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Sample records for naked oat avena

  1. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

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    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  2. Discussion on the Origin and Taxonomy of Naked Oat( Avena nuda L.)%大粒裸燕麦(莜麦)(Avena nuda L.)起源及分类问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑殿升; 张宗文

    2011-01-01

    There are five cultivated species in the genus Avena L. They are common oat (A. Sativa L. ) , Ethiopian (Abyssinian) oat (A. Abyssinica Hochst. ) , Byzant( Red) oat( A. Byzantina Koch. ) , Hispid ( Small) oat ( A. Strigosa Schreb. ) ,and naked oat(A. Nuda L. ). Naked oat is characterized by its hulless seeds,while other oats by their hulled seeds. Naked oat is mainly planted in China and hulled oats are grown in other countries. Therefore, naked oat is important among oats in the world. However, the viewpoints on the origin and taxonomy of naked oat were disputable. The authors believe that the origin of naked oat would be the adjacent region of Shanxi and Inner Mongolia,and the taxonomic status of naked oat would be an independent species,I. E. ,A. Nuda L.%燕麦属(Avena L.)植物中有5个栽培种即普通栽培燕麦(A.sativa L.)、埃塞俄比亚燕麦(A.abyssinica Hochst.)、地中海燕麦(A.byzantina Koch)、砂燕麦(A.strigosa Schreb.)和大粒裸燕麦又称莜麦(A.nudaL.),其中大粒裸燕麦的子粒不带稃皮为裸燕麦,其他物种均带稃皮为皮燕麦.国际上主要种植皮燕麦,而我国主要种植大粒裸燕麦,由此不难看出,大粒裸燕麦在世界燕麦中占有特殊的地位.然而,关于大粒裸燕麦的起源和分类地位问题,迄今学者们的意见仍不尽相同.本文通过参阅有关文献和研究实践,对这两个问题进行探讨,认为大粒裸燕麦起源于我国山西和内蒙古一带,在植物学分类上应为一个独立的物种即A.nuda L..

  3. Oat (Avena sativa L.).

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    Gasparis, Sebastian; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a suitable method to transform different cultivars using different systems of A. tumefaciens strains and binary vectors as well as selection cassettes. We describe here a detailed protocol for two cultivars, one naked and one husked, using the AGL1 strain and the pGreen vector containing the nptII selection cassette ( http://www.pgreen.ac.uk/ ), suitable for oat as well as other cereals. The pGreen vector system was recently developed for pBract ( http://www.bract.org/ ) and its transformation ability for cereals was proved. Assuming our experience and the latest knowledge on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals, we suggest using in the protocol one of the newly developed pBract or pCAMBIA ( http://www.cambia.org/daisy/cambia/ ) vector systems which carry different selection cassettes. The commonly used selection genes nptII, bar, and hpt were proved to be applicable for oat transformation and might be used as needed.

  4. A Genetic Linkage Map for Naked Oat (Avena nuda L.)%大粒裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)遗传连锁图谱的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐微; 张宗文; 张恩来; 吴斌

    2013-01-01

    Based on 281 individual plants of F2 population derived from a cross "Yuan Naked Oat"x"555",a genetic linkage map for naked oat (Avena nuda L.) was constructed by 20 AFLP primer pairs,3 SSR primer pairs,and 1 panicle type character.The map was 1544.8 cM in total length with 20.1 cM for the average distance between neighboring markers.92 AFLP markers,3 SSR markers,and 1 morphological trait were mapped on 19 linkage groups,which contained 2-14 markers and varied in size from 23.7 cM to 276.3 cM with an average of 81.3 cM.The segregation ratio of panicle type fitted to 3:1,and 11 AFLP markers demonstrated distorted segregation with the percentage of 11.5%.The results provided a framework of genetic linkage map for naked oat (Avena nuda L.),which was the theoretical basis for QTL mapping,molecular breeding,and comparative genomics in naked oat research.%以元莜麦和555杂交得到的281个F2单株为作图群体,利用20对AFLP引物、3对SSR引物和1个穗型性状构建了一张大粒裸燕麦遗传连锁图.该图谱全长1544.8 cM,包含19个连锁群,其上分布有92个AFLP标记、3个SSR标记和1个穗型形态标记,不同连锁群标记数为2 ~14个,长度在23.7 ~276.3 cM之间,平均长度为81.3 cM,标记间平均距离为20.1 cM.穗型标记分离比符合3:1,11个AFLP标记表现为偏分离,偏分离比为11.5%.该图谱符合遗传连锁框架图的要求,为今后大粒裸燕麦的QTL定位、分子标记辅助育种和比较基因组学等研究奠定基础.

  5. The effect of different agrotechnical levels on weed infestation in crops of naked and husked varieties of oat (Avena sativa L.

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    Sylwia Andruszczak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2007- 2009 in the Experimental Farm in Bezek near the city of Chełm. The aim of the investigation was to compare weed infestation of the husked (Krezus and naked (Cacko oat cultivars cultivated under conditions of different weed control treatments. The following weed control levels were compared: A - control object; B - harrowing twice; C - application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE; D - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + foliar fertilizer Insol 3; E - herbicide Mustang 306 SE + two foliar fertilizers: Insol 3 and FoliCare 18:18:18. The husked oat cv. Krezus was more competitive against weeds. Number of dicotyledonous weeds and of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds, and air-dry weight of above-ground parts of weeds in the crop of this cultivar were all significantly lower compared to the naked cv. Cacko. From the group of dicotyledonous species, Chenopodium album, Galinsoga parviflora, Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora, Polygonum aviculare, and Stellaria media were the dominant species in the crops of the oat varieties under investigation, whereas among the monocotyledonous species Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria pumila, Apera spica-venti, and Elymus repens occurred in greatest numbers. The application of the herbicide Mustang 306 SE decreased the number of dicotyledonous weeds and air-dry weight of weeds, compared to the treatment in which mechanical weed control had been used.

  6. Analysis on growth characters and production levels of two species of naked oat (Avena nuda) in Henan Province%2种莜麦在河南的生长特点与生产水平的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2009-01-01

    To found a possibility and necessity of introduce naked oat (Avena nuda) into Hennan Province, growth characters and production levels of 2 species, Neinongda Oats-l and Neinongda Oats-2, from Inner Mongolia were studied at yellow river beach in Henan Province. Grain yields were 457.6 g/m~2 and 481.7 g/m~2, and forage yields (DM) were 1 608.1 g/m~2 and 1 472.8 g/m~2. These were higher than that in Inner Mongolia. This imply that the two species are adapted to the soil and the climate of the area.%把来自内蒙古的2个莜麦Avena nuda优良品种内农大莜1号和内农大莜2号,引种到河南省黄河滩区来种植,研究其生长特点以及生产水平,目的是通过与原产地生产水平的比较,来探索这2个莜麦品种在河南推广的可能性和必要性.结果表明:莜麦能很好地适应河南省黄河滩区土壤和气候条件,表现出生长速度快和生产水平高的特点,内农大莜1号和内农大莜2号的饲草干物质产量分别为1 608.1和1 472.8 g/m~2,果实产量分别为457.6和481.7 g/m~2,均显著地高于原产地的生产水平.

  7. Gis-Based Crop Support System For Common Oatand Naked Oat in China

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    Wan, Fan; Wang, Zhen; Li, Fengmin; Cao, Huhua; Sun, Guojun

    The identification of the suitable areas for common oat (Avena sativa L.) and naked oat (Avena nuda L.) in China using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) approach based on GIS is presented in the current article. Climate, topography, soil, land use and oat variety databases were created. Relevant criteria,suitability levels and their weights for each factor were defined. Then the criteria maps were obtained and turned into the MCE process, and suitability maps for common oat and naked oat were created. The land use and the suitability maps were crossed to identify the suitable areas for each crop. The results identified 397,720 km2 of suitable areas for common oats of forage purpose distributed in 744 counties in 17 provinces, and 556,232 km2 of suitable areas for naked oats of grain purpose distributed in 779 counties in 19 provinces. This result is in accordance with the distribution of farmingpastoral ecozones located in semi-arid regions of northern China. The mapped areas can help define the working limits and serve as indicative zones for oat in China. The created databases, mapped results, interface of expert system and relevant hardware facilities could construct a complete crop support system for oats.

  8. Microsatellite variation in Avena sterilis oat germplasm.

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    Fu, Yong-Bi; Chong, James; Fetch, Tom; Wang, Ming-Li

    2007-04-01

    The Avena sterilis L. collection in the Plant Gene Resources of Canada (PGRC) consists of 11,235 accessions originating from 27 countries and is an invaluable source of genetic variation for genetic improvement of oats, but it has been inadequately characterized, particularly using molecular techniques. More than 35 accessions have been identified with genes for resistance to oat crown and stem rusts, but little is known about their comparative genetic diversity. This study attempted to characterize a structured sample of 369 accessions representing 26 countries and two specific groups with Puccinia coronata avenae (Pc) and Puccinia graminis avenae (Pg) resistance genes using microsatellite (SSR) markers. Screening of 230 SSR primer pairs developed from other major crop species yielded 26 informative primer pairs for this characterization. These 26 primer pairs were applied to screen all the samples and 125 detected alleles were scored for each accession. Analyses of the SSR data showed the effectiveness of the stratified sampling applied in capturing country-wise SSR variation. The frequencies of polymorphic alleles ranged from 0.01 to 0.99 and averaged 0.28. More than 90% of the SSR variation resided within accessions of a country. Accessions from Greece, Liberia, and Italy were genetically most diverse, while accessions from Egypt, Georgia, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, and Kenya were most distinct. Seven major clusters were identified, each consisting of accessions from multiple countries and specific groups, and these clusters were not well congruent with geographic origins. Accessions with Pc and Pg genes had similar levels of SSR variation, did not appear to cluster together, and were not associated with the other representative accessions. These SSR patterns are significant for understanding the progenitor species of cultivated oat, managing A. sterilis germplasm, and exploring new sources of genes for oat improvement.

  9. Naked oats: metabolisable energy yield from a range of varieties in broilers, cockerels and turkeys.

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    MacLeod, M G; Valentine, J; Cowan, A; Wade, A; McNeill, L; Bernard, K

    2008-05-01

    1. Naked oats belong to the same species as 'common oats', Avena sativa, but have a non-lignified husk which readily becomes detached during harvesting. The absence of the indigestible husk can be predicted to give an increased metabolisable energy (ME) content for poultry. 2. Measurements of true metabolisable energy (TME(N)) were performed on 3-week-old broiler chicks (Cobb males), adult cockerels (ISA Brown, greater than one year old) and 7-week-old turkeys (BUT T8 males). The measurements were repeated in 2000, 2001 and 2002, with some measurements on a subset of varieties in 2004. 3. High-oil naked oat lines yielded 12% more energy (TME(N)) than wheat. Naked oats, excluding the experimental high-oil lines, yielded 8.5% more energy than simultaneously assayed wheat samples. 4. In samples from the 2004 harvest, conventional oats gave TME(N) values about 13% lower than those of wheat. 5. The addition of beta-glucanase produced an increase of about 4% in the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of oats for broiler chickens. This effect was associated with a 70% decrease in the jejunal viscosity of broilers receiving a 500 g/kg naked-oat diet. 6. The oil content of naked oats was about 5 times greater than that of wheat, with the high-oil lines rising to more than 6 times greater. Naked oats had a lower starch content than wheat but not sufficiently lower to negate the energy benefits of the higher oil content. The crude protein (CP) contents of naked oats were similar to those of wheat, with the high-oil varieties tending to be higher in CP also.

  10. 莜麦在河南省引种试验的研究%Studies on introduction trial of naked oat(Avena nuda) in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭孝; 哈斯

    2004-01-01

    通过对莜麦Avena nuda的形态特征、生物学特征、产量以及营养价值的分析,对其利用价值进行了评价.研究结果表明:莜麦能够很好地适应河南省的土壤及气候条件,生长快,叶量丰富,产量高,在河南省有良好的推广价值,可望成为当地重要的饲料作物和粮食作物.

  11. 紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混贮发酵品质和营养成分分析%Quality of mixed naked oats (Avena nuda)and alfalfa (Medicago sativa)silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛剑; 杨翠军; 杨志敏; 白雪梅; 赵海香; 刘贵河

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜及晾晒后的紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦为原料,分别设计紫花苜蓿单贮、裸燕麦单贮、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶1、裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1及裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=1∶2混贮等5个处理,青贮60 d 后,对其感官评分、发酵品质和营养成分等进行分析。结果表明,鲜贮苜蓿在感官评定、V-Score 及 Kaiser 评价体系中表现一般,而晾晒及混合青贮各处理组均能不同程度提高青贮评分。晾晒和混合青贮对发酵品质产生影响,两者显著或极显著降低 pH值、PA(丙酸)、AA(乙酸)、BA(丁酸)和 AN/TN(氨态氮/总氮)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),显著或极显著升高LA(乳酸)含量(P <0.01或 P <0.05),其中以裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1降低或升高最明显。晾晒对青贮饲料的干物质、可溶性碳水化合物及粗灰分含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分含量影响不大(P >0.05)。混合比例对青贮饲料的所有发酵项目均有极显著影响(P <0.01),对粗蛋白质、可溶性碳水化合物及中性洗涤纤维含量具有显著或极显著影响(P <0.05或 P <0.01),对其他养分指标影响不显著(P >0.05)。晾晒和混合青贮的交互作用可显著提高青贮饲料的发酵品质,但对养分含量影响不明显。因此,从青贮后感官评价、发酵品质及养分含量来看,紫花苜蓿和裸燕麦混合青贮品质优于单独青贮,且晾晒相对于鲜贮更易于青贮,而无论晾晒和鲜贮,当裸燕麦∶紫花苜蓿=2∶1时,青贮品质均优于其他各组。%Using sun-dried or fresh alfalfa and naked oats as materials,five silages,including alfalfa silage,na-ked oats silage,three mix silage,(alfalfa∶naked oats =1∶1,alfalfa∶naked oats =1 ∶2 and alfalfa∶naked oats =2 ∶1 ),were prepared.After 60 days ensiling,the sensory

  12. Transferability and utility of white oat (Avena sativa) microsatellite markers for genetic studies in black oat (Avena strigosa).

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    Da-Silva, P R; Milach, S C K; Tisian, L M

    2011-11-29

    Preservation and use of wild oat species germplasm are essential for further improvement of cultivated oats. We analyzed the transferability and utility of cultivated (white) oat Avena sativa (AACCDD genome) microsatellite markers for genetic studies of black oat A. strigosa (A(s)A(s) genome) genotypes. The DNA of each black oat genotype was extracted from young leaves and amplified by PCR using 24 microsatellite primers developed from white oat. The PCR products were separated on 3% agarose gel. Eighteen microsatellite primer pairs amplified consistent products and 15 of these were polymorphic in A. strigosa, demonstrating a high degree of transferability. Microsatellite primer pairs AM3, AM4, AM21, AM23, AM30, and AM35 consistently amplified alleles only in A. sativa, which indicates that they are putative loci for either the C or D genomes of Avena. Using the data generated by the 15 polymorphic primer pairs, it was possible to separate 40 genotypes of the 44 that we studied. The four genotypes that could not be separated are probably replicates. We conclude that A. sativa microsatellites have a high transferability index and are a valuable resource for genetic studies and characterization of A. strigosa genotypes.

  13. Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae: a threat to global oat production

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    Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae causes crown rust disease in cultivated and wild oat. The significant yield losses inflicted by this pathogen makes crown rust the most devastating disease in the oat industry. P. coronata f. sp. avenae is a basidiomycete fungus with an obligate biotrophic lifestyle a...

  14. Genetic Similarity Assessment among Selected Naked Oat Cultivars and Breeding Lines Using ISSR Markers

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    Edyta PACZOS-GRZEDA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naked oat refers to a variety of Avena sativa with lemma and palea separating from the grains. Its spikelets are multiflorous and morphologically different from the husked oat. Problems with preharvest sprouting, threshability, rancidity, a wide range of kernel sizes, as well as its relatively low tolerance to limited soil water content, are its main drawbacks. Nevertheless it could be an alternative to a conventional oat. Unfortunately, its genetic variation is still poorly recognized.  In the given study a set of 26 naked oat cultivars and lines were analyzed with 25 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR primers that amplified as many as 429 DNA fragments among which 204 were polymorphic. The average number of markers amplified per primer pair and polymorphism information content (PIC value equaled to eight and 0.23, respectively. Forty four unique PCR products were identified for different genotypes. While Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetic Mean failed to distinguish the materials into main clusters it demonstrated that cultivars ‘Akt’, ‘Polar’, ‘Cacko’, ‘Siwek’, ‘Nagus’ and most of the DC lines were within a single group. Moreover, the cultivars that were closely related based on their breeding pedigree (related to ‘Akt’ were close to each other. Principal Coordinate Analysis explained 54.1% of variance and was in good agreement with the UPGMA. ISSR markers could be used for the evaluation of genetic similarity of cultivars and lines as well as the differentiation of individual genotypes. This study demonstrated that the available A. sativa naked type genetic pool is relatively wide and have the potential for further breeding progress.

  15. How do mineral fertilization and plant growth regulators affect yield and morphology of naked oat?

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    Robert Witkowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena sativa var. nuda is of an increasing interest in many parts of the world. This is why plant breeders have developed forms that are morphologically different from the current ones, such as naked, dwarf or with an increased 1000-grain-weight. In three experiments conducted at two sites, the influence of phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilizers, spray application of urea and spray application of plant growth regulators (PGRs Promalin (gibberellins + cytokinin and Moddus (cimectacarps on the yield and morphological traits of different oat forms were studied. At a better site, only genotype statistically influenced oat grain yield. At a poorer site, apart from genotype there were statistically significant responses to P and K fertilizers and to the application of Moddus (especially in the experiment with a dwarf cultivar. The internode and panicle length were modified mostly by cimectacarps, which shortened specific internodes, but not the panicle. The PGR Promalin had no significant effect on oat stem morphology.

  16. 莜麦麸水溶性β-葡聚糖的提取及初步纯化%Extraction and preliminary purification of β -glucan from nake oat (Avena Sativa L)bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申瑞玲; 姚惠源; 董吉林

    2004-01-01

    燕麦是我国的古老农作物之一,也是重要的饲草饲料作物。我国种植的主要是大粒裸燕麦种(Avena nuda L)俗称莜麦;少数地区种植普通栽培燕麦(Arena Saliva L)俗称皮燕麦,皮燕麦主要做为马匹的饲料。莜麦是种植区的传统主食,也是饲料的一部分。和其它粮食相比,莜麦不仅蛋白质、脂肪含量高,

  17. Glycosyltransferases from oat (Avena) implicated in the acylation of avenacins.

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    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T; Goss, Rebecca J M; Field, Robert A; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid.

  18. Glycosyltransferases from Oat (Avena) Implicated in the Acylation of Avenacins*

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    Owatworakit, Amorn; Townsend, Belinda; Louveau, Thomas; Jenner, Helen; Rejzek, Martin; Hughes, Richard K.; Saalbach, Gerhard; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Roy, Abhijeet Deb; Mugford, Sam T.; Goss, Rebecca J. M.; Field, Robert A.; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a huge array of specialized metabolites that have important functions in defense against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many of these compounds are glycosylated by family 1 glycosyltransferases (GTs). Oats (Avena spp.) make root-derived antimicrobial triterpenes (avenacins) that provide protection against soil-borne diseases. The ability to synthesize avenacins has evolved since the divergence of oats from other cereals and grasses. The major avenacin, A-1, is acylated with N-methylanthranilic acid. Previously, we have cloned and characterized three genes for avenacin synthesis (for the triterpene synthase SAD1, a triterpene-modifying cytochrome P450 SAD2, and the serine carboxypeptidase-like acyl transferase SAD7), which form part of a biosynthetic gene cluster. Here, we identify a fourth member of this gene cluster encoding a GT belonging to clade L of family 1 (UGT74H5), and show that this enzyme is an N-methylanthranilic acid O-glucosyltransferase implicated in the synthesis of avenacin A-1. Two other closely related family 1 GTs (UGT74H6 and UGT74H7) are also expressed in oat roots. One of these (UGT74H6) is able to glucosylate both N-methylanthranilic acid and benzoic acid, whereas the function of the other (UGT74H7) remains unknown. Our investigations indicate that UGT74H5 is likely to be key for the generation of the activated acyl donor used by SAD7 in the synthesis of the major avenacin, A-1, whereas UGT74H6 may contribute to the synthesis of other forms of avenacin that are acylated with benzoic acid. PMID:23258535

  19. Avena sativa (Oat), a potential neutraceutical and therapeutic agent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; De, Subrata; Belkheir, Asma

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent.

  20. 莜麦及莜麦醋的营养成分分析%NutritionaI Ingredients AnaIysis of Naked Oats and Naked Oats Vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹丹; 于海峰

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional ingredients in naked oats vinegar and naked oats are analyzed in this paper. It is found that the ash content of naked oats vinegar and naked oats is 2.51%,1.32% respectively;the reducing sugar content is 2.53%,0.77% respectively;the total sugar content is 2.87%,1.04%respectively;the protein content is 5.02%,12.59% respectively;the total amino acids content is 2.08%,10.02% respectively;Ca is 142.34%,78.88% respectively;Mn is 4.94%,4.23%respectively;Zn is 2.85%,2.49% respectively;Fe is 15.20%,40.15% respectively;P is 404.02%, 210.30% respectively;Mg is 169.99%,77.74% respectively.The content of TMP in naked oats vinegar is 23.03 mg/L.Most of the nutritional ingredients in naked oats enter into the naked oats vinegar through the traditional solid-state brewing process.Naked oats vinegar is rich in nutrition and has good development prospect.%对莜麦醋及莜麦中的营养成分进行了分析测定。结果表明:莜麦醋与莜麦中分别含灰分2.51%,1.32%,还原糖2.53%,0.77%,总糖2.87%,1.04%,蛋白质5.02%,12.59%,氨基酸2.08%,10.02%,Ca 142.34%,78.88%,Mn 4.94%,4.23%,Zn 2.85%,2.49%,Fe 15.20%,40.15%, P 404.02%,210.30%,Mg 169.99%,77.74%,且莜麦醋中还含有川芎嗪23.03 mg/L。可见经传统的固态酿造过程,莜麦中大部分的营养成分都进入到了莜麦醋中。莜麦醋营养丰富,市场开发前景良好。

  1. Metabolism of proteins in developing leaves of oats (Avena sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, H.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the first leaf of oats ( Avena sativa L.) comprises four phases. About 4 day after sowing the leaf emerges and starts to expand. Expansion is complete and maturity is reached at 7 to 9 days. Thereafter, senescence ensues, as expressed by a gradual loss of chlorophyll over the peri

  2. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  3. Epistasis and Maternal Effect in Resistance to Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks in Oats (Avena sp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bnejdi F; Hammami I; Allagui M B; Saadoun M; el Gazzah M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the mode of heredity for resistance in oats (Arena sp.) to crown rust caused by Puccinia coronata Cda.f.sp.avenae Eriks.Eight generations of 2 crosses were used to estimate genetic effects and narrow-sense heritability (NSH).Separate generation means analysis (GMA) indicated a complex gene action controlling this trait with additive,dominance,epistatic and maternal effects (ME).The genetic model which assumed no epistasis and no ME did not accurately describe the resistance to P.coronata.In both crosses,the digenic epistatic model with ME epistatic components were negative in most cases,suggesting that gene effects contributed more to the resistance than to the susceptibility.The estimated values of NSH were 15-99% depending upon the cross and isolates.The results indicated that appropriate choice of maternal parent and recurrent selection would increase resistance to crown rust in oats.

  4. Genome-wide association mapping of barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance in spring oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...

  5. Inhibition of Fusarium graminiarum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum) while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical c...

  6. Genetic variation and associations involving Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance in oats (Avena sativa L.) to infection by Fusarium graminearum was assessed in field trials in 2011-12 including 424 spring oat lines from North America and Scandinavia. Traits measured were Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), deoxynivalenol (DON) content, days to flowering (DTF) and days to matu...

  7. Genetic analysis of seedling resistance to crown rust in five diploid oat (Avena strigosa) accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A L; Park, R F

    2016-02-01

    Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks., is a serious menace in oats, for which resistance is an effective means of control. Wild diploid oat accessions are a source of novel resistances that first need to be characterised prior to introgression into locally adapted oat cultivars. A genetic analysis of resistance to crown rust was carried out in three diverse diploid oat accessions (CIav6956, CIav9020, PI292226) and two cultivars (Saia and Glabrota) of A. strigosa. A single major gene conditioning resistance to Australian crown rust pathotype (Pt) 0000-2 was identified in each of the three accessions. Allelism tests suggested that these genes are either the same, allelic, or tightly linked with less than 1 % recombination. Similarly, a single gene was identified in Glabrota, and possibly two genes in Saia; both cultivars previously reported to carry two and three crown rust resistance genes, respectively. The identified seedling resistance genes could be deployed in combination with other resistance gene(s) to enhance durability of resistance to crown rust in hexaploid oat. Current diploid and hexaploid linkage maps and molecular anchor markers (simple sequence repeat [SSR] and diversity array technology [DArT] markers) should facilitate their mapping and introgression into hexaploid oat.

  8. Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (Pphytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil.

  9. Sorption isotherms for oat flakes (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edgar Zapata M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.

  10. Metal concentrations in oats (Avena sativa L. grown on acid sulphate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FÄLTMARSCH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of soil chemistry on the concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe in oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Fiia grown on Finnish acid sulphate (AS soils with varying geochemical characteristics. Twenty two soil profiles, which were sampled to a depth of 1 m (five 20 cm section splits, and 26 composite oat grain samples were collected on a total of five fields. The concentrations of Co, Ni, Zn and Mn in the grains were correlated with the NH4Ac-EDTA-extractable concentrations in the soils. However, as these four chalcophilic metals are in general easily lost to drains and not retained as a large pool in the soil in easily-extractable form, also the concentrations in the oats were not in general elevated as compared with average values on other soils. On one of the fields, however, the Co and Ni concentrations in the soil, and thus also in the oats, were clearly elevated. Copper and Fe displayed no correlation between the soil and oat concentrations, indicating that the plant-uptake mechanisms are much more important than variations in geochemistry. It was suggested that the NH4Ac-EDTA solution was not efficient in extracting Fe and Cu, which shows that these metals are bound in relatively immobile oxyhydroxides.;

  11. Agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., cultivated in constructed wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Carraro Borges

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb., when cultived in constructed wetlands (CWs in the treatment of domestic wastewater. The experiment was conducted in four CWs for secondary/tertiary treatment of domestic wastewater. The black oats were sown in the CWs at a density of 80 kg ha-1 of seeds. The organic loading rates (OLRs applied in the CWs were 100, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 d-1 of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD. The OLRs were obtained from results of analysis of BOD influent the CWs. The variables evaluated in influent and effluent of CWs were biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium, sodium and electrical conductivity. In plant tissue the productivity of dry matter and the content of crude protein were evaluated. The productivity of dry matter for black oats were independent of OLRs applied. The highest yield of dry matter was obtained by applying 400 kg.ha-1 d-1 BOD. There was an average productivity of crude protein of 15.38 dag kg-1 in the black oat. The domestic wastewater can be a suitable nutritional solution for production of black oats in the CWs.

  12. Characterization of oats (Avena sativa L.) cultivars using machine vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, S; Balamurugan, P

    2013-10-15

    Machine vision or image analysis is an important tool in the study of morphology of any materials. This technique has been used successfully to differentiate the eleven oats cultivars based on morphological characters. The geometry of seeds was measured through image analyzer and the variation was observed and recorded. From the recorded data, the cluster analysis was carried out and it revealed that the cultivars could be grouped into two main clusters based on similarity in the measured parameters. Cultivar Sabzar, UPO 212, OL 9 and OL 88 formed one main cluster. The another main cluster includes cv. Kent, OS 6, UPO 94, HFO 114, OS 7, HJ 8 and JHO 822 with many sub clusters. Among the cultivars HJ 8 and JHO 822 has more similarity in all measured parameters than other cultivars. Thus morphological characterization through seed image analysis was found useful to discriminate the cultivars.

  13. Effects of Cultivar on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Naked Oat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Li-tao; LIU Li-ya; ZHONG Kui; WANG Yan; GUO Li-na; ZHOU Su-mei

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of naked oat cultivars on their phenolic contents and antioxidant activities, the oat seeds from 21 different cultivars in China were collected, and their major nutritional components, compositions of polyphenols, and antioxidant activities were measured. As the results, oat cultivars affected its phenolic composition and antioxidant activity signiifcantly. Vanillin, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, avenanthramide C (Bc), avenanthramide A (Bp), and avenanthramide B (Bf) in oat polyphenols extracts were detected in all cultivars of oat, while caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rutin were partly detected. All oat cultivars showed signiifcant free radical scavenging activity, although their activities were lower than that of vitamin C (VC). Different oat varieties showed different antioxidant activities, among which Yanke 1 had the best ability to scavenge•OH ((58.78±1.99)μg mL-1), Baiyan 10 showed the strongest DPPH•((22.00±0.43)μg mL-1) and ABTS•+((6.92±0.44)μg mL-1) scavenging activity, and Dingyou 1 showed good scavenging ability of DPPH•((22.71±0.42)μg mL-1) and•OH ((81.50±1.73)μg mL-1). In addition, the correlation coefifcients of contents between the major nutritional components in different cultivars of oat and phenolic compounds indicated that determination of main nutrients could be used as an easy technique to evaluate approximately the contents and compositions of oat polyphenols, which simpliifes the selection of good oat cultivar.

  14. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  15. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Asa; Hayden, Daniel M; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development.

  16. Carbon partitioning between oil and carbohydrates in developing oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Åsa; Hayden, Daniel M.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Bülow, Leif; Stymne, Sten

    2008-01-01

    Cereals accumulate starch in the endosperm as their major energy reserve in the grain. In most cereals the embryo, scutellum, and aleurone layer are high in oil, but these tissues constitute a very small part of the total seed weight. However, in oat (Avena sativa L.) most of the oil in kernels is deposited in the same endosperm cells that accumulate starch. Thus oat endosperm is a desirable model system to study the metabolic switches responsible for carbon partitioning between oil and starch synthesis. A prerequisite for such investigations is the development of an experimental system for oat that allows for metabolic flux analysis using stable and radioactive isotope labelling. An in vitro liquid culture system, developed for detached oat panicles and optimized to mimic kernel composition during different developmental stages in planta, is presented here. This system was subsequently used in analyses of carbon partitioning between lipids and carbohydrates by the administration of 14C-labelled sucrose to two cultivars having different amounts of kernel oil. The data presented in this study clearly show that a higher amount of oil in the high-oil cultivar compared with the medium-oil cultivar was due to a higher proportion of carbon partitioning into oil during seed filling, predominantly at the earlier stages of kernel development. PMID:19036843

  17. Antibacterial Mechanism of The Ehyl Acetate Extracts From Naked Oat Again Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Huan Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of the ethyl acetate extracts from naked oat against Bacillus subtilis were studied in this paper based on assays such as cell wall alkaline phosphatase (AKP, permeability and integrity of cell membrane as well as electron microscopy observations. The results showed that the ethyl acetate extracts had significant effects on AKP, permeability and integrity of cell membrane. We concluded that the mechanism of action of the ethyl acetate extracts against B. subtilis might be described as:Acting on cell wall and membrane, resulting in disruption, cell lysis, and the leakage of intracellular constituents according to the results of AKP, the leakage of electrolytes, the losses of contents (proteins, reducing sugars and 260 nm absorbing materials assays and electron microscopy observations. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts from naked oat was potential to control the contamination of foods caused by bacterial diseases

  18. Regulation of the development of the first leaf of oats (Avena sativa L.). Characterization and subcellular localization of proteases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der H.C.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of chlorophyll during the senescence of leaves is preceded by a decrease in protein content. Proteases responsible for the degradation of the proteins have been implicated in the regulation of the senescence process. The first leaf of the seedling of oats ( Avena sativa L.) demonstrates the

  19. Construction of SSR Genetic Linkage Map and Analysis of QTLs Related toβ-glucan Content of Naked Oat (Avena nuda L.)%裸燕麦SSR标记连锁群图谱的构建及β-葡聚糖含量QTL的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴斌; 张茜; 宋高原; 陈新; 张宗文

    2014-01-01

    Objective]A molecular genetic linkage map for cultivated naked oat based on SSR markers was developed and Quantitative Trait Loci influencingβ-glucan content were identified, in order to facilitate the utilization of highβ-glucan content oat germplasm resources and provide a theoretical basis for oat molecular marker-assisted selection.[Method] Taken a segregation population of 215 F2:3 lines which originated from the cross with the highβ-glucan content local cultivar Xiayoumai was used as the male parent and improved cultivar Chi38 Youmai as the female as mapping population, a molecular genetic linkage map of oats with SSR markers was developed. The β-glucan content of segregation population was determined by the standard β-glucan measure method (AACC Method 32-23) which was published by American Association of Cereal Chemists and the QTLs for β-glucan content of oat were analyzed and identified by Composite Interval Mapping method. [Result] After detection of F2 progenies with 231 pairs of SSR primers, a total of 261 polymorphic markers were obtained. The polymorphic markers mentioned above were analyzed for their genetic linkage relationship by JoinMap 4.0 and finally the oat genetic linkage map was constructed. The map included 26 linkage group, 182 SSR markers and covers 1869.7cM of the whole genome. The average space between markers was 10.6 cM. The number of markers in each linkage group varied from 2 to 14 and the length of the linkage group varied from 10.6 to 235.1 cM. The results of the measurement of the parents and segregation population’sβ-glucan content showed thatβ-glucan content in the offspring groups presented as significant separation and continuous variation with variation coefficient of 18.72%, which indicated thatβ-glucan content traits are controlled by multiple genes of quantitative traits and the segregation population meets the requirements of QTL mapping. The SSR data were analyzed by QTL analysis software WinQTL Cart 2.5 and

  20. Plant growth and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat (Avena fatua L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannucci, Anna; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Platani, Cristiano; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM) accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L.), a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant) was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage). The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS) and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS). Thus, wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity.

  1. [Genomic structure of the autotetraploid oat species Avena macrostachya inferred from comparative analysis of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences: on the oat karyotype evolution during the early stages of the Avena species divergence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, A V; Tiupa, N B; Kim, E S; Machs, E M; Loskutov, I G

    2005-05-01

    To examine the genomic structure of Avena macrostachya, internal transcribed spacers, ITS1 and ITS2, as well as nuclear 5.8S tRNA genes from three oat species with AsAs karyotype (A. wiestii, A. hirtula, and A. atlantica), and those from A. longiglumis (AlAl), A. canariensis (AcAc), A. ventricosa (CvCv), A. pilosa, and A. clauda (CpCp) were sequenced. All species of the genus Avena examined represented a monophyletic group (bootstrap index = 98), within which two branches, i.e., species with A- and C-genomes, were distinguished (bootstrap indices = 100). The subject of our study, A. macrostachya, albeit belonging to the phylogenetic branch of C-genome oat species (karyotype with submetacentic and subacrocentric chromosomes), has preserved an isobrachyal karyotype, (i.e., that containing metacentric chromosomes), probably typical of the common Avena ancestor. It was suggested to classify the A. macrostachya genome as a specific form of C-genome, Cm-genome. Among the species from other genera studied, Arrhenatherum elatius was found to be the closest to Avena in ITS1 and ITS structure. Phylogenetic relationships between Avena and Helictotrichon remain intriguingly uncertain. The HPR389153 sequence from H. pratense genome was closest to the ITS1 sequences specific to the Avena A-genomes (p-distance = 0.0237), while the differences of this sequence from the ITS1 of A. macrostachya reached 0.1221. On the other hand, HAD389117 from H. adsurgens was close to the ITS1 specific to Avena C-genomes (p-distance = 0.0189), while its differences from the A-genome specific ITS1 sequences reached 0.1221. It seems likely that the appearance of highly polyploid (2n = 12-21x) species of H. pratense and H. adsurgens could be associated with interspecific hybridization involving Mediterranean oat species carrying A- and C-genomes. A hypothesis on the pathways of Avena chromosomes evolution during the early stages the oat species divergence is proposed.

  2. Serpins of oat (Avena sativa) grain with distinct reactive centres and inhibitory specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.

    2002-01-01

    Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... inhibitors of the serpin superfamily were detected by native PAGE as major seed albumins and purified by thiophilic adsorption and anion exchange chromatography. The four serpins OSZa-d are the first proteinase inhibitors characterized from this cereal. An amino acid sequence close to the blocked N......-terminus, a reactive centre loop sequence, and the second order association rate constant (k(a) ') for irreversible complex formation with pancreas serine proteinases at 24degreesC were determined for each inhibitor. OSZa and OSZb, both with the reactive centre scissile bond P-1 -P-1 ' Thrdown arrowSer, were efficient...

  3. A genetic linkage map of hexaploid naked oat constructed with SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoyuan; Song; Pengjie; Huo; Bin; Wu; Zongwen; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Naked oat is a unique health food crop in China. Using 202 F2 individuals derived from a hybrid between the variety 578 and the landrace Sanfensan, we constructed a genetic linkage map consisting of 22 linkage groups covering 2070.50 c M and including 208 simple sequence repeat(SSR) markers. The minimum distance between adjacent markers was0.01 c M and the average was 9.95 c M. Each linkage group contained 2–22 markers. The largest linkage group covered 174.40 c M and the shortest one covered 36.80 c M, with an average of 94.11 c M. Thirty-six markers(17.3%) showing distorted segregation were distributed across linkage groups LG5 to LG22. This map complements published oat genetic maps and is applicable for quantitative trait locus analysis, gene cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection.

  4. Mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in wild oat (Avena fatua ) from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo; Osuna, Maria D; Dominguez-Valenzuela, Jose A; Espinoza, Nelson; De Prado, Rafael

    2011-07-13

    Whole-plant response of two suspected resistant Avena fatua biotypes from Chile and Mexico to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides [aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP), cyclohexanedione (CHD), and pinoxaden (PPZ)] and the mechanism behind their resistance were studied. Both dose-response and ACCase enzyme activity assays revealed cross-resistance to the three herbicide families in the biotype from Chile. On the other hand, the wild oat biotype from Mexico exhibited resistance to the APP herbicides and cross-resistance to the CHD herbicides, but no resistance to PPZ. Differences in susceptibility between the two biotypes were unrelated to absorption, translocation, and metabolism of the herbicides. PCR generated fragments of the ACCase CT domain spanning the potential mutations sited in the resistant and susceptible biotypes were sequenced and compared. A point mutation was detected in the aspartic acid triplet at the amino acid position 2078 in the Chilean biotype and in isoleucine at the amino acid position 2041 in the Mexican wild oat biotype, which resulted in a glycine triplet and an asparagine triplet, respectively. On the basis of in vitro assays, the target enzyme (ACCase) in these resistant biotypes contains a herbicide-insensitive form. This is the first reported evidence of resistance to pinoxaden in A. fatua.

  5. Key Phytochemicals Contributing to the Bitter Off-Taste of Oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther-Jordanland, Kirsten; Dawid, Corinna; Dietz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-12-28

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from oat flour (Avena sativa L.) followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed avenanthramides and saponins as the key phytochemicals contributing to the typical astringent and bitter off-taste of oat. Besides avenacosides A and B, two previously unreported bitter-tasting bidesmosidic saponins were identified, namely, 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→3)-β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol, and 3-(O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→4)]-β-d-glucopyranosid)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-5-ene-3β,22,26-triol. Depending on the chemical structure of the saponins and avenanthramides, sensory studies revealed human orosensory recognition thresholds of these phytochemicals to range between 3 and 170 μmol/L.

  6. Cell wall and enzyme changes during the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.

  7. The perennial wild species Avena macrostachya as a genetic source for improvement of winterhardiness in winter oat for cultivation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena macrostachya Bal. et Durieu has been reported as a valuable source of genetic variation for oat because of its winterhardiness and resistance to various diseases and pests. Therefore a series of crosses of cultivated oat with this species was initiated in IHAR-Radzików, Poland, in 2002. Three ...

  8. Mitochondrial structural and antioxidant system responses to aging in oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds with different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fangshan; Wang, Xianguo; Li, Manli; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    We observed the relationship between lifespan and mitochondria, including antioxidant systems, ultrastructure, and the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents in 4 h imbibed oat (Avena sativa L.) seeds that were aged with different moisture contents (4%, 10% and 16%) for 0 (the control), 8, 16, 24, 32 and 40 d at 45 °C. The results showed that the decline in the oat seed vigor and in the integrity of the mitochondrial ultrastructure occurred during the aging process, and that these changes were enhanced by higher moisture contents. Mitochondrial antioxidants in imbibed oat seeds aged with a 4% moisture content were maintained at higher levels than imbibed oat seeds aged with a 10% and 16% moisture content. These results indicated that the levels of mitochondrial antioxidants and malondialdehyde after imbibition were related to the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane in aged oat seeds. The scavenging role of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was inhibited in imbibed oat seeds aged at the early stage. Monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase played more important roles than glutathione reductase in ascorbate regeneration in aged oat seeds during imbibition.

  9. The effect of genotype on anther culture response of cultivated and wild oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KIVIHARJU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Anther culture ability was tested for 44 oat (Avena sativa L., six naked oat (A. sativa L., naked type and 15 wild oat (Avena sterilis L. genotypes, in addition to progeny of five intraspecific crosses of A. sativa and two interspecific crosses of A. sativa x A. sterilis. Anther culture response was affected considerably by genotype. Thirty one oat genotypes responded by callus growth on induction medium and seven of them produced embryo structures, two of the lines consistently. All naked oat genotypes produced embryo structures. Embryo production rates for the wild oat lines were comparable with those for the naked oat genotypes, and higher than for oat: 13 of the 15 genotypes tested produced embryo structures. Plant regeneration was possible only from wild oat. The regeneration ability was inherited in the progeny of the A. sativa x A. sterilis cross cv. Puhti x CAV 2648. The response of anthers of oat genotypes was inhibited by auxin on the induction medium, while naked oat, wild oat and A. sativa x A. sterilis crosses responded better on a medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid .;

  10. Dynamic changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate decarboxylase activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Hu, Qing Ping; Duan, Jiang Lian; Tian, Cheng Rui

    2010-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and provides beneficial effects for human and other animals health. To accumulate GABA, samples from two different naked oat cultivars, Baiyan II and Bayou I, were steeped and germinated in an incubator. The content of GABA and glutamic acid as well as the activity of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in oats during steeping and germination were investigated with an amino acid automatic analyzer. Compared with raw groats, an increase in GABA content of oat groats during steeping and germination was continuously observed for two oat cultivars. The activity of GAD increased greatly at the end of steeping and the second stage of germination for Baiyan II and Bayou I, respectively. Glutamic acid content of treated oat groats was significantly lower than that in raw groats until the later period of germination. GABA was correlated (p<0.01) significantly and positively with the glutamic acid rather than GAD activity in the current study. The results indicates that steeping and germination process under highly controlled conditions can effectively accumulate the GABA in oat groats for Baiyan II and Bayou I, which would greatly facilitate production of nutraceuticals or food ingredients that enable consumers to gain greater access to the health benefits of oats. However, more assays need to be further performed with more oat cultivars.

  11. Genome-wide association study for crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) resistance in an oat (Avena sativa) collection of commercial varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Rispail, Nicolas; Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Rubiales, Diego; Mur, Luis A J; Langdon, Tim; Howarth, Catherine J; Prats, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Diseases caused by crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae) are among the most important constraints for the oat crop. Breeding for resistance is one of the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control these diseases. The purpose of this work was to identify elite alleles for rust and powdery mildew resistance in oat by association mapping to aid selection of resistant plants. To this aim, 177 oat accessions including white and red oat cultivars and landraces were evaluated for disease resistance and further genotyped with 31 simple sequence repeat and 15,000 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers to reveal association with disease resistance traits. After data curation, 1712 polymorphic markers were considered for association analysis. Principal component analysis and a Bayesian clustering approach were applied to infer population structure. Five different general and mixed linear models accounting for population structure and/or kinship corrections and two different statistical tests were carried out to reduce false positive. Five markers, two of them highly significant in all models tested were associated with rust resistance. No strong association between any marker and powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage was identified. However, one DArT sequence, oPt-5014, was strongly associated with powdery mildew resistance in adult plants. Overall, the markers showing the strongest association in this study provide ideal candidates for further studies and future inclusion in strategies of marker-assisted selection.

  12. Molecular mapping of powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Rollo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K

    2012-05-01

    Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.

  13. Dynamic changes in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in oats (Avena nuda L.) during steeping and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Guo; Tian, Cheng Rui; Hu, Qing Ping; Luo, Ji Yang; Wang, Xiang Dong; Tian, Xiang Dong

    2009-11-11

    Samples from naked oat were steeped and germinated under controlled conditions in an incubator. Changes of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in oats during steeping and germination. Results revealed that phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of oats varied with the difference in steeping and germination stages. Compared with raw grains, short-term steeping treatment did not show significant effects (p > 0.05) on phenolic content. Germination can significantly result in the decrease in bound phenolic and the increase in free and total phenolics. Main phenolic acids and avenanthramides were isolated and quantified by HPLC analysis. During steeping, phenolic acids decreased (p 0.05). During germination, gallic and caffeic acids first increased (p 0.05) during the last stage of germination. Oat extracts exhibited increasing high antioxidant activity with the steeping and germination going on, which may explain that antioxidant activity correlated (p < 0.01) significantly with the content of phenolic compounds.

  14. Purification and properties of apoplastic amylase from oat (Avena sativa) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno-Okamura, Kuniko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    2004-05-01

    The protein fraction extracted with a high ionic strength buffer from the cell wall preparation of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles and first leaves contained starch-degrading (amylase) activity. The activity of apoplastic amylase in the coleoptiles and first leaves continued to increase in parallel with organ growth. One of the apoplastic amylases recovered from shoot cell wall preparations was purified by sequential ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, and the catalytic properties of the enzyme were analysed. The purified enzyme gave a single 25 kDa protein band on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 5.0 against maltooligosaccharides. The purified enzyme hydrolysed soluble starch and maltooligosaccharides larger than tetraose at maltose unit, but did not hydrolyse beta-limit dextrin or p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside. These results as well as the findings that the molecular size and the catalytic properties of the purified enzyme are different from those of known amylases obtained from Gramineae caryopses suggest that this enzyme is a novel type of beta-amylase present in cell walls of vigorously elongating Gramineae shoot organs.

  15. GRAIN YIELD STABILITY OF WINTER OAT (AVENA SATIVA L. CULTIVARS IN THE CENTRAL ANATOLIAN REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlut AKCURA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to assess genotype environment interaction and determine stable oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars for grain yield in Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Stability analysis [9] were to performed on results for grain yield of 5 oat cultivars (Chekota, Yesilkoy-1779, Yesilkoy-330, Faikbey-2004, Seydisehir-2004 from 24 trials (6 irrigated, 18 rain fed was conducted over 6 years in the Central Anatolian Region, Turkey. There was considerable variation in grain yield within and across environments. Year by location and location variability were dominant sources of interactions. The cultivar, “Seydisehir-2004” with respective regression coefficient value of 1.03, the smallest deviations from regressions (S2di value and the highest grain yield could be considered the most widely adapted cultivar. The other test cultivars were sensitive to production-limiting factors, their wider adaptability, stability and general performance to the fluctuating growing conditions within and across environments being lowered.

  16. Avenin diversity analysis of the genus Avena (oat). Relevance for people with celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londono, D.M.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Goryunova, S.V.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Meer, van der I.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oat is widely consumed by people with celiac disease (CD). Its safety has been disputed because two peptides from oat avenins can be recognized as T cell epitopes by some CD patients. Differential signals of gluten-specific monoclonal antibodies and in-vitro T cells to oat varieties have suggested t

  17. Preferred carbon precursors for lipid labelling in the heterotrophic endosperm of developing oat (Avena sativa L.) grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Åsa

    2014-10-01

    Oat (Avena sativa L.) is unusual among the cereal grains in storing high amounts of oil in the endosperm; up to 90% of total grain oil. By using oat as a model species for oil metabolism in the cereal endosperm, we can learn how to develop strategies to redirect carbon from starch to achieve high-oil yielding cereal crops. Carbon precursors for lipid synthesis were compared in two genetically close oat cultivars with different endosperm oil content (about 6% and 10% of grain dw, medium-oil; MO, and high-oil; HO cultivar, respectively) by supplying a variety of (14)C-labelled substrates to the grain from both up- and downstream parts of glycolysis, either through detached oat panicles in vitro or by direct injection in planta. When supplied by direct injection, (14)C from acetate was identified to label the lipid fraction of the grain to the highest extent among substrates tested; 46% of net accumulated (14)C, demonstrating its applicability as a marker for lipids in the endosperm. Time course analyses of injected (14)C acetate during grain development suggested a more efficient transfer of fatty acids from polar lipids to triacylglycerol in the HO as compared to the MO cultivar, and turnover of triacylglycerol was suggested to not play a major role for the final oil content of oat grain endosperm despite the low amount of protective oleosins in this tissue. Moreover, availability of light was shown to drastically affect grain net carbon accumulation from (14)C-sucrose when supplied through detached panicles for the HO cultivar.

  18. Contributions of apoplasmic cadmium accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins in cadmium tolerance of the cadmium-accumulating cultivar of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Shimpei; Kiyono, Masako; Sakamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Izumi; Kuno, Katsuji

    2009-07-01

    The contributions of cadmium (Cd) accumulation in cell walls, antioxidative enzymes and induction of phytochelatins (PCs) to Cd tolerance were investigated in two distinctive genotypes of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.). One cultivar of black oat 'New oat' accumulated Cd in the leaves at the highest concentration compared to another black oat cultivar 'Soil saver' and other major graminaceous crops. The shoot:root Cd ratio also demonstrated that 'New oat' was the high Cd-accumulating cultivar, whereas 'Soil saver' was the low Cd-accumulating cultivar. Varied levels of Cd exposure demonstrated the strong Cd tolerance of 'New oat'. By contrast, low Cd-accumulating cultivar 'Soil saver' suffered Cd toxicity such as growth defects and increased lipid peroxidation, even though it accumulated less Cd in shoots than 'New oat'. Higher activities of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) and superoxide dismutase (EC 1. 15. 1. 1) were observed in the leaves of 'New oat' than in 'Soil saver'. No advantage of 'New oat' in PCs induction was observed in comparison to Cd-sensitive cultivar 'Soil saver', although Cd exposure increased the concentration of total PCs in both cultivars. Higher and increased Cd accumulation in cell wall fraction was observed in shoots of 'New oat'. On the other hand, in 'Soil saver', apoplasmic Cd accumulation showed saturation under higher Cd exposure. Overall, the present results suggest that cell wall Cd accumulation and antioxidative activities function in the tolerance against Cd stress possibly in combination with vacuolar Cd compartmentation.

  19. Oats (Avena sativa) reduce atherogenesis in LDL-receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, K E; Svedberg, K A; Lindholm, M W; Oste, R; Hellstrand, P

    2010-09-01

    The cholesterol-lowering properties of oats, largely ascribed to its contents of soluble fibers, beta-glucans, are well established, whereas effects on atherogenesis are less well elucidated. Oats also contains components with reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that may affect atherogenesis. In this work we examined effects of oat bran on plasma cholesterol, markers of inflammation, eNOS expression and development of atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice. Female LDLr(-/-) mice were fed Western diet+/-oat bran. Two concentrations of oat bran (40 and 27%) were compared regarding effects on plasma lipids. There was a dose-dependent reduction of plasma cholesterol by 42 and 20% with 40 and 27% oat bran, respectively. Both concentrations also lowered plasma triglycerides (by 45 and 33%) and relative levels of plasma LDL+VLDL. The reduction of plasma lipids was accompanied by increased faecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids. Oat bran (40%) efficiently reduced atherosclerotic lesion area in the descending aorta (-77%) and aortic root (-33%). Plasma levels of fibrinogen and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were significantly lower, and immunofluorescence of aortic sections revealed a 75% lower expression of VCAM-1 in oat-fed mice. The expression of eNOS protein in the aortic wall was increased in mice fed oat bran. Oat bran supplemented to a Western diet lowers plasma cholesterol, reduces levels of some inflammatory markers, increases eNOS expression and inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLr(-/-) mice. It remains to be investigated which components in oats contribute to these effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lipids in grain tissues of oat (Avena sativa): differences in content, time of deposition, and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, Antoni; Debski, Henryk; Banas, Walentyna; Heneen, Waheeb K; Dahlqvist, Anders; Bafor, Maureen; Gummeson, Per-Olov; Marttila, Salla; Ekman, Asa; Carlsson, Anders S; Stymne, Sten

    2007-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) is unusual in comparison with other cereals since there are varieties with up to 18% oil content. The lipid content and fatty acid composition in different parts of the grain during seed development were characterized in cultivars Freja (6% oil) and Matilda (10% oil), using thin-layer and gas chromatography, and light and electron microscopy. The majority of lipids (86-90%) were found in the endosperm. Ninety-five per cent of the higher oil content of cv. Matilda compared with cv. Freja was due to increased oil content of the endosperm. Up to 84% of the lipids were deposited during the first half of seed development, when seeds where still green with a milky endosperm. Microscopy studies revealed that whereas oil bodies of the embryo and scutellum still contained a discrete shape upon grain maturation, oil bodies of the endosperms fused upon maturation and formed smears of oil.

  1. Substrate specificity screening of oat (Avena sativa) seeds aminopeptidase demonstrate unusually broad tolerance in S1 pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna D; Pawełczak, Małgorzata; Drag, Marcin

    2012-05-01

    Aminopeptidases are proteolytic enzymes that remove one amino acid at a time from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. In plants, inhibitors of aminopeptidases can find potential applications in agriculture as herbicides. In this report we have used a library of fluorogenic derivatives of natural and unnatural amino acids for substrate specificity profiling of oat (Avena sativa) aminopeptidase. Interestingly, we have found that this enzyme recognizes effectively among the natural amino acids basic residues like Arg and Lys, hydrophobic Phe, Leu and Met, but also to some extent acidic residues Asp and Glu. In the case of unnatural amino acids hydrophobic residues (hPhe and hCha) and basic hArg were preferentially recognized.

  2. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  3. Observations on the attacks of Ustilago avenae (Pers. Jens. fungus on oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POPESCU

    1967-08-01

    Full Text Available In vorliegender Arbeit wird von den Verfasser eine vergleichende Untersuchung uber den Infektionsgrad von Flugbard (Ustilago avenae Pers. Jens. bei 10 Hafersorten and-arten nach den Methoden Zade, Reed und einer originellen halbanaturlichen Methode geboten. Aus den erhaltenen Daten geht hervor, dass die wirksamste Methode der kunstlichen Infektion die Zade'sche ist, gefolgt von der Methodenach Reed. Man nimmt an, dass die besseren Ergebnisse durch die Methode nach Zade auf die Verwengund von Regenwasser bei der Herstellung der Sporensuspension zuruckgefuhrt warden konnen; welckes sich als ein gunstigeres Medium fur die Keimung erweist. Als die widerstandsfahigsten Sorten gegen diese Pflanzenkrankheit haben, sich Richland und Markton Oast 166 erwiesen, wahrend die Art Avena nuda und Avena sativa mit den Sorten Peragis und Baragan 878 am anfalligsten waren.

  4. Increased water resistance of CTMP fibers by oat (Avena sativa L.) husk lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipponen, Mika H; Pastinen, Ossi A; Strengell, Reetta; Hyötyläinen, Juha M I; Heiskanen, Isto T; Laakso, Simo

    2010-12-13

    The insertion of oat husk lignin onto chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) fibers was studied to increase fiber hydrophobicity. The pretreated pulp samples were subsequently used for preparation of handsheets for characterization. Treatment of CTMP with laccase in the presence of oat husk lignin resulted in a significant increase in hydrophobicity of the handsheet surface, as indicated by dynamic contact angle analysis. Water absorption time of 8 s was obtained with initial contact angle of 118°. Although the handsheet's brightness was reduced by 33%, tensile index was only subtly decreased. Neither laccase nor oat husk lignin alone gave much improved water absorption times. Therefore, handsheets made of laccase-treated pulp with and without oat husk lignin were further examined by XPS, which suggested that both laccase and oat husk lignin were inserted onto CTMP fibers. The oat husk lignin was distributed as heterogeneous aggregates on the handsheet surface whereas laccase was uniformly distributed. Evidence was obtained that the adsorbed laccase layer formed a noncovalent base for the insertion of oat husk lignin onto fiber surfaces.

  5. Oat (Avena sativa L.): Oil and Nutriment Compounds Valorization for Potential Use in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.

  6. The spectrum of major seed storage genes and proteins in oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Olin D

    2014-01-01

    The oat seed storage proteins are mainly composed of two classes: the globulins and avenins. Among the major cereals, the globulins are the major seed protein class in rice and oats, and along with the higher protein content of oats is the basis for the relative higher nutrition content in oats compared to the other cereals. The second major class of oat seed proteins is the avenins; also classified as prolamins - seed proteins high in proline and glutamine amino acids. The prolamins are associated with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. In spite of their importance, neither the oat globulins nor the avenins have been completely analyzed and described for any single germplasm. Using available EST resources for a single hexaploid oat cultivar, the spectrum of avenin and globulin sequences are described for the gene coding regions and the derived protein sequences. The nine unique avenin sequences are suggested to be divided into 3-4 distinct subclasses distributed in the hexaploid genome. The globulins from the same germplasm include 24 distinct sequences. Variation in globulin size results mainly from a glutamine-rich domain, similar to as in the avenins, and to variation in the C-terminal sequence domain. Two globulin genes have premature stop codons that shorten the resulting polypeptides by 9 and 17 amino acids, and eight of the globulin sequences form a branch of the globulins not previously reported. A more complete description of the major oat seed proteins should allow a more thorough analysis of their contributions to those oat seed characteristics related to nutritional value, evolutionary history, and celiac disease association.

  7. Identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars using host-pathogen tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Okoń

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.

  8. Genome-wide association study for oat (Avena sativa L.) beta-glucan concentration using germplasm of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Asoro, Franco G; Scott, M Paul; White, Pamela J; Beavis, William D; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling complex traits followed by selection has become a common approach for selection in crop plants. The QTL are most often identified by linkage mapping using experimental F(2), backcross, advanced inbred, or doubled haploid families. An alternative approach for QTL detection are genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that use pre-existing lines such as those found in breeding programs. We explored the implementation of GWAS in oat (Avena sativa L.) to identify QTL affecting β-glucan concentration, a soluble dietary fiber with several human health benefits when consumed as a whole grain. A total of 431 lines of worldwide origin were tested over 2 years and genotyped using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. A mixed model approach was used where both population structure fixed effects and pair-wise kinship random effects were included. Various mixed models that differed with respect to population structure and kinship were tested for their ability to control for false positives. As expected, given the level of population structure previously described in oat, population structure did not play a large role in controlling for false positives. Three independent markers were significantly associated with β-glucan concentration. Significant marker sequences were compared with rice and one of the three showed sequence homology to genes localized on rice chromosome seven adjacent to the CslF gene family, known to have β-glucan synthase function. Results indicate that GWAS in oat can be a successful option for QTL detection, more so with future development of higher-density markers.

  9. New Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers for tetraploid oat (Avena magna Murphy et Terrell) provide the first complete oat linkage map and markers linked to domestication genes from hexaploid A. sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, R E; Jellen, E N; Ladizinsky, G; Korol, A B; Kilian, A; Beard, J L; Dumlupinar, Z; Wisniewski-Morehead, N H; Svedin, E; Coon, M; Redman, R R; Maughan, P J; Obert, D E; Jackson, E W

    2011-11-01

    Nutritional benefits of cultivated oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42, AACCDD) are well recognized; however, seed protein levels are modest and resources for genetic improvement are scarce. The wild tetraploid, A. magna Murphy et Terrell (syn A. maroccana Gdgr., 2n = 4x = 28, CCDD), which contains approximately 31% seed protein, was hybridized with cultivated oat to produce a domesticated A. magna. Wild and cultivated accessions were crossed to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Although these materials could be used to develop domesticated, high-protein oat, mapping and quantitative trait loci introgression is hindered by a near absence of genetic markers. Objectives of this study were to develop high-throughput, A. magna-specific markers; generate a genetic linkage map based on the A. magna RIL population; and map genes controlling oat domestication. A Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array derived from 10 A. magna genotypes was used to generate 2,688 genome-specific probes. These, with 12,672 additional oat clones, produced 2,349 polymorphic markers, including 498 (21.2%) from A. magna arrays and 1,851 (78.8%) from other Avena libraries. Linkage analysis included 974 DArT markers, 26 microsatellites, 13 SNPs, and 4 phenotypic markers, and resulted in a 14-linkage-group map. Marker-to-marker correlation coefficient analysis allowed classification of shared markers as unique or redundant, and putative linkage-group-to-genome anchoring. Results of this study provide for the first time a collection of high-throughput tetraploid oat markers and a comprehensive map of the genome, providing insights to the genome ancestry of oat and affording a resource for study of oat domestication, gene transfer, and comparative genomics.

  10. Oats (Avena strigosa) as winter forage for dairy cows in Vietnam: an on-farm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Paulo; Thang, Vu Q; Thu, Tran V; Trach, Nguyen X; Cuong, Vu C; Lecomte, Philippe; Richard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    In North Vietnam, during winter, alternative forage resources are needed to balance the feed ration of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oat forage as a component of traditional winter roughage diets on feed intake, milk production and feeding cost in dairy cows. The study was conducted on-farm using 24 mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows. The feeding experiment consisted of two successive periods and two dietary treatments per period. Traditional basal diets included fresh tropical grasses, maize silage and hay. The oat forage had no effect on the dry matter intake of the basal diet, but the total crude protein intake was higher in cows fed with oat diets than in those fed with control diets. The yield of butterfat-corrected milk (FCM) was not significantly different between diets during period 1, but there was a trend (P = 0.078) of higher FCM yields in cows fed with the oat diet compared to those with control diet during period 2 (17.3 vs. 16.3 kg/day). The decline rate in milk yield was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in cows fed with control diets than in those fed with oat diets in both experimental periods. The total feeding cost of cows fed with oat diets was on average 12 % lower than those fed with control diets (P < 0.01). So, the oat forage is an important winter resource for cows in North Vietnam allowing higher milk yield whilst reducing feeding cost, compared to traditional roughage diets.

  11. Preferential recruitment of the maternal centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) in oat (Avena sativa L.) × pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) hybrid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takayoshi; Sunamura, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Chromosome elimination occurs frequently in interspecific hybrids between distantly related species in Poaceae. However, chromosomes from both parents behave stably in a hybrid of female oat (Avena sativa L.) pollinated by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.). To analyze the chromosome behavior in this hybrid, we cloned the centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3) genes of oat and pearl millet and produced a pearl millet-specific anti-CENH3 antibody. Application of this antibody together with a grass species common anti-CENH3 antibody revealed the dynamic CENH3 composition of the hybrid cells before and after fertilization. Despite co-expression of CENH3 genes encoded by oat and pearl millet, only an oat-type CENH3 was incorporated into the centromeres of both species in the hybrid embryo. Oat CENH3 enables a functional centromere in pearl millet chromosomes in an oat genetic background. Comparison of CENH3 genes among Poaceae species that show chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids revealed that the loop 1 regions of oat and pearl millet CENH3 exhibit exceptionally high similarity.

  12. Effect of chemical systemic acquired resistance elicitors on avenanthramide biosynthesis in oat (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mitchell L

    2011-07-13

    Oats produce a group of phenolic antioxidants termed avenanthramides. These metabolites are, among food crops, unique to oats and have shown, in experimental systems, certain desirable nutritional characteristics such as inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation and reducing inflammation. Avenanthramides occur in both the leaves and grain of oat. In the leaves they are expressed as phytoalexins in response to crown rust (Puccina coronata) infection. The experiments reported here demonstrate that avenanthramide levels in vegetative tissue can be enhanced by treatment with benzothiadiazole (BTH), an agrochemical formulated to elicit systemic acquired resistance (SAR). The response to BTH was dramatically stronger than those produced with salicylic acid treatment. The roots of BTH treated plants also showed a smaller but distinct increase in avenanthramides. The dynamics of the root avenanthramide increase was substantially slower than that observed in the leaves, suggesting that avenanthramides might be transported from the leaves.

  13. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  14. Basis for changes in the auxin-sensitivity of Avena sativa (oat) leaf-sheath pulvini during the gravitropic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1995-01-01

    During the gravitropic response, auxin-sensitivity of the lower flanks of leaf-sheath pulvini of Avena sativa (oat) is at least 1000-fold higher than those of the upper flanks and non-gravistimulated pulvini. When the pulvini are treated with 1 mM Ca2+, a 10-fold increase in auxin-sensitivity of the pulvini is observed. Related to this difference in auxin-sensitivity, in vitro activation of the vanadate-sensitive H(-)-ATPase by IAA was observed. Results show that the activation of the H(+)-ATPase by IAA is probably mediated by soluble protein factors and that the H(+)-ATPase prepared from the lower flanks is activated by IAA with a 1000-fold higher auxin-sensitivity as compared with that from the upper flanks of the graviresponding pulvini. Ammonium sulfate fractionation experiments show that these soluble protein factors are in the 30 to 60% fraction. Auxin-binding assays reveal that lower flanks contain more high-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-9) M) and less low-affinity soluble auxin-binding sites (kD; on the order of 10(-6) M) than upper flanks. It is concluded that differential auxin-sensitivity of graviresponding oat-shoot pulvini is achieved by the modulation of affinities of auxin-binding sites in upper and lower flanks of the pulvini, that Ca2+ is involved in such modulation, and that one of the probable cellular functions of these auxin binding sites is the activation of the proton pump on the plasma membranes.

  15. Impact of storage conditions on seed germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L. at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Sarić-Krsmanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed storage conditions and different temperatures (5˚C, 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C, 30˚C and 26˚C/21˚C during germination and seedling development on seed germination, shoot length and germination rate of wild oat (Avena fatua L. was examined. Germinated seeds were counted daily over a period of ten days and shoot length was measured on the last day, while germination rates were calculated from those measurements. The results showed that seed storage under controlled conditions (T1: temperature 24±1°C, humidity 40-50%; T2: temperature 26±1°C, humidity 70-80% and T3: temperature 4˚C for periods of 3 (t1 and 12 (t2 months had a significant influence on germination of wild oat seeds. The percentage of germinated seeds under all examined temperatures was higher when they were stored for 12 months under controlled temperature and humidity. The results also showed that temperature had a significant effect on the percentage of germination and germination rate of A. fatua seeds. The highest total germination occurred at 15˚C temperature (T1: t1 - 41.25%, t2 - 44.37%; T2: t1 - 28.13%, t2 - 34.37%; T3: t1 - 10.63%, t2 - 12.50%. Germination percentage under an alternating day /night photoperiod at 26˚C/21˚C temperature was higher in all treatment variants (T1: t1 - 8.13%, t2 - 10.00%; T2: t1 - 11.87%, t2 - 13.13%; T3: t1 - 2.42%, t2 - 2.70% than germination in the dark at 25˚C, 30˚C and 5˚C.

  16. Dynamics of auxin movement in the gravistimulated leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Thomas C.; Kapen, E. H.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1991-01-01

    The role of auxin redistribution in the graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat was evaluated using H-3-indole-3-acetic acid (H-3-IAA) preloaded into isolated pulvini. Results obtained reveal that, while lateral transport of auxin occurs following gravistimulation, it is not necessary for a graviresponse. Localized changes in tissue responsiveness or the conversion of conjugated hormone to free hormone may suffice to drive the graviresponse.

  17. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions.

  18. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  19. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhoff, Erik A; Keith, Barbara K; Dyer, William E; Menalled, Fabian D

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR) wild oat (Avena fatua) populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS) A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum) competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1)) and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1)). Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR) decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  20. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Chlorophyll and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Maslova, I.; McKee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, that provides spatial resolution as fine as 6 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant chlorophyll, plant nitrogen, and other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of a crop of oats (Avena sativa) and formulated machine learning regression models of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant chlorophyll and plant nitrogen. We tested two, separate relevance vector machines (RVM) and a single multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant chlorophyll and nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the different models and a comparison of the RVM modeling methods against more traditional approaches that have been used for estimation of plant chlorophyll and nitrogen.

  1. Vitamin E levels in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) expressing a p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate gene from oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Catherine M; Launis, Karen L; Traber, Maret G; Ward, Dennis P

    2014-04-16

    The enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is ubiquitous in plants and functions in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, resulting in the formation of homogentisate. Homogentisate is the aromatic precursor of all plastoquinones and tocochromanols, including tocopherols and tocotrienols. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been genetically modified to express the gene avhppd-03 that encodes the protein AvHPPD-03 derived from oat (Avena sativa L.). The AvHPPD-03 isozyme has an inherent reduced binding affinity for mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits the wild-type soybean HPPD enzyme. Expression of avhppd-03 in soybean plants confers a mesotrione-tolerant phenotype. Seeds from three different avhppd-03-expressing soybean events were quantitatively assessed for content of eight vitamin E isoforms. Although increased levels of two tocopherol isoforms were identified for each of the three soybean events, they were within, or not substantially different from, the ranges of these isoforms found in nontransgenic soybean varieties. The increases of these tocopherols in the avhppd-03-expressing soybean events may have a slight benefit with regard to vitamin E nutrition but, given the commercial processing of soybeans, are unlikely to have a material impact on human nutrition with regard to vitamin E concentrations in soybean oil.

  2. Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on the competitive ability of multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A Lehnhoff

    Full Text Available Ecological theory predicts that fitness costs of herbicide resistance should lead to the reduced relative abundance of resistant populations upon the cessation of herbicide use. This greenhouse research investigated the potential fitness costs of two multiple herbicide resistant (MHR wild oat (Avena fatua populations, an economically important weed that affects cereal and pulse crop production in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We compared the competitive ability of two MHR and two herbicide susceptible (HS A. fatua populations along a gradient of biotic and abiotic stresses The biotic stress was imposed by three levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum competition (0, 4, and 8 individuals pot(-1 and an abiotic stress by three nitrogen (N fertilization rates (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha(-1. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effects models and results showed that the biomass of all A. fatua populations decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at all N rates. Similarly, A. fatua relative growth rate (RGR decreased with increasing T. aestivum competition at the medium and high N rates but there was no response with 0 N. There were no differences between the levels of biomass or RGR of HS and MHR populations in response to T. aestivum competition. Overall, the results indicate that MHR does not confer growth-related fitness costs in these A. fatua populations, and that their relative abundance will not be diminished with respect to HS populations in the absence of herbicide treatment.

  3. The occurrence of Fusarium poae (Peck Wollenw. on oat (Avena sativa L. panicles and its harmfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations of oat panicles carried out in the fields of Danko Plant Breeding Company in the period 2006–2007 and in the fields of Strzelce Plant Breeding Company in 2008 showed the occurrence of panicles with Fusarium head blight symptoms in each growing season. In 2006 the percentage of such panicles ranged from 0.25 to 1.5%, in 2007 from 2.0 to 9.0%, whereas in 2008 from 0.5 to 8.0%. The species Fusarium poae was the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight. A study on inoculation of panicles of 12 genotypes of oats with Fusarium poae strain no. 35, which was conducted in 2008 in experimental fields near the city of Zamość, determined the number of kernels per panicle, grain yield from 40 panicles (4×10 panicles, and 1000-kernels weight (TKW after the harvest of the crop at full grain maturity. Compared to the control, the lowest reduction in the number of kernels per panicle was found in the case of the cultivar 'Krezus' (88.69% of the control, while the highest one in 'Szakal' (22.46% of the control. As a result of inoculation of panicles with F. poae, the breeding line STH 8107 was characterized by the lowest decrease in kernels yield (69.76% of the control, whereas the highest decrease was found in the breeding line CHD 1430/02 (14.26% of the control. Compared to the control, the lowest reduction in TKW was observed in the breeding line STH 8107 (96.46% of the control, whereas the highest one in the breeding line CHD 1430/02 (45.06% of the control. The presence of secondary metabolites of F. poae and group A trichothecene compounds: HT-2 toxins (from 0 to 0.013 mg × kg-1, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS (from 0 to 0.002 mg × kg-1, T-2 tetraol (from 0.001 to 0.014 mg x g-1, and scirpentriol (from 0.008 to 0.074 mg × kg-1, was found in infected oat kernels. Group B trichothecenes: nivalenol (from 0 to 0.157 mg × g-1, deoxynivalenol (DON (from 0 to 0.127 mg × kg-1 as well as its acetylated derivatives: 3-AcDON (from 0 to 0.059 mg

  4. Influence of Ash Applied to Oat Crop (Avena sativa L. Grown under Organic Fertilization with Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoni Lixandru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The power plant ash is an inorganic residue with a variable chemical buildup according to the type of charcoal used and quality. Depositing, stabilizing and eventually reintegrating the ash in the natural circuit raises a series of problems due to its disastrous effect on biodiversity. Even with these problems, at a moderate micro and macro mineral content, power plant ash could present interesting agro technical and ecological alternatives. For this reason, the controlled integration of ash could put a stop to pollution with ash by reintegrating the material in the agricultural ecosystems.For this purpose, in the field of research of Ecological and Forage Crops from Faculty of Animal Science and Biotechnologies Timisoara, research was conducted over the influence of the reintegration of 40 t of ash per ha, produced by C.E.T. Timisoara, on the biomass production of oatmeal (Avena sativa L, fertilized by levels of 25 and 50 t per ha of manure. After harvesting, the analysis of the total biomass quantity, both above and underground, revealed similar results in all trials. In conditions that include heavy metal concentrations beneath normal geological values, conclude that the application of 40t per ha may be an agro technical solution for the integration of power plant ash in the agricultural ecosystem.

  5. Characterization of Oat (Avena nuda L.) β-Glucan Cryogelation Process by Low-Field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia; Li, Linlin; Wu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Qiaoling; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-13

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) is a useful method in studying the water distribution and mobility in heterogeneous systems. This technique was used to characterize water in an oat β-glucan aqueous system during cryogelation by repeated freeze-thaw treatments. The results indicated that microphase separation occurred during cryogelation, and three water components were determined in the cryostructure. The spin-spin relaxation time was analyzed on the basis of chemical exchange and diffusion exchange theory. The location of each water component was identified in the porous microstructure of the cryogel. The pore size measured from the SEM image is in accordance with that estimated from relaxation time. The formation of cryogel is confirmed by rheological method. The results suggested that the cryogelation process of the polysaccharide could be monitored by LF-NMR through the evolution of spin-spin relaxation characteristics.

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci from Two Genotypes of Oat (Avena sativa) Conditioning Resistance to Puccinia coronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Gordon, Tyler C; Jackson, Eric W; Chao, Shiaoman; Harrison, Stephen A; Carson, Martin L; Obert, Don E; Bonman, J Michael

    2015-02-01

    Developing oat cultivars with partial resistance to crown rust would be beneficial and cost-effective for disease management. Two recombinant inbred-line populations were generated by crossing the susceptible cultivar Provena with two partially resistant sources, CDC Boyer and breeding line 94197A1-9-2-2-2-5. A third mapping population was generated by crossing the partially resistant sources to validate the quantitative trait locus (QTL) results. The three populations were evaluated for crown rust severity in the field at Louisiana State University (LSU) in 2009 and 2010 and at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) in St. Paul, MN, in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An iSelect platform assay containing 5,744 oat single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to genotype the populations. From the 2009 CDL test, linkage analyses revealed two QTLs for partial resistance in the Provena/CDC Boyer population on chromosome 19A. One of the 19A QTLs was also detected in the 2009 LSU test. Another QTL was detected on chromosome 12D in the CDL 2009 test. In the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population, only one QTL was detected, on chromosome 13A, in the CDL 2011 test. The 13A QTL from the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population was validated in the CDC Boyer/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population in the CDL 2010 and 2011 tests. Comparative analysis of the significant marker sequences with the rice genome database revealed 15 candidate genes for disease resistance on chromosomes 4 and 6 of rice. These genes could be potential targets for cloning from the two resistant parents.

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars via immature embryo and leaf explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparis, Sebastian; Bregier, Cezary; Orczyk, Waclaw; Nadolska-Orczyk, Anna

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on the successful Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oat, and on some factors influencing this process. In the first step of the experiments, three cultivars, two types of explant, and three combinations of strain/vectors, which were successfully used for transformation of other cereals were tested. Transgenic plants were obtained from the immature embryos of cvs. Bajka, Slawko and Akt and from leaf base explants of cv. Bajka after transformation with A. thumefaciens strain LBA4404(pTOK233). The highest transformation rate (12.3%) was obtained for immature embryos of cv. Bajka. About 79% of the selected plants proved to be transgenic; however, only 14.3% of the T(0) plants and 27.5% of the T(1) showed GUS expression. Cell competence of both types of explant differed in terms of their transformation ability and transgene expression. The next step of the study was to test the suitability for oat transformation of the pGreen binary vector combined with different selection cassettes: nptII or bar under the nos or 35S promoter. Transgenic plants were selected in combinations transformed with nos::nptII, 35S::nptII and nos::bar. The highest transformation efficiency (5.3%) was obtained for cv. Akt transformed with nos::nptII. A detailed analysis of the T(0) plants selected from a given callus line and their progeny revealed that they were the mixture of transgenic, chimeric-transgenic and non-transgenic individuals. Southern blot analysis of T(0) and T(1) showed simple integration pattern with the low copy number of the introduced transgenes.

  8. Herbicide resistance-endowing ACCase gene mutations in hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua): insights into resistance evolution in a hexaploid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Ahmad-Hamdani, M S; Han, H; Christoffers, M J; Powles, S B

    2013-03-01

    Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but far too little about the evolution of resistance mutations in polyploids is understood. Hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua) is a global crop weed and many populations have evolved herbicide resistance. We studied plastidic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in hexaploid wild oat and revealed that resistant individuals can express one, two or three different plastidic ACCase gene resistance mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg). Using ACCase resistance mutations as molecular markers, combined with genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches, we found in individual resistant wild-oat plants that (1) up to three unlinked ACCase gene loci assort independently following Mendelian laws for disomic inheritance, (2) all three of these homoeologous ACCase genes were transcribed, with each able to carry its own mutation and (3) in a hexaploid background, each individual ACCase resistance mutation confers relatively low-level herbicide resistance, in contrast to high-level resistance conferred by the same mutations in unrelated diploid weed species of the Poaceae (grass) family. Low resistance conferred by individual ACCase resistance mutations is likely due to a dilution effect by susceptible ACCase expressed by homoeologs in hexaploid wild oat and/or differential expression of homoeologous ACCase gene copies. Thus, polyploidy in hexaploid wild oat may slow resistance evolution. Evidence of coexisting non-target-site resistance mechanisms among wild-oat populations was also revealed. In all, these results demonstrate that herbicide resistance and its evolution can be more complex in hexaploid wild oat than in unrelated diploid grass weeds. Our data provide a starting point for the daunting task of understanding resistance evolution in polyploids.

  9. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal......Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity...

  10. Distribution of (1,3(1,4-β-D-Glucans in Grains of Polish Oat Cultivars and Lines (Avena sativa L. – Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sykut-Domańska Emilia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of a fraction of soluble dietary fibre (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans was depicted in selected Polish oat grains (Avena sativa L.. Localisation of β-glucans within the grains was visualised by the light microscopy with Calcofluor white as a fluorescence agent. The content of β-glucans varied in samples from 3.08% d.m. to 5.04% d.m. Analysis of distribution of (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans showed that the localization of β-glucans varied between various cultivars and lines. It was demonstrated that the total content of (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans in oat kernels had an effect on their distribution. All the lines and cultivars tested displayed the greatest accumulation of (1,3(1,4-β-D-glucans in the cells of the subaleurone layer. With increase in the levels of β-glucans in high-glucan oat cultivars and lines, a tendency was observed towards their greater accumulation in the central parts of the kernel. It makes oat grain particularly suitable for the production of wholemeal foods. It is important not only to focus on increasing the content of β-glucans, but also to investigate molecules distribution in the seed. It was also demonstrated that Dukat cultivar was characterised by an especially valuable triple aleurone layer, which makes this cultivar predestined for further breeding studies as an extremely valuable carrier of genetic information.

  11. Prueba de similitud en genes con resistencia a roya del tallo en genotipos de avena Test of similarity in genes with resistance to stem rust in oat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    Full Text Available La roya del tallo causada por Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae, es considerada el factor biótico que más afecta al cultivo de avena (Avena sativa L., disminuyendo el rendimiento y peso de grano en variedades susceptibles, en 75% y 60%, respectivamente. La estrategia que más ha apoyado al control de esta enfermedad es el uso de variedades resistentes, requiriéndose constantemente de fuentes de resistencia. La forma cómo opera la resistencia y los genes que están confiriéndola en el germoplasma de avena se desconoce; de tal modo, que es necesario hacer más estudios sobre número y similitud de genes así como de su forma de acción. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la similitud y el número de genes de resistencia en planta adulta y plántula, en familias F3 de cruzas entre seis progenitores de avena, moderadamente resistentes a roya del tallo; por su importancia para los programas de mejoramiento como fuentes de resistencia, mediante el análisis de las progenies derivadas de las cruzas entre ellos desde 2006 a 2009. En estado de plántula en invernadero, los progenitores por separado tuvieron lecturas de 0, ";", y 1, indicando su resistencia ante el aislamiento PgaMex99.13. Las familias F3 de todas las cruzas no segregaron familias susceptibles, indicando que estos seis progenitores poseen un gen en común confiriendo resistencia contra el aislamiento probado. En campo, aún con inoculaciones del mismo aislamiento, las familias en todas las cruzas mostraron diferentes niveles de infección, algunos mayores a 60% indicando la incidencia de otras razas distintas a la inoculada, para las cuales el gen de resistencia en común en los progenitores no fue efectivo.The stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis Pers. f. sp. Avenae is considered the biotic factor that affects the most to oat cultivation (Avena sativa L., decreasing yield and grain weight in susceptible varieties, in 75% and 60%, respectively. The strategy that has

  12. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  13. Investigating the resistance of wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu.) to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl by whole plant bioassay and seed bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Fatemeh Bena; Alizadeh, Hasan Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar

    2007-01-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the resistant of wild oat Avena luduviciana Durieu. populations to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Populations of A. ludoviciana were collected from different locations in Iran, showed indications of resistance to this herbicide. Whole plant assay experiments included screening tests and dose response experiments whereas; seed bioassay experiment consisted of ID50 determination and dose response experiments. Whole plant assay experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design in four replications. The treatments were wild oat populations included FR1, FR2, FR3, FR4 (collected from Fars province), MR1, MR2, MR3 (collected from Markazi province), KS, KR1, KR2, KR3 (collected from Khuzestan province) and S (collected from location which had never been treated previously with any graminicide). Seed bioassay experiments were conducted using a randomized design with 4 replications. On the whole plant basis, resistance was found in, KR1, KR2, KR3 and FR4 and based on a seed bioassay, these populations were also resistant to fenoxaprop-p-ethyl. Resistance ratios (R/S) of resistant populations were different. Present findings also revealed that the seed bioassay could be used as a simple, comparatively rapid, inexpensive and accurate method for identifying wild oat populations resistant to Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activities of colloidal oatmeal (Avena sativa) contribute to the effectiveness of oats in treatment of itch associated with dry, irritated skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Garay, Michelle; Nebus, Judith; Chon, Suhyoun; Kaur, Simarna; Mahmood, Khalid; Kizoulis, Menas; Southall, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Oat (Avena sativa) in colloidal form is a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin conditions, including skin rashes, erythema, burns, itch, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the exact mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were made with various solvents and tested in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant assays. In addition, an investigator blind study was performed with twenty-nine healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral mild to moderate itch with moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal diminished pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro and the colloidal oat skin protectant lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, scaling, roughness, and itch intensity. These results demonstrate that colloidal oat extracts exhibit direct anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which may provide the mechanisms for observed dermatological benefits while using the colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion.

  15. Study on Preparation Technology of Naked Oats Beverage Fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria%乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料的制备工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 刘媛; 兰凤英

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to prepare a lactic acid fermentation beverage of naked oats. [ Method ] With saccharified naked oats juice as raw material, lactic acid bacteria as fermented strain, effects of strain domestication, inoculation amount and fermentation time on the beverage quality were studied. [ Result] The preparation technology of lactic acid fermentation beverage of naked oats was as follows:with saccharified naked oats juice as raw material, domesticated lactic acid bacteria as fermented strain, inoculation amount 4% ,then fermented 6 h at the temperature of 42 ℃. [Conclusion] The study provided a scientific basis for development of naked oats foods.%[目的]制备一种乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料.[方法]以糖化后的莜麦汁为原料、乳酸茵为发酵菌种,探讨菌种驯化、接种量和发酵时间对乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料品质的影响.[结果]乳酸发酵型莜麦饮料的制备工艺为以糖化后的莜麦汁为原料,采用驯化后的乳酸茵为发酵菌种,接种量4%,在42℃下发酵6h.[结论]该研究为莜麦食品的开发提供了科学依据.

  16. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation; Irradiacion de lodos residuales y su uso en el cultivo de avena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  17. Prueba oral de tolerancia al almidón del grano de avena en ponies (Oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone, G.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe efectuó una Prueba Oral de Tolerancia al Almidón del grano de Avena en ponies, para desarrollar una curva de glucemia propia de estas razas, compararla con las curvas de glucemia de equinos de mayor alzada, consumiendo pasturas o dietas mixtas de forrajes y concentrados, y observar si algún pony pudiera ser considerado unvalor atípico.SummaryAn oral oats grain starch tolerance test in ponies was carried out to develop a glycaemic curve specific to these breeds, compared it with glycaemic curves of larger height horses, pasture fed or forage and concentrates fed, and see if any pony could be considered outlier.

  18. Determinación del impacto de competencia de diferentes cohortes de avena silvestre (Avena fatua sobre los rendimientos en un cultivo comercial de trigo (Triticum aestivum Assessment of competition impact from different cohorts of wild oats (Avena fatua on the yields of a commercial wheat crop (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez M. Javier

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de la avena silvestre (Avena fatua L. sobre el cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestívum LO.. Estainvestigaciónfue desarrollada en el Centro Agropecuario , Universidad Nacional de Colombia del municipio de Mosquera, Cundinamarca, principalmente para determinar la variación de las poblaciones de la avena silvestre mediante el establecimiento de 8 cohortes a intervalos de 15 días cada una. Se evaluaron los cambios fenológicos en cada cohorte dos veces por semana. También, fue evaluado el impacto de la competencia a través del peso seco de las plantas. El trabajo se desarrolló
    con diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro replicas y cada tratamiento se acompañó con dos testigos: una parcela siempre limpia y otra siempre enmalezada. Se realizó la prueba de Duncan para las variables significativas. La emergencia de plantas de avena se presentó durante todo el ciclo del cultivo. Las plantas de las primeras cohortes de avena fueron tan altas como las plantas de cultivo. La densidad de plantas y el peso seco de estas primeras 5 cohortes fueron superiores a los de las
    3 cohortes finales. Las plantas de las cohortes 6 a, 7 a y e-. presentaron menor número de tallos y menor peso seco por planta. Estas diferencias hacen que las plantas de las primerascohortes presentaran mayor capacidad de competencia.The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of wild oats (Avena fatua L. in a wheat crop (Tritícum aestivum LO.. This research was conducted at the Centro Agropecuario "Marengo" , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, near the town of Mosquera, Cundinamarca. In order to determine the variation of Avena fatua populations, 8 succesive cohorts were established with intervals of 15 days. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with tour replications. In addition to the the eight treatments (cohorts there were two check plots

  19. Assessment of Tri- and Hexavalent Chromium Phytotoxicity on Oats (Avena sativa L.) Biomass and Content of Nitrogen Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowski, Mirosław; Radziemska, Maja

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soil contamination with tri- and hexavalent chromium and soil application of compost, zeolite, and CaO on the mass of oats and content of nitrogen compounds in different organs of oats. The oats mass and content of nitrogen compounds in the crop depended on the type and dose of chromium and alleviating substances incorporated to soil. In the series without neutralizing substances, Cr(VI), unlike Cr(III), had a negative effect on the growth and development of oats. The highest doses of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) stimulated the accumulation of total nitrogen but depressed the content of N-NO3(-) in most of organs of oats. Among the substances added to soil in order to alleviate the negative impact of Cr (VI) on the mass of plants, compost had a particularly beneficial effect on the growth and development of oats. The application of compost, zeolite, and CaO to soil had a stronger effect on the content of nitrogen compounds in grain and straw than in roots. Soil enrichment with either of the above substances usually raised the content of nitrogen compounds in oats grain and straw, but decreased it in roots.

  20. [Effect of strengthening solar ultraviolet B band irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L. ) yield and its components in Qing Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Yao; Wang, Kun; Zhao, Yong-Lai; Xin, You-Jun

    2009-08-01

    Stratospheric ozone depletion occurs mainly over polar regions during the spring when the solar Ultraviolet B-band (280-315 nm, UV-B) radiation is most intense in a year, but over the Qing Tibetan Plateau region, the highest intensity is from June to September when the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the regions is more than that in the adjacent areas lying in the same latitude by 10%. From June to September is just the time of plant's germination, development, and reproduction in the alpine region. UV-B radiation may alter the reproduction of the forage plant, oat (Avena sativa.), which plays the vital role in developing indigenous herdsman's animal husbandry industry. The responses of oat yield and its components to the enhanced ultraviolet B band irradiation under the field condition were surveyed. The effect shows that the grain yield is decreased significantly by strengthened UV-B irradiation, and at the same time the main consequence is the decrease in both the number of ears per square meter and the number of grains per ear, but the weight of 1 000 grains appears not significantly different. Compared with the same respective location in a spikelet, the grain weight is decreased significantly under the treated condition, mostly because of the decreases in the number of the third and forth floret grain and the grain weight at those respective positions, and the percentage of the first and second floret grain and their weight are evidently approved on the contrary.

  1. A metabolomic study in oats (Avena sativa) highlights a drought tolerance mechanism based upon salicylate signalling pathways and the modulation of carbon, antioxidant and photo-oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Heald, Jim; Kingston-Smith, Alison; Winters, Ana; Rubiales, Diego; Sanz, Mariluz; Mur, Luis A J; Prats, Elena

    2015-07-01

    Although a wealth of information is available on the induction of one or several drought-related responses in different species, little is known of how their timing, modulation and crucially integration influence drought tolerance. Based upon metabolomic changes in oat (Avena sativa L.), we have defined key processes involved in drought tolerance. During a time course of increasing water deficit, metabolites from leaf samples were profiled using direct infusion-electrospray mass spectroscopy (DI-ESI-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ESI-MS/MS and analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The involvement of metabolite pathways was confirmed through targeted assays of key metabolites and physiological experiments. We demonstrate an early accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) influencing stomatal opening, photorespiration and antioxidant defences before any change in the relative water content. These changes are likely to maintain plant water status, with any photoinhibitory effect being counteracted by an efficient antioxidant capacity, thereby representing an integrated mechanism of drought tolerance in oats. We also discuss these changes in relation to those engaged at later points, consequence of the different water status in susceptible and resistant genotypes.

  2. Changes in starch and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate levels and auxin transport are interrelated in graviresponding oat (Avena sativa) shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye Sup; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kaufman, Peter B; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kirakosyan, Ara; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Kim, Seong-Ki; Chang, Soo Chul

    2006-11-01

    This study was conducted to unravel a mechanism for the gravitropic curvature response in oat (Avena sativa) shoot pulvini. For this purpose, we examined the downward movement of starch-filled chloroplast gravisensors, differential changes in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels, transport of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gravitropic curvature. Upon gravistimulation, the ratio for IAA levels in lower halves versus those in upper halves (L/U) increased from 1.0 at 0 h and reached a maximum value of 1.45 at 8 h. When shoots were grown in the dark for 10 d, to deplete starch in the chloroplast, the gravity-induced L/U of IAA was reduced to 1.0. N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), both auxin transport inhibitors, significantly reduced the amount of gravitropic curvature and gravity-induced lateral IAA transport, but did not reduce the gravity-induced late change in the L/U ratio of IP(3) levels. U73122, a specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, decreased gravity-induced curvature. Because U73122 reduced the ratio of L/U of IAA imposed by gravistimulation, it is clear that IAA transport is correlated with changes in IP(3) levels upon gravistimulation. These results indicate that gravistimulation-induced differential lateral IAA transport may result from the onset of graviperception in the chloroplast gravisensors coupled with gravity-induced asymmetric changes in IP(3) levels in oat shoot pulvini.

  3. Wood pellet fly ash and bottom ash as an effective liming agent and nutrient source for rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) and oats (Avena sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nathan D; Michael Rutherford, P; Thring, Ronald W; Helle, Steve S

    2012-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from a softwood pellet boiler were characterized and evaluated as soil amendments. In a greenhouse study, two plant species (rye grass, Lolium perenne L. and oats, Avena sativa) were grown in three different treatments (1% FA, 1% BA, non-amended control) of a silty loam soil. Total concentrations of plant nutrients Ca, K, Mg, P and Zn in both ashes were elevated compared to conventional wood ash. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, Se and Zn were found to be elevated in the FA relative to BA and the non-amended soil. At 28 d, oat above-ground biomass was found to be significantly greater in soil amended with FA. Potassium and Mo plant tissue concentrations were significantly increased by addition of either ash, and FA significantly increased Zn tissue concentrations. Cadmium and Hg tissue concentrations were elevated in some cases. As soil amendments, either pellet ash is an effective liming agent and nutrient source, but high concentrations of Cd and Zn in FA may preclude its use as an agricultural soil amendment in some jurisdictions. Lower ash application rates than those used in this study (i.e. <1%) may still provide sufficient nutrients and effective neutralization of soil acidity.

  4. 糖化莜麦汁最佳发酵菌种的筛选%Screening of the Best Strain for Fermentation of Naked Oat Juice after Saccharification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 刘媛; 兰凤英

    2013-01-01

      以优质莜麦为原料,对其进行磨粉、糖化等处理后,分别接种经不同处理的即发活性干酵母、混合乳酸菌和葡萄酒活性干酵母3种菌种进行发酵,根据发酵莜麦汁的理化指标和感官评分,从中筛选发酵糖化莜麦汁的适宜菌种。结果表明:葡萄酒活性干酵母的发酵效果最好,其次为驯化混合乳酸菌。%The top quality of naked oats by milling and saccharification was used as the main raw material, which was then fermented with three strains (instant active dry yeast, Lactic Acid Bacteria and wine active dry yeast ) by different treated. The best strain was screened out by the physicochemical index and sense scores of fermentive naked oat juice. The result indicated that the best strains was wine active dry yeast, and secondly was tamed lactic acidbacteria.

  5. Resposta da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb à irrigação por aspersão e adubação nitrogenada = Response of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb on the aspersion irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique de Cerqueira Luz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada e da irrigação por aspersão no crescimento e na produção de massa seca (MS da aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. Foram avaliadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg de N ha-1 e, também, a presença ou ausência de irrigação. Foram determinadas as seguintesvariáveis: altura de planta, produção de massa seca, taxa de crescimento e o teor de MS. Quando irrigada, a altura da planta foi maior, refletindo maior produção de massa seca. Na área de sequeiro, o teor de MS foi superior (24,7% ao da área irrigada (18,7%. Quanto à adubação nitrogenada, houve resposta somente para altura de planta, com comportamento linear, quando da utilização de irrigação. Os efeitos da irrigação foram mais determinantes para a produção da aveia preta que a adubação nitrogenada.The objective of the study was assessing the effect of the nitrogen and the aspersion irrigation on the growth and dry matter yield of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. The experiment was conducted in the Campus of USP in Pirassununga, São Paulo State. In the study were evaluated four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg of N ha-1 and also the presence or absence of the irrigation. The plant variablesevaluated were: mean height, dry matter percentage, yield and growth rate. The results had disclosed to greater height of plant in the irrigated condition, reflecting in the higher production of dry matter. In dry land area, percentage of DM was 24.7% and in irrigatedarea 18.7%. The nitrogen was significantly only for plant mean height that showed linear fit when carried through the irrigation. The effect of the irrigation was better for the production of black oats than nitrogen.

  6. Rhizodeposition of nitrogen and carbon by mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and its contribution to intercropped oats (Avena nuda L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Huadong; Yang, Xuechao; Feng, Xiaomin; Qian, Xin; Hu, Yuegao; Ren, Changzhong; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR) of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S) or intercropped (I) with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp) and at maturity (Im and Sm). More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp), 9.2% (Ip), 20.1% (Sm), and 21.2% (Im) of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp), 42.0% (Ip), 15.4% (Sm), and 22.6% (Im) of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N) and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.

  7. CONCENTRAÇÃO DE b -GLUCANAS NAS DIFERENTES ETAPAS DO PROCESSAMENTO DA AVEIA (Avena sativa L. OAT (Avena sativa L. b -GLUCAN CONCENTRATION IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Marins DE SÁ

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available As b-glucanas são fibras solúveis presentes em grande quantidade na aveia e têm importante ação na redução do colesterol sangüíneo em indivíduos com hipercolesterolemia, entre outras propriedades. Pouco se conhece em relação a este polímero em produtos brasileiros. Além disso, para ser consumida, a aveia passa por várias etapas de processamento, que poderiam alterar seu conteúdo de b-glucanas. Este trabalho avaliou a concentração de b-glucanas no cultivar de aveia IAC 7 e seus produtos, para verificar se existe alteração no teor desta fibra no decorrer do processamento. O farelo apresentou o maior teor de b-glucanas (9,51± 2,08%, diferindo estatisticamente dos demais produtos (Pb-glucanas dos demais produtos avaliados (aveia descascada, tostada, cortada, flocos inteiros, flocos e flocos finos, indicando que o processamento não tem influência no teor desta fibra no produto final.. b-glucans are soluble fibers which are quite abundant in oats. One of their many important properties is their capacity to lower blood cholesterol in individuals with hipercholesterolemy. Very little is known about this polymer in Brazilian food products. Besides, in order to be consumed as human food, the oats have to undergo several processing steps that may alter their original b-glucan concentration. The aim of this study was to measure this nutrient in cultivar IAC 7 and its products to determine if processing had any influence on the overall b-glucan content. Oat bran presented the highest values (9.51± 2.08% and was found to be significantly different from the other products (Pb-glucan contents of the other products, suggesting that processing had minimum or no effect on the concentration of this fiber.

  8. Mobilization of lipid reserves during germination of oat (Avena sativa L.), a cereal rich in endosperm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonova, Svetlana; Grimberg, Asa; Marttila, Salla; Stymne, Sten; Carlsson, Anders S

    2010-06-01

    Since the cereal endosperm is a dead tissue in the mature grain, beta-oxidation is not possible there. This raises the question about the use of the endosperm oil in cereal grains during germination. In this study, mobilization of lipids in different tissues of germinating oat grains was analysed using thin-layer and gas chromatography. The data imply that the oat endosperm oil [triacylglycerol (TAG)] is not a dead-end product as it was absorbed by the scutellum, either as free fatty acids (FFAs) released from TAG or as intact TAG immediately degraded to FFAs. These data were supported by light and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM) studies where close contact between endosperm lipid droplets and the scutellum was observed. The appearance of the fused oil in the oat endosperm changed into oil droplets during germination in areas close to the aleurone and the scutellar epithelium. However, according to the data obtained by TEM these oil droplets are unlikely to be oil bodies surrounded by oleosins. Accumulation of FFA pools in the embryo suggested further transport of FFAs from the scutellum. Noticeably high levels of TAG were also accumulated in the embryo but were not synthesized by re-esterification from imported FFAs. Comparison between two oat cultivars with different amounts of oil and starch in the endosperm suggests that an increased oil to starch ratio in oat grains does not significantly impact the germination process.

  9. Molecular characterization and genetic diversity analysis β-glucan content variability in grain of oat (Avena sativa L.

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    Đukić Nevena H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In grain of ten genetically divergent oat cultivars (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flaming-Kurz, Nuptiele, Prode, Pellerva, Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Simo the variability β-glucan content were investigated. The different value of content of β-glucan was found. Among analyzed oat cultivars, the highest β- glucan contents had Pellerva (6.597%, while the least had Simo (2.971%. The contents of β-glucans were determined by ICC standard Method No 168. The value of β-glucans varied and indicated the differences and similarities between analysed cultivars. The degree of cultivar similarity was determined by dendrogram on which was discriminated two clusters of similar cultivars toward to contents of β-glucan . Within cluster 1, a small group of oats, are five cultivars with small distance (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flamings-Kurz, Nuptiele and Prode. The highest similarity in the range of 88 or the least distance in the range of 12. Within cluster 2 was four oat cultivars (Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Pellerva in which the least differences was between Emperor and Astor with average distance in range 27. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 differed with an average distance of 63. The cultivar Simo expressed the greatest distance to all analysed oat cultivars grouped in two clusters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31092

  10. Field application of benzothiadiazole (BTH) to oats (Avena sativa): Effects on crown rust resistance and avenanthramide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant defense activators such as benzothiadiazole (BTH) are known to elicit the biosynthesis of plant phytoalexins. In oat, BTH treatment was shown to up-regulate avenanthramide production in both the vegetative tissue and filling grain in greenhouse studies. Avenanthramides are phenolic antioxidant...

  11. Quantification of betaglucans, lipid and protein contents in whole oat groats (Avena sativa L.) using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole oat has been described as an important healthy food for humans due to its beneficial nutritional components. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tool that can be substituted for some traditional chemical analysis. A total o...

  12. Rhizodeposition of nitrogen and carbon by mungbean (Vigna radiata L. and its contribution to intercropped oats (Avena nuda L..

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    Huadong Zang

    Full Text Available Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N and carbon (C in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S or intercropped (I with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp and at maturity (Im and Sm. More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp, 9.2% (Ip, 20.1% (Sm, and 21.2% (Im of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp, 42.0% (Ip, 15.4% (Sm, and 22.6% (Im of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.

  13. Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in oat (Avena sativa L.): implications for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, M A; Cook, D; Tinker, N A; Jannink, J-L

    2011-02-01

    The level of population structure and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) can have large impacts on the power, resolution, and design of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in plants. Until recently, the topics of LD and population structure have not been explored in oat due to the lack of a high-throughput, high-density marker system. The objectives of this research were to survey the level of population structure and the extent of LD in oat germplasm and determine their implications for GWAS. In total, 1,205 lines and 402 diversity array technology (DArT) markers were used to explore population structure. Principal component analysis and model-based cluster analysis of these data indicated that, for the lines used in this study, relatively weak population structure exists. To explore LD decay, map distances of 2,225 linked DArT marker pairs were compared with LD (estimated as r²). Results showed that LD between linked markers decayed rapidly to r² = 0.2 for marker pairs with a map distance of 1.0 centi-Morgan (cM). For GWAS, we suggest a minimum of one marker every cM, but higher densities of markers should increase marker-QTL association and therefore detection power. Additionally, it was found that LD was relatively consistent across the majority of germplasm clusters. These findings suggest that GWAS in oat can include germplasm with diverse origins and backgrounds. The results from this research demonstrate the feasibility of GWAS and related analyses in oat.

  14. Digital Image Sensor-Based Assessment of the Status of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Crops after Frost Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Cruz, Antonia; Pajares, Gonzalo; Santos, Matilde; Villegas-Romero, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land covered with oat crops, and the quantification of frost damage on oats, while plants are still in the flowering stage. The images are taken by a digital colour camera CCD-based sensor. Unsupervised classification methods are applied because the plants present different spectral signatures, depending on two main factors: illumination and the affected state. The colour space used in this application is CIELab, based on the decomposition of the colour in three channels, because it is the closest to human colour perception. The histogram of each channel is successively split into regions by thresholding. The best threshold to be applied is automatically obtained as a combination of three thresholding strategies: (a) Otsu’s method, (b) Isodata algorithm, and (c) Fuzzy thresholding. The fusion of these automatic thresholding techniques and the design of the classification strategy are some of the main findings of the paper, which allows an estimation of the damages and a prediction of the oat production. PMID:22163940

  15. Evaluation of post-germinative lipid peroxidation and enzymatic antioxidant potential in lead absorbing oat (Avena sativa) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Pal, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Rajesh; Singh, Archana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to study the impact of lead (Pb) on growth, metal uptake and antioxidative potential of oat seeds under metal stress. To achieve these objectives, few experiments were conducted to assess the effect of this particular metal on various anti-oxidative enzymes, during initial metabolism after germination, in presence of lead. Pb is not an oxido-reducing metal, the oxidative stress induced by Pb in growing oat seedlings appears to be an indirect effect of Pb toxicity, leading to production of ROS with simultaneous decrease in tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Content of free radical like superoxide anion and metabolite such as H2O2 were found to be more in plumule as compared to radical and endosperm of oat seedling. In response to various concentrations of lead ranging from 25-400 ppm, activities of peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were induced in plumule, radical and cotyledon on the 3rd, 6th and 9th days after germination. Growth parameters like length, fresh weight and dry weight were substantially affected in addition to reduced germination upto 49% only. The results indicated that even at the lowest concentration tested, a low inhibition of growth was obtained.

  16. Digital image sensor-based assessment of the status of oat (Avena sativa L.) crops after frost damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Cruz, Antonia; Pajares, Gonzalo; Santos, Matilde; Villegas-Romero, Isidro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land covered with oat crops, and the quantification of frost damage on oats, while plants are still in the flowering stage. The images are taken by a digital colour camera CCD-based sensor. Unsupervised classification methods are applied because the plants present different spectral signatures, depending on two main factors: illumination and the affected state. The colour space used in this application is CIELab, based on the decomposition of the colour in three channels, because it is the closest to human colour perception. The histogram of each channel is successively split into regions by thresholding. The best threshold to be applied is automatically obtained as a combination of three thresholding strategies: (a) Otsu's method, (b) Isodata algorithm, and (c) Fuzzy thresholding. The fusion of these automatic thresholding techniques and the design of the classification strategy are some of the main findings of the paper, which allows an estimation of the damages and a prediction of the oat production.

  17. Effects of Saline and Alkaline Stresses on Growth and Physiological Changes in Oat (Avena sativa L. Seedlings

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    Zhanwu GAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4 and alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 were both mixed in 2:1 ratio, and the effects of saline and alkaline stresses on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings were explored. Result showed that biomass, water content and chlorophyll content decreased while cell membrane permeability significantly increased under alkaline stress. Saline stress did not have obvious effect on pH value in tissue fluids of shoot and root, but alkaline stress increased pH value in root tissue fluid. The contents of Na+, Na+/K+, SO42- increased more, and K+, NO3-,H2PO4- decreased more under alkaline stress, the Cl- content increased obviously under saline stress but had little change under alkaline stress. The increments of proline and organic acid were both greater under alkaline stress, but organic acid content kept the same level under saline stress. Alkaline stress caused more harmful effects on growth and physiological changes in oat seedlings especially broke the pH stability in root tissue fluid. Physiological adaptive mechanisms of oat seedlings under saline stress and alkaline stress were different, which mainly took the way of accumulating organic acid under alkali stress but accumulating Cl- under saline stress.

  18. Digital Image Sensor-Based Assessment of the Status of Oat (Avena sativa L. Crops after Frost Damage

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    Isidro Villegas-Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to classify the land covered with oat crops, and the quantification of frost damage on oats, while plants are still in the flowering stage. The images are taken by a digital colour camera CCD-based sensor. Unsupervised classification methods are applied because the plants present different spectral signatures, depending on two main factors: illumination and the affected state. The colour space used in this application is CIELab, based on the decomposition of the colour in three channels, because it is the closest to human colour perception. The histogram of each channel is successively split into regions by thresholding. The best threshold to be applied is automatically obtained as a combination of three thresholding strategies: (a Otsu’s method, (b Isodata algorithm, and (c Fuzzy thresholding. The fusion of these automatic thresholding techniques and the design of the classification strategy are some of the main findings of the paper, which allows an estimation of the damages and a prediction of the oat production.

  19. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  20. Influence of VA-mycorrhiza on heavy metal uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.) from soils differing in heavy metal contamination; Einfluss der VA-Mykorrhiza auf die Schwermetallaufnahme von Hafer (Avena sativa L.) in Abhaengigkeit vom Kontaminationsgrad der Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, F.G. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung; Hoefner, W. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Pflanzenernaehrung

    1995-12-31

    The heavy metal uptake of mycorrhizal oat-plants (Avena sativa L.) was evaluated in pot experiments with two soils differing in heavy meatl accumulation. The effect of the fungal isolates on the uptake of the immobile metals Zn and Cu differed between the two soils: In the soil `Kleinlinden` mycorrhizal colonization increased heavy metal uptake by up to 37%. In the highly contaminated soil `Muenchen`, mycorrhizal infection lead to a higher uptake (max. 59%) in roots but to a reduced translocation to the aerial plant fractions. The higher uptake of Zn and Cu into the roots was related to the higher heavy metal concentrations in this soil. The Cd uptake showed no difference between the two soils, but was increased in the roots by VAM together with a lower translocation into the shoots. VAM-formation changed the root architecture by increacing the specific root length (m g{sup -1} root dry matter) and the total root length (km per pot). This increased absorbing surface of the roots was a major, but not the only cause for the differences in heavy metal uptake. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Schwermetallaufnahme mykorrhizierter Hafer-Pflanzen (Avena sativa L.) wurde im Gefaessversuch mit zwei Boeden unterschiedlicher Belastung evaluiert. Der Einfluss der VAM-Pilzisolate auf die Aufnahme der relativ immobilen Metalle Zn und Cu war stark abhaengig vom eingesetzten Boden: Im Versuch mit dem gering belasteten Kleinlindener Boden wurde die Schwermetallaufnahme in den Spross bis zu 37% gesteigert. Die Beimpfung der Pflanzen auf dem hochkontaminierten Boden aus Muenchen fuehrte dagegen zu hoeheren Aufnahmeraten (bis zu 59%) in der Wurzel bei verringerter Translokation in die oberirdischen Pflanzenteile. Das mobile Schwermetall Cd wurde aus beiden Substraten verstaerkt in die infizierten Wurzeln aufgenommen und in vermindertem Mass in den Spross geleitet. Die mykorrhizainduzierte Vergroesserung der speziellen (m g{sup -1} Wurzel-TM) und der absoluten (km pro Gefaess) Wurzellaenge war in

  1. Investigations on root and stem rot diseases of oat (Avena sativa L. with a special regard to temperature and rainfalls

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    Irena Kiecana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 1996-2000 in the Experimental Station of Cultivars Evaluation in Uhnin. Disease symptoms were recorded twice - in the seedling stage (18 in the Tottman's scale and in milk ripe stage (77 in the Tottman's scale of oat. The seedlings with root and sheath necrosis or plants with diseased stem base were obtained every year. The percentage of diseased seedlings ranged from 6,0 to 39,5. and percentage of older plants with necrotic stripes on lower internodes ranged from 11,5 to 5O,0.Results of mycological analysis of diseased plants showed that Fusarium spp., especially F.avenaceum and F.culmorum were isolated the most frequently, F.avenaceum was obtained in the seasons with different weather conditions. This indicates great tolerance of this fungus to temperature and humidity. In the seasons with high temperature F.culmorum was predominant. This species also can be tolerant to changing weather conditions. Warm and wet weather was favourable for oat infection by Bipolaris sorokiniana. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated from plants in milk ripe stage in each vegetation seasons. and from seedlings in years 1998 and 1999.

  2. Linkage mapping and identification of QTL affecting deoxynivalenol (DON) content (Fusarium resistance) in oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinyao; Skinnes, Helge; Oliver, Rebekah E; Jackson, Eric W; Bjørnstad, Asmund

    2013-10-01

    Mycotoxins caused by Fusarium spp. is a major concern on food and feed safety in oats, although Fusarium head blight (FHB) is often less apparent than in other small grain cereals. Breeding resistant cultivars is an economic and environment-friendly way to reduce toxin content, either by the identification of resistance QTL or phenotypic evaluation. Both are little explored in oats. A recombinant-inbred line population, Hurdal × Z595-7 (HZ595, with 184 lines), was used for QTL mapping and was phenotyped for 3 years. Spawn inoculation was applied and deoxynivalenol (DON) content, FHB severity, days to heading and maturity (DH and DM), and plant height (PH) were measured. The population was genotyped with DArTs, AFLPs, SSRs and selected SNPs, and a linkage map of 1,132 cM was constructed, covering all 21 oat chromosomes. A QTL for DON on chromosome 17A/7C, tentatively designated as Qdon.umb-17A/7C, was detected in all experiments using composite interval mapping, with phenotypic effects of 12.2–26.6 %. In addition, QTL for DON were also found on chromosomes 5C, 9D, 13A, 14D and unknown_3, while a QTL for FHB was found on 11A. Several of the DON/FHB QTL coincided with those for DH, DM and/or PH. A half-sib population of HZ595, Hurdal × Z615-4 (HZ615, with 91 lines), was phenotyped in 2011 for validation of QTL found in HZ595, and Qdon.umb-17A/7C was again localized with a phenotypic effect of 12.4 %. Three SNPs closely linked to Qdon.umb-17A/7C were identified in both populations, and one each for QTL on 5C, 11A and 13A were identified in HZ595. These SNPs, together with those yet to be identified, could be useful in marker-assisted selection to pyramiding resistance QTL.

  3. Avaliação dos teores de fibra alimentar e de beta-glicanas em cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L Evaluation of dietary fiber and beta-glucan levels in oat (Avena sativa L cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C. GUTKOSKI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A fibra alimentar é composta por celulose, hemiceluloses, gomas, pectinas e mucilagens sendo classificada em solúvel e insolúvel, quanto a sua solubilidade em água. As beta-glicanas são componentes da fibra alimentar solúvel presentes na aveia e sua importância é devido às propriedades funcionais e aos efeitos hipocolesterolêmicos e hipoglicêmicos apresentados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar os teores de fibra alimentar solúvel, insolúvel e total e de beta-glicanas de cultivares de aveia recomendados pela Comissão Brasileira de Pesquisa de Aveia. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L foram descascados, as cariopses moídas e as amostras acondicionadas e armazenadas à temperatura de -20° C. Para a análise de fibra alimentar foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Entre os cultivares analisados, UPF 7, UPF 13, UPF 14 e UPF 16 apresentaram os maiores teores de fibra alimentar insolúvel. Os maiores teores de fibra alimentar solúvel foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, CTC 13, UPF 16 e CTC 2. O cultivar UPF 16 apresentou o maior teor de fibra alimentar total, seguido de UFRGS 7, CTC 13 e UFRGS 18. Para a determinação de beta-glicanas foi adotada a metodologia da AOAC (1997. Os maiores teores de beta-glicanas foram verificados nos cultivares UFRGS 7, UPF 14 e UFRGS 18.The dietary fiber is composed by cellulose, hemi-celluloses, gums, pectins, and mucilages, being classified as soluble or insoluble depending on its solubility in water. Beta-glucans are a fraction of the soluble dietary fiber, being important due to its functional properties and effects in reducing cholesterol and glucose. This work aimed at evaluating the levels of soluble, insoluble, and total dietary fiber, as well as the amount of beta-glucans, present in grains of oat cultivars recommended by the Brazilian Commission for Oat Research. Oat grains were hulled, the caryopses were ground and the samples packaged and stored at temperature of -20º

  4. Selección de genotipos de avena para la identificación de razas de roya del tallo Selection of oat genotypes for the identification of stem rust races

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Mariscal Amaro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de razas fisiológicas de Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae al usar diferenciales, es importante en los programas de mejoramiento genético de avena, para obtener genotipos resistentes a roya del tallo y conocer la evolución y dispersión regional del patógeno. En 2008-2009 en los invernaderos del CIMMYT, El Batán, México, se probaron 50 aislamientos monopustulares de P. graminis f. sp. avenae en 24 genotipos de avena (Avena sativa L., con el objetivo de determinar la diversidad del patógeno en muestras recolectadas en seis estados de México y conocer si estos genotipos podían ser utilizados como plantas diferenciales. Los genotipos Avemex, Obsidiana, Papigochi, Diamante, Rarámuri, Chihuahua y el Progenitor 7, expresaron diferentes tipos de infección y se pueden usar como diferenciales para estudiar la diversidad del patógeno y la prevalencia de razas. Al usar estas diferenciales se encontraron 24 razas diferentes del patógeno. Esto permite concluir que existe gran variabilidad genética del hongo en las regiones muestreadas. Se observó que ante los aislamientos probados las variedades Agata, Avena desnuda, Menonita y Saia, mostraron el mayor nivel de resistencia; y los progenitores 11, 12 y 13, y las variedades 12, 14, 27, 28, 36, 43 y 44 tuvieron buen nivel de resistencia, por lo que pueden ser utilizados como progenitores en futuros planes de cruzamientos.Identification of physiological races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae using differentials, is important in oat's genetic improvement programs, in order to obtain resistance to stem rust and learn about evolution and regional spread of the pathogen. In 2008-2009, in greenhouses of CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 50 monopustule isolates of P. graminis f. sp. avenae were tested in 24 genotypes of oat (Avena sativa L., in order to determine the pathogen diversity in samples collected in six states of Mexico and see if these genotypes could be used as differential plants

  5. Use of High-Resolution Multispectral Imagery to Estimate Soil and Plant Nitrogen in Oats (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELarab, M.; Ticlavilca, A. M.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high spatial resolution in the application of the inputs to agricultural production. This requires that actionable information about crop and field status be acquired at the same high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high-resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial vehicle, called AggieAirTM, which provides spatial resolution as fine as 15 cm. Simultaneously with AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling was conducted at precisely determined locations for plant and soil nitrogen among other parameters. This study investigated the spectral signature of oats and formulated a machine learning regression model of reflectance response between the multi-spectral bands available from AggieAir (red, green, blue, near infrared, and thermal), plant nitrogen and soil nitrogen. A multivariate relevance vector machine (MVRVM) was used to develop the linkages between the remotely sensed data and plant and soil nitrogen at approximately 15-cm resolution. The results of this study are presented, including a statistical evaluation of the performance of the model.

  6. Ozone deposition to an oat crop ( Avena sativa L.) grown in open-top chambers and in the ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleijel, H.; Wallin, G.; Karlsson, P. E.; Skarby, L.; Sellden, G.

    Fluxes and deposition velocities for ozone were determined for open-top chambers with and without an oat crop, and for the adjacent field, using a resistance analogue model and the aerodynamic wind-profile method, respectively. During a period when the canopy was green and the ambient wind speeds modest, the fluxes and deposition velocities were higher in the chamber with plants than in the field crop. The deposition to chamber walls and soil in the chamber only accounted for part of that difference. The deposition velocity for ozone to the crop was light-dependent both in the chamber with plants and in the ambient air. With increasing plant senescence, the deposition velocity declined and the light dependence disappeared. Fluctuations in deposition velocity superimposed on the overall declining trend followed the same temporal pattern in the chambers with and without plants. These fluctuations in deposition velocity may partly be explained by variations in surface wetness. Differences in boundary layer conductance between chamber and ambient, which under certain conditions may significantly influence the validity of the chamber as a test system, were observed.

  7. Occurrence and parasitism of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae on cultivars of irrigated oat (Avena spp. in São Carlos, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cesar Ronquim

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between aphids and their Hymenopteran parasitoids on irrigated oats as well as the response of different cultivars of cereals regarding the resistance to these aphids and the influence on the host/parasitoid relationships were studied during two years in São Carlos, Brazil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. was the predominant aphid observed throughout the study, while the other species were rarely found. Five species of parasitic Hymenoptera were found: three primary parasitoids, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck and Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh and two hyperparasitoids, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. The UPF 86081 cultivar presented significant results regarding lower Rhopalosiphum padi contamination and higher aphid parasitism rates than those observed on some other cultivars. No significant effect on the percentage variation of parasitoid emergence on the mummified aphids was observed throughout this study.Foram avaliadas as interações entre afídeos e seus himenópteros parasitóides em cultivares de aveia irrigada, como também a resposta de diferentes cultivares em relação resistência à estes afídeos e a influência nas relações hospedeiro/parasitóide durante dois anos em São Carlos, SP, Brasil. Rhopalosiphum padi (L. foi o afídeo predominante ao longo do estudo, enquanto as outras espécies raramente foram encontradas. Foram observadas cinco espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: três parasitóides primários, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson, Aphidius colemani (Viereck e Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh e dois hiperparasitóides, Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Myer and Alloxysta brassicae (Ashmead. A cultivar UPF 86081 apresentou resultados significativos quanto à baixa infestação por Rhopalosiphum padi e maiores taxas de parasitismo que a demais cultivares. Não foi observado efeito significativo na variação de porcentagem de emergência de parasit

  8. A new chromosome nomenclature system for oat (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) based on FISH analysis of monosomic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M J; Jellen, E N; Loarce, Y; Irigoyen, M L; Ferrer, E; Fominaya, A

    2010-11-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with multiple probes was used to analyze mitotic and meiotic chromosome spreads of Avena sativa cv 'Sun II' monosomic lines, and of A. byzantina cv 'Kanota' monosomic lines from spontaneous haploids. The probes used were A. strigosa pAs120a (a repetitive sequence abundant in A-genome chromatin), A. murphyi pAm1 (a repetitive sequence abundant in C-genome chromatin), A. strigosa pITS (internal transcribed spacer of rDNA) and the wheat rDNA probes pTa71 (nucleolus organizer region or NOR) and pTa794 (5S). Simultaneous and sequential FISH employing pairs of these probes allowed the identification and genome assignation of all chromosomes. FISH mapping using mitotic and meiotic metaphases facilitated the genomic and chromosomal identification of the monosome in each line. Of the 17 'Sun II' lines analyzed, 13 distinct monosomic lines were found, corresponding to four monosomes of the A-genome, five of the C-genome and four of the D-genome. In addition, 12 distinct monosomic lines were detected among the 20 'Kanota' lines examined, corresponding to six monosomes of the A-genome, three of the C-genome and three of the D-genome. The results show that 19 chromosomes out of 21 of the complement are represented by monosomes between the two genetic backgrounds. The identity of the remaining chromosomes can be deduced either from one intergenomic translocation detected on both 'Sun II' and 'Kanota' lines, or from the single reciprocal, intergenomic translocation detected among the 'Sun II' lines. These results permit a new system to be proposed for numbering the 21 chromosome pairs of the hexaploid oat complement. Accordingly, the A-genome contains chromosomes 8A, 11A, 13A, 15A, 16A, 17A and 19A; the C-genome contains chromosomes 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 5C, 6C and 7C; and the D-genome consists of chromosomes 9D, 10D, 12D, 14D, 18D, 20D and 21D. Moreover, the FISH patterns of 16 chromosomes in 'Sun II' and 15 in 'Kanota' suggest that these

  9. Herança da resistência à ferrugem da folha da aveia (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca Inheritance of oat leaf rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led. resistance in white oat brazilian genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alano Vieira

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem da folha da aveia é a moléstia mais importante que ataca a cultura da aveia, ocorrendo em praticamente todas as áreas em que a aveia é cultivada. A forma mais indicada para o seu controle é a utilização de cultivares resistentes. Contudo, para que seja alcançada a resistência durável ao patógeno, é necessário que se conheça a genética da resistência à ferrugem da folha em aveia. O objetivo foi determinar a forma de herança da resistência a três isolados de Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Fraser & Led., (coletados no sul do Brasil em genótipos brasileiros de aveia branca. Para a determinação da herança da resistência a cada um dos três isolados, foram utilizadas populações F2 geradas por meio de cruzamentos artificiais, entre genótipos resistentes (R e suscetíveis (S e entre genótipos resistentes (R. Desta forma, foram utilizadas populações F2 dos cruzamentos artificiais entre: i URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 16 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 16 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado um (1; ii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S, UPF 18 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (R, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado dois (2; iii URPEL 15 (R x UFRGS 7 (S e URPEL 15 (R x UPF 18 (S, para a determinação da herança da resistência ao isolado três (3. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o genótipo URPEL 15 apresenta genes dominantes de resistência aos três isolados de ferrugem da folha da aveia avaliados, que o cultivar UPF 16 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 1 e o cultivar UPF 18 apresenta um gene recessivo de resistência ao isolado 2. E que os genes de resistência apresentados pelos genótipos URPEL 15, UPF 16 e UPF 18, segregam de forma independente.Oat crown rust is the most important disease for the oat crop, occurring in practically all the areas where oat is cultivated. The most indicated form of control for this disease is

  10. Momento óptimo de corte para rendimiento y calidad de variedades de avena forrajera Optimum cutting time for yield and quality of forage oats varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia Rangel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de la avena es importante como alternativa en la región de los Valles Altos debido a su producción de forraje y grano, requiriéndose de estudios agronómicos para optimizar su manejo. En este trabajo se plantearon como objetivos determinar el momento óptimo de corte para obtención de mayor cantidad y calidad de forraje, y comparar variedades en cuanto a rendimiento de forraje. Se evaluaron 24 genotipos (18 líneas avanzadas del programa de mejoramiento genético de avena del INIFAP y 6 variedades comerciales en ocho ambientes de secano de los Valles Altos de los estados de Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Distrito Federal y Estado de México en el ciclo primavera-verano de 2007 y 2008, empleando un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones en cada localidad. Se realizaron seis muestreos en las etapas de embuche, inflorescencia media emergida, antesis, grano acuoso, grano lechoso y grano masoso. Las variables medidas fueron altura de planta en cm, materia verde total en kg ha-1, materia seca total en kg ha-1, porcentaje de proteína, calculado por el método de Larry y Charles, proteína por hectárea y acumulación de materia seca en kg ha-1 día-1. Se realizó un análisis de varianza combinado y se aplicó la prueba de Tukey al 5% para comparación de medias. Se encontraron diferencias altamente significativas en todas las variables para los factores de variación localidades, muestreos y variedades, así como para las interacciones localidades por muestreos y localidades por variedades. Las etapas de corte con mayor cantidad de forraje fueron el estado lechoso y masoso del grano con cosecha de hasta 191 ha-1 de materia seca, y en cuanto a calidad la mejor etapa fue la de embuche, registrando hasta 24% de proteína. El mejor rendimiento forrajero se obtuvo en Juchitepec en 2007 mientras que la variedad con mayor porcentaje de proteína fue Saia. Algunas líneas superaron a las variedades testigo en cantidad y

  11. Evaluation of γ- aminobutyric acid, phytate and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats (Avena sativa L.) prepared with different filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Xudong; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Tempeh is a popular traditional fermented food in Asia. Many tempeh-like foods are made from cereal grains. However, the information of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in those tempeh-like cereal grains during fermentation is lacking. Meanwhile, little information is available on the anti-nutrient contents and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. The aim of the present work was to study the changes of GABA, phytate, natural antioxidants and antioxidant activity of tempeh-like fermented oats. As fermentation time progressed, the GABA, total phenolics content (TPC) and flavonoids increased rapidly. The Aspergillus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest GABA, whereas Rhizopus oryzae-fermented oats had the highest TPC. Phytate, an anti-nutrient component, was dramatically reduced in the fermented oats, especially those by A. oryzae (reduced by about 63 %). The antioxidant activities of fermented oats were also significantly enhanced after 72 h fermentation (p oats fermented by generally recognized as safe (GRAS) fungi can be recommended as tempeh-like functional foods with higher GABA, more natural antioxidants and lower phytate compared with native oats.

  12. 7 CFR 810.1001 - Definition of oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of oats. 810.1001 Section 810.1001... GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Terms Defined § 810.1001 Definition of oats. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of oats (Avena sativa L. and A. byzantina C. Koch) and may contain, singly or...

  13. In vitro inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity of subfractions from ethanol extracts of fermented Oats (Avena sativa L.) and synergistic effect of three phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wang, Mengqian; He, Jianfeng; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of the present work is to study the pancreatic lipase inhibitory effects of different subfractions (n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water) from ethanol extracts of nonfermented and fungi-fermented oats and to delineate the interactions of three primary phenolic acids in the EA subfractions. The EA subfraction showed the highest inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity at 1.5 mg/mL compared to the other subfractions, regardless of whether the oats were fermented. Meanwhile, both of the EA subfractions of two fungi-fermented oats demonstrated more effective inhibitory activity than that of nonfermented oats. A positive correlation between the total phenolics content and inhibitory activity was found. The inhibitory ability of the EA subfraction from nonfermented or fermented oats also displayed a dose-dependent effect. The standards of caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids, mainly included in EA subfractions of fermented oats, also displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect. A synergistic effect of each binary combination of p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids was observed, especially at 150.0 μg/mL. Those results indicate that fungi-fermented oats have a more effective inhibitory ability on pancreatic lipase and polyphenols may be the most effective component and could be potentially used for dietary therapy of obesity.

  14. Simulation of Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition on Winter Wheat (Triticum astivum Growth and Yield. I: Model Description and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mondani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth models could stimulate growth and development based on science principles and mathematical equations. They also able to evaluate effects of climate, soil, water and agronomic management practices on crop yield. In the present study, an eco-physiological simulation model developed to assess wild oat damage to winter wheat growth and yield. The general structure of this model is derived from LINTUL1 model which modified to wild oat competition against winter wheat. LINTUL1 model was developed for simulation of spring wheat potential production level. In this study, first, we added development stage (DVS and vernalization to LINTUL1 for simulation of winter wheat growth and development and then the model calibrated for potential production level. Finally, we incorporate harmful effects of wild oat to winter wheat growth and yield. Weather data used as input were average daily minimum and maximum temperature (°C and daily global radiation (MJ m-2 in Mashhad, Iran. Parameter values were derived from the literature. The model is written in Fortran Simulation Translator (FST programming language and then validated based on an experiment data. For these purposes different wild oat plant densities were arranged. The data of this experiment does not use for calibration. The results showed that this model was in general able to simulate the temporal changes in DVS of winter wheat and wild oat, total dry matter (TDM of winter wheat and wild oat and yield loss of wheat due to wild oat competition in all treatments, satisfactorily. Root mean square error (RMSE for winter wheat DVS, wild oat DVS, average winter wheat TDM, average wild oat TDM, and yield loss of winter wheat was 10.4, 14.5, 5.8, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively.

  15. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Oat (Avena sativa L.), Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and Highland Barley (Hordeum vulgare trifurcatum (L.) Trofim) Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Yu, Guoyong; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Peptides released from oat, buckwheat, and highland barley proteins were examined for their in vitro inhibitory effects on dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4), an enzyme that deactivates incretin hormones involved in insulin secretion. All of the hydrolysates exhibited DPP4 inhibitory activities, with IC50 values ranging from 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin alcalase digestion) to 8.15 mg/mL (highland barley albumin tryptic digestion). The lowest IC50 values in gastrointestinal, alcalase, and tryptic digestions were 0.99 mg/mL (oat flour), 0.13 mg/mL (oat glutelin), and 1.83 mg/mL (highland barley glutelin). In all, 35 peptides of more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Peptides LQAFEPLR and EFLLAGNNK were synthesized and their DPP4 inhibitory activities determined. LQAFEPLR showed high in vitro DPP4 inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 103.5 μM.

  16. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on heavy metal tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) on a sewage-sludge treated soil; Bedeutung der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM) fuer die Schwermetalltoleranz von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) auf einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricken, B. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Hoefner, W. [Institut fuer Pflanzenernaehrung, Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1996-10-01

    In pot experiments with a sewage sludge treated soil, the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolates of Glomus sp. (T6 and D13) on plant growth and on the uptake of heavy metals by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Alfalfa showed an increase of biomass with mycorrhizal infection only to a small extent. In oat AMF inoculation increased the growth of both root and shoot by up to 70% and 55% respectively. Mycorrhization raised the P-content and -uptake in alfalfa, but not in oat, in both roots and shoots. Mycorrhizal alfalfa showed lower Zn-, Cd- and Ni-contents and uptake in roots and shoots. The root length was significantly decreased in mycorrhizal alfalfa plants (up to 38%). The translocation of heavy metals into the shoot of mycorrhizal alfalfa was slightly increased. Mycorrhizal infection of oat led to higher concentrations of Zn, Cd and Ni in the root but to less Zn in the shoot. The translocation of heavy metals to the oat shoot was clearely decreased by mycorrhizal colonisation. This may be based on the ability of fungal tissues to complex heavy metals at the cell walls, thus excluding metals from the shoot. This conclusion is supported by the enhanced root length (up to 78%) of mycorrhizal oat plants in this experiment. The mycorrhizal infection seemed to protect plants against heavy metal pollution in soils. It was obvious that different host plants reacted in different ways. (orig.) [Deutsch] In Gefaessversuchen mit einem klaerschlammgeduengten Boden wurde der Einfluss der arbuskulaeren Mykorrhiza (AM)-Pilzisolate von Glomus sp. (T6 und D13) auf Pflanzenwachstum und Schwermetall (SM)-aufnahme von Luzerne (Medicago sativa L.) und Hafer (Avena sativa L.) untersucht. Das Wachstum von Luzerne wurde durch eine Mykorrhizierung nicht signifikant beeinflusst. Bei Hafer foerderte eine AM-Inokulation mit T6 das Wachstum von Wurzel und Spross bis zu 70% bzw. 55%, zur Reife aber ergab sich gleicher Sprossertrag

  17. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been fr...

  18. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  19. Fermentation Quality of Forage Oat (Avena sativa L.) Silages Treated with Pre-fermented Juices, Sorbic Acid, Glucose and Encapsulated-Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Tao; Oba, Noriko; Shimojo, Masataka; Masuda, Yasuhisa

    2003-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding encapsulated-glucose, glucose, sorbic acid or pre-fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) on the fermentation characteristics and residual mono-and disccharides compositions of forage oat silages. The additive treatnents were as followes: (1) control (no addition), (2) encupsulated-glucose addition at 0.5% as glucose, (3) glucose addition at 1%, (4) sorbic acid addition at 0.1%, (5) FJLB additioni at a theolrt...

  20. Endomycorrhizal Inoculation Effect On Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., OAT (Avena sativa L., And Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Growth Cultivated In Two Soil Types Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of inoculation with Glomus intraradices on oat, beans, and wheat. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soil types from San Luis Potosí State were used, one was red (Xerosol, and the other one was grey (Litosol. With and without Glomus intraradices inoculation. Three bean cultivars: Pinto Saltillo, Bayo comercial and Flor de Mayo; Chihuahua (oat variety; and Tlaxcala wheat genotype were planted. The experimental design was factorial complete randomized block and three replications. The result showed that bean yield (average 3.7 g plant-1, pod number and dry weight, leaf area, plant height, stem diameter, and aerial part dry weight were positively affected by the inoculation with Glomus intraradices, but not by soil type. A similar trend was observed in root length, volume and dry weight, and in the nodule number. In relation with the species studied, Phaseolus vulgaris varieties had higher values than wheat and oats in growth and yield variables evaluated. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The soil types studied did not affect significantly plant responses in this study.

  1. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  2. Nutrition and Function in Health Protection of Oats(Avena sativa L.)%燕麦(Avena sativa L.)的营养成分与保健价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄相国; 葛菊梅

    2004-01-01

    本文介绍了燕麦(Avena sativa L.)的植物学特性、种植区域及营养价值,并对开发燕麦保健食品进行了探讨.燕麦中含有8种人体必需的氨基酸,各种氨基酸含量不仅很高,而且比较平衡;亚油酸含量占脂肪含量的38.1%~52.0%,磷、铁、维生素B2含量也比较丰富,还含有独有的皂甙素.燕麦中的可溶性纤维β-糊精具有降低血脂、保护肠胃、降低血糖的特殊功效.因此,燕麦作为保健食品有广阔的开发利用前景.

  3. The effects of yak manure on oat (Avena sativa)seed germination and seedling growth%牦牛粪便对燕麦(Avena sativa)种子发芽及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明; 芦光新; 王伟; 魏希杰; 徐成体; 德科加

    2014-01-01

    为了研究牦牛粪便对燕麦(Avena sativa)种子发芽及幼苗生长的影响,试验采用牦牛粪便干物质的浸提液和含有牦牛粪便干物质的沙培基质,分别对燕麦种子的发芽率和幼苗生长情况进行观察、测定.结果表明:不同牦牛粪便干物质浸提液能够促进燕麦种子发芽,当牦牛粪便干物质的量与纯化水的体积比为1∶80时,燕麦种子的发芽率达到最大,且与其他处理差异显著(P<0.05);不同沙培基质对燕麦幼苗高度、地上(下)生物量有一定的促进作用,当细沙与放牧牦牛粪便干物质的量之比为210∶40时,燕麦幼苗高度、地上(下)生物量达到最大,且与其他处理差异显著(P<0.05).由此可见,在一定范围内牦牛粪便对燕麦种子萌发和幼苗生长有明显的促进作用.

  4. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land.

  5. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of hydrolysates from oat (Avena sativa) proteins by in silico and in vitro analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Imelda W Y; Nakayama, Satoko; Hsu, Monica N K; Samaranayaka, Anusha G P; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y

    2009-10-14

    The potential for producing antihypertensive peptides from oat proteins through enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed in silico and confirmed in vitro. Thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.27) was predicted using BIOPEP database as the enzyme that would theoretically produce the most angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from oat. Experimental evidence confirmed that strong ACE-inhibitory activity was produced under various hydrolysis conditions. Hydrolysates produced under high enzyme-to-substrate ratio (3%) short time (20 min) (HEST) and low enzyme-to-substrate ratio (0.1%) long time (120 min) (LELT) conditions had IC(50) values of 30 and 50 microg/mL, respectively. After simulated gastrointestinal digestion, the IC(50) of the HEST hydrolysate was 35 microg/mL whereas the IC(50) of the LELT hydrolysate was higher at 85 microg/mL. Ultrafiltration revealed that potent ACE-inhibitory peptides had molecular weights below 3 kDa. This study demonstrates the usefulness of in silico analysis to select enzymes for hydrolysis of proteins not previously examined as sources of bioactive peptides.

  6. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, David P; Henson, Cynthia A; Tuong, Tan D; Wise, Mitchell L; Tallury, Shyamalrau P; Duke, Stanley H

    2013-01-01

    The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness.

  7. Histological analysis and 3D reconstruction of winter cereal crowns recovering from freezing: a unique response in oat (Avena sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Livingston

    Full Text Available The crown is the below ground portion of the stem of a grass which contains meristematic cells that give rise to new shoots and roots following winter. To better understand mechanisms of survival from freezing, a histological analysis was performed on rye, wheat, barley and oat plants that had been frozen, thawed and allowed to resume growth under controlled conditions. Extensive tissue disruption and abnormal cell structure was noticed in the center of the crown of all 4 species with relatively normal cells on the outside edge of the crown. A unique visual response was found in oat in the shape of a ring of cells that stained red with Safranin. A tetrazolium analysis indicated that tissues immediately inside this ring were dead and those outside were alive. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that the barrier fluoresced with excitation between 405 and 445 nm. Three dimensional reconstruction of a cross sectional series of images indicated that the red staining cells took on a somewhat spherical shape with regions of no staining where roots entered the crown. Characterizing changes in plants recovering from freezing will help determine the genetic basis for mechanisms involved in this important aspect of winter hardiness.

  8. Europium Uptake and Partitioning in Oat (Avena sativa) Roots as studied By Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Confocal Microscopy Profiling Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Wang, Zheming; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2003-11-15

    The uptake of Eu3+ by elongating oat plant roots was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement, as well as laser excitation time-resolved confocal fluorescence profiling technique. The results of this work indicated that the initial uptake of Eu(III) by oat root was most evident within the apical meristem of the root just proximal to the root cap. Distribution of assimilated Eu(III) within the roots differentiation and elongation zone was non-uniform. Higher concentrations were observed within the vascular cylinder, specifically in the phloem and developing xylem parenchyma. Elevated levels of the metal were also observed in the root hairs of the mature root. The concentration of assimilated Eu3+ dropped sharply from the apical meristem to the differentiation and elongation zone and then gradually decreased as the distance from the root cap increased. Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of the assimilated Eu3+ suggested that the Eu3+ exists a s inner-sphere mononuclear complexes inside the root. This work has also demonstrated the effectiveness of a time-resolved Eu3+ fluorescence spectroscopy and confocal fluorescence profiling techniques for the in vivo, real-time study of metal[Eu3+] accumulation by a functioning intact plant root. This approach can prove valuable for basic and applied studies in plant nutrition and environmental uptake of actinide radionuclides.

  9. Starch Quality Analysis of Different Naked Oat Cultivars from Different Regions%不同地区不同裸燕麦品种淀粉品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建梅; 曹莹莉; 胡新中; 徐明

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of cultivation conditions on starch quality of naked oat , ten naked oat cultivars which were planted in Inner Mongolia and Hebei, the two main oat planting regions in China, were used as the materials. Resistant starch (RS), total starch (TS), starch pasting properties and starch digestion simulation in vitro of oat were determined. With multiple comparison methods, differences among the ten samples and between the two areas were analyzed. The results indicated that there are significant differences for the resistant starch, total starch, peak viscosity, breakdown and setback among the oat samples of each region. There are significant differences for the resistant starch and total starch between two regions, there are more significant differences in starch digestion simulation in vitro and most starch pasting properties between two regions. The starch di- gestion simulation in vitro and pasting temperature of Inner Mongolia samples are significant higher than those of Hebei. The peak viscosity, breakdown and setback of Inner Mongolia samples are significant lower than those of Hebei.%为研究不同生长环境对燕麦淀粉品质的影响,分别选取同时在我国两大燕麦主产区内蒙古和河北省种植的10个裸燕麦品种,测定其抗性淀粉含量、总淀粉含量、糊化特性和淀粉水解率,通过多重比较分析品种的变异性和地区之间的差异性。结果表明,两地区内参试样品间的抗性淀粉、总淀粉、峰值黏度、破损值和回生值的差异均较大;两地区之间,抗性淀粉和总淀粉含量存在显著差异(P〈0.05),淀粉水解率以及大部分糊化特性存在极显著差异(P〈0.01);内蒙古地区种植的燕麦样品淀粉水解率、糊化温度极显著(P〈0.01)高于河北地区种植的燕麦样品,而峰值黏度、破损值、回生值极显著(P〈0.01)低于河北地区的样品。

  10. The occurrence of Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Sm.Sacc., Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. Sacc. and Fusarium crookwellense Burgess, Nelson & Toussoun on oats lines (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kiecana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out in 1996-1998 in the experimental fields in Zamość region. The following ten lines of oats were tested: CHD 894, CHD 1095, CHD 1236, CHD 1607, CHD 1653, CHD 1692, STH 2293, STH 2393, STH 2494, STH 2694. The seedlings which showed symptoms of either root and sheath nectosis, or rotting stems ranged form 9-36 ad 9-70% of all seedlings tested, respectively. Results of mycological analysis of seedlings showed that F.avenaceum and F.culmorum were most frequently represented on infected parts (43% ad 42% of all Fusarium spp. isolates respectively, and also they were the most frequently obtained from stems with necrotic stripes (24% and 46% of all Fusarium spp., respectively. Apart from F.avenaceum and F.culmorum there was some F.crookwellense found every year on lower internodes.

  11. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  12. Qualitative and quantitative trait loci conditioning resistance to Puccinia coronata pathotypes NQMG and LGCG in the oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars Ogle and TAM O-301.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, E W; Obert, D E; Menz, M; Hu, G; Bonman, J M

    2008-02-01

    Mapping disease resistance loci relies on the type and precision of phenotypic measurements. For crown rust of oat, disease severity is commonly assessed based on visual ratings of infection types (IT) and/or diseased leaf area (DLA) of infected plants in the greenhouse or field. These data can be affected by several variables including; (i) non-uniform disease development in the field; (ii) atypical symptom development in the greenhouse; (iii) the presence of multiple pathogenic races or pathotypes in the field, and (iv) rating bias. To overcome these limitations, we mapped crown rust resistance to single isolates in the Ogle/TAM O-301 (OT) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population using detailed measurements of IT, uredinia length (UL) and relative fungal DNA (FDNA) estimates determined by q-PCR. Measurements were taken on OT parents and recombinant inbred lines (RIL) inoculated with Puccinia coronata pathotypes NQMG and LGCG in separate greenhouse and field tests. Qualitative mapping identified an allele conferred by TAM O-301 on linkage group (LG) OT-11, which produced a bleached fleck phenotype to both NQMG and LGCG. Quantitative mapping identified two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) originating from TAM O-301 on LGs OT-11 and OT-32 which reduced UL and FDNA of both isolates in all experiments. Additionally, minor QTLs that reduced UL and FDNA were detected on LGs OT-15 and OT-8, originating from TAM O-301, and on LG OT-27, originating from Ogle. Detailed assessments of the OT population using two pathotypes in both the greenhouse and field provided comprehensive information to effectively map the genes responsible for crown rust resistance in Ogle and TAM O-301 to NQMG and LGCG.

  13. Preparation of a Wine Yeast-fermented Beverage from Naked Oat%葡萄酒酵母菌发酵莜麦饮料生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 罗永华; 刘媛; 兰凤英

    2012-01-01

    以糖化莜麦汁为原料,探讨了葡萄酒酵母菌发酵莜麦饮料的生产工艺。在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验得到葡萄酒酵母菌发酵莜麦饮料的优化工艺条件:接种量4%,28℃下发酵20 h。木糖醇添加量为7%;果胶添加量为0.45%。%After saccharificatic was used as the main raw material,the production process of the fermented naked oat juice was studied.On the basis of single factor experiment,the optimal process conditions of the fermentation beverage were determined by orthogonal experiment as follows: 4% wine yeast,28℃of wine yeast fermentation for 20 h,7% xylitol,0.45% pectin.

  14. Ingestión y digestibilidad aparente de forrajes por la llama (Lama glama. II. heno de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense, heno de ballica (Lolium multiflorum, paja de poroto (Phaseolus vulgaris y paja de avena (Avena sativa: Intake and apparent digestibility of forages in llamas (Lama glama. II. clover hay (Trifolium pratense, riegrass hay (Lolium multiflorum, beans straw (Phaseolus vulgaris and oat straw (Avena sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LÓPEZ V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un estudio de digestibilidad in vivo bajo condiciones de estabulación con recolección total de fecas, según un diseño de cuadrado latino 4x4 con dos repeticiones, en el que se usaron ocho llamas macho adultos para estudiar la utilización de cuatro diferentes forrajes, los que constituyeron las dietas experimentales: 1 heno de trébol rosado, 2 heno de ballica, 3 paja de porotos y 4 paja de avena. La ingestión de materia seca fue afectada por la calidad de la dieta (PA 4x4 latin square design was used to run a total collection digestion trial, in which eight llamas were used to study the utilization of four different diets: 1 red clover hay, 2 riegrass hay, 3 beans straw and 4 oat straw. Dry matter intake was affected by diet quality (P<0.05 and reached 38,8; 29,2; 28,8 and 20,9 g/kg0,75/day, respectively. The apparent digestibility (% of the main nutrients differed significantly between diets (P<0.05 and were : 55,3; 37,9; 35,0; -1,4; for crude protein; 44,1; 46,9; 54,0; 57,1; for NDF; 36,0; 38,2; 52,2; 51,8; for ADF; 62,8; 65,9; 60,0; 67,6; for hemicellulose and 55,8; 55,7; 66,0; 66,0; for cellulose , respectively. While crude protein digestibility decreased as intake protein decreased, the digestibility of most cell wall constituents increased when the quality of diets decreased as a result of the increased % of these components in diets. These facts confirm the greater ability of these animals to utilize fibrous feeds.

  15. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  16. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of Avena macrostachya and diploid C-genome Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, Ekaterina D; Shelukhina, Olga Yu; Diederichsen, Axel; Loskutov, Igor G; Pukhalskiy, Vitaly A

    2010-02-01

    The chromosome set of Avena macrostachya Balansa ex Coss. et Durieu was analyzed using C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA gene probes, and the results were compared with the C-genome diploid Avena L. species. The location of major nucleolar organizer regions and 5S rDNA sites on different chromosomes confirmed the affiliation of A. macrostachya with the C-genome group. However, the symmetric karyotype, the absence of "diffuse heterochromatin" and the location of large C-band complexes in proximal chromosome regions pointed to an isolated position of A. macrostachya from other Avena species. Based on the distribution of rDNA loci on the C-genome chromosomes of diploid and polyploid Avena species, we propose a model of the chromosome alterations that occurred during the evolution of oat species.

  17. Study on the technology of naked oat cookies%莜麦曲奇饼干加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莎娜; 王国泽; 游新勇; 宋任平

    2014-01-01

    以莜麦粉、奶粉、白砂糖为原料,通过对最佳原料配方和工艺参数的研究,制作一种新型莜麦曲奇饼干。结果表明:莜麦曲奇饼干的加工工艺条件为莜麦粉50 g,黄油105 g,白砂糖75 g,奶粉10 g,搅拌时间12 min,烘烤时间33 min,上火温度180℃,下火温度170℃。在此工艺下制作的莜麦曲奇饼干外观和内在质量都较好,风味能被消费者所接受,并且营养价值高于普通面包。%The experiment with nakedoat flour,dried milk,sugar as raw materials,produced a kind of nakedoatscookies,through researchof theoptimal ingredients and processing technology.The test results showed that the processconditionsof nakedoatscookies:nakedoat flour 50 g,butter 105 g, sugar 75 g,dried milk 10g,stirring time 12 min,baking time 33 min,surface fire temperature 180℃, bottom fire temperature 170℃. In these processes,the appearance and intrinsic qualityof the naked oatscookies were better,theoverall qualitycan be accepted byconsumers,and its nutritional value was more thanordinarycookies.

  18. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  19. BRS Centauro – oat cultivar for ground cover and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds of oat cultivar BRS Centauro, of the species Avena brevis Roth., are highly uniform. The crop cycle is long, the suitability as fodder excellent, and leaf production particularly high, resulting in better quality forage than that of the black oat forage controls.

  20. REGISTRATION OF ‘MAVERICK’ OAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maverick spring oat (Avena sativa L.) was developed cooperatively by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station (AES). It was jointly released by the USDA-ARS; the Idaho AES, the Montana AES, and the Colorado AES in 20...

  1. COMPARITIVE GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF OAT (Avena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    knsccf

    Equivalence was appraised between phenotypic and molecular markers (ISSR) to analyze the genetic diversity of 20 ... Country of origin. Pedigree ... explain between and within geographical variation and granting ..... JM (2008). Development of PCR-based SCAR and ... Genetic. Resources and Crop Evolution, 56:465–480.

  2. AFLP variation in 25 Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Williams, David J

    2008-08-01

    Current molecular characterization of ex situ plant germplasm has placed more emphasis on cultivated gene pools and less on exotic gene pools representing wild relative species. This study attempted to characterize a selected set of germplasm accessions representing various Avena species with the hope to establish a reference set of exotic oat germplasm for oat breeding and research. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to screen 163 accessions of 25 Avena species with diverse geographic origins. For each accession, 413 AFLP polymorphic bands detected by five AFLP primer pairs were scored. The frequencies of polymorphic bands ranged from 0.006 to 0.994 and averaged 0.468. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 59.5% of the total AFLP variation resided among 25 oat species, 45.9% among six assessed sections of the genus, 36.1% among three existing ploidy levels, and 50.8% among eight defined genome types. All the species were clustered together according to their ploidy levels. The C genome diploids appeared to be the most distinct, followed by the Ac genome diploid A. canariensis. The Ac genome seemed to be the oldest in all the A genomes, followed by the As, Al and Ad genomes. The AC genome tetraploids were more related to the ACD genome hexaploids than the AB genome tetraploids. Analysis of AFLP similarity suggested that the AC genome tetraploid A. maroccana was likely derived from the Cp genome diploid A. eriantha and the As genome diploid A. wiestii, and might be the progenitor of the ACD genome hexaploids. These AFLP patterns are significant for our understanding of the evolutionary pathways of Avena species and genomes, for establishing reference sets of exotic oat germplasm, and for exploring new exotic sources of genes for oat improvement.

  3. Influences of nitrogen fertilization on the evolution of CO2 and yield in oat in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol, of Nariño department of Colombia Influencia de la fertilización nitrogenada sobre la evolución de CO2 y rendimiento de avena en un suelo de Chimangual (Andisol, departamento de Nariño - Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjivar Juan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nitrogen fertilization on microbial activity and yield of oat crop in a soil of Chimangual (Andisol of Nariño department of Colombia was mesasured. The experiment was designed using a factorial design arranged in a CBD. The three N sources consisted of: potassium nitrate, 13%N, ammonium sulfate 21%N and colacteos 27%N (a local nitrogen fertilizer. Also, three doses (25,75 y 150 kg N ha-1 and three application times were used: at sowing time, total at 45 days an fractional, 50% at sowing and 50% at 45 days after sowing. The higher respiration values at week 2 and 7 were observed after the higher dose of N (75 and 150 kg N ha-1 and fractional application were done. Potassium nitrate, colacteos and ammonium sulfate caused the higher increments in soil respiration and yield of green forage these fertilizer were applied at sowing time fractional and at 45 days respectively. Respiration positively correlated with yields of the established crop. Key words: Fertilizatión, respiration, yield, microbial activity, oat Avena sativa.En un diseño factorial con arreglo en BCA se analizó el efecto de tres fuentes de nitrógeno (nitrato de potasio 13% de N, sulfato de amonio 21% de N y colácteos 27% de N, este es una fuente local de fertilización, tres dosis (25, 75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y tres épocas de aplicación (a la siembra, a los 45 días y fraccionado sobre la actividad microbial y rendimiento de Avena sativa. Se encontraron valores de respiración más altos en las semanas 2 y 7 siguientes a la incorporación de las dosis más altas (75 y 150 kg N ha-1 y con las aplicaciones fraccionadas de los fertilizantes. El nitrato de potasio, colácteos y sulfato de amonio ocasionaron mayores incrementos en los valores de respiración del suelo y rendimiento de forraje verde cuando se aplicaron a la siembra, fraccionado y a los 45 días respectivamente. La respiración correlacionó positivamente con los rendimientos del cultivo establecido

  4. Seeding rate effects in oat-berseem clover intercrops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; O' Donovan, John T.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-10-01

    The sustainability of cereal cropping systems may be improved by the addition of legumes. The effects of seeding rate were studied for intercrops of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.). Bigbee berseem clover, an annual forage legume, was intercropped with oats on a Black Chernozemic soil at Edmonton, Alberta, in 1996 and 1997. Berseem dry matter (DM) yields were greatly reduced by increasing oat plant density. There was a linear decline in berseem DM with increasing oat DM or oat tiller density. The relationship between oat plant density and berseem DM was nonlinear and varied between years and harvests. Berseem yield reductions varied from 44 to 82% with target densities of 100 oat plants m-2. Effects of berseem seeding rate (BSR) on oats varied between years. Increasing BSR from 6 to 24 kg ha-1 decreased oat tillering, oat DM and oat plant DM by 22-51, 0-57 and 8-51%, respectively, and increased oat tiller DM by 0-18%, with oats at 10 to 20 plants m 2. Differences between years were likely due to environmental factors and relative emergence times. After a silage-stage harvest, oat regrowth was negligible but berseem regrowth averaged 3.1 Mg ha-1 DM.

  5. 播种量和施肥对丘陵红壤区裸燕麦产量和主要性状的影响%Effects of Seeding Rate and Fertilization on Yield and Main Traits of Naked Oat in Hilly Red Soil Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昆; 刘小三; 郑伟; 雷礼文

    2012-01-01

    在江西丘陵红壤区研究了不同播种量和施肥对裸燕麦品种白燕8号和坝莜6号产量及主要性状的影响.结果表明:这两个品种的产量差异不显著;不同播种量和施肥对燕麦产量均有极显著的影响;白燕8号和坝莜6号在播种量75 kg/hm2、基肥施复合肥525 kg/hm2、追肥施尿素和氯化钾各60 kg/hm2的条件下可以获得最高的产量.%A field experiment with multi -factor (variety, seeding rate, and fertilization) design was conducted to study the influences of seeding rate and fertilization on the yield and main traits of naked oat in hilly red soil area of Jiangxi. The naked oat varieties Baiyan No. 8 and Bayou No. 6 were taken as the test materials. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the yield between these two varieties, while both seeding rate and fertilization very significantly affected the oat yield. The conditions for the highest yield of Baiyan No. 8 and Bayou No. 6 was obtained as follows: seeding rate 75 kg/hm2, compound fertilizer 525 kg/ hm as base fertilizer, and 60 kg/hm2 urea and 60 kg/hm2 potassium chloride as top dressing.

  6. Comparative study of the effects of solid-state fermentation with three filamentous fungi on the total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of subfractions from oats (Avena sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengbao; Wang, Ou; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Songjie; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Gao, Fengyi; Zhang, Di; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-11

    The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation with filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae var. effuses, Aspergillus oryzae, and Aspergillus niger) on total phenolics content (TPC), flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of four subfractions of oat, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol, and water, and compare them to their corresponding subfractions of unfermented oat. The TPC and total flavonoids increased dramatically, especially in EA subfractions (p < 0.05). The levels of antioxidant activity of subfractions were also significantly enhanced (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activities were also found in the EA subfractions. The polyphenols in EA were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 280 nm. Most polyphenols were increased remarkably, especially ferulic and caffeic acids. There was a clear correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, fungi fermentation is a potential bioprocess for increasing the TPC, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of oat-based food.

  7. The influence of strip cropping and weed control methods on weed diversity in dent maize (Zea mays L., narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. and oats (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2008–2010 at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences in Zamość, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The research design included two factors: I. Method of cultivation – sole cropping and strip cropping (the cultivation of three plants: maize, narrow-leafed lupin and oats, in neighboring strips; II. Weed control method – mechanical and chemical. The subject of this study was weed infestation in maize, narrow-leafed lupin and oats. The greatest diversity of weeds was found in the narrow-leafed lupine crop, while the lowest diversity in maize. The dominant weed species in maize, lupine and oats were Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album and Galinsoga parviflora which ranged from 34% to 99% of the total number of weeds. Strip cropping clearly reduced the number of weeds per unit area in the narrow-leafed lupin and oat crops as well as the aboveground dry weight of weeds in all plant species. Chemical weed control significantly decreased both the number and weight of weeds in comparison with the mechanical method.

  8. Naked Firewalls

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pisin; Page, Don N; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2015-01-01

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  9. Effects of Different Growth Stages of Three Oat Cultivars on the Nutritive Value of Silage%3个燕麦品种不同收获期对青贮饲草营养价值的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云贵; 程天亮; 杨雪娇; 张越利

    2013-01-01

    The advantage of ensiled oats was investigated and the optimized cultivar and growth stage for oat silages were discussed.In this experiment,naked oat baiyan 2 and baiyan 7,husked oat baiyan 8 were mowed in earing stage,filling stage and milk stage as raw materials,respectively.These materials were wilted to be hay and ensiled regularly.After 90 days,the regular nutrients of oat silage and hay were determined and the quality of ensiled oat was evaluated.Results showed that the crude protein content of oat silage was 1%~2% higher than that of oat hay.As the delay of the growth stage,the dry matter of oat silage increased significantly (P<0.05).The dry matter of oat silage was 17.74%FM in earing stage,and 33.86%FM in milk stage.However,the crude protein content of oat silage decreased significantly (P<0.05),The crude protein content of oat silage was 12.28%DM in earing stage,and 9.49%DM in milk stage.In earing stage,the NH3-N/TN of oat silage was 12.99%,which demonstrate that it was not an appropriate period to ensile oat.The pH and volatile fatty acid of baiyan 8 silage was lower than that of other two cultivars.Therefore,the conclusion was that the nutritive value of ensiled oat was higher than that of oat hay.As for the nutrients,the silage of naked oat baiyan 2 and baiyan 8 mown in earing stage was better.The silage of baiyan 8 mown in milk stage gained the optimal quality.%选择裸燕麦(Avena sativa)白燕2号和白燕8号、皮燕麦白燕7号,分别在抽穗期、灌浆期和乳熟期刈割,进行常规青贮并调制青干草,90 d后测定燕麦青贮料与青干草的常规营养成分,分析燕麦青贮料的青贮品质.结果表明:燕麦青贮料的粗蛋白含量比青干草中粗蛋白含量高1%~2%.随着生育时期的延迟,燕麦青贮料中干物质含量显著提高(P<0.05),抽穗期为17.74%FM,乳熟期为33.86%FM.粗蛋白含量显著降低(P<0.05),抽穗期为12.28%DM,乳熟期为9.49%DM.抽穗期燕麦

  10. Microstructure and nutrient distribution in oats: influence on quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. Shea; Frégeau-Reid, Judith

    2009-05-01

    Oats have long been recognized as having superior quality among cereals with respect to protein and lipid composition as well as soluble dietary fibre (β-glucan). The microstructure and chemistry of oats influence oat quality, and thus are determinants of the end products derived from oats. Light and scanning electron microscopies have been used to elucidate microstructure and nutrient distribution in oats. The influence of variation in these parameters on oat quality can be demonstrated, from milling through to oat products for consumption. Milling quality is determined in part by hull architecture. SEM examination of oat hulls can help predict ease of dehulling, which affects the efficiency and economics of oat milling. In addition to protein and lipid, β-glucan is an important nutritional component of oats. Fluorescence microscopy can reveal both the relative amount and distribution of β-glucan in oat kernels. Consumption of oats or oat products containing β-glucan has been shown to have beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These health benefits have generated a demand for new and palatable ways to incorporate oats into the diet as consumer demand increases. To help meet this need, we have been investigating the use of micronized naked oats as a whole grain to be cooked and consumed as a rice alternative. Different varieties of naked oats had dramatically different acceptance levels from a sensory panel. SEM of the pericarp, light microscopy of the endosperm, and analyses of starch properties of the different varieties revealed differences that corresponded with sensory data.

  11. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis.

  12. Componentes morfológicos e produção de forragem de pastagem de aveia e azevém manejada em diferentes alturas Morphological components and forage production of oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Antonio Queirolo Aguinaga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica de produção de forragem em pastagem de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam manejada em diversas alturas de manejo com o objetivo de evidenciar as potencialidades dessa mistura em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro alturas de manejo da pastagem (10; 20; 30 e 40 cm, medidas com bastão graduado e avaliadas em blocos casualizados com três repetições. O método de pastejo foi contínuo, com taxa de lotação variável. Utilizaram-se bezerros de corte mestiços com 10 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 210 kg, respectivamente. As características da pastagem estudadas foram: massa de forragem (MF; taxa de acúmulo de forragem (TAC; produção total de forragem (PTMS; e quantificação dos componentes morfológicos da pastagem (colmo, lâmina e material morto. A massa de forragem aumentou de forma linear de acordo com a altura do pasto, uma vez que, para cada cm de aumento na altura superior a 10 cm, a matéria seca aumentou aproximadamente 90 kg/ha. Não houve efeito das alturas da pastagem sobre a TAC ou sobre a PTMS, cujos valores médios foram de 66,8 kg/ha/dia de MS e 10.721 kg/ha de MS, respectivamente. A porcentagem de folhas de azevém foi maior que a de folhas de aveia nos três períodos de avaliação e, na altura de 10 cm, foi superior à obtida nas demais alturas na última avaliação (em torno de 20% da participação total da massa de forragem. A aveia apresenta rápido desenvolvimento inicial e diminuição na produção nos períodos posteriores de desenvolvimento.Forage growth dynamic in an Oat (Avena strigosa, Schreb + Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture managed at different grazing heights was evaluated in order to access the mixed-sward potential in a crop-livestock integrated system. Treatments were four sward grazing heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, measured with a sward-stick. The experimental design was a

  13. 燕麦DNA导入普通小麦的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Introduction of Oats (Avena sativa L.) Exogenous DNA into Wheat and Its Variation of Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 张立杰; 马宏玮; 刘生祥; 徐兆桢; 李树华; 许兴

    2000-01-01

    以健壮燕麦(Avena sativa L.)为供体,宁春 4号小麦为受体,采用花粉管通道法进行外源DNA导入.结果表明,变异株系在生育期、株高、穗长、结实小穗数、千粒重等性状上产生了明显的变异;酯酶和过氧化物酶同工酶谱带数与受体相比增加或减少,叶绿素含量和瞬间光合速率偏向供体或受体;并筛选到对小麦条锈病免疫或高抗的部分变异株,表明燕麦DNA已导入到小麦中,并得到表达.

  14. Potential Research of Fusarium avenaceum Isolate GD-2 as a Bioherbicide Agent for Wild Oats(Avena fatua L.)%燕麦镰刀菌GD-2菌株作为生物除草剂的潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程亮; 郭青云

    2014-01-01

    从青海省贵德县患病野燕麦叶片上分离获得燕麦镰刀菌,对该生防菌进行了室内致病性测定、室内孢子大批量培养和大田小区试验研究.室内条件下接种野燕麦48 h后出现水褐色病斑,最终导致叶片衰老死亡,在2、4叶期7d时的发病率分别达到90%和95%,同时病情级别达到最大,而且对株高具有明显的抑制作用.通过液-固体联合培养试验表明,在含水量59%~61%、28℃、初始pH 7.0、初始接种量0.5%(1×106个孢子/mL)的麦麸与玉米粉(1∶1)培养基中,培养7d时,产孢量最大(7.58×108个孢子/g).在田间条件下燕麦镰刀菌与精喹禾灵混合使用能显著降低野燕麦的生物量,野燕麦叶片表面的湿度条件导致2012年对野燕麦的防除效果低于2011年.不论在是在室内和大田条件下,野燕麦都对野燕麦镰刀菌表现敏感.因此,该研究结果表明野燕麦镰刀菌株GD-2可作为防除野生燕麦的潜力生防菌.%An isolate of indigenous fungus Fusarium avenaceum GD-2 was isolated from infected wild oats (Avena fatua L.) in Guide County,Qinghai Province.Laboratory pathogenicity determination,large-scale culture of indoor spores and field plot test were conducted on this isolate as a biocontrol agent for wild oats.Under greenhouse conditions,watery brown disease spots appeared on the inoculated plants 48 h after inoculation,and eventually the leaf blades were senescence and died.The motidity were 90% and 95%,respectively during 2 and 4 leaf stage at 7 d.At the same time,the state of disease reached the highest rank,which had obvious inhibitory effect on plant height.The experiment result of liquid-solid joint culture indicated that the highest spore production was obtained at the initial moisture content of 59% ~ 61%,28℃,initial pH 7.0,and 0.5% (V/V) initial inoculums size (1.0× 106 conidia/mL).The highest spore production could reach 7.58× 108 conidia/g after incubating for 7 d

  15. Avaliação da composição química e da digestibilidade in vitro da mistura aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb + ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. em diferentes alturas sob pastejo Evaluation of chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of mixture of oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L. under grazing in different sward heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mascarenhas Grise

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito das alturas (8,9; 10,0; 11,2; 11,8; 13,3; 13,6; 14,6; 18,2 cm de pastos consorciados de aveia IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 com ervilha forrageira (Pisum arvense L. sob pastejo sobre a relação folha/colmo (F/C, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental usado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A relação F/C não foi influenciada pela altura do pasto, porém apresentou comportamento quadrático com o avanço na maturidade do pasto. Os teores de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, devido à interação entre altura do pasto e o tempo. Os teores de FDN e FDA mostraram um comportamento quadrático ao longo do período experimental, ocorrendo uma diminuição dos mesmos quando as plantas se apresentavam mais baixas e, uma elevação, quando as plantas estavam mais altas, isto ocorreu em função da interação das variáveis tempo e altura. A DIVMS e a DIVMO tiveram incrementos lineares em função do aumento da altura do pasto, porém com comportamento quadrático no tempo (dias em todas as alturas, sendo mais elevadas nas alturas intermediárias do pasto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different sward heights (8.9, 10.0, 11.2, 11.8; 13.3; 13.6; 14.6; 18.2 cm in the mixture of black oat IAPAR 61 (Avena strigosa Schreb cv IAPAR 61 + field pea (Pisum arvense L., under grazing, on leaf/stem ratio (L/S, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF contents and dry matter (DMIVD and of organic matter (OMIVD in vitro digestibility. A completely randomized experimental design with two replicates was used. L/S ratio was not influenced by sward height, although it presented quadratic behavior with the progress of

  16. Nutritional advantages of oats and opportunities for its processing as value added foods - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sabikhi, Latha; Kumar, Arvind; Unnikrishnan, V S

    2015-02-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) have received considerable attention for their high content of dietary fibres, phytochemicals and nutritional value. It is believed that consumption of oats possesses various health benefits such as hypocholesterolaemic and anticancerous properties. Oats have also recently been considered suitable in the diet of celiac patients. Owing to their high nutritional value, oat-based food products like breads, biscuits, cookies, probiotic drinks, breakfast cereals, flakes and infant food are gaining increasing consideration. Research and development on oat and its products may be helpful in combating various diseases known to mankind. This paper provides an overview of the nutritional and health benefits provided by oats as whole grains and its value added products. It is designed to provide an insight on the processing of oats and its effect on their functional properties. The manuscript also reviews various uses of oats and its fractions for clinical and industrial purposes and in development of value added food products.

  17. Induction of cellular accessibility and inaccessibility and suppression and potentiation of cell death in oat attacked by ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤avenae¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, M.F.; Neyron, L.

    1999-01-01

    First-formed (seedling) and later-formed leaves of oat cvs Selma (susceptible) and Maldwyn (adult plant resistance under complex genetic control) were subjected to a double inoculation procedure ('inducer' followed by 'challenger') with conidia of Blumeria graminis (DC.) Speer (Syn. Erysiphe......, if at all, at two cells distance. The degree of induced (in)accessibility in D0 cells appeared correlated to localized autofluorescent host cell responses to challenge appressoria, but independent of the inherent resistance of leaf tissues. These results agree with earlier observations from barley......, suggesting that induced changes in (in)accessibility may be a common consequence of B. graminis attack in cereals. As expected, in Maldwyn, cell death was a consistent but infrequent response to attack (5-20%, of attacks caused cell death in controls). Here, the successful formation of an inducer haustorium...

  18. Acute effects of a wild green-oat (Avena sativa) extract on cognitive function in middle-aged adults: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Jackson, Philippa A; Forster, Joanne; Khan, Julie; Grothe, Torsten; Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F

    2017-02-01

    A wild green-oats extract (Neuravena(®)) containing a range of potentially bioactive components, including flavonoids and triterpene saponins, has previously been shown to enhance animal stress responses and memory, and improve cognitive performance in humans at a dose of 1600 mg. Methods This double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced cross-over study assessed the effects of single doses of the green-oat extract (GOE) across a broad range of cognitive domains in healthy adults aged 40-65 years who self-reported that they felt that their memory had declined with age. Participants attended on six occasions, receiving a single dose of either placebo, 800, or 1600 mg GOE on each occasion, with the counterbalanced order of treatments repeated twice for each participant. Cognitive function was assessed with a range of computerized tasks measuring attention, spatial/working/episodic memory, and executive function pre-dose and at 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours post-dose. Results The results showed that 800mg GOE increased the speed of performance across post-dose assessments on a global measure including data from all of the timed tasks. It also improved performance of a delayed word recall task in terms of errors and an executive function task (Peg and Ball) in terms of decreased thinking time and overall completion time. Working memory span (Corsi blocks) was also increased, but only on the second occasion that this dose was taken. Discussion These results confirm the acute cognitive effects of GOE seen in previous research, and suggest that the optimal dose lies at or below 800 mg.

  19. DETERMINATION INNER MONGOLIA DIFFERENT VARISTIES OF NAKED OATS ONO-STARCH POLYSACCHARIDES CONTENT BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY%硅烷化衍生化-气相色谱法测定不同品种莜麦的非淀粉多糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许辉; 白国涛; 潘国卿; 赵宇龙

    2013-01-01

    Silylation derivatization-Gas Chromatographic Determination Method for determination of non-starch polysaccharides in naked oats.BaiYan No.2 and no.8 NeiYan no.5 Yan no.08-9 and market no.1 of five kinds of different Inner Mongolia production of naked oats,soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharide content were measured.Fat samples with hexane to 80% ethanol to free sugars,and then,in pH =5,HAC buffer using α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be divided into soluble non-starch polysaccharides and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides by acid hydrolysis,and the constituent monosacchatides of its non-starch polysaccharides using the silylation derivatization,gas chromatography were determined.The linear correlation coefficient between 0.99584-0.99909,the xylose content in the 1.984-4.384 mg / g,the mannose content between 1.866-3.221 mg / g,the galactose content of 0.454-0.903mg / g,between the glucose content in the 5.31-10.528 mg / g,total 9.614-17.016mg / g.This method is suitable for the determination of naked oats in the soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides.%本文采用硅烷化衍生化-气相色谱法,测定了白燕2号等内蒙古不同品种莜麦中可溶性和不可溶性非淀粉多糖的含量.样品经正己烷去脂肪,80%乙醇去游离糖,在pH =5的HAC缓冲液中用α-淀粉酶和α-葡萄糖苷酶酶解,可得到可溶性非淀粉多糖(SNSP)和不可溶性非淀粉多糖(ISNP).经酸水解后,对其非淀粉多糖的各组成单糖采用硅烷化进行衍生物制备,直接气相色谱法测定.本方法的线性相关系数在0.99584-0.99909之间,木糖含量在1.984-4.384 mg/g之间,甘露糖含量在1.866-3.221 mg/g之间,半乳糖含量在0.454-0.903mg/g之间,葡萄糖含量在5.31-10.528mg/g之间,总量在9.614-17.016mg/g之间.结果表明,该方法适用于莜麦中可溶性和不可溶性非淀粉多糖的测定,为莜麦的深入品质评价及进行产品有效成分提取和利用,

  20. Antipodal symmetry and asymmetry in the embryo sac of Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Kosina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter- and intra-antipodal variation is presented for a free-nucleolar developmental stadium in the Avena sativa endosperm. Antipodals of common oat are uni- or multinuclear. Multinuclear antipodals, in a single cell, show nuclei of the same mitotic stage, but this is different for various antipodals. Examples of DNA amplification and anomalies occurring during mitosis are provided.

  1. Antipodal symmetry and asymmetry in the embryo sac of Avena sativa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina; Joanna Krawczyk

    2016-01-01

    Inter- and intra-antipodal variation is presented for a free-nucleolar developmental stadium in the Avena sativa endosperm. Antipodals of common oat are uni- or multinuclear. Multinuclear antipodals, in a single cell, show nuclei of the same mitotic stage, but this is different for various antipodals. Examples of DNA amplification and anomalies occurring during mitosis are provided.

  2. Effect of concentrate supplementation on feed consumption, nutrient utilization and blood metabolite profile in captive spotted deer (Axis axis) fed oat (Avena sativa) and berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) fodders based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, C; Das, A; Katole, Shrikant; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, D

    2013-03-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum level of a maize-soybean meal-wheat bran concentrate supplement fed to captive spotted deer fed an oat and berseem fodder-based diet. Twelve adult spotted deer [64-76 kg body weight (BW)] were distributed into three groups of four each and were housed individually. A diet consisting of 5 kg of oat fodder and 5.5 kg of berseem fodder was offered to each one of the experimental animals. The animal in group I received no supplementary concentrate, whereas, those in groups II and III received 0.5 and 1 kg of supplementary concentrate, respectively. A 60 days digestibility trial was conducted with a 5 days collection period on Days 55-59 of the trial. Blood samples were collected from all animals on Day 60 of the experiment. Average daily dry matter intake (DMI) was 1,224, 1,613, and 1,574 g/day in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake was lowest (P < 0.01) in group I. Intake of P, Cu, and Zn was highest (P < 0.01) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was highest (P < 0.05) in group II. Digestibility of OM and CP was lowest (P < 0.05) in group I. Digestibility of gross energy was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (74.9%), followed by groups II (69.3%) and I (66.2%). Digestible energy (DE) intake (kcal/kg BW(0.75) ) was highest (P < 0.01) in group III (195.4), followed by groups II (180.9) and I (129.8). Initial BW was 72.7, 72.5, and 71.0 kg, whereas, final BW was 71.0, 72.7, and 73.5 kg, in groups I, II and III, respectively. Average daily change in body mass was significantly (P < 0.01) different among the groups. The body mass was lost (-29.2 g/day), maintained (4.1 g/day) and gained (41.6 g/day) in groups I, II, and III, respectively. Blood glucose and cholesterol concentration was highest (P < 0.05) in group III, followed by groups II and I. Serum concentration of Cu and

  3. Immunogenicity of two oat varieties, in relation to their safety for celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Mariantonia; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Gianfrani, Carmen; Pogna, Norberto; Gazza, Laura; Stefanile, Rosita; Camarca, Alessandra; Colicchio, Barbara; Nanayakkara, Merlin; Miele, Erasmo; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Giardullo, Nicola; Maurano, Francesco; Santoro, Pasquale; Troncone, Riccardo; Auricchio, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    Most of the recent studies suggest that oats are well tolerated by celiac disease (CD) patients. However, it is still possible that different oat cultivars may display different biological properties relevant for CD pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate biological and immunological properties of two oat varieties, Avena genziana and Avena potenza, in relation to their safety for CD patients. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were evaluated in CaCo-2 cells treated with peptic-tryptic (PT) digests from the two oats and from gliadin (PTG). With the same PT-digests, duodenal biopsies from 22 CD patients were treated in vitro for 24 h and density of CD25+ cells in lamina propria and of intraepithelial CD3+ T cells was measured, as well as crypt cell proliferation and epithelial expression of interleukin 15. Finally, interferon γ (IFN-γ) production was measured as evidence of gliadin-specific T-cell activation by PT-digests. In contrast to PTG, oats PT-digests were not able to induce significant increase in ERK phosphorylation and decrease in TEER in CaCo-2 cells. In the organ culture system, oats PT-digests, unlike PTG, did not induce significant increase in crypt enterocyte proliferation, increase in interleukin 15 expression or in lamina propria CD25+ cells. Nevertheless Avena potenza increased intraepithelial T-cell density, while Avena genziana-induced IFN-γ production in 3/8 CD intestinal T cell lines. Our data show that Avena genziana and Avena potenza do not display in vitro activities related to CD pathogenesis. Some T-cell reactivity could be below the threshold for clinical relevance.

  4. Efeitos de diferentes níveis de aveia preta (Avena strigosa em rações para suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação Effects of different level of black oats (Avena strigosa in diets of swine in growing - finishing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Soares

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de aveia preta em rações para suínos, foi realizado no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, Augusto Pestana, RS, um experimento com 40 animais da raça Wessex, com peso médio inicial de 26,5kg, distribuídos num arranjo fatorial de quatro níveis de aveia (0, 15, 30 e 45% e dois sexos, fêmeas e machos castrados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições (duas com 2 animais e uma com 1. Água e ração foram fornecidas à vontade. Em ambas as fases, foram avaliados consumo de ração, ganho de peso diário e conversão alimentar. Após o abate, as carcaças foram avaliadas e, dos dados obtidos, calculados o rendimento da carcaça, comprimento da carcaça, espessura média de toicinho, percentagem de pernil, área de olho de lombo e relação came-gordura. Não houve diferença significativa (P > 0,05 entre tratamentos para desempenho e características de carcaça. A interação nível de aveia x sexo, também não foi significativa (P > 0,05. O fator sexo foi estatisticamente significativo (P The effects of different levels of black oats in diets for swine in growing and finishing period were studied at the Trainning Conter of COTRIJUÍ in Augusto Pestana, RS. The experiment was conducted with 40 animals of Wessex breed, with initial average weight of 26.5kg, distributed in 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (0, 15, 30 and 45% of oats black x 2 sexos. The experimental design used was the completely randomized with 3 repetition. The water and diet were given ad libitum. In both phases, were estimated feed consumption, average daily gain and feed conversion. After the slaughtering, the carcass were classified and calculated the carcass yield, the carcass lenght, the mean backfat thickness, ham percentage, área of the Longissimus dorsi and relation meat-fat. There were no significant difference (P > 0.05 between the treatments for performance and carcass

  5. Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior

  6. 耕作方式对冀西北栗钙土土壤物理性状及莜麦生长的影响%Effects of tillage mode on chestnut soil’s physical characters and naked oats growth in Northwest Hebei province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩; 刘玉华; 张立峰; 窦铁岭

    2014-01-01

    为了探索不同耕作方式对冀西北栗钙土农田土壤物理性状及莜麦生长的影响,以河北省张北县10 a栗钙土长期定位试验莜麦田为研究对象,研究了免耕、松耕和翻耕对莜麦田土壤容重、土壤含水率、土壤硬度及莜麦生长的影响。结果表明:松耕和翻耕可以显著降低莜麦播种期到拔节期土壤容重,播种期免耕土壤容重1.49 g/cm3,松耕和翻耕分别为1.31和1.30 g/cm3;不同耕作方式对土壤含水率影响不大;免耕显著提高土壤硬度,拔节期免耕土壤硬度58.51kg/cm2,为松耕1.74倍(P<0.05),为翻耕2.53倍(P<0.01);栗钙土土壤硬度与土壤容重、土壤含水率关系模型表明高土壤容重条件下土壤硬度对土壤含水率更敏感,低土壤含水率条件下土壤硬度对土壤容重更敏感;免耕莜麦株高和叶面积生长受到抑制,穗数和穗粒数显著降低,经济产量413.79 kg/hm2,分别为松耕和翻耕的62.27%和51.64%。栗钙土莜麦田免耕与松耕、翻耕相比土壤容重大,土壤硬度高,莜麦产量显著降低;3种耕作方式中,松耕是兼顾生态与经济效益的耕作措施。%Taking a ten-year naked oats field experiment site in Zhangbei county of Hebei province as the test object, this paper studied the effects of different tillage modes (no tillage, subsoiling tillage, and conventional tillage) on the soil physical characteristics and naked oats growth in chestnut soil. The no tillage treatment soil was undisturbed from last year’s harvesting to sowing, with 15-22 cm stubbles; broad-spectrum herbicide was used in soil treatment before planting and sprayed in seedling. The subsoiling tillage treatment plowed the soil after the previous year’s harvest, used the self-developed‘Parallel rod without wall subsoiling plow’ (Patent No.:2011202468728) with a plowed depth of 15-22 cm, and was sowed and fertilized in the same manner as the no tillage

  7. [Comparative cytogenetic analysis of hexaploid Avena L. species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Shelukhina, O Iu; Dedkova, O S; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2011-06-01

    Using C-banding method and in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rRNA gene probes, six hexaploid species of the genus Avena L. with the ACD genome constitution were studied to reveal evolutionary karyotypic changes. Similarity in the C-banding patterns of chromosomal and in the patterns of distribution of the rRNA gene families suggests a common origin of all hexaploid species. Avena fatua is characterized by the broadest intraspecific variation of the karyotype; this species displays chromosomal variants typical of other hexaploid species of Avena. For instance, a translocation with the involvement of chromosome 5C marking A. occidentalis was discovered in many A. fatua accessions, whereas in other representatives of this species this chromosome is highly similar to the chromosome of A. sterilis. Only A. fatua and A. sativa show slight changes in the morphology and in the C-banding pattern of chromosome 2C. These results can be explained either by a hybrid origin of A. fatua or by the fact that this species is an intermediate evolutionary form of hexaploid oats. The 7C-17 translocation was identified in all studied accessions of wild and weedy species (A. sterilis, A. fatua, A. ludoviciana, and A. occidentalis) and in most A. sativa cultivars, but it was absent in A. byzantina and in two accessions of A. sativa. The origin and evolution of the Avena hexaploid species are discussed in context of the results.

  8. Subgenome-specific assembly of vitamin E biosynthesis genes and expression patterns during seed development provide insight into the evolution of the oat genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-g...

  9. The origin of the C-genome and cytoplasm of Avena polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, N; Katsiotis, A

    2008-07-01

    The contribution of C-genome diploid species to the evolution of polyploid oats was studied using C-genome ITS-specific primers. SCAR analysis among Avena accessions confirmed the presence of C-genome ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences in the genome of AACC and AACCDD polyploids. In situ hybridization and screening of more than a thousand rRNA clones in Avena polyploid species containing the C-genome revealed substantial C-genome rRNA sequence elimination. C-genome clones sequenced and Maximum Likelihood Parsimony analysis revealed close proximity to Avena ventricosa ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences, providing strong evidence of the latter's active role in the evolution of tetraploid and hexaploid oats. In addition, cloning and sequencing of the chloroplastic trnL intron among the most representative Avena species verified the maternal origin of A-genome for the AACC interspecific hybrid formation, which was the genetic bridge for the establishment of cultivated hexaploid oats.

  10. The starch-bound alpha-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors in Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Laura; Gazzelloni, Gloria; Taddei, Federica; Latini, Arianna; Muccilli, Vera; Alfieri, Michela; Conti, Salvatore; Redaelli, Rita; Pogna, Norberto E

    2016-12-01

    Oat kernels exhibit an extra-soft texture, a trait recently demonstrated to be largely modulated by starch-bound tryptophan-rich 2S proteins, the vromindolines. In this study, fractionation by two-dimensional electrophoresis of starch-bound proteins in 25 oat (Avena sativa) cultivars and 11 diploid or tetraploid Avena species revealed novel 2S proteins called Avena α-amylase/trypsin-inhibitors (AATI) because of their sequence similarity with wheat α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Thirty-seven AATI polypeptides, about 14 kDa in size, were split into three families named AATI-1, AATI-2, and AATI-3 with different primary structures and isoelectric points. AATI-1 and AATI-2 proteins showed 55.5-60.0 % sequence similarity with wheat α-amylase inhibitors CM1, CM2, and CM16, which have been found to cause innate immunity responses in celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Diploid A-genome and tetraploid AC-genome oat species possess three and five genes encoding for the AATI proteins, respectively, whereas hexaploid A. sativa exhibits 12 genes dispersed over the A-, C-, and D-genomes. Some AATI proteins expressed in hexaploid oats were assigned to the A-genome based on similarity to their counterparts in diploid species, contributing to further clarify the genetic origin of hexaploid oats. Moreover, AATI may interact with starch-bound vromindolines in determining the extra-soft texture of oat kernels and, due to their balanced amino acid compositions, may contribute to the biological value of oat proteins in a positive manner.

  11. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Avena indolines and their role in kernel texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Laura; Taddei, Federica; Conti, Salvatore; Gazzelloni, Gloria; Muccilli, Vera; Janni, Michela; D'Ovidio, Renato; Alfieri, Michela; Redaelli, Rita; Pogna, Norberto E

    2015-02-01

    Among cereals, Avena sativa is characterized by an extremely soft endosperm texture, which leads to some negative agronomic and technological traits. On the basis of the well-known softening effect of puroindolines in wheat kernel texture, in this study, indolines and their encoding genes are investigated in Avena species at different ploidy levels. Three novel 14 kDa proteins, showing a central hydrophobic domain with four tryptophan residues and here named vromindoline (VIN)-1,2 and 3, were identified. Each VIN protein in diploid oat species was found to be synthesized by a single Vin gene whereas, in hexaploid A. sativa, three Vin-1, three Vin-2 and two Vin-3 genes coding for VIN-1, VIN-2 and VIN-3, respectively, were described and assigned to the A, C or D genomes based on similarity to their counterparts in diploid species. Expression of oat vromindoline transgenes in the extra-hard durum wheat led to accumulation of vromindolines in the endosperm and caused an approximate 50 % reduction of grain hardness, suggesting a central role for vromindolines in causing the extra-soft texture of oat grain. Further, hexaploid oats showed three orthologous genes coding for avenoindolines A and B, with five or three tryptophan residues, respectively, but very low amounts of avenoindolines were found in mature kernels. The present results identify a novel protein family affecting cereal kernel texture and would further elucidate the phylogenetic evolution of Avena genus.

  12. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  13. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  14. Population structure and genotype-phenotype associations in a collection of oat landraces and historic cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a partic...

  15. Assembly and expression analysis of oat vitamin E biosynthesis gene homeologs during seed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) are particularly rich in vitamin E, an essential liposoluble vitamin that maintains membrane stability and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, no gene sequences involved in vitamin E biosynthesis have been reporte...

  16. Cultivar, harvest date, and nitrogen fertilization affect production and quality of fall oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that oat (Avena sativa L.) has promise as a fall-forage option for dairy producers. In addition, dairy producers often have a recurring need to identify opportunity windows for manure hauling other than before or after production of corn (Zea mays L.). Our objectives were...

  17. Exploring the origin of the D genome of oat by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong

    2014-09-01

    Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat.

  18. Why Oats Are Safe and Healthy for Celiac Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luud J. W. J. Gilissen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes. Avenins are present at a lower concentration (10%–15% of total protein content in oat as compared to gluten in wheat (80%–85%. The avenins in the genus Avena (cultivated oat as well as various wild species of which gene bank accessions were analyzed are free of the known CD immunogenic epitopes from wheat, barley, and rye. T cells that recognize avenin-specific epitopes have been found very rarely in CD patients. CD patients that consume oats daily do not show significantly increased levels of intraepithelial lymphocyte (EIL cells. The safety and the positive health effects of the long-term inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet have been confirmed in long-term studies. Since 2009 (EC 41/2009 and 2013 (FDA oat products may be sold as gluten-free in several countries provided a gluten contamination level below 20 ppm. Introduction of oats in the gluten-free diet of celiac patients is advised after the recovery of the intestine. Health effects of oat consumption are reflected in European Food Safety Authority (EFSA- and Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved health claims. Oats can form a healthy, nutritious, fiber-rich, and safe complement to the gluten-free diet.

  19. Utilización de extractos de avena sativa l. en dermatitis Utilization of avena sativa l. extract in dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L López Agüero

    2006-06-01

    olds. Treatment: were applications of compress of aqueous extract Avena Sativa L over the damaged skin for approximately five minutes, immediately after, one must cover with the biomass of oat (T° = 33 + 2 C° and a clothe for five minutes. The biomass was removed using the Avena Sativa L. acqueous extract. Remissions of the cutaneous symptoms were noticed between 1 and 36 months after the beginning of the treatment. Aqueous extract, Avena Sativa L. biomass, glumes and whole seeds contents were: 6.12+0.45; 46.11+0.36, 212.81+0.19 y 286.60+0.50 mg/100 g gallic ac., respectively, of total polyphenols.

  20. Proteins in oats; their synthesis and changes during germination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, Christina; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-01-01

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) are distinct among cereals due to their considerably higher protein concentration. At the same time oats possess a protein quality of high nutritional value and a special protein composition. Most cereals like wheat, barley, and rye have a high percentage of prolamins, the alcohol-soluble fraction, which usually contains most of the storage proteins, but oats are an exception. Their major storage proteins belong to the salt-water soluble globulin fraction, whereas oats prolamins are a minor component. During oats groat development, most obvious is the fairly linear increase in the globulin fraction. Oats globulins share structural features with the 11 S globulins of legumes and other dicots. Amino acid composition of oats is superior to that of other cereals due to the higher amount of limiting amino acids like lysine and threonine. During germination, total amino acid analysis revealed an increase in essential amino acids like lysine and tryptophan, which leads to an increased nutritional value of germinated oats. Oats protein products including globulin have been chemically modified by various methods to improve their functional properties.

  1. Do naked singularities form?

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, C; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    1995-01-01

    A naked singularity is formed by the collapse of a Sine-Gordon soliton in 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We examine the quantum stress tensor resulting from the formation of the singularity. Consistent boundary conditions require that the incoming soliton is accompanied by a flux of incoming radiation across past null infinity, but neglecting the back reaction of the spacetime leads to the absurd conclusion that the total energy entering the system by the time the observer is able to receive information from the singularity is infinite. We conclude that the back reaction must prevent the formation of the naked singularity.

  2. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil;

    2010-01-01

    -expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...

  3. Fungal suppression of resistance against inappropriate ¤Blumeria graminis formae speciales¤ in barley, oat and wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, K.L.; Carver, T.L.W.; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2003-01-01

    When barley, wheat or oat leaf epidermal cells were attacked by their appropriate forma specialis (f.sp.) of Blumeria graminis DC. Speer (f.sp. hordei, tritici and avenae, respectively), many attempted penetrations succeeded, functional haustoria were formed and very few plant cells died. When...

  4. Isolation and identification of Triticeae chromosome 1 receptor-like kinase genes (Lrk10) from diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D W; Armstrong, K C; Drouin, G; McElroy, A; Fedak, G; Molnar, S D

    2003-02-01

    The DNA sequence of an extracellular (EXC) domain of an oat (Avena sativa L.) receptor-like kinase (ALrk10) gene was amplified from 23 accessions of 15 Avena species (6 diploid, 6 tetraploid, and 3 hexaploid). Primers were designed from one partial oat ALrk10 clone that had been used to map the gene in hexaploid oat to linkage groups syntenic to Triticeae chromosome 1 and 3. Cluster (phylogenetic) analyses showed that all of the oat DNA sequences amplified with these primers are orthologous to the wheat and barley sequences that are located on chromosome 1 of the Triticeae species. Triticeae chromosome 3 Lrk10 sequences were not amplified using these primers. Cluster analyses provided evidence for multiple copies at a locus. The analysis divided the ALrk EXC sequences into two groups, one of which included AA and AABB genome species and the other CC, AACC, and CCCC genome species. Both groups of sequences were found in hexaploid AACCDD genome species, but not in all accessions. The C genome group was divided into 3 subgroups: (i) the CC diploids and the perennial autotetraploid, Avena macrostachya (this supports other evidence for the presence of the C in this autotetraploid species); (ii) a sequence from Avena maroccana and Avena murphyi and several sequences from different accessions of A. sativa; and (iii) A. murphyi and sequences from A. sativa and Avena sterilis. This suggests a possible polyphyletic origin for A. sativa from the AACC progenitor tetraploids or an origin from a progenitor of the AACC tetraploids. The sequences of the A genome group were not as clearly divided into subgroups. Although a group of sequences from the accession 'SunII' and a sequence from line Pg3, are clearly different from the others, the A genome diploid sequences were interspersed with tetraploid and hexaploid sequences.

  5. Inhibition of Blumeria graminis germination and germling development within colonies of oat mildew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carver, T.L.W.; Roberts, P.C.; Thomas, B.J.;

    2001-01-01

    established oat mildew colonies, most formed abnormal, hypha-like germ tubes. Since they did not form appressoria, and ere thus Unable to attempt penetration, it was impossible to determine whether oat mildew colonies induced accessibility of underlying oat epidermal cells. However, when superficial...... ff. spp. formed normal appressoria. This was also true When conidia germinated within established barley mildew colonies. Within barley mildew colonies, appressoria of f. sp. hordei penetrated epidermal cells formed haustoria more frequently than appressoria distant from colonies. Similarly, ff. spp...... structures of established colonies were removed, germlings of all ff. spp. formed appressoria freely,, on cells containing oat mildew colony haustoria. Furthermore, these cells showed high level induced accessibility not only to f. sp. avenae but also to the normally non-pathogenic ff, spp. This indicated...

  6. The effect of copper on the content and composition of saccharides in oat plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ślusarczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the content and composition of saccharides and the dose and time of application of copper sulphate was studied in different organs and stages of development of oats (Avena sativa L. var. 'Udycz żółty'. The plant material was obtained from pot experiments run on low peat, deficient in copper. Under these conditions, oat plants contained less soluble sugars, hemicelluloses and cellulose than plants receiving a sufficient amount of this element. The differences in the composition of the individual saccharide fractions depended on the dose of copper and time of its application, as well as on the organ and stage of development of the oat plant. In grain of oats grown in copper deficient peat, increased amounts of pentoses (arabinose and xylose were found concomitantly with a lowered glucose content. Attempts to explain the changes in the sugar metabolism under conditions of copper deficiency and the role of this micronutrient in seed formation are presented.

  7. Exogenous nitric oxide elevated alkali tolerance of Avena nuda seedlings%外源一氧化氮提高裸燕麦幼苗的耐碱性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建新; 王金成; 王瑞娟; 贾海燕

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP)as a nitric oxide (NO)donor on growth,leaf reactive oxy-gen metabolism and osmotic accumulation in naked oat (Avena nuda )seedlings under NaHCO3 stress were in-vestigated by a sand nutrient cultivation method.SNP exposure at concentration ranges of 1-200 μmol/L,es-pecially at 25 μmol/L,significantly alleviated NaHCO3-related growth inhibition of seedlings by decreasing the levels of O2 ·- ,H2 O2 ,malondialdehyde and organic acid,and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase,peroxidase,ascorbate peroxidase and plasma membrane H +-ATPase in leaves under 75 mmol/L NaHCO3 stress.Similarly,the concentrations of reduced glutathione,soluble sugar,soluble protein,free ami-no acid and proline as well as K+/Na+ ratio were also increased significantly in seedling leaves under the same stress,but ascorbic acid concentration was not affected significantly.The results indicate that NO may alleviate the damage and growth inhibition caused by alkali stress in naked oat seedlings via activation of antioxidant sys-tem activity,acceleration of osmotic accumulation and maintenance of Na+ and K+ balance,thus improving al-kali resistance of the naked oat plants.%采用营养液砂培方法,研究外源一氧化氮(NO)供体硝普钠(SNP)对 NaHCO3胁迫下裸燕麦幼苗生长、活性氧代谢和渗透溶质积累的影响。结果表明,1~200μmol/L SNP 能够缓解75 mmol/L NaHCO3胁迫对裸燕麦幼苗生长的抑制作用,25μmol/L SNP 的缓解作用最明显,可降低裸燕麦叶片 O2·-、H2 O2、丙二醛和有机酸含量,增强幼苗叶片超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化氢酶、过氧化物酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶和质膜 H +-ATPase 活性,提高叶片谷胱甘肽、可溶性糖、可溶性蛋白质、游离氨基酸、脯氨酸含量和 K+/Na+,但对抗坏血酸含量影响不大。分析表明,外源 NO 可能通过激活抗氧化系统活性、促

  8. Use of conditioning in the production of black and white oat hay using two cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Dalazen Castagnara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to estimate the dehydration curves, chemical composition, and occurrence of fungi in white oat hay (Avena sativa L. cv. Guapa BRS and black oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Common at two cutting heights. Dehydration curves were studied under a randomized block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using split plots in time, considering two types of oats (white and black, two cutting heights (10 and 20 cm, and 17 sampling times (0, 4, 19, 24, 28, 43, 47, 52, 67, 71, 76, 91, 95, 100, 115, 129, and 124 hours after harvesting with five replicates. For the chemical composition and occurrence of fungi, the experimental design comprised randomized blocks in a factorial 2 × 2 split-plot in time with two types of oats, two cutting heights, and three assessment periods: before cutting, during baling, and after 30 days of storage, with five replicates. The hay obtained by cutting of the black and white oats at heights of 10 and 20 cm showed similar dehydration curves. The crude protein values were higher in white oats only at the time of cutting (141.5 g/kg. The black oats showed lower nutritional quality, with higher levels of ADF and lignin. There was no effect of cutting height on the chemical composition, but the cutting height interfered with the production of dry matter and residue after cutting, with cutting at 10 cm leading to higher dry matter production and at 20 cm to increased waste production. The cutting heights of the oats interfere directly with the dry matter production and post-harvest residue without changing the chemical composition of the hay.

  9. 燕麦属系统学研究进展%Research Advances on Systematics of Avena (Pooideae, Poaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 刘欢; 林磊

    2014-01-01

    Advances in taxonomy, systematics, and polyploid origins of Avena L. (Pooideae, Poaceae) were reviewed. The key issues in systematics studies of Avena included: the debate on phylogenetic position of Avena in the Avena group;the absence of conclusive evidence for the circumscription of Avena, especially for A. macrostachya Bal. ex Cass. & Dur.; the unresolved phylogenetic relationships of major lineages in Avena;the considerable controversy about the genomic origins of hexaploid cultivated oats (i.e., A. nuda L. and A. sativa L.);and the paucity of accurate estimation of divergence time of Avena. The controversies on the genomic origins of hexaploid cultivated oats are rooted in the absence of accurate understanding for the divergence of A, C, and D genomes. The comprehensive investigation of molecular phylogeny, cytogenetics, palaeogeology, and palaeoclimatology may provide compelling evidence for the polyploid origins and the divergence histories of Avena, and it is signiifcance for deeply utilizing the core germplasm resources of wild relatives of cereal crops.%对燕麦属(Avena L.)分类学、系统学、多倍体起源3个方面的研究进展进行了综述。燕麦属系统学研究存在的关键问题有:燕麦属的系统位置存在争议;燕麦属的范畴即大穗燕麦转隶归属问题缺少确证;燕麦属的系统发育关系尚未解决;六倍体栽培燕麦基因组起源备受争议;燕麦属分化时间尚未估测。六倍体栽培燕麦基因组起源争议的根源在于对A、C、D基因组间分化程度缺乏精准认识。总的来说,分子系统学、细胞遗传学、古地质学、古气候学的整合研究将为燕麦属多倍体起源和分化提供令人信服的新证据,对于深度利用谷类作物野生近缘种核心种质资源具有重要科学意义。

  10. Naked Black Hole Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-Han

    2016-04-22

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  11. Biology and management of Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana: two noxious weed species of agro-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Akhter, Muhammad Javaid; Iqbal, Nadeem; Peerzada, Arslan Masood; Hanif, Zarka; Manalil, Sudheesh; Hashim, Saima; Ali, Hafiz Haider; Kebaso, Lynda; Frimpong, David; Namubiru, Halima; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2017-08-02

    Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana are closely related grass weed species infesting a large number of crops around the world. These species are widely distributed in diverse agro-ecosystems from temperate to sub-tropical regions due to their unique seed traits, successful germination ecology, high competitive ability, and allelopathic potential. A. fatua is more widespread, adaptable, and problematic than A. ludoviciana. Both these species infest major winter and spring crops, including wheat, oat, barley, canola, maize, alfalfa, and sunflower, causing up to 70% yield losses depending on crop species and weed density. Chemical control has been challenged by large-scale herbicide resistance evolution in these weed species. A. fatua is the most widespread herbicide-resistant weed in the world, infesting about 5 million hectares in 13 countries. The use of alternative herbicides with different modes of action has proved effective. Several cultural practices, including diverse crop rotations, cover crops, improved crop competition (using competitive cultivars, high seed rates, narrow row spacing, altered crop geometry), and allelopathic suppression, have shown promise for controlling A. fatua and A. ludoviciana. The integrated use of these cultural methods can reduce the herbicide dose required, and lower dependency on herbicides to control these grasses. Moreover, integrated management may successfully control herbicide-resistant populations of these weed species. The use of integrated approaches based on the knowledge of biology and ecology of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana may help to manage them sustainably in the future.

  12. Resistance of oat to‘take-all'causing fungus (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation with the pot assay at seedling stage in greenhouse showed that oat (Avena sativa) was highly resistant to take-all disease to which, however, wheat (Triticum aestivum) was extremely susceptible. The oat roots were shown to be inhibitory to the invasion and spread of take-all causing fungus G. graminis var. tritici by the following criteria: ( i ) less infection sites were observed (about 1/7 of those in wheat); (ii) the ectotrophic growth of G. graminis var.tritici on oat roots was much slower than that on those of wheat, and the runner hyphae appeared as kidney- or fork-shaped hyphopodia on the surface of oat roots which could not be discerned on that of wheat roots; (iii) the period from inoculation to penetration into the epidermis of oat roots was about 2.9 times as long as that of wheat; (iv) the infection hyphae were hindered substantially when it was about to penetrate into the epidermis of oat roots with the mycelium deformed; and ( v ) the cortical layer of oat roots was revealed to be unsuitable for the G. graminis var. tritici infestation as some lysed hyphae were found therein, and the spread of hyphae from the first layer of cortex to the pericycie needed 108 h, about 1.8 times as long as it did on wheat roots.

  13. The OATS Project

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Open Source software offers great potential within the Assistive Technology and AAC fields - it offers a new model of software development that encourages truly user-centred design and innovation. Open Source software is where the ‘source code’ that makes up software is freely published.\\ud \\ud The presentation will include:\\ud • The work of the OATS project in developing the first website dedicated to Open Source Assistive Technology (OATS). \\ud • Demonstration of the OATS website - which al...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: oat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tiva_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Avena+sativa&t=NS ...

  15. [Comparative analysis of diploid species of Avena l. using cytogenetic and biochemical markers: Avena canariensis baum et fedak and A. longiglumis dur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelukhina, O Iu; Badaeva, E D; Brezhneva, T A; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2008-06-01

    The diploid oat species containing the A genome of two types (Al and Ac) were studied by electrophoresis of grain storage proteins (avenins), chromosome C-banding, and in situ hybridization with probes pTa71 and pTa794. The karyotypes of the studied species displayed similar C-banding patterns but differed in size and morphology of several chromosomes, presumably, resulting from structural rearrangements that took place during the divergence of A genomes from a common ancestor. In situ hybridization demonstrated an identical location of the 45S and 5S rRNA gene loci in Avena canariensis and A. longiglumis similar to that in the A. strigosa genome. However, the 5S rDNA locus in A. longiglumis (5S rDNA1) was considerably decreased in the chromosome 3A1 long arm. The analysis demonstrated that these oat species were similar in the avenin component composition, although individual accessions differed in the electrophoretic mobilities of certain components. A considerable similarity of A. canariensis and A. longiglumis to the Avena diploid species carrying the As genome variant was demonstrated.

  16. Microwave DENSITY—INDEPENDENT Permittivity Functions as Spring Oats Kernels' Moisture Calibrators: a New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Priyanka; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Singh, P. N.; Prasad, Ashutosh

    2011-11-01

    The present work makes use of experimental data for real part of microwave complex permittivity of spring oats (Avena sativa L.) at 2.45 GHz and 24 °C as a function of moisture content, as extracted from the literature. These permittivity data were individually converted to those for solid materials using seven independent mixture equations for effective permittivity of random media. Moisture dependent quadratic models for complex permittivity of spring oats (Avena sativa L.), as developed by the present group, were used to evaluate the dielectric loss factor of spring oats kernels. Using these data, seven density—independent permittivity functions were evaluated and plotted as a function of moisture content of the samples. Second and third order polynomial regression equations were used for curve fittings with these data and their performances are reported. Coefficients of determination (r2) approaching unity (˜ 0.95-0.9999) and very small Standard Deviation (SD) ˜0.001-8.87 show good acceptability for these models. The regularity in the nature of these variations revealed the usefulness of the density—independent permittivity functions as indicators/calibrators of moisture content of spring oats kernels. Keeping in view the fact that moisture content of grains and seeds is an important factor determining quality and affecting the storage, transportation, and milling of grains and seeds, the work has the potentiality of its practical applications.

  17. Chemical changes in the soil and production of oat fertilized with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to ensure the quality and impact of the application of treated sewage wastewater on the chemical properties of Dystrophic Yellow Argisol and on biomass and grain production of white oat (Avena sativa, L. After the wastewater was chemically characterized, it was applied to the soil in concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m3 ha-1 in plots of 200 m2. Doses of water were compared with mineral fertilizer doses recommended for oat. The experimental design was a split plot with four randomized blocks. The wastewater had chemical qualities useful for grain cultivation. The values of calcium, CTC, V, pH increased and acidity potential decreased in the soil after the wastewater was applied. Doses of the wastewater provided increments in biomass production and oat grains similar to that obtained with chemical fertilizers. We conclude that wastewater can be used to correct soil acidity and replace or supplement chemical fertilizers.

  18. Gravitational collapse and naked singularities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tomohiro Harada

    2004-10-01

    Gravitational collapse is one of the most striking phenomena in gravitational physics. The cosmic censorship conjecture has provided strong motivation for research in this field. In the absence of a general proof for censorship, many examples have been proposed, in which naked singularity is the outcome of gravitational collapse. Recent developments have revealed that there are examples of naked singularity formation in the collapse of physically reasonable matter fields, although the stability of these examples is still uncertain. We propose the concept of `effective naked singularities', which will be quite helpful because general relativity has limitation in its application at the high-energy end. The appearance of naked singularities is not detestable but can open a window for the new physics of strongly curved space-times.

  19. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil;

    2010-01-01

    -expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...... the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments....

  20. 燕麦散黑穗病防治药剂筛选及其对燕麦幼苗生长的影响%Screening of Fungicides for Control of Ustilago avenae and Effects of Fungicides on the Seedling Growth of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉霞; 王国基; 姚拓; 马文彬

    2015-01-01

    为更好的防治燕麦(Avena sativa)散黑穗病(Ustilago avenae),筛选可行杀菌剂并测定其对病原冬孢子萌发及燕麦幼苗生长的影响,采用水琼脂平板培养冬孢子萌发法和培养皿滤纸发芽法测定5种杀菌剂对散黑穗病菌冬孢子萌发影响以及药剂拌种对燕麦种子发芽、干物质重、根系性状的影响.结果表明:33.5%喹啉铜悬浮剂对燕麦散黑穗病病原菌冬孢子萌发抑制率为100%,且对种子发芽、干物质积累、根系生长具有促进作用;45%咪鲜胺水乳剂对燕麦散黑穗病病原菌冬孢子萌发抑制率为100%,但其拌种的燕麦种子发芽、干物质积累、根系性状均低于对照;25%嘧菌酯悬浮液、40%氟硅唑乳油、25%苯醚甲环唑乳油对燕麦散黑穗病冬孢子萌发均具有较高抑制作用,且对燕麦种子发芽、干物质积累和根系性状均无影响,其施药剂量分别为75 g·hm-2,60 g·hm-2和1000倍液.

  1. Size controlled gold nanoparticle formation by Avena sativa biomass: use of plants in nanobiotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Herrera, Isaac; Peralta-videa, Jose R. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States); Jose-yacaman, Miguel; Troiani, Horacio [University of Texas at Austin, CNM, Texas Material Institute and Chemical Engineering Department (United States); Santiago, Patricia [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM (Mexico); Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L. [University of Texas at El Paso, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2004-08-15

    Oat (Avena sativa) biomass was studied as an alternative to recover Au(III) ions from aqueous solutions and for its capacity to reduce Au(III) to Au(0) forming Au nanoparticles. To study the binding trend of Au(III) to oat and the possible formation of Au nanoparticles, the biomass and a solution of Au(III) were reacted for a period of 1 h at pH values ranging from 2 to 6. The results demonstrated that Au(III) ions were bound to oat biomass in a pH-dependent manner, with the highest adsorption (about 80%) at pH 3. HRTEM studies showed that oat biomass reacted with Au(III) ions formed Au nanoparticles of fcc tetrahedral, decahedral, hexagonal, icosahedral multitwinned, irregular, and rod shape. To our knowledge, this is the second report about the production of nanorods as a product of the reaction of a Au(III) solution with a biological material. These studies also showed that the pH of the reaction influenced the nanoparticle size. The smaller nanoparticles and the higher occurrence of these were observed at pH values of 3 and 4, whereas the larger nanoparticles were observed at pH 2.

  2. Dilatonic effects near naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, J R

    2011-01-01

    Static spherically symmetric solutions of 4d Brans-Dicke theory include a set of naked singularity solutions. Dilatonic effects near the naked singularities result in either a shielding or an antishielding effect from intruding massive test particles. One result is that for a portion of the solution parameter space, no communication between the singularity and a distant observer is possible via massive particle exchanges. Kaluza-Klein gravity is considered as a special case.

  3. Can we see naked singularities?

    OpenAIRE

    Deshingkar, Shrirang S.

    2007-01-01

    We study singularities which can form in a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of a general matter field obeying weak energy condition. We show that no energy can reach an outside observer from a null naked singularity. That means they will not be a serious threat to the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture (CCC). For the timelike naked singularities, where only the central shell gets singular, the redshift is always finite and they can in principle, carry energy to a faraway observer. Hence...

  4. Keratinocyte differentiation and upregulation of ceramide synthesis induced by an oat lipid extract via the activation of PPAR pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Su-Hyoun; Tannahill, Ruth; Yao, Xiang; Southall, Michael D; Pappas, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has been shown to have an important role in skin barrier function by regulating differentiation and lipid synthesis in keratinocytes. Oat (Avena sativa) has long been used as a soothing agent to relieve skin irritations, and the clinical benefits of topical oat formulations have been proven; however, the mechanistic understanding of oat's mode of action remains unknown. We investigated whether an oat lipid extract could activate PPARs and subsequently increase epidermal lipid synthesis and differentiation markers. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes and transformed cell lines were treated with PPAR agonists and oat lipid extracts to investigate the PPAR agonism. PPAR target genes and epidermal differentiation markers were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR and HPTLC analysis. Oat lipid extract demonstrated robust dual agonism for PPARα and PPARβ/δ, and increased direct PPAR target gene induction in primary human keratinocytes. In addition, oat oil treatment increased both receptor expression and, consistent with the literature on PPARs, oat oil treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of differentiation genes (involucrin, SPRRs and transglutaminase 1) and ceramide processing genes (β-glucocerebrosidase, sphingomyelinases 3 and ABCA12). Further, oat oil treatment in keratinocytes significantly increased ceramide levels (70%), suggesting a functional translation of PPAR activation by oat oil in keratinocytes. Taken together, these results demonstrate that oat lipids possess robust dual agonistic activities for PPARα and PPARβ/δ, increase their gene expression and induce differentiation and ceramide synthesis in keratinocytes, which can collectively improve skin barrier function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Study on the sensitivity of three oat varieties to the saddle gall midge, haplodiplosis margina ta (von Roser) (Diptera: cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censier, F; Chavalle, S; G, San Martin Y Gomez; De Proft, M; Bodson, B

    2013-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginota (von Roser, 1840) is a univoltine pest of cereals which occurs in Europe. The larvae feed on stems and attractive saddle-shaped depressions, driving to important yield losses when the galls are numerous. After 40 years without any reporting, large populations of H. marginata and important damage have been observed since 2010 in wheat crops in Belgium, especially in the Flemish Polders where clay soils and intensive farming of cereals favour heavy infestations. According to some research conducted in the 1960s during the last outbreak, oat (Avena sativa L.) is known to be one of the less favourable hosts to the saddle gall midge. Our study was performed in order to assess the host sensitivity of three oat varieties currently grown in Belgium: EVITA, EFFEKTIv and FREDDY. Therefore, oat varieties were sown on infested soil in two separate enclosures in a glasshouse. In the first enclosure, only the three oat varieties were grown; in the second one, these three oat varieties were grown together with two varieties of spring wheat: GRANNY and KWS CHAMSIN. TWO parameters were measured: the percentage of leaves with laid eggs, and the number of galls per stem. The percentage of leaves with eggs showed that the infestation was significantly lower on oats when they were in presence of wheat. The egg infestation was also significantly higher on wheat than on oat, which means oat is a much less favourable host plant than spring wheat for egg laying. Oat varieties were significantly different from each other regarding the number of galls per stem, but with very little damage compared to wheat. The FREDDY variety even seemed to be completely resistant to saddle gall midge, as no galls were observed although there was a similar percentage of leaves with eggs for the three oat varieties. Cropping oat could thus contribute to reduce infestations of H. morginato.

  6. Increasing genetic variability in black oats using gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, G; Moliterno, E; Ribeiro, G; Costa, P M A; Woyann, L G; Tessmann, E W; Oliveira, A C; Cruz, C D

    2014-12-04

    The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb) is commonly used for forage, soil cover, and green manure. Despite its importance, little improvement has been made to this species, leading to high levels of genotypic disuniformity within commercial cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of different doses of gamma rays [(60)Co] applied to black oat seeds on the increase of genetic variability of agronomic traits. We applied doses of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 200 Gy to the genotype ALPHA 94087 through exposure to [(60)Co]. Two experiments were conducted in the winter of 2008. The first aimed to test forage trait measurements such as plant height, dry matter yield, number of surviving tillers, and seedling stand. The second test assessed seed traits, such as yield and dormancy levels. Gamma irradiation seems not to increase seed yield in black oats, but it was effective in generating variability for the other traits. Tiller number and plant height are important selection traits to increase dry matter yield. Selection in advanced generations of mutant populations can increase the probability of identifying superior genotypes.

  7. The identification of acetylcholine and choline in oat seedlings by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tretyn; Wiesława Bobkiewicz; Małgorzata Tretyn; Leszek Michalski

    2014-01-01

    Four methods of isolation and purification of choline esters from green 7-day-old oat ( Avena sativa L. cv. Diadem) seedlings were tested The results showed that the best recovery of acetylcholine and choline from plant tissues was obtained using an extraction solution composed of 15% 1N formic acid and 85%, acetone followed by precipitation of both these substances with ammonium reineckate. The presence of acetylcholine and choline in the plant extracts was confirmed by nuclear magnetic reso...

  8. Phylogenetic inferences in Avena based on analysis of FL intron2 sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan-Ying; Wei, Yu-Ming; Baum, Bernard R; Yan, Ze-Hong; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2010-09-01

    The development and application of molecular methods in oats has been relatively slow compared with other crops. Results from the previous analyses have left many questions concerning species evolutionary relationships unanswered, especially regarding the origins of the B and D genomes, which are only known to be present in polyploid oat species. To investigate the species and genome relationships in genus Avena, among 13 diploid (A and C genomes), we used the second intron of the nuclear gene FLORICAULA/LEAFY (FL int2) in seven tetraploid (AB and AC genomes), and five hexaploid (ACD genome) species. The Avena FL int2 is rather long, and high levels of variation in length and sequence composition were found. Evidence for more than one copy of the FL int2 sequence was obtained for both the A and C genome groups, and the degree of divergence of the A genome copies was greater than that observed within the C genome sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the FL int2 sequences resulted in topologies that contained four major groups; these groups reemphasize the major genomic divergence between the A and C genomes, and the close relationship among the A, B, and D genomes. However, the D genome in hexaploids more likely originated from a C genome diploid rather than the generally believed A genome, and the C genome diploid A. clauda may have played an important role in the origination of both the C and D genome in polyploids.

  9. Life-history trait plasticity and its relationships with plant adaptation and insect fitness: a case study on the aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Shi, Xiaoqin; Liu, Deguang; Ge, Zhaohong; Wang, Da; Dai, Xinjia; Yi, Zhihao; Meng, Xiuxiang

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has recently been considered a powerful means of adaptation, but its relationships with corresponding life-history characters and plant specialization levels of insects have been controversial. To address the issues, Sitobion avenae clones from three plants in two areas were compared. Varying amounts of life-history trait plasticity were found among S. avenae clones on barley, oat and wheat. In most cases, developmental durations and their corresponding plasticities were found to be independent, and fecundities and their plasticities were correlated characters instead. The developmental time of first instar nymphs for oat and wheat clones, but not for barley clones, was found to be independent from its plasticity, showing environment-specific effects. All correlations between environments were found to be positive, which could contribute to low plasticity in S. avenae. Negative correlations between trait plasticities and fitness of test clones suggest that lower plasticity could have higher adaptive value. Correlations between plasticity and specialization indices were identified for all clones, suggesting that plasticity might evolve as a by-product of adaptation to certain environments. The divergence patterns of life-history plasticities in S. avenae, as well as the relationships among plasticity, specialization and fitness, could have significant implications for evolutionary ecology of this aphid. PMID:27426961

  10. Variabilidade genética para peso de grão e número deespiguetas por panícula em Avena sativa l. e Avena fatua l. Genetic variability for grain weight and spikelet numberper panicle in Avena sativa l. and Avena fatua l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available O incremento no rendimento de grãos tem sido uma das principais metas dos programas de melhoramento da aveia. A busca de variabilidade genética para componentes do rendimento é considerada uma estratégia de melhoria no potencial de rendimento de grãos. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar variabilidade genética para os caracteres morfofisiológicos peso de grão e número de espiguetas por panícula em genótipos de aveia cultivada (Avena sativa L., introduções silvestres de Avena fatua L. e populações híbridas naturais de A. sativa L. x A. fatua L. Ampla variabilidade genética foi detectada entre e dentro dos grupos, para os caracteres avaliados. Os genótipos do grupo cultivado (Avena sativa L. revelaram peso de grão superior e pequeno número de espiguetas por panícula. As introduções silvestres de A. fatua L. apresentaram reduzido peso de grão e baixo número de espiguetas por panícula. Entretanto, algumas populações híbridas da geração F2 revelaram alto peso de grão e baixo número de espiguetas por panícula, passíveis de serem utilizadas no programa de melhoramento.Raising oat grain yield has been one of the main goals of breeding programs. The search for genetic variability in yield components is considered a strategy to increase yield potential. The present study was done aiming to identify genetic variability for morpho-physiological traits (grain weight and number of spikelet /panicle in cultivated oat genotypes (Avena sativa L., wild introductions of A. fatua L. and natural hybrid populations of A. sativa L. x A. fatua L. Wide genetic variability was detected among groups and within them for the evaluated traits. Genotypes in the cultivated group (Avena sativa L. revealed a higher grain weight and low number of spikelet/panicle. A. fatua L. wild introductions showed low grain weight and low number spikelet/panicle. However, some hybrid F2 populations revealed high grain weight and

  11. Magnetic topology of a naked sunspot: Is it really naked?

    CERN Document Server

    Dalda, A Sainz; Tarbell, T D; 10.1088/2041-8205/746/1/L13

    2012-01-01

    The high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution achieved by Hinode instruments give much better understanding of the behavior of some elusive solar features, such as pores and naked sunspots. Their fast evolution and, in some cases, their small sizes have made their study difficult. The moving magnetic features, despite being more dynamic structures, have been studied during the last 40 years. They have been always associated with sunspots, especially with the penumbra. However, a recent observation of a naked sunspot (one with no penumbra) has shown MMF activity. The authors of this reported observation expressed their reservations about the explanation given to the bipolar MMF activity as an extension of the penumbral filaments into the moat. How can this type of MMFs exist when a penumbra does not? In this paper, we study the full magnetic and (horizontal) velocity topology of the same naked sunspot, showing how the existence of a magnetic field topology similar to that observed in sunspots can explain ...

  12. Shaker Oats: Fortifying Musicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how an experiment in a class she taught called Minority Musics of North America developed into a surprisingly successful and flexible teaching tool known as "Shaker Oats," created to encourage the concepts of ensemble and community. Most music educators in the United States today are familiar with…

  13. Nutritional value of black and white oat cultivars ensiled in two phenological stages Valor nutricional de cultivares de aveia preta e branca ensiladas em dois estádios fenológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bitencourt de David

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated in this work, crop yield, fermentative quality and nutritional value of the silage of cultivars of white (Avena Sativa L. and black (Avena Strigosa Schreb oats cut at two development stages. It was used an experimental randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, consisting of four oat cultivars (two cultivars of black oats: Aveia Preta Comum and UTFP 971; and two cultivars of white oats: ER 91156- 1- 2- 1 and SI 98105- b, with four replicates. The cultivars were ensiled at flowering and dough grain stages. Oat cut at dough grain stage, especially genotypes from white oat, allows the obtainment of a more productive and qualitative silage. Cultivar, genotype, and maturation stage affect protein fractioning and oat silage carbohydrates.Avaliaram- se a produção das culturas, a qualidade fermentativa e o valor nutricional da silagem de cultivares de aveia- branca (Avena Sativa L. e aveia- preta (Avena Strigosa Schreb submetidas ao corte em dois estádios de maturação. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, num arranjo fatorial 4 x 2, composto por quatro cultivares de aveia (dois de aveia- preta: Comum e UTFP 971; e dois de aveia- branca: ER 91156- 121 e SI 98105- b, com quatro repetições. Os cultivares foram ensilados nos estádios de floração e grão pastoso. O corte da aveia no estádio de grão pastoso, sobretudo dos genótipos de aveia- branca, possibilita obter silagem de maior qualidade, tanto produtiva quanto qualitativa. O cultivar, o genótipo e o estádio de maturação influenciam o fracionamento das proteínas e dos carboidratos de silagens de aveia.

  14. Naked singularities as particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mandar; 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.104049

    2010-01-01

    We investigate here the particle acceleration by naked singularities to arbitrarily high center of mass energies. Recently it has been suggested that black holes could be used as particle accelerators to probe the Planck scale physics. We show that the naked singularities serve the same purpose and probably would do better than their black hole counterparts. We focus on the scenario of a self-similar gravitational collapse starting from a regular initial data, leading to the formation of a globally naked singularity. It is seen that when particles moving along timelike geodesics interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to Planck scale physics.

  15. The outer epidermis of Avena and maize coleoptiles is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    A controversy exists as to whether or not the outer epidermis in coleoptiles is a unique target for auxin in elongation growth. The following evidence indicates that the outer epidermis is not the only auxin-responsive cell layer in either Avena sativa L. or Zea mays L. coleoptiles. Coleoptile sections from which the epidermis has been removed by peeling elongate in response to auxin. The magnitude of the response is similar to that of intact sections provided the incubation solution contains both auxin and sucrose. The amount of elongation is independent of the amount of epidermis removed. Sections of oat coleoptiles from which the epidermis has been removed from one side are nearly straight after 22 h in auxin and sucrose, despite extensive growth of the sections. These data indicate that the outer epidermis is not a unique target for auxin in elongation growth, at least in Avena and maize coleoptiles.

  16. Effect of drying temperature on quality of β-glucan in white oat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Conceição Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oats have received attention because of their nutritional characteristics, especially their high-quality content of β-glucan. The drying process reduces water content; therefore they can be preserved for long periods. However, high-temperature drying process may affect the physical, chemical, and functional properties of the grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying temperatures on β-glucan quality in oat grains. Grains of oats (Avena sativa, L., cultivar Albasul, harvested at harvest moisture content of 23% were submitted to stationary drying at air temperatures of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ºC until they reached 13% moisture content. The β-glucan content was determined in samples of oat grains and extraction was performed using water as solvent at 90 ºC. The β-glucan extract was evaluated for water holding capacity, water retention capacity, capacity of displacement, and gelation properties. Stationary of oat grains at air temperatures above 25 ºC decreased the water holding capacity, whereas the content of β-glucan and the water retention capacity of β-glucan extract was affected at temperatures above 50 ºC. Physical changes such as increased gelation capacity of the β-glucan extract occurred following drying at air temperature over 75 ºC.

  17. Transformation of Oats and Its Application to Improving Osmotic Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Shahina B.; Zhong, Heng; Oraby, Hesham F.; Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Oat (Avena sativa L.), a worldwide temperate cereal crop, is deficient in tolerance to osmotic stress due to drought and/or salinity. To genetically transform the available commercial oat cultivars, a genotype-independent and efficient regeneration system from shoot apical meristems was developed using four oat cultivars: Prairie, Porter, Ogle, and Pacer. All these oat cultivars generated a genotype-independent in vitro differentiated multiple shoots from shoot apical meristems at a high frequency. Using this system, three oat cultivars were genetically co-transformed with pBY520 (containing hva1 and bar) and pAct1-D (containing gus) using biolistic™ bombardment. Transgenic plants were selected and regenerated using herbicide resistance and GUS as a marker. Molecular and biochemical analyses of putative transgenic plants confirmed the co-integration of hva1 and bar genes with a frequency of 100%, and 61.6% of the transgenic plants carried all three genes (hva1, bar and gus). Further analyses of R0, R1, and R2 progenies confirmed stable integration, expression, and Mendalian inheritance for all transgenes. Histochemical analysis of GUS protein in transgenic plants showed a high level of GUS expression in vascular tissues and in the pollen grains of mature flowers. Immunochemical analysis of transgenic plants indicated a constitutive expression of hva1 at all developmental stages. However, the level of HVA1 was higher during the early seedling stages.

  18. Characterization of starch morphology, composition, physicochemi-cal properties and gene expressions in oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Ke; Zheng You-liang; Jiang Qian-tao; Wei Long; Zhang Xiao-wei; Ma Jian; Chen guo-yue; Wei Yu-ming; Mitchell Fetch Jennifer; Lu Zhen-xiang

    2015-01-01

    abstract Starch is the major carbohydrate in oat (Avena sativaL.) and starch formation requires the coordinated actions of several synthesis enzymes. In this study, the granule morphology, composition and physicochemical properties of oat starch, as wel as the expressions of starch synthesis genes were investigated during oat endosperm development. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we observed that the unique compound granules were developed in oat endosperms at 10 days post anthesis (DPA) and then fragmented into irregular or polygonal simple granules from 12 DPA until seed maturity. The amylose content, branch chain length of degree of polymerization (DP=13–24), gelatinization temperature and percentage of retrogradation were gradualy increased during the endosperm development; whereas the distribution of short chains (DP=6–12) were gradualy decreased. The relative expressions of 4 classes of 13 starch synthesis genes characterized in this study indicated that three expression pattern groups were signiifcantly different among gene classes as wel as among varied isoforms, in which the ifrst group of starch synthesis genes may play a key role on the initiation of starch synthesis in oat endosperms.

  19. Joint regression analysis and AMMI model applied to oat improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A.; Oliveira, T. A.; Mejza, S.

    2012-09-01

    In our work we present an application of some biometrical methods useful in genotype stability evaluation, namely AMMI model, Joint Regression Analysis (JRA) and multiple comparison tests. A genotype stability analysis of oat (Avena Sativa L.) grain yield was carried out using data of the Portuguese Plant Breeding Board, sample of the 22 different genotypes during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004 in six locations. In Ferreira et al. (2006) the authors state the relevance of the regression models and of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interactions (AMMI) model, to study and to estimate phenotypic stability effects. As computational techniques we use the Zigzag algorithm to estimate the regression coefficients and the agricolae-package available in R software for AMMI model analysis.

  20. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Cynthia A; Duke, Stanley H; Livingston, David P

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L.) during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  1. Metabolic changes in Avena sativa crowns recovering from freezing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Henson

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on cold acclimation and freezing tolerance of fall-sown cereal plants due to their economic importance; however, little has been reported on the biochemical changes occurring over time after the freezing conditions are replaced by conditions favorable for recovery and growth such as would occur during spring. In this study, GC-MS was used to detect metabolic changes in the overwintering crown tissue of oat (Avena sativa L. during a fourteen day time-course after freezing. Metabolomic analysis revealed increases in most amino acids, particularly proline, 5-oxoproline and arginine, which increased greatly in crowns that were frozen compared to controls and correlated very significantly with days after freezing. In contrast, sugar and sugar related metabolites were little changed by freezing, except sucrose and fructose which decreased dramatically. In frozen tissue all TCA cycle metabolites, especially citrate and malate, decreased in relation to unfrozen tissue. Alterations in some amino acid pools after freezing were similar to those observed in cold acclimation whereas most changes in sugar pools after freezing were not. These similarities and differences suggest that there are common as well as unique genetic mechanisms between these two environmental conditions that are crucial to the winter survival of plants.

  2. [Number and structure of actinomycetes complexes in the rhizosphere winter rye, oat and red clover].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I G; Zenova, G M; Merzaeva, O V; Lapygina, E V; Lysak, L V

    2006-01-01

    The actinomycetes complexes in the rhizosphere of three agricultural plants by using the methods of luminescense microscopy and cup sowing were investigated. It was established, that concentration of prokaryotic biomass and biomass of actinomycetes mycelium in rhizosphere of plants is higher than in free from the radicals to soil. Rhizosphera of the oat (Avena sativa L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is colonized by Streptomyces, Micromonospora and olygospore species. Dominante actinomycetes of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) are classified into the genera Micromonospora. It was shown that numbers and biomass of actinomycetes mycelium were fond to decreased, diversity of actinomycetes in contrast is increased in the series: "winter rye--oat--red clover". In connection with ecological safety the capability of increase with prokaryotes naturally disease suppressive soil and stability of plants to pathogen is discussed.

  3. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  4. How Does Naked Singularity Look?

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Ishihara, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    There are non-radial null geodesics emanating from the shell focusing singularity formed at the symmetric center in a spherically symmetric dust collapse. In this article, assuming the self-similarity in the region filled with the dust fluid, we study these singular null geodesics in detail. We see the time evolution of the angular diameter of the central naked singularity and show that it might be bounded above by the value corresponding to the circular null geodesic in the Schwarzschild spa...

  5. Shadow of a naked singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Néstor; Sarbach, Olivier; Zannias, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the redshift suffered by photons originating from an external source, traversing a collapsing dust cloud, and finally being received by an asymptotic observer. In addition, we study the shadow that the collapsing cloud casts on the sky of the asymptotic observer. We find that the resulting redshift and properties of the shadow depend crucially on whether the final outcome of the complete gravitational collapse is a black hole or a naked singularity. In the black hole case, the shadow is due to the high redshift acquired by the photons as they approach the event horizon, implying that their energy is gradually redshifted toward zero within a few crossing times associated with the event horizon radius. In contrast to this, a naked singularity not only absorbs photons originating from the source, but it also emits infinitely redshifted photons with and without angular momenta. This emission introduces an abrupt cutoff in the frequency shift of the photons detected in directions close to the radial one, and it is responsible for the shadow masking the source in the naked singularity case. Furthermore, even though the shadow forms and begins to grow immediately after the observer crosses the Cauchy horizon, it takes many more crossing times than in the black hole case for the source to be occulted from the observer's eyes. We discuss possible implications of our results for testing the weak cosmic censorship hypothesis. Even though at late times the image of the source perceived by the observer looks the same in both cases, the dynamical formation of the shadow and the redshift images has distinct features and time scales in the black hole versus the naked singularity case. For stellar collapse, these time scales seem to be too short to be resolved with existing technology. However, our results may be relevant for the collapse of seeds leading to supermassive black holes.

  6. Produtividade de soja em plantio direto em sucessão ao trigo, aveia branca, aveia preta com e sem adubação nitrogenada = No tillage soybean yield following wheat, white oat and black oat with and without nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tsuyoshi Kubo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido experimento de campo em Mauá da Serra, Estado do Paraná,para avaliar a produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes pelas culturas de aveia branca (Avena sativa, trigo (Triticum sativum, aveia preta (Avena strigosa L. com 40 kg ha-1 denitrogênio, aveia preta sem aplicação de nitrogênio e a vegetação espontânea no tratamento em pousio. Em sucessão, avaliou-se a cultura da soja (Glycine max em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob semeadura direta, há 23 anos. Os resultados indicaram que a aveia preta com adubação nitrogenada produziu a maior quantidade de matéria seca, seguida pela aveia preta sem adubação nitrogenada, aveia branca, trigo e vegetação espontânea. A aveia preta com e sem adubação nitrogenada foi superior no acúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo,potássio, cálcio, magnésio, zinco, cobre e manganês. A maior produtividade da soja foi constatada em sucessão a aveia preta com adubação nitrogenada, em média 0,88 mg ha-1 de grãos, em relação aos demais tratamentos.A field experiment was carried out in Maua da Serra, State of Paraná to evaluate the production of dry matter and nutrient accumulation ofwhite oat (Avena sativa, wheat (Triticum sativum and black oat (Avena strigosa with 40 kg ha-1 of nitrogen, black oat without nitrogen addition and the population of spontaneous plants on treatments in fallow. In succession, a soybean (Glycine max culture was grown in a Haplorthox, in no tillage for 23 years. Results showed the black oat with fertilization nitrogen addition produced the greatest quantity of dry matter, followed by the black oat without fertilization nitrogen addition, white oat, wheat and the natural vegetation. The black oat with and without fertilization nitrogen showed the best results on the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and manganese accumulation. The soybean yield was greater in succession of the black oat with N fertilization, an

  7. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Marc; Fabbri, Alessandro; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space-time with a negative cosmological constant in (2 + 1)-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress-energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space-time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak) cosmic censorship.

  8. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Casals, Marc; Martínez, Cristián; Zanelli, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space-time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1)-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress-energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space-time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing cosmic censorship.

  9. Use of Repetitive Sequences for Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Avena Species from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Diana; Rodrigues, Joana; Varela, Ana; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2016-02-04

    Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species--diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis--was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species--rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies--IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)--were performed. A very high homology was detected for ribosomal internal transcribed sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) between the species analyzed, although nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed distinct number of Nor loci between diploid and hexaploid species. Moreover, morphological diversity, evidenced by FISH signals with different sizes, was observed between distinct accessions within each species. pSc200 sequences were for the first time isolated from Avena species but proven to be highly similar in all genotypes analyzed. The use of primers designed for CCS1 unraveled a sequence homologous to the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon Cereba, that was mapped to centromeric regions of diploid and hexaploid species, being however restricted to the more related A and D haplomes. Retrotransposon-based methodologies disclosed species- and accessions-specific bands essential for the accurate discrimination of all genotypes studied. Centromeric, IRAP and REMAP profiles therefore allowed accurate assessment of inter and intraspecific variability, demonstrating the potential of these molecular markers on future oat breeding programs.

  10. Use of Repetitive Sequences for Molecular and Cytogenetic Characterization of Avena Species from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Diana; Rodrigues, Joana; Varela, Ana; Veloso, Maria Manuela; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Genomic diversity of Portuguese accessions of Avena species—diploid A. strigosa and hexaploids A. sativa and A. sterilis—was evaluated through molecular and cytological analysis of 45S rDNA, and other repetitive sequences previously studied in cereal species—rye subtelomeric sequence (pSc200) and cereal centromeric sequence (CCS1). Additionally, retrotransposons and microsatellites targeting methodologies—IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism)—were performed. A very high homology was detected for ribosomal internal transcribed sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) between the species analyzed, although nucleolar organizing regions (NOR) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed distinct number of Nor loci between diploid and hexaploid species. Moreover, morphological diversity, evidenced by FISH signals with different sizes, was observed between distinct accessions within each species. pSc200 sequences were for the first time isolated from Avena species but proven to be highly similar in all genotypes analyzed. The use of primers designed for CCS1 unraveled a sequence homologous to the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon Cereba, that was mapped to centromeric regions of diploid and hexaploid species, being however restricted to the more related A and D haplomes. Retrotransposon-based methodologies disclosed species- and accessions-specific bands essential for the accurate discrimination of all genotypes studied. Centromeric, IRAP and REMAP profiles therefore allowed accurate assessment of inter and intraspecific variability, demonstrating the potential of these molecular markers on future oat breeding programs. PMID:26861283

  11. Chromosomal distribution patterns of the (AC)10 microsatellite and other repetitive sequences, and their use in chromosome rearrangement analysis of species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fominaya, Araceli; Loarce, Yolanda; Montes, Alexander; Ferrer, Esther

    2017-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to determine the physical location of the (AC)10 microsatellite in metaphase chromosomes of six diploid species (AA or CC genomes), two tetraploid species (AACC genome), and five cultivars of two hexaploid species (AACCDD genome) of the genus Avena, a genus in which genomic relationships remain obscure. A preferential distribution of the (AC)10 microsatellite in the pericentromeric and interstitial regions was seen in both the A- and D-genome chromosomes, while in C-genome chromosomes the majority of signals were located in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions. New large chromosome rearrangements were detected in two polyploid species: an intergenomic translocation involving chromosomes 17AL and 21DS in Avena sativa 'Araceli' and another involving chromosomes 4CL and 21DS in the analyzed cultivars of Avena byzantina. The latter 4CL-21DS intergenomic translocation differentiates clearly between A. sativa and A. byzantina. Searches for common hybridization patterns on the chromosomes of different species revealed chromosome 10A of Avena magna and 21D of hexaploid oats to be very similar in terms of the distribution of 45S and Am1 sequences. This suggests a common origin for these chromosomes and supports a CCDD rather than an AACC genomic designation for this species.

  12. Screening for detection of wild oat biotypes resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel González-Torralva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avena is one of the world’s most important genera resistant to herbicides. Suspected resistant biotype and susceptible biotype of Avena fatua were tested by screening to confirm the resistance to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl from Mexico. Suspected-resistant population was collected in wheat fields after the herbicide failed to control wild oat and the susceptible one was collected from a field with no herbicide application. Petri dish experiments were performed using different fenoxaprop-P-ethyl concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10 and 40 mM. Experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design with ten replicates. Plumule length in both biotypes decreased as fenoxaprop-P-ethyl concentration increased. However, there was a different response between the R and S biotypes. The EC50 for the resistant biotype was 3.3 mM while for the susceptible biotype was 9.3 mM, showing that the resistant biotype tolerated herbicide concentration approximately three times higher than the susceptible biotype. The results confirm the presence of Avena fatua resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl in Mexico.

  13. Fermentation adaptability of three probiotic Lactobacillus strains to oat, germinated oat and malted oat substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P probiotic lactobacilli. Significance and impact of the study: In this work, the effect of oat media composition and fermentation conditions on the growth kinetics of three probiotic lactobacilli was determined. The variation in the inoculum levels did not have a significant effect on the probiotic cultures growth. Results revealed that protein supplemented simple, germinated and malted oat enhanced the cell viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures.

  14. Competency for graviresponse in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of Avena sativa: onset to loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    The development of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Victory) was studied in terms of its competency to respond to gravistimulation. Stages of onset of competency, maximum competency and loss of competency were identified, using the length of the supertending internode as a developmental marker. During the early phases in the onset of competency, the latency period between stimulus and graviresponse decreased and the steady state response rate increased significantly. When fully competent, the latency period remained constant as the plant continued to develop, suggesting that the latency period is relatively insensitive to quantitative changes (e.g., in carbohydrate or nutrient availability) at the cell level within the plant. In contrast, the response rate was found to increase with plant development, indicating that graviresponse rate is more strongly influenced by quantitative cellular changes. The total possible graviresponse of a single oat pulvinus was confirmed to be significantly less than the original presentation angle. This was shown to not result from a loss of competency, since the graviresponse could be reinitiated by increasing the presentation angle. As a result of the low overall graviresponse of individual pulvini, two or more pulvini are required to bring the plant apex to the vertical. This was determined to occur though the sequential, rather than simultaneous, action of successive pulvini, since a given pulvinus lost competency to gravirespond shortly after the next pulvinus became fully competent.

  15. Comparison of the lipid composition of oat root and coleoptile plasma membranes: lack of short-term change in response to auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, R. P.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The total lipid composition of plasma membranes (PM), isolated by the phase partitioning method from two different oat (Avena sativa L.) tissues, the root and coleoptile, was compared. In general, the PM lipid composition was not conserved between these two organs of the oat seedling. Oat roots contained 50 mole percent phospholipid, 25 mole percent glycolipid, and 25 mole percent free sterol, whereas comparable amounts in the coleoptile were 42, 39, and 19 mole percent, respectively. Individual lipid components within each lipid class also showed large variations between the two tissues. Maximum specific ATPase activity in the root PM was more than double the activity in the coleoptile. Treatment of coleoptile with auxin for 1 hour resulted in no detectable changes in PM lipids or extractable ATPase activity. Differences in the PM lipid composition between the two tissues that may define the limits of ATPase activity are discussed.

  16. Population Structure and Genotype–Phenotype Associations in a Collection of Oat Landraces and Historic Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Louisa R.; Michael Bonman, J.; Chao, Shiaoman; Admassu Yimer, B.; Bockelman, Harold; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L.) remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent, with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace) was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color, and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) resistance, days to anthesis, and growth habit (winter/spring). In addition, two novel loci were identified for

  17. Population structure and genotype-phenotype associations in a collection of oat landraces and historic cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Rosemarie Winkler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L. remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent; with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae resistance, days to anthesis and growth habit (winter/spring. In addition, two novel loci were

  18. Understanding the role of oat ß-glucan in oat-based dough systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londono, D.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hamer, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    B-glucan is one of the components that differentiate oats from other cereals and that contribute to the health-related value of oats. However, so far oats cannot easily be applied in bread-like products without loss of product quality. Here we have studied how the content and viscosity of oat

  19. Comportamiento de la poblacion de Avena fatua tratada con graminicidas postemergentes Effect of post-emergence graminicides on the control of Avena fatua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Juan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En el sudoeste bonaerense de la República Argentina, avena fatua es una maleza que ocupa una significativa proporción del banco de semillas presentes en el suelo, causando severas pérdidas de rendimiento en los cultivos de trigo, lo cuál la caracteriza como una maleza invasora. A pesar de que en los cultivos, se utilizan normalmente prácticas de control com graminicidas selectivos, se observa una alta incidencia de la población de Avena fatua a través de la determinación del número de panojas y semillas por metro cuadrado remanentes de las plantas que escapan al control y que alcanzan el estado reproductivo antes de la cosecha del cereal. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de varios graminicidas postemergentes selectivos para el cultivo de trigo sobre el crecimiento de la población de Avena fatua por metro cuadrado en un diseño estadístico de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos fueron los siguientes: testigo sin control, tralkoxydim (150 y 200 g/ha, fenoxaprop-p-etil (69 y 83 g/ha, pirifenop-n-butil (50 y 55 g/ha y diclofop metil (510 y 570 g/ha. En la primer campaña, con una baja infestación de la maleza (153 plantas/m2, todos los herbicidas y dosis probadas ejercieron una drástica reducción de los parámetros evaluados, no detectándose diferenciais significativas entre sí al evaluar el control por medio del número de panojas y semillas producidas por las plantas que escaparon al control. En cambio en la Segunda campaña com 285 plantas/m2 y habiéndoses realizado la aplicación delos avenicidas en un estado fenológico de la maleza más avanzado, el número de semilhas por metro quadradofue reducido a niveles que oscilaron entre un 60% y un 95% respecto del testigo sin control, detectándose diferencias entre los tratamientos. No obstante la reducción lograda, se comprobó en ciertos casos, un importante aporte de semillas que anualmente retornan al suelo, lo que podría significar sino

  20. Oat cover cropping and soil insecticides in an integrated sugarbeet root maggot (Diptera: Otitidae) management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregseth, Robert J; Boetel, Mark A; Schroeder, Allen J; Carlson, Robert B; Armstrong, J S

    2003-10-01

    Sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris L., producers occasionally establish cereal cover crops to minimize early-season soil erosion, wind abrasion, and mechanical injury of seedlings. We evaluated the use of living oat, Avena sativa L., cover cropping as a cultural tactic to minimize feeding injury from sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder), larvae at five field sites during 1996, 1998, and 1999. Sweep-net sampling yielded 4.8-, 11.2-, and 7.2-fold more flies from oat cover-cropped chlorpyrifos, terbufos, and untreated control plots, respectively, than in noncover counterparts. However, larval feeding injury in terbufos-treated plots was reduced when cover-cropped (383 seeds/m2) at St. Thomas in all years. A reduced oat seeding rate (224 seeds/m2) also enhanced root protection in terbufos-treated plots at St. Thomas in 1999. Less root injury was sustained in cover-cropped chlorpyrifos plots than in noncover counterparts at St. Thomas in 2 study yr. Oat cover cropping also frequently resulted in reduced T. myopaeformis feeding injury in the absence of a soil insecticide. Although trends toward increased yields were often evident, significant yield benefits were limited to a 6.8% root yield increase in oat cover plots when compared with noncover treatments overall at St. Thomas in 1996 and an 18.4% sucrose yield increase in terbufos-treated plots at St. Thomas in 1999. These findings suggest that beneficial interactions between planting-time soil insecticides and cereal cover crops are achievable in areas infested by T. myopaeformis. Demonstrated reductions in root feeding injury, combined with additional agronomic benefits, may warrant use of this production practice as part of an integrated management program for this key insect pest of sugarbeet.

  1. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Potential Allelochemicals from Aerial Parts of Avena fatua L. and Their Allelopathic Effect on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingang; Tian, Fajun; Tian, Yingying; Wu, Yanbing; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-11

    Five compounds (syringic acid, tricin, acacetin, syringoside, and diosmetin) were isolated from the aerial parts of wild oats (Avena fatua L.) using chromatography columns of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20. Their chemical structures were identified by means of electrospray ionization and high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses. Bioassays showed that the five compounds had significant allelopathic effects on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The five compounds inhibited fresh wheat as well as the shoot and root growth of wheat by approximately 50% at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, except for tricin and syringoside for shoot growth. The results of activity testing indicated that the aerial parts of wild oats had strong allelopathic potential and could cause different degrees of influence on surrounding plants. Moreover, these compounds could be key allelochemicals in wild-oat-infested wheat fields and interfere with wheat growth via allelopathy.

  3. Functional properties of teff and oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential amino acids and minerals along with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol. Teff-oat composites were evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid Visco Analyzer (R...

  4. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

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    Marc Casals

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space–time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress–energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space–time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak cosmic censorship.

  5. Interrelationships between potassium and magnesium absorption by oats (Avena sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, F.

    1964-01-01

    Interactions in Mg and K uptake were studied especially in relation with the following factors affecting ion uptake, a. the mechanisms of absorption of both ions involved, b. the relationship between absorption of the ions and their concentrations in the nutrient solution, c. the relationship

  6. Tillering does not interfere on white oat grain yield response to plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Milton Luiz de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant density is one of the cropping practices that has the largest impact on individual plant growth. This work was conducted to evaluate the response of white oat (Avena sativa cultivars with contrasting tillering patterns to variations in plant density. Two field experiments were carried out in Lages, SC, Brazil, during the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons. A split plot experimental design was used. Four oat cultivars were tested in the main plots: UFRGS 14, UFRGS 18, UPF 16 and UPF 17 using five plant densities split plots: 50, 185, 320, 455 and 550 plants m-2. Five plant samples were taken 25, 34, 48, 58 and 70 days after plant emergence to assess the treatment effects on dry matter partition between main stem and tillers. UFRGS 18 promoted dry matter allocation to tillers whereas UPF 17 directed dry mass mostly to the main stem. Differences in dry mass allocation between the main stem and tillers had no impact on grain yield, UPF 16 presenting the highest values for both growing seasons. The lack of interaction between population density and cultivar and the small effect of plant population on grain yield indicates that the oat tillering ability is not fundamental to define its grain yield.

  7. Meat bone meal as fertiliser for barley and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;

  8. Oats-From Farm to Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ravi; Gonzalez, Tanhia; Ferruzzi, Mario; Jackson, Eric; Winderl, Dan; Watson, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Oats have a long history of use as human food and animal feed. From its origins in the Fertile Crescent, the oat has adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and geographic regions. Its unique macro-, micro-, and phytonutrient composition, high nutritional value, and relatively low agricultural input requirements makes oats unique among cereal crops. The health benefits of the oats are becoming well established. While the connection between oat β-glucan fiber in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and controlling glycemia have been unequivocally established, other potential benefits including modulation of intestinal microbiota and inflammation continue to be explored. Advances in food technology are continuing to expand the diversity of oat-based foods, creating opportunities to deliver the health benefits of oats to a larger segment of the population. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pro-apoptotic properties of (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from Avena sativa on human melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzonko, Andrzej; Makarewicz-Wujec, Magdalena; Jaszewska, Edyta; Harasym, Joanna; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the growth-inhibitory effect of polysaccharide (1,3)(1,4)-β-D-glucan from oat, Avena sativa L. grains was explored on the human skin melanoma HTB-140 cells in vitro. The oat β-D-glucan (OBG) exerted cytotoxic action on HTB-140 cells. After 24h of incubation, LD50 (concentration at which 50% of the cells were found dead) was obtained of 194.6 ± 9.8 μg/mL. The oat β-D-glucan caused a concentration-dependent increase of caspase-3/-7 activation and appearance of phosphatidylserine on the external surface of cellular membranes where it was bound to annexin V-FITC, demonstrating the induction of apoptosis. Intracellular ATP level decreased along with the mitochondrial potential, which suggested a mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. A cell cycle analysis showed increase in the number of apoptotic cells, increase in the number of cells in G1 phase and decrease in the number of cells in G2/M. Although the detailed mechanism for the anti-tumor activity of the oat β-D-glucan still needs further investigation, this study provides preliminary insights into this direction along with perspectives of developing it as an anti-tumor agent.

  10. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  11. Subgenome-specific assembly of vitamin E biosynthesis genes and expression patterns during seed development provide insight into the evolution of oat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, Juan J; Garvin, David F

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-guided assembly, coding sequences of genes for each step in vitamin E synthesis in oats were reconstructed, including resolution of the sequences of homeologs. Three homeologs, presumably representing each of the three oat subgenomes, were identified for the main steps of the pathway. Partial sequences, likely representing pseudogenes, were recovered in some instances as well. Pairwise comparisons among homeologs revealed that two of the three putative subgenome-specific homeologs are almost identical for each gene. Synonymous substitution rates indicate the time of divergence of the two more similar subgenomes from the distinct one at 7.9-8.7 MYA, and a divergence between the similar subgenomes from a common ancestor 1.1 MYA. A new proposed evolutionary model for hexaploid oat formation is discussed. Homeolog-specific gene expression was quantified during oat seed development and compared with vitamin E accumulation. Homeolog expression largely appears to be similar for most of genes; however, for some genes, homoeolog-specific transcriptional bias was observed. The expression of HPPD, as well as certain homoeologs of VTE2 and VTE4, is highly correlated with seed vitamin E accumulation. Our findings expand our understanding of oat genome evolution and will assist efforts to modify vitamin E content and composition in oats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Growth response of Avena sativa in amino-acids-rich soils converted from phenol-contaminated soils by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Bit-Na; Choi, Yong Woo; Yoo, Kye Sang; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Min, Jiho

    2012-04-01

    The biodegradation of phenol in laboratory-contaminated soil was investigated using the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study showed that the phenol degradation caused by C. glutamicum was greatly enhanced by the addition of 1% yeast extract. From the toxicity test using Daphnia magna, the soil did not exhibit any hazardous effects after the phenol was removed using C. glutamicum. Additionally, the treatment of the phenolcontaminated soils with C. glutamicum increased various soil amino acid compositions, such as glycine, threonine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. This phenomenon induced an increase in the seed germination rate and the root elongation of Avena sativa (oat). This probably reflects that increased soil amino acid composition due to C. glutamicum treatment strengthens the plant roots. Therefore, the phenol-contaminated soil was effectively converted through increased soil amino acid composition, and additionally, the phenol in the soil environment was biodegraded by C. glutamicum.

  13. Compromised Photosynthetic Electron Flow and H2O2 Generation Correlate with Genotype-Specific Stomatal Dysfunctions during Resistance against Powdery Mildew in Oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Mur, Luis A J; Rubiales, Diego; Prats, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Stomatal dysfunction known as "locking" has been linked to the elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR) following attack of fungal pathogens in cereals. We here assess how spatial and temporal patterns of different resistance mechanisms, such as HR and penetration resistance influence stomatal and photosynthetic parameters in oat (Avena sativa) and the possible involvement of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the dysfunctions observed. Four oat cultivars with differential resistance responses (i.e., penetration resistance, early and late HR) to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae, Bga) were used. Results demonstrated that stomatal dysfunctions were genotype but not response-type dependent since genotypes with similar resistance responses when assessed histologically showed very different locking patterns. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II were compromised in most Bga-oat interactions and photoinhibition increased. However, the extent of the photosynthetic alterations was not directly related to the extent of HR. H2O2 generation is triggered during the execution of resistance responses and can influence stomatal function. Artificially increasing H2O2 by exposing plants to increased light intensity further reduced Fv/Fm ratios and augmented the patterns of stomatal dysfunctions previously observed. The latter results suggest that the observed dysfunctions and hence a cost of resistance may be linked with oxidative stress occurring during defense induced photosynthetic disruption.

  14. Dietary oats and modulation of atherogenic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kristina E; Hellstrand, Per

    2012-07-01

    Consumption of oats has long been known to lower plasma total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, an effect usually attributed to the soluble fibers β-glucans. On the basis of this cholesterol-lowering effect, oats are ascribed cardiovascular health-promoting properties. However, besides cholesterol levels, effects of oats on parameters relating to atherosclerosis development have not been extensively investigated. Since oxidation of lipoproteins and inflammation are characteristics of atherosclerosis in addition to lipid accumulation in the vessel wall, micronutrients in oats (phytochemicals) with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties may contribute to an atheroprotective action. Here, we summarize evidence on antiatherogenic properties of oats obtained from in vitro assays, animal experiments, and human studies. Possible effects involving anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions, as well as preservation of endothelial function, are considered in addition to those related to reduction of plasma cholesterol. Since results of in vitro assays with isolated oat components are difficult to compare with effects of whole oats in humans and experimental animals, more observational studies with isolated oat components or fractions of oats are warranted. Also, there is a lack of epidemiological studies focusing on effects of oat intake on the cardiovascular disease panorama. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Using brown midrib 6 dwarf forage sorghum silage and fall-grown oat silage in lactating dairy cow rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N

    2017-07-01

    Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly

  16. Survey of T-2 and HT-2 toxins by LC-MS/MS in oats and oat products from European oat mills in 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Hans; Brown, Colin; Hauk, Julia; Hoth, Stefan; Meyer, Jens; Wessels, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    T-2 and HT-2 toxins were analysed in oats (n = 243), oat flakes (n = 529), oat meal (n = 105) and oat by-products (n = 209) from 11 European mills during 2005-2009 by high-performance liquid chromatography with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Limits of quantification were 5 µg kg(-1) for both T-2 and HT-2 toxins in oats. The incidence of T-2 + HT-2 (>5 µg kg(-1)) in oats, oat flakes, oat meal and oat by-products was 93, 77, 34 and 99%, respectively. The mean values of T-2 + HT-2 were 94, 17, 11 and 293 µg kg(-1) for oats, oat flakes, oat meal and oat by-products, respectively. T-2 and HT-2 occurred together and the T-2 level was 52% of HT-2 in oats. Maximal T-2 and HT-2 concentration in oat flakes and oat meal were 197 and 118 µg kg(-1). The toxins were reduced by 82-88% during processing, but increased 3.1 times in oat by-products.

  17. Naked Singularities as Particle Accelerators II

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mandar; Malafarina, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    We generalize here our earlier results on particle acceleration by naked singularities. We showed recently[1] that the naked singularities that form due to gravitational collapse of massive stars provide a suitable environment where particles could get accelerated and collide at arbitrarily high center of mass energies. However, we focussed there only on the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse models, which were also assumed to be self-similar. In this paper, we broaden and generalize the result to all gravitational collapse models leading to the formation of a naked singularity as final state of collapse, evolving from a regular initial data, without making any prior restrictive assumptions about the spacetime symmetries such as above. We show that when the particles interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to the Planck scale physics. We also consider the issue of various possible physical mech...

  18. Dark matter annihilation near a naked singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mandar

    2011-01-01

    We investigate here the dark matter annihilation near a Kerr naked singularity. We show that when dark matter particles collide and annihilate in vicinity of the singularity, the escape fraction to infinity of particles produced is much larger, at least 10^2 - 10^3 times the corresponding black hole values. As high energy collisions are generically possible near a naked singularity, this provides an excellent environment for efficient conversion of dark matter into ordinary standard model particles. If the center of galaxy harbored such a naked singularity, it follows that the observed emergent flux of particles with energy comparable to mass of the dark matter particles is much larger compared to the blackhole case, thus providing an intriguing observational test on the nature of the galactic center

  19. Tidal Forces in Naked Singularity Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Akash; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-01-01

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of non-rotating naked singularity backgrounds, and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic centre.

  20. Targeting sources of drought tolerance within an Avena spp. collection through multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Javier; Mur, Luis A J; Rubiales, Diego; Prats, Elena

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we find and characterize the sources of tolerance to drought amongst an oat (Avena sativa L.) germplasm collection of 174 landraces and cultivars. We used multivariate analysis, non-supervised principal component analyses (PCA) and supervised discriminant function analyses (DFA) to suggest the key mechanism/s responsible for coping with drought stress. Following initial assessment of drought symptoms and area under the drought progress curve, a subset of 14 accessions were selected for further analysis. The collection was assessed for relative water content (RWC), cell membrane stability, stomatal conductance (g (1)), leaf temperature, water use efficiency (WUE), lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase activity, chlorophyll levels and antioxidant capacity during a drought time course experiment. Without the use of multivariate approaches, it proved difficult to unequivocally link drought tolerance to specific physiological processes in the different resistant oat accessions. These approaches allowed the ranking of many supposed drought tolerance traits in the order of degree of importance within this crop, thereby highlighting those with a causal relationship to drought stress tolerance. Analyses of the loading vectors used to derive the PCA and DFA models indicated that two traits involved in water relations, temperature and RWC together with the area of drought curves, were important indicators of drought tolerance. However, other parameters involved in water use such as g (1) and WUE were less able to discriminate between the accessions. These observations validate our approach which should be seen as representing a cost-effective initial screen that could be subsequently employed to target drought tolerance in segregating populations.

  1. Role of Endogenous Plant Growth Regulators in Seed Dormancy of Avena fatua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, James D.

    1983-01-01

    Gibberellin A1 (GA1) was identified by combined gas chromatographymass spectrometry as the major biologically active gibberellin (GA) in seeds of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) regardless of the depth of dormany or stage of imbibition. Both unimbibed dormant and nondromant seeds contained similar amounts of GA1 as estimated by the d5-maize bioassay. During imbibition, the level of GA1 declined in both dormant and non-dormant seeds, although the decline was more rapid in dormant seeds. Only in imbibing nondormant seeds did the GA biosynthesis inhibitor, 2-chloroethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CCC), cause a reduction in the level of GA1 from that observed in control seeds. These results are interpreted as an indication that while afterripening does not cause a direct change in the levels of GAs during dry storage, it does induce a greater capacity for GA biosynthesis during imbibition. Nondormant seeds imbibed in the presence of 50 millimolar CCC germinated equally as well as untreated seeds. When wild oat plants were fed CCC throughout the entire life cycle, viable seeds were produced that lacked detectable GA-like substances. These seeds afterripened at a slightly slower rate than the controls. Moreover, completely afterripened (nondormant) seeds from plants fed CCC continuously contained no detectable GA-like substances, and when these seeds germinated, dwarf seedlings were produced, indicating GA biosynthesis was inhibited during and after germination. In total, these results suggest that the increased capacity for GA biosynthesis observed in imbibing nondormant seeds is not a necessary prerequisite for germination. It is therefore possible that GA biosynthesis in imbibing nondormant seeds is one of many coordinated biochemical events that occur during germination rather than an initiator of the processes leading to germination. PMID:16663302

  2. Agronomic, cytogenetic, and isoenzymatic characterizations of oat somaclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizete Augustin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Immature embryo-derived somaclones regenerated from genotypes UPF 12, UPF 89S080 and UFRGS 7 were analyzed for eight agronomic traits and two enzymatic systems in order to evaluate the potential of tissue cultures to induce genetic variability in oats (Avena sativa L.. Some somaclones were also analyzed cytogenetically. Agronomic traits were evaluated in the field for all somaclones in 1993 and 1994. Bi-directional variation (P Para avaliar o potencial da cultura de tecidos na indução de variabilidade genética em aveia (Avena sativa L., somaclones regenerados de embriões imaturos dos genótipos UPF 12, UPF 89S080 e UFRGS 7 foram analisados em relação a oito características agronômicas e dois sistemas enzimáticos. A avaliação foi realizada em dois anos consecutivos, 1993 e 1994, em relação aos caracteres agronômicos. Foram observadas variações bidirecionais significativas (P < 0.05 para todos os caracteres, sendo que a freqüência média de variações detectadas em 1993, em populações somaclonais provenientes dos genótipos UPF 12 e UPF 89S080, foi de 35,2%. A maioria das alterações observadas em 1993 se mantiveram em 1994. A análise isoenzimática mostrou variações para os dois sistemas enzimáticos em quatro somaclones. A freqüência de anormalidades citogenéticas, de uma forma geral, foi baixa, porém mesmo nos somaclones onde a mesma foi alta, estas anormalidades não se refletiram na estabilidade meiótica. O processo de cultura de tecidos como gerador de variabilidade apresenta potencial como estratégia de apoio aos programas de melhoramento genético de aveia.

  3. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  4. Alelopatia de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento de plântulas de Avena strigosa Allelopathic of Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of Avena strigosa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Ricardo Sartor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de acículas de Pinus taeda na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de aveia preta comum (Avena strigosa. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Bioquímica e Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR, Campus de Pato Branco, utilizando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com tratamento fatorial (bifatorial com parcela subdividida no tempo, com três repetições, sob condições de temperatura, umidade e luminosidade controladas. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cinco concentrações (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% de extrato bruto de acículas de pínus em estágio vegetativo (acícula verde, moderadamente decomposto (acícula seca e em decomposição avançada (acícula decomposta. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada 24 horas. Foram avaliados os parâmetros porcentagem de germinação, velocidade média de germinação e comprimento de radículas e epicótilos das plântulas de Avena strigosa. O estágio de acícula verde afetou significativamente as variáveis avaliadas e esse problema aumentou com a concentração do extrato.The purpose of this study was to verify the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from the Pinus taeda needles on the germination and development of black oat (Avena strigosa seedlings. The work was carried out at the Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory at the Federal Technological University of Paraná (UTFPR, Campus Pato Branco, using a completely randomized design with factorial distribution in three replicates, under temperature, humidity and light controlled conditions. The extract from the pine needles was composed of five percentages (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from the crude extract (EB dilution, composed of distilled water + pine needles in vegetative stage (green needles, moderately decomposed (dry needles and in advanced decomposition (decomposed needles. The

  5. Oats induced villous atrophy in coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, K E A; Nilsen, E M; Scott, H G; Løberg, E M; Gjøen, A; Bratlie, J; Skar, V; Mendez, E; Løvik, A; Kett, K

    2003-01-01

    The current trend is to allow coeliac disease (CD) patients to introduce oats to their gluten free diet. We sought further data from the clinical setting with regards to oats consumption by coeliac patients. Several oat products were tested for wheat contamination using a commercial enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) kit, and six samples were examined by an ELISA using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies, mass spectrometry, and western blot analysis. Nineteen adult CD patients on a gluten free diet were challenged with 50 g of oats per day for 12 weeks. Serological testing and gastroduodenoscopy was performed before and after the challenge. Biopsies were scored histologically and levels of mRNA specific for interferon γ were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Oats were well tolerated by most patients but several reported initial abdominal discomfort and bloating. One of the patients developed partial villous atrophy and a rash during the first oats challenge. She subsequently improved on an oats free diet but developed subtotal villous atrophy and dramatic dermatitis during a second challenge. Five of the patients showed positive levels of interferon γ mRNA after challenge. Some concerns therefore remain with respect to the safety of oats for coeliacs. PMID:14570737

  6. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is <5 and the elongation varies inversely with the solution pH). Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  7. Auxin-induced growth of Avena coleoptiles involves two mechanisms with different pH optima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Although rapid auxin-induced growth of coleoptile sections can persist for at least 18 hours, acid-induced growth lasts for a much shorter period of time. Three theories have been proposed to explain this difference in persistence. To distinguish between these theories, the pH dependence for auxin-induced growth of oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles has been determined early and late in the elongation process. Coleoptile sections from which the outer epidermis was removed to facilitate buffer entry were incubated, with or without 10 micromolar indoleacetic acid, in 20 millimolar buffers at pH 4.5 to 7.0 to maintain a fixed wall pH. During the first 1 to 2 hours after addition of auxin, elongation occurs by acid-induced extension (i.e. the pH optimum is Auxin causes no additional elongation because the buffers prevent further changes in wall pH. After 60 to 90 minutes, a second mechanism of auxin-induced growth, whose pH optimum is 5.5 to 6.0, predominates. It is proposed that rapid growth responses to changes in auxin concentration are mediated by auxin-induced changes in wall pH, whereas the prolonged, steady-state growth rate is controlled by a second, auxin-mediated process whose pH optimum is less acidic.

  8. Analysis of Leaf and Root Transcriptome of Soil Grown Avena barbata Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swarbreck, Sté; phanie,; Lindquist, Erika; Ackerly, David; Andersen, Gary

    2011-02-01

    Slender wild oat (Avena barbata) is an annual grass dominant in many grassland ecosystems in Mediterranean climate. This species has been the subject of ecological studies that aim at understanding the effect of global climate change on grassland ecosystems and the genetic basis for adaptation under varying environmental conditions. We present the sequencing and analysis of cDNA libraries constructed from leaf and root samples collected from A. barbata grown on natural soil and under varying rainfall patterns. More than one million expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated using both GS 454-FLX pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing, and these tags were assembled into consensus sequences. We identified numerous candidate polymorphic markers in the dataset, providing possibilities for linking the genomic and the existing genetic information for A. barbata. Using the digital northern method, we showed that genes involved in photosynthesis were down regulated under high rainfall while stress- related genes were up regulated. We also identified a number of genes unique to the root library with unknown function. Real-time RT-PCR was used to confirm the root specificity of some of these transcripts such as two genes encoding O-methyl transferase. Also we showed differential expression under three water levels. Through a combination of Sanger and 454-based sequencing technologies, we were able to generate a large set of transcribed sequences for A. barbata. This dataset provides a platform for further studies of this important wild grass species

  9. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  10. [Oat products in gluten free diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of celiac disease in patent in different age is increased, but gluten free diet is only way to treat this disease. Diet without gluten cereals: wheat, rye, barley and oats is often low in many minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber, but rich in fat and sugar. Gluten free diet witch is supplemented with oats products may contains more dietary fiber, minerals, thiamine, biotin, tokopherols, tokotrienos, and unsaturated fatty acids. The majority of researches show that inclusion 20-50g/d of oat products to gluten free diet is safe for children and adults with new diagnosed and also in remission state. Simultaneously, some patients with celiac disease may intolerance to avenin. The control and assessment of gluten (wheat, rye, barley) contamination in oat products and also long term introduction of oat products to gluten free diet for patient at different age.

  11. The prebiotic and protective effects of buckwheat flour and oat bran on Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida VASILE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During conservation, the probiotic bacteria currently used in food industry have been shown to have less viability in the matter of fermented products microbiota and also to present lower levels of colonization and survival in vivo. This study describes a new way of improving the behavior and functionality of Lactobacillus acidophilus - LA 5® commercial strain by using buckwheat flour (Fagopyrum esculentum and oat bran (Avena sativa as fermentation ingredients, in view of their high content of bioactive compounds that have a great impact both on fermentation microorganisms and consumers’ health. The effect of these two raw vegetal products on LA 5® strain was studied by cultivation on MRS broth and on milk. The supplementation of the fermentation medium with 4.0% - 6.0% of buckwheat flour or oat bran, respectively, had a positive effect on metabolic activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the rapid decrease of the pH and the increase of the multiplication rate were observed after 6 hours of lactic acid fermentation. Furthermore, the presence of the vegetal substrates substantially improved the cells survival during the storage of the fermented products for 28 days at 4 °C, comparing to samples without supplementation used as control.

  12. Xyloglucan antibodies inhibit auxin-induced elongation and cell wall loosening of azuki bean epicotyls but not of oat coleoptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T; Masuda, Y; Sone, Y; Misaki, A

    1991-06-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against isoprimeverose (Xyl(1)Glc(1)), xyloglucan heptasaccharides (Xyl(3)Glc(4)), and octasaccharides (Gal(1)Xyl(3)Glc(4)). Antibodies specific for hepta- and octasaccharides suppressed auxin-induced elongation of epicotyl segments of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi and Ohashi cv Takara). These antibodies also inhibited auxin-induced cell wall loosening (decrease in the minimum stress-relaxation time and the relaxation rate of the cell walls) of azuki segments. However, none of the antibodies influenced auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of coleoptile segments of oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory). Auxin caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans in the cell walls of azuki epicotyls and oat coleoptiles. The antibodies inhibited such a change in molecular mass of xyloglucans in both species. Preimmune serum exhibited little or no inhibitory effect on auxin-induced elongation, cell wall loosening, or breakdown of xyloglucans. The results support the view that the breakdown of xyloglucans is associated with the cell wall loosening responsible for auxin-induced elongation in dicotyledons. The view does not appear to be applicable to poaceae, because the inhibition of xyloglucan breakdown by the antibodies did not influence auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of oat coleoptiles.

  13. Use of Allelopathic Traits of Several Medicinal Plants on Some Germination Characteristics and Early Growth of Wheat and Wild Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Piraste Anoshe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem pollution and weed resistance to herbicides have led researchers to pay more attention to natural herbicides. To examine allelopathic effects of liquorice, rosemary, chamomile and eucalypt on germination characteristics and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and wild oat (Avena fatua L., a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and four replicates was conducted at Cereal Laboratory of College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Iran in 2010. The results showed that rosemary essential oil had most negative effect on germination percentage (G%, seedling length (SL, radicle length (RL, shoot to root length ratio (S/R, relative water content (RWC and total water content (TWC. The lowest negative effect on G%, SL, RL and TWC was obtained from eucalypt essential oil and the least effect on RWC was observed from liquorice essential oil treatments. Most reduction on S/R was obtained from chamomile essential oil. The effect of stem essential oil on all measured traits, except G%, was more than leaf essential oil. Also wild oat was found to be more responsive than wheat to rosemary and chamomile essential oils. Considering these results, it appeared that control of wild oat by using such essential oil as rosemary and chamomile might be possible under some conditions with appropriate cautions.

  14. Kerr Naked Singularities as Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Mandar

    2011-01-01

    We investigate here the particle acceleration by Kerr naked singularities. We consider a collision between particles dropped in from infinity at rest, which follow geodesic motion in the equatorial plane, with angular momentum of one of the particles in an appropriate finite range of values. The absence of an event horizon and the repulsive nature of angular momentum makes it possible for the initially infalling particle to turn back as an outgoing particle and then collide with another infalling particle. When these particles collide at a location close to what would have been the event horizon in the extremal Kerr blackhole case, the center of mass energy of collision turns out to be arbitrarily large depending on how close is the Kerr naked singularity to extremality. We briefly discuss the possible astrophysical consequences of this process and suggest that the fast rotating Kerr configurations could provide a good cosmic laboratory to probe ultra-high-energy physics.

  15. Development of a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify soluble beta-glucans in oats and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampitsch, Christof; Ames, Nancy; Storsley, Joanne; Marien, Lindsay

    2003-09-24

    A set of 31 murine monoclonal antibodies was produced against (1-->3,1-->4)beta-d-glucan from oats (Avena sativa L.) chemically cross-linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Monoclonal antibodies were tested for their cross-reactivity to related and unrelated polysaccharides. The antibodies reacted strongly to unmodified beta-glucan from oats and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to lichenan from Icelandic moss, a polysaccharide with a structure similar to that of beta-glucan but which is not encountered in cereals. Cross-reaction to other polysaccharides tested was minimal at physiological levels. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that could routinely detect and quantify nanogram levels of soluble beta-glucan extracted from the flour of oats or barley was designed with one of these monoclonal antibodies. The beta-glucan extraction procedure from ground oat and barley samples and the ELISA were both optimized for reproducibility, accuracy, and throughput, and results were compared to values obtained from an established, commercially available enzyme-based assay. Correlations between the two assays were consistently high (r (2) > 0.9), indicating that the ELISA presented in this paper is a valuable alternative for assaying beta-glucan levels in cereals and cereal products, both routinely and in preparations in which beta-glucans are present in nanogram amounts. Development of the extraction procedure for ELISA is discussed.

  16. Oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV. A one-gram increase in total dietary fiber may decrease the risk of fat accumultion by ... Stramentum, Avoine, Avoine Entière, Avoine Sauvage, Cereal Fiber, Dietary Fiber, Farine d’Avoine, Fibre Alimentaire, Fibre Céréalière, Fibre ...

  17. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M.; Entenza, Júlio O. P.; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F.; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S.; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C. G.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs. PMID:27936012

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaolin Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  19. Sugarcane transcriptome analysis in response to infection caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Brigida, Ailton B; Rojas, Cristian A; Grativol, Clícia; de Armas, Elvismary M; Entenza, Júlio O P; Thiebaut, Flávia; Lima, Marcelo de F; Farrinelli, Laurent; Hemerly, Adriana S; Lifschitz, Sérgio; Ferreira, Paulo C G

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important tropical crop mainly cultivated to produce ethanol and sugar. Crop productivity is negatively affected by Acidovorax avenae subsp avenae (Aaa), which causes the red stripe disease. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms triggered in response to the infection. We have investigated the molecular mechanism activated in sugarcane using a RNA-seq approach. We have produced a de novo transcriptome assembly (TR7) from sugarcane RNA-seq libraries submitted to drought and infection with Aaa. Together, these libraries present 247 million of raw reads and resulted in 168,767 reference transcripts. Mapping in TR7 of reads obtained from infected libraries, revealed 798 differentially expressed transcripts, of which 723 were annotated, corresponding to 467 genes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that several metabolic pathways, such as code for proteins response to stress, metabolism of carbohydrates, processes of transcription and translation of proteins, amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly regulated in sugarcane. Differential analysis revealed that genes in the biosynthetic pathways of ET and JA PRRs, oxidative burst genes, NBS-LRR genes, cell wall fortification genes, SAR induced genes and pathogenesis-related genes (PR) were upregulated. In addition, 20 genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Together, these data contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms triggered by the Aaa in sugarcane and opens the opportunity for the development of molecular markers associated with disease tolerance in breeding programs.

  20. Development and characterization of an oat TILLING-population and identification of mutations in lignin and β-glucan biosynthesis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivekanand Vivekanand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat, Avena sativa is the sixth most important cereal in the world. Presently oat is mostly used as feed for animals. However, oat also has special properties that make it beneficial for human consumption and has seen a growing importance as a food crop in recent decades. Increased demand for novel oat products has also put pressure on oat breeders to produce new oat varieties with specific properties such as increased or improved β-glucan-, antioxidant- and omega-3 fatty acid levels, as well as modified starch and protein content. To facilitate this development we have produced a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes population of the spring oat cultivar SW Belinda. Results Here a population of 2600 mutagenised M2 lines, producing 2550 M3 seed lots were obtained. The M2 population was initially evaluated by visual inspection and a number of different phenotypes were seen ranging from dwarfs to giants, early flowering to late flowering, leaf morphology and chlorosis. Phloroglucinol/HCl staining of M3 seeds, obtained from 1824 different M2 lines, revealed a number of potential lignin mutants. These were later confirmed by quantitative analysis. Genomic DNA was prepared from the M2 population and the mutation frequency was determined. The estimated mutation frequency was one mutation per 20 kb by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, one mutation per 38 kb by MALDI-TOF analysis and one mutation per 22.4 kb by DNA sequencing. Thus, the overall mutation frequency in the population is estimated to be one mutation per 20-40 kb, depending on if the method used addressed the whole genome or specific genes. During the investigation, 6 different mutations in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AsPAL1 gene and 10 different mutations in the cellulose synthase-like (AsCslF6 β-glucan biosynthesis gene were identified. Conclusion The oat TILLING population produced in this work carries, on average, hundreds of mutations in every individual

  1. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  2. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  3. Ecological justice in the falls by Oates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Oates is a prolific writer,who has published more than forty novels,numerous short stories,poetry and other works since 1963.Known as the"female Faulkner",she has won the O.Henry awards,America National Book Award and other awards,and was nominated Nobel literary prize.As a realistic writer,Oates focuses on ecological ethics issues in her novels.The novel displays problems of environmental pollution in the Niagara falls

  4. Celiac disease, gluten-free diet, and oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fric, Premysl; Gabrovska, Dana; Nevoral, Jiri

    2011-02-01

    Oats in a gluten-free diet increase the diet's nutritional value, but their use remains controversial. Contamination with prolamins of other cereals is frequent, and some clinical and experimental studies support the view that a subgroup of celiac patients may be intolerant to pure oats. Thus, this issue is more complex than previously suggested. In order to produce oats that are safe for all celiac patients, the following topics should be addressed: selection of oat cultivars with low avenin content, research on such recombinant varieties of oats, development of assay methods to detect avenins in oat products, guidelines for the agricultural processing of oats and the manufacture of oat products, as well as guidelines for following up with celiac patients who consume oats. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Role of oats in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Moreno, María de Lourdes; Sousa, Carolina

    2015-11-07

    A gluten-free diet is currently the only effective means of treating individuals with celiac disease. Such a diet enables celiac patients to control their symptoms and avoid various complications associated with this condition. However, while the quality of gluten-free foods has significantly improved during recent decades, maintenance of a gluten-free diet does not necessarily ensure adequate nutritional intake. Because oats are an important source of proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and fibre, their inclusion in a gluten-free diet might improve the nutritional status of a celiac patient. Although oats are included in the list of gluten-free ingredients specified in European regulations, their safety when consumed by celiac patients remains debatable. Some studies claim that pure oats are safe for most celiac people, and contamination with other cereal sources is the main problem facing people with this disease. However, it is necessary to consider that oats include many varieties, containing various amino acid sequences and showing different immunoreactivities associated with toxic prolamins. As a result, several studies have shown that the immunogenicity of oats varies depending on the cultivar consumed. Thus, it is essential to thoroughly study the variety of oats used in a food ingredient before including it in a gluten-free diet.

  6. The identification of acetylcholine and choline in oat seedlings by gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Tretyn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Four methods of isolation and purification of choline esters from green 7-day-old oat ( Avena sativa L. cv. Diadem seedlings were tested The results showed that the best recovery of acetylcholine and choline from plant tissues was obtained using an extraction solution composed of 15% 1N formic acid and 85%, acetone followed by precipitation of both these substances with ammonium reineckate. The presence of acetylcholine and choline in the plant extracts was confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography. In the case of gas chromatography, after isolation and purification of the studied compounds from the plant material, estrification of choline followed by N-demethylation of acetylcholine and estrified choline were performed The demethylation reaction was conducted in a reaction mixture of 50 mM sodium thiophenolate and 25 mM thiophenol in anhydrous acetone. After its completion, the mixture was removed with pentanone and the demethylated esters were extracted into chloroform.

  7. Differential expression of in vivo and in vitro protein profile of outer membrane of Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibrahim

    Full Text Available Outer membrane (OM proteins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis. In this work, we examined and compared the expression of the OM proteins of the rice pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1, a Gram-negative bacterium, both in an in vitro culture medium and in vivo rice plants. Global proteomic profiling of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1 comparing in vivo and in vitro conditions revealed the differential expression of proteins affecting the survival and pathogenicity of the rice pathogen in host plants. The shotgun proteomics analysis of OM proteins resulted in the identification of 97 proteins in vitro and 62 proteins in vivo by mass spectrometry. Among these OM proteins, there is a high number of porins, TonB-dependent receptors, lipoproteins of the NodT family, ABC transporters, flagellins, and proteins of unknown function expressed under both conditions. However, the major proteins such as phospholipase and OmpA domain containing proteins were expressed in vitro, while the proteins such as the surface anchored protein F, ATP-dependent Clp protease, OmpA and MotB domain containing proteins were expressed in vivo. This may indicate that these in vivo OM proteins have roles in the pathogenicity of A. avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-1. In addition, the LC-MS/MS identification of OmpA and MotB validated the in silico prediction of the existance of Type VI secretion system core components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the in vitro and in vivo protein profiles, in combination with LC-MS/MS mass spectra, in silico OM proteome and in silico genome wide analysis, of pathogenicity or plant host required proteins of a plant pathogenic bacterium.

  8. Efecto hipocolesterolémico del consumo de avena (Avena sativa) en un grupo de adultos de Chaclacayo, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Pérez, Noelia; Licenciada en Nutrición Humana, Clínica Americana de Juliaca, Puno; Díaz Caballero, Cinthia; Rodríguez López, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del consumo de avena (Avena sativa) sobre el nivel de colesterol y triglicéridosen suero. Metodología: Enfoque cuantitativo, de diseño pre experimental (pre y post) y de corte longitudinal.La muestra estuvo conformada por 26 personas adultas del asentamiento humano Nueva Alianza-Chaclacayo(Lima), de ambos sexos, entre 28 a 80 años, con niveles de colesterol > a 190mg/dl, quienes fueron seleccionadosmediante muestreo no probabilístico de tipo intencional. El c...

  9. Expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rat kidney exposed to mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giusto, Gisela; Torres, Adriana M. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Area Farmacologia, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Rosario (Argentina); Anzai, Naohiko; Endou, Hitoshi [Kyorin University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tokyo (Japan); Ruiz, Maria L. [Universidad Nacional de Rosario, CONICET, Instituto de Fisiologia Experimental, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquimicas y Farmaceuticas, Rosario (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the expression and function of the organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in rats exposed to a nephrotoxic dose of HgCl{sub 2}. Oat1 protein expression increased in renal homogenates and decreased in renal basolateral membranes from HgCl{sub 2} rats, while Oat3 protein abundance decreased in both kidney homogenates and basolateral membranes. The lower protein levels of Oat1 and Oat3 in basolateral membranes explain the lower uptake capacity for p-aminohippurate (in vitro assays) and the diminution of the systemic clearance of this organic anion (in vivo studies) observed in treated rats. Since both transporters mediate mercury access to the renal cells, their down-regulation in basolateral membranes might be a defensive mechanism developed by the cell to protect itself against mercury injury. The pharmacological modulation of the expression and/or the function of Oat1 and Oat3 might be an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing the nephrotoxicity of mercury. (orig.)

  10. Interacción genotipo-ambiente en avena sativa l: utilizando los modelos AMMI y factorial de correspondencias Genotype-environment interaction in avena sativa l: employing AMMI and factorial correspondence models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Abel Acciaresi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue (i determinar la presencia de interacción genotipo-ambiente (IGA en la producción forrajera de avena (Avena sativa L. de genotipos tolerantes y no tolerantes a Schizaphis graminum empleando un número bajo de ambientes en la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina mediante los modelos de efectos principales aditivos e interacción multiplicativa (AMMI y análisis factorial de correspondencias (AFC y (ii comparar los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos. Los ensayos se condujeron en La Dulce (Argentina y La Plata (Argentina (1993, 1994 y 1995. Se evaluaron 12 genotipos (comerciales y líneas avanzadas en 12 ambientes (combinación de localidad, años y cortes. Los factores ambiente, genotipo e interacción explicaron un 41,15% (pThe objective of this study was (i to determine the presence of genotype-environment interaction (GXE in Avena sativa l. for above dry matter yield of Schizaphis graminun tolerant and non-tolerant genotypes according to two different models: additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis; and (ii to study and compare the results obtained with these models. Twelve genotypes and 12 environments were conducted at La Dulce and La Plata (Argentina during three years (1993, 1994 and 1995. The environment (E, genotype (G and GxE factors explained a 41.15%, 7.88% and 36.36% of the total sum of square, respectively. The first three axes of principal component analysis of AMMI were highly significant (p<0.001, explaining a 57.99%, 29.03% and 6.27% of interaction sum of square. The first three factorial correspondence coordinates accounted for 58.98%, 29.58% and 5.60% of the interaction sum of square. The relationships between tolerant genotypes-first clipping environments and non-tolerant genotypes-second clipping environments were reflected in the biplots of both models. The simultaneous use of AMMI and factorial correspondence analysis appeared as a useful

  11. The shadow of a naked singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, Néstor; Zannias, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the redshift suffered by photons originating from an external source, traversing a collapsing dust cloud and finally received by an asymptotic observer. In addition, we study the shadow that the collapsing cloud casts on the sky of the asymptotic observer. We find that the resulting redshift and properties of the shadow depend crucially on whether the final outcome of the complete gravitational collapse is a black hole or a naked singularity. In the black hole case, the shadow is due to the high redshift acquired by the photons as they approach the event horizon, implying that their energy is gradually redshifted towards zero within a few crossing times associated with the event horizon radius. In contrast to this, a naked singularity not only absorbs photons originating from the source, but it also emits infinitely redshifted photons with and without angular momenta. This emission introduces an abrupt cut-off in the frequency shift of the photons detected in directions close to the radial one, and...

  12. Naked-eye astronomy in mass tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of developing astro-tourism in small countries such as Serbia and other Balkan countries, with "discreet" astro-tourism reduced to naked-eye astronomy as part of mass tourism rather than elite tourism that is realized through specialized programs with spacecraft and space stations, spectacular planetariums and observatories with giant telescopes. The specific relationship between the virtual and the real world is highlighted in this paper especially when considering younger generations. Furthermore, the differences in the way stars are perceived by astronomers and "ordinary" tourists or non-astronomers is also emphasized. Tourists are not enchanted by celestial bodies themselves, but by a complete scene, which consists of integrated skyscapes and landscapes, as a complex stage where in various combinations and forms these celestial bodies are observed, and of their own experience. These complex sky-earth landscapes, astro-landscapes, present astro-tourism resources of the small countries like Serbia, provided that a tourist can "read" their astronomical text. In this regard, Belgrade was used as the example for drafting a "package" of astronomical information that can be easily prepared and adapted according to the needs of a particular group, so that every tourist may know what can be seen, where and when. With the help of a rotating star map (planisphere, visitors may observe the sky with the naked eye.

  13. Biomass decomposition and nutrient release from black oat and hairy vetch residues deposited in a vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A significant quantity of nutrients in vineyards may return to the soil each year through decomposition of residues from cover plants. This study aimed to evaluate biomass decomposition and nutrient release from residues of black oats and hairy vetch deposited in the vines rows, with and without plastic shelter, and in the between-row areas throughout the vegetative and productive cycle of the plants. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, from October 2008 to February 2009. Black oat (Avena strigosa and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa residues were collected, subjected to chemical (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and biochemical (cellulose - Cel, hemicellulose - Hem, and lignin - Lig content analyses, and placed in litter bags, which were deposited in vines rows without plastic shelter (VPRWS, in vines rows with plastic shelter (VPRS, and in the between-row areas (BR. We collected the residues at 0, 33, 58, 76, and 110 days after deposition of the litter bags, prepared the material, and subjected it to analysis of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content. The VPRS contained the largest quantities and percentages of dry matter and residual nutrients (except for Ca in black oat residues from October to February, which coincides with the period from flowering up to grape harvest. This practice led to greater protection of the soil surface, avoiding surface runoff of the solution derived from between the rows, but it retarded nutrient cycling. The rate of biomass decomposition and nutrient release from hairy vetch residues from October to February was not affected by the position of deposition of the residues in the vineyard, which may especially be attributed to the lower values of the C/N and Lig/N ratios. Regardless of the type of residue, black oat or hairy vetch, the greatest decomposition and nutrient release mainly occurred up to 33 days after deposition of the residues on the soil surface, which coincided with the

  14. Folate in oats and its milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Nyström, Laura; Piironen, Vieno

    2012-12-01

    Total folate content in oat varieties from three harvesting years (2006-2008), and in oats milling fractions, was determined using microbiological assay. Furthermore, folate vitamer distribution in milling fractions were examined with the UPLC method, which was taken in use and validated. The total folate content of the cultivars varied moderately within each year. The average content in the 2008 samples was 685ng/gdm. The UPLC method proved fast and sensitive for determining seven folate monoglutamates in cereal samples. Folate content in fractions, which are normally discarded, such as flour from oat cutting and flaking, were 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than in native grain. The main folate vitamers found in the oat fractions were 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate, 5-HCO-H(4)folate, and 5,10-CH(+)-H(4)folate. The UPLC results more closely matched the microbiological results compared to those that are usually achieved with HPLC methods. This study illustrates that oats and, especially, by-products of milling are good sources of folate.

  15. Insights into molecular structure and digestion rate of oat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinchuan; Kuang, Qirong; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Shuo; Liu, Xingxun; Wang, Shujun

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro digestibility of oat starch and its relationship with starch molecular structure was investigated. The in vitro digestion results showed that the first-order kinetic constant (k) of oat starches (OS-1 and OS-2) was lower than that of rice starch. The size of amylose chains, amylose content and degree of branching (DB) of amylopectin in oat starch were significantly higher than the corresponding parameters in rice starch. The larger molecular size of oat starch may account for its lower digestion rate. The fine structure of amylopectin showed that oat starch had less chains of DP 6-12 and DP>36, which may explain the small difference in digestion rate between oat and rice starch. The biosynthesis model from oat amylopectin fine structure data suggested a lower starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity and/or a higher starch synthase (SS) activity, which may decrease the DB of oat starch and increase its digestion rate.

  16. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  17. ACCase mutations in Avena sterilis populations and their impact on plant fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanagiotou, Aristeidis P; Paresidou, Maria I; Kaloumenos, Nikolaos S; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2015-09-01

    Avena sterilis (sterile oat) populations originating from wheat-growing regions of Greece, developed resistance to fenoxaprop, clodinafop and other herbicides. The partial ACCase gene sequence revealed six point mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Trp-1999-Cys, Trp-2027-Cys, Ile-2041-Asn, Asp-2078-Gly, and Cys-2088-Arg) in 24 out of the 26 resistant (R) populations, confirming the molecular mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides. However, DNA sequence of two R populations did not reveal any known ACCase mutations, suggesting possible presence of unknown mutation or metabolism-based mechanism of resistance. The Cys-2088-Arg mutation is the first record for ACCase mutant conferring target-site resistance in A. sterilis worldwide. The evaluation of 12 R and 6 susceptible (S) populations under non-competitive field conditions did not indicate consistent mean growth rate differences, whereas the pot evaluation of the same (12 R and 6 S) populations grown in competition with wheat or in pure stands showed significant growth (fresh weight and panicle number) differences between six S populations and between six R populations containing the same ACCase mutation (Ile-2041-Asn). Finally, one S and five R (Trp-1999-Cys, Trp-2027-Cys, Ile-2041-Asn, Asp-2078-Gly, and Cys-2088-Arg) populations grown under field competitive conditions indicated fresh weight and panicle number differences in competition with other populations as compared with pure stands. These findings suggest clearly that the inconsistent fitness differences between R and S A. sterilis populations are not related with the ACCase resistance trait but they may result from other non-resistance fitness traits selected in their different geographical locations.

  18. Altered growth response to exogenous auxin and gibberellic acid by gravistimulation in pulvini of Avena sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1988-01-01

    Pulvini of excised segments from oats (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) were treated unilaterally with indoleacetic acid (IAA) or gibberellic acid (GA3) with or without gravistimulation to assess the effect of gravistimulation on hormone action. Optimum pulvinus elongation growth (millimeters) and segment curvature (degrees) over 24 hours were produced by 100 micromolar IAA in vertical segments. The curvature response to IAA at levels greater than 100 micromolar, applied to the lower sides of gravistimulated (90 degrees) pulvini, was significantly less than the response to identical levels in vertical segments. Furthermore, the bending response of pulvini to 100 micromolar IAA did not vary significantly over a range of presentation angles between 0 and 90 degrees. In contrast, the response to IAA at levels less than 10 micromolar, with gravistimulation, was approximately the sum of the responses to gravistimulation alone and to IAA without gravistimulation. This was observed over a range of presentation angles. Also, GA3 (0.3-30 micromolar) applied to the lower sides of horizontal segments significantly enhanced pulvinus growth and segment curvature, although exogenous GA3 over a range of concentrations had no effect on pulvinus elongation growth or segment curvature in vertical segments. The response to GA3 (10 micromolar) plus IAA (1.0 or 100 micromolar) was additive for either vertical or horizontal segments. These results indicate that gravistimulation produces changes in pulvinus responsiveness to both IAA and GA3 and that the changes are unique for each growth regulator. It is suggested that the changes in responsiveness may result from processes at the cellular level other than changes in hormonal sensitivity.

  19. Non Target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tomas Fernandez-Moreno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L. is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress. In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha-1 for exposed (E and un-exposed (UE glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE, while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica and Lolium rigidum.

  20. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  1. Naked Singularities in Spherically Symmetric, Self-Similar Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M; Wagh, Sanjay M.; Govinder, Keshlan S.

    2001-01-01

    We show that all known naked singularities in spherically symmetric self-similar spacetimes arise as a result of singular initial matter distribution. This is a result of the peculiarity of the coordinate transformation that takes these spacetimes into a separable form. Therefore, these examples of naked singularities are of no apparent consequence to astrophysical observations or theories.

  2. Induction of genetic variability in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Meirelles Coimbra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability in plants can be maximized through techniques of induction to make selection of genotypeswith improved adaptation to cultivation conditions possible. For oat, these techniques are important for a sustainabledevelopment through plant breeding programs in southern Brazil. The effects of mutagens (one physical: 60Co gamma raysand two chemical agents: ethyl - methanesulfonate and methyl-methanesulfonate were compared in the segregating M2 andM3 generations derived from artificial hybridization and induced mutation to compare mechanisms of widening the geneticvariability of oat. The methodologies increased the genetic variability in the trait vegetative cycle effectively, by either increasingor reducing the number of days from emergence to full heading; both can be applied in oat breeding programs.

  3. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  4. In vitro digestion rate and estimated glycemic index of oat flours from typical and high β-glucan oat lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; White, Pamela J

    2012-05-23

    The in vitro starch digestion rate and estimated glycemic index (GI) of oat flours and oat starches from typical and high β-glucan oat lines were evaluated along with the impact of heating on starch digestion. Flour from oat lines ('Jim', 'Paul', IA95, and N979 containing 4.0, 5.3, 7.4, and 7.7% β-glucan, respectively) was digested by pepsin and porcine pancreatin. To determine the impact of heating on starch digestion, oat slurries were prepared by mixing oat flour and water (1:8 ratio) and heating for 10 min prior to digestion. Viscosity, as measured on a Rapid Visco Analyzer, increased with increases in concentration and molecular weight of β-glucan. The in vitro starch digestion of oat flours and a control, white bread made from wheat flour, increased as the digestion time increased. Starch digestion of oat flour was slower than that of the control (p oat-flour slurries increased the starch digestion from a range of 31-39% to a range of 52-64% measured after 180 min of in vitro digestion. There were no differences in starch digestibility among oat starches extracted from the different oat lines. The GI, estimated by starch hydrolysis of oat flours, ranged from 61 to 67, which increased to a range of 77-86 after heating. Oat-flour slurries prepared from IA95 and N979 lines with high β-glucan concentrations had lower GI values than did slurries made from Jim and Paul lines. Starch digestion was negatively correlated with β-glucan concentrations in heated oat-flour slurries (R(2) = 0.92). These results illustrate that the oat soluble fiber, β-glucan, slowed the rate of starch digestion. This finding will help to develop new food products with low GI by using oat β-glucan.

  5. Tissue-specific changes of glutamine synthetase activity in oats after rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, T.J. [Univ. of Southern Maine, Portland, ME (United States); Temple, S.; Sengupta-Gopalan, C. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Curces, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-15

    Oats (Avena sativa L. lodi) tolerant of rhizosphere infestation by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci when challenged by the pathogen experience tissue-specific alterations of ammonia assimilatory capabilities. Altered ammonia assimilatory potentials between root and leaf tissue result from selective inactivation of glutamine synthetase (GS) by the toxin Tabtoxinine-B-lactam (TBL). Root GS is sensitive and leaf GSs are resistant to TBL inactivation. With prolonged challenge by the pathogen root GS activity decreases but leaf GS specific activity increase. Higher leaf GS activity is due to decreased rates of degradation rather than increased GS synthesis. Higher leaf GS activity and elevated levels of GS polypeptide appear to result from a limited interaction between GS and TBL leading to the accumulation of a less active but more stable GS holoenzyme. Tolerant challenged oats besides surviving rhizosphere infestation, experience enhanced growth. A strong correlation exists between leaf GS activity and whole plant fresh weight, suggesting that tissue-specific changes in ammonia assimilatory capability provides the plant a more efficient mechanism for uptake and utilization of nitrogen.

  6. Xyloglucan Antibodies Inhibit Auxin-Induced Elongation and Cell Wall Loosening of Azuki Bean Epicotyls but Not of Oat Coleoptiles 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Masuda, Yoshio; Sone, Yoshiaki; Misaki, Akira

    1991-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against isoprimeverose (Xyl1Glc1), xyloglucan heptasaccharides (Xyl3Glc4), and octasaccharides (Gal1Xyl3Glc4). Antibodies specific for hepta- and octasaccharides suppressed auxin-induced elongation of epicotyl segments of azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi and Ohashi cv Takara). These antibodies also inhibited auxin-induced cell wall loosening (decrease in the minimum stress-relaxation time and the relaxation rate of the cell walls) of azuki segments. However, none of the antibodies influenced auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of coleoptile segments of oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory). Auxin caused a decrease in molecular mass of xyloglucans in the cell walls of azuki epicotyls and oat coleoptiles. The antibodies inhibited such a change in molecular mass of xyloglucans in both species. Preimmune serum exhibited little or no inhibitory effect on auxin-induced elongation, cell wall loosening, or breakdown of xyloglucans. The results support the view that the breakdown of xyloglucans is associated with the cell wall loosening responsible for auxin-induced elongation in dicotyledons. The view does not appear to be applicable to poaceae, because the inhibition of xyloglucan breakdown by the antibodies did not influence auxin-induced elongation or cell wall loosening of oat coleoptiles. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668221

  7. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  8. Grazing and nitrogen on the growth of roots in the mixture of oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo von Linsingen Piazzetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of grazing and its absence, and the nitrogen on the morphology of roots of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. mixed with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. The experimental design was a randomized block design in split-split, the main portion was study the effects of grazing and its absence, in the subplots the nitrogen doses of 75 and 150 kg ha-1 and in the sub-subplots were at sampling period. There was used the cylinder method to collect the root, being measured the length, surface area, mean diameter and volume by image analysis system Win / MacRizho (4.1c. Determined the dry mass of roots and shoot, and estimated the density of the root tissue and shoot:root ratio. From these results we determined the rate of root growth relative (RGR, relative root expansion rate (RRER and rate of accumulation of dry matter daily (RADM. In the first period, was higher RGR, RRER, the second period there was a reduction of the same, probably due to the period of drought and plant senescence. There was also reduced due to grazing RADM. With grazing, the length, surface area, mean diameter and root volume were higher, indicating that there was greater root growth of plants grazed compared to ungrazed. The systems studied had no effect on the dry weight of roots. There were found greater specific mass and shot:root ratio in the system without grazing. There was no significant difference between the nitrogen studied. At mixed of black oat and ryegrass, the grazing and nitrogen dose until 150 kg ha-1 little affect root growth. The nitrogen dose changed a little the growth rates and expansion of the roots. On the other hand, the grazing favored the length, area, volume and root diameter.

  9. Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniela De Cesaro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena spp. is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be identified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.A aveia (Avena spp. tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em geral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das

  10. The Nutritional Value and Research Status of Oats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 王成忠

    2009-01-01

    Oats is a kind of food which has all sorts of nutrition.This paper mainly discussed nutritional ingredients and fimction of health protection of oats,simply introduced the use of it's functional ingredients,for developing natural resources rationally and efficiently.Oats are very nourishing.The oats may reduce the cholesterol ofthe body and to reduce the blood glucose because ofits rich protein,fat,soluble diet fiber and saponin.It was very significance to study the improving of the food flavor,utilizing all the parts of the oats,and processing the functional foods.

  11. A comparative study between nonlinear regression and artificial neural network approaches for modelling wild oat (Avena fatua) field emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-linear regression techniques are used widely to fit weed field emergence patterns to soil microclimatic indices using S-type functions. Artificial neural networks present interesting and alternative features for such modeling purposes. In this work, a univariate hydrothermal-time based Weibull m...

  12. In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylation in Avena sativa L. coleoptiles: effects of Ca2+, calmodulin antagonists, and auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluthambi, K.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo protein phosphorylations in oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile segments were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In vitro phosphorylation of several polypeptides was distinctly promoted at 1 to 15 micromolar free Ca2+ concentrations. Ca2(+)-stimulated phosphorylation was markedly reduced by trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, and naphthalene sulfonamide (W7). Two polypeptides were phosphorylated both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, but the patterns of phosphorylation of several other polypeptides were different under the two conditions indicating that the in vivo phosphorylation pattern of proteins is not truly reflected by in vitro phosphorylation studies. Trifluoperazine, W7, or ethylene glycol-bis-(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + calcium ionophore A23187 treatments resulted in reduced levels of in vivo protein phosphorylation of both control and auxin-treated coleoptile segments. Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis following in vivo phosphorylation revealed auxin-dependent changes of certain polypeptides. A general inhibition of phosphorylation by calmodulin antagonists suggested that both control and auxin-treated coleoptiles exhibited Ca2+, and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in vivo.

  13. A SNP Genotyping Array for Hexaploid Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Tinker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing a need in cultivated hexaploid oat ( L. for a reliable set of reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, we have developed a 6000 (6K BeadChip design containing 257 Infinium I and 5486 Infinium II designs corresponding to 5743 SNPs. Of those, 4975 SNPs yielded successful assays after array manufacturing. These SNPs were discovered based on a variety of bioinformatics pipelines in complementary DNA (cDNA and genomic DNA originating from 20 or more diverse oat cultivars. The array was validated in 1100 samples from six recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping populations and sets of diverse oat cultivars and breeding lines, and provided approximately 3500 discernible Mendelian polymorphisms. Here, we present an annotation of these SNPs, including methods of discovery, gene identification and orthology, population-genetic characteristics, and tentative positions on an oat consensus map. We also evaluate a new cluster-based method of calling SNPs. The SNP design sequences are made publicly available, and the full SNP genotyping platform is available for commercial purchase from an independent third party.

  14. Community Needs Assessment Office Administration & Technology (OAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, J. A.; Lum, Ku'uipo; Meyer, Diane

    The purpose of this survey was to obtain from employers the requisite skills and potential employment demand for office workers on Maui. Of particular interest was: (1) the assessment of various clerical skills and computer software in its relevance to the Office Administration & Technology (OAT) curriculum at Maui Community College; and (2)…

  15. Purification and identification of the fusicoccin binding protein from oat root plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, A. H.; Watson, B. A.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    Fusicoccin (FC), a fungal phytotoxin, stimulates the H(+) -ATPase located in the plasma membrane (PM) of higher plants. The first event in the reaction chain leading to enhanced H(+) -efflux seems to be the binding of FC to a FC-binding protein (FCBP) in the PM. We solubilized 90% of the FCBP from oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) root PM in an active form with 1% octyl-glucoside. The FCBP was stabilized by the presence of protease inhibitors. The FCBP was purified by affinity chromatography using FC-linked adipic acid dihydrazide agarose (FC-AADA). Upon elution with 8 molar urea, two major protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaerylamide gel electrophoresis with molecular weights of 29,700 and 31,000 were obtained. Successive chromatography on BBAB Bio-Gel A, hexyl agarose, and FC-AADA resulted in the same two bands when the FC-AADA was eluted with sodium dodecyl sulfate. A direct correlation was made between 3H-FC-binding activity and the presence of the two protein bands. The stoichiometry of the 29,700 and 31,000 molecular weight bands was 1:2. This suggests that the FCBP occurs in the native form as a heterotrimer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 92,000.

  16. A naked-eye colorimetric "PCR developer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Paola; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Despite several advances in molecular biology and diagnostics, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is currently the gold standard for nucleic acids amplification and detection, due to its versatility, low-cost and universality, with estimated market of several billion dollars/year. Nevertheless, PCR still relies on the laborious, time-consuming, and multi-step gel electrophoresis-based detection, which includes gel casting, electrophoretic run, gel staining, and gel visualization. In this work, we propose a "PCR developer", namely a universal one-step, one-tube method, based on controlled aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), to detect PCR products by naked eye in few minutes, with no need for any instrumentation. We demonstrated the specificity and sensitivity of the PCR developer on different model targets, suitable for a qualitative detection in real-world diagnostics (i.e., gene rearrangements, genetically modified organisms, and pathogens). The PCR developer proved to be highly specific and ultra-sensitive, discriminating down to few copies of HIV viral DNA, diluted in an excess of interfering human genomic DNA, which is a clinically relevant viral load. Hence, it could be a valuable tool for both academic research and clinical applications.

  17. Antiviral activity of lactoferrin towards naked viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Lucilla; Di Biase, Assunta Maria; Marchetti, Magda; Pietrantoni, Agostina; Tinari, Antonella; Superti, Fabiana

    2004-06-01

    It is well known that lactoferrin (Lf) is a potent inhibitor towards several enveloped and naked viruses, such as rotavirus, enterovirus and adenovirus. Lf is resistant to tryptic digestion and breast-fed infants excrete high levels of faecal Lf, so that its effect on viruses replicating in the gastrointestinal tract is of great interest. In this report, we analysed the mechanism of the antiviral action of this protein in three viral models which, despite representing different genoma and replication strategies, share the ability to infect the gut. Concerning the mechanism of action against rotavirus, Lf from bovine milk (BLf) possesses a dual role, preventing virus attachment to intestinal cells by binding to viral particles, and inhibiting a post adsorption step. The BLf effect towards poliovirus is due to the interference with an early infection step but, when the BLf molecule is saturated with Zn+2 ions, it is also capable of inhibiting viral replication after the viral adsorption phase. The anti-adenovirus action of BLf takes place on virus attachment to cell membranes through competition for common glycosaminoglycan receptors and a specific interaction with viral structural polypeptides. Taken together, these findings provide further evidence that Lf is an excellent candidate in the search of natural agents against viral enteric diseases, as it mainly acts by hindering adsorption and internalisation into cells through specific binding to cell receptors and/or viral particles.

  18. Dynamics And Thermodynamics Of Blackholes And Naked Singularities II

    CERN Document Server

    Fatibene, Lorenzo; GiambÒ, Roberto; Magli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of the second edition of the international Workshop "Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Blackholes and Naked Singularities" (Department of Mathematics of the Politecnico of Milano from May 10-12, 2007.

  19. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Blackholes and Naked Singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Fatibene, Lorenzo; Francaviglia, Mauro; Giambo', Roberto; Magli, Giulio

    2005-01-01

    Proceedings of the international Workshop on ``Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Blackholes and Naked Singularities``, that took place at the Department of Mathematics of the Politecnico of Milano from 13 to 15 May 2004.

  20. How to count nanoparticles with the naked eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnik, Artem D.; Samusev, Kirill B.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we experimentally investigated the patterns of optical Laue diffraction from photonic structures. The obtained experimental results and their interpretation allowed us to propose a very simple method of nanoparticles precise counting with the naked eye.

  1. Productive performance of naked neck, frizzle and dwarf laying hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    various natural climates and two nutritional treatments ... improved egg production or feed efficiency, although the naked neck (Na) ... pullets were moved to a tiered system of individual cages in a laying house with ..... nutrients for production.

  2. Quantum naked singularities in 2d dilaton gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, C; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    1996-01-01

    Roughly speaking, naked singularities are singularities that may be seen by timelike observers. The Cosmic Censorship conjecture forbids their existence by stating that a reasonable system of energy will not, under reasonable conditions, collapse into a naked singularity. There are however many counter-examples to this conjecture in the literature. We propose a defense of the conjecture through the quantum theory. We will show that the Hawking effect, when consistently applied to naked singularities in two dimensional models of dilaton gravity with matter and a cosmological constant, prevents their formation by causing them to explode or catastrophically emit radiation, as opposed to black holes which radiate slowly. If this phenomenon is reproduced in the four dimensional world, the explosion of naked singularities should have observable consequences.

  3. Naked singularities in Tolman-Bondi-de Sitter collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, S

    2001-01-01

    We study the formation of central naked singularities in spherical dust collapse with a cosmological constant. We find that the central curvature singularity is locally naked, Tipler strong, and generic, in the sense that it forms from a non-zero-measure set of regular initial data. We also find that the Weyl and Ricci curvature scalars diverge at the singularity, with the former dominating over the latter, thereby signaling the non-local origin of the singularity.

  4. Mass Quadrupole as a Source of Naked Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational field of a static mass with quadrupole moment in empty space. It is shown that in general this configuration is characterized by the presence of curvature singularities without a surrounding event horizon. These naked singularities generate an effective field of repulsive gravity which, in turn, drastically changes the behavior of test particles. As a possible consequence, the accretion disk around a naked singularity presents a particular discontinuous structure.

  5. Oats, more than just a whole grain: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; van Klinken, B Jan-Willem

    2014-10-01

    In May 2012, an oats workshop was held in New York to convene a group of international experts to discuss the implications and applications of oats relative to human health. These diverse experts represented disciplines including, but not limited to, epidemiology, food regulation, nutrition and food science, grain breeding and plant genetics, food processing, medicine and public-health policy. This ensuing series addresses three important aspects pertinent to oats: a brief overview of the dynamics of oats; the spectrum of established and emerging research in agriculture and health; and the options and opportunities for future applications of oats that extend beyond dietary fibre. Oats have many unique chemical properties, potential health benefits, agricultural challenges and nutrition-policy opportunities – but global production of oats appears to be falling. This is occurring despite contemporary research in the development of drought and infestation resistance and climate-adaptive cultivars and assessments of oats' unique components (such as dietary fibre, lipids, β-glucan and avenanthramides) that may contribute to health benefits. This suggests that oats represent a promising grain in the whole-grains landscape. New insights have been created into benefits beyond cardiovascular health. Modern milling and processing technologies have been developed to retain the nutritive value and functional properties of oats and to assure a consistent foundation for global health policies.

  6. An innovative approach: cow/oat milk based kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayil Dinkçi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of kefir production using cow-oat milk mixture. Therefore kefir samples with 20, 40 and 60 % of oat milk were produced. The effect of oat-milk ratio on physicochemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the kefir samples was studied during 21 days storage at refrigerated conditions. Increasing oat milk concentration affected the whey-off and apparent viscosity by higher whey off and lower viscosity results. Also the proteolytic activity of the samples was decreased by raising the oat milk concentrations. Increase of the oat milk concentration leaded to a decrease of pH of the samples. Statistical analysis showed that the lactococci and lactobacilli viable cell counts differed among the samples while the highest count was detected in sample with the highest amount of oat milk. The control sample (without oat milk had higher yeast count during the storage period. The final product with 20 % of oat-milk and without addition of flavour was found to be the most acceptable by the sensory panellists. The results indicate the possibility for a new cow/oat milk based kefir.

  7. Progresso genético no melhoramento da aveia-branca no Sul do Brasil Genetic progress in oat breeding in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ F. BARBOSA NETO

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available As cultivares de aveia-branca (Avena sativa L. cultivadas no sul do Brasil até princípios da década de 80 eram provenientes do Uruguai e da Argentina, apresentando problemas de adaptação ao ambiente de cultivo. A partir dos anos 70, programas de melhoramento começaram a produzir suas próprias populações segregantes, possibilitando o lançamento em escala comercial de cerca de 35 cultivares. Com o objetivo de estimar o progresso genético nos programas de melhoramento de aveia-branca do sul do Brasil, foi realizado um experimento envolvendo 15 cultivares lançadas em diferentes épocas, em dois locais, com quatro diferentes condições de manejo. Os resultados obtidos indicaram progresso genético linear para os caracteres ciclo vegetativo, rendimento de grãos, peso de grão e peso do hectolitro; a inexistência de efeitos quadráticos significativos sugeriram a possibilidade de ganhos posteriores a partir da seleção de novos genótipos. Os programas de melhoramento genético de aveia-branca do sul do Brasil, embora ainda não tenham atingido o patamar máximo, têm sido eficientes em produzir novas cultivares com maiores rendimento e qualidade de grãos e com caracteres agronômicos superiores.The oat (Avena sativa L. cultivars cultivated in Southern Brazil up to the beginning of the 80's were introduced from Uruguay and Argentina. They presented adaptation problems to the new environment. Starting from the 70's, oat breeding programs began to produce their own segregant populations. These programs already released 35 cultivars. Aiming to estimate the genetic progress in oat breeding programs from southern Brazil, an experiment with 15 cultivars released in different times was conducted in two locations using four different cultural practices. The results indicated linear genetic progress for days to flowering, grain yield, grain weight and test weight. The non significance of quadratic effects suggested the possibility of additional

  8. A Nearly Naked Supermassive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, J. J.; Darling, Jeremy; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Petrov, L.

    2017-01-01

    During a systematic search for supermassive black holes (SMBHs) not in galactic nuclei, we identified the compact, symmetric radio source B3 1715+425 with an emission-line galaxy offset ≈ 8.5 {kpc} from the nucleus of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the redshift z = 0.1754 cluster ZwCl 8193. B3 1715+425 is too bright (brightness temperature {T}{{b}}∼ 3× {10}10 {{K}} at observing frequency ν =7.6 {GHz}) and too luminous (1.4 GHz luminosity {L}1.4{GHz}∼ {10}25 {{W}} {{Hz}}-1) to be powered by anything but an SMBH, but its host galaxy is much smaller (∼ 0.9 {kpc}× 0.6 {kpc} full width between half-maximum points) and optically fainter (R-band absolute magnitude {M}{{r}}≈ -18.2) than any other radio galaxy. Its high radial velocity {v}{{r}}≈ 1860 {km} {{{s}}}-1 relative to the BCG, continuous ionized wake extending back to the BCG nucleus, and surrounding debris indicate that the radio galaxy was tidally shredded passing through the BCG core, leaving a nearly naked SMBH fleeing from the BCG with space velocity v≳ 2000 {km} {{{s}}}-1. The radio galaxy has mass M≲ 6× {10}9 {M}ȯ and infrared luminosity {L}{IR}∼ 3× {10}11 {L}ȯ close to its dust Eddington limit, so it is vulnerable to further mass loss from radiative feedback.

  9. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwen Niu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  10. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  11. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC), FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na2CO3 (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay. PMID:28335393

  12. Oats and bowel disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    Whole-grain foods such as oats may protect against colorectal cancer and have benefits on inflammatory bowel disease and coeliac disease. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on risk factors for bowel disease. A literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Thirty-eight articles describing twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies carried out in participants with a history of colorectal adenomas found no effects of increased oat-bran intake on indirect risk makers for colorectal cancer. One of two interventions with oat bran in patients with ulcerative colitis showed small improvements in the patients' conditions. Most of the eleven studies carried out in adults with coeliac disease showed no negative effects of uncontaminated oat consumption. The fourteen studies carried out in volunteers with no history of bowel disease suggest that oats or oat bran can significantly increase stool weight and decrease constipation, but there is a lack of evidence to support a specific effect of oats on bowel function compared with other cereals. A long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran could benefit inflammatory bowel disorders, but this remains to be proven. A protective effect on colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence has not yet been convincingly shown. The majority of patients with coeliac disease could consume up to 100 g/d of uncontaminated oats, which would increase the acceptability of, and adherence to, a gluten-free diet.

  13. Volatile Compounds Produced by Lactobacillus paracasei During Oat Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Mi; Oh, Jieun; Hurh, Byung-Serk; Jeong, Gwi-Hwa; Shin, Young-Keum; Kim, Young-Suk

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the profiles of volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus paracasei during oat fermentation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction method. A total of 60 compounds, including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, furan derivatives, hydrocarbons, ketones, sulfur-containing compounds, terpenes, and other compounds, were identified in fermented oat. Lipid oxidation products such as 2-pentylfuran, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, and nonanal were found to be the main contributors to oat samples fermented by L. paracasei with the level of 2-pentylfuran being the highest. In addition, the contents of ketones, alcohols, acids, and furan derivatives in the oat samples consistently increased with the fermentation time. On the other hand, the contents of degradation products of amino acids, such as 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, acetophenone, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide, decreased in oat samples during fermentation. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to discriminate the fermented oat samples according to different fermentation times. The fermented oats were clearly differentiated on PCA plots. The initial fermentation stage was mainly affected by aldehydes, whereas the later samples of fermented oats were strongly associated with acids, alcohols, furan derivatives, and ketones. The application of PCA to data of the volatile profiles revealed that the oat samples fermented by L. paracasei could be distinguished according to fermentation time. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Variability of caryopsis in Avena amphiploids – a microstructural approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Tomaszewska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The research on microstructure of caryopsis in selected species and interspecific amphiploids of the genus Avena was conducted. We were concentrated on morphological and anatomical analysis of the endosperm, in particular aleurone layer. On this basis, a number of developmental and mutational disorders of this tissue have been identified. Additionally, the tissues located in the crease of caryopsis: vascular bundle, pigment strand and nucellar projection, were analyzed. In amphiploids, a large variability of transfer tissues in caryopsis was observed. Patterns of variation of amphiploids were compared to that described in parental species by numerical taxonomy methods.

  15. Hospedeiros alternativos de Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli Alternative hosts of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa P. Nascimento

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais doenças que afeta o meloeiro é a mancha-aquosa, causada pela bactéria Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Visando conhecer hospedeiros alternativos de Aac, plantas no estágio de primeiras folhas definitivas, de várias espécies/cultivares, incluindo cucurbitáceas, solanáceas, gramíneas, leguminosas e caricáceas, foram inoculadas pela atomização da parte aérea com suspensão dos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13, oriundos de melão e melancia, respectivamente. A suscetibilidade das plantas aos isolados foi avaliada pelo período de incubação (PI e incidência da doença (INC. Caupi, feijão, fumo e milho não apresentaram sintomas. Os menores PIs foram observados em cucurbitáceas (3,0 d, com exceção da bucha (6,83 d. Incidências da doença acima de 90% foram observadas em cucurbitáceas, excetuando a bucha e em solanáceas, para ambos os isolados de Aac. Em outro experimento, frutos de abóbora, abobrinha, berinjela, mamão, maxixe, melancia, melão, pepino, pimentão e tomate foram analisados quanto à suscetibilidade aos isolados Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Os frutos foram inoculados pelo método de injeção subepidérmica, determinando-se PI, INC e severidade, avaliada pelo diâmetro da lesão externa (DLE e profundidade da lesão (PL. Menores PIs (2,0 d foram detectados em frutos de mamão, melancia, melão e pimentão. Incidência de 100% foi observada em todos os frutos inoculados, com exceção da abobrinha (93,75% e da abóbora (34,37%. Maiores DLEs foram observados em pepino (1,47 cm para o isolado Aac 1.49 e em melancia (1,60 cm e melão (1,07 cm para Aac 12.13. As maiores PL foram constatadas em melancia (1,72 e 0,75 cm respectivamente para Aac 1.49 e Aac 12.13. Frutos de berinjela não apresentaram sintomas externos embora as lesões internas tenham sido profundas.One of the most important melon diseases is the bacterial blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac. Alternative hosts of this

  16. Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-β-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa and diploid (A. strigosa oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-γ component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too

  17. The evolution pattern of rDNA ITS in Avena and phylogenetic relationship of the Avena species (Poaceae: Aveneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan-Ying; Baum, Bernard R; Ren, Chang-Zhong; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Chen, Guo-Yue; Zheng, You-Liang; Wei, Yu-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Ribosomal ITS sequences are commonly used for phylogenetic reconstruction because they are included in rDNA repeats, and these repeats often undergo rapid concerted evolution within and between arrays. Therefore, the rDNA ITS copies appear to be virtually identical and can sometimes be treated as a single gene. In this paper we examined ITS polymorphism within and among 13 diploid (A and C genomes), seven tetraploid (AB, AC and CC genomes) and four hexaploid (ACD genome) to infer the extent and direction of concerted evolution, and to reveal the phylogenetic and genome relationship among species of Avena. A total of 170 clones of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 fragment were sequenced to carry out haplotype and phylogenetic analysis. In addition, 111 Avena ITS sequences retrieved from GenBank were combined with 170 clones to construct a phylogeny and a network. We demonstrate the major divergence between the A and C genomes whereas the distinction among the A and B/D genomes was generally not possible. High affinity among the A(d) genome species A. damascena and the ACD genome species A. fatua was found, whereas the rest of the ACD genome hexaploids and the AACC tetraploids were highly affiliated with the A(l) genome diploid A. longiglumis. One of the AACC species A. murphyi showed the closest relationship with most of the hexaploid species. Both C(v) and C(p) genome species have been proposed as paternal donors of the C-genome carrying polyploids. Incomplete concerted evolution is responsible for the observed differences among different clones of a single Avena individual. The elimination of C-genome rRNA sequences and the resulting evolutionary inference of hexaploid species are discussed.

  18. Watery Saliva Secreted by the Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae Stimulates Aphid Resistance in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Fan, Jia; Francis, Frédéric; Chen, Julian

    2017-09-27

    Infestation with Sitobion avenae induces localized defense responses in wheat; in this study, the role of S. avenae watery saliva in resistance induction was examined by infiltrating aphid saliva into wheat leaves. After feeding S. avenae on an artificial diet for 48 h, we first collected watery saliva from them and then separated the salivary proteins using one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Gene expression studies showed that infiltration of S. avenae watery saliva in wheat leaves induced a strong salicylic acid-responsive defense but moderate jasmonic acid-dependent defense. Feeding on wheat leaves infiltrated with aphid saliva, compared with untreated leaves, significantly decreased the number of nymphs produced per day and the intrinsic rate of increase of the population of S. avenae. In a choice test against untreated wheat, saliva-infiltrated wheat had repellent effects on aphids. Additionally, electrical penetration graph results showed that the feeding behavior of S. avenae on saliva-treated wheat was negatively affected compared with that on untreated wheat. These findings provided direct evidence that salivary components of S. avenae are involved in the induction of wheat resistance against aphids and further demonstrated the important roles of watery saliva in aphid-plant interactions.

  19. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  20. Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Kučáková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularity representing spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Ho\\v{r}ava quantum gravity that is characterized by a dimensionless parameter $\\omega M^2$, combining the gravitational mass parameter $M$ of the spacetime with the Ho\\v{r}ava parameter $\\omega$ reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of $\\omega M^2$, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an "antigravity" sphere where matter can stay in stable equilibrium position, that is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures.

  1. Gravastars with Dark Energy Evolving to Naked Singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, R; Senna, P; da Rocha, J F Villas

    2011-01-01

    We consider a gravastar model made of anisotropic dark energy with an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state $p = (1-\\gamma)\\sigma$ with an external de Sitter-Schwarzschild region. It is found that in some cases the models represent the "bounded excursion" stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes or naked singularities. An interesting result is that we can have black hole and stable gravastar formation even with an interior and a shell constituted of dark and repulsive dark energy, as also shown in previous work. Besides, in three cases we have a dynamical evolution to a black hole (for $\\Lambda=0$) or to a naked singularity (for $\\Lambda > 0$). This is the first time in the literature that a naked singularity emerges from a gravastar model.

  2. Overlapping in vitro and in vivo specificities of the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 for loop and thiazide diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Volker; Rieg, Timo; Ahn, Sun Young; Wu, Wei; Eraly, Satish A; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2008-04-01

    Organic anion transporter (OAT) genes have been implicated in renal secretion of organic anions, but the individual in vivo contributions of OAT1 (first identified as NKT) and OAT3 remain unclear. Potential substrates include loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics (e.g., bendroflumethiazide), which reach their tubular sites of action mainly by proximal tubular secretion. Previous experiments in Oat1 knockout (-/-) mice revealed an almost complete loss of renal secretion of the prototypic organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH) and a role of OAT1 in tubular secretion of furosemide (Eraly SA, Vallon V, Vaughn D, Gangoiti JA, Richter K, Nagle M, Monte JC, Rieg T, Truong DM, Long JM, Barshop BA, Kaler G, Nigam SK. J Biol Chem 281: 5072-5083, 2006). In this study we found that both furosemide and bendroflumethiazide inhibited mOat1- and mOat3-mediated uptake of a labeled tracer in Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNA, consistent with their being substrates for mouse OAT1 and OAT3. Experiments in Oat3(-/-) mice revealed intact renal secretion of PAH, but the dose-natriuresis curves for furosemide and bendroflumethiazide were shifted to the right and urinary furosemide excretion was impaired similar to the defect in Oat1(-/-) mice. Thus, whereas OAT1 (in contrast to OAT3) is the classic basolateral PAH transporter of the proximal tubule, both OAT1 and OAT3 contribute similarly to normal renal secretion of furosemide and bendroflumethiazide, and a lack of either one is not fully compensated by the other. Although microarray expression analysis in the kidneys of Oat1(-/-) and Oat3(-/-) mice revealed somewhat altered expression of a small number of transport-related genes, none were common to both knockout models. When searching for polymorphisms involved in human diuretic responsiveness, it may be necessary to consider both OAT1 and OAT3, among other genes.

  3. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably

  4. Simulation of oat development cycle by photoperiod and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia D. Mantai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The simulation of oat development cycle can be used in the planning of agricultural practices. The aim of the study was to simulate and validate the duration of oat development cycle by photoperiod, temperature and coefficients of development of wheat for use in the WE-Streck model, considering different doses of N-fertilizer and systems of succession of high and low C/N ratio. The study was conducted in 2015 in a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to N rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and oat cultivars (Barbarasul and Brisasul, respectively, in the soybean/oat and maize/oat systems. The duration of the stages from emergence to anthesis and from anthesis to maturation of oats was simulated in the WE-Streck model. The minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures that effectively simulate the oat development cycle were 4, 22 and 30 °C from emergence to anthesis and 15, 25 and 35 °C from anthesis to maturation, respectively. The intermediate-cycle oat development was efficiently simulated by the WE-Streck model using coefficients developed for wheat, with vegetative and reproductive cycles estimated at 89 and 43 days, respectively.

  5. Properties of amaranth flour with functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was composited with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The pasting and rheological properties of amaranth-oat composites were evaluated. The amaranth-Nutrim composites showe...

  6. Competitive oats for integrated weed management and organic rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Fradgley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Using a competitive crop like oats is essential for integrated management of weed problems. Oats can compete well with weeds through efficient nutrient uptake, allelopathy and canopy cover shading. Weeds are suppressed by the crops tillering ability and varieties with good canopy cover. Some varieties can tolerate weeds better by having both good canopy cover and height.

  7. Characterization of (Glucurono)arabinoxylans from Oats Using Enzymatic Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Lingmin; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A.

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall material from whole oat grains was sequentially extracted to study the structural characteristics of individual arabinoxylan (AX) populations. Araf was singly substituted at both O-3 (mainly) and O-2 positions of Xylp, and no disubstitution of Xylp with Araf residues was found in oat

  8. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably beta-glucan

  9. Plant defense activators as elicitors of oat avenanthramide biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oats produce a group of phenolic secondary metabolites termed “avenanthramides”. Among food crops these metabolites are unique to oat. In addition to their biological role as phytoalexins, the avenanthramides are potent antioxidants in vitro and have potential as nutraceuticals. In cellular assays ...

  10. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  11. 燕麦种子萌发过程中提取物的抑菌作用研究%Study on the Antimicrobial Effect of Oat Seeds Extracts during the Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡青平; 徐建国

    2012-01-01

    以4种食品腐败菌为指示菌,采用滤纸片法和液体倍比稀释法对裸燕麦(Avena nuda L.)种子萌发过程中不同溶剂提取物的抑菌作用和最低抑菌浓度(MIC)进行了比较研究.试验结果表明,乙酸乙酯提取物的抑菌作用较好,但在种子萌发过程中抑菌效果不同,萌发24h时燕麦种子的乙酸乙酯提取物的抑菌作用最强,其中对大肠杆菌的抑菌圈直径达(22.31±0.05) mm;其对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌的最低抑菌浓度MIC小于6.25%,对鼠伤寒沙门氏菌和肠炎沙门氏菌的最低抑菌浓度MIC小于12.5%,旨为燕麦的综合利用及新型天然防腐剂的研发提供理论依据.%Taking oat ( Avena nuda L. ) seeds as subject,Paper - disc and double dilution as methods,antibacterial activity of different solvents(water,methanol,acetone and ethyl acetate)from oat and the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration ( MIC) of ethyl acetate extract on four food corruption bacteria were investigated. The results showed that the inhibition of ethyl acetate extract on bacteria was better than other solvents extracts. But the antibacterial activity was changing in the germination of oat seeds. If oat seed was germinated for 24 h,the ethyl acetate extracts had the strongest antibacterial activity on four bacteria,about(22. 31 ±0.05) mm of inhibition diameter against Escherichia coli. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration( MIC) on Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were less than 6. 25%. However, MIC on Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis were less than 12.5%. This paper provides theoretical references for the comprehensive utilization of oat and development of new type of natural antiseptic.

  12. Characterization of (Glucurono)arabinoxylans from Oats Using Enzymatic Fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lingmin; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-12-23

    Cell wall material from whole oat grains was sequentially extracted to study the structural characteristics of individual arabinoxylan (AX) populations. Araf was singly substituted at both O-3 (mainly) and O-2 positions of Xylp, and no disubstitution of Xylp with Araf residues was found in oat AXs. Both highly substituted and sparsely substituted segments were found in AXs in Ba(OH)2 extracts, whereas AXs in 1 and 6 M NaOH extracts were rarely branched and easily aggregated. Both O-2-linked GlcA and 4-O-MeGlcA residues were present in oat AXs. A series of AX oligomers with galactose as a substituent was detected for the first time in oats. The present study suggested that the distribution of Araf was contiguous in oat AXs, different from the homogeneous distribution of Araf in wheat and barley AXs, which might result in different fermentation patterns in humans and animals.

  13. Chromatographic Methods to Evaluate Nutritional Quality in Oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla-Bascón, Gracia; Broeckling, Corey D; Hoekenga, Owen A; Prats, Elena; Sorrells, Mark; Isidro-Sánchez, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Oats (A. sativa L.) have an important and positive role in human diet and health. The health benefits of oats are attributed to its multifunctional characteristic and nutritional profile, being an important source of soluble dietary fiber, well-balanced proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, essential minerals, and a good source of natural antioxidants. These antioxidants include the avenanthramides (Avns) and avenalumic acids, which are unique to oats among cereals. High-performance liquid chromatography allows a simultaneous quantification of free amino acids and biogenic amines in oat samples as their OPA/FMOC-CL (o-phthalaldehyde/9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride) derivatives. In addition, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify and characterize avenanthramides contained in oat samples.

  14. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouqi Cui

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H2O2 and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  15. Gene Expression of Type VI Secretion System Associated with Environmental Survival in Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae by Principle Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhouqi; Jin, Guoqiang; Li, Bin; Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Ojaghian, Mohammad Reza; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2015-09-11

    Valine glycine repeat G (VgrG) proteins are regarded as one of two effectors of Type VI secretion system (T6SS) which is a complex multi-component secretion system. In this study, potential biological roles of T6SS structural and VgrG genes in a rice bacterial pathogen, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) RS-1, were evaluated under seven stress conditions using principle component analysis of gene expression. The results showed that growth of the pathogen was reduced by H₂O₂ and paraquat-induced oxidative stress, high salt, low temperature, and vgrG mutation, compared to the control. However, pathogen growth was unaffected by co-culture with a rice rhizobacterium Burkholderia seminalis R456. In addition, expression of 14 T6SS structural and eight vgrG genes was significantly changed under seven conditions. Among different stress conditions, high salt, and low temperature showed a higher effect on the expression of T6SS gene compared with host infection and other environmental conditions. As a first report, this study revealed an association of T6SS gene expression of the pathogen with the host infection, gene mutation, and some common environmental stresses. The results of this research can increase understanding of the biological function of T6SS in this economically-important pathogen of rice.

  16. Low-temperature and time-resolved spectroscopic characterization of the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauden, Magdalena; Crosson, Sean; van Stokkum, I. H. M.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Moffat, Keith; Kennis, John T. M.

    2004-09-01

    The phototropins are plant blue-light receptors that base their light-dependent action on the reversible formation of a covalent bond between a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) cofactor and a conserved cysteine residue in light, oxygen or voltage (LOV) domains. The spectroscopic properties of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1 of Avena sativa (oat) have been investigated by means of low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of the LOV2 domain showed a fine structure around 473 nm, indicating heterogeneity in the flavin binding pocket. The fluorescence quantum yield of the flavin cofactor increased from 0.13 to 0.41 upon cooling the sample from room temperature to 77 K. A pronounced phosphorescence emission around 600 nm was observed in the LOV2 domain between 77 and 120 K, allowing for an accurate positioning of the flavin triplet state in the LOV2 domain at 16900 cm-1. Fluorescence from the cryotrapped covalent adduct state was extremely weak, with a fluorescence spectrum showing a maximum at 440 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments utilizing a synchroscan streak camera revealed a singlet-excited state lifetime of the LOV2 domain of 2.4 ns. FMN dissolved in aqueous solution showed a pH-dependent lifetime ranging between 2.9 ns at pH 2.0 to 4.7 ns at pH 8.0. No spectral shifting of the flavin emission was observed in the LOV2 domain nor in FMN in aqueous solution.

  17. Modification of chemical properties of cell walls by silicon and its role in regulation of the cell wall extensibility in oat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Talim; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Fujii, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Hoson, Takayuki

    2007-04-01

    Effects of silicon on the mechanical and chemical properties of cell walls in the second leaf of oat (Avena sativa L.) seedlings were investigated. The cell wall extensibility in the basal region of the second leaf was considerably higher than that in the middle and subapical regions. Externally applied silicon increased the cell wall extensibility in the basal region, but it did not affect the extensibility in the middle and subapical regions. The amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and phenolic compounds, such as diferulic acid (DFA) and ferulic acid (FA), per unit length were lower in the basal region than in the middle and subapical regions of the leaf, and silicon altered these amounts in the basal region. In this region, silicon decreased the amounts of matrix polymers and cellulose per unit length and of DFA and FA, both per unit length and unit matrix polymer content. Silicon treatment also lowered the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) in the basal region. In contrast, the amount of silicon in cell walls increased in response to silicon treatment in three regions. These results suggest that in the basal region, silicon reduces the net wall mass and the formation of phenolic acid-mediated cross-linkages between wall polysaccharides. Such modifications of wall architecture may be responsible for the silicon-induced increase in the cell wall extensibility in oat leaves.

  18. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.

  19. PAH clearance after renal ischemia and reperfusion is a function of impaired expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigated this phenomenon in a rat model of renal ischemia and reperfusion by determining PAH clearance, PAH extraction, PAH net secretion, and the expression of rOat1 and rOat3. PAH extraction was seriously impaired after ischemia and reperfusion which led to a threefold underestimation of RPF when PAH extraction ratio was not considered. PAH extraction directly correlated with the expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3. Tubular PAH secretion directly correlated with PAH extraction. Consequently, our data offer an explanation for impaired renal PAH extraction by reduced expression of the rate limiting basolateral organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Moreover, we show that determination of PAH net secretion is suitable to correct PAH clearance for impaired extraction after ischemia and reperfusion in order to get valid results for RPF.

  20. Breeding and feeding ecology of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) at Naked Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the breeding and feeding ecology of the pigeon guillemot at Naked Island, Alaska, as well as surveys of the Naked Island complex. Methods...

  1. Spin precession in a black hole and naked singularity spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chandrachur; Kocherlakota, Prashant; Joshi, Pankaj S.

    2017-02-01

    We propose here a specific criterion to address the existence or otherwise of Kerr naked singularities, in terms of the precession of the spin of a test gyroscope due to the frame dragging by the central spinning body. We show that there is indeed an important characteristic difference in the behavior of gyro spin precession frequency in the limit of approach to these compact objects, and this can be used, in principle, to differentiate the naked singularity from a black hole. Specifically, if gyroscopes are fixed all along the polar axis up to the horizon of a Kerr black hole, the precession frequency becomes arbitrarily high, blowing up as the event horizon is approached. On the other hand, in the case of naked singularity, this frequency remains always finite and well behaved. Interestingly, this behavior is intimately related to and is governed by the geometry of the ergoregion in each of these cases, which we analyze here. One intriguing behavior that emerges is, in the Kerr naked singularity case, the Lense-Thirring precession frequency (ΩLT ) of the gyroscope due to frame-dragging effect decreases as (ΩLT∝r ) after reaching a maximum, in the limit of r =0 , as opposed to r-3 dependence in all other known astrophysical cases.

  2. Naked at Our Age: Talking out Loud about Senior Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    "Naked at Our Age" is an excellent resource for sexually interested and/or active adults over the age of 60. The book combines the author's personal reflections, questions and stories shared by older adults, and advice from sex therapists, sexuality educators, the author, and health care providers. The breadth of topics makes the book useful to…

  3. Two-Laser Interference Visible to the Naked Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa

    2012-01-01

    An experimental setup allowing the observation of two-laser interference by the naked eye is described. The key concept is the use of an electronic phase lock between two external cavity diode lasers. The experiment is suitable both for undergraduate and graduate students, mainly in atomic physics laboratories. It gives an opportunity for…

  4. Naked exclusion in the lab : The case of sequential contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Müller, W.; Suetens, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the naked exclusion model of Rasmusen, Ramseyer and Wiley [1991] and Segal and Whinston [2000b], we examine whether sequential contracting is more conducive to exclusion in the lab, and whether it is cheaper for the incumbent than simultaneous contracting. We find that an incumbent

  5. Scalar Radiation in the Background of a Naked Singularity

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anshuman; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2013-01-01

    We study scalar radiation spectra from a particle in circular orbit, in the background of the Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) naked singularity. The differences in the nature of the spectra, from what one obtains with a Schwarzschild black hole, is established. We also compute the angular distribution of the spectra.

  6. Methodology adjustments for organic acid tolerance studies in oat under hydroponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Marini Kopp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic systems. For such goal, the best germination system was determined in order to reduce the seedling initial establishment effects under hydroponics, the ideal concentration for screening genotypes and the best variable for stress evaluation. It was found that the most efficient germination system was "pleated germination paper" with small and husked seeds. The best concentration for studying organic acid tolerance ranged from 2.3 to 6.2 mM and the most suitable variable for the evaluation was root length.A ocorrência de condições anaeróbias nos solos hidromórficos favorece o desenvolvimento de microrganismos anaeróbios que produzem substâncias fitotóxicas representadas principalmente pelos ácidos orgânicos. A seleção de constituições genéticas de aveia (Avena sativa L. promissoras para utilização nestas situações requer avaliações de difícil execução no campo, tornando a utilização de sistemas hidropônicos mais vantajosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar uma metodologia para ser utilizada em estudos de tolerância a ácidos orgânicos em aveia através de sistemas hidropônicos. Para tal fim foi determinada uma forma adequada de promover a germinação das sementes de maneira a reduzir os efeitos do estabelecimento inicial das plântulas na hidroponia, uma faixa de concentração ideal para discriminação dos genótipos e as variáveis de maior interesse para avaliação. O sistema de germinação mais eficiente é através de

  7. Pasting and rheological properties of oat products dry-blended with ground chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat products containing ß-glucan are documented for lowering blood cholesterol that could be beneficial for preventing coronary heart disease. Oat products (oat flour, oat bran concentrate, and Nutrim) were dry-blended with ground chia (Salvia hispanica L.) that contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatt...

  8. The U.S. Oats Industry. Agricultural Economic Report Number 573.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Linwood A.; Livezey, Janet

    This report describes the United States oats industry from producers to consumers and provides a single source of economic and statistical information on oats. Background information on oats is provided first. The report then examines the basic factors of supply, demand, and price to determine what caused the decline in the importance of oats and…

  9. Extraction and Fatty Acids Analysis of Bran Oil in Oat%燕麦麸油的萃取及脂肪酸成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠兰英; 黄梓平; 赵启文

    2012-01-01

    采用超临界CO2法从燕麦(Avena sativa)品种青海444中萃取麸油,设计正交试验优化萃取工艺.结果表明,萃取压力对燕麦麸油的萃取率有极显著影响(P<0.01),萃取时间和萃取温度对萃取率有显著影响(P<0.05).优化的萃取工艺条件为萃取压力25 MPa、萃取温度40℃、萃取时间2.5 h,此条件下燕麦麸油的萃取率为8.572%.GC-MS分析表明青海444燕麦麸油中主要含有5种脂肪酸,其中总不饱和脂肪酸含量达85.366%,油酸和亚油酸的含量分别为41.175%和40.558%.%Supercritical CO2 method was adopted to extract brand oil from oat (Avena saliva) variety Qinghai 444; and orthogonal design was applied to optimize the extraction. The results showed that extraction pressure had very significant effect on the yield of bran oil (P<0.01); while extraction temperature and extraction time had significant effect (P<0.05). The optimum extraction conditions were, extraction pressure, 25 Mpa; extraction temperature, 40 t; and extraction time, 2.5 hours; the yield of oat bran oil was 8.572% under these conditions. According to GC—MS analysis, there were 5 components in oat bran oil, among which the content of total unsaturated fatty acid was 85.366% ; and the content of oleic acid and linoleic acid was 41.175% and 40.558%, respectively.

  10. Efeito da temperatura de secagem na qualidade de grãos de aveia branca Effect of drying temperature on the quality of white oat grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Conceição Oliveira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas do ar de secagem na qualidade física, química e biológica de grãos de aveia branca da cultivar Albasul. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram submetidos à secagem estacionária com temperaturas de 25, 50, 75 e 100 ºC até a umidade de 13 %, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Nas amostras, foram determinados peso volumétrico, peso de 1000 grãos, germinação e vigor. Os grãos de aveia foram submetidos ao descascamento, moagem em granulometria inferior a 0,5 mm e avaliadas quanto a composição centesimal, atividade residual das enzimas lipase e peroxidase, cor e teor de beta-glicanas. O aumento de temperatura do ar de secagem intensificou a redução da qualidade biológica, expressa por meio do poder germinativo e vigor, além de provocar reduções no peso de 1000 grãos e peso volumétrico. As condições de secagem não foram suficientes para inativar as enzimas lipase e peroxidase, embora tenham provocado reduções nas suas atividades. Na secagem realizada com temperatura do ar superior a 75 ºC ocorreu redução significativa no teor de beta-glicanas.The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of different air drying temperatures upon the physical, chemical and biological quality of white oat grains, Albasul cultivar. Oat grains (Avena sativa L. were submitted to stationary drying at 25, 50, 75 and 100 ºC until 13 % of moisture, in totally randomized arrangement. In the samples, volumetric weight, weight of 1000 grains, germination and vigor were determined. The oats grains were husked, grounded at granulometry inferior to 0.5 mm, and analyzed according to centesimal composition, residual activity lipase and peroxidase, color and content of â-glucans. Increasing the temperature of drying air intensified the reduction of biological quality, expressed through germinative power and vigor, and also led to a decrease in weight of 1000

  11. Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Z.; Pugliese, D.; Schee, J.; Kučáková, H.

    2015-09-01

    We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularities. These are spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the modified Hořava quantum gravity, characterized by a dimensionless parameter ω M^2, combining the gravitational mass parameter M of the spacetime with the Hořava parameter ω reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of ω M^2, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures, demonstrating clear distinction to the properties of the torii in the Schwarzschild spacetimes. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an "antigravity" sphere where matter can stay in a stable equilibrium position, which is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures. The signature of the K-S naked singularity is given by the properties of marginally stable tori orbiting with the uniform distribution of the specific angular momentum of the fluid, l= const. In the K-S naked singularity spacetimes with ω M^2 > 0.2811, doubled tori with the same l= const can exist; mass transfer between the outer torus and the inner one is possible under appropriate conditions, while only outflow to the outer space is allowed in complementary conditions. In the K-S spacetimes with ω M^2 < 0.2811, accretion from cusped perfect fluid tori is not possible due to the non-existence of unstable circular geodesics.

  12. Oat Phytochrome Is Biologically Active in Transgenic Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, M. T.; Quail, P. H.

    1989-08-01

    To determine the functional homology between phytochromes from evolutionarily divergent species, we used the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter to express a monocot (oat) phytochrome cDNA in a dicot plant (tomato). Immunoblot analysis shows that more than 50% of the transgenic tomato plants synthesize the full-length oat phytochrome polypeptide. Moreover, leaves of light-grown transgenic plants contain appreciably less oat phytochrome than leaves from dark-adapted plants, and etiolated R1 transgenic seedlings have higher levels of spectrally active phytochrome than wild-type tomato seedlings in direct proportion to the level of immunochemically detectable oat polypeptide present. These data suggest that the heterologous oat polypeptide carries a functional chromophore, allowing reversible photoconversion between the two forms of the molecule, and that the far-red absorbing form (Pfr) is recognized and selectively degraded by the Pfr-specific degradative machinery in the dicot cell. The overexpression of oat phytochrome has pleiotropic, phenotypic consequences at all major phases of the life cycle. Adult transgenic tomato plants expressing high levels of the oat protein tend to be dwarfed, with dark green foliage and fruits. R1 transgenic seedlings have short hypocotyls with elevated anthocyanin contents. We conclude that a monocot phytochrome can be synthesized and correctly processed to a biologically active form in a dicot cell, and that the transduction pathway components that interact with the photoreceptor are evolutionarily conserved.

  13. Naked bodies, naked genomes: the special (but not exceptional) nature of genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    Genetic exceptionalism, the view that genomic information is different from other types of sensitive information and deserves exceptional types of protections, has been roundly criticized. However, the public still expresses special fears about the access others might have to their genomic information. In this article, it is argued that there may be a basis for the public perception that genomic information is special, even if it cannot be said that policies could or should be enacted to protect the privacy and confidentiality of genomic information that would be exceptional relative to the protections one would enact to protect other types of sensitive information. The special nature of genomic information lies in understanding that it is neither personal property nor mere information. A genome is, at one and the same time, a physical aspect of a person and information about that person. Genomic data are embodied information that partially constitutes as well as describes individuals and that connects them in physical ways to their ancestors and their relatives. All forms of privacy need to be protected, but some intimate aspects of our lives command special respect. To see a genome is more analogous to seeing a naked body than to seeing a social security number. This metaphor suggests that clinicians and investigators ought to respect the special concerns of patients regarding genomic information while not claiming that there are any exceptional measures one could take to protect genomic privacy. Suggestions are given for how this view might affect patient interactions, consent discussions, public policy, and public trust in genomic research and clinical genetics.

  14. Intensive herbicide use has selected for constitutively elevated levels of stress-responsive mRNAs and proteins in multiple herbicide-resistant Avena fatua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Barbara K; Burns, Erin E; Bothner, Brian; Carey, Charles C; Mazurie, Aurélien J; Hilmer, Jonathan K; Biyiklioglu, Sezgi; Budak, Hikmet; Dyer, William E

    2017-05-09

    Intensive use of herbicides has led to the evolution of two multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) Avena fatua (wild oat) populations in Montana that are resistant to members of all selective herbicide families available for A. fatua control in US small grain crops. We used transcriptome and proteome surveys to compare constitutive changes in MHR and herbicide-susceptible (HS) plants associated with non-target site resistance. Compared to HS plants, MHR plants contained constitutively elevated levels of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with functions in xenobiotic catabolism, stress response, redox maintenance and transcriptional regulation that are similar to abiotic stress-tolerant phenotypes. Proteome comparisons identified similarly elevated proteins including biosynthetic and multifunctional enzymes in MHR plants. Of 25 DEGs validated by RT-qPCR assay, differential regulation of 21 co-segregated with flucarbazone-sodium herbicide resistance in F3 families, and a subset of 10 of these were induced or repressed in herbicide-treated HS plants. Although the individual and collective contributions of these DEGs and proteins to MHR remain to be determined, our results support the idea that intensive herbicide use has selected for MHR populations with altered, constitutively regulated patterns of gene expression that are similar to those in abiotic stress-tolerant plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Distaste: Joyce Carol Oates and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rutledge

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many of her short stories and novels, Joyce Carol Oates depicts an unhealthy relationship with food. The range of these unhealthy relationships is wide, from overeating to the point of suicide, in Expensive People, to starving oneself in an attempt to deny one’s physical nature, in “Orange” and them. Overindulgence is a means for attempting to fill that space where the soul should be; undereating is often an attempt to deny one’s place in the social world. The eating disorders she portrays are rooted in both personal and social causes. While these depictions are unique to each character, over all Oates’s depictions of food develop a critique of American values. An understanding of Oates’s theme of food must include psychological, cultural and poetic approaches.

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing and Analysis of the Cereal Cyst Nematode, Heterodera avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Roychowdhury, Tanmoy; Thakur, Prasoon Kumar; Banakar, Prakash; Shukla, Rohit N.; Jones, Michael G. K.; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae) is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp) that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy) revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs) but more glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million) value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb) for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction. PMID:24802510

  17. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    Full Text Available The cereal cyst nematode (CCN, Heterodera avenae is a major pest of wheat (Triticum spp that reduces crop yields in many countries. Cyst nematodes are obligate sedentary endoparasites that reproduce by amphimixis. Here, we report the first transcriptome analysis of two stages of H. avenae. After sequencing extracted RNA from pre parasitic infective juvenile and adult stages of the life cycle, 131 million Illumina high quality paired end reads were obtained which generated 27,765 contigs with N50 of 1,028 base pairs, of which 10,452 were annotated. Comparative analyses were undertaken to evaluate H. avenae sequences with those of other plant, animal and free living nematodes to identify differences in expressed genes. There were 4,431 transcripts common to H. avenae and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and 9,462 in common with more closely related potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Annotation of H. avenae carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy revealed fewer glycoside hydrolases (GHs but more glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs when compared to M. incognita. 1,280 transcripts were found to have secretory signature, presence of signal peptide and absence of transmembrane. In a comparison of genes expressed in the pre-parasitic juvenile and feeding female stages, expression levels of 30 genes with high RPKM (reads per base per kilo million value, were analysed by qRT-PCR which confirmed the observed differences in their levels of expression levels. In addition, we have also developed a user-friendly resource, Heterodera transcriptome database (HATdb for public access of the data generated in this study. The new data provided on the transcriptome of H. avenae adds to the genetic resources available to study plant parasitic nematodes and provides an opportunity to seek new effectors that are specifically involved in the H. avenae-cereal host interaction.

  18. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  19. Naked singularity formation in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Atazadeh, Khedmat [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Yaser, E-mail: am.ziaie@mail.sbu.ac.i, E-mail: k-atazadeh@sbu.ac.i, E-mail: tavakoli@ubi.p [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d' Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha (Portugal)

    2010-04-07

    Gravitational collapse of the Brans-Dicke scalar field with non-zero potential in the presence of matter fluid obeying the barotropic equation of state, p = wrho, is studied. Utilizing the concept of the expansion parameter, it is seen that the cosmic censorship conjecture may be violated for w=-1/3 and w=-2/3 which correspond to the cosmic string and domain wall, respectively. We have shown that physically, it is the rate of collapse that governs the formation of a black hole or a naked singularity as the final fate of dynamical evolution and only for these two cases can the singularity be naked as the collapse end state. Also the weak energy condition is satisfied by the collapsing configuration.

  20. Hybrid nanomaterials: anchoring magnetic molecules on naked gold nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca J; Hutchings, Amy-Jayne; Habib, Fatemah; Korobkov, Ilia; Scaiano, Juan C; Murugesu, Muralee

    2013-12-16

    The pairing of molecular magnets and nanomaterials couples top-down and bottom-up approaches to nanotechnology; facilitating a unique methodology to the controlled study of interfacial magnetic properties. Attaching Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs) to "naked" gold nanoparticles is a novel method of exploring various avenues of magnetic nanotechnology, such as drug delivery, information storage, catalysis, and assembly of magnetic-nanostructural motifs. Herein we report the successful capping of laser ablation synthesized "naked" gold nanoparticles with a dinuclear dysprosium complex, while introducing new information regarding the changes in molecular magnetic properties upon surface attachment. We anticipate that this methodology in producing these magneto-plasmonic nanostructures not only provides answers to fundamental questions but also has the potential to provide new avenues to applications including information storage, multimodal imaging, biomedicine, and optoelectronics.

  1. Naked eye visibility of Sirius in broad daylight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Tinbergen, Jaap; Stammes, Piet

    2015-02-01

    Sirius was spotted with the naked eye at broad daylight by looking along the finder of a 1 m telescope on La Palma Observatory at a 2370 m height. Sun elevation was 73°; Sirius was nearly straight under the Sun at 37° elevation. The sky radiance, although not recorded directly, could be determined from the simultaneously obtained high-precision wavelength-dependent sky polarization data near Sirius. This was done by fitting the polarization data with the doubling-adding KNMI (DAK) radiative transfer model, which provided the values of the surface albedo and of the aerosol optical thickness required for determining the absolute sky radiance. Our analysis implies that Sirius, when positioned overhead, can be a daytime naked eye object from sea level even if its culmination occurs at solar noon. It also suggests that the second-brightest star (Canopus), if positioned overhead, could be perceptible even at solar noon.

  2. Quantum probes of timelike naked singularity with scalar hair

    OpenAIRE

    Svitek, O.; Tahamtan, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study the curvature singularity resolution via quantum fields on a fixed background based on Klein--Gordon and Dirac equations for a static spacetime with a scalar field producing a timelike naked singularity. We show that both Klein--Gordon and Dirac quantum fields see this singularity. Subsequently we check the results by applying the maximal acceleration existence in Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity described recently and obtain the resolution of singularity. In the process we study the g...

  3. NAKE'MUU: VILLAGE ON THE EDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. VIERRA; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Pursuant to federal requirements under the National Environmental Policy Act, in 1996 the Department of Energy (DOE) completed an environmental impact statement, record of decision, and mitigation action plan (MAP) for the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility. DARHT is a new explosives testing facility located at TA-15, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the implementation of the MAP, the ESH-20 Cultural Resources Team at LANL is conducting a long-term monitoring program at the ancestral pueblo site of Nake'muu (LA 12655). DOE considers the monitoring program to be an appropriate and necessary mitigation for the potential operational impacts associated with the DARHT Facility. This chapter presents the preliminary findings of the monitoring program from 1997 through 2000. The Nake'muu site monitoring program was initiated by ESH-20 and the Mesa Verde Architectural Team, National Park Service (NPS) in 1997. Archaeologists from LANL and NPS have completed the detailed recording of all the walls at Nake'muu and the final site evaluation plan was finished in 1998 (Nordby et al. 1998). The plan describes the methods used for site monitoring, continued site revisits, and updates on wall condition by LANL archaeologists. The primary objective of the monitoring program is to identify and evaluate the long-term effects of the ambient environment and DARHT Facility operations on the architecture at Nake'muu. Is the dynamic-testing program affecting the site, and if so, to what degree? What are the short-term and long-term implications of facility operations?

  4. David Cronenberg, author of naked lunch: Intersemiotic translation as transcreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Fachel de Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the intersemiotic translation process performed by filmmaker David Cronenberg of William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch, and the intertextual bifurcations involved in this process. Investigating the similarities and differences between the creative worlds of both artists and how they reframe each other. For this, are used as the theoretical the idea of transcreation proposed by Haroldo de Campos, and the notion of the translator as a reader proposed by Jorge Luis Borges.

  5. Quantum probes of timelike naked singularity with scalar hair

    CERN Document Server

    Svítek, O

    2016-01-01

    We study the curvature singularity resolution via quantum fields on a fixed background based on Klein--Gordon and Dirac equations for a static spacetime with a scalar field producing a timelike naked singularity. We show that both Klein--Gordon and Dirac quantum fields see this singularity. Subsequently we check the results by applying the maximal acceleration existence in Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity described recently and obtain the resolution of singularity. In the process we study the geodesics in the spacetime.

  6. Impact of Oat-Based Products on Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staka Aiga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.

  7. The future of oats in the food and health continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Roger; van Klinken, B Jan-Willem

    2014-10-01

    A large body of clinical evidence suggests that the consumption of 3 g or more per d of β-glucan from oats or barley, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of CHD. The unique chemical and physical properties of oats and physiological responses to oat consumption contribute to their demonstrated health benefits; other health attributes are still under evaluation. Many of these benefits, such as those associated with a reduced risk of CVD, are codified in health claims by several regulatory agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration in the USA and the European Food Safety Authority in Europe. Despite these oat-health relationships, an apparent decline in agricultural production, the presence of an array of plant pathogens, and dynamics of climatic conditions may preclude the availability and subsequent consumption of this commodity worldwide. Therefore, it is incumbent on scientists from multiple disciplines to advance research in a spectrum of arenas, including physico-chemical properties of oats, the impact of oats on an array of non-communicable diseases and human microbiome, agricultural practices and environments, and processing technologies that contribute to global food policies.

  8. A comparative analysis of nutrition components and functional active ingredients in Avena nuda and Avena sativa%裸燕麦和皮燕麦的营养及功能活性成分对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑蕊; 王世霞; 幺杨; 婷婷; 刘珊; 任贵兴; 綦文涛

    2015-01-01

    The differences of nutrition components and active ingredient between Avena nuda and Avena sativa were compared.The contents of basic components (moisture and ash),nutritional compositions (starch,protein and fat)and functional active ingredient (flavonoids,polyphenols and oligosaccharide) in 5 kinds of Avena nuda and 3 kinds of Avena sativa were determined.The results showed that there were no significant differences in the contents of moisture and ash between Avena nuda and Avena sativa. The contents of crud fat,crud protein,stearic acid,oleic acid,linoleic acid,linolenic acid,flavonoids and amino acid in Avena nuda were significantly higher than those in Avena sativa,while the contents of slowly digestible starch and stachyose in Avena nuda were significantly lower than those in Avena sativa. Both Avena nuda and Avena sativa had similar composition of nutritional and functional active ingredients but the contents of them higher in Avena nuda than in Avena sativa.%对比研究裸燕麦和皮燕麦营养组分及功能活性成分的差异。以5种裸燕麦和3种皮燕麦为材料,分别测定其中基本组分(水分和灰分)、营养组分(淀粉、蛋白质和脂肪)以及功能组分(黄酮、多酚和低聚糖等)的含量。结果表明,裸燕麦和皮燕麦的水分和灰分含量无显著性差异;裸燕麦在粗脂肪、粗蛋白、硬脂酸、油酸、亚油酸、亚麻酸、黄酮和氨基酸等营养及功能组分的含量方面显著高于皮燕麦,而慢消化淀粉和水苏糖2种组分含量显著低于皮燕麦。裸燕麦和皮燕麦含有相同种类的营养及功能组分,但裸燕麦的多种营养组分及功能组分含量高于皮燕麦。

  9. PAH clearance after renal ischemia and reperfusion is a function of impaired expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para‐aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigat...

  10. Diversity in oat potential immunogenicity: basis for the selection of oat varieties with no toxicity in coeliac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Real, Ana; de Lorenzo, Laura; Cornell, Hugh; López-Casado, Miguel Ángel; Barro, Francisco; Lorite, Pedro; Torres, Ma Isabel; Cebolla, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by an abnormal reaction to gluten. Peptides resulting from partially digested gluten of wheat, barley or rye cause inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa. Previous contradictory studies suggest that oats may trigger the abnormal immunological response in patients with CD. Monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) against the main immunotoxic 33-mer peptide (A1 and G12) react strongly against wheat, barley and rye but have less reactivity against oats. The stated aim of this study is to test whether this observed reactivity could be related to the potential toxicity of oats for patients with CD. Methods In the present study, different oat varieties, controlled for their purity and by their distinct protein pattern, were used to examine differences in moAb G12 recognition by ELISA and western blot. Immunogenicity of oat varieties was determined by 33-mer concentration, T cell proliferation and interferon γ production. Results Three groups of oat cultivars reacting differently against moAb G12 could be distinguished: a group with considerable affinity, a group showing slight reactivity and a third with no detectable reactivity. The immunogenicity of the three types of oats as well as that of a positive and negative control was determined with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear T cells from patients with CD by measurement of cell proliferation and interferon γ release. A direct correlation of the reactivity with G12 and the immunogenicity of the different prolamins was observed. Conclusions The results showed that the reactivity of the moAb G12 is proportional to the potential immunotoxicity of the cereal cultivar. These differences may explain the different clinical responses observed in patients suffering from CD and open up a means to identify immunologically safe oat cultivars, which could be used to enrich a gluten-free diet. PMID:21317420

  11. Characterization of putative effectors from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiangkuan; Peng, Huan; Qiao, Fen; Wang, Gaofeng; Huang, Wenkun; Wu, Duqign; Peng, Deliang

    2017-09-20

    Few molecular details of effectors of Heterodera avenae parasitism are known. We performed a high-throughput sequencing analysis of the H. avenae transcriptome at five developmental stages. A total of 82,549 unigenes were ultimately obtained, and 747 transcripts showed best hits to genes putatively encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes in plant parasitic nematodes that play an important role in the invasion process. A total of 1480 unigenes were homologous to known phytonematode effectors, and 63 putative novel effectors were identified in the H. avenae transcriptomes. Twenty-three unigenes were analyzed by qRT-PCR and confirmed to be highly expressed during at least one developmental stage. For in situ hybridization, 17 of the 22 tested putative effectors were specifically expressed and located in the subventral gland cells, and five putative novel effectors were specifically expressed in the dorsal gland. Furthermore, 115 transcripts were found to have putative lethal RNA interference (RNAi) phenotypes. Three target genes with lethal RNAi phenotypes and two of the four tested putative effectors were associated with a decrease in the number of cysts through in vitro RNAi technology. These transcriptomic data lay a foundation for further studies of interactions of H. avenae with cereal and H. avenae parasitic control.

  12. Characterization of celiac disease related oat proteins: bases for the development of high quality oat varieties suitable for celiac patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María J.; Real, Ana; García-Molina, M. Dolores; Sousa, Carolina; Barro, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that the immunogenicity of oats depends on the cultivar. RP-HPLC has been proposed as a useful technique to select varieties of oats with reduced immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to identify both the avenin protein patterns associated with low gluten content and the available variability for the development of new non-toxic oat cultivars. The peaks of alcohol-soluble avenins of a collection of landraces and cultivars of oats have been characterized based on the RP-HPLC elution times. The immunotoxicity of oat varieties for patients with celiac disease (CD) has been tested using a competitive ELISA based on G12 monoclonal antibody. The oat lines show, on average, seven avenin peaks giving profiles with certain similarities. Based on this similarity, most of the accessions have been grouped into avenin patterns. The variability of RP-HPLC profiles of the collection is great, but not sufficient to uniquely identify the different varieties of the set. Overall, the immunogenicity of the collection is less than 20 ppm. However, there is a different distribution of toxicity ranges between the different peak patterns. We conclude that the RP-HPLC technique is useful to establish groups of varieties differing in degree of toxicity for CD patients. PMID:28209962

  13. Male-dominant activation of rat renal organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3 expression by transcription factor BCL6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waja Wegner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1 and 3 (Oat3 mediate the transport of organic anions, including frequently prescribed drugs, across cell membranes in kidney proximal tubule cells. In rats, these transporters are known to be male-dominant and testosterone-dependently expressed. The molecular mechanisms that are involved in the sex-dependent expression are unknown. Our aim was to identify genes that show a sex-dependent expression and could be involved in male-dominant regulation of Oat1 and Oat3. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Promoter activities of Oat1 and Oat3 were analyzed using luciferase assays. Expression profiling was done using a SurePrint G3 rat GE 8 × 60K microarray. RNA was isolated from renal cortical slices of four adult rats per sex. To filter the achieved microarray data for genes expressed in proximal tubule cells, transcription database alignment was carried out. We demonstrate that predicted androgen response elements in the promoters of Oat1 and Oat3 are not functional when the promoters were expressed in OK cells. Using microarray analyses we analyzed 17,406 different genes. Out of these genes, 56 exhibit a sex-dependent expression in rat proximal tubule cells. As genes potentially involved in the regulation of Oat1 and Oat3 expression, we identified, amongst others, the male-dominant hydroxysteroid (17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (Hsd17b1, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6, and polymerase (RNA III (DNA directed polypeptide G (Polr3g. Moreover, our results revealed that the transcription factor BCL6 activates promoter constructs of Oat1 and Oat3. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the male-dominant expression of both transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, is possibly not directly regulated by the classical androgen receptor mediated transcriptional pathway but appears to be regulated by the transcription factor BCL6.

  14. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years1–3. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years4,5. In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer2,6. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole-rat’s cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high molecular weight HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues due to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signaling, as the naked mole rat cells have a higher affinity to HA than the mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signaling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high molecular weight HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, Hyal2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumors in mice. We speculate that naked mole-rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. PMID:23783513

  15. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  16. The starry room naked eye astronomy in the intimate universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This inspiring and enriching book, a collection of essays that evokes the beauty and wonder of the night sky, explains to beginning skywatchers how to find and where to look for specific celestial objects. Author Fred Schaaf, once described as a naturalist in the tradition of Henry David Thoreau and John Burroughs, reveals an intense love of his subject and a keen knowledge of the optimum ways of viewing astronomical phenomena with the naked eye. Schaaf not only describes such special sights as an eyelash-thin moon, a shooting star, streaking comets, and a lunar eclipse, but he also explains w

  17. Nitrogen efficiency in oats on grain yield with stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. G. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N is the nutrient most absorbed by the oat crop. Unfavorable climate conditions decrease its efficiency, generating instability and reduction in yield. The objective of this study was to improve N use efficiency in oat grain yield by the economic value of the product and of the input and by models that scale the stability, considering systems of succession of high and reduced residual-N release in favorable and unfavorable years for cultivation. The study was conducted in the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 in two systems of succession (soybean/oat, maize/oat in randomized blocks with eight replicates, using the N-fertilizer doses of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1. The N-fertilizer dose for maximum economic efficiency in oats should be considered based on the meteorological trends of the cultivation year. N use optimization by models that determine the stability is an innovative proposal to increase fertilization efficiency on the yield. The N-fertilizer dose of 60 kg ha-1 promotes greater efficiency with predictability and yield, regardless of the agricultural year and the system of succession.

  18. Oat sensitization in children with atopic dermatitis: prevalence, risks and associated factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boussault, P; Leaute-Labreze, C; Saubusse, E; Maurice-Tison, S; Perromat, M; Roul, S; Sarrat, A; Taieb, A; Boralevi, F

    2007-01-01

    .... Percutaneous sensitization to oat used in emollients/moisturizers has already been reported. Our objectives were to measure the prevalence of oat sensitization in AD children, to assess its relevance, and to look at related parameters. Methods...

  19. Banco de sementes de aveia preta no solo sob dois sistemas de manejo Soil seed bank of black oat in two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. possuem a capacidade de permanecer viáveis no solo de um ano de cultivo para outro. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o número de sementes de aveia preta resultantes de dois sistemas de manejo (colheita e ressemeadura natural, que poderão formar o banco de sementes do solo. Os ensaios foram realizados no município de Jari - RS, em uma área cultivada sob o sistema de "plantio direto". Foram coletadas 50 amostras em cada sistema de manejo, com um espaçamento de 10x20m, utilizando um amostrador de diâmetro de 0,05m e uma profundidade de 0,1m. O levantamento do número de sementes e da emergência das plântulas foi realizado no Laboratório Didático da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (UFPel. Constatou-se que a colheita e a ressemeadura natural possibilitam a presença de sementes no solo por área, em quantidades superiores à indicada para a semeadura. Com a colheita, a área fica heterogênea em número de sementes no solo e em plântulas emergidas. A ressemeadura natural resulta em uma grande quantidade de sementes no solo e formação de plântulas.The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. seeds are able to remain alive in soil from a culture to another. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of black oat seeds resulting from two management, harvesting, and natural reseeding, which could form the seed bank of soil. The experiments were conducted in Jari-RS, Brazil, the cultivation system is "No Tillage". Were collected 50 samples in each management, at a spacing of 10mx20m, using a sampler diameter of 0.05m and depth of 0.1m. The evaluation of the number of seeds and seedling emergence was accomplish at the Laboratory of Seeds Analysis of the Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" (UFPEL. It was found that both as the crop as the natural seeding allow large quantities of seeds in the soil for the upper area suitable for planting. The harvest area is

  20. Inhibitory effect of caffeic acid on human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3: a novel candidate for food-drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwai, Yuichi; Ozeki, Yukihiro; Isaka, Tomonori; Honjo, Hiroaki; Iwamoto, Kikuo

    2011-01-01

    Several kinds of food have been shown to influence the absorption and metabolism of drugs, although there is little information about their effect on the renal excretion of drugs. In this study, we performed uptake experiments using Xenopus laevis oocytes to assess the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and quinic acid, which are contained in coffee, fruits and vegetables, on human organic anion transporters hOAT1 and hOAT3; these transporters mediate renal tubular uptake of anionic drugs from blood. Injection of hOAT1 and hOAT3 cRNA into oocytes stimulated uptake of typical substrates of hOAT1 and hOAT3 (p-aminohippurate and estrone sulfate, respectively); among the three compounds tested, caffeic acid most strongly inhibited these transporters. The apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations of caffeic acid were estimated to be 16.6 µM for hOAT1 and 5.4 µM for hOAT3. Eadie-Hofstee plot analysis showed that caffeic acid inhibited both transporters in a competitive manner. In addition to the transport of p-aminohippurate and estrone sulfate, that of antifolates and antivirals was inhibited by caffeic acid. These findings show that caffeic acid has inhibitory potential against hOAT1 and hOAT3, suggesting that renal excretion of their substrates could be affected in patients consuming a diet including caffeic acid.

  1. JBP485 improves gentamicin-induced acute renal failure by regulating the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinjin [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China); Kaku, Taiichi [Japan Bioproducts Industry Co. Ltd., Tomigaya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Liu, Kexin, E-mail: kexinliu@dlmedu.edu.cn [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of endogenous substances (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and indoxyl sulfate) in vivo, an increase in the excretion of exogenous compounds (lisinopril and inulin) into urine, and up-regulation of the expressions of renal Oat1 and Oat3 in the kidney tissues and slices via substrate induction. To determine the effect of JBP485 on the accelerated excretion of uremic toxins mediated by Oat1 and Oat3, the mRNA and protein expression levels of renal basolateral Oats were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, immunohistochemical analysis and an immunofluorescence method. Gentamicin down-regulated the expression of Oats mRNA and protein in rat kidney, and these effects were reversed after administration of JBP485. In addition, JBP485 caused a significant decrease in MPO and MDA levels in the kidney, and improved the pathological condition of rat kidney. These results indicated that JBP485 improved acute renal failure by increasing the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3, and by decreasing overoxidation of the kidney in gentamicin-induced ARF rats. - Highlights: • JBP485 could up-regulate function and expression of Oat1 and Oat3 in kidney. • Effects of JBP485 on ARF are mediated by stimulating excretion of uremic toxins. • JBP485 protected against gentamicin-induced ARF by decreasing MPO and MDA.

  2. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE FROM OAT HULLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni B. Paschoal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the microstructure, crystallinity and thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from oat hulls using bleaching and acid hydrolysis at a mild temperature (45 ºC followed by ultrasonication. The oat hulls were bleached with peracetic acid, and after bleaching, the compact structure around the cellulosic fibers was removed, and the bundles became individualized. The extraction time (30 or 60 min did not affect the properties of the nanofibrillated cellulose, which presented a higher crystallinity index and thermal stability than the raw material (oat hulls. The nanocellulose formed interconnected webs of tiny fibers with diameters of 70-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, producing nanofibers with a relatively high aspect ratio, thus indicating that these materials are suitable for polymer reinforcement.

  3. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; O'Neil, Carol E; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-02-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety.

  4. Dietary fiber and satiety: the effects of oats on satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neil, Carol E.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the effect of β-glucan, the viscous soluble fiber in oats, on satiety. A literature search for studies that examined delivery of the fiber in whole foods or as an extract was conducted. Viscosity interferes with the peristaltic mixing process in the small intestine to impede digestion and absorption of nutrients, which precipitates satiety signals. From measurements of the physicochemical and rheological properties of β-glucan, it appears that viscosity plays a key role in modulating satiety. However, the lack of standardized methods to measure viscosity and the inherent nature of appetite make it difficult to pinpoint the reasons for inconsistent results of the effects of oats on satiety. Nevertheless, the majority of the evidence suggests that oat β-glucan has a positive effect on perceptions of satiety. PMID:26724486

  5. Physical properties of gluten free sugar cookies containing teff and functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential 15 amino acids with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol and improving texture. The teff-oat composites were used in sugar cookies for improving nutritional and physical properties....

  6. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test weight...

  7. Nutrient intakes during diets including unkilned and large amounts of oats in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, T A; Heikkinen, M T; Ristikankare, M K; Kosma, V-M; Julkunen, R J

    2010-01-01

    We have shown earlier that consumption of moderate amount of oats improve intakes of vitamin B(1), fiber, magnesium and iron in celiac patients using gluten-free diet (GFD). The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of high amount of both kilned and unkilned oats on food and nutrient intakes in celiac patients in remission. Kilning as an industrial heating process is performed to preserve the main properties of oats and to lengthen its useableness. Kilning may, however, change the protein structure of oats and therefore influence on the intake of nutrients. The study group consisted of 13 men and 18 women with celiac disease in remission. The patients who were earlier using moderate amount of oats as part of their GFD were randomized to consume kilned or unkilned oats. After 6 months, the patients changed the treatment groups. The goal of daily intake of oats was 100 g. Food records and frequency questionnaire were used to follow nutrient intakes. Type of oats did not affect the amount of oats used. In the group using kilned oats, the intake of vitamin B1 and magnesium and in the group of unkilned oats that of magnesium and zinc increased significantly during the first 6 months (Poats, both kilned and unkilned in GFD, can increase intakes of nutrients in celiac patients in remission. Oats improve the nutritional value of GFD.

  8. Negative Time Delay in Strongly Naked Singularity Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    DeAndrea, Justin P

    2014-01-01

    We model the supermassive galactic center of the Milky Way galaxy as a strongly naked singularity lens described by the Janis-Newman-Winicour metric. This metric has an ordinary mass and a massless scalar charge parameters. For very accurate results, we use Virbhadra-Ellis lens equation for computations. The galactic center serving as gravitational lens gives rise to 4 images: 2 images on the same side as the source and 2 images on the opposite side of the source from the optic axis. We compute positions and time delays of these images for many values of the angular source position. The time delays of primary images decrease with increase in the angular source position and is always negative. The time delays of the other 3 images are negative for small angular source position; however, they increase with an increase in angular source position. Such observations would support strongly naked singularity interpretation of the galactic center and, if ever observed, would disprove the cosmic censorship hypothesis ...

  9. A Nonsingular Brans Wormhole: An Analogue to Naked Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Laserra, Ettore; Nandi, Kamal K

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, we showed the Jordan frame vacuum Brans Class I solution provided a wormhole analogue to Horowitz-Ross naked black hole in the wormhole range -3/2<{\\omega}<-4/3. Thereafter, the solution has been criticized by some authors that, because of the presence of singularity in that solution within this range, a wormhole interpretation of it is untenable. While the criticism is correct, we show here that (i) a singularity-free wormhole can actually be obtained from Class I solution by performing a kind of Wick rotation on it, resulting into what Brans listed as his independent Class II solution (ii) the Class II solution has all the necessary properties of a regular wormhole in a revised range -2<{\\omega}<-3/2 and finally, (iii) naked black holes, as described by Horowitz and Ross, are spacetimes where the tidal forces attain their maxima above the black hole horizon. We show that in the non-singular Class II spacetime this maxima is attained above the throat and thus can be treated as ...

  10. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  11. INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR OF GOATS IN RYEGRASS AND BLACK OAT PASTURES IN PURE OR MIXTURE CULTURE COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE CAPRINOS EM PASTAGEM DE AZEVÉM E AVEIA PRETA EM CULTIVO PURO E CONSORCIADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was realized in Campo Largo, PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture.
     
    KEY WORDS: Avena strigosa Schreb, bite, goats, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preference. The experiment was realized in Campo Largo – PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by

  12. Controle genético da resistência parcial à ferrugem da folha em aveia (Avena sativa L. Genetic control of partial resistance of crown rust in oat (Avena sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martins Barbosa-Prestes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a variabilidade para resistência parcial à ferrugem da folha em populações segregantes, bem como estudar o controle genético envolvido na expressão da resistência. As avaliações de severidade da doença foram realizadas em 1998, 1999 e 2000, seguindo a escala modificada de Cobb. Os resultados de três anos de estudo evidenciaram que, apesar da grande influência do ambiente na expressão da resistência, as populações segregantes apresentaram grande variabilidade para resistência parcial. A distribuição de freqüências da Área Sob a Curva do Progresso da Doença (ASCPD em gerações avançadas foi contínua para o caráter, indicando a presença de vários genes de pequeno efeito em seu controle. As estimativas de herdabilidade variaram de moderadas a altas.The objectives of this research were to describe the variability regarding partial resistance to leaf rust in segregating populations and to study genetic control of the resistance expression. The evaluation of disease was done at 1998, 1999 and 2000, according to modified Cobb’s scale. The results of three years studies showed that regardless the great environmental effect on the expression of resistance, the segregating population presented great variability for partial resistance. The frequency distribution of AUDPC for advanced generations, was continuous for this trait, indicating the presence of several genes of small effects controlling the disease. The estimatives of herdability varied from moderate to high.

  13. Investigation of triterpene synthesis and regulation in oats reveals a role for β-amyrin in determining root epidermal cell patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemen, Ariane C; Honkanen, Suvi; Melton, Rachel E; Findlay, Kim C; Mugford, Sam T; Hayashi, Keiko; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Rosser, Susan J; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-06-10

    Sterols have important functions in membranes and signaling. Plant sterols are synthesized via the isoprenoid pathway by cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to cycloartenol. Plants also convert 2,3-oxidosqualene to other sterol-like cyclization products, including the simple triterpene β-amyrin. The function of β-amyrin per se is unknown, but this molecule can serve as an intermediate in the synthesis of more complex triterpene glycosides associated with plant defense. β-Amyrin is present at low levels in the roots of diploid oat (Avena strigosa). Oat roots also synthesize the β-amyrin-derived triterpene glycoside avenacin A-1, which provides protection against soil-borne diseases. The genes for the early steps in avenacin A-1 synthesis [saponin-deficient 1 and 2 (Sad1 and Sad2)] have been recruited from the sterol pathway by gene duplication and neofunctionalization. Here we show that Sad1 and Sad2 are regulated by an ancient root developmental process that is conserved across diverse species. Sad1 promoter activity is dependent on an L1 box motif, implicating sterol/lipid-binding class IV homeodomain leucine zipper transcription factors as potential regulators. The metabolism of β-amyrin is blocked in sad2 mutants, which therefore accumulate abnormally high levels of this triterpene. The accumulation of elevated levels of β-amyrin in these mutants triggers a "superhairy" root phenotype. Importantly, this effect is manifested very early in the establishment of the root epidermis, causing a greater proportion of epidermal cells to be specified as root hair cells rather than nonhair cells. Together these findings suggest that simple triterpenes may have widespread and as yet largely unrecognized functions in plant growth and development.

  14. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Symbiotic Bacteria in the Aphid Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhedir, Hussein; Karlovsky, Petr; Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali; Vidal, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Aphids have developed symbiotic associations with different bacterial species, and some morphological and molecular analyses have provided evidence of the host relationship between the primary symbiotic bacteria (Buchnera aphidicola) and the aphid while the contrary with the secondary symbiotic bacteria. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the bacterial endosymbionts in the aphid Sitobion avenae (F.). We characterized all bacterial endosymbionts in 10 genetically defined S. avenae clones by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and, from these clones, sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of both the primary endosymbiont, B. aphidicola (for the first time), and the secondary endosymbionts, Regiella insecticola and Hamiltonella defensa (for the first time). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Buchnera from Sitobion related to those in Macrosiphoni. The analysis of the secondary endosymbionts indicated that there is no host relationship between H. defensa and R. insecticola from Sitobion and those from other aphid species. In this study, therefore, we identified further evidence for the relationship between Buchnera and its host and reported a relationship within the secondary endosymbionts of S. avenae from the same country, even though there were no relationships between the secondary bacteria and their host. We also discussed the diversity within the symbiotic bacteria in S. avenae clones. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Foraging by Hippodamia convergens for the aphid Sitobion avenae on wheat plants growing in greenhouse plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated predation by adult convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, on English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae L., on wheat, Triticum aestivum L., growing in 1.8 x 1.8 m plantings in a greenhouse with a soil floor. The wheat was planted to simulate wheat in a typical pro...

  16. Charged null fluid collapse in anti-de Sitter spacetimes and naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S G

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of naked singularities in the spherically symmetric, plane symmetric and cylindrically symmetric collapse of charged null fluid in an anti-de Sitter background. The naked singularities are found to be strong in Tipler's sense and thus violate the cosmic censorship conjecture, but not hoop conjecture.

  17. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M.; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M.; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. Results: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat’s extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. Availability and implementation: The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource is freely available online at http://www.naked-mole-rat.org. This resource is open source and the source code is available at https://github.com/maglab/naked-mole-rat-portal. Contact: jp@senescence.info PMID:25172923

  18. Formation and Evaporation of a Naked Singularity in 2D Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Vaz, C; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    1994-01-01

    We describe a classical configuration of conformal matter forming a naked singularity and discuss its subsequent Hawking evaporation within the context of two dimensional dilaton gravity. The one loop analysis is credible for a large mass naked singularity and suggests the existence of a weak cosmological censorship that would cause it to explode into radiation upon forming. (Hardcopies of figures available on request)

  19. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  20. Potássio lixiviado da palha de aveia-preta e milheto após a dessecação química Potassium leaching from black oat and pearl millet straw after chemical desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a lixiviação de K da palha de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa e de milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, utilizando-se chuva simulada em diferentes períodos após a dessecação química. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos, e aos 50 dias da emergência foram manejadas com herbicida e submetidas à chuva simulada de 5 e 10 mm, aos 3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias após a dessecação (DAD. A quantidade de K lixiviado das palhas, considerando uma quantidade de palha equivalente a 8,0 t ha-1 de matéria seca, aumentou à medida que o estado de senescência das plantas evoluiu após a dessecação. Com a aplicação de 10 mm de chuva aos 15 DAD, a palha de aveia-preta disponibilizou, aproximadamente, 11,1 kg ha-1 de K. A água da chuva extrai maior quantidade de K da palha de aveia-preta em relação à palha de milheto, tanto com a lâmina de 5 mm como de 10 mm, e essas diferenças são maiores de acordo com o estado avançado de desidratação do material vegetal.Potassium leaching from black oat (Avena strigosa and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum straw as affected by simulated rainfall at different moments after chemical desiccation was evaluated. Cover crops were grown in pots, in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty days after emergence, plants were sprayed with herbicide. Three, 6, 9 and 15 days after the desiccation the straw received simulated rains corresponding to 5 and 10 mm, considering a mulch of 8 t ha-1. The amount of K leached from plant residues increased after the desiccation. Fifteen days after the desiccation, a rainfall of 10 mm leached 11.1 kg ha-1 of K. The higher potential of black oat straw to leach K was observed with 10 mm of rain. The amount of K released by rains from black oat straw is greater from the pearl millet with 5 and 10 mm, and this difference increases according to the loss of water of the tissues.

  1. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Shun Hu

    Full Text Available The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum, 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris and Triticum turgidum (var. durum hybridization had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in

  2. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  3. Electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from black hole mergers and naked singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Malafarina, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    We consider the question here whether the proposed electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave signals in binary black hole coalescence may be due to the appearance of a `short lived' naked singularity during the merger. We point out that the change in topology that the spacetime undergoes during the merger can cause the appearance of a naked singularity. In case some matter, in the form of a small accretion disk, is present in the surroundings of the black hole system then the emitted luminosity during the merger would allow to distinguish the scenario where the naked singularity forms from the scenario where the horizon exists at all times. In fact the emitted luminosity spectrum would be much higher in the case where a naked singularity forms as opposed to the `pure' black hole case. We suggest that the presence of such a transient naked singularity will explain the high luminosity of an electromagnetic counterpart during the merger much more easily.

  4. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  5. Época de colheita e desenvolvimento vegetativo de aveia preta Harvesting time and vegetative development of black oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonia Vieira Rossetto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora a aveia preta apresente importantes características de interesse agronômico, os estudos direcionados ao conhecimento da planta visando aumentos de produtividade são ainda em pequeno número em condições brasileiras. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de plantas de aveia preta, cultivar Comum. O experimento foi instalado no mês de maio, em condições de campo, em Nitossolo Vermelho, em Botucatu, SP. O delineamento experimental empregado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de épocas de coletas de plantas, as quais foram iniciadas aos 21 dias após a emergência das plântulas (DAE. O maior desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, considerando-se o número total de perfilhos e o número total de folhas, foi observado na fase de emissão da panícula, aos 84 DAE. A contribuição dos perfilhos primários foi maior que a dos perfilhos secundários, tanto nos componentes vegetativos como nos componentes relacionados à produção de sementes.In spite of the fact that black oat presents important traits of agronomic interest, studies addressed to productivity are still in small number for Brazilian conditions. One experiment was carried under field conditions, at Botucatu, SP, Brazil, to study the plant development of Avena strigosa Schreb cv. Comum, grown on a Rhodic Nitisol. The experiments followed a completely randomized block design with three replications. The treatments consisted of weekly harvests, starting 21 days after sowing. Plant characteristics were evaluated at each harvesting time. The highest development of plant was observed at 84 days after sowing, when the panicle emergence started. There was a higher contribution of primary tillers in relation to secondary for the vegetative development and yield components.

  6. Effects of moisture and extrusion temperatures on the oxidative stability of milling oat products with granularity below 532 µm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research had as objective to study the effects of moisture and extrusion temperatures on the oxidative stability of oat fine (Estudos foram realizados com o objetivo avaliar os efeitos de umidade inicial da matéria-prima e da temperatura de extrusão na estabilidade oxidativa de produtos de aveia (Avena sativa L. Cariopses de aveia foram moídas em moinho de rolos Brabender e obtidas frações de granulometrias superior e inferior a 532 µm. A fração de granulometria inferior a 532 µm, de alto teor de a,mido e baixos teores de proteínas, lipídios e fibra alimentar, foi condicionada na umidade desejada (15,5-25,5% e extrusada em extrusor de laboratório Brabender monorosca. As condições usadas na extrusão foram taxa de compressão de 3:1, rotação de 100 rpm, matriz de 6 mm de diâmetro e temperaturas entre 77,6 e 162,4ºC nas 2ª e 3ª zonas e de 80ºC na 1ª zona. O material extrusado foi seco em estufa, moído, acondicionado em sacos plásticos e utilizado periodicamente nas determinações de peróxidos e de n-hexanal. O conteúdo de ácidos graxos insaturados no óleo da fração de aveia estudada foi elevado (79,20%. Independentemente do teor de umidade inicial da matéria-prima, todos os produtos extrusados em temperaturas inferiores a 120 ºC apresentaram baixa rancidez oxidativa.

  7. Functional expression of pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Yohannes; Braun, Isabella M; Krick, Wolfgang; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Bahn, Andrew

    2005-05-01

    With the cloning of pig renal organic anion transporter 1 (pOAT1) (Biochimie 84 (2002) 1219) we set up a model system for comparative studies of cloned and natively isolated membrane located transport proteins. Meanwhile, another transport protein involved in p-aminohippurate (PAH) uptake on the basolateral side of the proximal tubule cells was identified, designated organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). To explore the contribution of pOAT1 to the PAH clearance in comparison to OAT3, it was the aim of this study to extend our model by cloning of the pig ortholog of OAT3. Sequence comparisons of human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) with the expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed a clone and partial sequence of the pig renal organic anion transporter 3 (pOAT3) ortholog. Sequencing of the entire open reading frame resulted in a protein of 543 amino acid residues encoded by 1632 base pairs (EMBL Acc. No. AJ587003). It showed high homologies of 81%, 80%, 76%, and 77% to the human, rabbit, rat, and mouse OAT3, respectively. A functional characterization of pOAT3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes yielded an apparent Km (Kt) for [3H]estrone sulfate of 7.8 +/- 1.3 microM. Moreover, pOAT3 mediated [3H]estrone sulfate uptake was almost abolished by 0.5 mM of glutarate, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate, or probenecid consistent with the hallmarks of OAT3 function.

  8. Hypoglycemic effects and biochemical mechanisms of oat products on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui-Ling; Cai, Feng-Li; Dong, Ji-Lin; Hu, Xin-Zhong

    2011-08-24

    Oat products are abundant in β-glucan, which could lower the glycemic index of products or foods. A low glycemic index is beneficial in the control of postprandial glycemia. The study examined the hypoglycemic effects of oat products that had the same percentage of oat β-glucan and were added into the diet fed to streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice for 6 weeks, and potential mechanisms are discussed here. Oat products significantly decreased fasting blood glucose and glycosylated serum protein (p 0.05). Oat products increased glycogen, hormone, and nuclear receptor levels (p oat products had hypoglycemic effects. Hypoglycemic effects of oat products might be regulating glucose and fat metabolisms, stimulating hormone secretion, activating the nuclear receptor, and protecting organ function.

  9. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  10. Why Oats Are Safe and Healthy for Celiac Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins) are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes). Avenins are present at a

  11. Relating microstructure, sensory and instrumental texture of processed oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALMENKALLIO-MARTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instrumental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties were assessed. The microstructure of native, germinated, autoclaved and extruded grains of the hulled cv. Veli and hull-less cv. Lisbeth was examined by light microscopy, the texture was measured by determining the milling energy and hardness of the grains and sensory characteristics were evaluated with descriptive sensory profile analysis. In cv. Veli the cells of the starchy endosperm were smaller than in cv. Lisbeth and ß-glucan was concentrated in the subaleurone layer. In cv. Lisbeth ß-glucan was evenly distributed in the starchy endosperm. The grains of cv. Lisbeth were more extensively modified in the germination process than the grains of cv. Veli, otherwise the effects of processing on the grains of the two cultivars were similar. Germination caused cell wall degradation, autoclaving and extrusion cooking caused starch gelatinization. Autoclaving resulted in the hardest perceived texture in oat. Gelatinization of starch appeared to contribute more to the hardness of oat groats than the cell wall structure. Of the instrumental methods used in this study the milling energy measurement appeared to be the most useful method for the analysis of the effects of processing on grain structure.;

  12. Is it Really Naked? On Cosmic Censorship in String Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A

    2004-09-30

    We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in string theory using a characteristic double-null code, which penetrates horizons and is capable of resolving the spacetime all the way to the singularity. We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of the evolution of negative mass initial scalar field profiles, which were argued to provide a counter example to cosmic censorship conjecture for AdS-asymptotic spacetimes in five-dimensional supergravity. In no instances formation of naked singularity is seen. Instead, numerical evidence indicates that black holes form in the collapse. Our results are consistent with earlier numerical studies, and explicitly show where the ''no black hole'' argument breaks.

  13. Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v United States of America) : must courts block executions because of a treaty?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    QUIGLEY, John

    2004-01-01

    Obligations that a state bears towards detained foreign nationals under article 36 the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations examined by the International Court of Justice in Avena and Other Mexican Nationals...

  14. Genome Sequence of Acidovorax avenae Strain T10_61 Associated with Sugarcane Red Stripe in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia A.; Bassi, Daniela; Puglisi, Edoardo; Salazar, Sergio M.; Vignolo, Graciela M.; Coccocelli, Pier S.

    2016-01-01

    Red stripe of sugarcane in Argentina is a bacterial disease caused by Acidovorax avenae. The genome sequence from the first isolate of this bacterium in Argentina is presented here. The draft genome of the A. avenae T10_61 strain contains 5,646,552 bp and has a G+C content of 68.6 mol%. PMID:26847889

  15. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on oats in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum to enhance phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Feifei; Xie, Baoming; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Changhong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on phytoremediation in saline-alkali soil contaminated by petroleum, saline-alkali soil samples were artificially mixed with different amount of oil, 5 and 10 g/kg, respectively. Pot experiments with oat plants (Avena sativa) were conducted under greenhouse condition for 60 days. Plant biomass, physiological parameters in leaves, soil enzymes, and degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon were measured. The result demonstrated that petroleum inhibited the growth of the plant; however, inoculation with PGPR in combination with AMF resulted in an increase in dry weight and stem height compared with noninoculated controls. Petroleum stress increased the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and free proline and the activities of the antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. Application of PGPR and AMF augmented the activities of three enzymes compared to their respective uninoculated controls, but decreased the MDA and free proline contents, indicating that PGPR and AMF could make the plants more tolerant to harmful hydrocarbon contaminants. It also improved the soil quality by increasing the activities of soil enzyme such as urease, sucrase, and dehydrogenase. In addition, the degradation rate of total petroleum hydrocarbon during treatment with PGPR and AMF in moderately contaminated soil reached a maximum of 49.73%. Therefore, we concluded the plants treated with a combination of PGPR and AMF had a high potential to contribute to remediation of saline-alkali soil contaminated with petroleum.

  16. Modularity of Plant Metabolic Gene Clusters: A Trio of Linked Genes That Are Collectively Required for Acylation of Triterpenes in Oat[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugford, Sam T.; Louveau, Thomas; Melton, Rachel; Qi, Xiaoquan; Bakht, Saleha; Hill, Lionel; Tsurushima, Tetsu; Honkanen, Suvi; Rosser, Susan J.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Operon-like gene clusters are an emerging phenomenon in the field of plant natural products. The genes encoding some of the best-characterized plant secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways are scattered across plant genomes. However, an increasing number of gene clusters encoding the synthesis of diverse natural products have recently been reported in plant genomes. These clusters have arisen through the neo-functionalization and relocation of existing genes within the genome, and not by horizontal gene transfer from microbes. The reasons for clustering are not yet clear, although this form of gene organization is likely to facilitate co-inheritance and co-regulation. Oats (Avena spp) synthesize antimicrobial triterpenoids (avenacins) that provide protection against disease. The synthesis of these compounds is encoded by a gene cluster. Here we show that a module of three adjacent genes within the wider biosynthetic gene cluster is required for avenacin acylation. Through the characterization of these genes and their encoded proteins we present a model of the subcellular organization of triterpenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23532069

  17. Mechanisms and Characterization of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 in Suppressing Nematodes (Heterodera avenae in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwu Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterodera avenae is an important soil-borne pathogen that affects field crops worldwide. Chemical nematicides can be used to control the nematode, but they bring toxicity to the environment and human. Trichoderma longibrachiatum has been shown to have the ability to control H. avenae cysts, but detailed microscopic observations and bioassays are lacking. In this study, we used microscopic observations and bioassays to study the effect of T. longibrachiatum T6 (TL6 on the eggs and second stage juveniles (J2s of H. avenae, and investigate the role of TL6 in inducing the resistance to H. avenae in wheat seedling at physiological and biochemical levels. Microscopic observations recorded that TL6 parasitized on the H. avenae eggs, germinated, and produced a large number of hyphae on the eggs surface at the initial stage, thereafter, the eggs were completely surrounded by dense mycelia and the contents of eggs were lysed at the late stage. Meanwhile, the conidia suspension of TL6 parasitized on the surface of J2s, produced a large number of hyphae that penetrated the cuticle and caused deformation of the nematodes. TL6 at the concentration of 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had the highest rates of parasitism on eggs and J2s, reflected by the highest hatching-inhibition of eggs and the mortality of J2s. In the greenhouse experiments, wheat seedlings treated with TL6 at 1.5 × 107 conidia ml−1 had reduced H. avenae infection, and increased plant growth significantly compared to the control. The cysts and juveniles in soil were reduced by 89.8 and 92.7%, the juveniles and females in roots were reduced by 88.3 and 91.3%, whereas the activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase, total flavonoids and lignin contents in wheat roots were increased significantly at different stage after inoculation with the eggs and TL6 conidia in comparison to the control. Maximum activity of chitinase and β-1, 3-glucanase were recorded at the 20th and 15th Days after

  18. Karyotype Analysis of Diploid Oat Germplasm Introduced from Canada%加拿大引进的二倍体燕麦种质的核型鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 张宗文; 吴斌

    2013-01-01

    The chromosome karyotype of three diploid oat species was studied with squash method. The results showed that the karyotype formula of Avena strigosa was 2n = 2x = 14 = 10m +4sm(2SAT) ,with metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 4th chromosome and 68. 17% for the a-symmetry index. While that of Avena hispanica,was 2n =2x = 14 = 10m +4sm(2SAT) ,with metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 7th chromosome and 59. 31% for the asymmetry index. And that of Avena brevis was 2n = 2x = 14 = 6m + 4sm + 4st(2SAT) , with acrocentric, metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes, 1 pair of satellites on the short arm of the 6th chromosome and 63. 91% for the asymmetry index . Although the karyotypes of all three species were 2 A type, there was obvious variation in the morphologies of karyotypes of three species, which comparatively indicated that the karyotype of A. strigosa was more advanced in evolution, followed by A. a brevis and the karyotype of A. hispanica was more original. This study will be a useful reference for the karyotype analysis and evolutionary analysis of oat germplasm resources.%采用常规压片法对砂燕麦、西班牙燕麦和短燕麦3个二倍体燕麦种进行了核型研究.结果表明:砂燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14=10m +4sm(2SAT),具近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第4对染色体组的短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为68.17%;西班牙燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14=10m+ 4sm(2SAT),具近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第7对染色体短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为59.31%;短燕麦染色体核型公式为2n =2x=14 =6m +4sm+ 4st(2SAT),具近端部、近中部和中部着丝点染色体,第6对染色体组的短臂上有1对随体,核不对称系数为63.91%.虽然3个燕麦种的核型均为2A,但它们的染色体形态有明显不同,比较认为砂燕麦相对进化,短燕麦次之,西班

  19. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mengistu Wale; Abeje Kassie; Tesfu Fekensa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked mole-rat in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected through direct observation and interview andChi-square at 95% confidence interval was used for significance test. Results:Naked mole-rat was identified in Fafan, City/Shinele,Eastern Hararghe Zone and Dire Dawa Administrative. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. Froma total of 100 respondents, 92% of them considered naked mole-rat as pest as a result that 46% of them participated in direct killing. Literacy rate significantly affects thewillingness to participate in the conservation of naked mole-rat (χ2 = 7.478,df = 1,P Conclusions:Naked mole-rat is fairly common in many of the study sites. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat. Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species.

  20. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  1. Long-term consumption of oats in adult celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Katri; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku

    2013-11-06

    Many celiac disease patients tolerate oats, but limited data are available on its long-term consumption. This was evaluated in the present study, focusing on small-bowel mucosal histology and gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac adults maintaining a strict gluten-free diet with or without oats. Altogether 106 long-term treated celiac adults were enrolled for this cross-sectional follow-up study. Daily consumption of oats and fiber was assessed, and small-bowel mucosal morphology and densities of CD3+, αβ+ and γσ+ intraepithelial lymphocytes determined. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire. Seventy (66%) out of the 106 treated celiac disease patients had consumed a median of 20 g of oats (range 1-100 g) per day for up to eight years; all consumed oat products bought from general stores. Daily intake and long-term consumption of oats did not result in small-bowel mucosal villous damage, inflammation, or gastrointestinal symptoms. Oat-consumers had a significantly higher daily intake of fiber than those who did not use oats. Two thirds of celiac disease patients preferred to use oats in their daily diet. Even long-term ingestion of oats had no harmful effects.

  2. The effects of oats on the function of gut microflora in children with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjellström, B; Stenhammar, L; Sundqvist, T; Fälth-Magnusson, K; Hollén, E; Magnusson, K-E; Norin, E; Midtvedt, T; Högberg, L

    2014-05-01

    Faecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by the gut microflora. We have previously reported high faecal SCFA levels in children with coeliac disease (CD), indicating alteration in gut microfloral metabolism. Data accumulated over recent decades by us and others suggest that wheat-free oats can safely be included in a gluten-free diet (GFD). However, concerns have been raised with respect to the safety of oats in a subset of coeliacs. To describe faecal SCFA patterns in children with newly diagnosed CD treated for 1 year with a GFD with or without oats. This report is part of a randomised, double-blind study on the effect of a GFD containing oats (GFD-oats) vs. a standard GFD (GFD-std). Faecal samples were received from 34 children in the GFD-oats group and 37 in the GFD-std group at initial diagnosis and/or after 1 year on a GFD. Faecal SCFAs were analysed. The GFD-std group had a significantly lower total faecal SCFA concentration at 12 months compared with 0 months (P oats group remained high after 1 year on the GFD. The children in the GFD-oats group had significantly higher acetic acid (P oats do affect the gut microflora function, and that some coeliac children receiving oats may develop gut mucosal inflammation, that may present a risk for future complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. CONTENIDO Y TRASLOCACIÓN DE PLOMO EN AVENA (Avena sativa, L. Y HABA (Vicia faba, L. DE UN SUELO CONTAMINADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth García-Gallegos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento en invernadero se estableció para determinar la concentración de plomo (Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea de haba y avena; se calculó el factor de bioconcentración y traslocación en las dos especies. Se probaron 50, 100 y 150 mg·Pb·kg-1 de suelo, incluyendo un control. Las plantas se colectaron a los 60 días después de la siembra y se midieron altura de planta (AP, volumen radical (VR y biomasa seca total (BST, además del contenido de Pb en suelo, raíz y parte aérea. La cuantificación de Pb se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. El suelo cultivado con haba presentó un 28.48 % de PbEDTA. Las variables AP, VR y BST no fueron afectadas de manera drástica por las concentraciones de Pb probadas. Las plantas de haba y avena absorbieron un total de 55 mg·kg-1 y 45.3 mg·kg-1, respectivamente, las cuales se consideran tóxicas para plantas cultivadas. Los resultados pueden servir de base para ampliar el conocimiento del contenido de Pb absorbido y traslocado en plantas de haba y avena, ya que la capacidad de tolerar y absorber Pb es específica de la especie, inclusive de la variedad de planta.

  4. The repulsive nature of naked singularities from the point of view of quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batic, D.; Chin, D. [University of West Indies, Department of Mathematics, Kingston 6 (Jamaica); Nowakowski, M. [Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Bogota (Colombia)

    2011-04-15

    We use the Dirac equation coupled to a background metric to examine what happens to quantum-mechanical observables like the probability density and the radial current in the vicinity of a naked singularity of the Reissner-Nordstroem type. We find that the wave function of the Dirac particle is regular in the point of the singularity. We show that the probability density is exactly zero at the singularity reflecting quantum-mechanically the repulsive nature of the naked singularity. Furthermore, the surface integral of the radial current over a sphere in the vicinity of the naked singularity turns out to be also zero. (orig.)

  5. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg and arsenic (As, accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n=10 were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH, and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p<0.05, PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p<0.05, PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3.

  6. Adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on their growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areco, María Mar; Saleh-Medina, Leila; Trinelli, María Alcira; Marco-Brown, Jose Luis; Dos Santos Afonso, María

    2013-10-01

    The biosorption of copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and lead(II) from aqueous solutions by dead Avena fatua biomass and the effect of these metals on the growth of this wild oat were investigated. Pseudo-first- and second-order and intra-particle diffusion models were applied to describe the kinetic data and to evaluate the rate constants. The adsorption kinetics of all the metals follows a pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption capacity was determined, and the Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied. The experimental data obtained for all the metals are best described by the Langmuir model. A. fatua was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and zeta potential. The results obtained evidence the presence of Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) or Pb(II) on the surface of the weed. The growth of A. fatua was affected by the presence of all metals. The decrease in the growth rate with increasing metal concentration was more noticeable for zinc.

  7. Sistemas de armazenamentos hermético e convencional na conservabilidade de grãos de aveia Hermetic and conventional storage systems in oat grains conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileu Rupollo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a influência da umidade nos sistemas hermético e convencional durante doze meses de armazenamento de grãos de aveia branca (Avena sativa L e indicar parâmetros de qualidade. Aveia, cultivar UPF 18, produzida na safra agrícola de 2001, foi colhida com 16% umidade e reduzida para 14%, 11% e 8% por secagem estacionária em um protótipo silo-secador. Os grãos foram armazenados nos sistemas hermético e convencional e determinado a umidade, lipídios, índice de acidez, germinação, vigor e contaminação fúngica após os períodos 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 meses de armazenamento. A atividade residual das enzimas lipase e peroxidase foi realizada após a secagem dos grãos (tempo zero e de composição em ácidos graxos e micotoxinas nos períodos 2 e 12 meses de armazenamento. Os resultados foram analisados pelo emprego da análise de variância e realizada a comparação múltipla de médias pelo teste de Tukey. Os sistemas de armazenamento hermético e convencional são eficientes para conservação de grãos de aveia com umidade de até 14%. O aumento do índice de acidez ao longo do período de armazenamento foi menor no sistema hermético quando comparado com o convencional. A incidência dos fungos de campo e de armazenamento foi maior na aveia conservada a 14% de umidade e no período de três meses. Não foi detectada presença de aflatoxinas B1 , B2, G1, G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em grãos de aveia armazenados por 12 meses.The aim of this work was to evaluate the moisture influence in hermetic and conventional systems on the white oat grains (Avena sativa L conservation during twelve months of storage and to indicate quality parameters. The cultivar of UPF 18 produced in 2001, was harvested with 16% of moisture and was reduced to 14%, 11% and 8% using a stationary drying in a dryer prototype. The grains were stored in hermetic and conventional systems and determinations of moisture, lipids, acid

  8. Asymmetric somatic hybridization between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Avena sativa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向凤宁; 夏光敏; 陈惠民

    2003-01-01

    Protoplasts from cell suspensions of young-embryo-derived calli, whichwere non- regenerable for long-term subculture and protoplasts from embryogenic calli with the regeneration capacity of 75% of the same wheat Jinan 177, were mixed as recipient. Protoplasts from embryogenic calli of Avena sativa (with the regeneration capacity of less than 10%) irradiated with UV at an intensity of300 μW/cm2 for 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 5 min were used as the donor. Protoplasts of the recipient and the donor were fused by PEG method. Many calli and normal green plants were regenerated at high frequency, and were verified as somatic hybrids by chromosome counting, isozyme, 5S rDNA spacer sequence analysis and GISH (genomic in situ hybridization). Fusion combination between protoplasts either from the cell suspensions or from the calli and UV-treated Avena sativa protoplasts could not regenerate green plants.

  9. Produção de forragem em pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém Forage production on bermudagrass sod seeding with oat and ryegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Elgalise Techio Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar dois sistemas forrageiros manejados com vacas da raça Holandesa. Os sistemas foram constituídos por pastagem de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. "Coastcross" sobre-semeada com aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. "Comum" e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. "Comum" e aveia e azevém em cultivo estreme. Foram conduzidos oito pastejos (de 09/06/04 a 13/10/04 e de 02/08/05 a 29/10/05, sendo avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo, a taxa de acúmulo diário de matéria seca (MS, a produção total de forragem, a oferta de forragem, a composição botânica, a biomassa total de lâminas foliares e carga animal. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas (P>0,05 para os referidos parâmetros. A produção total de MS, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS e a carga animal foram de 8467,9; 7105,7kg de MS ha-1; 54,1 e 69,2kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 1050,8 e 925,5kg de peso vivo ha-1, para a pastagem de bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém e para a pastagem anual, respectivamente. Houve maior participação de lâminas foliares de aveia na pastagem constituída por aveia e azevém (P0,05 entre os sistemas forrageiros quanto à produção total de biomassa de lâminas foliares. Estes resultados indicam que o sistema forrageiro constituído por bermuda sobre-semeada com aveia e azevém, utilizada no período hibernal, pode ser usada em condições climáticas similares às do presente estudo.This study was aimed at comparing two pasture-based systems grazed by Holstein cows. The systems were sod seeding of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. cv. Common and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. Coastcross and oat and ryegrass mixture in extreme cultivation. From 06/09/04 to 10/13/04 and 08/02/05 to 10/29/05, in eight grazing periods, the pregraze and postgraze herbage mass, dry matter (DM daily acumulation rate, total dry matter production

  10. Ação do anidrido naftálico na seletividade de herbicidas aplicados para controle de azevém em aveia-branca Action of naphthalic anhydride on herbicide selected for ryegrass control in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rizzardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido em Passo Fundo-RS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do tratamento de sementes de aveia-branca (Avena sativa com o antídoto anidrido naftálico (AN na seletividade de herbicidas utilizados para controle de azevém (Lolium multiflorum. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em parcelas subdivididas, em blocos casualizados, repetidos quatro vezes. As parcelas principais foram constituídas pela ausência ou presença do AN (5 g kg-1 no tratamento das sementes de aveia, e nas subparcelas foram alocados cinco tratamentos herbicidas, uma testemunha sem azevém e sem aplicação de herbicida e uma testemunha sem controle de azevém. Os tratamentos herbicidas utilizados foram diclofop (284 e 426 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (600 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (52,5 g ha-1 e clomazone (1.000 g ha-1. Foram avaliados o percentual de controle de azevém, a fitotoxicidade visual dos herbicidas e as características associadas à cultura da aveia, como massa seca da parte aérea, altura de planta, número de plantas e de panículas por área, peso de 1.000 grãos e rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciaram que o tratamento de sementes de aveia com AN não aumentou a seletividade dos herbicidas aplicados, com exceção para massa seca da parte aérea, no caso de sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas que propiciaram os melhores níveis de controle de azevém foram os que ocasionaram maiores danos fitotóxicos à cultura da aveia-branca.An experiment was conducted in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of treatment of oat seeds (Avena sativa with naphthalic anhydride safener (AN on the herbicide selectivity used for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum control. The experimental design used was a split-plot one, in randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of oat seed treated or not with AN (5 g kg-1 seed as main plots, and of five herbicide treatments, one check without ryegrass and herbicide and

  11. Effect of drying temperature on quality of β-glucan in white oat grains Avaliação da temperatura de secagem na qualidade de β-glicanas em grãos de aveia branca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Conceição Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oats have received attention because of their nutritional characteristics, especially their high-quality content of β-glucan. The drying process reduces water content; therefore they can be preserved for long periods. However, high-temperature drying process may affect the physical, chemical, and functional properties of the grains. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different drying temperatures on β-glucan quality in oat grains. Grains of oats (Avena sativa, L., cultivar Albasul, harvested at harvest moisture content of 23% were submitted to stationary drying at air temperatures of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ºC until they reached 13% moisture content. The β-glucan content was determined in samples of oat grains and extraction was performed using water as solvent at 90 ºC. The β-glucan extract was evaluated for water holding capacity, water retention capacity, capacity of displacement, and gelation properties. Stationary of oat grains at air temperatures above 25 ºC decreased the water holding capacity, whereas the content of β-glucan and the water retention capacity of β-glucan extract was affected at temperatures above 50 ºC. Physical changes such as increased gelation capacity of the β-glucan extract occurred following drying at air temperature over 75 ºC.A aveia tem recebido atenção devido às características nutricionais, principalmente pelo alto teor e qualidade de β-glicanas. Com a secagem da aveia, ocorre redução do conteúdo de água a valores que permitam a sua conservação por longos períodos. A alta temperatura do ar de secagem pode afetar características físicas, químicas e funcionais dos grãos de aveia. Objetivou-se, com o trabalho, avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de secagem na qualidade de β-glicanas em grãos de aveia branca. Grãos de aveia (Avena sativa, L., cultivar Albasul, colhidos com umidade de 23% foram submetidos à secagem estacionária em temperaturas do ar de 25

  12. Influência dos teores de aveia e de gordura nas características tecnológicas e funcionais de bolos Influence of oat and fat levels in technological and functional characteristics of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou estudar o emprego de aveia e de gordura nas características tecnológicas e funcionais de bolos. No estudo foram utilizados os ingredientes flocos e farinha de aveia (Avena sativa L. do cultivar IAC 7 (30% de flocos grossos tostados e 70% de farinha, previamente selecionados com base na composição química, farinha de trigo, açúcar, sal, fermento químico, emulsificante, leite em pó, ovo inteiro, sorbitol e aroma de baunilha. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento composto central rotacional aplicável à metodologia de superfície de resposta (MSR, sendo os teores de aveia (flocos, farinha e gordura estabelecidos como variáveis independentes. Os resultados de densidade da massa, viscosidade da massa, composição química, energia metabolizável, volume específico, atividade de água, características internas, porosidade e cor foram tratados por análise de regressão múltipla, obtendo-se modelo matemático de segunda ordem com os termos lineares, quadráticos e de interação significativos. A aveia pode ser utilizada na elaboração de bolos de valor calórico reduzido e como fonte de fibras alimentares atendendo às características de alimento funcional. A densidade da massa variou com a quantidade de gordura da formulação, enquanto que a viscosidade, com a concentração de aveia. A porosidade do miolo foi influenciada pelas concentrações de aveia e de gordura utilizadas nas formulações. Com a elevação do teor de aveia e a diminuição de gordura nas formulações ocorreu um aumento da área, diâmetro e perímetro médios dos alvéolos.The present work aimed to study the use of oat and fat in the technological and functional characteristics of cakes. The ingredients used were oat flakes and flour (Avena sativa L., of the cultivar IAC 7 (30% of toasted thick flakes and 70% of flour, selected based on the chemical composition, wheat flour, sugar, salt, baking powder, emulsifier, powdered

  13. Dehydration-Specific Induction of Hydrophilic Protein Genes in the Anhydrobiotic Nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Some organisms can survive exposure to extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter the anhydrobiotic state by exposure to a moderate reduction in relative humidity. During this preconditioning period, the nematode accumulates large amounts of the disaccharide trehalose, which is thought to be necessary, but not sufficient, for successful anhydrobiosis. To identify other adaptations t...

  14. 莜麦馒头微波蒸制工艺的研究%Preparation of Naked Oat Steamed Bread by Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪磊; 云月英; 王国泽; 李俊芳; 莎娜; 张欢子

    2014-01-01

    采用响应面法研究微波功率、微波时间和微波装载量对莜麦馒头品质的影响,确定莜麦馒头微波蒸制的最佳工艺条件,并比较了微波蒸制和常规蒸汽蒸制2个烹制方式对莜麦馒头的影响.结果表明,微波蒸制莜麦馒头的最佳工艺为:微波功率560 W,微波时间12.5 min,装载量74 g.按该工艺条件制作的莜麦馒头与蒸汽蒸制莜麦馒头的感官评分没有显著性差异,与蒸汽蒸制莜麦馒头相比,微波莜麦馒头水分含量较低,硬度和黏着性大,弹性差,而回复性和咀嚼性优于蒸汽蒸制莜麦馒头.

  15. Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.

  16. Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.

  17. Calcium bridges are not load-bearing cell-wall bonds in Avena coleoptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    I examined the ability of frozen-thawed Avena sativa L. coleoptile sections under applied load to extend in response to the calcium chelators ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2-[(2-bis-[carboxymethyl]amino-5-methylphenoxy)methyl]-6-methoxy-8-bis[car boxymethyl]aminoquinoline (Quin II). Addition of 5 mM EGTA to weakly buffered (0.1 mM, pH 6.2) solutions of 2(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid (Mes) initiated rapid extension and wall acidification. When the buffer strength was increased (e.g. from 20 to 100 mM Mes, pH 6.2) EGTA did not initiate extension nor did it cause wall acidification. At 5 mM Quin II failed to stimulate cell extension or wall acidification at all buffer molarities tested (0.1 to 100 mM Mes). Both chelators rapidly and effectively removed Ca2+ from Avena sections. These data indicate that Ca2+ chelation per se does not result in loosening of Avena cells walls. Rather, EGTA promotes wall extension indirectly via wall acidification.

  18. Unravelling mycorrhiza-induced wheat susceptibility to the English grain aphid Sitobion avenae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amma L.; Wellham, Peter A. D.; Aradottir, Gudbjorg I.; Gange, Alan C.

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are root symbionts that can increase or decrease aphid growth rates and reproduction, but the reason by which this happens is unknown. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction, we examined the effect of AM fungi on the English Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae) development, reproduction, attraction, settlement and feeding behaviour on two naturally susceptible varieties Triticum aestivum (L.) variety Solstice and T. monococcum MDR037, and two naturally resistant lines, T. monococcum MDR045 and MDR049. Mycorrhizal colonisation increased the attractiveness of T. aestivum var. Solstice to aphids, but there was no effect on aphid development on this variety. Using the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique, we found that mycorrhizal colonisation increased aphid phloem feeding on T. monococcum MDR037 and MDR045, colonisation also increased growth rate and reproductive success of S. avenae on these varieties. Mycorrhizas increased vascular bundle size, demonstrating that these fungi can influence plant anatomy. We discuss if and how this could be related to an enhanced success rate in phloem feeding in two varieties. Overall, we present and discuss how mycorrhizal fungi can affect the feeding behaviour of S. avenae in wheat, inducing susceptibility in a resistant variety.

  19. TORTORA discovery of Naked-Eye Burst fast optical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskin, Grigory; Karpov, Sergey; Bondar, Sergey; Greco, Giuseppe; Guarnieri, Adriano; Bartolini, Corrado; Piccioni, Adalberto; Molinari, Emilio; Chincarini, Guido

    2008-10-01

    Features characterizing gamma-ray bursts in the different spectral bands may be a clue for the nature of their inner engine. Up to now, only several bursts have been observed in optical band during the gamma activity, and the only one-GRB080319B-was covered from rise till fall with high temporal resolution. Here we discuss these data, acquired with TORTORA fast wide-field monitoring optical camera, as well as results of its analysis. The camera observed the position of Naked-Eye Burst, GRB080318B, before, during and after the trigger. It detected the fast rise of optical emission, which reached the peak of V 5.3 at the eighteenth second, had a complex evolution till T+43s and monotonously faded then. The brightest part of the light curve contains two 15-20 s segments with different fluxes, each having two clearly-seen peaks of 5-8 s duration; all four peaks look quasi-periodic with separation of 9 s. There is no clear evidence of any sub-second variability. However, there are signs of quasi-periodic variability on 1s time scale at around the last peak (T+40 till T+50). The general properties of the optical light curve and its variability time scales look similar to the gamma one, but there is no clear correlation between them. This raises serious problems in interpretation of mechanisms generating such variability.

  20. Enhancement of naked FIX minigene expression by chloroquine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan CHEN; Huan-zhang ZHU; Bin LU; Xuan XU; Ji-hua YAO; Qi SHEN; Jing-lun XUE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of chloroquine on the expression of human clotting factor IX (hFIX) in mice. METHODS:Hydrodynamics-based naked DNA plasmid administration was performed by tail vein injection of 10 μg of pCMVhFIX and chloroquine (0, 100, 200, and 500 μmol/L) in 2.2 mL of Ringer' solution within 6-7 s, the level and stability of hFIX expression, liver damage and toxicity were then examined. RESULTS: The maximum expression of hFIX level was 4.4±-1.8 mg/L at 8 h after injection, 9.7±1.6 mg/L at 24 h only existed in 200 μmol/L chloroquinetreated animals, which is 3-4 fold higher than that of control (P<0.01). There is no significant difference observed among all the treated groups, 3 d later. Transaminase level and liver histological study showed the damage of liver was not related to chloroquine (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Chloroquine can enhance and sustain exogenous gene expression in vivo without side effect under our experimental conditions.

  1. Daylight Observations of Venus with Naked Eye in the Goryeosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Won Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the observations of Venus in daytime that are recorded in the Goryeosa (History of the Goryeo Dynasty, A.D. 918-1392. There are a total of 167 accounts of such observations in this historical book, spanning a period of 378 yr (from 1014 to 1392. These include six accounts where the days of the observation are not specified and two accounts where the phase angles are outside the calculation range of the equation used in our study. We analyze the number distribution of 164 accounts in 16 yr intervals covering the period from 1023 to 1391. We find that this distribution shows its minimum at around 1232, when the Goryeo dynasty moved the capital to the Ganghwa Island because of the Mongol invasion, and its maximum at around 1390, about the time when the dynasty fell. In addition, we calculate the azimuth, altitude, solar elongation, and apparent magnitude of Venus at sunset for 159 observations, excluding the eight accounts mentioned above, using the DE 406 ephemeris and modern astronomical algorithms. We find that the average elongation and magnitude of Venus on the days of those accounts were ~40° and -4.5, respectively, whereas the minimum magnitude was -3.8. The results of this study are useful for estimating the practical conditions for observing Venus in daylight with the naked eye and they also provide additional insight into the corresponding historical accounts contained in the Goryeosa.

  2. Stability of naked singularity arising in gravitational collapse of Type I matter fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay B Sarwe; R V Saraykar

    2005-07-01

    Considering gravitational collapse of Type I matter fields, we prove that, given an arbitrary 2-mass function (, ) and a 1-function ℎ(, ) (through the corresponding 1-metric function (, )), there exist infinitely many choices of energy distribution function () such that the `true’ initial data (, ℎ(, )) leads the collapse to the formation of naked singularity. We further prove that the occurrence of such a naked singularity is stable with respect to small changes in the initial data. We remark that though the initial data leading to both black hole (BH) and naked singularity (NS) form a `big' subset of the true initial data set, their occurrence is not generic. The terms `stability' and `genericity’ are appropriately defined following the theory of dynamical systems. The particular case of radial pressure () has been illustrated in details to get a clear picture of how naked singularity is formed and how, it is stable with respect to initial data.

  3. Magnesium Uptake and Palygorskite Transformation Abilities of Wheat and Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.H.SALEHI; L.TAHAMTANI

    2012-01-01

    Weathering of clay minerals is a source of nutrients to plants. Palygorskite is a Mg-rich fibrous clay mineral that commonly occurs in the soils and sediments of arid regions.Although many studies have examined the environmental conditions required for the formation and stability of palygorskite,information on the transformation of this mineral in the root zone (or rhizosphere) of agricultural crops is limited.This study explored the possibility of palygorskite transformation in the rhizosphere of wheat and oat and compared the ability of these crops to extract structural Mg from palygorskite. The crops were cultivated in pots consisting of a mixture of sand from Hamadan region,Iran and Florida palygorskite,irrigated with distilled water,and treated with either complete or Mg-free nutrient solutions.After 100 d,Mg uptake by the crops was measured.Clay-sized particles in each pot were also separated from the sand and were analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD).The X-ray pattern of the particles was compared with that of the pure palygorskite particles (before cultivation).The results showed that palygorskite could provide sufficient Mg for the growth of wheat in the pots supplied with Mg-free nutrient solution.In spite of the magnesium uptake by both plants from the palygorskite structure,no detectable peaks indicating the transformation of palygorskite were recognized by XRD.A decrease of 1.05 nm in peak intensity was more obvious for the pots containing palygorskite and irrigated with Mg-free nutrient solution than for the pots irrigated with complete nutrient solution.Although the decrease in peak intensity was greater for oat than wheat,indicating greater palygorskite weathering by oat,Mg uptake by oat was low,as evidenced by the deficiency symptoms observed.

  4. Textural and sensorial characterization of a new oat based product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina STURZA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Oat it is known as a cereal which provides numerous health benefits due to its composition. Likewise, hemp, flax and olive oils are rich in compounds required for the wellness maintenance and in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thanks to advances of last decades in the food industry, it can be said that the rheological measurements have become indispensable in order to obtain a quality product. The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a technology for obtaining  unfermented dough, respectively, to obtain oat based unleavened bread. The characterization of the final product from a sensorial point of view was performed, analysis very important for assessing the consumers acceptance. In the meantime the texture properties of all samples were instrumentally determined. Textural profile showed that samples containing higher percent of oil content had a lower hardness than those with reduced percent of oil. The most appreciated unleavened oat bread was dried at 150˚C and had a low content of oil.

  5. Photoreceptive sites in the photocontrol of oat seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Madela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of red light on the growth of coleoptiles and mesocotyles of etiolated and pre-irradiated oat seedlings was investigated. Red light (15 min. applied on whole seedlings stimulated the elongation of coleoptiles and inhibited the growth of mesocotyles both in etiolated and in pre-irradiated plants. Irradiation with red light (2 min of various 2-mm-long regions of etiolated and pre-irradiated oat seedlings was carried out in order to locate their light reception regions. On the basis of growth reactions after such treatment it was found that in completely etiolated seedlings the light reception sites involved in the stimulation of coleoptile elongation and inhibition of mesocotyle growth lie directly above and below the seedling node, whereas in pre-irradiated seedlings, in the top of the seedling. These results point to the existence of different growth photoregulation systems in etiolated and pre-irradiated oat seedlings. The role of phytochrome in these phenomena is discussed.

  6. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C.; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-01-01

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed “early contact inhibition.” Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27Kip1. In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16Ink4a. Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16Ink4a and p27Kip1 in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16Ink4a, and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27Kip1. We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat. PMID:19858485

  7. Impacts of Fertilizer on Avena sativa Growth in High and Semi-arid Regions%施肥量对高寒半干旱地区燕麦生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗振堂; 郭连云; 侯万红; 王晓兰

    2011-01-01

    added, the greater oat production would be harvested. [ Conclusion]The study provided theory evidence for high production and high quality Avena sativa.

  8. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  9. Oats may grow better in water depleted in oxygen 18 and deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J.D.; Friedman, I.

    1975-01-01

    WHILE growing oats at different temperatures in water of different 18O and deuterium (D) abundances, we noticed that oats grown in Antarctic water in which is depleted in 18O and D by -49??? and -400???, relative to standard mean ocean water (SMOW used as a comparative reference in hydrogen and oxygen isotope studies), showed initial growth 1-2 weeks sooner than did oats grown in water containing greater 18O and D concentrations. The oats seemed to grow better in water which was most depleted in the stable isotopes throughout the growth period. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Impact of whole grains on the gut microbiota: the next frontier for oats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Devin J

    2014-10-01

    The gut microbiota plays important roles in proper gut function and can contribute to or help prevent disease. Whole grains, including oats, constitute important sources of nutrients for the gut microbiota and contribute to a healthy gut microbiome. In particular, whole grains provide NSP and resistant starch, unsaturated TAG and complex lipids, and phenolics. The composition of these constituents is unique in oats compared with other whole grains. Therefore, oats may contribute distinctive effects on gut health relative to other grains. Studies designed to determine these effects may uncover new human-health benefits of oat consumption.

  11. Nutritive improvement of instant fried noodles with oat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawladda Tiangpook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ab