonstrated another type of atom guide (the 'side guide'), by combining the magnetic field of the wire with a homogeneous offset magnetic field. In this case, the atoms are held in a potential 'tube' on the side of the wire. The versatility, simplicity, and scaling properties of this guide make it an interesting technique. (author)

  6. An adaptive singular ES-FEM for mechanics problems with singular field of arbitrary order

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Xuan, H.; Liu, G. R.; Bordas, Stéphane; Natarajan, S.; Rabczuk, T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a singular edge-based smoothed finite element method (sES-FEM) for mechanics problems with singular stress fields of arbitrary order. The sES-FEM uses a basic mesh of three-noded linear triangular (T3) elements and a special layer of five-noded singular triangular elements (sT5) connected to the singular-point of the stress field. The sT5 element has an additional node on each of the two edges connected to the singular-point. It allows us to represent simple and efficient ...

  7. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  8. Biclustering via Sparse Singular Value Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Mihee

    2010-02-16

    Sparse singular value decomposition (SSVD) is proposed as a new exploratory analysis tool for biclustering or identifying interpretable row-column associations within high-dimensional data matrices. SSVD seeks a low-rank, checkerboard structured matrix approximation to data matrices. The desired checkerboard structure is achieved by forcing both the left- and right-singular vectors to be sparse, that is, having many zero entries. By interpreting singular vectors as regression coefficient vectors for certain linear regressions, sparsity-inducing regularization penalties are imposed to the least squares regression to produce sparse singular vectors. An efficient iterative algorithm is proposed for computing the sparse singular vectors, along with some discussion of penalty parameter selection. A lung cancer microarray dataset and a food nutrition dataset are used to illustrate SSVD as a biclustering method. SSVD is also compared with some existing biclustering methods using simulated datasets. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  9. One dimensional systems with singular perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J J; Gadella, M; Nieto, L M; Glasser, L M; Lara, L P

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some one dimensional quantum models with singular perturbations. Eventually, a mass discontinuity is added at the points that support the singular perturbations. The simplest model includes an attractive singular potential with a mass jump both located at the origin. We study the form of the only bound state. Another model exhibits a hard core at the origin plus one or more repulsive deltas with mass jumps at the points supporting these deltas. We study the location and the multiplicity of these resonances for the case of one or two deltas and settle the basis for a generalization. Finally, we consider the harmonic oscillator and the infinite square well plus a singular potential at the origin. We see how the energy of bound states is affected by the singular perturbation.

  10. Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Reznick, Jane; Peterson, Bethany L; Blass, Gregory; Omerbašić, Damir; Bennett, Nigel C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Zasada, Christin; Browe, Brigitte M; Hamann, Wiebke; Applegate, Daniel T; Radke, Michael H; Kosten, Tetiana; Lutermann, Heike; Gavaghan, Victoria; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bégay, Valérie; Amoroso, Vince G; Govind, Vidya; Minshall, Richard D; Smith, Ewan St J; Larson, John; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempa, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-04-21

    The African naked mole-rat's ( Heterocephalus glaber ) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Rapid micromotor-based naked-eye immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Berta Esteban-Fernández; Zhao, Mingjiao; Campuzano, Susana; Ricci, Francesco; Pingarrón, José M; Mascini, Marcello; Wang, Joseph

    2017-05-15

    A dynamic micromotor-based immunoassay, exemplified by cortisol detection, based on the use of tubular micromotors functionalized with a specific antibody is described. The use of antibody-functionalized micromotors offers huge acceleration of both direct and competitive cortisol immunoassays, along with greatly enhanced sensitivity of direct and competitive immunoassays. The dramatically improved speed and sensitivity reflect the greatly increased likelihood of antibody-cortisol contacts and fluid mixing associated with the dynamic movement of these microtube motors and corresponding bubble generation that lead to a highly efficient and rapid recognition process. Rapid naked-eye detection of cortisol in the sample is achieved in connection to use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tag and TMB/H 2 O 2 system. Key parameters of the competitive immunoassay (e.g., incubation time and reaction volume) were optimized. This fast visual micromotor-based sensing approach enables "on the move" specific detection of the target cortisol down to 0.1μgmL -1 in just 2min, using ultrasmall (50µL) sample volumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seeing Beyond the Naked Eye in a Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairall, A.

    2005-12-01

    I have a philosophy that the traditional naked-eye sky, as usually shown in planetariums, should only be an introductory step in portraying the Universe. Consequently, over the years I have produced 'inter alia' various versions of an enhanced Milky Way (the latest based on Axel Mellenger's panorama), the extragalactic sky and the radio sky for projection on planetarium domes. I also put together a three-dimensional planetarium show-the audience being equipped with ChromDepth(tm) spectacles- which stepped from the Solar System to the cosmic microwave background. The advent of digital technology now makes all this much easier. Currently, Labyrinth, a visualization program developed in-house, serves much the same function as the Hayden Planetarium's Partiview, but also permits rendering and fl y-throughs of large-scale structures. It allows viewers to explore local cosmography. Labyrinth can produce images that operate with the 3-D spectacles; we have also produced a version of Partiview that does the same.

  13. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.

  14. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource : facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alfoldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhaes, Joao Pedro

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. RESULTS: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, inc...

  15. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikuie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations are investigated.

  16. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  17. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany L Peterson

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6 and older (postnatal day 20 age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  18. The naked mole-rat response to oxidative stress: just deal with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-20

    The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity.

  19. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Park, Thomas J; Fall, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  20. Quantum cosmology and late-time singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenshchik, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The development of dark energy models has stimulated interest to cosmological singularities, which differ from the traditional Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. We review a broad class of phenomena connected with soft cosmological singularities in classical and quantum cosmology. We discuss the classification of singularities from the geometrical point of view and from the point of view of the behavior of finite size objects, crossing such singularities. We discuss in some detail quantum and classical cosmology of models based on perfect fluids (anti-Chaplygin gas and anti-Chaplygin gas plus dust), of models based on the Born–Infeld-type fields and of the model of a scalar field with a potential inversely proportional to the field itself. We dwell also on the phenomenon of the phantom divide line crossing in the scalar field models with cusped potentials. Then we discuss the Friedmann equations modified by quantum corrections to the effective action of the models under considerations and the influence of such modification on the nature and the existence of soft singularities. We review also quantum cosmology of models, where the initial quantum state of the universe is presented by the density matrix (mixed state). Finally, we discuss the exotic singularities arising in the braneworld cosmological models. (topical review)

  1. Initial singularity and pure geometric field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.; Kamal, Mona M.; Dabash, Tahia F.

    2018-01-01

    In the present article we use a modified version of the geodesic equation, together with a modified version of the Raychaudhuri equation, to study initial singularities. These modified equations are used to account for the effect of the spin-torsion interaction on the existence of initial singularities in cosmological models. Such models are the results of solutions of the field equations of a class of field theories termed pure geometric. The geometric structure used in this study is an absolute parallelism structure satisfying the cosmological principle. It is shown that the existence of initial singularities is subject to some mathematical (geometric) conditions. The scheme suggested for this study can be easily generalized.

  2. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...... solely on an orthogonal polynomial basis is adequate, provided the Gauss-Lobatto or Gauss-Radau quadrature rule is used. This ensures that the mesh contains the singular points and by simply discarding the DVR functions corresponding to those points, all matrix elements become well behaved. the boundary...

  3. Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyc, Tomas [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz

    2008-11-15

    We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another, weaker type of singularity where the permittivity and permeability tensors are discontinuous at one point. The method is likely to find applications in designing and improving optical devices by making them easier to implement or to operate in a broad band of the spectrum.

  4. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco; Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Sá nchez-Morgado, Hé ctor

    2016-01-01

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  5. Singular mean-filed games

    KAUST Repository

    Cirant, Marco

    2016-11-22

    Here, we prove the existence of smooth solutions for mean-field games with a singular mean-field coupling; that is, a coupling in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the form $g(m)=-m^{-\\\\alpha}$. We consider stationary and time-dependent settings. The function $g$ is monotone, but it is not bounded from below. With the exception of the logarithmic coupling, this is the first time that MFGs whose coupling is not bounded from below is examined in the literature. This coupling arises in models where agents have a strong preference for low-density regions. Paradoxically, this causes the agents to spread and prevents the creation of solutions with a very-low density. To prove the existence of solutions, we consider an approximate problem for which the existence of smooth solutions is known. Then, we prove new a priori bounds for the solutions that show that $\\\\frac 1 m$ is bounded. Finally, using a limiting argument, we obtain the existence of solutions. The proof in the stationary case relies on a blow-up argument and in the time-dependent case on new bounds for $m^{-1}$.

  6. Naked Hair Shafts as a Marker of Cicatricial Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doytcheva, Kristina; Tan, Timothy; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram; Yazdan, Pedram

    2018-07-01

    Naked hair shafts (NHS) are free-floating hair shafts devoid of surrounding epithelium, supporting structures, and/or embedded in inflammation that may result from destruction of hair follicles by scarring processes such as inflammation and fibroplasia. Extensive examination of NHS has not been performed in scalp biopsies of alopecia. We retrospectively evaluated 622 scalp biopsies of alopecia [345 cicatricial alopecias (central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus, acne keloidalis nuchae, and folliculitis decalvans] and 277 non-cicatricial alopecias [alopecia areata, androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and psoriatic alopecia)] for the presence of NHS. NHS occurred in 0.72% (2/277) of non-cicatricial alopecias (1/102 of alopecia areata, 1/150 of androgenic alopecia, 0/17 of telogen effluvium, and 0/8 of psoriatic alopecia) and 20% (72/345) of cicatricial alopecias (27/118 of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, 29/109 of lichen planopilaris, 2/75 of discoid lupus erythematosus, 11/16 of acne keloidalis nuchae, and 3/27 of folliculitis decalvans). The presence of NHS was significantly increased in cicatricial alopecias in comparison with non-cicatricial alopecias; P value <0.0001. Among the cicatricial alopecias, 26% (92/345) had mild inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 9% (9/92) had NHS. There were 73% (253/345) that had moderate to severe inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 24% (63/253) had NHS, indicating that as the severity of inflammation and fibrosis increases, so does the presence of NHS. NHS rarely occurs in non-cicatricial alopecias. This variation may result from destruction of hair follicles by the inflammatory and scarring processes. The presence of NHS may be a useful adjunctive histopathologic feature in the diagnosis of cicatricial alopecia.

  7. Singularities in cosmologies with interacting fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsakis, Spiros; Kittou, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics near finite-time singularities of flat isotropic universes filled with two interacting but otherwise arbitrary perfect fluids. The overall dynamical picture reveals a variety of asymptotic solutions valid locally around the spacetime singularity. We find the attractor of all solutions with standard decay, and for ‘phantom’ matter asymptotically at early times. We give a number of special asymptotic solutions describing universes collapsing to zero size and others ending at a big rip singularity. We also find a very complicated singularity corresponding to a logarithmic branch point that resembles a cyclic universe, and give an asymptotic local series representation of the general solution in the neighborhood of infinity.

  8. Singularities: the state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.J.S.; Schmidt, B.G.

    1977-01-01

    A brief, but precise and unified account is given of the results that have been rigorously established at the time of writing concerning the existence and nature of singularities in classical relativity. (author)

  9. Technological Singularity: What Do We Really Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Potapov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the technological singularity is frequently reified. Futurist forecasts inferred from this imprecise reification are then criticized, and the reified ideas are incorporated in the core concept. In this paper, I try to disentangle the facts related to the technological singularity from more speculative beliefs about the possibility of creating artificial general intelligence. I use the theory of metasystem transitions and the concept of universal evolution to analyze some misconceptions about the technological singularity. While it may be neither purely technological, nor truly singular, we can predict that the next transition will take place, and that the emerged metasystem will demonstrate exponential growth in complexity with a doubling time of less than half a year, exceeding the complexity of the existing cybernetic systems in few decades.

  10. Algunas aclaraciones acerca del conocimiento del singular.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Llano Cifuentes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Llano tries to explain the main purpose of El Conocimiento del Singular, showing how the individuals about which the book is concerned are basically human individuals: people as decision makers.

  11. Asymptotic safety, singularities, and gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Mirza, Behrouz

    2011-01-01

    Asymptotic safety (an ultraviolet fixed point with finite-dimensional critical surface) offers the possibility that a predictive theory of quantum gravity can be obtained from the quantization of classical general relativity. However, it is unclear what becomes of the singularities of classical general relativity, which, it is hoped, might be resolved by quantum effects. We study dust collapse with a running gravitational coupling and find that a future singularity can be avoided if the coupling becomes exactly zero at some finite energy scale. The singularity can also be avoided (pushed off to infinite proper time) if the coupling approaches zero sufficiently rapidly at high energies. However, the evolution deduced from perturbation theory still implies a singularity at finite proper time.

  12. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  13. On Borel singularities in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadha, S.; Olesen, P.

    1977-10-01

    The authors consider the effective one-loop Lagrangian in a constant electric field. It is shown that perturbation theory behaves as n factorial giving rise to singularities in the Borel plane. Comparing with the known exact result it is shown how to integrate these singularities. It is suggested that renormalons in QED and QCD should be integrated in a similar way. A speculation is made on a possible interpretation of this integration. (Auth.)

  14. Singularity theorems from weakened energy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fewster, Christopher J; Galloway, Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    We establish analogues of the Hawking and Penrose singularity theorems based on (a) averaged energy conditions with exponential damping; (b) conditions on local stress-energy averages inspired by the quantum energy inequalities satisfied by a number of quantum field theories. As particular applications, we establish singularity theorems for the Einstein equations coupled to a classical scalar field, which violates the strong energy condition, and the nonminimally coupled scalar field, which also violates the null energy condition.

  15. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose [Aix Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon CNRS, CPT, Marseille (France); Lazkoz, Ruth [Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Bilbao (Spain); Saez-Gomez, Diego [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Salzano, Vincenzo [University of Szczecin, Institute of Physics, Szczecin (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  16. Observational constraints on cosmological future singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Lazkoz, Ruth; Saez-Gomez, Diego; Salzano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider a family of cosmological models featuring future singularities. This type of cosmological evolution is typical of dark energy models with an equation of state violating some of the standard energy conditions (e.g. the null energy condition). Such a kind of behavior, widely studied in the literature, may arise in cosmologies with phantom fields, theories of modified gravity or models with interacting dark matter/dark energy. We briefly review the physical consequences of these cosmological evolution regarding geodesic completeness and the divergence of tidal forces in order to emphasize under which circumstances the singularities in some cosmological quantities correspond to actual singular spacetimes. We then introduce several phenomenological parameterizations of the Hubble expansion rate to model different singularities existing in the literature and use SN Ia, BAO and H(z) data to constrain how far in the future the singularity needs to be (under some reasonable assumptions on the behavior of the Hubble factor). We show that, for our family of parameterizations, the lower bound for the singularity time cannot be smaller than about 1.2 times the age of the universe, what roughly speaking means ∝2.8 Gyrs from the present time. (orig.)

  17. Constructing Current Singularity in a 3D Line-tied Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao; Huang, Yi-Min; Qin, Hong; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-01-01

    We revisit Parker’s conjecture of current singularity formation in 3D line-tied plasmas using a recently developed numerical method, variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling. With the frozen-in equation built-in, the method is free of artificial reconnection, and hence it is arguably an optimal tool for studying current singularity formation. Using this method, the formation of current singularity has previously been confirmed in the Hahm–Kulsrud–Taylor problem in 2D. In this paper, we extend this problem to 3D line-tied geometry. The linear solution, which is singular in 2D, is found to be smooth for arbitrary system length. However, with finite amplitude, the linear solution can become pathological when the system is sufficiently long. The nonlinear solutions turn out to be smooth for short systems. Nonetheless, the scaling of peak current density versus system length suggests that the nonlinear solution may become singular at finite length. With the results in hand, we can neither confirm nor rule out this possibility conclusively, since we cannot obtain solutions with system length near the extrapolated critical value.

  18. Obstruction of black hole singularity by quantum field theory effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedi, Jahed; Arfaei, Hessamaddin [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology,P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran, Irany (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM),P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-21

    We consider the back reaction of the energy due to quantum fluctuation of the background fields considering the trace anomaly for Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that it will result in modification of the horizon and also formation of an inner horizon. We show that the process of collapse of a thin shell stops before formation of the singularity at a radius slightly smaller than the inner horizon at the order of (c{sub A}(M/(M{sub p}))){sup 1/3}l{sub p}. After the collapse stops the reverse process takes place. Thus we demonstrate that without turning on quantum gravity and just through the effects the coupling of field to gravity as trace anomaly of quantum fluctuations the formation of the singularity through collapse is obstructed. An important consequence of our work is existence of an extremal solution with zero temperature and a mass which is lower bound for the Schwazschild solution. This solution is also the asymptotic final stable state after Hawking radiation.

  19. Naked-eye 3D imaging employing a modified MIMO micro-ring conjugate mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youplao, P.; Pornsuwancharoen, N.; Amiri, I. S.; Thieu, V. N.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the use of a micro-conjugate mirror that can produce the 3D image incident probe and display is proposed. By using the proposed system together with the concept of naked-eye 3D imaging, a pixel and a large volume pixel of a 3D image can be created and displayed as naked-eye perception, which is valuable for the large volume naked-eye 3D imaging applications. In operation, a naked-eye 3D image that has a large pixel volume will be constructed by using the MIMO micro-ring conjugate mirror system. Thereafter, these 3D images, formed by the first micro-ring conjugate mirror system, can be transmitted through an optical link to a short distance away and reconstructed via the recovery conjugate mirror at the other end of the transmission. The image transmission is performed by the Fourier integral in MATLAB and compares to the Opti-wave program results. The Fourier convolution is also included for the large volume image transmission. The simulation is used for the manipulation, where the array of a micro-conjugate mirror system is designed and simulated for the MIMO system. The naked-eye 3D imaging is confirmed by the concept of the conjugate mirror in both the input and output images, in terms of the four-wave mixing (FWM), which is discussed and interpreted.

  20. Cosmologies with quasiregular singularities. II. Stability considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkowski, D.A.; Helliwell, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    The stability properties of a class of spacetimes with quasiregular singularities is discussed. Quasiregular singularities are the end points of incomplete, inextendible geodesics at which the Riemann tensor and its derivatives remain at least bounded in all parallel-propagated orthonormal (PPON) frames; observers approaching such a singularity would find that their world lines come to an end in a finite proper time. The Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino)-type cosmologies investigated are R 1 x T 3 and R 3 x S 1 flat Kasner spacetimes, the two-parameter family of spatially homogeneous but anisotropic Bianchi type-IX Taub-NUT spacetimes, and an infinite-dimensional family of Einstein-Rosen-Gowdy spacetimes studied by Moncrief. The behavior of matter near the quasiregular singularity in each of these spacetimes is explored through an examination of the behavior of the stress-energy tensors and scalars for conformally coupled and minimally coupled, massive and massless scalar waves as observed in both coordinate and PPON frames. A conjecture is postulated concerning the stability of the nature of the singularity in these spacetimes. The conjecture for a Taub-NUT-type background spacetime is that if a test-field stress-energy tensor evaluated in a PPON frame mimics the behavior of the Riemann tensor components which indicate a particular type of singularity (quasiregular, nonscalar curvature, or scalar curvature), then a complete nonlinear backreaction calculation, in which the fields are allowed to influence the geometry, would show that this type of singularity actually occurs. Evidence supporting the conjecture is presented for spacetimes whose symmetries are unchanged when fields with the same symmetries are added

  1. The molecular basis of acid insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Omerbašić, Damir; Lechner, Stefan G; Anirudhan, Gireesh; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Lewin, Gary R

    2011-12-16

    Acid evokes pain by exciting nociceptors; the acid sensors are proton-gated ion channels that depolarize neurons. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is exceptional in its acid insensitivity, but acid sensors (acid-sensing ion channels and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel) in naked mole-rat nociceptors are similar to those in other vertebrates. Acid inhibition of voltage-gated sodium currents is more profound in naked mole-rat nociceptors than in mouse nociceptors, however, which effectively prevents acid-induced action potential initiation. We describe a species-specific variant of the nociceptor sodium channel Na(V)1.7, which is potently blocked by protons and can account for acid insensitivity in this species. Thus, evolutionary pressure has selected for an Na(V)1.7 gene variant that tips the balance from proton-induced excitation to inhibition of action potential initiation to abolish acid nociception.

  2. Current singularities at finitely compressible three-dimensional magnetic null points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontin, D.I.; Craig, I.J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of current singularities at line-tied two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D, respectively) magnetic null points in a nonresistive magnetohydrodynamic environment is explored. It is shown that, despite the different separatrix structures of 2D and 3D null points, current singularities may be initiated in a formally equivalent manner. This is true no matter whether the collapse is triggered by flux imbalance within closed, line-tied null points or driven by externally imposed velocity fields in open, incompressible geometries. A Lagrangian numerical code is used to investigate the finite amplitude perturbations that lead to singular current sheets in collapsing 2D and 3D null points. The form of the singular current distribution is analyzed as a function of the spatial anisotropy of the null point, and the effects of finite gas pressure are quantified. It is pointed out that the pressure force, while never stopping the formation of the singularity, significantly alters the morphology of the current distribution as well as dramatically weakening its strength. The impact of these findings on 2D and 3D magnetic reconnection models is discussed

  3. Generalized teleparallel cosmology and initial singularity crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; Nashed, Gamal, E-mail: Adel.Awad@bue.edu.eg, E-mail: gglnashed@sci.asu.edu.eg [Center for Theoretical Physics, the British University in Egypt, Suez Desert Road, Sherouk City 11837 (Egypt)

    2017-02-01

    We present a class of cosmological solutions for a generalized teleparallel gravity with f ( T )= T +α̃ (− T ) {sup n} , where α̃ is some parameter and n is an integer or half-integer. Choosing α̃ ∼ G {sup n} {sup −1}, where G is the gravitational constant, and working with an equation of state p = w ρ, one obtains a cosmological solution with multiple branches. The dynamics of the solution describes standard cosmology at late times, but the higher-torsion correction changes the nature of the initial singularity from big bang to a sudden singularity. The milder behavior of the sudden singularity enables us to extend timelike or lightlike curves, through joining two disconnected branches of solution at the singularity, leaving the singularity traversable. We show that this extension is consistent with the field equations through checking the known junction conditions for generalized teleparallel gravity. This suggests that these solutions describe a contracting phase a prior to the expanding phase of the universe.

  4. Stress Resistance in the Naked Mole-Rat: The Bare Essentials – A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ∼8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. Objectives We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Results Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD50 values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Conclusion Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and

  5. Stress resistance in the naked mole-rat: the bare essentials - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ~8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD(50) values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and progression of physiological declines

  6. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashenok, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats - ICREA and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurov, Artyom V. [Baltic Federal University of I. Kant, Department of Theoretical Physics, 236041, 14, Nevsky st., Kaliningrad (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-23

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time ('phantom energy' without 'Big Rip' singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time ('cosmological constant' with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  7. Radioanatomy of the singular nerve canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muren, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Sabbatsbergs Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Wadin, K. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Dimopoulos, P. [University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1991-08-01

    The singular canal conveys vestibular nerve fibers from the ampulla of the posterior semicircular canal to the posteroinferior border of the internal auditory meatus. Radiographic identification of this anatomic structure helps to distinguish it from a fracture. It is also a landmark in certain surgical procedures. Computed tomography (CT) examinations of deep-frozen temporal bone specimens were compared with subsequently prepared plastic casts of these bones, showing good correlation between the anatomy and the images. The singular canal and its variable anatomy were studied in CT examinations of 107 patients. The singular canal could be identified, in both the axial and in the coronal planes. Its point of entry into the internal auditory meatus varied considerably. (orig.)

  8. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  9. Phantom cosmology without Big Rip singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Yurov, Artyom V.

    2012-01-01

    We construct phantom energy models with the equation of state parameter w which is less than -1, w<-1, but finite-time future singularity does not occur. Such models can be divided into two classes: (i) energy density increases with time (“phantom energy” without “Big Rip” singularity) and (ii) energy density tends to constant value with time (“cosmological constant” with asymptotically de Sitter evolution). The disintegration of bound structure is confirmed in Little Rip cosmology. Surprisingly, we find that such disintegration (on example of Sun-Earth system) may occur even in asymptotically de Sitter phantom universe consistent with observational data. We also demonstrate that non-singular phantom models admit wormhole solutions as well as possibility of Big Trip via wormholes.

  10. Global embeddings for branes at toric singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; Braun, Volker; García-Etxebarria, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    We describe how local toric singularities, including the Toric Lego construction, can be embedded in compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. We study in detail the addition of D-branes, including non-compact flavor branes as typically used in semi-realistic model building. The global geometry provides constraints on allowable local models. As an illustration of our discussion we focus on D3 and D7-branes on (the partially resolved) (dP0)^3 singularity, its embedding in a specific Calabi-Yau manifold as a hypersurface in a toric variety, the related type IIB orientifold compactification, as well as the corresponding F-theory uplift. Our techniques generalize naturally to complete intersections, and to a large class of F-theory backgrounds with singularities.

  11. Holographic subregion complexity for singular surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshaei, Elaheh [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollabashi, Ali [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirzad, Ahmad [Isfahan University of Technology, Department of Physics, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Recently holographic prescriptions were proposed to compute the quantum complexity of a given state in the boundary theory. A specific proposal known as 'holographic subregion complexity' is supposed to calculate the complexity of a reduced density matrix corresponding to a static subregion. We study different families of singular subregions in the dual field theory and find the divergence structure and universal terms of holographic subregion complexity for these singular surfaces. We find that there are new universal terms, logarithmic in the UV cut-off, due to the singularities of a family of surfaces including a kink in (2 + 1) dimensions and cones in even dimensional field theories. We also find examples of new divergent terms such as squared logarithm and negative powers times the logarithm of the UV cut-off parameter. (orig.)

  12. Singularity hypotheses a scientific and philosophical assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Moor, James; Søraker, Johnny; Steinhart, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment offers authoritative, jargon-free essays and critical commentaries on accelerating technological progress and the notion of technological singularity. It focuses on conjectures about the intelligence explosion, transhumanism, and whole brain emulation. Recent years have seen a plethora of forecasts about the profound, disruptive impact that is likely to result from further progress in these areas. Many commentators however doubt the scientific rigor of these forecasts, rejecting them as speculative and unfounded. We therefore invited prominent computer scientists, physicists, philosophers, biologists, economists and other thinkers to assess the singularity hypotheses. Their contributions go beyond speculation, providing deep insights into the main issues and a balanced picture of the debate.

  13. Singularities in four-body final-state amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S.K.

    1978-01-01

    Like three-body amplitudes, four-body amplitudes have subenergy threshold singularities over and above total-energy singularities. In the four-body problem we encounter a new type of subenergy singularity besides the usual two- and three-body subenergy threshold singularities. This singularity will be referred to as ''independent-pair threshold singularity'' and involves pair-subenergy threshold singularities in each of the two independent pair subenergies in four-body final states. We also study the particularly interesting case of resonant two- and three-body interactions in the four-body isobar model and the rapid (singular) dependence of the isobar amplitudes they generate in the four-body phase space. All these singularities are analyzed in the multiple-scattering formalism and it is shown that they arise from the ''next-to-last'' rescattering and hence may be represented correctly by an approximate amplitude which has that rescattering

  14. Coexistence of Two Singularities in Dewetting Flows: Regularizing the Corner Tip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, I.R.; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus; Daerr, Adrian; Limat, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Entrainment in wetting and dewetting flows often occurs through the formation of a corner with a very sharp tip. This corner singularity comes on top of the divergence of viscous stress near the contact line, which is only regularized at molecular scales. We investigate the fine structure of corners

  15. Endpoint singularities in unintegrated parton distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Hautmann, F

    2007-01-01

    We examine the singular behavior from the endpoint region x -> 1 in parton distributions unintegrated in both longitudinal and transverse momenta. We identify and regularize the singularities by using the subtraction method, and compare this with the cut-off regularization method. The counterterms for the distributions with subtractive regularization are given in coordinate space by compact all-order expressions in terms of eikonal-line operators. We carry out an explicit calculation at one loop for the unintegrated quark distribution. We discuss the relation of the unintegrated parton distributions in subtractive regularization with the ordinary parton distributions.

  16. Characteristic classes, singular embeddings, and intersection homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1987-06-01

    This note announces some results on the relationship between global invariants and local topological structure. The first section gives a local-global formula for Pontrjagin classes or L-classes. The second section describes a corresponding decomposition theorem on the level of complexes of sheaves. A final section mentions some related aspects of "singular knot theory" and the study of nonisolated singularities. Analogous equivariant analogues, with local-global formulas for Atiyah-Singer classes and their relations to G-signatures, will be presented in a future paper.

  17. Intrathecal injection of naked plasmid DNA provides long-term expression of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Travis S; Langer, Stephen J; Johnson, Kirk W; Chavez, Raymond A; Watkins, Linda R; Milligan, Erin D; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic benefit has been reported to result from intrathecal (i.t.) injection of transgene vectors, including naked DNA. However, most studies using naked DNA have measured only the transgene expression of intracellular proteins. Here we demonstrate that i.t. injection of naked DNA can result in long-term expression of secreted proteins. Plasmids expressing either secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) or human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) were injected into the i.t. space in rats, and transgene products were repeatedly measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both SEAP and hIL-10 were maximal at 1 and 2 days after the injection and still detectable at 4 months. The utilization of a plasmid having two features that are hypothesized to increase gene expression (matrix attachment regions (MARs) and lack of CpG dinucleotides) resulted in a significant increase in gene expression. Reinjection of SEAP or hIL-10 plasmids after 4 months significantly increased protein levels at 1 and 14 days after the reinjection. SEAP was uniformly distributed between the DNA delivery site (approximately vertebral level T13) and the lumbar puncture site (L5/L6 inter-vertebral space), was reduced at the cisterna magna, and was detectable, though at much lower levels, in serum. These data suggest that naked DNA has the potential to be used as a therapeutic tool for applications that require long-term release of transgenes into the CSF.

  18. Virtually naked: virtual environment reveals sex-dependent nature of skin disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Lomanowska

    Full Text Available The human tendency to reveal or cover naked skin reflects a competition between the individual propensity for social interactions related to sexual appeal and interpersonal touch versus climatic, environmental, physical, and cultural constraints. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of these constraints, isolating on a large scale the spontaneous human tendency to reveal naked skin has remained impossible. Using the online 3-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, we examined spontaneous human skin-covering behavior unhindered by real-world climatic, environmental, and physical variables. Analysis of hundreds of avatars revealed that virtual females disclose substantially more naked skin than virtual males. This phenomenon was not related to avatar hypersexualization as evaluated by measurement of sexually dimorphic body proportions. Furthermore, analysis of skin-covering behavior of a population of culturally homogeneous avatars indicated that the propensity of female avatars to reveal naked skin persisted despite explicit cultural norms promoting less revealing attire. These findings have implications for further understanding how sex-specific aspects of skin disclosure influence human social interactions in both virtual and real settings.

  19. Central visual system of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crish, Samuel D; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-02-01

    Naked mole-rats are fossorial rodents native to eastern Africa that spend their lives in extensive subterranean burrows where visual cues are poor. Not surprisingly, they have a degenerated eye and optic nerve, suggesting they have poor visual abilities. However, little is known about their central visual system. To investigate the organization of their central visual system, we injected a neuronal tracer into the eyes of naked mole-rats and mice to compare the neural structures mediating vision. We found that the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus were severely atrophied in the naked mole-rat. The olivary pretectal nucleus was reduced but still retained its characteristic morphology, possibly indicating a role in light detection. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well innervated and resembles the same structure in other rodents. The naked mole-rat appears to have selectively lost structures that mediate form vision while retaining structures needed for minimal entrainment of circadian rhythms. Similar results have been reported for other mole-rat species. Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms.

  20. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

  1. case of natural queen succession in a captive colony of naked mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naked mole-rats occur in large colonies where usually a single queen monopolizes reproduction. Queen succession occurs from within usually as a result of aggressive encounters with subordinate females that queue for reproductive succession following colony instability, which inevitably results in death of either the ...

  2. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Macrae (Sheila L.); Q. Zhang (Quanwei); C. Lemetre (Christophe); I. Seim (Inge); R.B. Calder (Robert B.); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin); V.N. Gladyshev (Vadim N.); A. Seluanov (Andrei); V. Gorbunova (Vera); J. Vijg (Jan); Z.D. Zhang (Zhengdong D.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM

  3. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Park, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%), and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%), naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2).

  4. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Colleen LaVinka

    Full Text Available Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%, and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%, naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2.

  5. Oviposition and egg quality traits of dwarf and naked neck layers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oviposition and egg quality traits were studied in dwarf and naked neck layers in Maputo (Mozambique) during a 28-d period at 35 weeks of age. Birds were caged individually in a laying house with natural light and ventilation. Average daylight length during the study was 11.2 hr and minimum and maximum temperature ...

  6. effects of naked-neck and frizzle genes on growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    cockerels (birds) do not reach their full genetic potential in terms of growth, body weight or carcass yields because their feathers hinder the dissipation of their excessively produced inter- nal heat. It is against this background that the use of major heat-tolerant genes like naked- neck and frizzle is advocated (Horst and.

  7. Singular Linear Differential Equations in Two Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, B.L.J.; Put, M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The formal and analytic classification of integrable singular linear differential equations has been studied among others by R. Gerard and Y. Sibuya. We provide a simple proof of their main result, namely: For certain irregular systems in two variables there is no Stokes phenomenon, i.e. there is no

  8. Singular continuous spectrum for palindromic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, A.; Knill, O.; Simon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We give new examples of discrete Schroedinger operators with potentials taking finitely many values that have purely singular continuous spectrum. If the hull X of the potential is strictly ergodic, then the existence of just one potential x in X for which the operator has no eigenvalues implies that there is a generic set in X for which the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum. A sufficient condition for the existence of such an x is that there is a z element of X that contains arbitrarily long palindromes. Thus we can define a large class of primitive substitutions for which the operators are purely singularly continuous for a generic subset in X. The class includes well-known substitutions like Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, Period Doubling, binary non-Pisot and ternary non-Pisot. We also show that the operator has no absolutely continuous spectrum for all x element of X if X derives from a primitive substitution. For potentials defined by circle maps, x n =l J (θ 0 +nα), we show that the operator has purely singular continuous spectrum for a generic subset in X for all irrational α and every half-open interval J. (orig.)

  9. 'Footballs', conical singularities, and the Liouville equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the football shaped extra dimensions scenario to an arbitrary number of branes. The problem is related to the solution of the Liouville equation with singularities, and explicit solutions are presented for the case of three branes. The tensions of the branes do not need to be tuned with each other but only satisfy mild global constraints

  10. Mobile communications technology: The singular factor responsible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated the factors responsible for the growth of Internet usage on the African continent. The principal finding was that increasing growth of Internet usage is also down to one singular factor: mobile communications technology. The proliferation of mobile phone usage in Africa has resulted in the sustained ...

  11. Diamagnetism of quantum gases with singular potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briet, Philippe; Cornean, Horia; Savoie, Baptiste

    2010-01-01

    We consider a gas of quasi-free quantum particles confined to a finite box, subjected to singular magnetic and electric fields. We prove in great generality that the finite volume grand-canonical pressure is analytic with respect to the chemical potential and the intensity of the external magnetic...

  12. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics under point singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Takashi; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2003-01-01

    We provide a systematic study on the possibility of supersymmetry (SUSY) for one-dimensional quantum mechanical systems consisting of a pair of lines R or intervals [-l, l] each having a point singularity. We consider the most general singularities and walls (boundaries) at x = ±l admitted quantum mechanically, using a U(2) family of parameters to specify one singularity and similarly a U(1) family of parameters to specify one wall. With these parameter freedoms, we find that for a certain subfamily the line systems acquire an N = 1 SUSY which can be enhanced to N = 4 if the parameters are further tuned, and that these SUSY are generically broken except for a special case. The interval systems, on the other hand, can accommodate N = 2 or N = 4 SUSY, broken or unbroken, and exhibit a rich variety of (degenerate) spectra. Our SUSY systems include the familiar SUSY systems with the Dirac δ(x)-potential, and hence are extensions of the known SUSY quantum mechanics to those with general point singularities and walls. The self-adjointness of the supercharge in relation to the self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian is also discussed

  13. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2007 physics pp. 31–47. A singularity theorem based on spatial ... In this paper I would like to present a result which confirms – at least partially – ... A detailed analysis of how the model fits in with the .... Further, the statement that the spatial average ...... Financial support under grants FIS2004-01626 and no.

  14. Symmetries and singularities in Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains several results concerning the role of symmetries and singularities in the mathematical formulation of many physical systems. We concentrate in systems which find their mathematical model on a symplectic or Poisson manifold and we present old and new results from a global perspective.

  15. Singular interactions supported by embedded curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, Burak Tevfik; Turgut, O Teoman

    2012-01-01

    In this work, singular interactions supported by embedded curves on Riemannian manifolds are discussed from a more direct and physical perspective, via the heat kernel approach. We show that the renormalized problem is well defined, the ground state is finite and the corresponding wavefunction is positive. The renormalization group invariance of the model is also discussed. (paper)

  16. Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature

  17. Classical resolution of singularities in dilaton cosmologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, EA; Collinucci, A; Roest, D; Russo, JG; Townsend, PK

    2005-01-01

    For models of dilaton gravity with a possible exponential potential, such as the tensor-scalar sector of ITA supergravity, we show how cosmological solutions correspond to trajectories in a 2D Milne space (parametrized by the dilaton and the scale factor). Cosmological singularities correspond to

  18. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative–nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov–Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov–Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov–Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative–nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results. (paper)

  19. Normal forms of Hopf-zero singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazor, Majid; Mokhtari, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    The Lie algebra generated by Hopf-zero classical normal forms is decomposed into two versal Lie subalgebras. Some dynamical properties for each subalgebra are described; one is the set of all volume-preserving conservative systems while the other is the maximal Lie algebra of nonconservative systems. This introduces a unique conservative-nonconservative decomposition for the normal form systems. There exists a Lie-subalgebra that is Lie-isomorphic to a large family of vector fields with Bogdanov-Takens singularity. This gives rise to a conclusion that the local dynamics of formal Hopf-zero singularities is well-understood by the study of Bogdanov-Takens singularities. Despite this, the normal form computations of Bogdanov-Takens and Hopf-zero singularities are independent. Thus, by assuming a quadratic nonzero condition, complete results on the simplest Hopf-zero normal forms are obtained in terms of the conservative-nonconservative decomposition. Some practical formulas are derived and the results implemented using Maple. The method has been applied on the Rössler and Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equations to demonstrate the applicability of our results.

  20. A Systolic Architecture for Singular Value Decomposition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Presented at the 1 st International Colloquium on Vector and Parallel Computing in Scientific Applications, Paris, March 191J Contract N00014-82-K.0703...Gene Golub. Private comunication . given inputs x and n 2 , compute 2 2 2 2 /6/ G. H. Golub and F. T. Luk : "Singular Value I + X1 Decomposition

  1. Sporadic simple groups and quotient singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheltsov, I A; Shramov, C A

    2013-01-01

    We show that if a faithful irreducible representation of a central extension of a sporadic simple group with centre contained in the commutator subgroup gives rise to an exceptional (resp. weakly exceptional but not exceptional) quotient singularity, then that simple group is the Hall-Janko group (resp. the Suzuki group)

  2. Singularity is the Future of ICT Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... innovation if the black race are not to be left one hundred years ... aspects of innovation in mechatronics design philosophy which illustrate the benefits obtainable by an a priori ..... An overview of models of technological singularity ... the Singularity—representing a profound and disruptive transformation in.

  3. The role of self-similarity in singularities of partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, Jens; Fontelos, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    We survey rigorous, formal and numerical results on the formation of point-like singularities (or blow-up) for a wide range of evolution equations. We use a similarity transformation of the original equation with respect to the blow-up point, such that self-similar behaviour is mapped to the fixed point of a dynamical system. We point out that analysing the dynamics close to the fixed point is a useful way of characterizing the singularity, in that the dynamics frequently reduces to very few dimensions. As far as we are aware, examples from the literature either correspond to stable fixed points, low-dimensional centre-manifold dynamics, limit cycles or travelling waves. For each 'class' of singularity, we give detailed examples. (invited article)

  4. Formation of Singularities for a Conservation Law with Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    respectively. Intetchanging the order of integration in the double integrals in (4.4) yields -10- I.I.... ..... , t su8 (0 + 011(011 ft JI) + SCOW)d + 64...molten polymers , meology 2 ory and pp lioatioona, 5 (1969), 57-92. Ovwi..’ " Is UsmIUTY CLANKFCATWN @’ TunS PA.. 010f bo~W _____________ WORT 0OOIM ATMO

  5. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Lin; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Shu; Shih, Chiaho

    2015-01-01

    The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV), we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1–147) containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD) failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1–147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex. PMID

  6. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fan Chou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV, we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1-147 containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1-147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex.

  7. Distribution of vasopressin in the brain of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2007-02-20

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies in which one queen breeds with one to three males. All other animals are nonbreeding subordinates. The external features of male and female subordinates, including their genitalia, are remarkably monomorphic, as is their behavior. Because vasopressin (VP) is associated with social behaviors and sex differences in other species, its distribution in naked mole-rats was of interest. We used immunohistochemistry to examine VP in the brains of subordinate and breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. As in other mammals, VP-immunoreactive (-ir) somata were found in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) and VP-ir projections from these nuclei ran through the internal and external zone of the median eminence. However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent. Equally unexpected was the abundance of large-caliber VP-ir fibers in the dorsomedial septum. VP immunoreactivity was generally similar in all groups, with the exception of VP-ir cell number in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Breeders had a population of labeled cells in the DMH that was absent, or nearly absent, in subordinates. Future studies on the function of VP in these areas are needed to determine how the atypical distribution of VP immunoreactivity relates to eusociality and the unusual physiology of naked mole-rats.

  8. Generalized Parton Distributions and their Singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2011-04-01

    A new approach to building models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is discussed that is based on the factorized DD (double distribution) Ansatz within the single-DD formalism. The latter was not used before, because reconstructing GPDs from the forward limit one should start in this case with a very singular function $f(\\beta)/\\beta$ rather than with the usual parton density $f(\\beta)$. This results in a non-integrable singularity at $\\beta=0$ exaggerated by the fact that $f(\\beta)$'s, on their own, have a singular $\\beta^{-a}$ Regge behavior for small $\\beta$. It is shown that the singularity is regulated within the GPD model of Szczepaniak et al., in which the Regge behavior is implanted through a subtracted dispersion relation for the hadron-parton scattering amplitude. It is demonstrated that using proper softening of the quark-hadron vertices in the regions of large parton virtualities results in model GPDs $H(x,\\xi)$ that are finite and continuous at the "border point'' $x=\\xi$. Using a simple input forward distribution, we illustrate the implementation of the new approach for explicit construction of model GPDs. As a further development, a more general method of regulating the $\\beta=0$ singularities is proposed that is based on the separation of the initial single DD $f(\\beta, \\alpha)$ into the "plus'' part $[f(\\beta,\\alpha)]_{+}$ and the $D$-term. It is demonstrated that the "DD+D'' separation method allows to (re)derive GPD sum rules that relate the difference between the forward distribution $f(x)=H(x,0)$ and the border function $H(x,x)$ with the $D$-term function $D(\\alpha)$.

  9. São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ruas, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The São Carlos Workshop on Real and Complex Singularities is the longest running workshop in singularities. It is held every two years and is a key international event for people working in the field. This volume contains papers presented at the eighth workshop, held at the IML, Marseille, July 19–23, 2004. The workshop offers the opportunity to establish the state of the art and to present new trends, new ideas and new results in all of the branches of singularities. This is reflected by the contributions in this book. The main topics discussed are equisingularity of sets and mappings, geometry of singular complex analytic sets, singularities of mappings, characteristic classes, classification of singularities, interaction of singularity theory with some of the new ideas in algebraic geometry imported from theoretical physics, and applications of singularity theory to geometry of surfaces in low dimensional euclidean spaces, to differential equations and to bifurcation theory.

  10. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    solutions of singularly perturbed nonlinear differential equations. ... for solving generalized Burgers-Huxley equation but this equation is not singularly ...... Solitary waves solutions of the generalized Burger Huxley equations, Journal of.

  11. EDITORIAL: The plurality of optical singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael; Dennis, Mark; Soskin, Marat

    2004-05-01

    This collection of papers arose from an Advanced Research Workshop on Singular Optics, held at the Bogolyubov Institute in Kiev, Ukraine, during 24-28 June 2003. The workshop was generously financed by NATO, with welcome additional support from Institute of Physics Publishing and the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. There had been two previous international meetings devoted to singular optics, in Crimea in 1997 and 2000, reflecting the strong involvement of former Soviet Union countries in this research. Awareness of singular optics is growing within the wider optics community, indicated by symposia on the subject at several general optics meetings. As the papers demonstrate, the field of singular optics has reached maturity. Although the subject originated in an observation on ultrasound, it has been largely theory-driven until recently. Now, however, there is close contact between theory and experiment, and we speculate that this is one reason for its accelerated development. To single out particular papers for mention here would be invidious, and since the papers speak for themselves it is not necessary to describe them all. Instead, we will confine ourselves to a brief description of the main areas included in singular optics, to illustrate the broad scope of the subject. Optical vortices are lines of phase singularity: nodal lines where the intensity of the light, represented by a complex scalar field, vanishes. The subject has emerged from flatland, where the vortices are points characterized by topological charges, into the much richer world of vortex lines in three dimensions. By combining Laguerre-Gauss or Bessel beams, or reflecting light from plates with spiral steps, intricate arrangements can be generated, with vortices that are curved, looped, knotted, linked or braided. With light whose state of polarization varies with position, different singularities occur, associated with the vector nature of light. These are also lines, on which the

  12. On Weakly Singular Versions of Discrete Nonlinear Inequalities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some new weakly singular versions of discrete nonlinear inequalities are established, which generalize some existing weakly singular inequalities and can be used in the analysis of nonlinear Volterra type difference equations with weakly singular kernels. A few applications to the upper bound and the uniqueness of solutions of nonlinear difference equations are also involved.

  13. THE EXT RACORPOREAL FERTILIZATION TECHNOLOGIES AND THE SINGULARITY PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Denysenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of modern medicine development connected with the technological and informative singularity are analyzed. The risks of realization of extracorporeal fertilization are examined from positions of development of informative singularity. The warning problems of origin of singularity are discussed on t h e base of t h e newest technologies development.

  14. 7 CFR 1200.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.50 Section 1200.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....50 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import...

  15. 7 CFR 900.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.1 Section 900.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  16. 7 CFR 900.20 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.20 Section 900.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 900.20 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to...

  17. 7 CFR 900.36 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.36 Section 900.36 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Marketing Orders § 900.36 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 900.100 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.100 Section 900.100 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  19. 7 CFR 46.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 46.1 Section 46.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Words in singular form. Words in this part in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural...

  20. 7 CFR 900.50 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.50 Section 900.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the...

  1. 7 CFR 61.1 - Words in singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in singular form. 61.1 Section 61.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Words in singular form. Words used in the regulations in this subpart in the singular form shall be...

  2. Singularities and the geometry of spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to investigate certain aspects of the geometry of the spacetime manifold in the General Theory of Relativity with particular reference to the occurrence of singularities in cosmological solutions and their relation with other global properties. Section 2 gives a brief outline of Riemannian geometry. In Section 3, the General Theory of Relativity is presented in the form of two postulates and two requirements which are common to it and to the Special Theory of Relativity, and a third requirement, the Einstein field equations, which distinguish it from the Special Theory. There does not seem to be any alternative set of field equations which would not have some undeseriable features. Some exact solutions are described. In Section 4, the physical significance of curvature is investigated using the deviation equation for timelike and null curves. The Riemann tensor is decomposed into the Ricci tensor which represents the gravitational effect at a point of matter at that point and the Welyl tensor which represents the effect at a point of gravitational radiation and matter at other points. The two tensors are related by the Bianchi identities which are presented in a form analogous to the Maxwell equations. Some lemmas are given for the occurrence of conjugate points on timelike and null geodesics and their relation with the variation of timelike and null curves is established. Section 5 is concerned with properties of causal relations between points of spacetime. It is shown that these could be used to determine physically the manifold structure of spacetime if the strong causality assumption held. The concepts of a null horizon and a partial Cauchy surface are introduced and are used to prove a number of lemmas relating to the existence of a timelike curve of maximum length between two sets. In Section 6, the definition of a singularity of spacetime is given in terms of geodesic incompleteness. The various energy assumptions needed to prove

  3. Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps with prescribed singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmar, Boldizsar

    2006-01-01

    We give a Pontryagin-Thom-Szucs type construction for non-positive codimensional singular maps, and obtain results about cobordism and bordism groups of -1 codimensional stable maps with prescribed singular fibers.

  4. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1–5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus...... musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...

  5. Seasonal abundances of naked amoebae in biofilms on shells of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) with comparative data from rock scrapings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Paul J; Wetmore, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In North America, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are notoriously known as invasive species. The abundance of naked amoebae sampled from the shells of zebra mussels was compared with abundances from rock scrapings at approximately monthly intervals for 1 year. The sites were 2 km apart along the same shoreline. No significant difference in abundance of naked amoebae (F = 1.44; P naked amoebae in winter, followed by peaks in early spring. The percent encysted increased from a low of 1% in the summer to 80% in early winter.

  6. Friedmann-like cosmological models without singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1978-01-01

    The Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation ('general relativity with spin') provides a specific spin-spin contact interaction of matter, in addition to the usual long-range gravity. This new interaction enables us to prevent singularities in cosmological models. it is shown how this mechanism works in the case when the standard Einstein-Cartan equations are valid at a micro-physical level, and some spin-spin terms remain from the averaging procedure for randomly distributed spins. In contrast with the case of aligned spin distributions, it is possible to take over the isotropic and spatially homogeneous (i.e., Friedmannian) models into the Einstein-Cartan theory. These models can be made free from singularity, thanks to the self-interaction of spinning fluid. (author)

  7. Singularities in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    'Regular solutions of Einstein's equations' mean very different things. In the case of the empty-space equations, Rsub(ik) = o, such solutions must be metrics gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without additionaly singular 'field sources' (Einstein's 'Particle problem'). However the 'phenomenological matter' is defined by the Einstein equations Rsub(ik) - 1/2gsub(ik)R = -kappaTsub(ik) itselves. Therefore if 10 regular functions gsub(ik)(xsup(l)) are given (which the inequalities of Lorentz-signature fulfil) then these gsub(ik) define 10 functions Tsub(ik)(xsup(l)) without singularities. But, the matter-tensor Tsub(ik) must fulfil the two inequalities T >= o, T 0 0 >= 1/2 T only and therefore the Einstein-equations with 'phenomenological matter' mean the two inequalities R >= o, R 0 0 <= o which are incompatible with a permanently regular metric with Lorentz-signature, generally. (author)

  8. Singularity theory and equivariant symplectic maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Thomas J

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is a study of the local bifurcations of multiparameter symplectic maps of arbitrary dimension in the neighborhood of a fixed point.The problem is reduced to a study of critical points of an equivariant gradient bifurcation problem, using the correspondence between orbits ofa symplectic map and critical points of an action functional. New results onsingularity theory for equivariant gradient bifurcation problems are obtained and then used to classify singularities of bifurcating period-q points. Of particular interest is that a general framework for analyzing group-theoretic aspects and singularities of symplectic maps (particularly period-q points) is presented. Topics include: bifurcations when the symplectic map has spatial symmetry and a theory for the collision of multipliers near rational points with and without spatial symmetry. The monograph also includes 11 self-contained appendices each with a basic result on symplectic maps. The monograph will appeal to researchers and graduate student...

  9. Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained

  10. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhardt, Netta [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Hertog, Thomas [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,3001 Leuven (Belgium); Horowitz, Gary T. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2015-07-09

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves N=4 super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  11. Further holographic investigations of big bang singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Hertog, Thomas; Horowitz, Gary T.

    2015-07-01

    We further explore the quantum dynamics near past cosmological singularities in anisotropic Kasner-AdS solutions using gauge/gravity duality. The dual description of the bulk evolution involves super Yang-Mills on the contracting branch of an anisotropic de Sitter space and is well defined. We compute two-point correlators of Yang-Mills operators of large dimensions using spacelike geodesics anchored on the boundary. The correlator between two points separated in a direction with negative Kasner exponent p always exhibits a pole at horizon scales, in any dimension, which we interpret as a dual signature of the classical bulk singularity. This indicates that the geodesic approximation selects a non-normalizable Yang-Mills state.

  12. Singular tachyon kinks from regular profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Saffin, P.M.; Steer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate how Sen's singular kink solution of the Born-Infeld tachyon action can be constructed by taking the appropriate limit of initially regular profiles. It is shown that the order in which different limits are taken plays an important role in determining whether or not such a solution is obtained for a wide class of potentials. Indeed, by introducing a small parameter into the action, we are able circumvent the results of a recent paper which derived two conditions on the asymptotic tachyon potential such that the singular kink could be recovered in the large amplitude limit of periodic solutions. We show that this is explained by the non-commuting nature of two limits, and that Sen's solution is recovered if the order of the limits is chosen appropriately

  13. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour; Majid Assadi

    2016-01-01

    The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested th...

  14. Non-singular spiked harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Guardiola, R.

    1990-01-01

    A perturbative study of a class of non-singular spiked harmonic oscillators defined by the hamiltonian H = d sup(2)/dr sup(2) + r sup(2) + λ/r sup(α) in the domain [0,∞] is carried out, in the two extremes of a weak coupling and a strong coupling regimes. A path has been found to connect both expansions for α near 2. (author)

  15. Singular reduction of Nambu-Poisson manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba

    The version of Marsden-Ratiu Poisson reduction theorem for Nambu-Poisson manifolds by a regular foliation have been studied by Ibáñez et al. In this paper, we show that this reduction procedure can be extended to the singular case. Under a suitable notion of Hamiltonian flow on the reduced space, we show that a set of Hamiltonians on a Nambu-Poisson manifold can also be reduced.

  16. Constraint theory, singular lagrangians and multitemporal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusanna, L.

    1988-01-01

    Singular Lagrangians and constraint theory permeate theoretical physics, as shown by the relevance of gauge theories, string models and general relativity. Their study used finite---dimensional models as a guide to develop the theory, but their main use was in classical field theory, due to the necessity of understanding their quantization. The covariant quantization of singular Lagrangians led to the BRST approach and to the theory of the effective action. On the other hand their phase---space formulation, culminated with the BFV approach for first class, second class and reducible constraints. It, in turn, gave new insights in the theory of singular Lagrangians and constraints and in their cohomological aspects. However the Hamiltonian approach to field theory is highly nontrivial, is open to criticism due to its problems with locality, geometry and manifest covariance and its canonical quantization has still to be developed, because there is no proof of the renormalizability of the Schroedinger representation of field theory. This paper discusses how, notwithstanding these developments, there is still a big amount of ambiguity at every level of the theory

  17. An Exact Solution of the Binary Singular Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Singularity problem exists in various branches of applied mathematics. Such ordinary differential equations accompany singular coefficients. In this paper, by using the properties of reproducing kernel, the exact solution expressions of dual singular problem are given in the reproducing kernel space and studied, also for a class of singular problem. For the binary equation of singular points, I put it into the singular problem first, and then reuse some excellent properties which are applied to solve the method of solving differential equations for its exact solution expression of binary singular integral equation in reproducing kernel space, and then obtain its approximate solution through the evaluation of exact solutions. Numerical examples will show the effectiveness of this method.

  18. Naked mole-rat cortical neurons are resistant to acid-induced cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Zoé; Smith, Ewan S

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of brain pH is a critical homeostatic process and changes in brain pH modulate various ion channels and receptors and thus neuronal excitability. Tissue acidosis, resulting from hypoxia or hypercapnia, can activate various proteins and ion channels, among which acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) a family of primarily Na+ permeable ion channels, which alongside classical excitotoxicity causes neuronal death. Naked mole-rats (NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber) are ...

  19. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  20. Performance and Heterosis of Indigenous Chicken Crossbreed (Naked Neck x Frizzled Feather In The Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Monday Nwenya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four (44 birds (about 50 weeks old male and female inbred naked necked and frizzle feathered chickens were crossed to generate F1 crossbred chicken that were used to evaluate the performance and heterosis effects. Data taken on 180 chicks (97 NN and 83 FF day-old chick weight (BWT0, body weight (BWT, daily average feed intake (AFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, brooding and rearing mortalities, linear body measurements (LBM: body length, wing length, keel length, shank length and breast width were used to estimate heterosis and performance of F1 progenies. Results of the experiment showed positive heterosis with significant differences among the F1 progenies over their parents in body weight, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The reciprocal cross (i.e. frizzle feather rooster x naked neck hen showed a significant improvement in their performances genetically, explaining that better results are achieved through crossbreeding of these indigenous breeds. With reference to their body linear parameters, the reciprocal cross of naked neck and frizzle feathered chickens developed higher body length, whereas the main crosses performed better in their wing length, keel length, shank length and body width respectively, mainly after 8 weeks suggesting that earlier performance was attributable to maternal influences.

  1. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarko, Diana K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  3. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  4. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J Graham; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages 25-fold past their time to reproductive maturity. This absence of hazard increase with age, in defiance of Gompertz’s law, uniquely identifies the naked mole-rat as a non-aging mammal, confirming its status as an exceptional model for biogerontology. PMID:29364116

  5. Singular Spectrum Near a Singular Point of Friedrichs Model Operators of Absolute Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, Serguei I.

    2006-01-01

    In L 2 (R) we consider a family of self adjoint operators of the Friedrichs model: A m =|t| m +V. Here |t| m is the operator of multiplication by the corresponding function of the independent variable t element of R, and (perturbation) is a trace-class integral operator with a continuous Hermitian kernel ν(t,x) satisfying some smoothness condition. These absolute type operators have one singular point of order m>0. Conditions on the kernel ν(t,x) are found guaranteeing the absence of the point spectrum and the singular continuous one of such operators near the origin. These conditions are actually necessary and sufficient. They depend on the finiteness of the rank of a perturbation operator and on the order of singularity. The sharpness of these conditions is confirmed by counterexamples

  6. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  7. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Omerbašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF, an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  9. Spectral asymptotics for nonsmooth singular Green operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    is a singular Green operator. It is well-known in smooth cases that when G is of negative order −t on a bounded domain, its eigenvalues ors-numbers have the behavior (*)s j (G) ∼ cj −t/(n−1) for j → ∞, governed by the boundary dimension n − 1. In some nonsmooth cases, upper estimates (**)s j (G) ≤ Cj −t/(n−1...

  10. Singularity spectrum of self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1992-10-01

    I introduce a simple continuous probability theory based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation that provides for the first time a common analytical basis to relate and describe the main features of two seemingly different phenomena of condensed-matter physics, namely self-organized criticality and multifractality. Numerical support is given by a comparison with reported simulation data. Within the theory the origin of self-organized critical phenomena is analysed in terms of a nonlinear singularity spectrum different form the typical convex shape due to multifractal measures. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  11. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  12. The Singularity May Never Be Near

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2017-01-01

    There is both much optimisim and pessimism around artificial intelligence (AI) today. The optimists are investing millions of dollars, and even in some cases billions of dollars into AI. The pessimists, on the other hand, predict that AI will end many things: jobs, warfare, and even the human race. Both the optimists and the pessimists often appeal to the idea of a technological singularity, a point in time where machine intelligence starts to run away, and a new, more in- telligent “species”...

  13. Compacted dimensions and singular plasmonic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, J. B.; Huidobro, Paloma Arroyo; Luo, Yu; Galiffi, Emanuele

    2017-11-01

    In advanced field theories, there can be more than four dimensions to space, the excess dimensions described as compacted and unobservable on everyday length scales. We report a simple model, unconnected to field theory, for a compacted dimension realized in a metallic metasurface periodically structured in the form of a grating comprising a series of singularities. An extra dimension of the grating is hidden, and the surface plasmon excitations, though localized at the surface, are characterized by three wave vectors rather than the two of typical two-dimensional metal grating. We propose an experimental realization in a doped graphene layer.

  14. The critical singularities of water and its significance in the hydrothermal mineralization of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baoqun; Lv Guxian; Wang Fangzheng; Sun Zhanxue; Zhu Peng

    2008-01-01

    Water is the main composition of the geo-fiuid. With the changes of temperature and pressure, its phases and physicochemical properties will vary and the critical singularity occur at the critical point of second-order phase transition. These changes of water will enormously affect the hydrothermal mineralizations. This paper has introduced the types and characteristics of water phase transitions, studied the phase transitions of water in the lithosphere and showed the critical singularity of water with the example of the isobaric heat capacity. The conclusions are as follow: (1) the critical singularities of water are the most obvious as the temperature and pressure near to the critical constants of water; (2) Because the temperature changes with the pressure according to the thermal curve in the lithosphere, it is difficult to find a place where the temperature and pressure can be at the critical constants at same time except the coupling effect of the hydrothermal processes, intermediate-acidic magmatism and faulting; (3) To the hydrothermal mineralization, the significances of water's critical singularities at least include the sharp variation of solubility and instantaneous high pressure to conduct the deposit of ore-forming materials and fault formation. (authors)

  15. Tuning of tunneling current noise spectra singularities by localized states charging

    OpenAIRE

    Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of theoretical investigations of tunneling current noise spectra in a wide range of applied bias voltage. Localized states of individual impurity atoms play an important role in tunneling current noise formation. It was found that switching "on" and "off" of Coulomb interaction of conduction electrons with two charged localized states results in power law singularity of low-frequency tunneling current noise spectrum ($1/f^{\\alpha}$) and also results on high frequency com...

  16. Beyond the singularity of the 2-D charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giveon, Amit; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Sever, Amit

    2003-01-01

    Two dimensional charged black holes in string theory can be obtained as exact SL(2,R) x U(1)/U(1) quotient CFTs. The geometry of the quotient is induced from that of the group, and in particular includes regions beyond the black hole singularities. Moreover, wavefunctions in such black holes are obtained from gauge invariant vertex operators in the SL(2,R) CFT, hence their behavior beyond the singularity is determined. When the black hole is charged we find that the wavefunctions are smooth at the singularities. Unlike the uncharged case, scattering waves prepared beyond the singularity are not fully reflected; part of the wave is transmitted through the singularity. Hence, the physics outside the horizon of a charged black hole is sensitive to conditions set behind the past singularity. (author)

  17. Logarithmic of mass singularities theorem in non massive quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mares G, R.; Luna, H.

    1997-01-01

    We give an explicit example of the use of dimensional regularization to calculate in a unified approach, all the ultraviolet, infrared and mass singularities, by considering the LMS (logarithms of mass singularities) theorem in the frame of massless QED (Quantum electrodynamics). In the calculation of the divergent part of the cross section, all singularities are found to cancel provided soft and hard photon emission are both taken into account. (Author)

  18. Singular vectors of Malikov-Fagin-Fux in topological theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semikhatov, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Coincidence of singular vectors in relation to the sl(2) Katza-Mudi algebra and the algebra of the N=2 (twisted) supersymmetry is established. On the base of the Kazama-Suzuki simplest model is obtained a representation for the sl(2) currents in terms of an interacting with mater gravitation. From the Malikov-Fagin-Fux formulae for the sl(2) singular currents is obtained the general expression for singular vectors in topological theories

  19. Observer-dependent sign inversions of polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-10-15

    We describe observer-dependent sign inversions of the topological charges of vector field polarization singularities: C points (points of circular polarization), L points (points of linear polarization), and two virtually unknown singularities we call γ(C) and α(L) points. In all cases, the sign of the charge seen by an observer can change as she changes the direction from which she views the singularity. Analytic formulas are given for all C and all L point sign inversions.

  20. Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes.

  1. Deficiency indices and singular boundary conditions in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulla, W.

    1984-01-01

    We consider Schroedinger operators H in L 2 (Rsup(n)), n from IN, with countably infinitely many local singularities of the potential which are separated from each other by a positive distance. It is proved that due to locality each singularity yields a separate contribution to the deficiency index of H. In the special case where the singularities are pointlike and the potential exhibits certain symmetries near these points we give an explicit construction of self-adjoint boundary conditions

  2. 7 CFR 900.80 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 900.80 Section 900.80....C. 608b(b) and 7 U.S.C. 608e Covering Fruits, Vegetables, and Nuts § 900.80 Words in the singular form. Words in this subpart in the singular form shall be deemed to import the plural, and vice versa...

  3. A well-posed numerical method to track isolated conformal map singularities in Hele-Shaw flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.; Siegel, M.; Tanveer, S.

    1995-01-01

    We present a new numerical method for calculating an evolving 2D Hele-Shaw interface when surface tension effects are neglected. In the case where the flow is directed from the less viscous fluid into the more viscous fluid, the motion of the interface is ill-posed; small deviations in the initial condition will produce significant changes in the ensuing motion. The situation is disastrous for numerical computation, as small roundoff errors can quickly lead to large inaccuracies in the computed solution. Our method of computation is most easily formulated using a conformal map from the fluid domain into a unit disk. The method relies on analytically continuing the initial data and equations of motion into the region exterior to the disk, where the evolution problem becomes well-posed. The equations are then numerically solved in the extended domain. The presence of singularities in the conformal map outside of the disk introduces specific structures along the fluid interface. Our method can explicitly track the location of isolated pole and branch point singularities, allowing us to draw connections between the development of interfacial patterns and the motion of singularities as they approach the unit disk. In particular, we are able to relate physical features such as finger shape, side-branch formation, and competition between fingers to the nature and location of the singularities. The usefulness of this method in studying the formation of topological singularities (self-intersections of the interface) is also pointed out. 47 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  4. Quantum singularities in the FRW universe revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Pitelli, Joao Paulo M.

    2010-01-01

    The components of the Riemann tensor in the tetrad basis are quantized and, through the Einstein equation, we find the local expectation value in the ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics of the energy density and pressure of a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(1/3)ρ in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker quantum cosmological model. The quantum behavior of the equation of state and energy conditions are then studied, and it is shown that the energy conditions are violated since the singularity is removed with the introduction of quantum cosmology, but in the classical limit both the equation of state and the energy conditions behave as in the classical model. We also calculate the expectation value of the scale factor for several wave packets in the many-worlds interpretation in order to show the independence of the nonsingular character of the quantum cosmological model with respect to the wave packet representing the wave function of the Universe. It is also shown that, with the introduction of nonnormalizable wave packets, solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, the singular character of the scale factor, can be recovered in the ontological interpretation.

  5. Finite-time singularity signature of hyperinflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Takayasu, H.; Zhou, W.-X.

    2003-07-01

    We present a novel analysis extending the recent work of Mizuno et al. (Physica A 308 (2002) 411) on the hyperinflations of Germany (1920/1/1-1923/11/1), Hungary (1945/4/30-1946/7/15), Brazil (1969-1994), Israel (1969-1985), Nicaragua (1969-1991), Peru (1969-1990) and Bolivia (1969-1985). On the basis of a generalization of Cagan's model of inflation based on the mechanism of “inflationary expectation” of positive feedbacks between realized growth rate and people's expected growth rate, we find that hyperinflations can be characterized by a power law singularity culminating at a critical time tc. Mizuno et al.'s double-exponential function can be seen as a discrete time-step approximation of our more general non-linear ODE formulation of the price dynamics which exhibits a finite-time singular behavior. This extension of Cagan's model, which makes natural the appearance of a critical time tc, has the advantage of providing a well-defined end of the clearly unsustainable hyperinflation regime. We find an excellent and reliable agreement between theory and data for Germany, Hungary, Peru and Bolivia. For Brazil, Israel and Nicaragua, the super-exponential growth seems to be already contaminated significantly by the existence of a cross-over to a stationary regime.

  6. Consideration on Singularities in Learning Theory and the Learning Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Aoyagi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the learning coefficients in learning theory and give two new methods for obtaining these coefficients in a homogeneous case: a method for finding a deepest singular point and a method to add variables. In application to Vandermonde matrix-type singularities, we show that these methods are effective. The learning coefficient of the generalization error in Bayesian estimation serves to measure the learning efficiency in singular learning models. Mathematically, the learning coefficient corresponds to a real log canonical threshold of singularities for the Kullback functions (relative entropy in learning theory.

  7. Identification of discrete chaotic maps with singular points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Akishin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ability of artificial neural networks to reconstruct discrete chaotic maps with singular points. We use as a simple test model the Cusp map. We compare the traditional Multilayer Perceptron, the Chebyshev Neural Network and the Wavelet Neural Network. The numerical scheme for the accurate determination of a singular point is also developed. We show that combining a neural network with the numerical algorithm for the determination of the singular point we are able to accurately approximate discrete chaotic maps with singularities.

  8. Numerical investigation of stress singularities in cracked bimaterial body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Šestáková, Lucie; Hutař, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 385-387, - (2008), s. 125-128 ISSN 1013-9826. [International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /7./. Seoul, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB200410803; GA ČR GP106/06/P239; GA ČR GA106/08/1409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : bimaterial interface * stress singularity exponent * corner singularity * vertex singularity * general singular stress concentrator Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  9. The road to singularities, and the roses on the way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of current investigations of space-time singularities is given. The different approaches adopted by various research schools is discussed, and an analogy is drawn between this study and the mounting of an expedition that sets out on a long trail of discovery. A heuristic discussion is given of the latest classification of singularities and some brief comments are made on how physically relevant each type of singularity is. Roughly speaking, it seems that the milder types (at which quantities remain well behaved) are pathological cases, whereas the crude 'big-bang' type of singularity is more generic. (author)

  10. Can non-commutativity resolve the big-bang singularity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceda, M.; Madore, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Paris-Sud, Batiment 211, 91405, Orsay (France); Manousselis, P. [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Patras, 26110, Patras (Greece); Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Zoupanos, G. [Physics Department, National Technical University, Zografou Campus, 157 80, Zografou, Athens (Greece); Theory Division, CERN, 1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2004-08-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has non-commutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a modification of the Kasner metric is constructed which is commutative only at large time scales. At small time scales, near the singularity, the commutation relations among the space coordinates diverge. We interpret this result as meaning that the singularity has been completely delocalized. (orig.)

  11. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  12. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Gary R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  13. Mechanical quadrature method as applied to singular integral equations with logarithmic singularity on the right-hand side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjanyan, A. A.; Sahakyan, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A singular integral equation with a Cauchy kernel and a logarithmic singularity on its righthand side is considered on a finite interval. An algorithm is proposed for the numerical solution of this equation. The contact elasticity problem of a П-shaped rigid punch indented into a half-plane is solved in the case of a uniform hydrostatic pressure occurring under the punch, which leads to a logarithmic singularity at an endpoint of the integration interval. The numerical solution of this problem shows the efficiency of the proposed approach and suggests that the singularity has to be taken into account in solving the equation.

  14. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  15. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eSeki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organisation of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality, extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which generates high contrast images of fibre structures, can characterise unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography (CT were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualisation of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  16. Naked-Eye Detection of Glucose in Saliva with Bienzymatic Paper-Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Santana-Jiménez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in low-income regions has promoted the development of low-cost alternatives to replace blood-based procedures. In this work, we present a bienzymatic paper-based sensor suitable for the naked-eye detection of glucose in saliva samples. The sensor was obtained by a stamping procedure and modified with chitosan to improve the colorimetric readout. The bienzymatic reaction of GOx-HRP coupled with 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxy benzoic acid was applied for the detection of glucose within a range from 0 to 180 mgdL−1 in buffer and artificial saliva solutions. The visual readout was perceived by the naked eye and registered with an office scanner to evaluate the analytical performance. The results showed a limit of detection of 0.37 mgdL−1 (S/N = 3 with an R.S.D. of 1.69% and a linear range from 1 to 22.5 mgdL−1 with an R2 of 0.99235. The analysis of human saliva samples was performed without pre-processing, achieving recoveries from 92 to 114%. The naked-eye detection was evaluated under two different light settings, showing average recoveries of 108.58 and 90.65% for standard and low illumination. The proposed device showed potential for easy-to-use, sensitive, low-cost, fast, and device-free detection of salivary glucose suitable for untrained personnel operation and limited facilities.

  17. Metric dimensional reduction at singularities with implications to Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2014-01-01

    A series of old and recent theoretical observations suggests that the quantization of gravity would be feasible, and some problems of Quantum Field Theory would go away if, somehow, the spacetime would undergo a dimensional reduction at high energy scales. But an identification of the deep mechanism causing this dimensional reduction would still be desirable. The main contribution of this article is to show that dimensional reduction effects are due to General Relativity at singularities, and do not need to be postulated ad-hoc. Recent advances in understanding the geometry of singularities do not require modification of General Relativity, being just non-singular extensions of its mathematics to the limit cases. They turn out to work fine for some known types of cosmological singularities (black holes and FLRW Big-Bang), allowing a choice of the fundamental geometric invariants and physical quantities which remain regular. The resulting equations are equivalent to the standard ones outside the singularities. One consequence of this mathematical approach to the singularities in General Relativity is a special, (geo)metric type of dimensional reduction: at singularities, the metric tensor becomes degenerate in certain spacetime directions, and some properties of the fields become independent of those directions. Effectively, it is like one or more dimensions of spacetime just vanish at singularities. This suggests that it is worth exploring the possibility that the geometry of singularities leads naturally to the spontaneous dimensional reduction needed by Quantum Gravity. - Highlights: • The singularities we introduce are described by finite geometric/physical objects. • Our singularities are accompanied by dimensional reduction effects. • They affect the metric, the measure, the topology, the gravitational DOF (Weyl = 0). • Effects proposed in other approaches to Quantum Gravity are obtained naturally. • The geometric dimensional reduction obtained

  18. A vida singular de um jovem militante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Maria Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo é fruto de uma pesquisa realizada no período de 2007 a 2010, junto a jovens militantes da cidade de Campinas, com o objetivo de compreender as diferentes maneiras que conduziam esses jovens tanto a reproduzir um modelo de vida quanto a criar outras possibilidades de militância na relação com esse modelo. Entre as histórias orais de vida narradas por jovens que militavam em diferentes grupos ou instituições, escolhi a vida de Biula, representante do movimento estudantil secundarista, procurando evidenciar que a singularidade desta vida, como também e a de outros jovens, estava conectada à problematização que faziam no interior de certas práticas, histórica e culturalmente constituídas, possibilitando a criação de novas formas de subjetivação nas quais se modificava a experiência que tinham deles mesmos na relação com os seus heróis ou modelos de referência. Palavras-chave: história oral – transcriação – heróis – resistência - processos de singularização.   THE SINGULAR LIFE OF A YOUNG MILITANT ABSTRACT   This article is the result of a research carried out from 2007 to 2010 with   young militants in the city of Campinas, aiming to understand the different ways which conducted these youngsters to both reproduce a life model and create other possibilities of militancy in the relationship with this model. Among oral stories narrated by young militants from different groups or institutions, I have chosen the life of Biula, a representative of the secondary students’ movement, trying to show that the singularity of this life and other youngsters’ lives was connected to the problematization they promoted within certain practices, historically and culturally built, thus enabling the creation of new subjectification modes in which the experience they had of themselves in the relationship with their heroes or reference models has changed. Key words: oral history -  transcreation – heroes

  19. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  20. Naked mole-rat acid-sensing ion channel 3 forms nonfunctional homomers, but functional heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Callejo, Gerard; Srivats, Shyam; Smith, Ewan St John

    2018-02-02

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels that are activated by extracellular protons and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including pain and anxiety. ASIC proteins can form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels. The ASIC3 subunit has been shown to be of particular importance in the peripheral nervous system with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrating a role in pain. Naked mole-rats, despite having functional ASICs, are insensitive to acid as a noxious stimulus and show diminished avoidance of acidic fumes, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Here we cloned naked mole-rat ASIC3 (nmrASIC3) and used a cell-surface biotinylation assay to demonstrate that it traffics to the plasma membrane, but using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology we observed that nmrASIC3 is insensitive to both protons and the non-proton ASIC3 agonist 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline. However, in line with previous reports of ASIC3 mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons, we found that the ASIC3 antagonist APETx2 reversibly inhibits ASIC-like currents in naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. We further show that like the proton-insensitive ASIC2b and ASIC4, nmrASIC3 forms functional, proton-sensitive heteromers with other ASIC subunits. An amino acid alignment of ASIC3s between 9 relevant rodent species and human identified unique sequence differences that might underlie the proton insensitivity of nmrASIC3. However, introducing nmrASIC3 differences into rat ASIC3 (rASIC3) produced only minor differences in channel function, and replacing the nmrASIC3 sequence with that of rASIC3 did not produce a proton-sensitive ion channel. Our observation that nmrASIC3 forms nonfunctional homomers may reflect a further adaptation of the naked mole-rat to living in an environment with high-carbon dioxide levels. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  1. Naked eye picometer resolution in a Michelson interferometer using conjugated twisted beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2017-01-15

    Michelson interferometry is one of the most widely used techniques for accuracy measurements. Its main characteristic feature is to infer a displacement in one of the arms of the interferometer from a phase measurement. Two different twisted beams, also called vortex beams, with opposite twisted rotations in each arm of the interferometer interfere in a daisy flower-like pattern. The number of petals is twice the topological charge. Their position depends on the relative phase of the beams. Naked eye detection of 44 pm displacements is achieved. The sensitivity of such an interferometer together with possible further improvements, and applications are then discussed.

  2. A preliminary phylogeny of the Palearctic naked-toed geckos (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Aaron M; Masroor, Rafaqat; Titus-McQuillan, James; Heinicke, Matthew P; Daza, Juan D; Jackman, Todd R

    2013-01-08

    Palearctic naked-toed geckos are a group of gekkonid geckos that range from North Africa to northern India and western China, with their greatest diversity in Iran and Pakistan. Relationships among the constituent genera remain incompletely resolved and the monophyly of key genera remains unverified. Further, competing classifications are in current use and many species have been allocated to different genera by different authors. We used both mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear genes (RAG1, PDC) to explore relationships among representatives of all but one genus in the group (Rhinogecko), including four genera not previously included in phylogenetic analyses (Asiocolotes, Altigekko, Indogekko, and Siwaligekko). Siwaligekko (and presumably other Tibeto-Himalayan species often referred to Cyrtopodion) are more closely related to tropical Asian Cyrtodactylus than to Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Sampled species of Asiocolotes and Altigekko are sister taxa, but both genera are here considered junior subjective synonyms of Altiphylax. Cyrtopodion sensu lato is non-monophyletic; Mediodactylus and Tenuidactylus, which have variably been considered as subgenera or synonyms of Cyrtopodion are both valid genera. Indogekko is embedded within Cyrtopodion and is here treated as a subgenus. Bunopus and Crossobamon are closely related to one-another, and with Agamura are interdigitated among taxa previously assigned to Cyrtopodion. Our data confirm the previous identification of a Saharo-Arabian Stenodactylus/Tropiocolotes/Pseudoceramodactylus clade and verify that Microgecko and Alsophylax are not members of the main clade of Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Osteological differences between Tropiocolotes and Microgecko, formerly treated as congeneric, are discussed and illustrated. The divergence between Cyrtodactylus and the Palearctic naked-toed clade predates the initial collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, but deeper divergences within both groups are

  3. New mathematical framework for spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambo, Roberto; Giannoni, Fabio; Magli, Giulio; Piccione, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    A theorem, giving necessary and sufficient condition for naked singularity formation in spherically symmetric non-static spacetimes under hypotheses of physical acceptability, is formulated and proved. The theorem relates the existence of singular null geodesics to the existence of regular curves which are supersolutions of the radial null geodesic equation, and allows us to treat all the known examples of naked singularities from a unified viewpoint. New examples are also found using this approach, and perspectives are discussed. (letter to the editor)

  4. Cosmic censorship in quantum Einstein gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A.; Koch, B.; Platania, A.

    2017-05-01

    We study the quantum gravity modification of the Kuroda-Papapetrou model induced by the running of the Newton’s constant at high energy in quantum Einstein gravity. We argue that although the antiscreening character of the gravitational interaction favours the formation of a naked singularity, quantum gravity effects turn the classical singularity into a ‘whimper’ singularity which remains naked for a finite amount of advanced time.

  5. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   

  6. Dual Vector Spaces and Physical Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Peter

    Though we often refer to 3-D vector space as constructed from points, there is no mechanism from within its definition for doing this. In particular, space, on its own, cannot accommodate the singularities that we call fundamental particles. This requires a commutative combination of space as we know it with another 3-D vector space, which is dual to the first (in a physical sense). The combination of the two spaces generates a nilpotent quantum mechanics/quantum field theory, which incorporates exact supersymmetry and ultimately removes the anomalies due to self-interaction. Among the many natural consequences of the dual space formalism are half-integral spin for fermions, zitterbewegung, Berry phase and a zero norm Berwald-Moor metric for fermionic states.

  7. String wave function across a Kasner singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Niz, Gustavo; Turok, Neil

    2010-01-01

    A collision of orbifold planes in 11 dimensions has been proposed as an explanation of the hot big bang. When the two planes are close to each other, the winding membranes become the lightest modes of the theory, and can be effectively described in terms of fundamental strings in a ten-dimensional background. Near the brane collision, the 11-dimensional metric is a Euclidean space times a 1+1-dimensional Milne universe. However, one may expect small perturbations to lead into a more general Kasner background. In this paper we extend the previous classical analysis of winding membranes to Kasner backgrounds, and using the Hamiltonian equations, solve for the wave function of loops with circular symmetry. The evolution across the singularity is regular, and explained in terms of the excitement of higher oscillation modes. We also show there is finite particle production and unitarity is preserved.

  8. Branes at Singularities in Type 0 String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Alishahiha, M; Brandhuber, A; Oz, Y

    1999-01-01

    We consider Type 0B D3-branes placed at conical singularities and analyze in detail the conifold singularity. We study the non supersymmetric gauge theories on their worldvolume and their conjectured dual gravity descriptions. In the ultraviolet the solutions exhibit a logarithmic running of the gauge coupling. In the infrared we find confining solutions and IR fixed points.

  9. Eigenstructure of of singular systems. Perturbation analysis of simple eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    García Planas, María Isabel; Tarragona Romero, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    The problem to study small perturbations of simple eigenvalues with a change of parameters is of general interest in applied mathematics. After to introduce a systematic way to know if an eigenvalue of a singular system is simple or not, the aim of this work is to study the behavior of a simple eigenvalue of singular linear system family

  10. Singularities of elastic scattering amplitude by long-range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinsky, A.A.; Komarov, I.V.; Merkuriev, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    The angular peculiarities and the zero energy singularities of the elastic scattering amplitude by a long-range potential are described. The singularities of the elastic (2 → 2) scattering amplitude for a system of three Coulomb particles are considered [ru

  11. Singularly perturbed volterra integro-differential equations | Bijura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several investigations have been made on singularly perturbed integral equations. This paper aims at presenting an algorithm for the construction of asymptotic solutions and then provide a proof asymptotic correctness to singularly perturbed systems of Volterra integro-differential equations. Mathematics Subject

  12. Non-uniqueness of the source for singular gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, G.; Pappas, R.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that the singular Wu-Yang solution for SU(2) gauge fields may be interpreted as due to a point source at the origin. However, the electric or magnetic nature of the source depends on whether one approaches the singularity by means of a 'smeared' potential or a 'smeared' field strength. (Auth.)

  13. Solitary wave solution to a singularly perturbed generalized Gardner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Abstract. This paper is concerned with the existence of travelling wave solutions to a singularly perturbed gen- eralized Gardner equation with nonlinear terms of any order. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and based on the relation between solitary wave solution and homoclinic orbits of the ...

  14. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  15. Some BMO estimates for vector-valued multilinear singular integral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the multilinear operator related to some singular integral operators is obtained. The main purpose of this paper is to establish the BMO end-point estimates for some vector-valued multilinear operators related to certain singular integral operators. First, let us introduce some notations [10,16]. Throughout this paper, Q = Q(x,r).

  16. Infinite derivative gravity : non-singular cosmology & blackhole solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumdar, Anupam

    2017-01-01

    Both Einstein's theory of General Relativity and Newton's theory of gravity possess a short dis- tance and small time scale catastrophe. The blackhole singularity and cosmological Big Bang singularity problems highlight that current theories of gravity are incomplete description at early times and

  17. A Note on Inclusion Intervals of Matrix Singular Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish an inclusion relation between two known inclusion intervals of matrix singular values in some special case. In addition, based on the use of positive scale vectors, a known inclusion interval of matrix singular values is also improved.

  18. Simpson's neutrino and the singular see-saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.J.; Johnson, R.; Ranfone, S.; Schechter, J.; Walle, J.W.F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper derive explicit forms for the neutrino and lepton mixing-matrices which describe the generic singular see-saw model. The dependence on the hierarchy parameter is contrasted with the non-singular case. Application is made to Simpson's 17 keV neutrino

  19. On reliability of singular-value decomposition in attractor reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palus, M.; Dvorak, I.

    1990-12-01

    Applicability of singular-value decomposition for reconstructing the strange attractor from one-dimensional chaotic time series, proposed by Broomhead and King, is extensively tested and discussed. Previously published doubts about its reliability are confirmed: singular-value decomposition, by nature a linear method, is only of a limited power when nonlinear structures are studied. (author). 29 refs, 9 figs

  20. One Critical Case in Singularly Perturbed Control Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the special critical case in the theory of singularly perturbed optimal control problems. We reduce the original singularly perturbed problem to a regularized one such that the existence of slow integral manifolds can be established by means of the standard theory. We illustrate our approach by an example of control problem.

  1. 7 CFR 1200.1 - Words in the singular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Words in the singular form. 1200.1 Section 1200.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Governing Proceedings To Formulate and Amend an Order § 1200.1 Words in the singular form. Words in this...

  2. Periodic solutions to second-order indefinite singular equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hakl, Robert; Zamora, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 263, č. 1 (2017), s. 451-469 ISSN 0022-0396 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : degree theory * indefinite singularity * periodic solution * singular differential equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022039617301134

  3. Non-singular cosmologies in the conformally invariant gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kembhavi, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of a conformally invariant gravitation theory, the singularity which is present in some anisotropic universes in general relativity is due to a wrong choice of conformal frame. Frames exist in which these models can be made singularity free. (author)

  4. A numerical method for solving singular De`s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaver, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    A numerical method is developed for solving singular differential equations using steepest descent based on weighted Sobolev gradients. The method is demonstrated on a variety of first and second order problems, including linear constrained, unconstrained, and partially constrained first order problems, a nonlinear first order problem with irregular singularity, and two second order variational problems.

  5. Singular Null Hypersurfaces in General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dray, T

    2006-01-01

    Null hypersurfaces are a mathematical consequence of the Lorentzian signature of general relativity; singularities in mathematical models usually indicate where the interesting physics takes place. This book discusses what happens when you combine these ideas. Right from the preface, this is a no-nonsense book. There are two principal approaches to singular shells, one distributional and the other 'cut and paste'; both are treated in detail. A working knowledge of GR is assumed, including familiarity with null tetrads, differential forms, and 3 + 1 decompositions. Despite my own reasonably extensive, closely related knowledge, there was material unfamiliar to me already in chapter 3, although I was reunited with some old friends in later chapters. The exposition is crisp, with a minimum of transition from chapter to chapter. In fact, my main criticism is that there is no clear statement of the organization of the book, nor is there an index. Everything is here, and the story is compelling if you know what to look for, although it is less easy to follow the story if you are not already familiar with it. But this is really a book for experts, and the authors certainly qualify, having played a significant role in developing and extending the results they describe. It is also entirely appropriate that the book is dedicated to Werner Israel, who pioneered the thin-shell approach to (non-null) singular surfaces and later championed the use of similar methods for analysing null shells. After an introductory chapter on impulsive signals, the authors show how the Bianchi identities can be used to classify spacetimes with singular null hypersurfaces. This approach, due to the authors, generalizes the framework originally proposed by Penrose. While astrophysical applications are discussed only briefly, the authors point out that detailed physical characteristics of signals from isolated sources can be determined in this manner. In particular, they describe the behaviour of

  6. Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qingling; Zhang, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Complexity, Analysis and Control of Singular Biological Systems follows the control of real-world biological systems at both ecological and phyisological levels concentrating on the application of now-extensively-investigated singular system theory. Much effort has recently been dedicated to the modelling and analysis of developing bioeconomic systems and the text establishes singular examples of these, showing how proper control can help to maintain sustainable economic development of biological resources. The book begins from the essentials of singular systems theory and bifurcations before tackling  the use of various forms of control in singular biological systems using examples including predator-prey relationships and viral vaccination and quarantine control. Researchers and graduate students studying the control of complex biological systems are shown how a variety of methods can be brought to bear and practitioners working with the economics of biological systems and their control will also find the ...

  7. Managing focal fields of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Liu, Sheng; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Huachao; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-10

    We explore the tight focusing behavior of vector beams with multiple polarization singularities, and analyze the influences of the number, position, and topological charge of the singularities on the focal fields. It is found that the ellipticity of the local polarization states at the focal plane could be determined by the spatial distribution of the polarization singularities of the vector beam. When the spatial location and topological charge of singularities have even-fold rotation symmetry, the transverse fields at the focal plane are locally linearly polarized. Otherwise, the polarization state becomes a locally hybrid one. By appropriately arranging the distribution of the polarization singularities in the vector beam, the polarization distributions of the focal fields could be altered while the intensity maintains unchanged.

  8. Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lê, Dung; Oka, Mutsuo; Snoussi, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    This book features state-of-the-art research on singularities in geometry, topology, foliations and dynamics and provides an overview of the current state of singularity theory in these settings. Singularity theory is at the crossroad of various branches of mathematics and science in general. In recent years there have been remarkable developments, both in the theory itself and in its relations with other areas. The contributions in this volume originate from the “Workshop on Singularities in Geometry, Topology, Foliations and Dynamics”, held in Merida, Mexico, in December 2014, in celebration of José Seade’s 60th Birthday. It is intended for researchers and graduate students interested in singularity theory and its impact on other fields.

  9. Cusp singularities in f(R) gravity: pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    We investigate cusp singularities in f(R) gravity, especially for Starobinsky and Hu-Sawicki dark energy models. We illustrate that, by using double-null numerical simulations, a cusp singularity can be triggered by gravitational collapses. This singularity can be cured by adding a quadratic term, but this causes a Ricci scalar bump that can be observed by an observer outside the event horizon. Comparing with cosmological parameters, it seems that it would be difficult to see super-Planckian effects by astrophysical experiments. On the other hand, at once there exists a cusp singularity, it can be a mechanism to realize a horizon scale curvature singularity that can be interpreted by a firewall

  10. Fold points and singularity induced bifurcation in inviscid transonic flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marszalek, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Transonic inviscid flow equation of elliptic–hyperbolic type when written in terms of the velocity components and similarity variable results in a second order nonlinear ODE having several features typical of differential–algebraic equations rather than ODEs. These features include the fold singularities (e.g. folded nodes and saddles, forward and backward impasse points), singularity induced bifurcation behavior and singularity crossing phenomenon. We investigate the above properties and conclude that the quasilinear DAEs of transonic flow have interesting properties that do not occur in other known quasilinear DAEs, for example, in MHD. Several numerical examples are included. -- Highlights: ► A novel analysis of inviscid transonic flow and its similarity solutions. ► Singularity induced bifurcation, singular points of transonic flow. ► Projection method, index of transonic flow DAEs, linearization via matrix pencil.

  11. Crack initiation criteria for singular stress concentrations Part I: A universal assessment of singular stress concentrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knésl, Zdeněk; Klusák, Jan; Náhlík, Luboš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2007), s. 399-408 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/0320; GA ČR GA101/05/0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture mechanics * stability criteria * singular stress concentrations * crack initiation * critical stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  12. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Klaus

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD, possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that direct infusion of chemically modified (naked, murine-specific siRNA into the hippocampus significantly reduces SNCA levels. Reduction of SNCA in the hippocampus and cortex persists for a minimum of 1 week post-infusion with recovery nearing control levels by 3 weeks post-infusion. Conclusion We have developed naked gene-specific siRNAs that silence expression of SNCA in vivo. This approach may prove beneficial toward our understanding of the endogenous functional equilibrium of SNCA, its role in disease, and eventually as a therapeutic strategy for α-synucleinopathies resulting from SNCA overexpression.

  13. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jada; Melrose, Heather; Bumcrot, David; Hope, Andrew; Zehr, Cynthia; Lincoln, Sarah; Braithwaite, Adam; He, Zhen; Ogholikhan, Sina; Hinkle, Kelly; Kent, Caroline; Toudjarska, Ivanka; Charisse, Klaus; Braich, Ravi; Pandey, Rajendra K; Heckman, Michael; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Crook, Julia; Farrer, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA) in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that direct infusion of chemically modified (naked), murine-specific siRNA into the hippocampus significantly reduces SNCA levels. Reduction of SNCA in the hippocampus and cortex persists for a minimum of 1 week post-infusion with recovery nearing control levels by 3 weeks post-infusion. Conclusion We have developed naked gene-specific siRNAs that silence expression of SNCA in vivo. This approach may prove beneficial toward our understanding of the endogenous functional equilibrium of SNCA, its role in disease, and eventually as a therapeutic strategy for α-synucleinopathies resulting from SNCA overexpression. PMID:18976489

  14. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  15. Dominance and queen succession in captive colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F M; Faulkes, C G

    1997-07-22

    Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female (the 'queen') and one to three males. Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. We examined dominance and queen succession within captive colonies to investigate the relationship between urinary testosterone and cortisol, dominance rank and reproductive status; and to determine if behavioural and/or physiological parameters can be used as predictors of queen succession. Social structure was characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy before and after queen removal. Prior to queen removal, dominance rank was negatively correlated with body weight and urinary testosterone and cortisol titres in males and females. Queen removal results in social instability and aggression between high ranking individuals. Dominance rank appears to be a good predictor of reproductive status: queens are the highest ranking colony females and are succeeded by the next highest ranking females. The intense dominance-related aggression that accompanies reproductive succession in naked mole-rats provides empirical support for optimal skew theory.

  16. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M Herrera G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet, 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group consumed diet based on corn and soybeans. They were reared on floor. Weighed every seven days. Weight gain, voluntary intake, conversion, balance and efficiency of feed utilization were calculated. Results. The highest total feed intake and average daily gain in rearing were 37.43g 9509.96 g respectively for M. alba (p<0.05, which also presented the best efficiency of energy and protein. Meanwhile, G. sepium showed the lowest values. Conclusions. It is possible to replace 5% of corn and soy in the diet of naked neck chickens, with the inclusion of leaf meal M. alba and get a favorable productive behavior.

  17. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms.

  18. Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Van Mil, Spencer; Bulkowski, Camila; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-11-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. We have examined androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR+) cells in brain regions comprising the recently described social decision-making network in subordinate and breeder naked mole-rats of both sexes. We find that subordinates have a significantly higher percentage of AR+ cells in all brain regions expressing this protein. By contrast, there were no significant effects of sex and no sex-by-status interactions on the percentage of AR+ cells. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Park, Thomas J; Kang, Hyesin; Biney, Adriana; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Animals that have evolved exceptional capabilities, such as extraordinary longevity may reveal pertinent and potentially critical insights into biomedical research that are not readily apparent in standard laboratory animals. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber; NMRs) are extremely long-lived (30 years) mouse-sized rodents. They clearly have evolved superior anti-aging mechanisms as evident by the markedly attenuated age-related decline in physiological function, sustained reproductive capacity and pronounced cancer resistance throughout their long-lives. These eusocial rodents, like the social insects, live in colonies with breeding restricted to one female and a few males. Subordinates are sexually monomorphic, yet retain the ability to become breeders, and can undergo growth surges and neural modifications at any time throughout their life. This plasticity in physiological and behavioral aspects may have contributed to their long-lives. Naked mole-rats show numerous adaptations to life underground including extreme tolerance of hypoxia, acid insensitivity, as well as independence of photoendocrine systems. Here we review what is known about their unique social structure, sensory systems, endocrinology and neurobiology, and highlight areas that may be pertinent to biogerontology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Very low-energy and low-fluence ion beam bombardment of naked plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norarat, R.; Semsang, N.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Yu, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam bombardment of biological organisms has been recently applied to mutation breeding of both agricultural and horticultural plants. In order to explore relevant mechanisms, this study employed low-energy ion beams to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The study aimed at simulation of the final stage of the process of the ion beam bombardment of real cells to check whether and how very low-energy and low-fluence of ions can induce mutation. Argon and nitrogen ions at 5 keV and 2.5 keV respectively bombarded naked plasmid DNA pGFP to very low-fluences, an order of 10 13 ions/cm 2 . Subsequently, DNA states were analyzed using electrophoresis. Results provided evidences that the very low-energy and low-fluence ion bombardment indeed altered the DNA structure from supercoil to short linear fragments through multiple double strand breaks and thus induced mutation, which was confirmed by transfer of the bombarded DNA into bacteria Escherichia coli and subsequent expression of the marker gene.

  3. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms

  4. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Shiota, Goshi

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SRα promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes

  5. 3rd Singularity Theory Meeting of Northeast region & the Brazil-Mexico 2nd Meeting on Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, Aurélio; Mond, David; Saia, Marcelo; Snoussi, Jawad; BMMS 2/NBMS 3; ENSINO; Singularities and foliations geometry, topology and applications

    2018-01-01

    This proceedings book brings selected works from two conferences, the 2nd Brazil-Mexico Meeting on Singularity and the 3rd Northeastern Brazilian Meeting on Singularities, that were hold in Salvador, in July 2015. All contributions were carefully peer-reviewed and revised, and cover topics like Equisingularity, Topology and Geometry of Singularities, Topological Classification of Singularities of Mappings, and more. They were written by mathematicians from several countries, including Brazil, Spain, Mexico, Japan and the USA, on relevant topics on Theory of Singularity, such as studies on deformations, Milnor fibration, foliations, Catastrophe theory, and myriad applications. Open problems are also introduced, making this volume a must-read both for graduate students and active researchers in this field.

  6. Virtual Singular Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Transformation Media Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Barabanenkov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available If a scatterer and an observation point (receive both approach the so-called near field zone of a source of electromagnetic waves, the scattering process becomes singular one which is mathematically attributed to the spatial singularity of the free space Green function at the origin. Starting from less well known property of left-handed material slab to transfer the singularity of the free space Green function by implementing coordinate transformation, we present a phenomenon of virtual singular scattering of electromagnetic wave on an inhomogeneity located in the volume of left – handed material slab. Virtual singular scattering means that a scatterer is situated only virtually in the near field zone of a source, being, in fact, positioned in the far field zone. Such a situation is realized if a scatterer is embedded into a flat Veselago’s lens and approaches the lens’s inner focus because a slab of Veselago medium produces virtual sources inside and behind the slab and virtual scatterer (as a source of secondary waves from both slab sides. Considering a line-like dielectric scatterer we demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is proportional to product of singular quasistatic parts of two empty space Green functions that means a multiplicative quasistatic singularity of the Green function for a slab of inhomogeneous Veselago medium. We calculate a resonance value of the scattering amplitude in the regime similar to the known Mie resonance scattering.

  7. Solutions of dissimilar material singularity and contact problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.

    2003-09-01

    Due to the mismatch of the material properties of joined components, after a homogeneous temperature change or under a mechanical loading, very high stresses occur near the intersection of the interface and the outer surface, or near the intersection of two interfaces. For most material combinations and joint geometries, there exists even a stress singularity. These high stresses may cause fracture of the joint. The investigation of the stress situation near the singular point, therefore, is of great interest. Especially, the relationship between the singular stress exponent, the material data and joint geometry is important for choosing a suitable material combination and joint geometry. In this work, the singular stress field is described analytically in case of the joint having a real and a complex eigenvalue. Solutions of different singularity problems are given, which are two dissimilar materials joint with free edges; dissimilar materials joint with edge tractions; joint with interface corner; joint with a given displacement at one edge; cracks in dissimilar materials joint; contact problem in dissimilar materials and logarithmic stress singularity. For an arbitrary joint geometry and material combination, the stress singular exponent, the angular function and the regular stress term can be calculated analytically. The stress intensity factors for a finite joint can be determined applying numerical methods, e.g. the finite element method (FEM). The method to determine more than one stress intensity factor is presented. The characteristics of the eigenvalues and the stress intensity factors are shown for different joint conditions. (orig.)

  8. Boundary singularities produced by the motion of soap films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E; McTavish, James; Moffatt, H Keith; Pesci, Adriana I

    2014-06-10

    Recent work has shown that a Möbius strip soap film rendered unstable by deforming its frame changes topology to that of a disk through a "neck-pinching" boundary singularity. This behavior is unlike that of the catenoid, which transitions to two disks through a bulk singularity. It is not yet understood whether the type of singularity is generally a consequence of the surface topology, nor how this dependence could arise from an equation of motion for the surface. To address these questions we investigate experimentally, computationally, and theoretically the route to singularities of soap films with different topologies, including a family of punctured Klein bottles. We show that the location of singularities (bulk or boundary) may depend on the path of the boundary deformation. In the unstable regime the driving force for soap-film motion is the mean curvature. Thus, the narrowest part of the neck, associated with the shortest nontrivial closed geodesic of the surface, has the highest curvature and is the fastest moving. Just before onset of the instability there exists on the stable surface the shortest closed geodesic, which is the initial condition for evolution of the neck's geodesics, all of which have the same topological relationship to the frame. We make the plausible conjectures that if the initial geodesic is linked to the boundary, then the singularity will occur at the boundary, whereas if the two are unlinked initially, then the singularity will occur in the bulk. Numerical study of mean curvature flows and experiments support these conjectures.

  9. Quantum healing of classical singularities in power-law spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helliwell, T M [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711 (United States); Konkowski, D A [Department of Mathematics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States)

    2007-07-07

    We study a broad class of spacetimes whose metric coefficients reduce to powers of a radius r in the limit of small r. Among these four-parameter 'power-law' metrics, we identify those parameters for which the spacetimes have classical singularities as r {yields} 0. We show that a large set of such classically-singular spacetimes is nevertheless non-singular quantum mechanically, in that the Hamiltonian operator is essentially self-adjoint, so that the evolution of quantum wave packets lacks the ambiguity associated with scattering off singularities. Using these metrics, the broadest class yet studied to compare classical with quantum singularities, we explore the physical reasons why some that are singular classically are 'healed' quantum mechanically, while others are not. We show that most (but not all) of the remaining quantum-mechanically singular spacetimes can be excluded if either the weak energy condition or the dominant energy condition is invoked, and we briefly discuss the effect of this work on the strong cosmic censorship conjecture.

  10. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in ...

  11. Tangled nonlinear driven chain reactions of all optical singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V. I.; Soskin, M. S.

    2012-03-01

    Dynamics of polarization optical singularities chain reactions in generic elliptically polarized speckle fields created in photorefractive crystal LiNbO3 was investigated in details Induced speckle field develops in the tens of minutes scale due to photorefractive 'optical damage effect' induced by incident beam of He-Ne laser. It was shown that polarization singularities develop through topological chain reactions of developing speckle fields driven by photorefractive nonlinearities induced by incident laser beam. All optical singularities (C points, optical vortices, optical diabolos,) are defined by instantaneous topological structure of the output wavefront and are tangled by singular optics lows. Therefore, they have develop in tangled way by six topological chain reactions driven by nonlinear processes in used nonlinear medium (photorefractive LiNbO3:Fe in our case): C-points and optical diabolos for right (left) polarized components domains with orthogonally left (right) polarized optical vortices underlying them. All elements of chain reactions consist from loop and chain links when nucleated singularities annihilated directly or with alien singularities in 1:9 ratio. The topological reason of statistics was established by low probability of far enough separation of born singularities pair from existing neighbor singularities during loop trajectories. Topology of developing speckle field was measured and analyzed by dynamic stokes polarimetry with few seconds' resolution. The hierarchy of singularities govern scenario of tangled chain reactions was defined. The useful space-time data about peculiarities of optical damage evolution were obtained from existence and parameters of 'islands of stability' in developing speckle fields.

  12. From Fourier Transforms to Singular Eigenfunctions for Multigroup Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    A new Fourier transform approach to the solution of the multigroup transport equation with anisotropic scattering and isotropic source is presented. Through routine analytical continuation, the inversion contour is shifted from the real line to produce contributions from the poles and cuts in the complex plane. The integrand along the branch cut is then recast in terms of matrix continuum singular eigenfunctions, demonstrating equivalence of Fourier transform inversion and the singular eigenfunction expansion. The significance of this paper is that it represents the initial step in revealing the intimate connection between the Fourier transform and singular eigenfunction approaches as well as serves as a basis for a numerical algorithm

  13. Repulsive and attractive timelike singularities in vacuum cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.D.

    1979-01-01

    Spherically symmetric cosmologies whose big bang is partially spacelike and partially timelike are constrained to occur only in the presence of certain types of matter, and in such cosmologies the timelike part of the big bang is a negative-mass singularity. In this paper examples are given of cylindrically symmetric cosmologies whose big bang is partially spacelike and partially timelike. These cosmologies are vacuum. In some of them, the timelike part of the big bang is clearly a (generalized) negative-mass singularity, while in others it is a (generalized) positive-mass singularity

  14. On the singular perturbations for fractional differential equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine the possible extension of the singular perturbation differential equation to the concept of fractional order derivative. To achieve this, we presented a review of the concept of fractional calculus. We make use of the Laplace transform operator to derive exact solution of singular perturbation fractional linear differential equations. We make use of the methodology of three analytical methods to present exact and approximate solution of the singular perturbation fractional, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. These methods are including the regular perturbation method, the new development of the variational iteration method, and the homotopy decomposition method.

  15. An investigation of singular Lagrangians as field systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabei, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    The link between the treatment of singular Lagrangians as field systems and the general approach is studied. It is shown that singular Lagrangians as field systems are always in exact agreement with the general approach. Two examples and the singular Lagrangian with zero rank Hessian matrix are studied. The equations of motion in the field systems are equivalent to the equations which contain acceleration, and the constraints are equivalent to the equations which do not contain acceleration in the general approach treatment. (author). 10 refs

  16. Singularity, initial conditions and quantum tunneling in modern cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatnikov, I M; Kamenshchik, A Yu

    1998-01-01

    The key problems of modern cosmology, such as the cosmological singularity, initial conditions, and the quantum tunneling hypothesis, are discussed. The relationship between the latest cosmological trends and L D Landau's old ideas is analyzed. Particular attention is given to the oscillatory approach to singularity; quantum tunneling processes determining wave function of the Universe in the presence of a compex scalar field; and the role of quantum corrections in these processes. The classical dynamics of closed models with a real scalar field is investigated from the standpoint of chaotic, fractal, and singularity-avoiding properties. (special issue)

  17. On the Singular Perturbations for Fractional Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to examine the possible extension of the singular perturbation differential equation to the concept of fractional order derivative. To achieve this, we presented a review of the concept of fractional calculus. We make use of the Laplace transform operator to derive exact solution of singular perturbation fractional linear differential equations. We make use of the methodology of three analytical methods to present exact and approximate solution of the singular perturbation fractional, nonlinear, nonhomogeneous differential equation. These methods are including the regular perturbation method, the new development of the variational iteration method, and the homotopy decomposition method.

  18. Finger image quality based on singular point localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinghua; Olsen, Martin A.; Busch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Singular points are important global features of fingerprints and singular point localization is a crucial step in biometric recognition. Moreover the presence and position of the core point in a captured fingerprint sample can reflect whether the finger is placed properly on the sensor. Therefore...... and analyze the importance of singular points on biometric accuracy. The experiment is based on large scale databases and conducted by relating the measured quality of a fingerprint sample, given by the positions of core points, to the biometric performance. The experimental results show the positions of core...

  19. Singular Value Decomposition and Ligand Binding Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Galo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular values decomposition (SVD is one of the most important computations in linear algebra because of its vast application for data analysis. It is particularly useful for resolving problems involving least-squares minimization, the determination of matrix rank, and the solution of certain problems involving Euclidean norms. Such problems arise in the spectral analysis of ligand binding to macromolecule. Here, we present a spectral data analysis method using SVD (SVD analysis and nonlinear fitting to determine the binding characteristics of intercalating drugs to DNA. This methodology reduces noise and identifies distinct spectral species similar to traditional principal component analysis as well as fitting nonlinear binding parameters. We applied SVD analysis to investigate the interaction of actinomycin D and daunomycin with native DNA. This methodology does not require prior knowledge of ligand molar extinction coefficients (free and bound, which potentially limits binding analysis. Data are acquired simply by reconstructing the experimental data and by adjusting the product of deconvoluted matrices and the matrix of model coefficients determined by the Scatchard and McGee and von Hippel equation.

  20. Singular limits in thermodynamics of viscous fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    This book is about singular limits of systems of partial differential equations governing the motion of thermally conducting compressible viscous fluids. "The main aim is to provide mathematically rigorous arguments how to get from the compressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier system several less complex systems of partial differential equations used e.g. in meteorology or astrophysics. However, the book contains also a detailed introduction to the modelling in mechanics and thermodynamics of fluids from the viewpoint of continuum physics. The book is very interesting and important. It can be recommended not only to specialists in the field, but it can also be used for doctoral students and young researches who want to start to work in the mathematical theory of compressible fluids and their asymptotic limits." Milan Pokorný (zbMATH) "This book is of the highest quality from every point of view. It presents, in a unified way, recent research material of fundament al importance. It is self-contained, thanks to Chapt...

  1. Singularity fitting in hydrodynamical calculations II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richtmyer, R.D.; Lazarus, R.B.

    1975-09-01

    This is the second report in a series on the development of techniques for the proper handling of singularities in fluid-dynamical calculations; the first was called Progress Report on the Shock-Fitting Project. This report contains six main results: derivation of a free-surface condition, which relates the acceleration of the surface with the gradient of the square of the sound speed just behind it; an accurate method for the early and middle stages of the development of a rarefaction wave, two orders of magnitude more accurate than a simple direct method used for comparison; the similarity theory of the collapsing free surface, where it is shown that there is a two-parameter family of self-similar solutions for γ = 3.9; the similarity theory for the outgoing shock, which takes into account the entropy increase; a ''zooming'' method for the study of the asymptotic behavior of solutions of the full initial boundary-value problem; comparison of two methods for determining the similarity parameter delta by zooming, which shows that the second method is preferred. Future reports in the series will contain discussions of the self-similar solutions for this problem, and for that of the collapsing shock, in more detail and for the full range (1, infinity) of γ; the values of certain integrals related to neutronic and thermonuclear rates near collapse; and methods for fitting shocks, contact discontinuities, interfaces, and free surfaces in two-dimensional flows

  2. Singular perturbation in the physical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Neu, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book is the testimony of a physical scientist whose language is singular perturbation analysis. Classical mathematical notions, such as matched asymptotic expansions, projections of large dynamical systems onto small center manifolds, and modulation theory of oscillations based either on multiple scales or on averaging/transformation theory, are included. The narratives of these topics are carried by physical examples: Let's say that the moment when we "see" how a mathematical pattern fits a physical problem is like "hitting the ball." Yes, we want to hit the ball. But a powerful stroke includes the follow-through. One intention of this book is to discern in the structure and/or solutions of the equations their geometric and physical content. Through analysis, we come to sense directly the shape and feel of phenomena. The book is structured into a main text of fundamental ideas and a subtext of problems with detailed solutions. Roughly speaking, the former is the initial contact between mathematics and p...

  3. Finite-time future singularities in modified Gauss-Bonnet and F(R,G) gravity and singularity avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Zerbini, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    We study all four types of finite-time future singularities emerging in the late-time accelerating (effective quintessence/phantom) era from F(R,G)-gravity, where R and G are the Ricci scalar and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant, respectively. As an explicit example of F(R,G)-gravity, we also investigate modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity, so-called F(G)-gravity. In particular, we reconstruct the F(G)-gravity and F(R,G)-gravity models where accelerating cosmologies realizing the finite-time future singularities emerge. Furthermore, we discuss a possible way to cure the finite-time future singularities in F(G)-gravity and F(R,G)-gravity by taking into account higher-order curvature corrections. The example of non-singular realistic modified Gauss-Bonnet gravity is presented. It turns out that adding such non-singular modified gravity to singular Dark Energy makes the combined theory a non-singular one as well. (orig.)

  4. Existence of localizing solutions in plasticity via the geometric singular perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2017-01-31

    Shear bands are narrow zones of intense shear observed during plastic deformations of metals at high strain rates. Because they often precede rupture, their study attracted attention as a mechanism of material failure. Here, we aim to reveal the onset of localization into shear bands using a simple model from viscoplasticity. We exploit the properties of scale invariance of the model to construct a family of self-similar focusing solutions that capture the nonlinear mechanism of shear band formation. The key step is to desingularize a reduced system of singular ordinary differential equations and reduce the problem into the construction of a heteroclinic orbit for an autonomous system of three first-order equations. The associated dynamical system has fast and slow time scales, forming a singularly perturbed problem. Geometric singular perturbation theory is applied to this problem to achieve an invariant surface. The flow on the invariant surface is analyzed via the Poincaré--Bendixson theorem to construct a heteroclinic orbit.

  5. Non-singular Brans–Dicke collapse in deformed phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, S.M.M., E-mail: mrasouli@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA - UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Physics Group, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, A.H., E-mail: ah_ziaie@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalzadeh, S., E-mail: shahram.jalalzadeh@unila.edu.br [Federal University of Latin-American Integration, Technological Park of Itaipu PO box 2123, Foz do Iguaçu-PR, 85867-670 (Brazil); Moniz, P.V., E-mail: pmoniz@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA - UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2016-12-15

    We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans–Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature (Scheel, 1995), that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding phase begins. Such a behavior is observed for positive values of the BD coupling parameter. For large positive values of the BD coupling parameter, when non-commutative effects are present, the dynamics of collapse process differs from the GR case. Finally, we show that for negative values of the BD coupling parameter, the singularity is replaced by an oscillatory bounce occurring at a finite time, with the frequency of oscillation and amplitude being damped at late times.

  6. Non-singular Brans–Dicke collapse in deformed phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouli, S.M.M.; Ziaie, A.H.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Moniz, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans–Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature (Scheel, 1995), that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding phase begins. Such a behavior is observed for positive values of the BD coupling parameter. For large positive values of the BD coupling parameter, when non-commutative effects are present, the dynamics of collapse process differs from the GR case. Finally, we show that for negative values of the BD coupling parameter, the singularity is replaced by an oscillatory bounce occurring at a finite time, with the frequency of oscillation and amplitude being damped at late times.

  7. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage--a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle--as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ~3 and ~5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye.

  8. First 10 kg of naked Germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen installed in the GENIUS-Test-Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Chkvorets, O.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Strecker, H.; Tomei, C.

    2003-01-01

    The first four naked high-purity Germanium detectors were installed successfully in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS-Test-Facility in the GRAN SASSO Underground Laboratory on May 5, 2003. This is the first time ever that this novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is going to be tested underground. First operational parameters are presented

  9. Naked (C5Me5)(2)M cations (M = Sc, Ti, and V) and their fluoroarene complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, MW; Budzelaar, PHM; Gercama, J; Morales, ID; de Wolf, J; Meetsma, A; Troyanov, SI; Teuben, JH; Hessen, B; Budzelaar, Peter H.M.; Hierro Morales, Isabel Del; Troyanov, Sergei I.

    2005-01-01

    The ionic metallocene complexes [Cp*M-2][BPh4] (CP* = C5Me5) of the trivalent 3d metals Sc, Ti, and V were synthesized and structurally characterized. For M Sc, the anion interacts weakly with the metal center through one of the phenyl groups, but for M = Ti and V, the cations are naked. They each

  10. The perception of (naked only) bodies and faceless heads relies on holistic processing: Evidence from the inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonemei, Rob; Costantino, Andrea I; Battistel, Ilenia; Rivolta, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Faces and bodies are more difficult to perceive when presented inverted than when presented upright (i.e., stimulus inversion effect), an effect that has been attributed to the disruption of holistic processing. The features that can trigger holistic processing in faces and bodies, however, still remain elusive. In this study, using a sequential matching task, we tested whether stimulus inversion affects various categories of visual stimuli: faces, faceless heads, faceless heads in body context, headless bodies naked, whole bodies naked, headless bodies clothed, and whole bodies clothed. Both accuracy and inversion efficiency score results show inversion effects for all categories but for clothed bodies (with and without heads). In addition, the magnitude of the inversion effect for face, naked body, and faceless heads was similar. Our findings demonstrate that the perception of faces, faceless heads, and naked bodies relies on holistic processing. Clothed bodies (with and without heads), on the other side, may trigger clothes-sensitive rather than body-sensitive perceptual mechanisms. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Brand

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1 SP, 2 an SP antagonist (GR-82334, and 3 an NMDA antagonist (APV on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  12. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Osmulski, Pawel A.; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T.; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31y) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although HSP72 and HSP40 (Hdj1) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging. PMID:25018089

  14. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Antje; Smith, Ewan St J; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-12-21

    Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP). In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1) SP, 2) an SP antagonist (GR-82334), and 3) an NMDA antagonist (APV) on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  15. Development of a Textile Nanocomposite as Naked Eye Indicator of the Exposition to Strong Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pallás

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burns, mainly produced by acids, are a topic of concern. A new sensing material for the detection of strong acids able to be incorporated into textiles has been developed. The material is prepared by the covalent attachment of 2,2′,4,4′,4″-pentamethoxy triphenyl methanol to a mesoporous material which further is included in a nitro resin to obtain a colourless composite. The response of this composite to diverse acid solutions was tested showing the appearance of an intense purple colour (with a colour difference higher than 160 that can be monitored by the naked eye or could be easily digitised to feed an instrumental sensor. Reversibility and resistance to washing cycles were studied with positive results. Finally, the response of the sensing composite to acid vapours was assayed, observing a colour change similar to that found in solution.

  16. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  17. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  18. Review of Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data by Charles Wheelan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelan, Charles. Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data (New York, NY, W. W. Norton & Company, 2014. 282 pp. ISBN 978-0-393-07195-5 In his review of What Numbers Say and The Numbers Game, Rob Root (Numeracy 3(1: 9 writes “Popular books on quantitative literacy need to be easy to read, reasonably comprehensive in scope, and include examples that are thought-provoking and memorable.” Wheelan’s book certainly meets this description, and should be of interest to both the general public and those with a professional interest in numeracy. A moderately diligent learner can get a decent understanding of basic statistics from the book. Teachers of statistics and quantitative literacy will find a wealth of well-related examples and stories to use in their classes.

  19. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A genetic linkage map of hexaploid naked oat constructed with SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyuan Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Naked oat is a unique health food crop in China. Using 202 F2 individuals derived from a hybrid between the variety 578 and the landrace Sanfensan, we constructed a genetic linkage map consisting of 22 linkage groups covering 2070.50 cM and including 208 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The minimum distance between adjacent markers was 0.01 cM and the average was 9.95 cM. Each linkage group contained 2–22 markers. The largest linkage group covered 174.40 cM and the shortest one covered 36.80 cM, with an average of 94.11 cM. Thirty-six markers (17.3% showing distorted segregation were distributed across linkage groups LG5 to LG22. This map complements published oat genetic maps and is applicable for quantitative trait locus analysis, gene cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection.

  1. Covalently bound DNA on naked iron oxide nanoparticles: Intelligent colloidal nano-vector for cell transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Martinello, Tiziana; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Gomiero, Chiara; Baratella, Davide; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Cozza, Giorgio; Patruno, Marco; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Conversely to common coated iron oxide nanoparticles, novel naked surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) can covalently bind DNA. Plasmid (pDNA) harboring the coding gene for GFP was directly chemisorbed onto SAMNs, leading to a novel DNA nanovector (SAMN@pDNA). The spontaneous internalization of SAMN@pDNA into cells was compared with an extensively studied fluorescent SAMN derivative (SAMN@RITC). Moreover, the transfection efficiency of SAMN@pDNA was evaluated and explained by computational model. SAMN@pDNA was prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and computational methods, and molecular dynamic simulation. The size and hydrodynamic properties of SAMN@pDNA and SAMN@RITC were studied by electron transmission microscopy, light scattering and zeta-potential. The two nanomaterials were tested by confocal scanning microscopy on equine peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ePB-MSCs) and GFP expression by SAMN@pDNA was determined. Nanomaterials characterized by similar hydrodynamic properties were successfully internalized and stored into mesenchymal stem cells. Transfection by SAMN@pDNA occurred and GFP expression was higher than lipofectamine procedure, even in the absence of an external magnetic field. A computational model clarified that transfection efficiency can be ascribed to DNA availability inside cells. Direct covalent binding of DNA on naked magnetic nanoparticles led to an extremely robust gene delivery tool. Hydrodynamic and chemical-physical properties of SAMN@pDNA were responsible of the successful uptake by cells and of the efficiency of GFP gene transfection. SAMNs are characterized by colloidal stability, excellent cell uptake, persistence in the host cells, low toxicity and are proposed as novel intelligent DNA nanovectors for efficient cell transfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuldyuld@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.

  3. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mason

    Full Text Available Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  4. Social condition and oxytocin neuron number in the hypothalamus of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, S J; Holmes, M M

    2013-01-29

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean colonial rodent. In each colony, which can grow to as many as 300 individuals, there is only one female and 1-3 males that are reproductive and socially dominant. The remaining animals are reproductively suppressed subordinates that contribute to colony survival through their cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that has shown relatively widespread effects on prosocial behaviors in other species. We examined whether social status affects the number of oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus by comparing dominant breeding animals to subordinate non-breeding workers from intact colonies. We also examined these regions in subordinate animals that had been removed from their colony and paired with an opposite- or same-sex conspecific for 6 months. Stereological analyses indicated that subordinates had significantly more oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus than breeders. Animals in both opposite- and same-sex pairs showed a decreased oxytocin neuron number compared to subordinates suggesting that status differences may be due to social condition rather than the reproductive activity of the animal per se. The effects of social status appear to be region specific as no group differences were found for oxytocin neuron number in the supraoptic nucleus. Given that subordinate naked mole-rats are kept reproductively suppressed through antagonism by the queen, we speculate that status differences are due either to oxytocin's anxiolytic properties to combat the stress of this antagonism or to its ability to promote the prosocial behaviors of subordinates. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  6. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells

  7. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    numbers, Navier-Stokes flows with large Reynolds numbers, chemical reactor ... It is to observe the layer behavior of the solution for smaller values of ε leading to singular ...... Burger equation, momentum gas equation and heat equation.

  8. Coulomb singularity effects in tunnelling spectroscopy of individual impurities

    OpenAIRE

    Arseyev, P. I.; Maslova, N. S.; Panov, V. I.; Savinov, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    Non-equilibrium Coulomb effects in resonant tunnelling processes through deep impurity states are analyzed. It is shown that Coulomb vertex corrections to the tunnelling transfer amplitude lead to a power-law singularity in current- voltage characteristics

  9. Singularities of robot mechanisms numerical computation and avoidance path planning

    CERN Document Server

    Bohigas, Oriol; Ros, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the singular configurations associated with a robot mechanism, together with robust methods for their computation, interpretation, and avoidance path planning. Having such methods is essential as singularities generally pose problems to the normal operation of a robot, but also determine the workspaces and motion impediments of its underlying mechanical structure. A distinctive feature of this volume is that the methods are applicable to nonredundant mechanisms of general architecture, defined by planar or spatial kinematic chains interconnected in an arbitrary way. Moreover, singularities are interpreted as silhouettes of the configuration space when seen from the input or output spaces. This leads to a powerful image that explains the consequences of traversing singular configurations, and all the rich information that can be extracted from them. The problems are solved by means of effective branch-and-prune and numerical continuation methods that are of independent interest in themselves...

  10. M theory and singularities of exceptional holonomy manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, Bobby S.; Gukov, Sergei

    2004-12-01

    M theory compactifications on G 2 holonomy manifolds, whilst supersymmetric, require singularities in order to obtain non-Abelian gauge groups, chiral fermions and other properties necessary for a realistic model of particle physics. We review recent progress in understanding the physics of such singularities. Our main aim is to describe the techniques which have been used to develop our understanding of M theory physics near these singularities. In parallel, we also describe similar sorts of singularities in Spin(7) holonomy manifolds which correspond to the properties of three dimensional field theories. As an application, we review how various aspects of strongly coupled gauge theories, such as confinement, mass gap and non-perturbative phase transitions may be given a simple explanation in M theory. (author)

  11. Dark energy and dark matter perturbations in singular universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of density perturbations of dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models which admit future singularities in a finite time. Up to now geometrical tests of the evolution of the universe do not differentiate between singular universes and ΛCDM scenario. We solve perturbation equations using the gauge invariant formalism. The analysis shows that the detailed reconstruction of the evolution of perturbations within singular cosmologies, in the dark sector, can exhibit important differences between the singular universes models and the ΛCDM cosmology. This is encouraging for further examination and gives hope for discriminating between those models with future galaxy weak lensing experiments like the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid or CMB observations like PRISM and CoRE

  12. Quantum gravitational collapse: non-singularity and non-locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gravitational collapse in the context of quantum mechanics. We take primary interest in the behavior of the collapse near the horizon and near the origin (classical singularity) from the point of view of an infalling observer. In the absence of radiation, quantum effects near the horizon do not change the classical conclusions for an infalling observer, meaning the horizon is not an obstacle for him. However, quantum effects are able to remove the classical singularity at the origin, since the wave function is non-singular at the origin. Also, near the classical singularity, some non-local effects become important. In the Schrodinger equation describing behavior near the origin, derivatives of the wave function at one point are related to the value of the wave function at some other distant point.

  13. Phase Singularities and Termination of Spiral Wave Reentry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eason, James

    2001-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanisms by which a strong shock terminates reentrant wavefronts, we employed phase analysis techniques to study phase singularity dynamics in a finite element model of cardiac tissue...

  14. A singular value sensitivity approach to robust eigenstructure assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Per; Trostmann, Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1986-01-01

    A design technique for improving the feedback properties of multivariable state feedback systems designed using eigenstructure assignment is presented. Based on a singular value analysis of the feedback properties a design parameter adjustment procedure is outlined. This procedure allows...

  15. Normal families and isolated singularities of meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, P.S.; Subramaniam, A.

    1985-06-01

    Based on the criterion of Zalcman for normal families, a generalization of a well-known result relating normal families and isolated essential singularities of meromorphic functions is proved, using a theorem of Lehto and Virtanen on normal functions. (author)

  16. Singularity confinement for maps with the Laurent property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A.N.W.

    2007-01-01

    The singularity confinement test is very useful for isolating integrable cases of discrete-time dynamical systems, but it does not provide a sufficient criterion for integrability. Quite recently a new property of the bilinear equations appearing in discrete soliton theory has been noticed: The iterates of such equations are Laurent polynomials in the initial data. A large class of non-integrable mappings of the plane are presented which both possess this Laurent property and have confined singularities

  17. On the collinear singularity problem of hot QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelpergher, B.; Grandou, T.

    2002-01-01

    The collinear singularity problem of hot QCD is revisited within a perturbative resummation scheme (PR) of the leading thermal fluctuations. On the basis of actual calculations, new aspects are discovered concerning the origin of the singularity plaguing the soft real photon emission rate out of a quark-gluon plasma at thermal equilibrium, when the latter is calculated by means of the Resummation Program (RP)

  18. Classical resolution of black hole singularities via wormholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain); Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Sanchez-Puente, A. [Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    In certain extensions of General Relativity, wormholes generated by spherically symmetric electric fields can resolve black hole singularities without necessarily removing curvature divergences. This is shown by studying geodesic completeness, the behavior of time-like congruences going through the divergent region, and by means of scattering of waves off the wormhole. This provides an example of the logical independence between curvature divergences and space-time singularities, concepts very often identified with each other in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Dimension counts for singular rational curves via semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Cotterill, Ethan; Feital, Lia; Martins, Renato Vidal

    2015-01-01

    We study singular rational curves in projective space, deducing conditions on their parametrizations from the value semigroups $\\sss$ of their singularities. In particular, we prove that a natural heuristic for the codimension of the space of nondegenerate rational curves of arithmetic genus $g>0$ and degree $d$ in $\\mb{P}^n$, viewed as a subspace of all degree-$d$ rational curves in $\\mb{P}^n$, holds whenever $g$ is small.

  20. Modified Differential Transform Method for Two Singular Boundary Values Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinwei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the two singular boundary values problems of second order. Two singular points are both boundary values points of the differential equation. The numerical solutions are developed by modified differential transform method (DTM for expanded point. Linear and nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also solve ordinary differential equations where the traditional one fails. Besides, we give the convergence of this new method.

  1. Propagation of singularities for linearised hybrid data impedance tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bal, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non-elliptic con......For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non...

  2. Singular f-sum rule for superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The validity and applicability to inelastic neutron scattering of a singular f-sum rule for superfluid helium, proposed by Griffin to explain the rhosub(s) dependence in S(k, ω) as observed by Woods and Svensson, are examined in the light of similar sum rules rigorously derived for anharmonic crystals and Bose liquids. It is concluded that the singular f-sum rules are only of microscopic interest. (Auth,)

  3. The Notion of 'Singularity' in the Work of Gilles Deleuze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In Deleuze, singularity replaces generality in the economy of thought. A Deleuzian singularity is an event, but the notion comprises the effectuation of the event into form. The triptych émission–distribution–répartition itself distributes the dimensions of the passage from form-giving event to t......-drama-different/ciation’. The essay concludes that it is art that may let us consciously contemplate our pre-individual differences....

  4. On singular interaction potentials in classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagrebnov, V.A.; Pastur, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    A classical system of particles with stable two-body interaction potential is considered. It is shown that for a certain class of highly singular stable two-body potentials a cut-off procedure preserves the stability of the potential. The thermodynamical potentials (pressure and free energy density) and correlation functions are proved to have the property of asymptotic independence with respect to the continuation of the interaction potentials near singularity

  5. Multifractal signal reconstruction based on singularity power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Gang; Yu, Wenxian; Xia, Wenxiang; Zhang, Shuning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a novel multifractal reconstruction method based on singularity power spectrum analysis (MFR-SPS). • The proposed MFR-SPS method has better power characteristic than the algorithm in Fraclab. • Further, the SPS-ISE algorithm performs better than the SPS-MFS algorithm. • Based on the proposed MFR-SPS method, we can restructure singularity white fractal noise (SWFN) and linear singularity modulation (LSM) multifractal signal, in equivalent sense, similar with the linear frequency modulation(LFM) signal and WGN in the Fourier domain. - Abstract: Fractal reconstruction (FR) and multifractal reconstruction (MFR) can be considered as the inverse problem of singularity spectrum analysis, and it is challenging to reconstruct fractal signal in accord with multifractal spectrum (MFS). Due to the multiple solutions of fractal reconstruction, the traditional methods of FR/MFR, such as FBM based method, wavelet based method, random wavelet series, fail to reconstruct fractal signal deterministically, and besides, those methods neglect the power spectral distribution in the singular domain. In this paper, we propose a novel MFR method based singularity power spectrum (SPS). Supposing the consistent uniform covering of multifractal measurement, we control the traditional power law of each scale of wavelet coefficients based on the instantaneous singularity exponents (ISE) or MFS, simultaneously control the singularity power law based on the SPS, and deduce the principle and algorithm of MFR based on SPS. Reconstruction simulation and error analysis of estimated ISE, MFS and SPS show the effectiveness and the improvement of the proposed methods compared to those obtained by the Fraclab package.

  6. Removal of apparent singularity in grid computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubovics, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    A self-consistency test for magnetic domain wall models was suggested by Aharoni. The test consists of evaluating the ratio S = var-epsilon wall /var-epsilon wall , where var-epsilon wall is the wall energy, and var-epsilon wall is the integral of a certain function of the direction cosines of the magnetization, α, β, γ over the volume occupied by the domain wall. If the computed configuration is a good approximation to one corresponding to an energy minimum, the ratio is close to 1. The integrand of var-epsilon wall contains terms that are inversely proportional to γ. Since γ passes through zero at the centre of the domain wall, these terms have a singularity at these points. The integral is finite and its evaluation does not usually present any problems when the direction cosines are known in terms of continuous functions. In many cases, significantly better results for magnetization configurations of domain walls can be obtained by computations using finite element methods. The direction cosines are then only known at a set of discrete points, and integration over the domain wall is replaced by summation over these points. Evaluation of var-epsilon wall becomes inaccurate if the terms in the summation are taken to be the values of the integrand at the grid points, because of the large contribution of points close to where γ changes sign. The self-consistency test has recently been generalised to a larger number of cases. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a method of improving the accuracy of the evaluation of integrals in such cases. Since the self-consistency test has so far only been applied to two-dimensional magnetization configurations, the problem and its solution will be presented for that specific case. Generalisation to three or more dimensions is straight forward

  7. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  8. Singular vectors, predictability and ensemble forecasting for weather and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, T N; Zanna, Laure

    2013-01-01

    The local instabilities of a nonlinear dynamical system can be characterized by the leading singular vectors of its linearized operator. The leading singular vectors are perturbations with the greatest linear growth and are therefore key in assessing the system’s predictability. In this paper, the analysis of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate and ensemble forecasting is discussed. An overview of the role of singular vectors in informing about the error growth rate in numerical models of the atmosphere is given. This is followed by their use in the initialization of ensemble weather forecasts. Singular vectors for the ocean and coupled ocean–atmosphere system in order to understand the predictability of climate phenomena such as ENSO and meridional overturning circulation are reviewed and their potential use to initialize seasonal and decadal forecasts is considered. As stochastic parameterizations are being implemented, some speculations are made about the future of singular vectors for the predictability of weather and climate for theoretical applications and at the operational level. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (review)

  9. Singular spectrum analysis of sleep EEG in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Serap; Saraoǧlu, Hamdi Melih; Kara, Sadık

    2011-08-01

    In the present study, the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) is applied to sleep EEG segments collected from healthy volunteers and patients diagnosed by either psycho physiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia. Then, the resulting singular spectra computed for both C3 and C4 recordings are assigned as the features to the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures for EEG classification in diagnose. In tests, singular spectrum of particular sleep stages such as awake, REM, stage1 and stage2, are considered. Three clinical groups are successfully classified by using one hidden layer ANN architecture with respect to their singular spectra. The results show that the SSA can be applied to sleep EEG series to support the clinical findings in insomnia if ten trials are available for the specific sleep stages. In conclusion, the SSA can detect the oscillatory variations on sleep EEG. Therefore, different sleep stages meet different singular spectra. In addition, different healthy conditions generate different singular spectra for each sleep stage. In summary, the SSA can be proposed for EEG discrimination to support the clinical findings for psycho-psychological disorders.

  10. Curing Black Hole Singularities with Local Scale Invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Dominis Prester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that Weyl-invariant dilaton gravity provides a description of black holes without classical space-time singularities. Singularities appear due to the ill behaviour of gauge fixing conditions, one example being the gauge in which theory is classically equivalent to standard General Relativity. The main conclusions of our analysis are as follows: (1 singularities signal a phase transition from broken to unbroken phase of Weyl symmetry; (2 instead of a singularity, there is a “baby universe” or a white hole inside a black hole; (3 in the baby universe scenario, there is a critical mass after which reducing mass makes the black hole larger as viewed by outside observers; (4 if a black hole could be connected with white hole through the “singularity,” this would require breakdown of (classical geometric description; (5 the singularity of Schwarzschild BH solution is nongeneric and so it is dangerous to rely on it in deriving general results. Our results may have important consequences for resolving issues related to information loss puzzle. Though quantum effects are still crucial and may change the proposed classical picture, a position of building quantum theory around essentially regular classical solutions normally provides a much better starting point.

  11. A New Model of Black Hole Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayer G. D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.

  12. Prominent string of galaxies in Bootes: evidence for a Lagrangian singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tago, E; Einasto, J; Saar, E

    1986-01-15

    An outstanding string of galaxies and of small groups in Bootes has been found during a study of bridges between the Coma and the Local superclusters. It lies on the boundary of a large void between the Hercules and the Local superclusters, has a length of 50 Mpc, is only a few megaparsecs wide and consists of non-elliptical galaxies. A possible explanation by a specific Lagrangian singularity at the formation, the imprint of which has survived in the present galaxy distribution, is proposed. (author).

  13. Amyloid beta and the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat as a model for natural protection from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Medina, David X; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A; Oddo, Salvatore; Caccamo, Antonella; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an integral component of both neural toxicity and plaque formation. Brains of the longest-lived rodents, naked mole-rats (NMRs) approximately 32 years of age, had levels of Aβ similar to those of the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. Interestingly, there was no evidence of extracellular plaques, nor was there an age-related increase in Aβ levels in the individuals examined (2-20+ years). The NMR Aβ peptide showed greater homology to the human sequence than to the mouse sequence, differing by only 1 amino acid from the former. This subtle difference led to interspecies differences in aggregation propensity but not neurotoxicity; NMR Aβ was less prone to aggregation than human Aβ. Nevertheless, both NMR and human Aβ were equally toxic to mouse hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Aβ neurotoxicity and aggregation properties were not coupled. Understanding how NMRs acquire and tolerate high levels of Aβ with no plaque formation could provide useful insights into AD, and may elucidate protective mechanisms that delay AD progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  15. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  17. Segmentation of singularity maps in the context of soil porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sotoca, Juan J.; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical exploration have found with increasingly interests and benefits of using fractal (power-law) models to characterize geochemical distribution, including concentration-area (C-A) model (Cheng et al., 1994; Cheng, 2012) and concentration-volume (C-V) model (Afzal et al., 2011) just to name a few examples. These methods are based on the singularity maps of a measure that at each point define areas with self-similar properties that are shown in power-law relationships in Concentration-Area plots (C-A method). The C-A method together with the singularity map ("Singularity-CA" method) define thresholds that can be applied to segment the map. Recently, the "Singularity-CA" method has been applied to binarize 2D grayscale Computed Tomography (CT) soil images (Martin-Sotoca et al, 2015). Unlike image segmentation based on global thresholding methods, the "Singularity-CA" method allows to quantify the local scaling property of the grayscale value map in the space domain and determinate the intensity of local singularities. It can be used as a high-pass-filter technique to enhance high frequency patterns usually regarded as anomalies when applied to maps. In this work we will put special attention on how to select the singularity thresholds in the C-A plot to segment the image. We will compare two methods: 1) cross point of linear regressions and 2) Wavelets Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) singularity function detection. REFERENCES Cheng, Q., Agterberg, F. P. and Ballantyne, S. B. (1994). The separation of geochemical anomalies from background by fractal methods. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 51, 109-130. Cheng, Q. (2012). Singularity theory and methods for mapping geochemical anomalies caused by buried sources and for predicting undiscovered mineral deposits in covered areas. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 122, 55-70. Afzal, P., Fadakar Alghalandis, Y., Khakzad, A., Moarefvand, P. and Rashidnejad Omran, N. (2011) Delineation of mineralization zones in

  18. Singularity kinematics principle and position-singularity analyses of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yi; Zhou, Hui; Li, Baokun; Shen, Long

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new principle and method of kinematics to analyze the singularity of Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators and addresses the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations. Based on the kinematic relationship of a rigid body, a necessary and sufficient condition that three velocities of three non-collinear points in a moving rigid body can determine a screw motion is addressed and some typical singular configurations of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulators are also addressed in detail. With the above-mentioned condition, a symbolic analytical polynomial expression of degree three in the moving platform position parameters, representing the position-singularity locus of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulators for special orientations, is derived: and the property identification of the position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough manipulator for these special orientations is investigated at length. It is shown that position-singularity loci of the 6-3 Stewart-Gough parallel manipulator for these special orientations will be a plane and a hyperbolic paraboloid, even three intersecting planes

  19. Singular value correlation functions for products of Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Kieburg, Mario; Wei, Lu

    2013-01-01

    We consider the product of M quadratic random matrices with complex elements and no further symmetry, where all matrix elements of each factor have a Gaussian distribution. This generalizes the classical Wishart–Laguerre Gaussian unitary ensemble with M = 1. In this paper, we first compute the joint probability distribution for the singular values of the product matrix when the matrix size N and the number M are fixed but arbitrary. This leads to a determinantal point process which can be realized in two different ways. First, it can be written as a one-matrix singular value model with a non-standard Jacobian, or second, for M ⩾ 2, as a two-matrix singular value model with a set of auxiliary singular values and a weight proportional to the Meijer G-function. For both formulations, we determine all singular value correlation functions in terms of the kernels of biorthogonal polynomials which we explicitly construct. They are given in terms of the hypergeometric and Meijer G-functions, generalizing the Laguerre polynomials for M = 1. Our investigation was motivated from applications in telecommunication of multi-layered scattering multiple-input and multiple-output channels. We present the ergodic mutual information for finite-N for such a channel model with M − 1 layers of scatterers as an example. (paper)

  20. Singularity detection by wavelet approach: application to electrocardiogram signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Bushra; Beya, Ouadi; Fauvet, Eric; Laligant, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    In signal processing, the region of abrupt changes contains the most of the useful information about the nature of the signal. The region or the points where these changes occurred are often termed as singular point or singular region. The singularity is considered to be an important character of the signal, as it refers to the discontinuity and interruption present in the signal and the main purpose of the detection of such singular point is to identify the existence, location and size of those singularities. Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is used to analyze the cardiovascular activity in the human body. However the presence of noise due to several reasons limits the doctor's decision and prevents accurate identification of different pathologies. In this work we attempt to analyze the ECG signal with energy based approach and some heuristic methods to segment and identify different signatures inside the signal. ECG signal has been initially denoised by empirical wavelet shrinkage approach based on Steins Unbiased Risk Estimate (SURE). At the second stage, the ECG signal has been analyzed by Mallat approach based on modulus maximas and Lipschitz exponent computation. The results from both approaches has been discussed and important aspects has been highlighted. In order to evaluate the algorithm, the analysis has been done on MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database; a set of ECG data records sampled at a rate of 360 Hz with 11 bit resolution over a 10mv range. The results have been examined and approved by medical doctors.

  1. Geometric singular perturbation analysis of systems with friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena

    This thesis is concerned with the application of geometric singular perturbation theory to mechanical systems with friction. The mathematical background on geometric singular perturbation theory, on the blow-up method, on non-smooth dynamical systems and on regularization is presented. Thereafter......, two mechanical problems with two different formulations of the friction force are introduced and analysed. The first mechanical problem is a one-dimensional spring-block model describing earthquake faulting. The dynamics of earthquakes is naturally a multiple timescale problem: the timescale...... scales. The action of friction is generally explained as the loss and restoration of linkages between the surface asperities at the molecular scale. However, the consequences of friction are noticeable at much larger scales, like hundreds of kilometers. By using geometric singular perturbation theory...

  2. Body frames and frame singularities for three-atom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.; Mitchell, K.A.; Aquilanti, V.; Cavalli, S.

    1998-01-01

    The subject of body frames and their singularities for three-particle systems is important not only for large-amplitude rovibrational coupling in molecular spectroscopy, but also for reactive scattering calculations. This paper presents a geometrical analysis of the meaning of body frame conventions and their singularities in three-particle systems. Special attention is devoted to the principal axis frame, a certain version of the Eckart frame, and the topological inevitability of frame singularities. The emphasis is on a geometrical picture, which is intended as a preliminary study for the more difficult case of four-particle systems, where one must work in higher-dimensional spaces. The analysis makes extensive use of kinematic rotations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Identity and singularity: Metastability and morphogenesis in light of Deleuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barison Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of life is inextricably connected with the problem of identification and with the fact that each identification process includes the acquisition of a form. Nevertheless, it appears that at the biological level, that is, for what concerns a morphogenetic description of the status of the living being, the term singularity comes into play right there where you would expect to get into the notion of identity. According to Christian De Duve, the organic form has no identity, but it expresses - and is an expression of - a singularity. Given these observations, this is the object of the paper: to explain in a clear and consistent way how these terms - namely identity and singularity - differ and whether it is possible to ground their distinction in a coherent theoretical manner.

  4. Preventing singularities in the Einstein-Cartan cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchowicz, B.

    1977-01-01

    The singularity in expanding cosmological models is an undesirable consequence of general relativity. It may be removed in the Einstein-Cartan theory of gravitation which is an extension of general relativity (''general relativity with spin''). In the Einstein-Cartan theory there appears a characteristic spin-spin interaction which counteracts the contraction of matter above a certain critical density, and thus prevents any singularity. Generalizations of homogeneous cosmological models may contain either locally aligned spins (along an asymmetry axis) or randomly distributed spins (and then only the mean spin density square is macroscopically meaningful). In both cases the singularity can be removed, if only the spin density does increase at a sufficiently fast rate with the contraction of matter. (author)

  5. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method of analytic evolution of distribution amplitudes (DA) that have singularities, such as non-zero values at the end-points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a flat (constant) DA, anti-symmetric at DA and then use it for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials, which requires infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points, and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. The latter produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration, while in our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve, with only one or two iterations needed afterwards in order to get rather precise results.

  6. Quantum no-singularity theorem from geometric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Salwa; Alasfar, Lina; Faizal, Mir; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the classical geometric flow as a dynamical system. We obtain an action for this system, such that its equation of motion is the Raychaudhuri equation. This action will be used to quantize this system. As the Raychaudhuri equation is the basis for deriving the singularity theorems, we will be able to understand the effects and such a quantization will have on the classical singularity theorems. Thus, quantizing the geometric flow, we can demonstrate that a quantum space-time is complete (nonsingular). This is because the existence of a conjugate point is a necessary condition for the occurrence of singularities, and we will be able to demonstrate that such conjugate points cannot occur due to such quantum effects.

  7. Hidden singularities in non-abelian gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the potential (and field) of a non-abelian gauge theory is not well determined when it has a singular point. When this is the cause, it is important to specify the regularization procedure used to give a precise definition of physical quantities at the singularity at any stage of the computation. The fact that a certain A sub(μ) (associated with the given regularization) represents the vacuum when F sub(μν) is a zero distribution not only on the global space but also in all its projections to arbitrary subspaces is discussed. The example used as a base for the discussion is A vetor = i (sigma vetor Λ r vetor / r 2 ). For this example it is shown that different regularizations give the same field in the global space but they give different distributions when projected to subspaces containing the singular point [pt

  8. Singular ways to search for the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, A

    2012-01-01

    The discovery or exclusion of the fundamental standard scalar is a hot topic, given the data of LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC, as well as the advanced status of the pertinent theoretical calculations. With the current statistics at the hadron colliders, the workhorse decay channel, at all relevant H masses, is H to WW, followed by W to light leptons. Using phase-space singularity techniques, we construct and study a plethora of "singularity variables" meant to facilitate the difficult tasks of separating signal and backgrounds and of measuring the mass of a putative signal. The simplest singularity variables are not invariant under boosts along the collider's axes and the simulation of their distributions requires a good understanding of parton distribution functions, perhaps not a serious shortcoming during the boson hunting season. The derivation of longitudinally boost-invariant variables, which are functions of the four charged-lepton observables that share this invariance, is quite elaborate. But their u...

  9. TRUST MODEL FOR SOCIAL NETWORK USING SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Bundi Ntwiga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For effective interactions to take place in a social network, trust is important. We model trust of agents using the peer to peer reputation ratings in the network that forms a real valued matrix. Singular value decomposition discounts the reputation ratings to estimate the trust levels as trust is the subjective probability of future expectations based on current reputation ratings. Reputation and trust are closely related and singular value decomposition can estimate trust using the real valued matrix of the reputation ratings of the agents in the network. Singular value decomposition is an ideal technique in error elimination when estimating trust from reputation ratings. Reputation estimation of trust is optimal at the discounting of 20 %.

  10. Two-scale approach to oscillatory singularly perturbed transport equations

    CERN Document Server

    Frénod, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the classical results of the two-scale convergence theory and explains – using several figures – why it works. It then shows how to use this theory to homogenize ordinary differential equations with oscillating coefficients as well as oscillatory singularly perturbed ordinary differential equations. In addition, it explores the homogenization of hyperbolic partial differential equations with oscillating coefficients and linear oscillatory singularly perturbed hyperbolic partial differential equations. Further, it introduces readers to the two-scale numerical methods that can be built from the previous approaches to solve oscillatory singularly perturbed transport equations (ODE and hyperbolic PDE) and demonstrates how they can be used efficiently. This book appeals to master’s and PhD students interested in homogenization and numerics, as well as to the Iter community.

  11. Singularities in x-ray spectra of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1987-08-01

    The x-ray spectroscopies discussed are absorption, emission, and photoemission. The singularities show up in each of them in a different manner. In absorption and emission they show up as power law singularities at the thresholds frequencies. This review will emphasize two themes. First a simple model is proposed to describe this phenomena, which is now called the MND model after MAHAN-NOZIERES-DeDOMINICIS. Exact analytical solutions are now available for this model for the three spectroscopies discussed above. These analytical models can be evaluated numerically in a simple way. The second theme of this review is that great care must be used when comparing the theory to experiment. A number of factors influence the edge shapes in x-ray spectroscopy. The edge singularities play an important role, and are observed in many matals. Quantitative fits of the theory to experiment require the consideration of other factors. 51 refs

  12. Symposium on Singularities, Representation of Algebras, and Vector Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, Günther

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that there are close relations between classes of singularities and representation theory via the McKay correspondence and between representation theory and vector bundles on projective spaces via the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand construction. These relations however cannot be considered to be either completely understood or fully exploited. These proceedings document recent developments in the area. The questions and methods of representation theory have applications to singularities and to vector bundles. Representation theory itself, which had primarily developed its methods for Artinian algebras, starts to investigate algebras of higher dimension partly because of these applications. Future research in representation theory may be spurred by the classification of singularities and the highly developed theory of moduli for vector bundles. The volume contains 3 survey articles on the 3 main topics mentioned, stressing their interrelationships, as well as original research papers.

  13. Singular perturbations introduction to system order reduction methods with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shchepakina, Elena; Mortell, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a fresh approach to investigating singularly perturbed systems using asymptotic and geometrical techniques. It gives many examples and step-by-step techniques, which will help beginners move to a more advanced level. Singularly perturbed systems appear naturally in the modelling of many processes that are characterized by slow and fast motions simultaneously, for example, in fluid dynamics and nonlinear mechanics. This book’s approach consists in separating out the slow motions of the system under investigation. The result is a reduced differential system of lesser order. However, it inherits the essential elements of the qualitative behaviour of the original system. Singular Perturbations differs from other literature on the subject due to its methods and wide range of applications. It is a valuable reference for specialists in the areas of applied mathematics, engineering, physics, biology, as well as advanced undergraduates for the earlier parts of the book, and graduate stude...

  14. Breakdown of predictability: an investigation on the nature of singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir Shah, K.

    1980-12-01

    When relations are extrapolated beyond their premises of discovery, the operation sometimes results in an undefined object, i.e., one which cannot be identified within the given structure. The thesis is put forth that the occurrence of singularities is due to ''incompleteness'' in knowledge. An intuitive answer on how to deal with singularities (in, for instance, the real number system, space-time, quantum field theory) is presented first. Then a quasi-formalistic approach, e.g. non-standard models in higher-order languages and Lawvere's axiomatic formulation of categories, is set out. The independence of singularity with respect to other primitive notions of the Universe of knowledge is noted

  15. Fermi-edge singularity and the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Fabian B.; von Delft, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We study the Fermi-edge singularity, describing the response of a degenerate electron system to optical excitation, in the framework of the functional renormalization group (fRG). Results for the (interband) particle-hole susceptibility from various implementations of fRG (one- and two-particle-irreducible, multi-channel Hubbard–Stratonovich, flowing susceptibility) are compared to the summation of all leading logarithmic (log) diagrams, achieved by a (first-order) solution of the parquet equations. For the (zero-dimensional) special case of the x-ray-edge singularity, we show that the leading log formula can be analytically reproduced in a consistent way from a truncated, one-loop fRG flow. However, reviewing the underlying diagrammatic structure, we show that this derivation relies on fortuitous partial cancellations special to the form of and accuracy applied to the x-ray-edge singularity and does not generalize.

  16. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase act...

  17. Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Colleen M; Troendle, Nicholas J; Gill, Clare A; Braude, Stanton; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2015-10-01

    The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as a mating system) are the driving forces for the evolution of this eusocial species. One caveat to accepting this long-held view is that the original genetic studies were based on limited sampling from the species' geographic distribution. A growing body of evidence supports a contrary view, with the original samples not representative of the species-rather reflecting a single founder event, establishing a small population south of the Athi River. Our study is the first to address these competing hypotheses by examining patterns of molecular variation in colonies sampled from north and south of the Athi and Tana rivers, which based on our results, serve to isolate genetically distinct populations of naked mole-rats. Although colonies south of the Athi River share a single mtDNA haplotype and are fixed at most microsatellite loci, populations north of the Athi River are considerably more variable. Our findings support the position that the low variation observed in naked mole-rat populations south of the Athi River reflects a founder event, rather than a consequence of this species' unusual mating system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cerebellar Expression of the Neurotrophin Receptor p75 in Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahimi Balaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous mutation in the lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 (Acp2 mouse (nax—naked-ataxia mutant mouse correlates with severe cerebellar defects including ataxia, reduced size and abnormal lobulation as well as Purkinje cell (Pc degeneration. Loss of Pcs in the nax cerebellum is compartmentalized and harmonized to the classic pattern of gene expression of the cerebellum in the wild type mouse. Usually, degeneration starts in the anterior and posterior zones and continues to the central and nodular zones of cerebellum. Studies have suggested that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR plays a role in Pc degeneration; thus, in this study, we investigated the p75NTR pattern and protein expression in the cerebellum of the nax mutant mouse. Despite massive Pc degeneration that was observed in the nax mouse cerebellum, p75NTR pattern expression was similar to the HSP25 pattern in nax mice and comparable with wild type sibling cerebellum. In addition, immunoblot analysis of p75NTR protein expression did not show any significant difference between nax and wild type sibling (p > 0.5. In comparison with wild type counterparts, p75NTR pattern expression is aligned with the fundamental cytoarchitecture organization of the cerebellum and is unchanged in the nax mouse cerebellum despite the severe neurodevelopmental disorder accompanied with Pc degeneration.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of azo-guanidine based alcoholic media naked eye DNA sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmat, Uzma; Yousaf, Muhammad; Lal, Bhajan; Ullah, Shafiq; Holder, Alvin A.; Badshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    DNA sensing always has an open meadow of curiosity for biotechnologists and other researchers. Recently, in this field, we have introduced an emerging class of molecules containing azo and guanidine functionalities. In this study, we have synthesized three new compounds (UA1, UA6 and UA7) for potential application in DNA sensing in alcoholic medium. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their DNA sensing potential were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The insight of interaction with DNA was further investigated by electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) and hydrodynamic (viscosity) studies. The results showed that compounds have moderate DNA binding properties, with the binding constants range being 7.2 × 103, 2.4 × 103 and 0.2 × 103 M−1, for UA1, UA6 and UA7, respectively. Upon binding with DNA, there was a change in colour (a blue shift in the λmax value) which was observable with a naked eye. These results indicated the potential of synthesized compounds as DNA sensors with detection limit 1.8, 5.8 and 4.0 ng µl−1 for UA1, UA6 and UA7, respectively. PMID:28018613

  20. Naked Mole Rat Cells Have a Stable Epigenome that Resists iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rat (NMR is a valuable model for aging and cancer research due to its exceptional longevity and cancer resistance. We observed that the reprogramming efficiency of NMR fibroblasts in response to OSKM was drastically lower than that of mouse fibroblasts. Expression of SV40 LargeT antigen (LT dramatically improved reprogramming of NMR fibroblasts. Inactivation of Rb alone, but not p53, was sufficient to improve reprogramming efficiency, suggesting that NMR chromatin may be refractory to reprogramming. Analysis of the global histone landscape revealed that NMR had higher levels of repressive H3K27 methylation marks and lower levels of activating H3K27 acetylation marks than mouse. ATAC-seq revealed that in NMR, promoters of reprogramming genes were more closed than mouse promoters, while expression of LT led to massive opening of the NMR promoters. These results suggest that NMR displays a more stable epigenome that resists de-differentiation, contributing to the cancer resistance and longevity of this species.

  1. Electrochromic Asymmetric Supercapacitor Windows Enable Direct Determination of Energy Status by the Naked Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Chai, Zhisheng; Liang, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Xie, Weiguang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2017-10-04

    Because of the popularity of smart electronics, multifunctional energy storage devices, especially electrochromic supercapacitors (SCs), have attracted tremendous research interest. Herein, a solid-state electrochromic asymmetric SC (ASC) window is designed and fabricated by introducing WO 3 and polyaniline as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. The two complementary materials contribute to the outstanding electrochemical and electrochromic performances of the fabricated device. With an operating voltage window of 1.4 V and an areal capacitance of 28.3 mF cm -2 , the electrochromic devices show a high energy density of 7.7 × 10 -3 mW h cm -2 . Meanwhile, they exhibit an obvious and reversible color transition between light green (uncharged state) and dark blue (charged state), with an optical transmittance change between 55 and 12% at a wavelength of 633 nm. Hence, the energy storage level of the ASC is directly related to its color and can be determined by the naked eye, which means it can be incorporated with other energy cells to visual display their energy status. Particularly, a self-powered and color-indicated system is achieved by combining the smart windows with commercial solar cell panels. We believe that the novel electrochromic ASC windows will have great potential application for both smart electronics and smart buildings.

  2. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Naked Mole Rat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Interspecific Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Goo Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rats (NMRs are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns. Interestingly, NMR embryonic fibroblasts and the derived iPSCs had propensity for a tetraploid karyotype and were resistant to forming teratomas, but within mouse blastocysts they contributed to both interspecific placenta and fetus. Gene expression patterns of NMR iPSCs were more similar to those of human than mouse iPSCs. Overall, we uncovered unique features of NMR iPSCs and report a mouse-NMR chimeric model. The iPSCs and associated cell culture systems can be used for a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  4. Functional characteristics of the naked mole rat μ-opioid receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig

    Full Text Available While humans and most animals respond to µ-opioid receptor (MOR agonists with analgesia and decreased aggression, in the naked mole rat (NMR opioids induce hyperalgesia and severe aggression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 can underlie altered behavioral responses to opioids. Therefore, we hypothesized that the primary structure of the NMR MOR may differ from other species. Sequencing of the NMR oprm1 revealed strong homology to other mammals, but exposed three unique amino acids that might affect receptor-ligand interactions. The NMR and rat oprm1 sequences were cloned into mammalian expression vectors and transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP enzyme immunoassays were used to compare opioid binding and opioid-mediated cAMP inhibition. At normalized opioid receptor protein levels we detected significantly lower [3H]DAMGO binding to NMR compared to rat MOR, but no significant difference in DAMGO-induced cAMP inhibition. Strong DAMGO-induced MOR internalization was detectable using radioligand binding and confocal imaging in HEK293 cells expressing rat or NMR receptor, while morphine showed weak or no effects. In summary, we found minor functional differences between rat and NMR MOR suggesting that other differences e.g. in anatomical distribution of MOR underlie the NMR's extreme reaction to opioids.

  5. Cardiac function of the naked mole-rat: ecophysiological responses to working underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Voorhees, Andrew; Chiao, Ying Ann; Han, Hai-Chao; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a strictly subterranean rodent with a low resting metabolic rate. Nevertheless, it can greatly increase its metabolic activity to meet the high energetic demands associated with digging through compacted soils in its xeric natural habitat where food is patchily distributed. We hypothesized that the NMR heart would naturally have low basal function and exhibit a large cardiac reserve, thereby mirroring the species' low basal metabolism and large metabolic scope. Echocardiography showed that young (2-4 yr old) healthy NMRs have low fractional shortening (28 ± 2%), ejection fraction (43 ± 2%), and cardiac output (6.5 ± 0.4 ml/min), indicating low basal cardiac function. Histology revealed large NMR cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (216 ± 10 μm(2)) and cardiac collagen deposition of 2.2 ± 0.4%. Neither of these histomorphometric traits was considered pathological, since biaxial tensile testing showed no increase in passive ventricular stiffness. NMR cardiomyocyte fibers showed a low degree of rotation, contributing to the observed low NMR cardiac contractility. Interestingly, when the exercise mimetic dobutamine (3 μg/g ip) was administered, NMRs showed pronounced increases in fractional shortening, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke volume, indicating an increased cardiac reserve. The relatively low basal cardiac function and enhanced cardiac reserve of NMRs are likely to be ecophysiological adaptations to life in an energetically taxing environment.

  6. Exact solutions, finite time singularities and non-singular universe models from a variety of Λ(t) cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Supriya

    2018-01-01

    Cosmological models with time-dependent Λ (read as Λ(t)) have been investigated widely in the literature. Models that solve background dynamics analytically are of special interest. Additionally, the allowance of past or future singularities at finite cosmic time in a specific model signals for a generic test on its viabilities with the current observations. Following these, in this work we consider a variety of Λ(t) models focusing on their evolutions and singular behavior. We found that a series of models in this class can be exactly solved when the background universe is described by a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) line element. The solutions in terms of the scale factor of the FLRW universe offer different universe models, such as power-law expansion, oscillating, and the singularity free universe. However, we also noticed that a large number of the models in this series permit past or future cosmological singularities at finite cosmic time. At last we close the work with a note that the avoidance of future singularities is possible for certain models under some specific restrictions.

  7. Physical properties of naked DNA influence nucleosome positioning and correlate with transcription start and termination sites in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler-López Montserrat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged into chromatin structure, where most of DNA is wrapped into nucleosomes. DNA compaction and nucleosome positioning have clear functional implications, since they modulate the accessibility of genomic regions to regulatory proteins. Despite the intensive research effort focused in this area, the rules defining nucleosome positioning and the location of DNA regulatory regions still remain elusive. Results Naked (histone-free and nucleosomal DNA from yeast were digested by microccocal nuclease (MNase and sequenced genome-wide. MNase cutting preferences were determined for both naked and nucleosomal DNAs. Integration of their sequencing profiles with DNA conformational descriptors derived from atomistic molecular dynamic simulations enabled us to extract the physical properties of DNA on a genomic scale and to correlate them with chromatin structure and gene regulation. The local structure of DNA around regulatory regions was found to be unusually flexible and to display a unique pattern of nucleosome positioning. Ab initio physical descriptors derived from molecular dynamics were used to develop a computational method that accurately predicts nucleosome enriched and depleted regions. Conclusions Our experimental and computational analyses jointly demonstrate a clear correlation between sequence-dependent physical properties of naked DNA and regulatory signals in the chromatin structure. These results demonstrate that nucleosome positioning around TSS (Transcription Start Site and TTS (Transcription Termination Site (at least in yeast is strongly dependent on DNA physical properties, which can define a basal regulatory mechanism of gene expression.

  8. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  9. Membrane phospholipid composition may contribute to exceptional longevity of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): a comparative study using shotgun lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Todd W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hulbert, A J

    2007-11-01

    Phospholipids containing highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly prone to peroxidation and membrane composition may therefore influence longevity. Phospholipid molecules, in particular those containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and liver mitochondria were identified and quantified using mass-spectrometry shotgun lipidomics in two similar-sized rodents that show an approximately 9-fold difference in maximum lifespan. The naked mole rat is the longest-living rodent known with a maximum lifespan of >28 years. Total phospholipid distribution is similar in tissues of both species; DHA is only found in phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS), and DHA is relatively more concentrated in PE than PC. Naked mole-rats have fewer molecular species of both PC and PE than do mice. DHA-containing phospholipids represent 27-57% of all phospholipids in mice but only 2-6% in naked mole-rats. Furthermore, while mice have small amounts of di-polyunsaturated PC and PE, these are lacking in naked mole-rats. Vinyl ether-linked phospholipids (plasmalogens) are higher in naked mole-rat tissues than in mice. The lower level of DHA-containing phospholipids suggests a lower susceptibility to peroxidative damage in membranes of naked mole-rats compared to mice. Whereas the high level of plasmalogens might enhance membrane antioxidant protection in naked mole-rats compared to mice. Both characteristics possibly contribute to the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats and may indicate a special role for peroxisomes in this extended longevity.

  10. An empirical examination of the relationship between naked shorting and share prices around the announcement of a firm’s need for external capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Murphy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research finds some empirical evidence that the sale of stock without delivering shares can contribute to pressuring down the equity prices of companies seeking to raise capital. By allowing for the delayed effects on prices of limit orders by naked shorts, a significant negative impact on equity value per share is discovered but only for naked short selling by market makers and only on stocks of firms in urgent need of external financing.

  11. Hilbert schemes of points on some classes surface singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry and topology of Hilbert schemes of points on the orbifold surface [C^2/G], respectively the singular quotient surface C^2/G, where G is a finite subgroup of SL(2,C) of type A or D. We give a decomposition of the (equivariant) Hilbert scheme of the orbifold into affine space strata indexed by a certain combinatorial set, the set of Young walls. The generating series of Euler characteristics of Hilbert schemes of points of the singular surface of type A or D is computed in...

  12. Three dimensional nilpotent singularity and Sil'nikov bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xindan; Liu Haifei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, by using the normal form, blow-up theory and the technique of global bifurcations, we study the singularity at the origin with threefold zero eigenvalue for nonsymmetric vector fields with nilpotent linear part and 4-jet C ∼ -equivalent toy-bar -bar x+z-bar -bar y+ax 3 y-bar -bar z,with a 0, and analytically prove the existence of Sil'nikov bifurcation, and then of the strange attractor for certain subfamilies of the nonsymmetric versal unfoldings of this singularity under some conditions

  13. Singularities and n-dimensional black holes in torsion theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembranos, J.A.R.; Valcarcel, J. Gigante; Torralba, F.J. Maldonado, E-mail: cembra@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: jorgegigante@ucm.es, E-mail: fmaldo01@ucm.es [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-01

    In this work we have studied the singular behaviour of gravitational theories with non symmetric connections. For this purpose we introduce a new criteria for the appearance of singularities based on the existence of black/white hole regions of arbitrary codimension defined inside a spacetime of arbitrary dimension. We discuss this prescription by increasing the complexity of the particular torsion theory under study. In this sense, we start with Teleparallel Gravity, then we analyse Einstein-Cartan theory, and finally dynamical torsion models.

  14. Surface singularities in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-12-21

    Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity was recently proposed as an alternative to general relativity that offers a resolution of spacetime singularities. The theory differs from Einstein's gravity only inside matter due to nondynamical degrees of freedom, and it is compatible with all current observations. We show that the theory is reminiscent of Palatini f(R) gravity and that it shares the same pathologies, such as curvature singularities at the surface of polytropic stars and unacceptable Newtonian limit. This casts serious doubt on its viability.

  15. Harnack's Inequality for Degenerate and Singular Parabolic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Emmanuele; Vespri, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Degenerate and singular parabolic equations have been the subject of extensive research for the last 25 years. Despite important achievements, the issue of the Harnack inequality for non-negative solutions to these equations, both of p-Laplacian and porous medium type, while raised by several authors, has remained basically open. Recently considerable progress has been made on this issue, to the point that, except for the singular sub-critical range, both for the p-laplacian and the porous medium equations, the theory is reasonably complete. It seemed therefore timely to trace a comprehensive

  16. Kalman Filtering for Delayed Singular Systems with Multiplicative Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Lu; Linglong Wang; Haixia Wang; Xianghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filtering problem for singular systems is dealt with, where the measurements consist of instantaneous measurements and delayed ones, and the plant includes multiplicative noise. By utilizing standard singular value decomposition, the restricted equivalent delayed system is presented, and the Kalman filters for the restricted equivalent system are given by using the well-known re-organization of innovation analysis lemma. The optimal Kalman filter for the original system is given based on the above Kalman filter by recursive Riccati equations, and a numerical example is presented to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed approach, where the comparison between the filter and predictor is also given.

  17. Special relativity with a discrete spectrum of singular velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Gascon, F.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of real transformation formulae containing a whole discrete spectrum of singularities is suggested. Some phenomenological hypotheses are introduced and the group property is substituted by weaker conditions. The first singular speed (c 1 =c) is invariant with respect to the measures of it from subluminal frames, but the remaining speeds are not invariant. The proposed transformations do not form a closed set (for the superluminal speeds) and, therefore, the problem of having (within this framework) a principle of relativity valid for any velocity remains open

  18. Shocks, singularities and oscillations in nonlinear optics and fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Santo, Daniele; Lannes, David

    2017-01-01

    The book collects the most relevant results from the INdAM Workshop "Shocks, Singularities and Oscillations in Nonlinear Optics and Fluid Mechanics" held in Rome, September 14-18, 2015. The contributions discuss recent major advances in the study of nonlinear hyperbolic systems, addressing general theoretical issues such as symmetrizability, singularities, low regularity or dispersive perturbations. It also investigates several physical phenomena where such systems are relevant, such as nonlinear optics, shock theory (stability, relaxation) and fluid mechanics (boundary layers, water waves, Euler equations, geophysical flows, etc.). It is a valuable resource for researchers in these fields. .

  19. Einstein equation solutions with axial symmetry, conical and essential singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.R. de.

    1986-01-01

    New classes of exact solutions to the Einstein equations of a static axisymetric space-time associated with rings and disks are found. Also, the solutions associated to a axisymetric superposition of punctual bodies, bars, rings and disks are obtained. These solutions have a strut singularities to keep the bodies apart. When one of the bodies of the superposition is a ring, the ring interior is covered with a membrane that serve as a support for the strut that hold the other body. Furthermore, the curvature singularities for different solutions ae analised. (author) [pt

  20. Propagation of singularities for linearised hybrid data impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Guillaume; Hoffmann, Kristoffer; Knudsen, Kim

    2018-02-01

    For a general formulation of linearised hybrid inverse problems in impedance tomography, the qualitative properties of the solutions are analysed. Using an appropriate scalar pseudo-differential formulation, the problems are shown to permit propagating singularities under certain non-elliptic conditions, and the associated directions of propagation are precisely identified relative to the directions in which ellipticity is lost. The same result is found in the setting for the corresponding normal formulation of the scalar pseudo-differential equations. A numerical reconstruction procedure based of the least squares finite element method is derived, and a series of numerical experiments visualise exactly how the loss of ellipticity manifests itself as propagating singularities.

  1. Tensor renormalization group with randomized singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Satoshi; Igarashi, Ryo; Zhao, Hui-Hai; Kawashima, Naoki

    2018-03-01

    An algorithm of the tensor renormalization group is proposed based on a randomized algorithm for singular value decomposition. Our algorithm is applicable to a broad range of two-dimensional classical models. In the case of a square lattice, its computational complexity and memory usage are proportional to the fifth and the third power of the bond dimension, respectively, whereas those of the conventional implementation are of the sixth and the fourth power. The oversampling parameter larger than the bond dimension is sufficient to reproduce the same result as full singular value decomposition even at the critical point of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  2. Microlocal study of S-matrix singularity structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takahiro; Kyoto Univ.; Stapp, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Support is adduced for two related conjectures of simplicity of the analytic structure of the S-matrix and related function; namely, Sato's conjecture that the S-matrix is a solution of a maximally over-determined system of pseudo-differential equations, and our conjecture that the singularity spectrum of any bubble diagram function has the conormal structure with respect to a canonical decomposition of the solutions of the relevant Landau equations. This latter conjecture eliminates the open sets of allowed singularities that existing procedures permit. (orig.) [de

  3. Gauge invariance properties and singularity cancellations in a modified PQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Rigol, Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The gauge-invariance properties and singularity elimination of the modified perturbation theory for QCD introduced in previous works, are investigated. The construction of the modified free propagators is generalized to include the dependence on the gauge parameter $\\alpha $. Further, a functional proof of the independence of the theory under the changes of the quantum and classical gauges is given. The singularities appearing in the perturbative expansion are eliminated by properly combining dimensional regularization with the Nakanishi infrared regularization for the invariant functions in the operator quantization of the $\\alpha$-dependent gauge theory. First-order evaluations of various quantities are presented, illustrating the gauge invariance-properties.

  4. The eigenvalue problem for a singular quasilinear elliptic equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjin Xuan

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that many results about the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of a quasilinear elliptic equation in the non-singular case can be extended to the singular case. Among these results, we have the first eigenvalue is associated to a $C^{1,alpha}(Omega$ eigenfunction which is positive and unique (up to a multiplicative constant, that is, the first eigenvalue is simple. Moreover the first eigenvalue is isolated and is the unique positive eigenvalue associated to a non-negative eigenfunction. We also prove some variational properties of the second eigenvalue.

  5. Singular charge density at the center of the pion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Gerald A.

    2009-01-01

    We relate the three-dimensional infinite momentum frame spatial charge density of the pion to its electromagnetic form factor F π (Q 2 ). Diverse treatments of the measured form factor data including phenomenological fits, nonrelativistic quark models, the application of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), QCD sum rules, holographic QCD, and the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model all lead to the result that the charge density at the center of the pion has a logarithmic divergence. Relativistic constituent quark models do not display this singularity. Future measurements planned for larger values of Q 2 may determine whether or not a singularity actually occurs.

  6. Can noncommutativity resolve the Big-Bang singularity?

    CERN Document Server

    Maceda, M; Manousselis, P; Zoupanos, George

    2004-01-01

    A possible way to resolve the singularities of general relativity is proposed based on the assumption that the description of space-time using commuting coordinates is not valid above a certain fundamental scale. Beyond that scale it is assumed that the space-time has noncommutative structure leading in turn to a resolution of the singularity. As a first attempt towards realizing the above programme a noncommutative version of the Kasner metric is constructed which is nonsingular at all scales and becomes commutative at large length scales.

  7. Singular technology – the research area promoting sustainable noosphere d evelopment in Belarus, Russia and other CIS nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Georgievich Nikitenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to nano- and femtotechnology as the basis for sustainable noosphere development of the global socio-economic mega system “nature–man–society” in its relation with the Universe (cosmos in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine and other CIS nations. Such factors as the formation of a new (noospheric political and economic outlook and the changes in scientific and technological structure of economy are gaining paramount importance under the action of the law of time and the adequate need to change the logic of socio-economic behavior of the population of planet Earth. Singular technology can become a strategic priority in finding practical solutions to these issues. When creating new productive forces and relations of production, these technologies act as a synergetic and bifurcation (unpredictable interaction of the three system technologies: artificial intelligence, molecular nanotechnology and molecular biotechnology. As soon as man grasps the essence of singular technology, it will be possible to create a new structure of matter at the nano- and femtotechnology levels, and to exercise control over this process. The new structure of matter is the basis for the creation of new productive forces and relations of production in the noosphere economy. Technological singularity originated in the mapping of the human genome, creation of a self-replicating organism, and a self-replicating machine. The nearest strategic objective (2020–2030s of singular technology is to create an artificial brain – a “digital man” on the basis of nano-and femtotechnology. This research area and practice will open the way to new forms of energy, productive forces, industrial relations and socio-economic noosphere systems in general. The wide application of singular technology in the economy will contribute to the conservation and civilizational development of the planetary megasystem “cosmos–nature–man–society”

  8. Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsang, A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major, fillet (Pectoralis minor (P0.05 in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05, redness (a* (P0.05 in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05 between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

  9. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  10. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  11. Singularly perturbed Burger-Huxley equation: Analytical solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work presented considers the initial boundary value problem for nonlinear singularly perturbed time dependent Burger- Huxley equation. The equation contains two terms with nonlinearities, the cubic term and the advection term. Generally, the severe difficulties of two types encounter in solving this problem. The first ...

  12. Non-perturbative string theories and singular surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, M.

    1990-01-01

    Singular surfaces are shown to be dense in the Teichmueller space of all Riemann surfaces and in the grasmannian. This happens because a regular surface of genus h, obtained identifying 2h disks in pairs, can be approximated by a very large genus singular surface with punctures dense in the 2h disks. A scale ε is introduced and the approximate genus is defined as half the number of connected regions covered by punctures of radius ε. The non-perturbative partition function is proposed to be a scaling limit of the partition function on such infinite genus singular surfaces with a weight which is the coupling constant g raised to the approximate genus. For a gaussian model in any space-time dimension the regularized partition function on singular surfaces of infinite genus is the partition function of a two-dimensional lattice gas of charges and monopoles. It is shown that modular invariance of the partition function implies a version of the Dirac quantization condition for the values of the e/m charges. Before the scaling limit the phases of the lattice gas may be classified according to the 't Hooft criteria for the condensation of e/m operators. (orig.)

  13. On p dependent boundedness of singular integral operators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honzík, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 267, 3-4 (2011), s. 931-937 ISSN 0025-5874 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : singular integral operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.749, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/k507g30163351250/

  14. Discrete singular convolution for the generalized variable-coefficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical solutions of the generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation are obtained using a discrete singular convolution and a fourth order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method for space and time discretisation, respectively. The theoretical convergence of the proposed method is rigorously ...

  15. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew E-mail: jask@ift.uniwroc.pl

    2004-08-30

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  16. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew

    2004-08-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory.

  17. Classical Liouville action on the sphere with three hyperbolic singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2004-01-01

    The classical solution to the Liouville equation in the case of three hyperbolic singularities of its energy-momentum tensor is derived and analyzed. The recently proposed classical Liouville action is explicitly calculated in this case. The result agrees with the classical limit of the three-point function in the DOZZ solution of the quantum Liouville theory

  18. SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS: METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO ECONOMICS DATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein HASSANI; Anatoly ZHIGLJAVSKY

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and demonstrate that it is a powerful method of time series analysis and forecasting, particulary for economic time series. The authors consider the application of SSA to the analysis and forecasting of the Iranian national accounts data as provided by the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of lran.

  19. Singular limit analysis of a model for earthquake faulting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Brøns, Morten; Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider the one dimensional spring-block model describing earthquake faulting. By using geometric singular perturbation theory and the blow-up method we provide a detailed description of the periodicity of the earthquake episodes. In particular, the limit cycles arise from...

  20. Singularity free non-rotating cosmological solutions for perfect fluids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Singularity free cosmological solutions of the type stated in the title known so far are of a very special class and have the following characteristics: (a) The space time is cylindrically symmetric. (b) In case the metric is diagonal, the μ's are of the form μ = a function of time multiplied by a function of the radial coordinate.