WorldWideScience

Sample records for naked mole rats

  1. Genome Stability Maintenance in Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruseva, I O; Evdokimov, A N; Lavrik, O I

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance. Despite the fact that the naked mole-rat lives under genotoxic stress conditions (oxidative, etc.), the main characteristics of its genome and proteome are a high stability and effective functioning. Replicative senescence in the somatic cells of naked mole-rats is missing, while an additional p53/pRb-dependent mechanism of early contact inhibition has been revealed in its fibroblasts, which controls cell proliferation and its mechanism of arf- dependent aging. The unique traits of phenotypic and molecular adaptations found in the naked mole-rat speak to a high stability and effective functioning of the molecular machinery that counteract damage accumulation in its genome. This review analyzes existing results in the study of the molecular basis of longevity and high cancer resistance in naked mole-rats.

  2. Extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John; Park, Thomas J

    2009-12-09

    Mammalian brains have extremely high levels of aerobic metabolism and typically suffer irreversible damage after brief periods of oxygen deprivation such as occur during stroke or cardiac arrest. Here we report that brain tissue from naked mole-rats, rodents that live in a chronically low-oxygen environment, is remarkably resistant to hypoxia: naked mole-rat neurons maintain synaptic transmission much longer than mouse neurons and can recover from periods of anoxia exceeding 30 min. We suggest that brain tolerance to hypoxia may result from slowed or arrested brain development in these extremely long-lived animals.

  3. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years1–3. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years4,5. In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer2,6. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole-rat’s cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high molecular weight hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high molecular weight HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole rat tissues due to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signaling, as the naked mole rat cells have a higher affinity to HA than the mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signaling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high molecular weight HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, Hyal2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumors in mice. We speculate that naked mole-rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species. PMID:23783513

  4. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years 1–3 . This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years 4,5 . In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single inci...

  5. High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-07-18

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years. This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years. In addition to their longevity, naked mole rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single incidence of cancer. Here we identify a mechanism responsible for the naked mole rat's cancer resistance. We found that naked mole-rat fibroblasts secrete extremely high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (HA), which is over five times larger than human or mouse HA. This high-molecular-mass HA accumulates abundantly in naked mole-rat tissues owing to the decreased activity of HA-degrading enzymes and a unique sequence of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Furthermore, the naked mole-rat cells are more sensitive to HA signalling, as they have a higher affinity to HA compared with mouse or human cells. Perturbation of the signalling pathways sufficient for malignant transformation of mouse fibroblasts fails to transform naked mole-rat cells. However, once high-molecular-mass HA is removed by either knocking down HAS2 or overexpressing the HA-degrading enzyme, HYAL2, naked mole-rat cells become susceptible to malignant transformation and readily form tumours in mice. We speculate that naked mole rats have evolved a higher concentration of HA in the skin to provide skin elasticity needed for life in underground tunnels. This trait may have then been co-opted to provide cancer resistance and longevity to this species.

  6. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  7. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource: facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alföldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-12-15

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, including in regions of p53, and the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and HMMR (RHAMM). Furthermore, we developed a freely available web portal, the Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource (http://www.naked-mole-rat.org), featuring the data and results of our analysis, to assist researchers interested in the genome and genes of the naked mole rat, and also to facilitate further studies on this fascinating species. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  9. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  10. Assessment of naked mole-rat distribution and threats in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Wale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the distribution, threats and community attitudes towards naked molerat in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected through direct observation and interview and Chi-square at 95% confidence interval was used for significance test. Results: Naked mole-rat was identified in Fafan, City/Shinele, Eastern Hararghe Zone and Dire Dawa Administrative. The main threats of naked mole-rat identified were agricultural expansion, human killing and lack of awareness. From a total of 100 respondents, 92% of them considered naked mole-rat as pest as a result that 46% of them participated in direct killing. Literacy rate significantly affects the willingness to participate in the conservation of naked mole-rat (χ2 = 7.478, df = 1, P < 0.05. From a total of 26% respondents who did not show the willingness to participate in the conservation, 80.8% of them were illiterate. Conclusions: Naked mole-rat is fairly common in many of the study sites. However, rapid shift from nomadic life style to cultivation of crops and lacks of awareness were the main threats of naked mole-rat. Therefore, since there is no conservation action currently, further comprehensive study is required to design conservation plan for this species.

  11. Fructose-driven glycolysis supports anoxia resistance in the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Reznick, Jane; Peterson, Bethany L; Blass, Gregory; Omerbašić, Damir; Bennett, Nigel C; Kuich, P Henning J L; Zasada, Christin; Browe, Brigitte M; Hamann, Wiebke; Applegate, Daniel T; Radke, Michael H; Kosten, Tetiana; Lutermann, Heike; Gavaghan, Victoria; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bégay, Valérie; Amoroso, Vince G; Govind, Vidya; Minshall, Richard D; Smith, Ewan St J; Larson, John; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempa, Stefan; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-04-21

    The African naked mole-rat's ( Heterocephalus glaber ) social and subterranean lifestyle generates a hypoxic niche. Under experimental conditions, naked mole-rats tolerate hours of extreme hypoxia and survive 18 minutes of total oxygen deprivation (anoxia) without apparent injury. During anoxia, the naked mole-rat switches to anaerobic metabolism fueled by fructose, which is actively accumulated and metabolized to lactate in the brain. Global expression of the GLUT5 fructose transporter and high levels of ketohexokinase were identified as molecular signatures of fructose metabolism. Fructose-driven glycolytic respiration in naked mole-rat tissues avoids feedback inhibition of glycolysis via phosphofructokinase, supporting viability. The metabolic rewiring of glycolysis can circumvent the normally lethal effects of oxygen deprivation, a mechanism that could be harnessed to minimize hypoxic damage in human disease. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Hypersensitivity to contact inhibition provides a clue to cancer resistance of naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluanov, Andrei; Hine, Christopher; Azpurua, Jorge; Feigenson, Marina; Bozzella, Michael; Mao, Zhiyong; Catania, Kenneth C; Gorbunova, Vera

    2009-11-17

    The naked mole-rat is the longest living rodent with a maximum lifespan exceeding 28 years. In addition to its longevity, naked mole-rats have an extraordinary resistance to cancer as tumors have never been observed in these rodents. Furthermore, we show that a combination of activated Ras and SV40 LT fails to induce robust anchorage-independent growth in naked mole-rat cells, while it readily transforms mouse fibroblasts. The mechanisms responsible for the cancer resistance of naked mole-rats were unknown. Here we show that naked mole-rat fibroblasts display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition, a phenomenon we termed "early contact inhibition." Contact inhibition is a key anticancer mechanism that arrests cell division when cells reach a high density. In cell culture, naked mole-rat fibroblasts arrest at a much lower density than those from a mouse. We demonstrate that early contact inhibition requires the activity of p53 and pRb tumor suppressor pathways. Inactivation of both p53 and pRb attenuates early contact inhibition. Contact inhibition in human and mouse is triggered by the induction of p27(Kip1). In contrast, early contact inhibition in naked mole-rat is associated with the induction of p16(Ink4a). Furthermore, we show that the roles of p16(Ink4a) and p27(Kip1) in the control of contact inhibition became temporally separated in this species: the early contact inhibition is controlled by p16(Ink4a), and regular contact inhibition is controlled by p27(Kip1). We propose that the additional layer of protection conferred by two-tiered contact inhibition contributes to the remarkable tumor resistance of the naked mole-rat.

  13. The Naked Mole Rat Genome Resource : facilitating analyses of cancer and longevity-related adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael; Craig, Thomas; Alfoldi, Jessica; Berlin, Aaron M; Johnson, Jeremy; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Church, George M; de Magalhaes, Joao Pedro

    2014-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is an exceptionally long-lived and cancer-resistant rodent native to East Africa. Although its genome was previously sequenced, here we report a new assembly sequenced by us with substantially higher N50 values for scaffolds and contigs. RESULTS: We analyzed the annotation of this new improved assembly and identified candidate genomic adaptations which may have contributed to the evolution of the naked mole rat's extraordinary traits, inc...

  14. High Autophagy in the Naked Mole Rat may Play a Significant Role in Maintaining Good Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmin Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The maximum lifespan of the naked mole rat is over 28.3 years, which exceeds that of any other rodent species, suggesting that age-related changes in its body composition and functionality are either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. However, the mechanisms underlying the aging process in this species are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether long-lived naked mole rats display more autophagic activity than short-lived mice. Methods: Hepatic stellate cells isolated from naked mole rats were treated with 50 nM rapamycin or 20 mM 3-methyladenine (3-MA for 12 or 24 h. Expression of the autophagy marker proteins LC3-II and beclin 1 was measured with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The induction of apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: Our results demonstrate that one-day-old naked mole rats have higher levels of autophagy than one-day-old short-lived C57BL/6 mice, and that both adult naked mole rats (eight months old and adult C57BL/6 mice (eight weeks old have high basal levels of autophagy, which may be an important mechanism inhibiting aging and reducing the risk of age-related diseases. Conclusion: Here, we report that autophagy facilitated the survival of hepatic stellate cells from the naked mole rat, and that treatment with 3-MA or rapamycin increased the ratio of apoptotic cells to normal hepatic stellate cells.

  15. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany L Peterson

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6 and older (postnatal day 20 age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  16. The naked mole-rat response to oxidative stress: just deal with it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Andziak, Blazej; Yang, Ting; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-20

    The oxidative stress theory of aging has been the most widely accepted theory of aging providing insights into why we age and die for over 50 years, despite mounting evidence from a multitude of species indicating that there is no direct relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and longevity. Here we explore how different species, including the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, have defied the most predominant aging theory. In the case of extremely long-lived naked mole-rat, levels of ROS production are found to be similar to mice, antioxidant defenses unexceptional, and even under constitutive conditions, naked mole-rats combine a pro-oxidant intracellular milieu with high, steady state levels of oxidative damage. Clearly, naked mole-rats can tolerate this level of oxidative stress and must have mechanisms in place to prevent its translation into potentially lethal diseases. In addition to the naked mole-rat, other species from across the phylogenetic spectrum and even certain mouse strains do not support this theory. Moreover, overexpressing or knocking down antioxidant levels alters levels of oxidative damage and even cancer incidence, but does not modulate lifespan. Perhaps, it is not oxidative stress that modulates healthspan and longevity, but other cytoprotective mechanisms that allow animals to deal with high levels of oxidative damage and stress, and nevertheless live long, relatively healthy lifespans. Studying these mechanisms in uniquely long-lived species, like the naked mole-rat, may help us tease out the key contributors to aging and longevity.

  17. Blunted neuronal calcium response to hypoxia in naked mole-rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Larson, John; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Park, Thomas J; Fall, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social and strictly subterranean rodents that live in large communal colonies in sealed and chronically oxygen-depleted burrows. Brain slices from naked mole-rats show extreme tolerance to hypoxia compared to slices from other mammals, as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under more hypoxic conditions and three fold longer latency to anoxic depolarization. A key factor in determining whether or not the cellular response to hypoxia is reversible or leads to cell death may be the elevation of intracellular calcium concentration. In the present study, we used fluorescent imaging techniques to measure relative intracellular calcium changes in CA1 pyramidal cells of hippocampal slices during hypoxia. We found that calcium accumulation during hypoxia was significantly and substantially attenuated in slices from naked mole-rats compared to slices from laboratory mice. This was the case for both neonatal (postnatal day 6) and older (postnatal day 20) age groups. Furthermore, while both species demonstrated more calcium accumulation at older ages, the older naked mole-rats showed a smaller calcium accumulation response than even the younger mice. A blunted intracellular calcium response to hypoxia may contribute to the extreme hypoxia tolerance of naked mole-rat neurons. The results are discussed in terms of a general hypothesis that a very prolonged or arrested developmental process may allow adult naked mole-rat brain to retain the hypoxia tolerance normally only seen in neonatal mammals.

  18. The molecular basis of acid insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Omerbašić, Damir; Lechner, Stefan G; Anirudhan, Gireesh; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Lewin, Gary R

    2011-12-16

    Acid evokes pain by exciting nociceptors; the acid sensors are proton-gated ion channels that depolarize neurons. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is exceptional in its acid insensitivity, but acid sensors (acid-sensing ion channels and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel) in naked mole-rat nociceptors are similar to those in other vertebrates. Acid inhibition of voltage-gated sodium currents is more profound in naked mole-rat nociceptors than in mouse nociceptors, however, which effectively prevents acid-induced action potential initiation. We describe a species-specific variant of the nociceptor sodium channel Na(V)1.7, which is potently blocked by protons and can account for acid insensitivity in this species. Thus, evolutionary pressure has selected for an Na(V)1.7 gene variant that tips the balance from proton-induced excitation to inhibition of action potential initiation to abolish acid nociception.

  19. Stress Resistance in the Naked Mole-Rat: The Bare Essentials – A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N.; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J.; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ∼8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. Objectives We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Results Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD50 values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Conclusion Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and

  20. Stress resistance in the naked mole-rat: the bare essentials - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Mele, James; Hornsby, Peter J; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    Studies comparing similar-sized species with disparate longevity may elucidate novel mechanisms that abrogate aging and prolong good health. We focus on the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat. This mouse-sized mammal lives ~8 times longer than do mice and, despite high levels of oxidative damage evident at a young age, it is not only very resistant to spontaneous neoplasia but also shows minimal decline in age-associated physiological traits. We assess the current status of stress resistance and longevity, focusing in particular on the molecular and cellular responses to cytotoxins and other stressors between the short-lived laboratory mouse and the naked mole-rat. Like other experimental animal models of lifespan extension, naked mole-rat fibroblasts are extremely tolerant of a broad spectrum of cytotoxins including heat, heavy metals, DNA-damaging agents and xenobiotics, showing LD(50) values between 2- and 20-fold greater than those of fibroblasts of shorter-lived mice. Our new data reveal that naked mole-rat fibroblasts stop proliferating even at low doses of toxin whereas those mouse fibroblasts that survive treatment rapidly re-enter the cell cycle and may proliferate with DNA damage. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts also show significantly higher constitutive levels of both p53 and Nrf2 protein levels and activity, and this increases even further in response to toxins. Enhanced cell signaling via p53 and Nrf2 protects cells against proliferating with damage, augments clearance of damaged proteins and organelles and facilitates the maintenance of both genomic and protein integrity. These pathways collectively regulate a myriad of mechanisms which may contribute to the attenuated aging profile and sustained healthspan of the naked mole-rat. Understanding how these are regulated may be also integral to sustaining positive human healthspan well into old age and may elucidate novel therapeutics for delaying the onset and progression of physiological declines

  1. Central visual system of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crish, Samuel D; Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2006-02-01

    Naked mole-rats are fossorial rodents native to eastern Africa that spend their lives in extensive subterranean burrows where visual cues are poor. Not surprisingly, they have a degenerated eye and optic nerve, suggesting they have poor visual abilities. However, little is known about their central visual system. To investigate the organization of their central visual system, we injected a neuronal tracer into the eyes of naked mole-rats and mice to compare the neural structures mediating vision. We found that the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate nucleus were severely atrophied in the naked mole-rat. The olivary pretectal nucleus was reduced but still retained its characteristic morphology, possibly indicating a role in light detection. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus is well innervated and resembles the same structure in other rodents. The naked mole-rat appears to have selectively lost structures that mediate form vision while retaining structures needed for minimal entrainment of circadian rhythms. Similar results have been reported for other mole-rat species. Taken together, these data suggest that light detection may still play an important role in the lives of these "blind" animals: most likely for circadian entrainment or setting seasonal rhythms.

  2. Unraveling the message: insights into comparative genomics of the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Soifer, Ilya; Melamud, Eugene; Roy, Margaret; McIsaac, R Scott; Hibbs, Matthew; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-08-01

    Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging. Comparative genomics could be a useful tool in this regard. Since the publication of a naked mole-rat genome assembly in 2011, analyses of genomic and transcriptomic data have enabled a clearer understanding of mole-rat evolutionary history and suggested molecular pathways (e.g., NRF2-signaling activation and DNA damage repair mechanisms) that may explain the extraordinarily longevity and unique health traits of this species. However, careful scrutiny and re-analysis suggest that some identified features result from incorrect or imprecise annotation and assembly of the naked mole-rat genome: in addition, some of these conclusions (e.g., genes involved in cancer resistance and hairlessness) are rejected when the analysis includes additional, more closely related species. We describe how the combination of better study design, improved genomic sequencing techniques, and new bioinformatic and data analytical tools will improve comparative genomics and ultimately bridge the gap between traditional model and nonmodel organisms.

  3. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Macrae (Sheila L.); Q. Zhang (Quanwei); C. Lemetre (Christophe); I. Seim (Inge); R.B. Calder (Robert B.); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin); V.N. Gladyshev (Vadim N.); A. Seluanov (Andrei); V. Gorbunova (Vera); J. Vijg (Jan); Z.D. Zhang (Zhengdong D.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM

  4. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVinka, Pamela Colleen; Park, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%), and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%), naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2).

  5. Blunted behavioral and c Fos responses to acidic fumes in the African naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Colleen LaVinka

    Full Text Available Acidosis in the skin triggers activation of pain pathways and behaviors indicative of pain in vertebrates. The exception is the naked mole-rat, the only known vertebrate to show physiological and behavioral insensitivity to acid pain in the skin. The goal of the present study was to determine behavioral and physiological responses of this species to airborne acidic fumes, which would be expected to affect the trigeminal pain pathway in other species. Behaviorally, naked mole-rats did not avoid fumes from moderately high concentrations of acetic acid (10 and 20%, and c Fos labeling showed no increase in activity in the trigeminal nuclei and nucleus tractus solitarius. In contrast, these concentrations triggered behavioral aversion and increased Fos activity in other laboratory rodents. For a very high concentration of acetic acid (50%, naked mole-rats showed significant avoidance behavior and increased Fos labeling in the nucleus tractus solitarius caudal region, which receives vagal chemosensory information. However, there was no increase in trigeminal labeling, and in fact, activity significantly decreased. This pattern is opposite of that associated with another irritant, ammonia fumes, which elicited an increase in trigeminal but not nucleus tractus solitarius Fos labeling, and no behavioral avoidance. Behavioral avoidance of acidic fumes, but no increased labeling in the trigeminal pain nucleus is consistent with the notion of adaptations to blunt acid pain, which would be advantageous for naked mole-rats as they normally live under chronically high levels of acidosis-inducing CO(2.

  6. Distribution of vasopressin in the brain of the eusocial naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2007-02-20

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies in which one queen breeds with one to three males. All other animals are nonbreeding subordinates. The external features of male and female subordinates, including their genitalia, are remarkably monomorphic, as is their behavior. Because vasopressin (VP) is associated with social behaviors and sex differences in other species, its distribution in naked mole-rats was of interest. We used immunohistochemistry to examine VP in the brains of subordinate and breeding naked mole-rats of both sexes. As in other mammals, VP-immunoreactive (-ir) somata were found in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) and VP-ir projections from these nuclei ran through the internal and external zone of the median eminence. However, naked mole-rats had very few VP-ir cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and none in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN); the extensive network of fine-caliber VP-ir fibers usually seen in projection sites of the BST and SCN were also absent. Equally unexpected was the abundance of large-caliber VP-ir fibers in the dorsomedial septum. VP immunoreactivity was generally similar in all groups, with the exception of VP-ir cell number in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). Breeders had a population of labeled cells in the DMH that was absent, or nearly absent, in subordinates. Future studies on the function of VP in these areas are needed to determine how the atypical distribution of VP immunoreactivity relates to eusociality and the unusual physiology of naked mole-rats.

  7. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B.; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1–5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus...... musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies...

  8. Naked mole-rat cortical neurons are resistant to acid-induced cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Husson, Zoé; Smith, Ewan S

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Regulation of brain pH is a critical homeostatic process and changes in brain pH modulate various ion channels and receptors and thus neuronal excitability. Tissue acidosis, resulting from hypoxia or hypercapnia, can activate various proteins and ion channels, among which acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) a family of primarily Na+ permeable ion channels, which alongside classical excitotoxicity causes neuronal death. Naked mole-rats (NMRs, Heterocephalus glaber) are ...

  9. Digital dissection of the masticatory muscles of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber (Mammalia, Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G. Cox

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, of the family Bathyergidae is a subterranean rodent that feeds on underground roots and tubers and digs extensive tunnel systems with its incisors. It is a highly unusual mammal with regard to its social structure, longevity, pain insensitivity and cancer resistance, all of which have made it the subject of a great deal of research in recent years. Yet, much of the basic anatomy of this species remains undocumented. In this paper, we describe the morphology of the jaw-closing musculature of the naked mole-rat, as revealed by contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography. This technique uses an iodine stain to enable the imaging of soft tissues with microCT. The iodine-enhanced scans were used to create 3D reconstructions of the naked mole-rat masticatory muscles from which muscle masses were calculated. The jaw-closing musculature of Heterocephalus glaber is relatively very large compared to other rodents and is dominated by the superficial masseter, the deep masseter and the temporalis. The temporalis in particular is large for a rodent, covering the entirety of the braincase and much of the rear part of the orbit. The morphology of the masseter complex described here differs from two other published descriptions of bathyergid masticatory muscles, but is more similar to the arrangement seen in other rodent families. The zygomaticomandibularis (ZM muscle does not protrude through the infraorbital foramen on to the rostrum and thus the naked mole-rat should be considered protrogomorphous rather than hystricomorphous, and the morphology is consistent with secondarily lost hystricomorphy as has been previously suggested for Bathyergidae. Overall, the morphology of the masticatory musculature indicates a species with a high bite force and a wide gape–both important adaptations for a life dominated by digging with the incisors.

  10. Sex, social status, and CRF receptor densities in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K; Bicks, Lucy; Mooney, Skyler J; Goodwin, Nastacia L; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-02-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in groups that are notable for their large size and caste structure, with breeding monopolized by a single female and a small number of males. Recent studies have demonstrated substantial differences between the brains of breeders and subordinates induced by changes in social standing. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors-which bind the hormone CRF as well as related peptides-are important regulators of stress and anxiety, and are emerging as factors affecting social behavior. We conducted autoradiographic analyses of CRF1 and CRF2 receptor binding densities in female and male naked mole-rats varying in breeding status. Both globally and in specific brain regions, CRF1 receptor densities varied with breeding status. CRF1 receptor densities were higher in subordinates across brain regions, and particularly in the piriform cortex and cortical amygdala. Sex differences were present in CRF2 receptor binding densities, as is the case in multiple vole species. CRF2 receptor densities were higher in females, both globally and in the cortical amygdala and lateral amygdalar nucleus. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiology of social hierarchy in naked mole-rats, and add to a growing body of work that links changes in the CRF system with social behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarko, Diana K; Leitch, Duncan B; Catania, Kenneth C

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats' behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors). These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  12. Naked mole-rat mortality rates defy Gompertzian laws by not increasing with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, J Graham; Smith, Megan

    2018-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), has a reported maximum lifespan of >30 years and exhibits delayed and/or attenuated age-associated physiological declines. We questioned whether these mouse-sized, eusocial rodents conform to Gompertzian mortality laws by experiencing an exponentially increasing risk of death as they get older. We compiled and analyzed a large compendium of historical naked mole-rat lifespan data with >3000 data points. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a substantial portion of the population to have survived at 30 years of age. Moreover, unlike all other mammals studied to date, and regardless of sex or breeding-status, the age-specific hazard of mortality did not increase with age, even at ages 25-fold past their time to reproductive maturity. This absence of hazard increase with age, in defiance of Gompertz’s law, uniquely identifies the naked mole-rat as a non-aging mammal, confirming its status as an exceptional model for biogerontology. PMID:29364116

  13. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbašić, Damir; Smith, Ewan St J; Moroni, Mirko; Homfeld, Johanna; Eigenbrod, Ole; Bennett, Nigel C; Reznick, Jane; Faulkes, Chris G; Selbach, Matthias; Lewin, Gary R

    2016-10-11

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF), an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypofunctional TrkA Accounts for the Absence of Pain Sensitization in the African Naked Mole-Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Omerbašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat is a subterranean rodent lacking several pain behaviors found in humans, rats, and mice. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF, an important mediator of pain sensitization, fails to produce thermal hyperalgesia in naked mole-rats. The sensitization of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 ion channels is necessary for NGF-induced hyperalgesia, but naked mole-rats have fully functional TRPV1 channels. We show that exposing isolated naked mole-rat nociceptors to NGF does not sensitize TRPV1. However, the naked mole-rat NGF receptor TrkA displays a reduced ability to engage signal transduction pathways that sensitize TRPV1. Between one- and three-amino-acid substitutions in the kinase domain of the naked mole-rat TrkA are sufficient to render the receptor hypofunctional, and this is associated with the absence of heat hyperalgesia. Our data suggest that evolution has selected for a TrkA variant that abolishes a robust nociceptive behavior in this species but is still compatible with species fitness.

  15. Cutaneous and periodontal inputs to the cerebellum of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K Sarko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a small fossorial rodent with specialized dentition that is reflected by the large cortical area dedicated to representation of the prominent incisors. Due to naked mole-rats’ behavioral reliance on the incisors for digging and for manipulating objects, as well as their ability to move the lower incisors independently, we hypothesized that expanded somatosensory representations of the incisors would be present within the cerebellum in order to accommodate a greater degree of proprioceptive, cutaneous, and periodontal input. Multiunit electrophysiological recordings targeting the ansiform lobule were used to investigate tactile inputs from receptive fields on the entire body with a focus on the incisors. Similar to other rodents, a fractured somatotopy appeared to be present with discrete representations of the same receptive fields repeated within each folium of the cerebellum. These findings confirm the presence of somatosensory inputs to a large area of the naked mole-rat cerebellum with particularly extensive representations of the lower incisors and mystacial vibrissae. We speculate that these extensive inputs facilitate processing of tactile cues as part of a sensorimotor integration network that optimizes how sensory stimuli are acquired through active exploration and in turn adjusts motor outputs (such as independent movement of the lower incisors. These results highlight the diverse sensory specializations and corresponding brain organizational schemes that have evolved in different mammals to facilitate exploration of and interaction with their environment.

  16. Investigation of the presence and antinociceptive function of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kristine B; Krogh-Jensen, Karen; Pickering, Darryl S; Kanui, Titus I; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the cholinergic system in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) with focus on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes M1 and M4. The protein sequences for the subtypes m 1-5 of the naked mole-rat were compared to that of the house mouse (Mus musculus) using basic local alignment search tool (BLAST). The presence and function of M1 and M4 was investigated in vivo, using the formalin test with the muscarinic receptor agonists xanomeline and VU0152100. Spinal cord tissue from the naked mole-rat was used for receptor saturation binding studies with [(3)H]-N-methylscopolamine. The BLAST test revealed 95 % protein sequence homology showing the naked mole-rat to have the genetic potential to express all five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes. A significant reduction in pain behavior was demonstrated after administration of 8.4 mg/kg in the formalin test. Administration of 50 mg/kg VU0152100 resulted in a non-significant tendency towards antinociception. The antinociceptive effects were reversed by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. Binding studies indicated presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors with a radioligand affinity comparable to that reported in mice. In conclusion, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes are present in the naked mole-rat and contribute to antinociception in the naked mole-rat.

  17. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Blass, Gregory R C; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-05-24

    Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP) in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  18. Absence of histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat and "rescue" by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Gary R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent research has proposed a pathway in which sensory neurons expressing the capsaicin activated ion channel TRPV1 are required for histamine-induced itch and subsequent scratching behavior. We examined histamine-induced itch in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber and found that although naked mole-rats display innate scratching behavior, histamine was unable to evoke increased scratching as is observed in most mouse strains. Using calcium imaging, we examined the histamine sensitivity of naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons and identified a population of small diameter neurons activated by histamine, the majority of which are also capsaicin-sensitive. This suggested that naked mole-rat sensory neurons are activated by histamine, but that spinal dorsal horn processing of sensory information is not the same as in other rodents. We have previously shown that naked mole-rats naturally lack substance P (SP in cutaneous C-fibers, but that the neurokinin-1 receptor is expressed in the superficial spinal cord. This led us to investigate if SP deficiency plays a role in the lack of histamine-induced scratching in this species. After intrathecal administration of SP into the spinal cord we observed robust scratching behavior in response to histamine injection. Our data therefore support a model in which TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons are important for histamine-induced itch. In addition, we demonstrate a requirement for active, SP-induced post-synaptic drive to enable histamine sensitive afferents to drive itch-related behavior in the naked mole-rat. These results illustrate that it is altered dorsal horn connectivity of nociceptors that underlies the lack of itch and pain-related behavior in the naked mole-rat.

  19. Naked mole-rat acid-sensing ion channel 3 forms nonfunctional homomers, but functional heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Callejo, Gerard; Srivats, Shyam; Smith, Ewan St John

    2018-02-02

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels that are activated by extracellular protons and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including pain and anxiety. ASIC proteins can form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric ion channels. The ASIC3 subunit has been shown to be of particular importance in the peripheral nervous system with pharmacological and genetic manipulations demonstrating a role in pain. Naked mole-rats, despite having functional ASICs, are insensitive to acid as a noxious stimulus and show diminished avoidance of acidic fumes, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Here we cloned naked mole-rat ASIC3 (nmrASIC3) and used a cell-surface biotinylation assay to demonstrate that it traffics to the plasma membrane, but using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology we observed that nmrASIC3 is insensitive to both protons and the non-proton ASIC3 agonist 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline. However, in line with previous reports of ASIC3 mRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons, we found that the ASIC3 antagonist APETx2 reversibly inhibits ASIC-like currents in naked mole-rat dorsal root ganglia neurons. We further show that like the proton-insensitive ASIC2b and ASIC4, nmrASIC3 forms functional, proton-sensitive heteromers with other ASIC subunits. An amino acid alignment of ASIC3s between 9 relevant rodent species and human identified unique sequence differences that might underlie the proton insensitivity of nmrASIC3. However, introducing nmrASIC3 differences into rat ASIC3 (rASIC3) produced only minor differences in channel function, and replacing the nmrASIC3 sequence with that of rASIC3 did not produce a proton-sensitive ion channel. Our observation that nmrASIC3 forms nonfunctional homomers may reflect a further adaptation of the naked mole-rat to living in an environment with high-carbon dioxide levels. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular

  20. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  1. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko eSeki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organisation of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality, extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, which generates high contrast images of fibre structures, can characterise unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography (CT were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualisation of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats.

  2. Dominance and queen succession in captive colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F M; Faulkes, C G

    1997-07-22

    Naked mole-rat colonies exhibit a high reproductive skew, breeding being typically restricted to one female (the 'queen') and one to three males. Other colony members are reproductively suppressed, although this suppression can be reversed following the removal or death of the queen. We examined dominance and queen succession within captive colonies to investigate the relationship between urinary testosterone and cortisol, dominance rank and reproductive status; and to determine if behavioural and/or physiological parameters can be used as predictors of queen succession. Social structure was characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy before and after queen removal. Prior to queen removal, dominance rank was negatively correlated with body weight and urinary testosterone and cortisol titres in males and females. Queen removal results in social instability and aggression between high ranking individuals. Dominance rank appears to be a good predictor of reproductive status: queens are the highest ranking colony females and are succeeded by the next highest ranking females. The intense dominance-related aggression that accompanies reproductive succession in naked mole-rats provides empirical support for optimal skew theory.

  3. Androgen receptor distribution in the social decision-making network of eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Van Mil, Spencer; Bulkowski, Camila; Goldman, Sharry L; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2013-11-01

    Naked mole-rats are highly social rodents that live in large groups and exhibit a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. Only a few animals in each colony breed; the remainder are non-reproductive and are socially subordinate to breeders. We have examined androgen receptor immunoreactive (AR+) cells in brain regions comprising the recently described social decision-making network in subordinate and breeder naked mole-rats of both sexes. We find that subordinates have a significantly higher percentage of AR+ cells in all brain regions expressing this protein. By contrast, there were no significant effects of sex and no sex-by-status interactions on the percentage of AR+ cells. Taken together with previous findings, the present data complete a systematic assessment of the distribution of AR protein in the social decision-making network of the eusocial mammalian brain and demonstrate a significant role for social status in the regulation of this protein throughout many nodes of this network. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential effects of chronic fluoxetine on the behavior of dominant and subordinate naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Daniel L; Kosyachkova, Ekaterina A; Nguyen, Tam M; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies with a strict reproductive and social hierarchy. The breeding female (referred to as the queen) and 1 to 3 breeding males are the only reproductive members of the colony. Breeders are socially dominant and all other colony members are non-reproductive subordinates. The effects of manipulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter system on aggression and dominance behaviors are well studied in many species, but not in eusocial rodents like the naked mole-rat. The current study investigated how the serotonergic system influences aggressive/dominant behaviors in this species. To do this, two separate but related experiments were conducted: the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) on status-specific behaviors of subordinates (Experiment 1) and dominant queens (Experiment 2) were evaluated both in-colony and in a social-pairing paradigm. In accordance with our main hypothesis, chronic treatment of FLX attenuated the frequency and duration of aggression in queens, but not subordinates, when paired with an unfamiliar conspecific. Further exploration of pharmacological manipulation on status-specific behaviors of this eusocial species may elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their unique and rigid social hierarchy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kevin K; Luo, Xueting; Mooney, Skyler J; Yungher, Benjamin J; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Holmes, Melissa M; He, Zhigang

    2017-02-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), axonal damage often triggers neuronal cell death and glial activation, with very limited spontaneous axon regeneration. In this study, we performed optic nerve injury in adult naked mole-rats, the longest living rodent, with a maximum life span exceeding 30 years, and found that injury responses in this species are quite distinct from those in other mammalian species. In contrast to what is seen in other mammals, the majority of injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive with relatively high spontaneous axon regeneration. Furthermore, injured RGCs display activated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), whereas astrocytes in the optic nerve robustly occupy and fill the lesion area days after injury. These neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic injury responses are reminiscent of those in "cold-blooded" animals, such as fish and amphibians, suggesting that the naked mole-rat is a powerful model for exploring the mechanisms of neuronal injury responses and axon regeneration in mammals. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:380-388, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Endocrine function and neurobiology of the longest-living rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Park, Thomas J; Kang, Hyesin; Biney, Adriana; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Animals that have evolved exceptional capabilities, such as extraordinary longevity may reveal pertinent and potentially critical insights into biomedical research that are not readily apparent in standard laboratory animals. Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber; NMRs) are extremely long-lived (30 years) mouse-sized rodents. They clearly have evolved superior anti-aging mechanisms as evident by the markedly attenuated age-related decline in physiological function, sustained reproductive capacity and pronounced cancer resistance throughout their long-lives. These eusocial rodents, like the social insects, live in colonies with breeding restricted to one female and a few males. Subordinates are sexually monomorphic, yet retain the ability to become breeders, and can undergo growth surges and neural modifications at any time throughout their life. This plasticity in physiological and behavioral aspects may have contributed to their long-lives. Naked mole-rats show numerous adaptations to life underground including extreme tolerance of hypoxia, acid insensitivity, as well as independence of photoendocrine systems. Here we review what is known about their unique social structure, sensory systems, endocrinology and neurobiology, and highlight areas that may be pertinent to biogerontology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in ...

  8. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Mason

    Full Text Available Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  10. Social condition and oxytocin neuron number in the hypothalamus of naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, S J; Holmes, M M

    2013-01-29

    The naked mole-rat is a subterranean colonial rodent. In each colony, which can grow to as many as 300 individuals, there is only one female and 1-3 males that are reproductive and socially dominant. The remaining animals are reproductively suppressed subordinates that contribute to colony survival through their cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that has shown relatively widespread effects on prosocial behaviors in other species. We examined whether social status affects the number of oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus by comparing dominant breeding animals to subordinate non-breeding workers from intact colonies. We also examined these regions in subordinate animals that had been removed from their colony and paired with an opposite- or same-sex conspecific for 6 months. Stereological analyses indicated that subordinates had significantly more oxytocin neurons in the paraventricular nucleus than breeders. Animals in both opposite- and same-sex pairs showed a decreased oxytocin neuron number compared to subordinates suggesting that status differences may be due to social condition rather than the reproductive activity of the animal per se. The effects of social status appear to be region specific as no group differences were found for oxytocin neuron number in the supraoptic nucleus. Given that subordinate naked mole-rats are kept reproductively suppressed through antagonism by the queen, we speculate that status differences are due either to oxytocin's anxiolytic properties to combat the stress of this antagonism or to its ability to promote the prosocial behaviors of subordinates. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ear Structures of the Naked Mole-Rat, Heterocephalus glaber, and Its Relatives (Rodentia: Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J; Cornwall, Hannah L; Smith, Ewan St J

    2016-01-01

    Although increasingly popular as a laboratory species, very little is known about the peripheral auditory system of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber. In this study, middle and inner ears of naked mole-rats of a range of ages were examined using micro-computed tomography and dissection. The ears of five other bathyergid species (Bathyergus suillus, Cryptomys hottentotus, Fukomys micklemi, Georychus capensis and Heliophobius argenteocinereus) were examined for comparative purposes. The middle ears of bathyergids show features commonly found in other members of the Ctenohystrica rodent clade, including a fused malleus and incus, a synovial stapedio-vestibular articulation and the loss of the stapedius muscle. Heterocephalus deviates morphologically from the other bathyergids examined in that it has a more complex mastoid cavity structure, poorly-ossified processes of the malleus and incus, a 'columelliform' stapes and fewer cochlear turns. Bathyergids have semicircular canals with unusually wide diameters relative to their radii of curvature. How the lateral semicircular canal reaches the vestibule differs between species. Heterocephalus has much more limited high-frequency hearing than would be predicted from its small ear structures. The spongy bone forming its ossicular processes, the weak incudo-stapedial articulation, the columelliform stapes and (compared to other bathyergids) reduced cochlear coiling are all potentially degenerate features which might reflect a lack of selective pressure on its peripheral auditory system. Substantial intraspecific differences were found in certain middle and inner ear structures, which might also result from relaxed selective pressures. However, such interpretations must be treated with caution in the absence of experimental evidence.

  12. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Brand

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP. In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1 SP, 2 an SP antagonist (GR-82334, and 3 an NMDA antagonist (APV on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  13. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A cytosolic protein factor from the naked mole-rat activates proteasomes of other species and protects these from inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Osmulski, Pawel A.; Pierce, Anson; Weintraub, Susan T.; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat maintains robust proteostasis and high levels of proteasome-mediated proteolysis for most of its exceptional (~31y) life span. Here, we report that the highly active proteasome from the naked mole-rat liver resists attenuation by a diverse suite of proteasome-specific small molecule inhibitors. Moreover, mouse, human, and yeast proteasomes exposed to the proteasome-depleted, naked mole-rat cytosolic fractions, recapitulate the observed inhibition resistance, and mammalian proteasomes also show increased activity. Gel filtration coupled with mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy indicates that these traits are supported by a protein factor that resides in the cytosol. This factor interacts with the proteasome and modulates its activity. Although HSP72 and HSP40 (Hdj1) are among the constituents of this factor, the observed phenomenon, such as increasing peptidase activity and protecting against inhibition cannot be reconciled with any known chaperone functions. This novel function may contribute to the exceptional protein homeostasis in the naked mole-rat and allow it to successfully defy aging. PMID:25018089

  15. Functional neurokinin and NMDA receptor activity in an animal naturally lacking substance P: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Antje; Smith, Ewan St J; Lewin, Gary R; Park, Thomas J

    2010-12-21

    Naked mole-rats are extremely unusual among mammals in that their cutaneous C-fibers lack the neuropeptide Substance P (SP). In other mammals, SP plays an important role in nociception: it is released from C-fibers onto spinal neurons where it facilitates NMDA receptor activity and causes sensitization that can last for minutes, hours or days. In the present study, we tested the effects of intrathecal application of: 1) SP, 2) an SP antagonist (GR-82334), and 3) an NMDA antagonist (APV) on heat-evoked foot withdrawal. In the naked mole-rat, at a high enough concentration, application of SP caused a large, immediate, and long-lasting sensitization of foot withdrawal latency that was transiently reversed by application of either antagonist. However, neither SP nor NMDA antagonists had an effect when administered alone to naïve animals. In contrast, both antagonists induced an increase in basal withdrawal latency in mice. These results indicate that spinal neurons in naked mole-rats have functional SP and NMDA receptors, but that these receptors do not participate in heat-evoked foot withdrawal unless SP is experimentally introduced. We propose that the natural lack of SP in naked mole-rat C-fibers may have resulted during adaptation to living in a chronically high carbon dioxide, high ammonia environment that, in other mammals, would stimulate C-fibers and evoke nocifensive behavior.

  16. Functional characteristics of the naked mole rat μ-opioid receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig

    Full Text Available While humans and most animals respond to µ-opioid receptor (MOR agonists with analgesia and decreased aggression, in the naked mole rat (NMR opioids induce hyperalgesia and severe aggression. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1 can underlie altered behavioral responses to opioids. Therefore, we hypothesized that the primary structure of the NMR MOR may differ from other species. Sequencing of the NMR oprm1 revealed strong homology to other mammals, but exposed three unique amino acids that might affect receptor-ligand interactions. The NMR and rat oprm1 sequences were cloned into mammalian expression vectors and transfected into HEK293 cells. Radioligand binding and 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP enzyme immunoassays were used to compare opioid binding and opioid-mediated cAMP inhibition. At normalized opioid receptor protein levels we detected significantly lower [3H]DAMGO binding to NMR compared to rat MOR, but no significant difference in DAMGO-induced cAMP inhibition. Strong DAMGO-induced MOR internalization was detectable using radioligand binding and confocal imaging in HEK293 cells expressing rat or NMR receptor, while morphine showed weak or no effects. In summary, we found minor functional differences between rat and NMR MOR suggesting that other differences e.g. in anatomical distribution of MOR underlie the NMR's extreme reaction to opioids.

  17. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  18. Renal Pathology in a Nontraditional Aging Model: The Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) is growing in popularity as a model for aging research due to its extreme longevity (up to 30 years), highly adapted physiology, and resistance to cancer, particularly when compared with traditional aging models such as laboratory mice and rats. Despite the NMR's seemingly lengthy health span, several age-related lesions have been documented. During a 15-year retrospective evaluation of a zoo-housed population, histologic changes in the kidneys were reported in 127 of 138 (92%) adult NMRs. Of these, renal tubular mineralization was very common (115 of 127; 90.6%) and found in NMRs without concurrent renal lesions (36 of 127; 28.3%). Many of the other described lesions were considered progressive stages of a single process, generally referred to as chronic nephritis or nephropathy, and diagnosed in 73 of 127 (57.5%), while end-stage renal disease was reported in only 12 (9.4%) NMRs. Renal lesions of these NMRs were comparable to disease entities reported in laboratory rats and certain strains of inbred and noninbred mice. Although many lesions of NMR kidneys were similar to those found in aged laboratory rodents, some common urinary diseases were not represented in the examined colonies. The goal of this study was to describe renal lesions in NMRs from a zoologic setting to familiarize investigators and pathologists with an apparently common and presumably age-related disease in this nontraditional model. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuanfei; Li, Yang; Holmes, Andrew; Szafranski, Karol; Faulkes, Chris G; Coen, Clive W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Platzer, Matthias; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Church, George M

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam), a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m), and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  20. Adult naked mole-rat brain retains the NMDA receptor subunit GluN2D associated with hypoxia tolerance in neonatal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bethany L; Park, Thomas J; Larson, John

    2012-01-11

    Adult naked mole-rats show a number of systemic adaptations to a crowded underground habitat that is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide. Remarkably, brain slice tissue from adult naked mole-rats also is extremely tolerant to oxygen deprivation as indicated by maintenance of synaptic transmission under hypoxic conditions as well as by a delayed neuronal depolarization during anoxia. These characteristics resemble hypoxia tolerance in brain slices from neonates in a variety of mammal species. An important component of neonatal tolerance to hypoxia involves the subunit composition of NMDA receptors. Neonates have a high proportion of NMDA receptors with GluN2D subunits which are protective because they retard calcium entry into neurons during hypoxic episodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that adult naked mole-rats retain a protective, neonatal-like, NMDA receptor subunit profile. We used immunoblotting to assess age-related changes in NMDA receptor subunits in naked mole-rats and mice. The results show that adult naked mole-rat brain retains a much greater proportion of the hypoxia-protective GluN2D subunit compared to adult mice. However, age-related changes in other subunits (GluN2A and GluN2B) from the neonatal period to adulthood were comparable in mice and naked mole-rats. Hence, adult naked mole-rat brain only retains the neonatal NMDA receptor subunit that is associated with hypoxia tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RNA sequencing reveals differential expression of mitochondrial and oxidation reduction genes in the long-lived naked mole-rat when compared to mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfei Yu

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is a long-lived, cancer resistant rodent and there is a great interest in identifying the adaptations responsible for these and other of its unique traits. We employed RNA sequencing to compare liver gene expression profiles between naked mole-rats and wild-derived mice. Our results indicate that genes associated with oxidoreduction and mitochondria were expressed at higher relative levels in naked mole-rats. The largest effect is nearly 300-fold higher expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Epcam, a tumour-associated protein. Also of interest are the protease inhibitor, alpha2-macroglobulin (A2m, and the mitochondrial complex II subunit Sdhc, both ageing-related genes found strongly over-expressed in the naked mole-rat. These results hint at possible candidates for specifying species differences in ageing and cancer, and in particular suggest complex alterations in mitochondrial and oxidation reduction pathways in the naked mole-rat. Our differential gene expression analysis obviated the need for a reference naked mole-rat genome by employing a combination of Illumina/Solexa and 454 platforms for transcriptome sequencing and assembling transcriptome contigs of the non-sequenced species. Overall, our work provides new research foci and methods for studying the naked mole-rat's fascinating characteristics.

  2. Peripheral administration of oxytocin increases social affiliation in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Skyler J; Douglas, Natasha R; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates a wide variety of social behaviors across diverse species. However, the types of behaviors that are influenced by this hormone are constrained by the species in question and the social organization that a particular species exhibits. Therefore, the present experiments investigated behaviors regulated by oxytocin in a eusocial mammalian species by using the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). In Experiment 1, adult non-breeding mole-rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg or 10mg/kg) or saline on alternate days. Animals were then returned to their colony and behavior was recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Both doses of oxytocin increased huddling behavior during this time period. In Experiment 2, animals received intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg), an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg), a cocktail of oxytocin and the antagonist, or saline across 4 testing days in a counterbalanced design. Animals were placed in either a 2-chamber arena with a familiar conspecific or in a small chamber with 1week old pups from their home colony and behaviors were recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Oxytocin increased investigation of, and time spent in close proximity to, a familiar conspecific; these effects were blocked by the oxytocin antagonist. No effects were seen on pup-directed behavior. These data suggest that oxytocin is capable of modulating affiliative-like behavior in this eusocial species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Naked Mole Rat Cells Have a Stable Epigenome that Resists iPSC Reprogramming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rat (NMR is a valuable model for aging and cancer research due to its exceptional longevity and cancer resistance. We observed that the reprogramming efficiency of NMR fibroblasts in response to OSKM was drastically lower than that of mouse fibroblasts. Expression of SV40 LargeT antigen (LT dramatically improved reprogramming of NMR fibroblasts. Inactivation of Rb alone, but not p53, was sufficient to improve reprogramming efficiency, suggesting that NMR chromatin may be refractory to reprogramming. Analysis of the global histone landscape revealed that NMR had higher levels of repressive H3K27 methylation marks and lower levels of activating H3K27 acetylation marks than mouse. ATAC-seq revealed that in NMR, promoters of reprogramming genes were more closed than mouse promoters, while expression of LT led to massive opening of the NMR promoters. These results suggest that NMR displays a more stable epigenome that resists de-differentiation, contributing to the cancer resistance and longevity of this species.

  4. Naked Mole Rat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Interspecific Chimera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Goo Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rats (NMRs are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns. Interestingly, NMR embryonic fibroblasts and the derived iPSCs had propensity for a tetraploid karyotype and were resistant to forming teratomas, but within mouse blastocysts they contributed to both interspecific placenta and fetus. Gene expression patterns of NMR iPSCs were more similar to those of human than mouse iPSCs. Overall, we uncovered unique features of NMR iPSCs and report a mouse-NMR chimeric model. The iPSCs and associated cell culture systems can be used for a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  5. Cardiac function of the naked mole-rat: ecophysiological responses to working underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Voorhees, Andrew; Chiao, Ying Ann; Han, Hai-Chao; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-03-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a strictly subterranean rodent with a low resting metabolic rate. Nevertheless, it can greatly increase its metabolic activity to meet the high energetic demands associated with digging through compacted soils in its xeric natural habitat where food is patchily distributed. We hypothesized that the NMR heart would naturally have low basal function and exhibit a large cardiac reserve, thereby mirroring the species' low basal metabolism and large metabolic scope. Echocardiography showed that young (2-4 yr old) healthy NMRs have low fractional shortening (28 ± 2%), ejection fraction (43 ± 2%), and cardiac output (6.5 ± 0.4 ml/min), indicating low basal cardiac function. Histology revealed large NMR cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (216 ± 10 μm(2)) and cardiac collagen deposition of 2.2 ± 0.4%. Neither of these histomorphometric traits was considered pathological, since biaxial tensile testing showed no increase in passive ventricular stiffness. NMR cardiomyocyte fibers showed a low degree of rotation, contributing to the observed low NMR cardiac contractility. Interestingly, when the exercise mimetic dobutamine (3 μg/g ip) was administered, NMRs showed pronounced increases in fractional shortening, ejection fraction, cardiac output, and stroke volume, indicating an increased cardiac reserve. The relatively low basal cardiac function and enhanced cardiac reserve of NMRs are likely to be ecophysiological adaptations to life in an energetically taxing environment.

  6. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase act...

  7. Challenging the inbreeding hypothesis in a eusocial mammal: population genetics of the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Colleen M; Troendle, Nicholas J; Gill, Clare A; Braude, Stanton; Honeycutt, Rodney L

    2015-10-01

    The role of genetic relatedness in the evolution of eusociality has been the topic of much debate, especially when contrasting eusocial insects with vertebrates displaying reproductive altruism. The naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber, was the first described eusocial mammal. Although this discovery was based on an ecological constraints model of eusocial evolution, early genetic studies reported high levels of relatedness in naked mole-rats, providing a compelling argument that low dispersal rates and consanguineous mating (inbreeding as a mating system) are the driving forces for the evolution of this eusocial species. One caveat to accepting this long-held view is that the original genetic studies were based on limited sampling from the species' geographic distribution. A growing body of evidence supports a contrary view, with the original samples not representative of the species-rather reflecting a single founder event, establishing a small population south of the Athi River. Our study is the first to address these competing hypotheses by examining patterns of molecular variation in colonies sampled from north and south of the Athi and Tana rivers, which based on our results, serve to isolate genetically distinct populations of naked mole-rats. Although colonies south of the Athi River share a single mtDNA haplotype and are fixed at most microsatellite loci, populations north of the Athi River are considerably more variable. Our findings support the position that the low variation observed in naked mole-rat populations south of the Athi River reflects a founder event, rather than a consequence of this species' unusual mating system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Naked mole-rats maintain healthy skeletal muscle and Complex IV mitochondrial enzyme function into old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Karapavlovic, Nevena; Rosa, Hannah; Woodmass, Michael; Rygiel, Karolina; White, Kathryn; Turnbull, Douglass M; Faulkes, Chris G

    2016-12-19

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) Heterocephalus glaber is an exceptionally long-lived rodent, living up to 32 years in captivity. This extended lifespan is accompanied by a phenotype of negligible senescence, a phenomenon of very slow changes in the expected physiological characteristics with age. One of the many consequences of normal aging in mammals is the devastating and progressive loss of skeletal muscle, termed sarcopenia, caused in part by respiratory enzyme dysfunction within the mitochondria of skeletal muscle fibers. Here we report that NMRs avoid sarcopenia for decades. Muscle fiber integrity and mitochondrial ultrastructure are largely maintained in aged animals. While mitochondrial Complex IV expression and activity remains stable, Complex I expression is significantly decreased. We show that aged naked mole-rat skeletal muscle tissue contains some mitochondrial DNA rearrangements, although the common mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with aging in human and other rodent skeletal muscles are not present. Interestingly, NMR skeletal muscle fibers demonstrate a significant increase in mitochondrial DNA copy number. These results have intriguing implications for the role of mitochondria in aging, suggesting Complex IV, but not Complex I, function is maintained in the long-lived naked mole rat, where sarcopenia is avoided and healthy muscle function is maintained for decades.

  9. Membrane phospholipid composition may contribute to exceptional longevity of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber): a comparative study using shotgun lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Todd W; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hulbert, A J

    2007-11-01

    Phospholipids containing highly polyunsaturated fatty acids are particularly prone to peroxidation and membrane composition may therefore influence longevity. Phospholipid molecules, in particular those containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), from the skeletal muscle, heart, liver and liver mitochondria were identified and quantified using mass-spectrometry shotgun lipidomics in two similar-sized rodents that show an approximately 9-fold difference in maximum lifespan. The naked mole rat is the longest-living rodent known with a maximum lifespan of >28 years. Total phospholipid distribution is similar in tissues of both species; DHA is only found in phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylserines (PS), and DHA is relatively more concentrated in PE than PC. Naked mole-rats have fewer molecular species of both PC and PE than do mice. DHA-containing phospholipids represent 27-57% of all phospholipids in mice but only 2-6% in naked mole-rats. Furthermore, while mice have small amounts of di-polyunsaturated PC and PE, these are lacking in naked mole-rats. Vinyl ether-linked phospholipids (plasmalogens) are higher in naked mole-rat tissues than in mice. The lower level of DHA-containing phospholipids suggests a lower susceptibility to peroxidative damage in membranes of naked mole-rats compared to mice. Whereas the high level of plasmalogens might enhance membrane antioxidant protection in naked mole-rats compared to mice. Both characteristics possibly contribute to the exceptional longevity of naked mole-rats and may indicate a special role for peroxisomes in this extended longevity.

  10. Naked mole-rat has increased translational fidelity compared with the mouse, as well as a unique 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpurua, Jorge; Ke, Zhonghe; Chen, Iris X; Zhang, Quanwei; Ermolenko, Dmitri N; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-10-22

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a subterranean eusocial rodent with a markedly long lifespan and resistance to tumorigenesis. Multiple data implicate modulation of protein translation in longevity. Here we report that 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of the naked mole-rat is processed into two smaller fragments of unequal size. The two breakpoints are located in the 28S rRNA divergent region 6 and excise a fragment of 263 nt. The excised fragment is unique to the naked mole-rat rRNA and does not show homology to other genomic regions. Because this hidden break site could alter ribosome structure, we investigated whether translation rate and amino acid incorporation fidelity were altered. We report that naked mole-rat fibroblasts have significantly increased translational fidelity despite having comparable translation rates with mouse fibroblasts. Although we cannot directly test whether the unique 28S rRNA structure contributes to the increased fidelity of translation, we speculate that it may change the folding or dynamics of the large ribosomal subunit, altering the rate of GTP hydrolysis and/or interaction of the large subunit with tRNA during accommodation, thus affecting the fidelity of protein synthesis. In summary, our results show that naked mole-rat cells produce fewer aberrant proteins, supporting the hypothesis that the more stable proteome of the naked mole-rat contributes to its longevity.

  11. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malene Brohus

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber (NMRs are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs, and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  12. Initial Case Reports of Cancer in Naked Mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, M A; Ward, J M; Walsh, T F; Chinnadurai, S K; Kerns, K; Kinsel, M J; Treuting, P M

    2016-05-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs;Heterocephalus glaber) are highly adapted, eusocial rodents renowned for their extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Because cancer has not been formally described in this species, NMRs have been increasingly utilized as an animal model in aging and cancer research. We previously reported the occurrence of several age-related diseases, including putative pre-neoplastic lesions, in zoo-housed NMR colonies. Here, we report for the first time 2 cases of cancer in zoo-housed NMRs. In Case No. 1, we observed a subcutaneous mass in the axillary region of a 22-year-old male NMR, with histologic, immunohistochemical (pancytokeratin positive, rare p63 immunolabeling, and smooth muscle actin negative), and ultrastructural characteristics of an adenocarcinoma possibly of mammary or salivary origin. In Case No. 2, we observed a densely cellular, poorly demarcated gastric mass of polygonal cells arranged in nests with positive immunolabeling for synaptophysin and chromogranin indicative of a neuroendocrine carcinoma in an approximately 20-year-old male NMR. We also include a brief discussion of other proliferative growths and pre-cancerous lesions diagnosed in 1 zoo colony. Although these case reports do not alter the longstanding observation of cancer resistance, they do raise questions about the scope of cancer resistance and the interpretation of biomedical studies in this model. These reports also highlight the benefit of long-term disease investigations in zoo-housed populations to better understand naturally occurring disease processes in species used as models in biomedical research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohus, Malene; Gorbunova, Vera; Faulkes, Chris G; Overgaard, Michael T; Conover, Cheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) (NMRs) are the longest living rodents known. They show negligible senescence, and are resistant to cancers and certain damaging effects associated with aging. The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have pluripotent actions, influencing growth processes in virtually every system of the body. They are established contributors to the aging process, confirmed by the demonstration that decreased IGF signaling results in life-extending effects in a variety of species. The IGFs are likewise involved in progression of cancers by mediating survival signals in malignant cells. This report presents a full characterization of the IGF system in the NMR: ligands, receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases. A particular emphasis was placed on the IGFBP protease, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), shown to be an important lifespan modulator in mice. Comparisons of IGF-related genes in the NMR with human and murine sequences indicated no major differences in essential parts of the IGF system, including PAPP-A. The protease was shown to possess an intact active site despite the report of a contradictory genome sequence. Furthermore, PAPP-A was expressed and translated in NMRs cells and retained IGF-dependent proteolytic activity towards IGFBP-4 and IGF-independent activity towards IGFBP-5. However, experimental data suggest differential regulatory mechanisms for PAPP-A expression in NMRs than those described in humans and mice. This overall description of the IGF system in the NMR represents an initial step towards elucidating the complex molecular mechanisms underlying longevity, and how these animals have evolved to ensure a delayed and healthy aging process.

  14. Transcriptome sequencing of the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber and identification of hypoxia tolerance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole rat (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber is a small rodent species found in regions of Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has a high tolerance for hypoxia and is thus considered one of the most important natural models for studying hypoxia tolerance mechanisms. The various mechanisms underlying the NMR's hypoxia tolerance are beginning to be understood at different levels of organization, and next-generation sequencing methods promise to expand this understanding to the level of gene expression. In this study, we examined the sequence and transcript abundance data of the muscle transcriptome of NMRs exposed to hypoxia using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 system to clarify the possible genomic adaptive responses to the hypoxic underground surroundings. The RNA-seq raw FastQ data were mapped against the NMR genome. We identified 2337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs by comparison of the hypoxic and control groups. Functional annotation of the DEGs by gene ontology (GO analysis revealed enrichment of hypoxia stress-related GO categories, including ‘biological regulation’, ‘cellular process’, ‘ion transport’ and ‘cell-cell signaling’. Enrichment of DEGs in signaling pathways was analyzed against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database to identify possible interactions between DEGs. The results revealed significant enrichment of DEGs in focal adhesion, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway and the glycine, serine and threonine metabolism pathway. Furthermore, inhibition of DEGs (STMN1, MAPK8IP1 and MAPK10 expression induced apoptosis and arrested cell growth in NMR fibroblasts following hypoxia. Thus, this global transcriptome analysis of NMRs can provide an important genetic resource for the study of hypoxia tolerance in mammals. Furthermore, the identified DEGs may provide important molecular targets for biomedical research into therapeutic strategies for stroke and cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Social status and sex independently influence androgen receptor expression in the eusocial naked mole-rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Melissa M; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G

    2008-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial rodents that live in large subterranean colonies including a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males; all other members of the colony, known as subordinates, are reproductively suppressed. We recently found that naked mole-rats lack many of the sex differences in the brain and spinal cord commonly found in other rodents. Instead, neural morphology is influenced by breeding status, such that breeders, regardless of sex, have more neurons than subordinates in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), and larger overall volumes of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and medial amygdala (MeA). To begin to understand how breeding status influences brain morphology, we examined the distribution of androgen receptor (AR) immunoreactivity in gonadally intact breeders and subordinates of both sexes. All animals had AR+ nuclei in many of the same regions positive for AR in other mammals, including the VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and the ventral portion of the premammillary nucleus (PMv). We also observed diffuse labeling throughout the preoptic area, demonstrating that distribution of the AR protein in presumptive reproductive brain nuclei is well-conserved, even in a species that exhibits remarkably little sexual dimorphism. In contrast to other rodents, however, naked mole-rats lacked AR+ nuclei in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and hippocampus. Males had more AR+ nuclei in the MeA, VMH, and PMv than did females. Surprisingly, breeders had significantly fewer AR+ nuclei than subordinates in all brain regions examined (VMH, BST, PVN, MeA, and PMv). Thus, social status is strongly correlated with AR immunoreactivity in this eusocial species.

  17. Sociality and the telencephalic distribution of corticotrophin-releasing factor, urocortin 3, and binding sites for CRF type 1 and type 2 receptors: A comparative study of eusocial naked mole-rats and solitary Cape mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, Clive W; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Oosthuizen, Maria K; Poorun, Ravi; Faulkes, Christopher G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2015-11-01

    Various aspects of social behavior are influenced by the highly conserved corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) family of peptides and receptors in the mammalian telencephalon. This study has mapped and compared the telencephalic distribution of the CRF receptors, CRF1 and CRF2 , and two of their ligands, CRF and urocortin 3, respectively, in African mole-rat species with diametrically opposed social behavior. Naked mole-rats live in large eusocial colonies that are characterized by exceptional levels of social cohesion, tolerance, and cooperation in burrowing, foraging, defense, and alloparental care for the offspring of the single reproductive female. Cape mole-rats are solitary; they tolerate conspecifics only fleetingly during the breeding season. The telencephalic sites at which the level of CRF1 binding in naked mole-rats exceeds that in Cape mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampal CA3 subfield, and dentate gyrus; in contrast, the level is greater in Cape mole-rats in the shell of the nucleus accumbens and medial habenular nucleus. For CRF2 binding, the sites with a greater level in naked mole-rats include the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus and dentate gyrus, but the septohippocampal nucleus, lateral septal nuclei, amygdalostriatal transition area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial habenular nucleus display a greater level in Cape mole-rats. The results are discussed with reference to neuroanatomical and behavioral studies of various species, including monogamous and promiscuous voles. By analogy with findings in those species, we speculate that the abundance of CRF1 binding in the nucleus accumbens of Cape mole-rats reflects their lack of affiliative behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Disparate patterns of age-related changes in lipid peroxidation in long-lived naked mole-rats and shorter-lived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andziak, Blazej; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2006-12-01

    A key tenet of the oxidative stress theory of aging is that levels of accrued oxidative damage increase with age. Differences in damage generation and accumulation therefore may underlie the natural variation in species longevity. We compared age-related profiles of whole-organism lipid peroxidation (urinary isoprostanes) and liver lipid damage (malondialdehyde) in long living naked mole-rats [maximum lifespan (MLS) > 28.3 years] and shorter-living CB6F1 hybrid mice (MLS approximately 3.5 years). In addition, we compared age-associated changes in liver non-heme iron to assess how intracellular conditions, which may modulate oxidative processes, are affected by aging. Surprisingly, even at a young age, concentrations of both markers of lipid peroxidation, as well as of iron, were at least twofold (P naked mole tats than in mice. This refutes the hypothesis that prolonged naked mole-rat longevity is due to superior protection against oxidative stress. The age-related profiles of all three parameters were distinctly species specific. Rates of lipid damage generation in mice were maintained throughout adulthood, while accrued damage in old animals was twice that of young mice. In naked mole-rats, urinary isoprostane excretion declined by half with age (P naked mole-rats is independent of oxidative stress parameters.

  19. The anti-tumorigenic activity of A2M-A lesson from the naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kurz

    Full Text Available Cancer resistance is a major cause for longevity of the naked mole-rat. Recent liver transcriptome analysis in this animal compared to wild-derived mice revealed higher expression of alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M and cell adhesion molecules, which contribute to the naked mole-rat's cancer resistance. Notably, A2M is known to dramatically decrease with age in humans. We hypothesize that this might facilitate tumour development. Here we found that A2M modulates tumour cell adhesion, migration and growth by inhibition of tumour promoting signalling pathways, e.g. PI3K / AKT, SMAD and up-regulated PTEN via down-regulation of miR-21, in vitro and in tumour xenografts. A2M increases the expression of CD29 and CD44 but did not evoke EMT. Transcriptome analysis of A2M-treated tumour cells, xenografts and mouse liver demonstrated a multifaceted regulation of tumour promoting signalling pathways indicating a less tumorigenic environment mediated by A2M. By virtue of these multiple actions the naturally occurring A2M has strong potential as a novel therapeutic agent.

  20. The anti-tumorigenic activity of A2M-A lesson from the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Susanne; Thieme, René; Amberg, Ronny; Groth, Marco; Jahnke, Heinz-Georg; Pieroh, Philipp; Horn, Lars-Christian; Kolb, Marlen; Huse, Klaus; Platzer, Matthias; Volke, Daniela; Dehghani, Faramarz; Buzdin, Anton; Engel, Kathrin; Robitzki, Andrea; Hoffmann, Ralf; Gockel, Ines; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Cancer resistance is a major cause for longevity of the naked mole-rat. Recent liver transcriptome analysis in this animal compared to wild-derived mice revealed higher expression of alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) and cell adhesion molecules, which contribute to the naked mole-rat's cancer resistance. Notably, A2M is known to dramatically decrease with age in humans. We hypothesize that this might facilitate tumour development. Here we found that A2M modulates tumour cell adhesion, migration and growth by inhibition of tumour promoting signalling pathways, e.g. PI3K / AKT, SMAD and up-regulated PTEN via down-regulation of miR-21, in vitro and in tumour xenografts. A2M increases the expression of CD29 and CD44 but did not evoke EMT. Transcriptome analysis of A2M-treated tumour cells, xenografts and mouse liver demonstrated a multifaceted regulation of tumour promoting signalling pathways indicating a less tumorigenic environment mediated by A2M. By virtue of these multiple actions the naturally occurring A2M has strong potential as a novel therapeutic agent.

  1. Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat: insights from a successfully aging species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2008-05-01

    Aging refers to a gradual deterioration in function that, over time, leads to increased mortality risk, and declining fertility. This pervasive process occurs in almost all organisms, although some long-lived trees and cold water inhabitants reportedly show insignificant aging. Negligible senescence is characterized by attenuated age-related change in reproductive and physiological functions, as well as no observable age-related gradual increase in mortality rate. It was questioned whether the longest living rodent, the naked mole-rat, met these three strict criteria. Naked mole-rats live in captivity for more than 28.3 years, approximately 9 times longer than similar-sized mice. They maintain body composition from 2 to 24 years, and show only slight age-related changes in all physiological and morphological characteristics studied to date. Surprisingly breeding females show no decline in fertility even when well into their third decade of life. Moreover, these animals have never been observed to develop any spontaneous neoplasm. As such they do not show the typical age-associated acceleration in mortality risk that characterizes every other known mammalian species and may therefore be the first reported mammal showing negligible senescence over the majority of their long lifespan. Clearly physiological and biochemical processes in this species have evolved to dramatically extend healthy lifespan. The challenge that lies ahead is to understand what these mechanisms are.

  2. The naked mole-rat exhibits an unusual cardiac myofilament protein profile providing new insights into heart function of this naturally subterranean rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Barefield, David Y; Kumar, Mohit; McNamara, James W; Weintraub, Susan T; de Tombe, Pieter P; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2017-12-01

    The long-lived, hypoxic-tolerant naked mole-rat well-maintains cardiac function over its three-decade-long lifespan and exhibits many cardiac features atypical of similar-sized laboratory rodents. For example, they exhibit low heart rates and resting cardiac contractility, yet have a large cardiac reserve. These traits are considered ecophysiological adaptations to their dank subterranean atmosphere of low oxygen and high carbon dioxide levels and may also contribute to negligible declines in cardiac function during aging. We asked if naked mole-rats had a different myofilament protein signature to that of similar-sized mice that commonly show both high heart rates and high basal cardiac contractility. Adult mouse ventricles predominantly expressed α-myosin heavy chain (97.9 ± 0.4%). In contrast, and more in keeping with humans, β myosin heavy chain was the dominant isoform (79.0 ± 2.0%) in naked mole-rat ventricles. Naked mole-rat ventricles diverged from those of both humans and mice, as they expressed both cardiac and slow skeletal isoforms of troponin I. This myofilament protein profile is more commonly observed in mice in utero and during cardiomyopathies. There were no species differences in phosphorylation of cardiac myosin binding protein-C or troponin I. Phosphorylation of both ventricular myosin light chain 2 and cardiac troponin T in naked mole-rats was approximately half that observed in mice. Myofilament function was also compared between the two species using permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Together, these data suggest a cardiac myofilament protein signature that may contribute to the naked mole-rat's suite of adaptations to its natural subterranean habitat.

  3. Resistance to experimental tumorigenesis in cells of a long-lived mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sitai; Mele, James; Wu, Yuehong; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Hornsby, Peter J

    2010-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived mammal in which spontaneous cancer has not been observed. To investigate possible mechanisms for cancer resistance in this species, we studied the properties of skin fibroblasts from the NMR following transduction with oncogenes that cause cells of other mammalian species to form malignant tumors. Naked mole-rat fibroblasts were transduced with a retrovirus encoding SV40 large T antigen and oncogenic Ras(G12V). Following transplantation of transduced cells into immunodeficient mice, cells rapidly entered crisis, as evidenced by the presence of anaphase bridges, giant cells with enlarged nuclei, multinucleated cells, and cells with large number of chromosomes or abnormal chromatin material. In contrast, similarly transduced mouse and rat fibroblasts formed tumors that grew rapidly without crisis. Crisis was also observed after > 40 population doublings in SV40 TAg/Ras-expressing NMR cells in culture. Crisis in culture was prevented by additional infection of the cells with a retrovirus encoding hTERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase). SV40 TAg/Ras/hTERT-expressing NMR cells formed tumors that grew rapidly in immunodeficient mice without evidence of crisis. Crisis could also be induced in SV40 TAg/Ras-expressing NMR cells by loss of anchorage, but after hTERT transduction, cells were able to proliferate normally following loss of anchorage. Thus, rapid crisis is a response of oncogene-expressing NMR cells to growth in an in vivo environment, which requires anchorage independence, and hTERT permits cells to avoid crisis and to achieve malignant tumor growth. The unique reaction of NMR cells to oncogene expression may form part of the cancer resistance of this species.

  4. Metabolic clues to salubrious longevity in the brain of the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron; Kirk, Jessime; Lewis, Katilyn; Orr, Miranda; Rodriguez, Karl; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-08-01

    Naked mole-rats (NMRs) are the oldest-living rodent species. Living underground in a thermally stable ecological niche, NMRs have evolved certain exceptional traits, resulting in sustained health spans, negligible cognitive decline, and a pronounced resistance to age-related disease. Uncovering insights into mechanisms underlying these extraordinary traits involved in successful aging may conceivably provide crucial clues to extend the human life span and health span. One of the most fundamental processes inside the cell is the production of ATP, which is an essential fuel in driving all other energy-requiring cellular activities. Not surprisingly, a prominent hallmark in age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cancer, is the impairment and dysregulation of metabolic pathways. Using a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis proteomics approach, alterations in expression and phosphorylation levels of metabolic proteins in the brains of NMRs, aged 2-24 years, were evaluated in an age-dependent manner. We identified 13 proteins with altered levels and/or phosphorylation states that play key roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, β-oxidation, the malate-aspartate shuttle, the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA) cycle, the electron transport chain, NADPH production, as well as the production of glutamate. New insights into potential pathways involved in metabolic aspects of successful aging have been obtained by the identification of key proteins through which the NMR brain responds and adapts to the aging process and how the NMR brain adapted to resist age-related degeneration. This study examines the changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome in the brain of the naked mole-rat aged 2-24 years. We identified 13 proteins (labeled in red) with altered expression and/or phosphorylation levels that are conceivably associated with sustained metabolic functions in the oldest NMRs that may promote a sustained health span and life span.

  5. Subcaste differences in neural activation suggest a prosocial role for oxytocin in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Georgia A; Faykoo-Martinez, Mariela; Peragine, Deane E; Mooney, Skyler J; Holmes, Melissa M

    2016-03-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) influences prosocial behavior(s), aggression, and stress responsiveness, and these diverse effects are regulated in a species- and context-specific manner. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a unique species with which to study context-dependent effects of OT, exhibiting a strict social hierarchy with behavioral specialization within the subordinate caste: soldiers are aggressive and defend colonies against unfamiliar conspecifics while workers are prosocial and contribute to in-colony behaviors such as pup care. To determine if OT is involved in subcaste-specific behaviors, we compared behavioral responses between workers and soldiers of both sexes during a modified resident/intruder paradigm, and quantified activation of OT neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) using the immediate-early-gene marker c-fos co-localized with OT neurons. Resident workers and soldiers were age-matched with unfamiliar worker stimulus animals as intruders, and encounters were videorecorded and scored for aggressive behaviors. Colony-matched controls were left in their home colony for the duration of the encounters. Brains were extracted and cell counts were conducted for OT immunoreactive (ir), c-fos-ir, and percentage of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells. Results indicate that resident workers were less aggressive but showed greater OT neural activity than soldiers. Furthermore, a linear model including social treatment, cortisol, and subcaste revealed that subcaste was the only significant predictor of OT-c-fos double-labeled cells in the PVN. These data suggest that in naked mole-rats OT promotes prosocial behaviors rather than aggression and that even within subordinates status exerts robust effects on brain and behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Walking the oxidative stress tightrope: a perspective from the naked mole-rat, the longest-living rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Wywial, Ewa; Perez, Viviana I; Lambert, Adriant J; Edrey, Yael H; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Grimes, Kelly; Lindsey, Merry L; Brand, Martin D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of aerobic metabolism, cause oxidative damage to cells and tissue and not surprisingly many theories have arisen to link ROS-induced oxidative stress to aging and health. While studies clearly link ROS to a plethora of divergent diseases, their role in aging is still debatable. Genetic knock-down manipulations of antioxidants alter the levels of accrued oxidative damage, however, the resultant effect of increased oxidative stress on lifespan are equivocal. Similarly the impact of elevating antioxidant levels through transgenic manipulations yield inconsistent effects on longevity. Furthermore, comparative data from a wide range of endotherms with disparate longevity remain inconclusive. Many long-living species such as birds, bats and mole-rats exhibit high-levels of oxidative damage, evident already at young ages. Clearly, neither the amount of ROS per se nor the sensitivity in neutralizing ROS are as important as whether or not the accrued oxidative stress leads to oxidative-damage-linked age-associated diseases. In this review we examine the literature on ROS, its relation to disease and the lessons gleaned from a comparative approach based upon species with widely divergent responses. We specifically focus on the longest lived rodent, the naked mole-rat, which maintains good health and provides novel insights into the paradox of maintaining both an extended healthspan and lifespan despite high oxidative stress from a young age.

  7. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Edrey, Yael H; Osmulski, Pawel; Gaczynska, Maria; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2012-01-01

    The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber), maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L) activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L) in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  8. Altered composition of liver proteasome assemblies contributes to enhanced proteasome activity in the exceptionally long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A Rodriguez

    Full Text Available The longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (Bathyergidae; Heterocephalus glaber, maintains robust health for at least 75% of its 32 year lifespan, suggesting that the decline in genomic integrity or protein homeostasis routinely observed during aging, is either attenuated or delayed in this extraordinarily long-lived species. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS plays an integral role in protein homeostasis by degrading oxidatively-damaged and misfolded proteins. In this study, we examined proteasome activity in naked mole-rats and mice in whole liver lysates as well as three subcellular fractions to probe the mechanisms behind the apparently enhanced effectiveness of UPS. We found that when compared with mouse samples, naked mole-rats had significantly higher chymotrypsin-like (ChT-L activity and a two-fold increase in trypsin-like (T-L in both whole lysates as well as cytosolic fractions. Native gel electrophoresis of the whole tissue lysates showed that the 20S proteasome was more active in the longer-lived species and that 26S proteasome was both more active and more populous. Western blot analyses revealed that both 19S subunits and immunoproteasome catalytic subunits are present in greater amounts in the naked mole-rat suggesting that the observed higher specific activity may be due to the greater proportion of immunoproteasomes in livers of healthy young adults. It thus appears that proteasomes in this species are primed for the efficient removal of stress-damaged proteins. Further characterization of the naked mole-rat proteasome and its regulation could lead to important insights on how the cells in these animals handle increased stress and protein damage to maintain a longer health in their tissues and ultimately a longer life.

  9. A window into extreme longevity; the circulating metabolomic signature of the naked mole-rat, a mammal that shows negligible senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2018-04-20

    Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity. Using a comprehensive, unbiased metabolomics screen, we observe striking inter-species differences in amino acid, peptide, and lipid metabolites. Low circulating levels of specific amino acids, particularly those linked to the methionine pathway, resemble those observed during the fasting period at late torpor in hibernating ground squirrels and those seen in longer-lived methionine-restricted rats. These data also concur with metabolome reports on long-lived mutant mice, including the Ames dwarf mice and calorically restricted mice, as well as fruit flies, and even show similarities to circulating metabolite differences observed in young human adults when compared to older humans. During evolution, some of these beneficial nutrient/stress response pathways may have been positively selected in the naked mole-rat. These observations suggest that interventions that modify the aging metabolomic profile to a more youthful one may enable people to lead healthier and longer lives.

  10. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kutsukake

    Full Text Available We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber. We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  11. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupt recognition of social hierarchy during antiphonal communication in naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosida, Shigeto; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Generation of the motor patterns of emotional sounds in mammals occurs in the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain and is not directly controlled by the cortex. The medial frontal cortex indirectly controls vocalizations, based on the recognition of social context. We examined whether the medial frontal cortex was responsible for antiphonal vocalization, or turn-taking, in naked mole-rats. In normal turn-taking, naked mole-rats vocalize more frequently to dominant individuals than to subordinate ones. Bilateral lesions of the medial frontal cortex disrupted differentiation of call rates to the stimulus animals, which had varied social relationships to the subject. However, medial frontal cortex lesions did not affect either the acoustic properties of the vocalizations or the timing of the vocal exchanges. This suggests that the medial frontal cortex may be involved in social cognition or decision making during turn-taking, while other regions of the brain regulate when animals vocalize and the vocalizations themselves.

  12. Specific paucity of unmyelinated C-fibers in cutaneous peripheral nerves of the African naked-mole rat: comparative analysis using six species of Bathyergidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John Smith, Ewan; Purfürst, Bettina; Grigoryan, Tamara; Park, Thomas J; Bennett, Nigel C; Lewin, Gary R

    2012-08-15

    In mammalian peripheral nerves, unmyelinated C-fibers usually outnumber myelinated A-fibers. By using transmission electron microscopy, we recently showed that the saphenous nerve of the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) has a C-fiber deficit manifested as a substantially lower C:A-fiber ratio compared with other mammals. Here we determined the uniqueness of this C-fiber deficit by performing a quantitative anatomical analysis of several peripheral nerves in five further members of the Bathyergidae mole-rat family: silvery (Heliophobius argenteocinereus), giant (Fukomys mechowii), Damaraland (Fukomys damarensis), Mashona (Fukomys darlingi), and Natal (Cryptomys hottentotus natalensis) mole-rats. In the largely cutaneous saphenous and sural nerves, the naked mole-rat had the lowest C:A-fiber ratio (∼1.5:1 compared with ∼3:1), whereas, in nerves innervating both skin and muscle (common peroneal and tibial) or just muscle (lateral/medial gastrocnemius), this pattern was mostly absent. We asked whether lack of hair follicles alone accounts for the C-fiber paucity by using as a model a mouse that loses virtually all its hair as a consequence of conditional deletion of the β-catenin gene in the skin. These β-catenin loss-of function mice (β-cat LOF mice) displayed only a mild decrease in C:A-fiber ratio compared with wild-type mice (4.42 compared with 3.81). We suggest that the selective cutaneous C-fiber deficit in the cutaneous nerves of naked mole-rats is unlikely to be due primarily to lack of skin hair follicles. Possible mechanisms contributing to this unique peripheral nerve anatomy are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  15. The effects of oxotremorine, epibatidine, atropine, mecamylamine and naloxone in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulu, Thomas D; Kanui, Titus I; Towett, Philemon K; Maloiy, Geoffrey M; Abelson, Klas S P

    2014-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a promising animal model for the study of pain mechanisms, therefore a thorough characterization of this species is essential. The aim of the present study was to establish the naked mole-rat as a model for studying the cholinergic receptor system in antinociception by investigating the involvement of muscarinic, nicotinic and opioid receptors in nociceptive tests in this species. The effects of systemic administration of the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine and the nicotinic receptor agonist epibatidine were investigated in the tail-flick, the hot-plate, and the formalin tests. The effects of co-administration of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, and the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone were also investigated. Oxotremorine and epibatidine induced a significant, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in the tail-flick, hot-plate, and formalin tests, respectively. The effects of oxotremorine and epibatidine were blocked by atropine and mecamylamine, respectively. In all three nociceptive tests, naloxone in combination with oxotremorine or epibatidine enhanced the antinociceptive effects of the drugs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors produces antinociceptive effects in the naked-mole rat. The reversal effect of atropine and mecamylamine suggests that this effect is mediated by cholinergic receptors. As naloxone increases the antinociceptive effects of cholinergic agonists, it is suggested that the cholinergic antinociception acts via a gateway facilitated by opioid receptor blockage; however, the precise interaction between these receptor systems needs further investigation.

  16. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Park, Thomas J; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2014-01-01

    The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+) via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT), and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR), Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates). The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR) to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1) NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2) NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3) NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4) NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the neurogenic gene (MASH1) indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional and

  18. Reduced Utilization of Selenium by Naked Mole Rats Due to a Specific Defect in GPx1 Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaikina, Marina V.; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Malinouski, Mikalai Y.; Lee, Byung Cheon; Seravalli, Javier; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Turanov, Anton A.; Finney, Lydia; Vogt, Stefan; Park, Thomas J.; Miller, Richard A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Naked mole rat (MR) Heterocephalus glaber is a rodent model of delayed aging because of its unusually long life span (>28 years). It is also not known to develop cancer. In the current work, tissue imaging by x-ray fluorescence microscopy and direct analyses of trace elements revealed low levels of selenium in the MR liver and kidney, whereas MR and mouse brains had similar selenium levels. This effect was not explained by uniform selenium deficiency because methionine sulfoxide reductase activities were similar in mice and MR. However, glutathione peroxidase activity was an order of magnitude lower in MR liver and kidney than in mouse tissues. In addition, metabolic labeling of MR cells with 75Se revealed a loss of the abundant glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) band, whereas other selenoproteins were preserved. To characterize the MR selenoproteome, we sequenced its liver transcriptome. Gene reconstruction revealed standard selenoprotein sequences except for GPx1, which had an early stop codon, and SelP, which had low selenocysteine content. When expressed in HEK 293 cells, MR GPx1 was present in low levels, and its expression could be rescued neither by removing the early stop codon nor by replacing its SECIS element. In addition, GPx1 mRNA was present in lower levels in MR liver than in mouse liver. To determine if GPx1 deficiency could account for the reduced selenium content, we analyzed GPx1 knock-out mice and found reduced selenium levels in their livers and kidneys. Thus, MR is characterized by the reduced utilization of selenium due to a specific defect in GPx1 expression. PMID:21372135

  19. Removal of reproductive suppression reveals latent sex differences in brain steroid hormone receptors in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Mo, Kaiguo; Peragine, Deane E; Monks, D Ashley; Holmes, Melissa M

    2015-01-01

    Naked mole-rats are eusocial mammals, living in large colonies with a single breeding female and 1-3 breeding males. Breeders are socially dominant, and only the breeders exhibit traditional sex differences in circulating gonadal steroid hormones and reproductive behaviors. Non-reproductive subordinates also fail to show sex differences in overall body size, external genital morphology, and non-reproductive behaviors. However, subordinates can transition to breeding status if removed from their colony and housed with an opposite-sex conspecific, suggesting the presence of latent sex differences. Here, we assessed the expression of steroid hormone receptor and aromatase messenger RNA (mRNA) in the brains of males and females as they transitioned in social and reproductive status. We compared in-colony subordinates to opposite-sex subordinate pairs that were removed from their colony for either 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, or until they became breeders (i.e., produced a litter). Diencephalic tissue was collected and mRNA of androgen receptor (Ar), estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1), progesterone receptor (Pgr), and aromatase (Cyp19a1) was measured using qPCR. Testosterone, 17β-estradiol, and progesterone from serum were also measured. As early as 1 week post-removal, males exhibited increased diencephalic Ar mRNA and circulating testosterone, whereas females had increased Cyp19a1 mRNA in the diencephalon. At 1 month post-removal, females exhibited increased 17β-estradiol and progesterone. The largest changes in steroid hormone receptors were observed in breeders. Breeding females had a threefold increase in Cyp19a1 and fivefold increases in Esr1 and Pgr, whereas breeding males had reduced Pgr and increased Ar. These data demonstrate that sex differences in circulating gonadal steroids and hypothalamic gene expression emerge weeks to months after subordinate animals are removed from reproductive suppression in their home colony.

  20. Theoretical paper: exploring overlooked natural mitochondria-rejuvenative intervention: the puzzle of bowhead whales and naked mole rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, Arkadi F

    2007-12-01

    There is an imperative need for exploring and implementing mitochondria-rejuvenative interventions that can bridge the current gap toward the step-by step realization of strategies for engineered negligible senescence (SENS) agenda. Recently discovered in mammals, natural mechanism mitoptosis-a selective "suicide" of mutated mitochondria-can facilitate continuous purification of mitochondrial pool in an organism from the most reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing mitochondria. Mitoptosis, which is considered to be the first stage of ROS-induced apoptosis, underlies follicular atresia (a "quality control" mechanism in female germline cells that eliminates most germinal follicles in female embryos). Mitoptosis can be also activated in adult postmitotic somatic cells by evolutionary conserved phenotypic adaptations to intermittent oxygen restriction (IOR) and synergistically acting intermittent caloric restriction (ICR). IOR and ICR are common in mammals and seem to underlie extraordinary longevity and augmented cancer resistance in bowhead whales (Balena mysticetus) and naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber). Furthermore, in mammals IOR can facilitate continuous stromal stem cells-de-pendent tissue repair. A comparative analysis of IOR and ICR mechanisms in both mammals, in conjunction with the experience of decades of biomedical and clinical research on emerging preventative, therapeutic, and rehabilitative modality-the intermittent hypoxic training/therapy (IHT)-indicates that the notable clinical efficiency of IHT is based on the universal adaptational mechanisms that are common in mammals. Further exploration of natural mitochondria-preserving and -rejuvenating strategies can help refinement of IOR- and ICR-based synergistic protocols, having value in clinical human rejuvenation.

  1. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Rüppell, 1842) studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Kathleen; Drews, Barbara; Goeritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas Bernd

    2011-03-07

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  2. The long gestation of the small naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber Ruppell, 1842 studied with ultrasound biomicroscopy and 3D-ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Roellig

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber is one of the two known mammalian species that live in a eusocial population structure. Here we investigate the exceptionally long gestation period of 70 days observed in the mole-rat queen. The course of seven successful pregnancies in two individuals was recorded in a colony of captive naked mole-rats using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and 3D-ultrasonography. We establish a catalogue of basic reference ultrasound data for this species by describing the ultrasonographic appearance of reproductive organs, calculating growth curves to predict gestational age and defining ultrasonographic milestones to characterize pregnancy stages. Mean litter size was 10.9±2.7, of which 7.2±1.5 survived the weaning period. Mean interbirth interval was 128.8±63.0 days. The reproductive success in our colony did not differ from previously published data. In the queen the active corpora lutea had an anechoic, fluid filled centre. Using UBM, pregnancy could be detected 53 days before parturition. The period of embryonic development is assumed to last until 30 days before parturition. Embryonic resorptions were detected frequently in the queen, indicating that this might be an ordinary event in this species. We discuss the extraordinary long gestation period of this small rodent and postulate that the long gestation is beneficial to both the eusocial structure and longevity. An increased litter size, twice as large as for other rodents of similar size, seemingly compensates for the doubling of pregnancy length. We demonstrate that the lifetime reproductive effort of a naked mole-rat queen is equivalent to the mass of offspring that would be produced if all of the females of a colony would be reproducing.

  3. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessele, Nikodemus; Garcia-Pino, Elisabet; Omerbašić, Damir; Park, Thomas J; Koch, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  4. Structural Changes and Lack of HCN1 Channels in the Binaural Auditory Brainstem of the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodemus Gessele

    Full Text Available Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber live in large eu-social, underground colonies in narrow burrows and are exposed to a large repertoire of communication signals but negligible binaural sound localization cues, such as interaural time and intensity differences. We therefore asked whether monaural and binaural auditory brainstem nuclei in the naked mole-rat are differentially adjusted to this acoustic environment. Using antibody stainings against excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic structures, namely the vesicular glutamate transporter VGluT1 and the glycine transporter GlyT2 we identified all major auditory brainstem nuclei except the superior paraolivary nucleus in these animals. Naked mole-rats possess a well structured medial superior olive, with a similar synaptic arrangement to interaural-time-difference encoding animals. The neighboring lateral superior olive, which analyzes interaural intensity differences, is large and elongated, whereas the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, which provides the contralateral inhibitory input to these binaural nuclei, is reduced in size. In contrast, the cochlear nucleus, the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the inferior colliculus are not considerably different when compared to other rodent species. Most interestingly, binaural auditory brainstem nuclei lack the membrane-bound hyperpolarization-activated channel HCN1, a voltage-gated ion channel that greatly contributes to the fast integration times in binaural nuclei of the superior olivary complex in other species. This suggests substantially lengthened membrane time constants and thus prolonged temporal integration of inputs in binaural auditory brainstem neurons and might be linked to the severely degenerated sound localization abilities in these animals.

  5. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne L Seney

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure.We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate.The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  6. Social structure predicts genital morphology in African mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Marianne L; Kelly, Diane A; Goldman, Bruce D; Sumbera, Radim; Forger, Nancy G

    2009-10-15

    African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia) exhibit a wide range of social structures, from solitary to eusocial. We previously found a lack of sex differences in the external genitalia and morphology of the perineal muscles associated with the phallus in the eusocial naked mole-rat. This was quite surprising, as the external genitalia and perineal muscles are sexually dimorphic in all other mammals examined. We hypothesized that the lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats might be related to their unusual social structure. We compared the genitalia and perineal muscles in three African mole-rat species: the naked mole-rat, the solitary silvery mole-rat, and the Damaraland mole-rat, a species considered to be eusocial, but with less reproductive skew than naked mole-rats. Our findings support a relationship between social structure, mating system, and sexual differentiation. Naked mole-rats lack sex differences in genitalia and perineal morphology, silvery mole-rats exhibit sex differences, and Damaraland mole-rats are intermediate. The lack of sex differences in naked mole-rats is not an attribute of all African mole-rats, but appears to have evolved in relation to their unusual social structure and reproductive biology.

  7. Reaching Out to Send a Message: Proteins Associated with Neurite Outgrowth and Neurotransmission are Altered with Age in the Long-Lived Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron M; Kirk, Jessime; Grimes, Kelly M; Lewis, Kaitilyn N; Orr, Miranda E; Rodriguez, Karl A; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-07-01

    Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing neurodegenerative diseases, which are associated with diminished neurotransmission as well as neuronal structure and function. However, several traits seemingly evolved to avert or delay age-related deterioration in the brain of the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat (NMR). The NMR remarkably also exhibits negligible senescence, maintaining an extended healthspan for ~75 % of its life span. Using a proteomic approach, statistically significant changes with age in expression and/or phosphorylation levels of proteins associated with neurite outgrowth and neurotransmission were identified in the brain of the NMR and include: cofilin-1; collapsin response mediator protein 2; actin depolymerizing factor; spectrin alpha chain; septin-7; syntaxin-binding protein 1; synapsin-2 isoform IIB; and dynamin 1. We hypothesize that such changes may contribute to the extended lifespan and healthspan of the NMR.

  8. Extended postnatal brain development in the longest-lived rodent: prolonged maintenance of neotenous traits in the naked mole-rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda E. Orr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (NMR is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to three years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At four months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until nine months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first three years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through six weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short

  9. Extended Postnatal Brain Development in the Longest-Lived Rodent: Prolonged Maintenance of Neotenous Traits in the Naked Mole-Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Miranda E; Garbarino, Valentina R; Salinas, Angelica; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent with a maximum lifespan >31 years. Intriguingly, fully-grown naked mole-rats (NMRs) exhibit many traits typical of neonatal rodents. However, little is known about NMR growth and maturation, and we question whether sustained neotenous features when compared to mice, reflect an extended developmental period, commensurate with their exceptionally long life. We tracked development from birth to 3 years of age in the slowest maturing organ, the brain, by measuring mass, neural stem cell proliferation, axonal, and dendritic maturation, synaptogenesis and myelination. NMR brain maturation was compared to data from similar sized rodents, mice, and to that of long-lived mammals, humans, and non-human primates. We found that at birth, NMR brains are significantly more developed than mice, and rather are more similar to those of newborn primates, with clearly laminated hippocampi and myelinated white matter tracts. Despite this more mature brain at birth than mice, postnatal NMR brain maturation occurs at a far slower rate than mice, taking four-times longer than required for mice to fully complete brain development. At 4 months of age, NMR brains reach 90% of adult size with stable neuronal cytostructural protein expression whereas myelin protein expression does not plateau until 9 months of age in NMRs, and synaptic protein expression continues to change throughout the first 3 years of life. Intriguingly, NMR axonal composition is more similar to humans than mice whereby NMRs maintain expression of three-repeat (3R) tau even after brain growth is complete; mice experience an abrupt downregulation of 3R tau by postnatal day 8 which continues to diminish through 6 weeks of age. We have identified key ages in NMR cerebral development and suggest that the long-lived NMR may provide neurobiologists an exceptional model to study brain developmental processes that are compressed in common short-lived laboratory animal models.

  10. Amyloid beta and the longest-lived rodent: the naked mole-rat as a model for natural protection from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrey, Yael H; Medina, David X; Gaczynska, Maria; Osmulski, Pawel A; Oddo, Salvatore; Caccamo, Antonella; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2013-10-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as an integral component of both neural toxicity and plaque formation. Brains of the longest-lived rodents, naked mole-rats (NMRs) approximately 32 years of age, had levels of Aβ similar to those of the 3xTg-AD mouse model of AD. Interestingly, there was no evidence of extracellular plaques, nor was there an age-related increase in Aβ levels in the individuals examined (2-20+ years). The NMR Aβ peptide showed greater homology to the human sequence than to the mouse sequence, differing by only 1 amino acid from the former. This subtle difference led to interspecies differences in aggregation propensity but not neurotoxicity; NMR Aβ was less prone to aggregation than human Aβ. Nevertheless, both NMR and human Aβ were equally toxic to mouse hippocampal neurons, suggesting that Aβ neurotoxicity and aggregation properties were not coupled. Understanding how NMRs acquire and tolerate high levels of Aβ with no plaque formation could provide useful insights into AD, and may elucidate protective mechanisms that delay AD progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. case of natural queen succession in a captive colony of naked mole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naked mole-rats occur in large colonies where usually a single queen monopolizes reproduction. Queen succession occurs from within usually as a result of aggressive encounters with subordinate females that queue for reproductive succession following colony instability, which inevitably results in death of either the ...

  12. Socially regulated reproductive development: analysis of GnRH-1 and kisspeptin neuronal systems in cooperatively breeding naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuzhi; Holmes, Melissa M; Forger, Nancy G; Goldman, Bruce D; Lovern, Matthew B; Caraty, Alain; Kalló, Imre; Faulkes, Christopher G; Coen, Clive W

    2013-09-01

    In naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies, breeding is monopolized by the queen and her consorts. Subordinates experience gonadal development if separated from the queen. To elucidate the neuroendocrine factors underlying reproductive suppression/development in NMRs, we quantified plasma gonadal steroids and GnRH-1- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in subordinate adults and in those allowed to develop into breeders, with or without subsequent gonadectomy. In males and females, respectively, plasma testosterone and progesterone are higher in breeders than in subordinates. No such distinction occurs for plasma estradiol; its presence after gonadectomy and its positive correlation with adrenal estradiol suggest an adrenal source. Numbers of GnRH-1-ir cell bodies do not differ between gonad-intact breeders and subordinates within or between the sexes. As in phylogenetically related guinea pigs, kisspeptin-ir processes pervade the internal and external zones of the median eminence. Their distribution is consistent with actions on GnRH-1 neurons at perikaryal and/or terminal levels. In previously investigated species, numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies vary from substantial to negligible according to sex and/or reproductive state. NMRs are exceptional: irrespective of sex, reproductive state, or presence of gonads, substantial numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies are detected in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V) and in the anterior periventricular (PVa), arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Nevertheless, the greater number in the RP3V/PVa of female breeders compared with female subordinates or male breeders suggests that emergence from a hypogonadotrophic state in females may involve kisspeptin-related mechanisms similar to those underlying puberty or seasonal breeding in other species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. And the beat goes on: maintained cardiovascular function during aging in the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent known, with a maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) of >31 years. Despite such extreme longevity, these animals display attenuation of many age-associated diseases and functional changes until the last quartile of their MLSP. We questioned if such abilities would extend to cardiovascular function and structure in this species. To test this, we assessed cardiac functional reserve, ventricular morphology, and arterial stiffening in NMRs ranging from 2 to 24 years of age. Dobutamine echocardiography (3 μg/g ip) revealed no age-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) function either at baseline or with exercise-like stress. Baseline and dobutamine-induced LV pressure parameters also did not change. Thus the NMR, unlike other mammals, maintains cardiac reserve with age. NMRs showed no cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by no increase in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area or LV dimensions with age. Age-associated arterial stiffening does not occur since there are no changes in aortic blood pressures or pulse-wave velocity. Only LV interstitial collagen deposition increased 2.5-fold from young to old NMRs (P < 0.01). However, its effect on LV diastolic function is likely minor since NMRs experience attenuated age-related increases in diastolic dysfunction in comparison with other species. Overall, these findings conform to the negligible senescence phenotype, as NMRs largely stave off cardiovascular changes for at least 75% of their MLSP. This suggests that using a comparative strategy to find factors that change with age in other mammals but not NMRs could provide novel targets to slow or prevent cardiovascular aging in humans.

  14. Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, René; Kurz, Susanne; Kolb, Marlen; Debebe, Tewodros; Holtze, Susanne; Morhart, Michaela; Huse, Klaus; Szafranski, Karol; Platzer, Matthias; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is a long-lived and cancer resistant species. Identification of potential anti-cancer and age related mechanisms is of great interest and makes this species eminent to investigate anti-cancer strategies and understand aging mechanisms. Since it is known that the NMR expresses higher liver mRNA-levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin than mice, nothing is known about its structure, functionality or expression level in the NMR compared to the human A2M. Here we show a comprehensive analysis of NMR- and human plasma-A2M, showing a different prediction in glycosylation of NMR-A2M, which results in a higher molecular weight compared to human A2M. Additionally, we found a higher concentration of A2M (8.3±0.44 mg/mL vs. and 4.4±0.20 mg/mL) and a lower total plasma protein content (38.7±1.79 mg/mL vs. 61.7±3.20 mg/mL) in NMR compared to human. NMR-A2M can be transformed by methylamine and trypsin resulting in a conformational change similar to human A2M. NMR-A2M is detectable by a polyclonal antibody against human A2M. Determination of tryptic and anti-tryptic activity of NMR and human plasma revealed a higher anti-tryptic activity of the NMR plasma. On the other hand, less proteolytic activity was found in NMR plasma compared to human plasma. We found transformed NMR-A2M binding to its specific receptor LRP1. We could demonstrate lower protein expression of LRP1 in the NMR liver tissue compared to human but higher expression of A2M. This was accompanied by a higher EpCAM protein expression as central adhesion molecule in cancer progression. NMR-plasma was capable to increase the adhesion in human fibroblast in vitro most probably by increasing CD29 protein expression. This is the first report, demonstrating similarities as well as distinct differences between A2M in NMR and human plasma. This might be directly linked to the intriguing phenotype of the NMR and suggests that A2M might probably play an important role in anti-cancer and the anti

  15. Analysis of Alpha-2 Macroglobulin from the Long-Lived and Cancer-Resistant Naked Mole-Rat and Human Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Thieme

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat (NMR is a long-lived and cancer resistant species. Identification of potential anti-cancer and age related mechanisms is of great interest and makes this species eminent to investigate anti-cancer strategies and understand aging mechanisms. Since it is known that the NMR expresses higher liver mRNA-levels of alpha 2-macroglobulin than mice, nothing is known about its structure, functionality or expression level in the NMR compared to the human A2M.Here we show a comprehensive analysis of NMR- and human plasma-A2M, showing a different prediction in glycosylation of NMR-A2M, which results in a higher molecular weight compared to human A2M. Additionally, we found a higher concentration of A2M (8.3±0.44 mg/mL vs. and 4.4±0.20 mg/mL and a lower total plasma protein content (38.7±1.79 mg/mL vs. 61.7±3.20 mg/mL in NMR compared to human. NMR-A2M can be transformed by methylamine and trypsin resulting in a conformational change similar to human A2M. NMR-A2M is detectable by a polyclonal antibody against human A2M. Determination of tryptic and anti-tryptic activity of NMR and human plasma revealed a higher anti-tryptic activity of the NMR plasma. On the other hand, less proteolytic activity was found in NMR plasma compared to human plasma.We found transformed NMR-A2M binding to its specific receptor LRP1. We could demonstrate lower protein expression of LRP1 in the NMR liver tissue compared to human but higher expression of A2M. This was accompanied by a higher EpCAM protein expression as central adhesion molecule in cancer progression. NMR-plasma was capable to increase the adhesion in human fibroblast in vitro most probably by increasing CD29 protein expression. This is the first report, demonstrating similarities as well as distinct differences between A2M in NMR and human plasma. This might be directly linked to the intriguing phenotype of the NMR and suggests that A2M might probably play an important role in anti-cancer and the

  16. Social status and sex effects on neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats, Fukomys damarensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Jeff J; Seney, Marianne L; Holley, Amanda; Bengston, Lynn; Goldman, Bruce D; Forger, Nancy G; Holmes, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that in a eusocial rodent, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), traditional neural sex differences were absent; instead, neural dimorphisms were associated with breeding status. Here we examined the same neural regions previously studied in naked mole-rats in a second eusocial species, the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). Damaraland mole-rats live in social groups with breeding restricted to a small number of animals. However, colony sizes are much smaller in Damaraland mole-rats than in naked mole-rats and there is consequently less reproductive skew. In this sense, Damaraland mole-rats may be considered intermediate in social organization between naked mole-rats and more traditional laboratory rodents. We report that, as in naked mole-rats, breeding Damaraland mole-rats have larger volumes of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus than do subordinates, with no effect of sex on these measures. Thus, these structures may play special roles in breeders of eusocial species. However, in contrast to what was seen in naked mole-rats, we also found sex differences in Damaraland mole-rats: volume of the medial amygdala and motoneuron number in Onuf's nucleus were both greater in males than in females, with no significant effect of breeding status. Thus, both sex and breeding status influence neural morphology in Damaraland mole-rats. These findings are in accord with the observed sex differences in body weight and genitalia in Damaraland but not naked mole-rats. We hypothesize that the increased sexual dimorphism in Damaraland mole-rats relative to naked mole-rats is related to reduced reproductive skew. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. H2O2 treatment or serum deprivation induces autophagy and apoptosis in naked mole-rat skin fibroblasts by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanmin; Li, Li; Wang, Shiyong; Yu, Chenlin; Xiao, Bang; Lin, Lifang; Cong, Wei; Cheng, Jishuai; Yang, Wenjing; Sun, Wei; Cui, Shufang

    2016-12-20

    Naked mole-rats (NMR; Heterocephalus glaber) display extreme longevity and resistance to cancer. Here, we examined whether autophagy contributes to the longevity of NMRs by assessing the effects of the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) on autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. Serum starvation, H2O2 treatment, and LY294002 treatment all increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and numbers of double-membraned autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles, and decreased levels of p70S6K, p-AktSer473, and p-AktThr308. By contrast, CQ treatment decreased p70S6K, AktSer473, and AktThr308 levels. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased after 12 h of exposure to LY294002 or CQ. These data show that inhibiting the Akt pathway promotes autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, LY294002 or CQ treatment decreased caspase-3, p53, and HIF1-α levels, suggesting that serum starvation or H2O2 treatment increase autophagy and apoptosis in NMR skin fibroblasts by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway. CQ-induced inhibition of late autophagy stages also prevented Akt activation and induced apoptosis. Finally, the HIF-1α and p53 pathways were involved in serum starvation- or H2O2-induced autophagy in NMR skin fibroblasts.

  18. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  19. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  20. Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Amrein, I

    2016-06-02

    Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a small hippocampus and low rates of neurogenesis. We found no correlation between neurogenesis and sex or relative age. Social status or caste was the most prominent modulator of neurogenesis. An inverse relationship between neurogenesis and social status was apparent, with queens displaying the lowest neurogenesis while the worker mole-rats had the most. As there is no natural progression from one caste to another, social status within a colony was relatively stable and is reflected in the level of neurogenesis. Our results correspond to those found in the naked mole-rat, and may reflect an evolutionary and environmentally conserved trait within social mole-rat species. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Chris G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2013-05-19

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa.

  2. Morphological divergence of breeders and helpers in wild Damaraland mole-rat societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew J; Bennett, Nigel C

    2010-11-01

    The specialization of body shape to an individual's role within society represents a pinnacle of social evolution. Although commonplace among social insects, divergence in the body shapes of breeders and helpers has to date been documented in just one social vertebrate, the naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber; an extraordinary species in which large colony size and frequent inbreeding may have favored the evolution of such specialization. Here, we present new evidence of morphological divergence between breeders and helpers in the Damaraland mole-rat, Fukomys damarensis; a much less socially extreme species that reflects an independent evolutionary origin of sociality. Using longitudinal data from wild populations, we show that dominant female Damaraland mole-rats, like many social insect queens, have a significantly more elongate body shape than subordinates. This difference arises not from a pre-existing difference in the body shapes of subordinates that do, and those that do not, become dominant, but from a modification to the growth trajectory of subordinates on dominance acquisition. Our findings reveal a wider role for morphological divergence within vertebrate societies and, as Damaraland mole-rats neither live in unusually large groups nor inbreed, suggest that circumstances favoring the evolution of such specializations may be more widespread among vertebrates than previously supposed. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Cancer resistance in the blind mole rat is mediated by concerted necrotic cell death mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Hine, Christopher; Tian, Xiao; Ablaeva, Julia; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Nevo, Eviatar; Seluanov, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    Blind mole rats Spalax (BMR) are small subterranean rodents common in the Middle East. BMR is distinguished by its adaptations to life underground, remarkable longevity (with a maximum documented lifespan of 21 y), and resistance to cancer. Spontaneous tumors have never been observed in spalacids. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this resistance, we examined the growth of BMR fibroblasts in vitro of the species Spalax judaei and Spalax golani. BMR cells proliferated actively for 7–20 population doublings, after which the cells began secreting IFN-β, and the cultures underwent massive necrotic cell death within 3 d. The necrotic cell death phenomenon was independent of culture conditions or telomere shortening. Interestingly, this cell behavior was distinct from that observed in another long-lived and cancer-resistant African mole rat, Heterocephalus glaber, the naked mole rat in which cells display hypersensitivity to contact inhibition. Sequestration of p53 and Rb proteins using SV40 large T antigen completely rescued necrotic cell death. Our results suggest that cancer resistance of BMR is conferred by massive necrotic response to overproliferation mediated by p53 and Rb pathways, and triggered by the release of IFN-β. Thus, we have identified a unique mechanism that contributes to cancer resistance of this subterranean mammal extremely adapted to life underground. PMID:23129611

  4. Burrow architecture of the Damaraland mole-rat ( Fukomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burrow architecture (length, internal dimensions, fractal dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface mounds) was investigated in the Damaraland mole-rat (Fukomys damarensis). A total of 31 animals were caught from five different colonies and their burrow systems were excavated in their ...

  5. Photic induction of Fos in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of African mole-rats: responses to increasing irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria K; Bennett, Nigel C; Cooper, Howard M

    2010-09-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are strictly subterranean rodent species that are rarely exposed to environmental light. Morphological and physiological adaptations to the underground environment include a severely reduced eye size and regressed visual system. Responses of the circadian system to light, however, appear to be intact, since mole-rats are able to entrain their circadian activity rhythms to the light-dark cycle and light induces Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Social organization varies from solitary species to highly elaborated eusocial structures, characterized by a distinct division of labor and in which one reproductive female regulates the behavior and reproductive physiology of other individuals in the colony. The authors studied light-induced Fos expression in the SCN to increasing light intensities in four mole-rat species, ranging from strictly solitary to highly social. In the solitary Cape mole-rat, light induces significant Fos expression in the SCN, and the number of Fos-immunopositive cells increases with increasing light intensity. In contrast, Fos induction in the SCN of social species was slightly greater than, but not statistically different from, the dark-control animals as is typical of most rodents. One species showed a trend for an increase in expression with increased light, whereas a second species showed no trend in expression. In the naked mole-rat, Fos expression appeared higher in the dark-controls than in the animals exposed to light, although the differences in Fos expression were not significant. These results suggest a gradient in the sensitivity of the circadian system to light in mole-rats, with a higher percentage of individuals that are unresponsive to light in correlation with the degree of sociality. In highly social species, such as the naked mole-rat that live in a relatively stable subterranean milieu in terms of food availability, temperature, constant darkness, and devoid of 24-h

  6. Adaptations to a Subterranean Environment and Longevity Revealed by the Analysis of Mole Rat Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Fang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean mammals spend their lives in dark, unventilated environments that are rich in carbon dioxide and ammonia and low in oxygen. Many of these animals are also long-lived and exhibit reduced aging-associated diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer. We sequenced the genome of the Damaraland mole rat (DMR, Fukomys damarensis and improved the genome assembly of the naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber. Comparative genome analyses, along with the transcriptomes of related subterranean rodents, revealed candidate molecular adaptations for subterranean life and longevity, including a divergent insulin peptide, expression of oxygen-carrying globins in the brain, prevention of high CO2-induced pain perception, and enhanced ammonia detoxification. Juxtaposition of the genomes of DMR and other more conventional animals with the genome of NMR revealed several truly exceptional NMR features: unusual thermogenesis, an aberrant melatonin system, pain insensitivity, and unique processing of 28S rRNA. Together, these genomes and transcriptomes extend our understanding of subterranean adaptations, stress resistance, and longevity.

  7. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN THE MOLE-RATS TACHYORYCTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heilophoblus spends over 50 % of the day out of its nest, Tachyoryctes, ..... Surface foraging through an open hole and mole-hill formation could be directly ..... Heliophobius fed at irregular intervals throughout the day and night (Jarvis, ...

  9. Extended longevity of reproductives appears to be common in Fukomys mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Dammann

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia contain several social, cooperatively breeding species with low extrinsic mortality and unusually high longevity. All social bathyergids live in multigenerational families where reproduction is skewed towards a few breeding individuals. Most of their offspring remain as reproductively inactive "helpers" in their natal families, often for several years. This "reproductive subdivision" of mole-rat societies might be of interest for ageing research, as in at least one social bathyergid (Ansell's mole-rats Fukomys anselli, breeders have been shown to age significantly slower than non-breeders. These animals thus provide excellent conditions for studying the epigenetics of senescence by comparing divergent longevities within the same genotypes without the inescapable short-comings of inter-species comparisons. It has been claimed that many if not all social mole-rat species may have evolved similar ageing patterns, too. However, this remains unclear on account of the scarcity of reliable datasets on the subject. We therefore analyzed a 20-year breeding record of Giant mole-rats Fukomys mechowii, another social bathyergid species. We found that breeders indeed lived significantly longer than helpers (ca. 1.5-2.2fold depending on the sex, irrespective of social rank or other potentially confounding factors. Considering the phylogenetic positions of F. mechowii and F. anselli and unpublished data on a third Fukomys-species (F. damarensis showing essentially the same pattern, it seems probable that the reversal of the classic trade-off between somatic maintenance and sexual reproduction is characteristic of the whole genus and hence of the vast majority of social mole-rats.

  10. Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Anim Cogn DOI 10.1007/s10071-012-0503-0 Influence of spatial environment on maze learning in an African mole-rat Lydia du Toit ? Nigel C. Bennett ? Alecia Nickless ? Martin J. Whiting L. du Toit , A. Nickless , M. J. Whiting (email) School...

  11. The eye of the African mole-rat Cryptomys anselli : to see or not to see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R; Garcia-Fernandez, JM; Gordijn, MCM; Bovee-Geurts, PHM; DeGrip, WJ; de Grip, W.J.

    In an attempt to clarify its possible physiological role, we studied the eye of the Zambian mole rat Cryptomys anselli by light, electron and confocal microscopy using conventional staining as well as immunolabelling with rod and cone cell markers. The small eyes of Cryptomys are located

  12. The eye of the african mole-rat Cryptomys anselli: to see or not to see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cernuda-Cernuda, R.; Garcia-Fernandez, J.M.; Gordijn, M.C.; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Grip, W.J. de

    2003-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify its possible physiological role, we studied the eye of the Zambian mole rat Cryptomys anselli by light, electron and confocal microscopy using conventional staining as well as immunolabelling with rod and cone cell markers. The small eyes of Cryptomys are located

  13. The reproductive biology of the giant Zambian mole-rat, Cryptomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-09-29

    Sep 29, 1994 ... gala (12° 27'S, 2T51'E) in the Copperbelt of northern Zam- hia. ... mole-rat, a pair of animals and a group comprising one male and three females .... Figure 1 Changes In bouy mass of a captive female Cr.vptom.vs mechowi ... The sex distribution was .... 'Ine social Cryptomys species are chmacteril,ed hy.

  14. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  15. O2 binding and CO2 sensitivity in haemoglobins of subterranean African mole rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M.; Fago, Angela

    2017-01-01

    that predictably safeguard pulmonary loading under hypoxic and hypercapnic burrow conditions. The O2 binding characteristics are discussed in relation to available information on the primary structure of Hbs from adult and developmental stages of mammals subjected to hypoxia and hypercapnia and the molecular......Inhabiting deep and sealed subterranean burrows, mole rats exhibit a remarkable suite of specializations, including eusociality (living in colonies with single breeding queens), extraordinary longevity, cancer immunity and poikilothermy, and extreme tolerance of hypoxia and hypercapnia. With little...... and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG, the major allosteric modulator of Hb-O2 affinity in red blood cells) in four social and two solitary species of African mole rats (family Bathyergidae) originating from different biomes and soil types across Central and Southern Africa. We found no consistent patterns...

  16. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on mole rats kidney: A histopathologic and ultrastructural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Türker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to realize the ultrastructural effects of ultraviolet radiation on the kidney tissue cells of mole rats (Spalax leucodon. The mole rats of 180–200 g body weight were divided into the control and radiation-trial groups. The control group was not given any radiation. The other groups were irradiated with artificially produced UVC radiation for 14, 28 and 60 days. The kidney tissue samples were prepared at the end of experiments and analyzed by the light and electron microscope. Several effects were observed in the kidney tissues cells analyzed in accordance with the dose magnitude of radiation. These results clearly show the detrimental effects of UVC radiation on kidney tissue cells in exposure periods dependent on radiation dose and exposure time.

  17. Family Wide Molecular Adaptations to Underground Life in African Mole-Rats Revealed by Phylogenomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Bennett, Nigel C; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J; Faulkes, Christopher G

    2015-12-01

    During their evolutionary radiation, mammals have colonized diverse habitats. Arguably the subterranean niche is the most inhospitable of these, characterized by reduced oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide, absence of light, scarcity of food, and a substrate that is energetically costly to burrow through. Of all lineages to have transitioned to a subterranean niche, African mole-rats are one of the most successful. Much of their ecological success can be attributed to a diet of plant storage organs, which has allowed them to colonize climatically varied habitats across sub-Saharan Africa, and has probably contributed to the evolution of their diverse social systems. Yet despite their many remarkable phenotypic specializations, little is known about molecular adaptations underlying these traits. To address this, we sequenced the transcriptomes of seven mole-rat taxa, including three solitary species, and combined new sequences with existing genomic data sets. Alignments of more than 13,000 protein-coding genes encompassed, for the first time, all six genera and the full spectrum of ecological and social variation in the clade. We detected positive selection within the mole-rat clade and along ancestral branches in approximately 700 genes including loci associated with tumorigenesis, aging, morphological development, and sociality. By combining these results with gene ontology annotation and protein-protein networks, we identified several clusters of functionally related genes. This family wide analysis of molecular evolution in mole-rats has identified a suite of positively selected genes, deepening our understanding of the extreme phenotypic traits exhibited by this group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Genetic signatures for enhanced olfaction in the African mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Stathopoulos

    Full Text Available The Olfactory Receptor (OR superfamily, the largest in the vertebrate genome, is responsible for vertebrate olfaction and is traditionally subdivided into 17 OR families. Recent studies characterising whole-OR subgenomes revealed a 'birth and death' model of evolution for a range of species, however little is known about fine-scale evolutionary dynamics within single-OR families. This study reports the first assessment of fine-scale OR evolution and variation in African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, a family of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the selective pressures of life underground, enhanced olfaction is proposed to be fundamental to the evolutionary success of the Bathyergidae, resulting in a highly diversified OR gene-repertoire. Using a PCR-sequencing approach, we analysed variation in the OR7 family across 14 extant bathyergid species, which revealed enhanced levels of functional polymorphisms concentrated across the receptors' ligand-binding region. We propose that mole-rats are able to recognise a broad range of odorants and that this diversity is reflected throughout their OR7 gene repertoire. Using both classic tests and tree-based methods to test for signals of selection, we investigate evolutionary forces across the mole-rat OR7 gene tree. Four well-supported clades emerged in the OR phylogeny, with varying signals of selection; from neutrality to positive and purifying selection. Bathyergid life-history traits and environmental niche-specialisation are explored as possible drivers of adaptive OR evolution, emerging as non-exclusive contributors to the positive selection observed at OR7 genes. Our results reveal unexpected complexity of evolutionary mechanisms acting within a single OR family, providing insightful perspectives into OR evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Adaptation of pelage color and pigment variations in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Singaravelan

    Full Text Available Concealing coloration in rodents is well established. However, only a few studies examined how soil color, pelage color, hair-melanin content, and genetics (i.e., the causal chain synergize to configure it. This study investigates the causal chain of dorsal coloration in Israeli subterranean blind mole rats, Spalax ehrenbergi.We examined pelage coloration of 128 adult animals from 11 populations belonging to four species of Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies (Spalax galili, Spalax golani, Spalax carmeli, and Spalax judaei and the corresponding coloration of soil samples from the collection sites using a digital colorimeter. Additionally, we quantified hair-melanin contents of 67 animals using HPLC and sequenced the MC1R gene in 68 individuals from all four mole rat species.Due to high variability of soil colors, the correlation between soil and pelage color coordinates was weak and significant only between soil hue and pelage lightness. Multiple stepwise forward regression revealed that soil lightness was significantly associated with all pelage color variables. Pelage color lightness among the four species increased with the higher southward aridity in accordance to Gloger's rule (darker in humid habitats and lighter in arid habitats. Darker and lighter pelage colors are associated with darker basalt and terra rossa, and lighter rendzina soils, respectively. Despite soil lightness varying significantly, pelage lightness and eumelanin converged among populations living in similar soil types. Partial sequencing of the MC1R gene identified three allelic variants, two of which were predominant in northern species (S. galili and S. golani, and the third was exclusive to southern species (S. carmeli and S. judaei, which might have caused the differences found in pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio.Darker dorsal pelage in darker basalt and terra rossa soils in the north and lighter pelage in rendzina and loess soils in the south reflect the combined results of

  20. Vocalisations of the silvery mole-rat: comparasion of vocal repertoires in subterrane an rodents with different socials systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knotková, E.; Veitl, S.; Šumbera, R.; Sedláček, František; Burda, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-257 ISSN 0952-4622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : silvery mole-rat * bathyergidae * vocal communication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.050, year: 2009

  1. Gis-approach for variability assessment of soil electric conductivity under pedoturbation activity of mole rat (Spalax microphthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. М. Konovalova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the investigation of the impact of the mole rat’s activity on soil electric conductivity have been presented. GIS-technology have been shown to be effective for assessment of the pedoturbation activity effect on the soil surface heterogeneity formation. Method of the one-dimension spatial coordinated array transformation into matrix form has been proposed for following multidimension statistic analysis application. The quantity estimation of the mole rats role in formation of the habitat nanorelief-level diversity has been obtained by means of indexes of the landscape complexity and diversity.

  2. The Predictive Power of Evolutionary Biology and the Discovery of Eusociality in the Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, Stanton

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how biologists use evolutionary theory and provides examples of how evolutionary biologists test hypotheses on specific modes of selection and evolution. Presents an example of the successful predictive power of one evolutionary hypothesis. Contains 38 references. (DDR)

  3. Retinal S-opsin dominance in Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) is a consequence of naturally low serum thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Mladěnková, Nella; Burda, Hynek; Szafranski, Karol; Begall, Sabine

    2018-03-12

    Mammals usually possess a majority of medium-wavelength sensitive (M-) and a minority of short-wavelength sensitive (S-) opsins in the retina, enabling dichromatic vision. Unexpectedly, subterranean rodents from the genus Fukomys exhibit an S-opsin majority, which is exceptional among mammals, albeit with no apparent adaptive value. Because thyroid hormones (THs) are pivotal for M-opsin expression and metabolic rate regulation, we have, for the first time, manipulated TH levels in the Ansell's mole-rat (Fukomys anselli) using osmotic pumps. In Ansell's mole-rats, the TH thyroxine (T4) is naturally low, likely as an adaptation to the harsh subterranean ecological conditions by keeping resting metabolic rate (RMR) low. We measured gene expression levels in the eye, RMR, and body mass (BM) in TH-treated animals. T4 treatment increased both, S- and M-opsin expression, albeit M-opsin expression at a higher degree. However, this plasticity was only given in animals up to approximately 2.5 years. Mass-specific RMR was not affected following T4 treatment, although BM decreased. Furthermore, the T4 inactivation rate is naturally higher in F. anselli compared to laboratory rodents. This is the first experimental evidence that the S-opsin majority in Ansell's mole-rats is a side effect of low T4, which is downregulated to keep RMR low.

  4. Non-invasive assessment of glucocorticoid and androgen metabolite levels in cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medger, Katarina; Bennett, Nigel C; Lutermann, Heike; Ganswindt, Andre

    2018-05-18

    Dominant females of cooperative breeding species often use aggression to suppress reproduction of subordinate females, resulting in subordinates experiencing stress-related increases in glucocorticoid levels, which may cause reproductive down-regulation. This would suggest a general pattern with higher glucocorticoid levels in subordinate compared to dominant individuals; however, the opposite was found in a number of cooperatively breeding species. Furthermore, breeding females of the cooperatively breeding Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis) exhibit very high androgen concentrations during the wet season, presumably to support their breeding monopoly. Hormone analysis in Damaraland mole-rats have typically been measured using plasma and urine, but faecal analysis offers additional advantages especially for field studies on this species. The present study examines the suitability of Damaraland mole-rat faecal samples for determining glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) and androgen metabolite (fAM) concentrations using enzyme immunoassays. Using these assays, we further evaluated the effects of breeding status on fGCM and fAM concentrations in wild-caught and captive Damaraland mole-rats. Wild-caught breeding and non-breeding males and females exhibited no differences in fAM concentrations. Immunoreactive fGCM concentrations were only high in male breeders and comparatively low in non-breeders and breeding females. Concentrations of fAMs and fGCMs were similar in captive males and females, but fAM concentrations were elevated in captive compared to wild-caught individuals, which may be related to a higher reproductive activity due to removal from the breeding female. The relatively uniform fAM and fGCM concentrations found in wild-caught mole-rats may be explained by a stable colony structure during the dry season during which this study was conducted. Limited dispersal opportunities result in lower aggression and stress levels within a colony and as a result

  5. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Yoshiyuki; Vole, Christiane; Begall, Sabine; Bens, Martin; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Sahm, Arne; Szafranski, Karol; Burda, Hynek; Dammann, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli) are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a) their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b) these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs), and c) reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  6. Unusual ratio between free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine in a long-lived mole-rat species with bimodal ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Henning

    Full Text Available Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli are subterranean, long-lived rodents, which live in eusocial families, where the maximum lifespan of breeders is twice as long as that of non-breeders. Their metabolic rate is significantly lower than expected based on allometry, and their retinae show a high density of S-cone opsins. Both features may indicate naturally low thyroid hormone levels. In the present study, we sequenced several major components of the thyroid hormone pathways and analyzed free and total thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum samples of breeding and non-breeding F. anselli to examine whether a their thyroid hormone system shows any peculiarities on the genetic level, b these animals have lower hormone levels compared to euthyroid rodents (rats and guinea pigs, and c reproductive status, lifespan and free hormone levels are correlated. Genetic analyses confirmed that Ansell's mole-rats have a conserved thyroid hormone system as known from other mammalian species. Interspecific comparisons revealed that free thyroxine levels of F. anselli were about ten times lower than of guinea pigs and rats, whereas the free triiodothyronine levels, the main biologically active form, did not differ significantly amongst species. The resulting fT4:fT3 ratio is unusual for a mammal and potentially represents a case of natural hypothyroxinemia. Comparisons with total thyroxine levels suggest that mole-rats seem to possess two distinct mechanisms that work hand in hand to downregulate fT4 levels reliably. We could not find any correlation between free hormone levels and reproductive status, gender or weight. Free thyroxine may slightly increase with age, based on sub-significant evidence. Hence, thyroid hormones do not seem to explain the different ageing rates of breeders and non-breeders. Further research is required to investigate the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the unusual proportion of free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine.

  7. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: Utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Assaf

    2011-08-12

    The blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) is a model animal for survival under extreme environments due to its ability to live in underground habitats under severe hypoxic stress and darkness. Here we report the transcriptome sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly of the sequences yielded over 51,000 isotigs with homology to ~12,000 mouse, rat or human genes. Based on these results, it was possible to detect large numbers of splice variants, SNPs, and novel transcribed regions. In addition, multiple differential expression patterns were detected between tissues and treatments. The results presented here will serve as a valuable resource for future studies aimed at identifying genes and gene regions evolved during the adaptive radiation associated with underground life of the blind mole rat. 2011 Malik et al.

  8. Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in response to light stimulation in a solitary and social species of African mole-rat (family Bathyergidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, M K; Bennett, N C; Cooper, H M

    2005-01-01

    Mole-rats are strictly subterranean rodents that are rarely exposed to environmental light. They are well adapted to their environment and have reduced eyes and a severely regressed visual system. It has been shown, however, that mole-rats do exhibit endogenous circadian rhythms that can be entrained, suggesting an intact and functional circadian system. To determine whether light is the entraining agent in these animals, Fos expression in response to light pulses at different circadian times was investigated to obtain phase response curves. Light is integrated effectively in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis), and Fos expression is gated according to the phase of the circadian clock. The Fos response in the Cape mole-rat was comparable to that of aboveground rodents. In contrast, the highveld mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) was less sensitive to light and did not show a selective Fos response according to the phase of the circadian cycle. Social species appear to be less sensitive to light than their solitary counterparts, which compares well with results from locomotor activity studies.

  9. Exceptional Chromosomal Evolution and Cryptic Speciation of Blind Mole Rats Nannospalax leucodon (Spalacinae, Rodentia from South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Savić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mole rats are exclusively subterranean and highly specialized rodents. Their long lifespans, remarkable anti-cancer mechanisms, and various distinctive adaptive features make them a useful research model. Moreover, opposing convergence of morphological traits, they have developed extremely high karyotype variability. Thus, 74 chromosomal forms have been described so far and new ones are being revealed continuously. These evolved during the process of rapid radiation and occur in different biogeographical regions. During research into their reproductive biology we have already provided substantial evidence for species-level separation of these taxa. Here, we review diverse chromosomal forms of the lesser blind mole rat, Mediterranean Nannospalax leucodon, distributed in South-eastern Europe, their karyotype records, biogeography, origin, and phylogeny from our extensive research. In the light of new data from molecular genetic studies, we question some former valuations and propose a cryptospecies rank for seven reproductively isolated chromosomal forms with sympatric and parapatric distribution and clear ecogeographical discrepances in their habitats, as well as new experimental and theoretical methods for understanding the courses of speciation of these unique fossorial mammals.

  10. In vivo expression of ß-galactosidase by rat oviduct exposed to naked DNA or messenger RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA RIOS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra-oviductal administration of RNA obtained from oviducts of estradiol-treated rats resulted in accelerated egg transport (Ríos et al., 1997. It is probable that estradiol-induced messenger RNA (mRNA entered oviductal cells and was translated into the proteins involved in accelerated egg transport. In order to test this interpretation we deposited in vivo 50 µg of pure ß-galactosidase (ß-gal mRNA, 50 µg of pure DNA from the reporter gene ß-gal under SV40 promoter or the vehicle (control oviducts into the oviductal lumen of rats. Twenty four hours later the ß-gal activity was assayed in oviductal tissue homogenates using o-nitrophenyl-ß-D-galactopyranoside as a substrate. The administration of ß-gal mRNA and pSVBgal plasmid increased ß-gal activity by 71% and 142%, respectively, over the control oviducts. These results indicate that naked DNA and mRNA coding for ß-gal can enter oviductal cells and be translated into an active enzyme. They are consistent with the interpretation that embryo transport acceleration caused by the injection of estradiol-induced RNA in the oviduct involves translation of the injected mRNA

  11. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2003-01-01

    ...: H-PSMA-T, R-"PSMA"-T, H-PSA, H-PSA-T, H-PAP-T and R"PSMA"-S. Preliminary studies using the Copenhagen rat tumor prostate model showed uniform tumor development in rats that were injected subcutaneously with 100 000 AT3B-lPSMA,PSA cells...

  12. The mole

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The mole continued its way around the SPS ring ... and on 31 July emerged where it started from, having completed its 7 kilometre journey without ever veering more than a couple of centimetres from its schedule path.

  13. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  14. Parentage analysis of Ansell’s mole-rat family groups indicates a high reproductive skew despite relatively relaxed ecological constraints on dispersal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patzenhauerová, Hana; Šklíba, J.; Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 19 (2013), s. 4988-5000 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802; GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : African mole-rat * dispersal * eusociality * Fukomys * mating system * reproductive skew Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.840, year: 2013

  15. Variability of space-use patterns in a free living eusocial rodent, Ansell’s mole-rat indicates age-based rather than caste polyethism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, M.; Burda, H.; Šumbera, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, DEC 06 (2016), č. článku 37497. ISSN 2045-2322 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : eusocial rodent * mole-rats * Fukomys anselli Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/srep37497

  16. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  17. They live in the land down under: thyroid function and basal metabolic rate in the Blind Mole Rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi, Aaron; Nevo, Eviatar; Cohen, Keren; Sotnichenko, Nick; Hercbergs, Aleck; Band, Mark; Davis, Paul J; Ellis, Martin; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    The Israeli blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) lives in sealed underground burrows under extreme, hypoxic conditions. The four Israeli Spalax allospecies have adapted to different climates, the cool-humid (Spalax galili, 2 n = 52 chromosomes), semihumid (S. golani, 2 n = 54) north regions, warm-humid (S. carmeli, 2 n = 58) central region and the warm-dry S. judaei, 2 n = 60) southern regions. A dramatic interspecies decline in basal metabolic rate (BMR) from north to south, even after years of captivity, indicates a genetic basis for this BMR trait. We examined the possibility that the genetically-conditioned interspecies BMR difference was expressed via circulating thyroid hormone. An unexpected north to south increase in serum free thyroxine (FT4) and total 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) (p BMR measurements. The increases in serum FT4 and T3 were symmetrical, so that the T3:FT4 ratio - interpretable as an index of conversion of T4 to T3 in nonthyroidal tissues - did not support relative decrease in production of T3 as a contributor to BMR. Increased north-to-south serum FT4 and T3 levels also correlated negatively with hemoglobin/hematocrit. North-to-south adaptations in spalacids include decreased BMR and hematocrit/hemoglobin in the face of increasing thyroid hormone levels, arguing for independent control of hormone secretion and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin. But the significant inverse relationship between thyroid hormone levels and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin is also consistent with a degree of cellular resistance to thyroid hormone action that protects against hormone-induced increase in oxygen consumption in a hostile, hypoxic environment.

  18. Sperm structure and motility in the eusocial naked mole-rat, Heterocephalus glaber: a case of degenerative orthogenesis in the absence of sperm competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Horst Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have studied sperm structure and motility in a eusocial rodent where reproduction is typically restricted to a single male and behaviourally dominant queen. Males rarely compete for access to the queen during her estrus cycle, suggesting little or no role for sperm competition. Results Our results revealed an atypical mammalian sperm structure with spermatozoa from breeding, subordinate and disperser males being degenerate and almost completely lacking a "mammalian phylogenetic stamp". Sperm structure is characterized by extreme polymorphism with most spermatozoa classified as abnormal. Sperm head shapes include round, oval, elongated, lobed, asymmetrical and amorphous. At the ultrastructural level, the sperm head contains condensed to granular chromatin with large open spaces between the chromatin. Nuclear chromatin seems disorganized since chromatin condensation is irregular and extremely inconsistent. The acrosome forms a cap (ca 35% over the anterior part of the head. A well defined nuclear fossa and neck with five minor sets of banded protein structures are present. The midpiece is poorly organized and contains only 5 to 7 round to oval mitochondria. The flagellar pattern is 9+9+2. A distinct degenerative feature of the tail principal piece is the absence of the fibrous sheath. Only 7% motile spermatozoa were observed which had exceptionally slow swimming speeds. Conclusion In this species, sperm form has simplified and degenerated in many aspects and represents a specialised form of degenerative orthogenesis at the cellular level.

  19. Spatial variability of soil electrical conductivity under the mole rats (Spalax microphthalmus digging activity at the different scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhukov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil mounds emerged owing to the mole rats’ digging activity have been shown to be characterised by less electrical conductivity than surrounded soil. This effect is due to the changes of the mounds bulk’s density and moisture. The effect of the mole rats’ digging activity on the soil electrical conductivity has been found not to be restricted by the geometrical border of the mounds. The mounds are surrounded by 1–1.5 m halo of increased soil electrical conductivity. The halo size is increased with the aging of the mound and with the compacting of their aggregation.

  20. Reproduction is associated with a tissue-dependent reduction of oxidative stress in eusocial female Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Schmidt

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated as both a physiological cost of reproduction and a driving force on an animal's lifespan. Since increased reproductive effort is generally linked with a reduction in survival, it has been proposed that oxidative stress may influence this relationship. Support for this hypothesis is inconsistent, but this may, in part, be due to the type of tissues that have been analyzed. In Damaraland mole-rats the sole reproducing female in the colony is also the longest lived. Therefore, if oxidative stress does impact the trade-off between reproduction and survival in general, this species may possess some form of enhanced defense. We assessed this relationship by comparing markers of oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA; protein carbonyls, PC and antioxidants (total antioxidant capacity, TAC; superoxide dismutase, SOD in various tissues including plasma, erythrocytes, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle between wild-caught reproductive and non-reproductive female Damaraland mole-rats. Reproductive females exhibited significantly lower levels of PC across all tissues, and lower levels of MDA in heart, kidney and liver relative to non-reproductive females. Levels of TAC and SOD did not differ significantly according to reproductive state. The reduction in oxidative damage in breeding females may be attributable to the unusual social structure of this species, as similar relationships have been observed between reproductive and non-reproductive eusocial insects.

  1. How attractive is the girl next door? An assessment of spatial mate acquisition and paternity in the solitary Cape dune mole-rat, Bathyergus suillus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Bray

    Full Text Available Behavioural observations of reproduction and mate choice in wild fossorial rodents are extremely limited and consequently indirect methods are typically used to infer mating strategies. We use a combination of morphological, reproductive, spatial, and genetic data to investigate the reproductive strategy of a solitary endemic species, the Cape dune mole-rat Bathyergus suillus. These data provide the first account on the population dynamics of this species. Marked sexual dimorphism was apparent with males being both significantly larger and heavier than females. Of all females sampled 36% had previously reproduced and 12% were pregnant at the time of capture. Post-partum sex ratio was found to be significantly skewed in favour of females. The paternity of fifteen litters (n = 37 was calculated, with sires assigned to progeny using both categorical and full probability methods, and including a distance function. The maximum distance between progeny and a putative sire was determined as 2149 m with males moving between sub-populations. We suggest that above-ground movement should not be ignored in the consideration of mate acquisition behaviour of subterranean mammals. Estimated levels of multiple paternity were shown to be potentially as high as 26%, as determined using sibship and sire assignment methods. Such high levels of multiple paternity have not been found in other solitary mole-rat species. The data therefore suggest polyandry with no evidence as yet for polygyny.

  2. Timelike naked singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Rituparno; Joshi, Pankaj S.; Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis

    2004-01-01

    We construct a class of spherically symmetric collapse models in which a naked singularity may develop as the end state of collapse. The matter distribution considered has negative radial and tangential pressures, but the weak energy condition is obeyed throughout. The singularity forms at the center of the collapsing cloud and continues to be visible for a finite time. The duration of visibility depends on the nature of energy distribution. Hence the causal structure of the resulting singularity depends on the nature of the mass function chosen for the cloud. We present a general model in which the naked singularity formed is timelike, neither pointlike nor null. Our work represents a step toward clarifying the necessary conditions for the validity of the Cosmic Censorship Conjecture

  3. Naked Black Hole Firewalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-Han

    2016-04-22

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  4. Naked Black Hole Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N.; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-04-01

    In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.

  5. Mole gun injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Are naked singularities really visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; De Felice, F [Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada); Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1978-12-09

    The question whether a Kerr naked singularity is actually visible from infinity is investigated; it is shown that in fact any signal which could be emitted from the singularity is infinitely red-shifted. This implies that naked singularities would be indistinguishable from a black hole.

  7. Characterization of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone precursor cDNA in the Old World mole-rat Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae: high degree of identity with the New World guinea pig sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamatianos, T; du Toit, L; Hrabovszky, E; Kalló, I; Marsh, P J; Bennett, N C; Coen, C W

    2005-05-01

    Regulation of pituitary gonadotrophins by the decapeptide gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) is crucial for the development and maintenance of reproductive functions. A common amino acid sequence for this decapeptide, designated as 'mammalian' GnRH, has been identified in all mammals thus far investigated with the exception of the guinea pig, in which there are two amino acid substitutions. Among hystricognath rodents, the members of the family Bathyergidae regulate reproduction in response to diverse cues. Thus, highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) are social bathyergids in which breeding is restricted to a particular season in the dominant female, but continuously suppressed in subordinate colony members. Elucidation of reproductive control in these animals will be facilitated by characterization of their GnRH1 gene. A partial sequence of GnRH1 precursor cDNA was isolated and characterized. Comparative analysis revealed the highest degree of identity (86%) to guinea pig GnRH1 precursor mRNA. Nevertheless, the deduced amino acid sequence of the mole-rat decapeptide is identical to the 'mammalian' sequence rather than that of guinea pigs. Successful detection of GnRH1-synthesizing neurones using either a guinea pig GnRH1 riboprobe or an antibody against the 'mammalian' decapeptide is consistent with the guinea pig-like sequence for the precursor and the classic 'mammalian' form for the decapeptide. The high degree of identity in the GnRH1 precursor sequence between this Old World mole-rat and the New World guinea pig is consistent with the theory that caviomorphs and phiomorphs originated from a common ancestral line in the Palaeocene to mid Eocene, some 63-45 million years ago.

  8. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  9. Non-image Forming Light Detection by Melanopsin, Rhodopsin, and Long-Middlewave (L/W) Cone Opsin in the Subterranean Blind Mole Rat, Spalax Ehrenbergi: Immunohistochemical Characterization, Distribution, and Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esquiva, Gema; Avivi, Aaron; Hannibal, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The blind mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi, can, despite severely degenerated eyes covered by fur, entrain to the daily light/dark cycle and adapt to seasonal changes due to an intact circadian timing system. The present study demonstrates that the Spalax retina contains a photoreceptor layer, an outer...... marker RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) it was shown that the Spalax eye contains 890 ± 62 RGCs. Of these, 87% (752 ± 40) contain melanopsin (cell density 788 melanopsin RGCs/mm2). The remaining RGCs were shown to co-store Brn3a and calretinin. The melanopsin cells were located mainly...... synapses, both rods and L/M cone ribbons containing pedicles in the OPL were found in close apposition with melanopsin dendrites in the outer plexus suggesting direct synaptic contact. A subset of cone bipolar cells and all photoreceptor cells contain recoverin while a subset of bipolar and amacrine cells...

  10. Mole sieve cycle optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, P. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas, Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Maturing gas basins and declining reservoirs have prompted the search for energy and cost reduction initiatives to maintain operation sustainability. This paper discusses the development of an algorithm to improve the efficiency of the Brazeau mole sieve dehydration system. Details of the operating unit and an outline of the system were provided, as well as an operator interface. The main objectives of the research were to reduce the number of corresponding regeneration cycles; reduce annual energy requirements; and extend the life of the dessicant. Reductions were anticipated at 35 per cent, leading towards fuel savings of $45,000 a year, and carbon dioxide reductions of 670 tonnes a year. However, significant barriers were also noted, including operations, maintenance and equipment replacement issues. Equations of state were used to estimate vapor pressure or water content in gases. Approximate water content was measured with gas flow rate. The resulting algorithm was implemented using a basic best fit curve generated for one variable with a correction factor applied as a second variable. Data books were provided to present water content of hydrocarbon gas, with implementation procedures. Benefits of the new system included longer service life and reduced chemical and outside service costs, and reduced lost production during sieve changes. Additional benefits included enhanced distributed computing system (DCS) interfaces within plant operations; extension of the adsorption cycle via the functionality of the algorithm; and the fact that during a plant upset, the algorithm froze cycle sequencing and eliminated the possibility of switching the beds and repeating regeneration. The improved system resulted in savings of $87,000. tabs, figs.

  11. Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This can be done with a split thickness skin graft from some other normal area of the body. ... several reported cases of melanoma developing underneath a skin graft from nevus cells left behind. Occasionally, thickened scars ...

  12. Quantum dress for a naked singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Casals

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semiclassical backreaction on a conical naked singularity space–time with a negative cosmological constant in (2+1-dimensions. In particular, we calculate the renormalized quantum stress–energy tensor for a conformally coupled scalar field on such naked singularity space–time. We then obtain the backreacted metric via the semiclassical Einstein equations. We show that, in the regime where the semiclassical approximation can be trusted, backreaction dresses the naked singularity with an event horizon, thus enforcing (weak cosmic censorship.

  13. Dressing up a Kerr naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica

    1979-06-11

    The evolution of a naked singularity surrounded by an accreting disk of matter is studied; two kinds of disks are considered: the standard thin-disk model and the thick barytropic model, for several initial conditions. It is shown that any Kerr naked singularity slows down in a finite time to a maximal Kerr black hole. The final mass, the luminosity and the time of evolution of the singularity are evaluated.

  14. Naked singularity, firewall, and Hawking radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng

    2017-06-21

    Spacetime singularity has always been of interest since the proof of the Penrose-Hawking singularity theorem. Naked singularity naturally emerges from reasonable initial conditions in the collapsing process. A recent interesting approach in black hole information problem implies that we need a firewall to break the surplus entanglements among the Hawking photons. Classically, the firewall becomes a naked singularity. We find some vacuum analytical solutions in R n -gravity of the firewall-type and use these solutions as concrete models to study the naked singularities. By using standard quantum theory, we investigate the Hawking radiation emitted from the black holes with naked singularities. Here we show that the singularity itself does not destroy information. A unitary quantum theory works well around a firewall-type singularity. We discuss the validity of our result in general relativity. Further our result demonstrates that the temperature of the Hawking radiation still can be expressed in the form of the surface gravity divided by 2π. This indicates that a naked singularity may not compromise the Hakwing evaporation process.

  15. Early caries naked-eyed examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhmutov, D; Gonchukov, S; Voytenok, O; Kharchenko, O; Zubov, B

    2008-01-01

    In view of its potential for dental diagnostics, noninvasive optical methods have been the object of research for the last years. Different techniques (spectroscopy, microscopy, and tomography) are used to discriminate between caries and sound enamel. The main aim of this paper is to determine a simple way to see incipient caries with the naked eye

  16. Intrathecal injection of naked plasmid DNA provides long-term expression of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Travis S; Langer, Stephen J; Johnson, Kirk W; Chavez, Raymond A; Watkins, Linda R; Milligan, Erin D; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2009-01-01

    Therapeutic benefit has been reported to result from intrathecal (i.t.) injection of transgene vectors, including naked DNA. However, most studies using naked DNA have measured only the transgene expression of intracellular proteins. Here we demonstrate that i.t. injection of naked DNA can result in long-term expression of secreted proteins. Plasmids expressing either secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) or human interleukin-10 (hIL-10) were injected into the i.t. space in rats, and transgene products were repeatedly measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Both SEAP and hIL-10 were maximal at 1 and 2 days after the injection and still detectable at 4 months. The utilization of a plasmid having two features that are hypothesized to increase gene expression (matrix attachment regions (MARs) and lack of CpG dinucleotides) resulted in a significant increase in gene expression. Reinjection of SEAP or hIL-10 plasmids after 4 months significantly increased protein levels at 1 and 14 days after the reinjection. SEAP was uniformly distributed between the DNA delivery site (approximately vertebral level T13) and the lumbar puncture site (L5/L6 inter-vertebral space), was reduced at the cisterna magna, and was detectable, though at much lower levels, in serum. These data suggest that naked DNA has the potential to be used as a therapeutic tool for applications that require long-term release of transgenes into the CSF.

  17. Moles and Mole Control on British Farms, Amenities and Gardens after Strychnine Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Baker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Moles are considered pests in Britain, but this issue has been little studied. Lower welfare standards have been tolerated for moles than for most other managed wild mammal species, as use of both the controversial poison, strychnine, and unregulated traps have been permitted. Strychnine was withdrawn in 2006 and there were fears that mole populations would increase as a result. In 2007, we conducted a comprehensive, nationwide survey of land manager perceptions, opinions and behaviour regarding moles and mole control on farms, amenities and domestic gardens in Britain. We surveyed 2150 land managers (achieving a 59% response rate and ground-truthed 29 responses. Moles were reported to be present on most farms and amenities, and 13% of gardens, and were more common in lighter soils. Where present, moles were usually considered pests, this being more likely in Wales, Scotland and northern England, on livestock and mixed farms, and on large, high-value amenities, e.g., racecourses and golf courses. Mole control followed similar patterns to mole presence. More control may occur than is economically, and therefore potentially ethically, justified. Control should be more carefully considered and, where necessary, more effectively targeted. Kill-trapping was the favoured recent and future method on farms and amenities, even if strychnine was to be reintroduced; however, because mole traps are currently unregulated, some might not meet current welfare standards if tested. We found no evidence for an increase in moles since a farm questionnaire survey conducted in 1992; this could have wider implications for future wildlife management policy changes.

  18. Biological and biochemical properties of human chorionic gonadotropin from urine of patients with hydatidiform mole and its radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryuichiro; Hamamoto, Tamotsu; Tanabe, Keizo; Takemori, Masayuki; Ashitaka, Yoshihiko

    1981-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was extracted and purified from the urine of four patients with hydatidiform mole. The immunological activities of the hCG-hydatidiform mole by hCG radioimmunoassay (RIA) ranged from 9,380 to 9,700 IU/mg, and the biological activities measured by the immature rat ovarian weight method ranged from 7,250 to 7,780 IU/mg. The results of the amino acid compositions of all the hCG-hydatidiform moles were practically identical with those of hCG-normal pregnancies. The carbohydrate moiety of the hCG-hydatidiform mole was also suspected to be almost similar to that of hCG-normal pregnancies by the results of their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. It was demonstrated that hCG-hydatidiform mole was composed of α and β subunits (similar to a hCG-normal pregnancy) when hCG-hydatidiform mole was separated into subunits by SDS disc electrophoresis after treatment with mercaptoethanol. The RIA system of hCG-hydatidiform mole can be established. The concentrations of hCG in sera of normal pregnant women and patients with trophoblastic diseases assayed by hCG-hydatidiform mole RIA were equivalent to those obtained by a standard hCG RIA. Hence, a standard hCG-immunoassay method used in the management of trophoblastic diseases is considered reasonable so far as the immunoantigenecity of hCG is concerned. (author)

  19. Subsurface Sampling and Sensing Using Burrowing Moles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Richter, L.; Smith, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for life on Mars will likely require accessing the subsurface since the Martian surface is both hostile to life and to preservation of biosignatures due to the cold dry conditions, the strong W environment, and the presence of strong oxidants. Systems are needed to probe beneath the sun and oxidant baked surface of Mars and return samples to the surface for analysis or to bring the instrument sensing underground. Recognizing this need, the European Space Agency incorporated a small subsurface penetrometer or Mole onto the Beagle 2 Mars lander. Had the 2003 landing been successful, the Mole would have collected samples from 1-1.5 m depth and delivered them to an organic analysis instrument on the surface. The de- vice called the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO), also measured soil mechanical and thermophysical properties. Constrained by the small mass and volume allowance of the Beagle lander, the PLUTO mole was a slender cylinder only 2 cm diameter and 28 cm long equipped with a small sampling device designed to collect samples and bring them to the surface for analysis by other instrument. The mass of the entire system including deployment mechanism and tether was 1/2 kg. sensor package underground to make in situ measurements. The Mars Underground Mole (MUM) is a larger Mole based on the PLUTO design but incorporating light collection optics that interface to a fiber optic cable in the tether that transmits light to a combined stimulated emission Raman Spectrometer and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) reflectance Spectrometer with sensitivity from 0.7 to 2.5 micrometers. This instrument is called the Dual Spectral Sensor and uses a Digital Array Scanning Interferometer as the sensor technology, a type of fourier transform interferometer that uses fixed element prisms and thus is highly rugged compared to a Michaelson interferometer. Due to the size limitations of an on-Mole instrument compartment, and the availability of a tether, the sensor head

  20. Reproductive features of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and star-nose mole (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    1999-11-01

    Since moles are closely related to shrews, the gametes and reproductive tracts of the star-nose mole (Condylura cristata) and the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) were examined to gain further insight into unusual reproductive traits of the Soricidae. Moles display many of these soricid traits, but with some important differences. The cumulus oophorus of Scalopus, ovulated about 16 h after hCG injection, was largely dispersed by hyaluronidase and, though quite dense, was nevertheless more similar to that of higher mammals than to the compact 'ball of the soricid cumulus. Within the female tract in these moles, approximately 85% of the length of the oviduct comprises a narrow ampulla with numerous differentiated crypts that, in shrews, house spermatozoa. However, in contrast to shrews, moles produce considerably larger numbers of spermatozoa, which challenges the proposal that, in shrews, oviductal sperm crypts specifically permit lower sperm production by the males. In the sperm head of these two moles, the acrosome displays the long rostrum that is typical of other Insectivora, and the perforatorium has the barbs by which soricid spermatozoa probably bind to the zona pellucida. Perhaps allied to this, immunoblots indicated that the immunoreactive acrosomal matrix of Scalopus spermatozoa is simpler than the polypeptide complex of the bovine and hamster acrosomal matrix.

  1. The Origin of the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    German Chemist, August Wilhelm Hofmann first introduced the term "molar" (from the Latin moles, meaning "a large mass") into chemistry, around 1865. The particular use of the term molar gained currency in the physics literature, where it was in common use at least through the 1940s.

  2. psychrometry: from partial pressures to mole fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... as an ideal gas mixture. Partial pressures then become identical: to mole fractions and sets of psychometric parameters result from rather elementary thermodynamic relations. Search for more accurate data has long led to the realization that neither dry air nor pure water vapour behaves like an ideal gas,.

  3. CT diagnosis of invasive hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Mingquan; Jiang Lina; Li Xianxing; Wang Peijun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features and the diagnostic value in invasive mole. Methods: Eleven cases (age, 30 to 53 years, mean 40 years) with invasive mole proved by operation and pathology were studied, including 3 cases during peri-menopausal period of eight months, ten months and twelve months respectively. All cases were scanned by CT and enhanced study was done. Results: All cases showed enlargement of uterus of varying degrees. On CT, the density of uterine cavity was similar to that of water, intermingled with spotty patchy and hazy circular isodense shadows. High density stripe-like bleeding foci were found in 3 cases. The outline of uterine cavity was locally disrupted in all case and the muscle layer was thickened in 3 cases. On enhanced CT scan, the lesions in the uterine cavity appeared markedly hyperdense, just like 'the crater' and the 'mole sign'. The muscle layers at the site of disruption showed inhomogeneous enhancement after contrast injection. Conclusion: The CT features of invasive mole are characteristic, with important diagnostic value, especially for those during peri-menopausal period

  4. Naked-eye astronomy in mass tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of developing astro-tourism in small countries such as Serbia and other Balkan countries, with "discreet" astro-tourism reduced to naked-eye astronomy as part of mass tourism rather than elite tourism that is realized through specialized programs with spacecraft and space stations, spectacular planetariums and observatories with giant telescopes. The specific relationship between the virtual and the real world is highlighted in this paper especially when considering younger generations. Furthermore, the differences in the way stars are perceived by astronomers and "ordinary" tourists or non-astronomers is also emphasized. Tourists are not enchanted by celestial bodies themselves, but by a complete scene, which consists of integrated skyscapes and landscapes, as a complex stage where in various combinations and forms these celestial bodies are observed, and of their own experience. These complex sky-earth landscapes, astro-landscapes, present astro-tourism resources of the small countries like Serbia, provided that a tourist can "read" their astronomical text. In this regard, Belgrade was used as the example for drafting a "package" of astronomical information that can be easily prepared and adapted according to the needs of a particular group, so that every tourist may know what can be seen, where and when. With the help of a rotating star map (planisphere, visitors may observe the sky with the naked eye.

  5. Naked singularities and cosmic censorship: comment on the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    The current discussion is mainly concerned with how, or indeed, whether space-times possessing naked singularities can be ruled out as being too unrealistic or not being singular at all. The present position is summarized, with references, under the following headings: the Hawking-Penrose existence theorems, hydrodynamical singularities and the strength of naked singularities. (UK)

  6. Definition of the mole (IUPAC Recommendation 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Marquardt, Roberto; Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltán; Towns, Marcy; Weir, Ron; Davis, Richard; Stohner, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    In 2011 the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) noted the intention of the International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) to revise the entire International System of Units (SI) by linking all seven base units to seven fundamental physical constants. Of particular interest to chemists, new definitions for the kilogram and the mole have been proposed. A recent IUPAC Technical Report discussed these new definitions in relation to immediate consequences for the chemical co...

  7. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles (Talpa europaea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, I.M.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in common moles, Talpa europaea, was investigated in order to determine whether moles can serve as an indicator species for T. gondii infections in livestock. Findings In total, 86 moles were caught from 25 different sites in the Netherlands. Five

  8. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of hydatidiform mole and missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Kwang Myeong; Lee, Yeong Hwan; Chung, Hye Kyeong; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1990-01-01

    To establish the sonographic characteristics of the hydatidiform mole and the missed abortion with placental degeneration, we have retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of complete mole, 10 cases of partial mole, and 10 cases of missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration, collected at Taegu Catholic General Hospital, from January 1986 to December 1989. The results were as follows : 1. Of 12 cases of complete mole, all demonstrated diffuse intrauterine vesicular pattern of internal echo without a gestational sac. Two cases were recurred after D and E. 2. The partial mole was characterized by focal (70%) or diffuse (20%) distribution of hydatidiform placental change and a gestational sac (100%) with or without a macerated fetus. But the striking hydatidiform placental change was not present in one cases of partial mole. 3. The uterus was larger for dates in 9 cases (90%) of complete mole, but smaller for dates in 7 cases (70%) of partial mole. 4. The missed abortion with placental hydropic degeneration was indistinguished from a partial mole due to their similar sonographic appearance : focal or diffuse cystic change of a placenta, a distorted gestational sac with or without a fetus, and a smaller uterus for dates. On conclusion, the complete mole could be easily distinguished from a partial mole or a missed abortion by sonography : a gestational sac or an area of noncystic placenta was not identified in a complete mole. The partial mole was indistinguished from a missed abortion, but if there is the suspicion of trophoblastic proliferation, such as a convex placental surface or a larger uterus for dates, then the diagnosis is probably a partial mole rather than a missed abortion

  10. Instrumented Moles for Planetary Subsurface Regolith Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L. O.; Coste, P. A.; Grzesik, A.; Knollenberg, J.; Magnani, P.; Nadalini, R.; Re, E.; Romstedt, J.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2006-12-01

    Soil-like materials, or regolith, on solar system objects provide a record of physical and/or chemical weathering processes on the object in question and as such possess significant scientific relevance for study by landed planetary missions. In the case of Mars, a complex interplay has been at work between impact gardening, aeolian as well as possibly fluvial processes. This resulted in regolith that is texturally as well as compositionally layered as hinted at by results from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions which are capable of accessing shallow subsurface soils by wheel trenching. Significant subsurface soil access on Mars, i.e. to depths of a meter or more, remains to be accomplished on future missions. This has been one of the objectives of the unsuccessful Beagle 2 landed element of the ESA Mars Express mission having been equipped with the Planetary Underground Tool (PLUTO) subsurface soil sampling Mole system capable of self-penetration into regolith due to an internal electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. This lightweight device of less than 900 g mass was designed to repeatedly obtain and deliver to the lander regolith samples from depths down to 2 m which would have been analysed for organic matter and, specifically, organic carbon from potential extinct microbial activity. With funding from the ESA technology programme, an evolved Mole system - the Instrumented Mole System (IMS) - has now been developed to a readiness level of TRL 6. The IMS is to serve as a carrier for in situ instruments for measurements in planetary subsurface soils. This could complement or even eliminate the need to recover samples to the surface. The Engineering Model hardware having been developed within this effort is designed for accommodating a geophysical instrument package (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package, HP3) that would be capable of measuring regolith physical properties and planetary heat flow. The chosen design encompasses a two-body Mole

  11. Naked singularities in self-similar spherical gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ori, A.; Piran, T.

    1987-01-01

    We present general-relativistic solutions of self-similar spherical collapse of an adiabatic perfect fluid. We show that if the equation of state is soft enough (Γ-1<<1), a naked singularity forms. The singularity resembles the shell-focusing naked singularities that arise in dust collapse. This solution increases significantly the range of matter fields that should be ruled out in order that the cosmic-censorship hypothesis will hold

  12. MOLES3: Implementing an ISO standards driven data catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham A Parton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ISO19156 Observations and Measurements (O&M provides a standardised framework for organising information about the collection of information about the environment.  Here we describe the implementation of a specialisation of O&M for environmental data, the Metadata Objects for Linking Environmental Sciences (MOLES3.MOLES3 provides support for organising information about data, and for user navigation around data holdings. The implementation described here, “CEDA-MOLES”, also supports data management functions for the Centre for Environmental Data Archival, CEDA. The previous iteration of MOLES (MOLES2 saw active use over five years, being replaced by CEDA-MOLES in late 2014. During that period important lessons were learnt both about the information needed, as well as how to design and maintain the necessary information systems. In this paper we review the problems encountered in MOLES2; how and why CEDA-MOLES was developed and engineered; the migration of information holdings from MOLES2 to CEDA-MOLES; and, finally, provide an early assessment of MOLES3 (as implemented in CEDA-MOLES and its limitations.Key drivers for the MOLES3 development included the necessity for improved data provenance, for further structured information to support ISO19115 discovery metadata  export (for EU INSPIRE compliance, and to provide appropriate fixed landing pages for Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs in the presence of evolving datasets. Key lessons learned included the importance of minimising information structure in free text fields, and the necessity to support as much agility in the information infrastructure as possible without compromising on maintainability both by those using the systems internally and externally (e.g. citing in to the information infrastructure, and those responsible for the systems themselves. The migration itself needed to ensure continuity of service and traceability of archived assets.

  13. Histamine combined with melphalan in isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of locally advanced soft tissue sarcomas: preclinical studies in rats Histamina combinada ao melfalano na perfusão de membro isolado para o tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles localmente avançado: estudos pré-clínicos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Brunstein

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the potential benefit of histamine combined with melphalan in the isolated limb perfusion (ILP as an alternative to TNF-alfa and melphalan combination, for the treatment of irressectable soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs in Brown Norway (BN rats. METHODS: 20 BN rats had small fragments of syngeneic BN-175 fibosarcoma inserted on the right hind limb. In 7-10 days the tumor reached a median diameter of 12-15 mm and they were randomly divided in four groups (sham, melphalan, histamine and escalating doses of histamine combined to melphalan being submitted to experimental ILP for 30 minutes. Tumors were measured daily with a caliper and the volume was calculated. RESULTS: Response curves showed a significant effect of the combination of histamine 200 mg/mL with melphalan, with 66% overall response, including 33% complete responses (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o potencial benéfico da histamina combinada ao melfalano, na perfusão de membro isolado (PMI, como alternativa à combinação TNF-alfa mais melfalano, no tratamento de sarcomas de partes moles irressecaveis em extremidades, em ratos de linhagem Brown Norway (BN. MÉTODOS: 20 ratos BN foram submetidos a implantação de fragmentos de fibrosarcoma singênico BN-175 na pata traseira direita. Em cerca de 7-10 dias o tumor atingiu um diâmetro médio de 12-15 mm e foram aleatóriamente divididos em quatro grupos (controle, melfalano, histamina em doses progessivas combinada ao melfalano e histamina sendo submetidos a PMI experimental por 30 minutos. Os tumores foram então medidos diariamente com o uso de paquímetro e o volume tumoral calculado. RESULTADOS: As curvas de resposta mostram um efeito significativo da combinação de Histamina na concentração de 200 mg/mL ao melfalano, com 66% de resposta global incluindo 33% de respostas completas (p < 0.01. Não houve efeitos colaterais sistêmicos e localmente apenas edema leve e transitório nos animais tratados com histamine

  14. Metrics of a 'mole hole' against the Lobachevsky space background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentyukov, M.N.

    1994-01-01

    'Classical' mole hole are the Euclidean metrics consisting of two large space regions connected by a throat. They are the instanton solutions of the Einstein equations. It is shown that for existence of mole holes in the general relativity theory it is required the energy-momentum tensor breaking energetic conditions. 9 refs., 7 figs

  15. Hydatidiform mole in Aminu Kano teaching hospital, northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hydatidiform mole is a benign tumour of the trophoblast tissue and a relatively common gynaecological emergency. It could resolve spontaneously following evacuation, however 9-20% of patients with complete hydatidiform mole go on to have gestational trophoblast neoplasia. It is potentially curable once the ...

  16. Moles: Tool-Assisted Environment Isolation with Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Halleux, Jonathan; Tillmann, Nikolai

    Isolating test cases from environment dependencies is often desirable, as it increases test reliability and reduces test execution time. However, code that calls non-virtual methods or consumes sealed classes is often impossible to test in isolation. Moles is a new lightweight framework which addresses this problem. For any .NET method, Moles allows test-code to provide alternative implementations, given as .NET delegates, for which C# provides very concise syntax while capturing local variables in a closure object. Using code instrumentation, the Moles framework will redirect calls to provided delegates instead of the original methods. The Moles framework is designed to work together with the dynamic symbolic execution tool Pex to enable automated test generation. In a case study, testing code programmed against the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation API, we achieved full code coverage while running tests in isolation without an actual SharePoint server. The Moles framework integrates with .NET and Visual Studio.

  17. Geochemical mole-balance modeling with uncertain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Geochemical mole-balance models are sets of chemical reactions that quantitatively account for changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of water along a flow path. A revised mole-balance formulation that includes an uncertainty term for each chemical and isotopic datum is derived. The revised formulation is comprised of mole-balance equations for each element or element redox state, alkalinity, electrons, solvent water, and each isotope; a charge-balance equation and an equation that relates the uncertainty terms for pH, alkalinity, and total dissolved inorganic carbon for each aqueous solution; inequality constraints on the size of the uncertainty terms; and inequality constraints on the sign of the mole transfer of reactants. The equations and inequality constraints are solved by a modification of the simplex algorithm combined with an exhaustive search for unique combinations of aqueous solutions and reactants for which the equations and inequality constraints can be solved and the uncertainty terms minimized. Additional algorithms find only the simplest mole-balance models and determine the ranges of mixing fractions for each solution and mole transfers for each reactant that are consistent with specified limits on the uncertainty terms. The revised formulation produces simpler and more robust mole-balance models and allows the significance of mixing fractions and mole transfers to be evaluated. In an example from the central Oklahoma aquifer, inclusion of up to 5% uncertainty in the chemical data can reduce the number of reactants in mole-balance models from seven or more to as few as three, these being cation exchange, dolomite dissolution, and silica precipitation. In another example from the Madison aquifer, inclusion of the charge-balance constraint requires significant increases in the mole transfers of calcite, dolomite, and organic matter, which reduce the estimated maximum carbon 14 age of the sample by about 10,000 years, from 22,700 years to

  18. Hydatidiform mole resulting from sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drezett Jefferson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydatidiform mole (HM is characterized by abnormal proliferation of human trophoblast with producers functioning tissues of human chorionic gonadotropin. It can evolve with ovarian cysts tecaluteínicos, hypertension of pregnancy or hyperthyroidism. The incidence of HM is variable and its etiology poorly known, associated with nutritional factors, environmental, age, parity, history of HM, oral contraceptives, smoking, consanguinity or defects in germ cells. There is no reference in literature on HM resulting from sexual violence, objective of this report. Method Description of two cases of HM among 1146 patients with pregnancy resulting from sexual violence treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, from July 1994 to August 2011. Results The cases affected young, white, unmarried, low educated and low parity women. Sexual violence was perpetrated by known offenders unrelated to the victims, under death threat. Ultrasound and CT of the pelvis showed bulky uterus compatible with HM without myometrial invasion. One case was associated with theca lutein cysts. The two cases were diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy and evolved with hyperthyroidism. There was no hypertension, disease recurrence, metastasis or sexually transmitted infection. Conclusion The incidence of HM was 1:573 pregnancies resulting from rape, within the range estimated for Latin American countries. Trophoblastic material can be preserved to identify the violence perpetrator, considering only the paternal HM chromosomes. History of sexual violence should be investigated in cases of HM in the first half of adolescence and women in a vulnerable condition.

  19. Microscopic study of edema in hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivar C. Castejón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the purpose of this study is to use light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to determine the effect of edema on the structure of the molar vesicle. Methods: samples were taken from the complete hydatidiform mole and processed using conventional light and scanning electron microscopy techniques and an observation protocol that identified four variables: factors underlying the development of edema; the condition of the trophoblast basement membrane, development of the villi, accumulation and degeneration of sulphated mucosubstances at stromal level. Results: light microscopy showed a permeable trophoblastic basement membrane, a swollen syncytium, edematous regions disorganizating the stromal region and causing ischemic necrosis of cells. Using scanning electron microscopy, the basement membrane was found to be distended and thickened, with large irregular holes for the entry and movement of liquid, leaving a wide range of fluids during the influx process and depriving stromal cells of nutrition. Conclusions: a new three-dimensional view of the changes brought about by the entry of fluids into the stroma of molar hydropic vesicles was provided by scanning electron microscopy and confirmed by light microscopy, thereby explaining the changes occurring at the level of the stroma as an effect of the edema.

  20. Productive performance of naked neck, frizzle and dwarf laying hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of major genes for feather reduction (naked neck and frizzle) and body size reduction (dwarf) in a dual-purpose layer strain was evaluated in the subtropical coastal region of southeast Africa (Maputo, Mozambique). The experimental material consisted of ight different genetic groups, two diets ...

  1. Two-Laser Interference Visible to the Naked Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa

    2012-01-01

    An experimental setup allowing the observation of two-laser interference by the naked eye is described. The key concept is the use of an electronic phase lock between two external cavity diode lasers. The experiment is suitable both for undergraduate and graduate students, mainly in atomic physics laboratories. It gives an opportunity for…

  2. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwivedi, I.H. (Aligarh Muslim Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics); Joshi, P.S. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1989-11-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author).

  3. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    Following Papapetrou [1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)], a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture. (author)

  4. On the nature of naked singularities in Vaidya spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Vaidya-Papapetrou model containing a naked singularity is analysed for outgoing causal geodesics joining the singularity. The curvature growth along these trajectories is examined to show that this is a strong curvature singularity, providing a counter-example to certain forms of cosmic censorship hypotheses. (author)

  5. Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Z.; Pugliese, D.; Schee, J.; Kučáková, H.

    2015-09-01

    We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularities. These are spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the modified Hořava quantum gravity, characterized by a dimensionless parameter ω M^2, combining the gravitational mass parameter M of the spacetime with the Hořava parameter ω reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of ω M^2, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures, demonstrating clear distinction to the properties of the torii in the Schwarzschild spacetimes. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an "antigravity" sphere where matter can stay in a stable equilibrium position, which is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures. The signature of the K-S naked singularity is given by the properties of marginally stable tori orbiting with the uniform distribution of the specific angular momentum of the fluid, l= const. In the K-S naked singularity spacetimes with ω M^2 > 0.2811, doubled tori with the same l= const can exist; mass transfer between the outer torus and the inner one is possible under appropriate conditions, while only outflow to the outer space is allowed in complementary conditions. In the K-S spacetimes with ω M^2 < 0.2811, accretion from cusped perfect fluid tori is not possible due to the non-existence of unstable circular geodesics.

  6. Perfect fluid tori orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuchlik, Z.; Pugliese, D.; Schee, J.; Kucakova, H. [Silesian University in Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-15

    We construct perfect fluid tori in the field of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (K-S) naked singularities. These are spherically symmetric vacuum solutions of the modified Horava quantum gravity, characterized by a dimensionless parameter ωM{sup 2}, combining the gravitational mass parameter M of the spacetime with the Horava parameter ω, reflecting the role of the quantum corrections. In dependence on the value of ωM{sup 2}, the K-S naked singularities demonstrate a variety of qualitatively different behavior of their circular geodesics that is fully reflected in the properties of the toroidal structures, demonstrating clear distinction to the properties of the torii in the Schwarzschild spacetimes. In all of the K-S naked singularity spacetimes the tori are located above an @gantigravity@h sphere where matter can stay in a stable equilibrium position, which is relevant for the stability of the orbiting fluid toroidal accretion structures. The signature of the K-S naked singularity is given by the properties of marginally stable tori orbiting with the uniform distribution of the specific angular momentum of the fluid, l = const. In the K-S naked singularity spacetimes with ωM{sup 2} > 0.2811, doubled tori with the same l = const can exist; mass transfer between the outer torus and the inner one is possible under appropriate conditions, while only outflow to the outer space is allowed in complementary conditions. In the K-S spacetimes with ωM{sup 2} < 0.2811, accretion from cusped perfect fluid tori is not possible due to the non-existence of unstable circular geodesics. (orig.)

  7. Amount of substance and the proposed redefinition of the mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, M. J. T.; Mills, I. M.

    2009-06-01

    There has been considerable discussion about the merits of redefining four of the base units of the SI, including the mole. In this paper, the options for implementing a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant are discussed. They are placed in the context of the macroscopic nature of the quantity amount of substance and the opportunity to introduce a system for molar and atomic masses with unchanged values and consistent relative uncertainties.

  8. Diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by hysterography through transabdominal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    Molar pregnancy presents a pathologic condition requiring surgery of the uterus promptly as possible although hydatidiform mole itself is a benign disease. In order to remove the mole as quickly as possible, early diagnosis is desirable. In actual practice, however, definite preoperative diagnosis by clinical manifestation is impossible since which is vague or altogether absent symptoms especially in first trimester. Hysterography by transabdominal injection is very valuable and easy procedure for accurate diagnosis of hydatidiform mole which shows typical honey combed, moth eaten or sponge pattern on roentgenography. We have experienced 68 cases of hydatidiform mole during last five and half years. Among them hysterography by transabdominal route was done on 26 cases and shows 96% diagnostic accuracy. One missed case was turned out to be missed abortion. The absence of accidents indicates the harmlessness of the method. We feel the best approach in making diagnosis of hydatidiform mole among clinically borderline and in conclusive for mole pregnancy and its differential diagnosis is by use of transabdominal hysterography.

  9. Diagnosis of hydatidiform mole by hysterography through transabdominal injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Kyu; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung Sook

    1972-01-01

    Molar pregnancy presents a pathologic condition requiring surgery of the uterus promptly as possible although hydatidiform mole itself is a benign disease. In order to remove the mole as quickly as possible, early diagnosis is desirable. In actual practice, however, definite preoperative diagnosis by clinical manifestation is impossible since which is vague or altogether absent symptoms especially in first trimester. Hysterography by transabdominal injection is very valuable and easy procedure for accurate diagnosis of hydatidiform mole which shows typical honey combed, moth eaten or sponge pattern on roentgenography. We have experienced 68 cases of hydatidiform mole during last five and half years. Among them hysterography by transabdominal route was done on 26 cases and shows 96% diagnostic accuracy. One missed case was turned out to be missed abortion. The absence of accidents indicates the harmlessness of the method. We feel the best approach in making diagnosis of hydatidiform mole among clinically borderline and in conclusive for mole pregnancy and its differential diagnosis is by use of transabdominal hysterography

  10. Structural studies of human Naked2: A biologically active intrinsically unstructured protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Tianhui; Krezel, Andrzej M.; Li Cunxi; Coffey, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Naked1 and 2 are two mammalian orthologs of Naked Cuticle, a canonical Wnt signaling antagonist in Drosophila. Naked2, but not Naked1, interacts with transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) and escorts TGFα-containing vesicles to the basolateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. Full-length Naked2 is poorly soluble. Since most functional domains, including the Dishevelled binding region, EF-hand, vesicle recognition, and membrane targeting motifs, reside in the N-terminal half of the protein, we expressed and purified the first 217 residues of human Naked2 and performed a functional analysis of this fragment. Its circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra showed no evidence of secondary and/or tertiary structure. The fragment did not bind calcium or zinc. These results indicate that the N-terminal half of Naked2 behaves as an intrinsically unstructured protein

  11. Naked singularity formation in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaie, Amir Hadi; Atazadeh, Khedmat [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tavakoli, Yaser, E-mail: am.ziaie@mail.sbu.ac.i, E-mail: k-atazadeh@sbu.ac.i, E-mail: tavakoli@ubi.p [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques d' Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilha (Portugal)

    2010-04-07

    Gravitational collapse of the Brans-Dicke scalar field with non-zero potential in the presence of matter fluid obeying the barotropic equation of state, p = wrho, is studied. Utilizing the concept of the expansion parameter, it is seen that the cosmic censorship conjecture may be violated for w=-1/3 and w=-2/3 which correspond to the cosmic string and domain wall, respectively. We have shown that physically, it is the rate of collapse that governs the formation of a black hole or a naked singularity as the final fate of dynamical evolution and only for these two cases can the singularity be naked as the collapse end state. Also the weak energy condition is satisfied by the collapsing configuration.

  12. David Cronenberg, author of naked lunch: Intersemiotic translation as transcreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Fachel de Medeiros

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the intersemiotic translation process performed by filmmaker David Cronenberg of William Burroughs' novel Naked Lunch, and the intertextual bifurcations involved in this process. Investigating the similarities and differences between the creative worlds of both artists and how they reframe each other. For this, are used as the theoretical the idea of transcreation proposed by Haroldo de Campos, and the notion of the translator as a reader proposed by Jorge Luis Borges.

  13. Invariant identification of naked singularities in spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, R

    2012-01-01

    The study of generic naked singularities and their implications for the cosmic censorship conjecture is still an open issue in the framework of general relativity. One of the obstacles can be traced to the procedures for identifying naked singularities. Usually, the methods applied are not only model and coordinate dependent, but they very often rely in some strong assumptions on the degree of differentiability of the physical magnitudes of the model (such as the mass, density, etc) in the singularity. In this paper, we present a coordinate independent framework for identifying naked singularities based on invariants which is also devoid of strong differentiability requirements. The approach is intended to analyse whole families of models and to provide general results related to the cosmic censorship conjecture. Moreover, since the framework has a strict geometrical nature it can be used with alternative theories of gravitation as long as they assume the existence of a Lorentzian manifold. We exemplify its strength by applying it to the study of the collapse of radiation in radiative coordinates and the collapse of dust in comoving coordinates. (paper)

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of Myoma, H-mole and Missed abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Yoon; You, H. S.; Seong, K. J.; Park, C. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Ultrasonography is very important in the diagnosis of various kinds of diseases in Obsterics and Gynecology. It has high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of pelvic masses and widely used for the detection of normal orpathologic pregnancy. But still it is difficult to differentiate degenerated myoma, H-mole and missed abortion by ultrasonography. So the authors analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 81 patients with myoma(29 cases), H-mole(23 cases), and missed abortion(29 cases) and the results are as follows; 1. Diagnostic accuracy was 8.6% in myoma, 87% in H-mole and 89% in missed abortion. 2. The most typical ultrasonographic finding of myoma was obulated mass contour with nonhomogenous internal echo. 3. The most characteristic finding of H-mole was fine vesicular pattern internal echo with globular enlargement of uterus. 4. The most frequent finding of missed abortion was deformed gestational sac with or without remained fetal echo. 5. Clinical correlation was very important for accurate diagnosis, especially when differential diagnosis was very difficult between myoma with marked cystic degeneration, missed abortion with large distorted gestational sac and H-mole with severe degeneration

  15. Hydatidiform moles among patients with incomplete abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHS

    ated risk factors of HM among patients with incomplete abortion evacuated at Bugando Medical ... Konje E, Massinde A, Rambau P. Hydatidiform moles among patients with ... countries (North America, Australia, New Zealand and ... missed as the cause of abortion. .... and duration of cigarette smoking could not be elicited.

  16. Ground sounds: Seismic detection in the golden mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Lewis, Edwin R.

    2004-05-01

    The Namib Desert golden mole is a nocturnal, surface-foraging mammal, possessing a massively hypertrophied malleus which presumably confers low-frequency, substrate-vibration sensitivity through inertial bone conduction. Foraging trails are punctuated with characteristic sand disturbances in which the animal's head dips under the sand. The function of this behavior is not known but it is thought that it may be used to obtain a seismic fix on the next mound to be visited. To test this, we measured the local seismic vibrations both on the top of a mound and on the flats. The spectrum recorded on the flats shows a relatively low-amplitude peak at about 120 Hz, whereas the spectral peak recorded from the mound is nearly 17 dB greater in amplitude and centered at 310 Hz. This suggests that mounds act as seismic beacons for the golden moles that would be detectable from distances corresponding to typical intermound distances of 20-25 m. In addition, out of the 117 species for which data are available, these golden moles have the greatest ossicular mass relative to body size (Mason, personal communication). Functionally, they appear to be low-frequency specialists, and it is likely that golden moles hear through substrate conduction. [Work supported by NIH.

  17. Naked singularities in four-dimensional string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1993-04-01

    It is shown that gauged nonlinear sigma models can be always deformed by terms proportional to the field strength of the gauge fields (nonminimal gauging). These deformations can be interpreted as perturbations, by marginal operators, of conformal coset models. When applied to the SL(2, R)xSU(2)/U(1)xU(1)) WZWN model, a large class of four-dimensional curved spacetime backgrounds are obtained. In particular, a naked singularity may form at a time when the volume of the universe is different from zero. (orig.)

  18. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garattini, Remo, E-mail: Remo.Garattini@unibg.it [Università degli Studi di Bergamo, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Viale Marconi 5, 24044 Dalmine (Bergamo) (Italy); I.N.F.N. – sezione di Milano, Milan (Italy); Majumder, Barun, E-mail: barunbasanta@iitgn.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India)

    2014-07-15

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  19. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-07-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheele-DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity.

  20. Naked singularities are not singular in distorted gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garattini, Remo; Majumder, Barun

    2014-01-01

    We compute the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) induced by a naked singularity with the help of a reformulation of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. A variational approach is used for the calculation with Gaussian Trial Wave Functionals. The one loop contribution of the graviton to the ZPE is extracted keeping under control the UltraViolet divergences by means of a distorted gravitational field. Two examples of distortion are taken under consideration: Gravity's Rainbow and Noncommutative Geometry. Surprisingly, we find that the ZPE is no more singular when we approach the singularity

  1. Is it really naked? On cosmic censorship in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of cosmic censorship violation in string theory using a characteristic double-null code, which penetrates horizons and is capable of resolving the spacetime all the way to the singularity. We perform high-resolution numerical simulations of the evolution of negative mass initial scalar field profiles, which were argued to provide a counterexample to cosmic censorship conjecture for AdS-asymptotic spacetimes in five-dimensional supergravity. In no instances formation of naked singularity is seen. Instead, numerical evidence indicates that black holes form in the collapse. Our results are consistent with earlier numerical studies, and explicitly show where the 'no black hole' argument breaks

  2. The starry room naked eye astronomy in the intimate universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This inspiring and enriching book, a collection of essays that evokes the beauty and wonder of the night sky, explains to beginning skywatchers how to find and where to look for specific celestial objects. Author Fred Schaaf, once described as a naturalist in the tradition of Henry David Thoreau and John Burroughs, reveals an intense love of his subject and a keen knowledge of the optimum ways of viewing astronomical phenomena with the naked eye. Schaaf not only describes such special sights as an eyelash-thin moon, a shooting star, streaking comets, and a lunar eclipse, but he also explains w

  3. Constraints on the structure of naked singularities in classical general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.P.A.; Joshi, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    The known examples of naked singularities in general relativity are, in a certain sense, either gravitationally or causally innocuous. A cosmic censorship theorem is formulated and proved to the effect that this behaviour is characteristic of naked singularities in general spacetimes which do not deviate too far from spherical symmetry. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc

  4. For Mole Problems, Call Avogadro: 602-1023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    General education students who have never encountered Avogadro’s number often have difficulty grasping its magnitude and the resulting implications for sizes and numbers of particles in common materials they see around them. I have surveyed the approaches used by several chemical educators. This article describes the techniques I find best help introductory students in General College at the University of Minnesota become familiar with Avogadro’s number and mole calculations. They involve estimating numbers of common objects and then calculating the length of time needed to count large numbers of them. For example, the immense amount of time required to count a mole of sand grains at one grain per second greatly exceeds the age of the universe. The calculations also reinforce procedures for manipulating exponents and applying problem-solving techniques.

  5. Study of Biometric Identification Method Based on Naked Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Rafiu King

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of deployment of biometric identity-verification systems has recently seen an enormous increase owing to the need for more secure and reliable way of identifying people. Footprint identification which can be defined as the measurement of footprint features for recognizing the identity of a user has surfaced recently. This study is based on a biometric personal identification method using static footprint features viz. friction ridge / texture and foot shape / silhouette. To begin with, naked footprints of users are captured; images then undergo pre processing followed by the extraction of two features; shape using Gradient Vector Flow (GVF) snake model and minutiae extraction respectively. Matching is then effected based on these two features followed by a fusion of these two results for either a reject or accept decision. Our shape matching feature is based on cosine similarity while the texture one is based on miniature score matching. The results from our research establish that the naked footprint is a credible biometric feature as two barefoot impressions of an individual match perfectly while that of two different persons shows a great deal of dissimilarity. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.29-35 How to cite this article: King

  6. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arnab Ghosh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma. A relationship with diabetes mellitus could not be clearly established in this case.

  7. Severe Hand Injuries Caused by a Mole Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Düzgün

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Injuries by mole guns differ from other firearm injuries primarily because they are close-range, low-energy injuries that are highly contaminated owing to contact with contaminated surfaces and the presence of numerous residual foreign bodies within the wound. The aim of this article is to share our surgical experience regarding the repair of severe hand injuries caused by mole guns. Material and Methods: This retrospective study included 11 patients with hand injuries. Data obtained about the patients, including age, gender, dominant or non-dominant hand, injuries to all vital structures, and reconstructive procedures were assessed, categorized, and recorded. Results: Ten patients had defects in one or several common digital branches of the median nerve in areas ranging from the distal part of the carpal tunnel to the distal palmar crease. All patients had flexor and extensor tendon injuries in all fingers except for the first finger. Reconstruction of soft tissue and skin defects was carried out with an interpolation flap planned from a random-based subpectoral- paraumbilical region in five patients, a SCIA-based groin flap in four patients, a reverse-radial forearm flap in one patient, and an adipofascial flap planned from the forearm in one patient. Conclusion: Mole gun injuries typically include all structures of the hand, and repair procedures involve every anatomic structure of the hand. An early and effective surgical operation followed by prolonged and effective physical therapy protocols is vital for regaining the full spectrum of hand functions.

  8. Naked Gold Nanoparticles and hot Electrons in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Khashayar; Wang, Furong; Landry, Cody; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2018-05-08

    The ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of gold nanoparticles, stabilized by electrostatic non-covalent intermolecular forces and steric interactions, with antimicrobial compounds, are investigated with picosecond pulse radiolysis techniques. Upon pulse radiolysis of an aqueous solution containing very low concentrations of gold nanoparticles with naked surfaces available in water (not obstructed by chemical bonds), a change to Cerenkov spectrum over a large range of wavelengths are observed and pre-solvated electrons are captured by gold nanoparticles exclusively (not by ionic liquid surfactants used to stabilize the nanoparticles). The solvated electrons are also found to decay rapidly compared with the decay kinetics in water. These very fast reactions with electrons in water could provide an enhanced oxidizing zone around gold nanoparticles and this could be the reason for radio sensitizing behavior of gold nanoparticles in radiation therapy.

  9. Naked singularity in the global structure of critical collapse spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.; Pen, U.-L.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the global structure of scalar field critical collapse spacetimes using a characteristic double-null code. It can integrate past the horizon without any coordinate problems, due to the careful choice of constraint equations used in the evolution. The limiting sequence of sub- and supercritical spacetimes presents an apparent paradox in the expected Penrose diagrams, which we address in this paper. We argue that the limiting spacetime converges pointwise to a unique limit for all r>0, but not uniformly. The r=0 line is different in the two limits. We interpret that the two different Penrose diagrams differ by a discontinuous gauge transformation. We conclude that the limiting spacetime possesses a singular event, with a future removable naked singularity

  10. Trial watch: Naked and vectored DNA-based anticancer vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloy, Norma; Buqué, Aitziber; Aranda, Fernando; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-05-01

    One type of anticancer vaccine relies on the administration of DNA constructs encoding one or multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). The ultimate objective of these preparations, which can be naked or vectored by non-pathogenic viruses, bacteria or yeast cells, is to drive the synthesis of TAAs in the context of an immunostimulatory milieu, resulting in the (re-)elicitation of a tumor-targeting immune response. In spite of encouraging preclinical results, the clinical efficacy of DNA-based vaccines employed as standalone immunotherapeutic interventions in cancer patients appears to be limited. Thus, efforts are currently being devoted to the development of combinatorial regimens that allow DNA-based anticancer vaccines to elicit clinically relevant immune responses. Here, we discuss recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of this therapeutic paradigm.

  11. Stationary spherical shells around Kerr-Newman naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenek Stuchlik; Stanislav Hledik

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that in the field of some Kerr-Newman naked singularities a stationary spherical shell of charged dust can exist, with the specific charge being the same for all particles of the dusty shell. Gravitational attractions acting on the particles are balanced by electromagnetic repulsion in such a way that the shell is stable against radial perturbations. Particles of the shell move along orbits with constant latitude and radius. Rotation of the shell is differential. The shell is corotating relative to static observers at infinity, but it is counter rotating relative to the family of locally non-rotating observers. No such a shell can exist in the field of Kerr-Newman black holes. (authors)

  12. Naked-eye sensor for rapid determination of mercury ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wu, Dapeng; Yan, Xiaohui; Guan, Yafeng

    2013-11-15

    A naked-eye paper sensor for rapid determination of trace mercury ion in water samples was designed and demonstrated. The mercury-sensing rhodamine B thiolactone was immobilized in silica matrices and the silica matrices were impregnated firmly and uniformly in the filter paper. As water samples flow through the filter paper, the membrane color will change from white to purple red, which could be observed obviously with naked eye, when concentration of mercury ions equals to or exceeds 10nM, the maximum residue level in drinking water recommended by U.S. EPA. The color change can also be recorded by a flatbed scanner and then digitized, reducing the detection limit of Hg(2+) down to 1.2 nM. Moreover, this method is extremely specific for Hg(2+) and shows a high tolerance ratio of interferent coexisting ions. The presence of Na(+) (2 mM), K(+) (2 mM), Fe(3+) (0.1 mM), Zn(2+) (0.1 mM), Mg(2+) (0.1 mM), Ni(2+) (50 μM), Co(2+) (50 μM), Cd(2+) (50 μM), Pb(2+) (50 μM), Cu(2+) (50 μM) and Ag(+) (3.5 μM) did not interfere with the detection of Hg(2+) (25 nM). Finally, the present method was applied in the detection of Hg(2+) in mineral water, tap water and pond water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydatidiform mole: age-related clinical presentation and high rate of severe complications in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Giorgia; Giorgione, Veronica; Gentile, Cinzia; Bergamini, Alice; Pella, Francesca; Almirante, Giada; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate differences in clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole between women ≥40 years and younger women. Retrospective study. A tertiary referral unit in northern Italy. Three hundred and sixty-five women with hydatidiform mole were divided into group A (Clinical presentation between groups A and B was analyzed, also considering partial hydatidiform mole and complete hydatidiform mole. Differences in clinical presentation according to woman's age. In group B the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole at ≥12 gestational weeks was more frequent (p presented with vaginal bleeding (p clinical features of hydatidiform mole in women ≥40 years are different from those seen in younger women. Failures in the early detection of hydatidiform mole in older women may expose them to a higher rate of severe complications. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Agronomic performance of naked oat (Avena nuda L. and faba bean intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.

  15. Rapid micromotor-based naked-eye immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Berta Esteban-Fernández; Zhao, Mingjiao; Campuzano, Susana; Ricci, Francesco; Pingarrón, José M; Mascini, Marcello; Wang, Joseph

    2017-05-15

    A dynamic micromotor-based immunoassay, exemplified by cortisol detection, based on the use of tubular micromotors functionalized with a specific antibody is described. The use of antibody-functionalized micromotors offers huge acceleration of both direct and competitive cortisol immunoassays, along with greatly enhanced sensitivity of direct and competitive immunoassays. The dramatically improved speed and sensitivity reflect the greatly increased likelihood of antibody-cortisol contacts and fluid mixing associated with the dynamic movement of these microtube motors and corresponding bubble generation that lead to a highly efficient and rapid recognition process. Rapid naked-eye detection of cortisol in the sample is achieved in connection to use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tag and TMB/H 2 O 2 system. Key parameters of the competitive immunoassay (e.g., incubation time and reaction volume) were optimized. This fast visual micromotor-based sensing approach enables "on the move" specific detection of the target cortisol down to 0.1μgmL -1 in just 2min, using ultrasmall (50µL) sample volumes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Seeing Beyond the Naked Eye in a Planetarium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairall, A.

    2005-12-01

    I have a philosophy that the traditional naked-eye sky, as usually shown in planetariums, should only be an introductory step in portraying the Universe. Consequently, over the years I have produced 'inter alia' various versions of an enhanced Milky Way (the latest based on Axel Mellenger's panorama), the extragalactic sky and the radio sky for projection on planetarium domes. I also put together a three-dimensional planetarium show-the audience being equipped with ChromDepth(tm) spectacles- which stepped from the Solar System to the cosmic microwave background. The advent of digital technology now makes all this much easier. Currently, Labyrinth, a visualization program developed in-house, serves much the same function as the Hayden Planetarium's Partiview, but also permits rendering and fl y-throughs of large-scale structures. It allows viewers to explore local cosmography. Labyrinth can produce images that operate with the 3-D spectacles; we have also produced a version of Partiview that does the same.

  17. The risk of persistent trophoblastic disease after hydatidiform mole classified by morphology and ploidy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Isa; Hansen, Estrid S; Sunde, Lone

    2007-01-01

    classifications, and compared the ability of the two classifications to discriminate between patients with and without a substantial risk of persistent trophoblastic disease. METHODS: 294 cases of consecutively collected hydropic placentas clinically suspected of hydatidiform mole made the basis......OBJECTIVE: Hydatidiform mole can be classified by histopathologic characteristics and by genetic constitutions and most complete moles are diploid, whereas most partial moles are triploid. We investigated the concordance between these two classifications, characterized moles with conflicting......-molar miscarriage, 20 were triploids, 2 were diploid androgenetic and 2 were diploid biparental. In 23% of the conceptuses, the histopathologic and genetic classifications were conflicting. 5% of the patients with hydropic placentas classified as partial mole encountered persistent trophoblastic disease; however...

  18. MOLE 2.0: Advanced approach for analysis of biomacromolecular channels

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnal D.; Varekova R.S.; Berka K.; Pravda L.; Navratilova V.; Banas P.; Ionescu C.-M.; Otyepka M.; Koca J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Channels and pores in biomacromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes) play significant biological roles, e.g., in molecular recognition and enzyme substrate specificity. Results We present an advanced software tool entitled MOLE 2.0, which has been designed to analyze molecular channels and pores. Benchmark tests against other available software tools showed that MOLE 2.0 is by comparison quicker, more robust and more versatile. As a new feature, MOLE 2.0 estimates ...

  19. [Complete hydatiforme mole in Morocco: epidemiological and clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Coullin, P; Mahdaoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N

    2011-09-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are a real public health problem, especially in the "southern countries" and Asia, because of their impact on the female reproduction and the risk to progression to either invasive mole or choriocarcinoma. We collected the cases of CHM referred to our department over a period of ten years (2000 to 2009). We will present our results, emphasize the modalities of diagnosis, treatment and evolution, with a review of literature. During this study, we identified 254 cases of CHM, and recorded 57,987 births and 1627 abortions. Their incidence was 0.43% of pregnancies. The mean age of our patients is 25 years old (16 to 55). Relative risk observed was much increased among women under 20 years old (×6.8) and those over 40 years old (×15). Both of nulliparous and primiparous patients represented 52.3% of the cohort. Eighty-five percent of patients belonged to an agricultural environment associated with a low socio-economic status. Uterine bleeding was the most common symptom accounting for 93.7%. Toxic syndrome was present in 18.5% of patients. Physical examination showed a highly increased uterine size in 85% of cases associated with lateral uterine mass in 25% of cases. The diagnosis was suspected using ultrasonography in all cases associated with an elevated level of plasmatic β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (βhCG). All cases were confirmed histologically. Treatment used was endo-uterine aspiration in all cases. Recurrence of CHM was documented in 25 patients or 9.4%. Neoplasic progression was observed for 6.3% of cases. All of them have evolved into remission with chemotherapy. CHM continue to be a public health problem in Morocco, their incidence is among the highest ones. In fact, this studied population corresponds to the lowest socio-economic status and generally described as population at risk. It is subject to drastic weather's conditions causing loss of fresh products. Extreme ages and degree of parity are also risk factors

  20. Electrical Activation Studies of Silicon Implanted Aluminum Gallium Nitride with High Aluminum Mole Fraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    ...) alloys, and represents a comprehensive analysis of the resulting material's electrical and optical properties as a function of Al mole fraction, anneal temperature, anneal time, and implantation dose...

  1. Naked Hair Shafts as a Marker of Cicatricial Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doytcheva, Kristina; Tan, Timothy; Guitart, Joan; Gerami, Pedram; Yazdan, Pedram

    2018-07-01

    Naked hair shafts (NHS) are free-floating hair shafts devoid of surrounding epithelium, supporting structures, and/or embedded in inflammation that may result from destruction of hair follicles by scarring processes such as inflammation and fibroplasia. Extensive examination of NHS has not been performed in scalp biopsies of alopecia. We retrospectively evaluated 622 scalp biopsies of alopecia [345 cicatricial alopecias (central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, lichen planopilaris, discoid lupus erythematosus, acne keloidalis nuchae, and folliculitis decalvans] and 277 non-cicatricial alopecias [alopecia areata, androgenic alopecia, telogen effluvium, and psoriatic alopecia)] for the presence of NHS. NHS occurred in 0.72% (2/277) of non-cicatricial alopecias (1/102 of alopecia areata, 1/150 of androgenic alopecia, 0/17 of telogen effluvium, and 0/8 of psoriatic alopecia) and 20% (72/345) of cicatricial alopecias (27/118 of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, 29/109 of lichen planopilaris, 2/75 of discoid lupus erythematosus, 11/16 of acne keloidalis nuchae, and 3/27 of folliculitis decalvans). The presence of NHS was significantly increased in cicatricial alopecias in comparison with non-cicatricial alopecias; P value <0.0001. Among the cicatricial alopecias, 26% (92/345) had mild inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 9% (9/92) had NHS. There were 73% (253/345) that had moderate to severe inflammation and/or fibrosis, of which 24% (63/253) had NHS, indicating that as the severity of inflammation and fibrosis increases, so does the presence of NHS. NHS rarely occurs in non-cicatricial alopecias. This variation may result from destruction of hair follicles by the inflammatory and scarring processes. The presence of NHS may be a useful adjunctive histopathologic feature in the diagnosis of cicatricial alopecia.

  2. Application of the MOLE in post-nuclear accident characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.J.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Following a nuclear accident there is a need to determine the chemical composition of materials in liquid, solid and gaseous form, the crystalline structure of solids, the size and chemical composition of particles, and the chemical characterization of contaminants on surfaces. This analytical information is required to reconstruct the accident scenario, to select decontamination methods, and to determine future safety requirements. The MOLE (Molecular Optical Laser Examiner) is a Raman microprobe system which has proven to be a valuable analytical tool in providing this type of chemical information. It can determine the chemical species of polyatomic molecules and ions having characteristic Raman spectra. As little as 1 picogram of a component or a 1 μm particle can be analyzed. The imaging system can also provide mapping of selected components on a surface. A system description, sample handling techniques, and applications are presented. Specific applications to the Three Mile Island-Unit 2 accident are also addressed

  3. Microwave Determination of Water Mole Fraction in Humid Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, R.; Gavioso, R. M.; Benedetto, G.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Fernicola, V.; Guianvarc'h, C.

    2012-09-01

    A small volume (65 cm3) gold-plated quasi-spherical microwave resonator has been used to measure the water vapor mole fraction x w of H2O/N2 and H2O/air mixtures. This experimental technique exploits the high precision achievable in the determination of the cavity microwave resonance frequencies and is particularly sensitive to the presence of small concentrations of water vapor as a result of the high polarizability of this substance. The mixtures were prepared using the INRIM standard humidity generator for frost-point temperatures T fp in the range between 241 K and 270 K and a commercial two-pressure humidity generator operated at a dew-point temperature between 272 K and 291 K. The experimental measurements compare favorably with the calculated molar fractions of the mixture supplied by the humidity generators, showing a normalized error lower than 0.8.

  4. Placentation in the Hottentot golden mole, Amblysomus hottentotus (Afrosoricida: Chrysochloridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, C J P; Carter, A M; Bennett, N C

    2009-01-01

    The placentation of the Hottentot golden mole (Amblysomus hottentotus) has been examined using light and electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry of nine specimens at both mid and late gestation. The placentae were lobulated towards the allantoic surface and the lobules contained roughly...... parallel arrays of labyrinthine structures converging on a central spongy zone. At mid gestation, the arrays were composed of an inner cellular and outer syncytial trophoblast layer, the inner layer enclosing scant connective tissue and fetal capillaries. Maternal blood spaces coursed through the outer...... trophoblast and were lined by trophoblastic microvilli; the blood spaces were narrow in mid gestation but enlarged near term, while the inner trophoblast layer became thinner and seemed to be syncytial. These features were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The microvillous surfaces and dispersed...

  5. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloomer Paulette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Golden moles (Chrysochloridae are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Results Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines, or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. Conclusions The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the

  6. A phylogenetic estimate for golden moles (Mammalia, Afrotheria, Chrysochloridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Robert J; Maree, Sarita; Bronner, Gary; Bennett, Nigel C; Bloomer, Paulette; Czechowski, Paul; Meyer, Matthias; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-03-09

    Golden moles (Chrysochloridae) are small, subterranean, afrotherian mammals from South Africa and neighboring regions. Of the 21 species now recognized, some (e.g., Chrysochloris asiatica, Amblysomus hottentotus) are relatively common, whereas others (e.g., species of Chrysospalax, Cryptochloris, Neamblysomus) are rare and endangered. Here, we use a combined analysis of partial sequences of the nuclear GHR gene and morphological characters to derive a phylogeny of species in the family Chrysochloridae. Although not all nodes of the combined analysis have high support values, the overall pattern of relationships obtained from different methods of phylogeny reconstruction allow us to make several recommendations regarding the current taxonomy of golden moles. We elevate Huetia to generic status to include the species leucorhinus and confirm the use of the Linnean binomial Carpitalpa arendsi, which belongs within Amblysominae along with Amblysomus and Neamblysomus. A second group, Chrysochlorinae, includes Chrysochloris, Cryptochloris, Huetia, Eremitalpa, Chrysospalax, and Calcochloris. Bayesian methods make chrysochlorines paraphyletic by placing the root within them, coinciding with root positions favored by a majority of randomly-generated outgroup taxa. Maximum Parsimony (MP) places the root either between chrysochlorines and amblysomines (with Chlorotalpa as sister taxon to amblysomines), or at Chlorotalpa, with the former two groups reconstructed as monophyletic in all optimal MP trees. The inclusion of additional genetic loci for this clade is important to confirm our taxonomic results and resolve the chrysochlorid root. Nevertheless, our optimal topologies support a division of chrysochlorids into amblysomines and chrysochlorines, with Chlorotalpa intermediate between the two. Furthermore, evolution of the chrysochlorid malleus exhibits homoplasy. The elongate malleus has evolved just once in the Cryptochloris-Chrysochloris group; other changes in shape have

  7. Stemcell Information: SKIP000887 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NICATIONS 2015 7 11471 ... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161380 ... ...Tumour resistance in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from naked mole-rats. Shingo Miyawaki, Hideyuki Okano et al. NATURE COMMU

  8. Comparative morphology of the penis and clitoris in four species of moles (Talpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Adriane Watkins; Glickman, Stephen; Catania, Kenneth; Shinohara, Akio; Baskin, Lawrence; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2017-01-01

    The penile and clitorial anatomy of four species of Talpid moles (broad-footed, star-nosed, hairy-tailed, and Japanese shrew moles) were investigated to define penile and clitoral anatomy and to examine the relationship of the clitoral anatomy with the presence or absence of ovotestes. The ovotestis contains ovarian tissue and glandular tissue resembling fetal testicular tissue and can produce androgens. The ovotestis is present in star-nosed and hairy-tailed moles, but not in broad-footed and Japanese shrew moles. Using histology, 3D reconstruction, and morphometric analysis, sexual dimorphism was examined in regard to a nine feature masculine trait score that included perineal appendage length (prepuce), anogenital distance, and presence/absence of bone. The presence/absence of ovotestes was discordant in all four mole species for sex differentiation features. For many sex differentiation features, discordance with ovotestes was observed in at least one mole species. The degree of concordance with ovotestes was highest for hairy-tailed moles and lowest for broad-footed moles. In relationship to phylogenetic clade, sex differentiation features also did not correlate with the similarity/divergence of the features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Hairy-tailed and Japanese shrew moles reside in separated clades, but they exhibit a high degree of congruence. Broad-footed and hairy-tailed moles reside within the same clade but had one of the lowest correlations in features and presence/absence of ovotestes. Thus, phylogenetic affinity and the presence/absence of ovotestes are poor predictors for most sex differentiation features within mole external genitalia. PMID:28251823

  9. Proč rypoši nestárnou?

    OpenAIRE

    Jelínková, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Naked mole rat and blind mole rat are useful model organisms for human age-associated diaseases studies. Unlike human, their long lifespan is not accompanied by physical health impairment. In both species, the genes involved in aging process or carcinogenesis are under positive selection or their regulation differs from the regulatory pattern known in other rodents or human. Some genes are present in higher number of copies, missing or entirely new and not observed in other organisms. In nake...

  10. Naked-eye 3D imaging employing a modified MIMO micro-ring conjugate mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youplao, P.; Pornsuwancharoen, N.; Amiri, I. S.; Thieu, V. N.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the use of a micro-conjugate mirror that can produce the 3D image incident probe and display is proposed. By using the proposed system together with the concept of naked-eye 3D imaging, a pixel and a large volume pixel of a 3D image can be created and displayed as naked-eye perception, which is valuable for the large volume naked-eye 3D imaging applications. In operation, a naked-eye 3D image that has a large pixel volume will be constructed by using the MIMO micro-ring conjugate mirror system. Thereafter, these 3D images, formed by the first micro-ring conjugate mirror system, can be transmitted through an optical link to a short distance away and reconstructed via the recovery conjugate mirror at the other end of the transmission. The image transmission is performed by the Fourier integral in MATLAB and compares to the Opti-wave program results. The Fourier convolution is also included for the large volume image transmission. The simulation is used for the manipulation, where the array of a micro-conjugate mirror system is designed and simulated for the MIMO system. The naked-eye 3D imaging is confirmed by the concept of the conjugate mirror in both the input and output images, in terms of the four-wave mixing (FWM), which is discussed and interpreted.

  11. MOLED: Simulation of multilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houili, H.; Tutiš, E.; Lütjens, H.; Bussac, M. N.; Zuppiroli, L.

    2003-12-01

    MOLED solves the dynamics of electrons and holes in multilayer Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED). The carriers are injected on the positive and negative electrodes of the device by tunneling through a potential barrier. Thermal excitation processes across the barrier are also included. In the interior of the device the electron-hole recombination occurs when the two carriers are close enough, according to a model inspired from the one of Langevin. A fraction of these recombined pairs gives photons. The charge transport inside the organic material occurs through hopping. Several choices of mobility formulae are available in the code. MOLED can be used for OLEDs with an arbitrary number of layers. The output consists of numerous fields that describe the device performance. For example, there are the current, the recombination and the charge density distributions, the electric field distribution, the current-voltage characteristics and the device internal quantum efficiency. Program summaryTitle of program: MOLED Catalogue identifier: ADSG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADSG Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Unix, Linux Programming language used: FORTRAN 90 Memory required to execute with typical data: 2 MB No. of bytes in distributed program: 26 942 No. of bits in a word: 64 Peripherals used: permanent disk storage No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3695 Distribution format: tar gzip file Nature of the physical problem: Injection of electrons and holes into an organic electroluminescent material occurs through tunneling from metal electrodes. The transport of carriers inside the molecular medium proceeds by hopping from one molecule to another. The emission of light is a result of their radiative Langevin recombination (for a review see [Scott et al., Synthetic Metals 111-112 (2000) 289; Friend et al

  12. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  13. Incisors as digging tools in molerats (Bathyergidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-03-26

    Xa and Vb) at which the upper and lower incisors (lines a- ..... JARVIS. JU.M., BENNETT. N.C. 1991. Introducing the Alriean mole-rats (family Bathyergidae). In: The biology of the naked mole-rat: 66 - 96. (Eds) Sherman. R. W ..

  14. Burrow architecture, family composition and habitat characteristics of the largest social African mole-rat: the giant mole-rat constructs really giant burrow systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šumbera, R.; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Lövy, M.; Šklíba, J.; Bryja, Josef; Burda, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-130 ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Fukomys mechowii * subterranean rodent * burrow system * kin structure * Bathyergidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2012

  15. The fields of a naked singularity and a black hole in mutual equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Armando; Pizzi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently Alekseev and Belinski have presented a new exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equation which describes two Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) sources in reciprocal equilibrium (no struts nor strings) one source is a naked singularity, the other is a black hole. In this paper we use the Alekseev-Belinki solution in the special case in which the charge of the black hole is zero-therefore we have a naked singularity near a neutral black hole. We give the plots of the electric force lines in both the cases in which the naked singularity has a mass comparable with the black hole and in which it is much smaller. The analysis of this latter case confirm the goodness of the Hanni-Ruffini approximation.

  16. Tecidos moles (não resistentes: como se fossilizam?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Gobbo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A preservação de tecidos moles (não resistentes desperta atenção pela qualidade dos fósseis preservados, e pela raridade. Este trabalho faz ampla revisão do assunto, desfaz alguns dos mitos correntes sobre fossilização destes materiais, como anaerobiose e soterramento rápido, bem como assinala a relevância do papel da replicagem de estruturas morfológicas por colônias microbianas. No âmbito dos fatores que influenciam a preservação de tecidos não resistentes estão pH, processos de decomposição, soterramento rápido e mineralização rápida por meio de carbonatos ou fosfatos. É possível citar exemplos de fácies sedimentares nas quais há preservação de tecidos não resistentes, como os folhelhos pirobetuminosos, calcários litográficos, folhelhos e diatomitos. Destaca-se o papel das colônias microbianas, tanto na forma de microesferas, como aquelas não-esferulíticas. Os três mitos principais que se procurou desfazer no artigo são: (1 a presença de oxigênio; (2 o soterramento rápido e (3 as colônias microbianas.

  17. Partial hydatidiform mole with false-negative urine human chorionic gonadatropin test in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundangepfupfu, Tichaendepi; Waseem, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Hydatidiform mole (molar pregnancy) is a benign tumor of placental trophoblastic cells, which release human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Several case reports have described complete hydatidiform moles with false-negative urine qualitative hCG tests. These negative pregnancy tests have been attributed to the hook effect. We report an unusual presentation of a partial mole and review an alternative explanation for the negative hCG test. As partial moles are usually not associated with a large proliferation of trophoblastic cells, levels of hCG are commonly negative and serum quantitative hCG was 1,094,950 mIU/mL. Pelvic ultrasonography showed a uterine cavity containing a soft-tissue mass with multiple cystic lesions and the hydatidiform mole was extracted with suction curettage. Tissue pathology confirmed partial hydatidiform mole. In addition to the hook effect, we present another possible explanation for the false-negative test; namely the inability of some assays to detect hCG-degradation products, which may be higher in clinical samples from patients with hydatidiform mole. This case underscores the importance of knowing the limitations of the commonly used hCG assays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  19. Assessment of Visitor Satisfaction in Mole National Park, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad-J.Wuleka Kuuder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arrivals to Mole National Park (MNP, the largest in Ghana were projected by management to reach 100,000 guests by the close of2010. As at the end of December 2008, the park recorded only 16, 807 guest arrivals, the highest so far in its existence. By the close of year 2010, only 14,336 tourist arrivals were recorded registering a drop, hence an illusion in attaining the2010 set target and even subsequent years to come. This therefore gave a clue that revenue generated is not always enough to support park administration and community development. This paper explores the underlying reasons accounting for this trend by finding out tourists’ preferences in the park, the category of people who patronized the park most and sourcing guest views on what can be done to make the park more attractive. A five month period was used to elicit information from498 tourists who visited the Park employing questionnaire administration and interview schedules. The results analyzed revealed that student groups in second cycle and tertiary institutions patronized the park most on the domestic front, whilst on the foreign front, all guests contacted were educated above high school level and many of them (57% were on holiday in Ghana. The driving force (motivation behind these visits was to see animals in the wild. The most preferred wildlife species visitors came to view were elephants, monkeys, lions, buffalo and birds respectively. The recommendation is made that the road linking major cities and towns to the Park which is “rough and rugged” be rehabilitated if government needs to improve tourists’ inflow to the park.

  20. Tourism potentials of Mole National Park in Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Wuleka Kuuder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor access and long distances from major cities/towns have always been major problems debarring the full utilization of nature-related touristic resources. Despite this, some adventuresome tourists still make efforts to such wildlife sanctuaries to have a feel of nature. This study explores tourism exploits at Mole National Park (the largest in Ghana which is located in the northern sector of the country. An inventory of facilities through field visits and observations were ‘exacted’ to identify different types of landforms, species of wildlife, vegetation and culture which were of touristic significance around the Park and also to have an overview of tourists’ “traffic” to the Park. With regard to data collection, the questionnaire method including personal observation were employed to obtain information from the four communities that surround the Park, the Park officials and tourists who visited the facility from April to May, 2011. The results analysed revealed that turn out was comparatively low due to the remote location of the Park including poor accessibility and low income among Ghanaians. Tourism awareness among community members was found to be high. Tourists found the Park impressive in terms of its variety in wildlife and services rendered therein. It was discovered that the Park has a high tourism potential which can be harnessed to attract both domestic and international tourists and bring socio-economic benefits to Ghana. The paper suggests that improvements in road network to and in the Park and stiffer sanctions to curb poaching were major ways to enhance tourism/recreation in the Park and making it sustainable.

  1. Virtually naked: virtual environment reveals sex-dependent nature of skin disclosure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Lomanowska

    Full Text Available The human tendency to reveal or cover naked skin reflects a competition between the individual propensity for social interactions related to sexual appeal and interpersonal touch versus climatic, environmental, physical, and cultural constraints. However, due to the ubiquitous nature of these constraints, isolating on a large scale the spontaneous human tendency to reveal naked skin has remained impossible. Using the online 3-dimensional virtual world of Second Life, we examined spontaneous human skin-covering behavior unhindered by real-world climatic, environmental, and physical variables. Analysis of hundreds of avatars revealed that virtual females disclose substantially more naked skin than virtual males. This phenomenon was not related to avatar hypersexualization as evaluated by measurement of sexually dimorphic body proportions. Furthermore, analysis of skin-covering behavior of a population of culturally homogeneous avatars indicated that the propensity of female avatars to reveal naked skin persisted despite explicit cultural norms promoting less revealing attire. These findings have implications for further understanding how sex-specific aspects of skin disclosure influence human social interactions in both virtual and real settings.

  2. Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollier, G.P.

    1986-11-01

    Following Papapetrou (1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)), a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture.

  3. Oviposition and egg quality traits of dwarf and naked neck layers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oviposition and egg quality traits were studied in dwarf and naked neck layers in Maputo (Mozambique) during a 28-d period at 35 weeks of age. Birds were caged individually in a laying house with natural light and ventilation. Average daylight length during the study was 11.2 hr and minimum and maximum temperature ...

  4. effects of naked-neck and frizzle genes on growth performance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    cockerels (birds) do not reach their full genetic potential in terms of growth, body weight or carcass yields because their feathers hinder the dissipation of their excessively produced inter- nal heat. It is against this background that the use of major heat-tolerant genes like naked- neck and frizzle is advocated (Horst and.

  5. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Lin; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Chang, Ya-Shu; Shih, Chiaho

    2015-01-01

    The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV), we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1–147) containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD) failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1–147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex. PMID

  6. The Dual Role of an ESCRT-0 Component HGS in HBV Transcription and Naked Capsid Secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fan Chou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT is an important cellular machinery for the sorting and trafficking of ubiquitinated cargos. It is also known that ESCRT is required for the egress of a number of viruses. To investigate the relationship between ESCRT and hepatitis B virus (HBV, we conducted an siRNA screening of ESCRT components for their potential effect on HBV replication and virion release. We identified a number of ESCRT factors required for HBV replication, and focused our study here on HGS (HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate in the ESCRT-0 complex. Aberrant levels of HGS suppressed HBV transcription, replication and virion secretion. Hydrodynamic delivery of HGS in a mouse model significantly suppressed viral replication in the liver and virion secretion in the serum. Surprisingly, overexpression of HGS stimulated the release of HBV naked capsids, irrespective of their viral RNA, DNA, or empty contents. Mutant core protein (HBc 1-147 containing no arginine-rich domain (ARD failed to secrete empty virions with or without HGS. In contrast, empty naked capsids of HBc 1-147 could still be promoted for secretion by HGS. HGS exerted a strong positive effect on the secretion of naked capsids, at the expense of a reduced level of virions. The association between HGS and HBc appears to be ubiquitin-independent. Furthermore, HBc is preferentially co-localized with HGS near the cell periphery, instead of near the punctate endosomes in the cytoplasm. In summary, our work demonstrated the importance of an optimum level of HGS in HBV propagation. In addition to an effect on HBV transcription, HGS can diminish the pool size of intracellular nucleocapsids with ongoing genome maturation, probably in part by promoting the secretion of naked capsids. The secretion routes of HBV virions and naked capsids can be clearly distinguished based on the pleiotropic effect of HGS involved in the ESCRT-0 complex.

  7. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  8. CO2 Monitoring and Background Mole Fraction at Zhongshan Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background CO2 mole fraction and seasonal variations, measured at Zhongshan station, Antarctica, for 2010 through 2013, exhibit the expected lowest mole fraction in March with a peak in November. Irrespective of wind direction, the mole fraction of CO2 distributes evenly after polluted air from station operations is removed from the data sets. The daily range of average CO2 mole fraction in all four seasons is small. The monthly mean CO2 mole fraction at Zhongshan station is similar to that of other stations in Antarctica, with seasonal CO2 amplitudes in the order of 384–392 µmol∙mol−1. The annual increase in recent years is about 2 µmol∙mol−1∙yr−1. There is no appreciable difference between CO2 mole fractions around the coast of Antarctica and in the interior, showing that CO2 observed in Antarctica has been fully mixed in the atmosphere as it moves from the north through the southern hemisphere.

  9. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  10. Seasonal abundances of naked amoebae in biofilms on shells of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) with comparative data from rock scrapings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Paul J; Wetmore, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In North America, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are notoriously known as invasive species. The abundance of naked amoebae sampled from the shells of zebra mussels was compared with abundances from rock scrapings at approximately monthly intervals for 1 year. The sites were 2 km apart along the same shoreline. No significant difference in abundance of naked amoebae (F = 1.44; P naked amoebae in winter, followed by peaks in early spring. The percent encysted increased from a low of 1% in the summer to 80% in early winter.

  11. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2004-01-01

    ... dendritic cells, The ability of dendritic cells (DCs), genetically modified with one of two types of plasmid DNA vaccines to stimulate lymphocytes from normal human donors and to generate antigen-specific responses, is compared...

  12. Incidence and review of hydatidiform mole; chorioadenoma, destruens and chorio carcinoma in Mirza Kochek Khan Hospita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari V

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Initial management, incidence and review of hydatidiform mole, chorioadenoma and destruens and chorio carcinoma in Mirza Kochek khan hospital department of ob.gyn and gynecology oncology of women's hospital Tehran-Iran school of medicin from September 1985 to March 1990, 209 patients received primary management for hydatidiform mole at oncology department of Mirza Kochek Khan hospital medical school of Tehran Iran. All of these women HAD complete record available for analysis, of these, 167 women bydatidiform mole, 12 patients chorioadenoma-destruens 30 patients chorio carcinoma a survey was made of factors likely to provide an important clinical perspective patient aye and the status of pregnancy were noted. 41 patient only sharp curettage and 55 patients suction curettage to remove the hydatidiform mole. 97 patient require chemo terapy, suction curettage of the uterus is clearly the best means of management in the most cases their eyperince documents that hydatidiform mole is an high risk pregnancy that requires prompt and in tensive management.

  13. Prophylactic chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole to prevent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuyi; Fu, Jing; Hu, Lina; Fang, Fang; Xie, Lingxia; Chen, Hengxi; He, Fan; Wu, Taixiang; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2017-09-11

    This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Cochrane Library, Issue 10, 2012.Hydatidiform mole (HM), also called a molar pregnancy, is characterised by an overgrowth of foetal chorionic tissue within the uterus. HMs may be partial (PM) or complete (CM) depending on their gross appearance, histopathology and karyotype. PMs usually have a triploid karyotype, derived from maternal and paternal origins, whereas CMs are diploid and have paternal origins only. Most women with HM can be cured by evacuation of retained products of conception (ERPC) and their fertility preserved. However, in some women the growth persists and develops into gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), a malignant form of the disease that requires treatment with chemotherapy. CMs have a higher rate of malignant transformation than PMs. It may be possible to reduce the risk of GTN in women with HM by administering prophylactic chemotherapy (P-Chem). However, P-Chem given before or after evacuation of HM to prevent malignant sequelae remains controversial, as the risks and benefits of this practice are unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of P-Chem to prevent GTN in women with a molar pregnancy. To investigate whether any subgroup of women with HM may benefit more from P-Chem than others. For the original review we performed electronic searches in the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2, 2012), MEDLINE (1946 to February week 4, 2012) and Embase (1980 to 2012, week 9). We developed the search strategy using free text and MeSH. For this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 5, 2017), MEDLINE (February 2012 to June week 1, 2017) and Embase (February 2012 to 2017, week 23). We also handsearched reference lists of relevant literature to identify additional studies and searched trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials

  14. Performance and Heterosis of Indigenous Chicken Crossbreed (Naked Neck x Frizzled Feather In The Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Monday Nwenya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four (44 birds (about 50 weeks old male and female inbred naked necked and frizzle feathered chickens were crossed to generate F1 crossbred chicken that were used to evaluate the performance and heterosis effects. Data taken on 180 chicks (97 NN and 83 FF day-old chick weight (BWT0, body weight (BWT, daily average feed intake (AFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR, brooding and rearing mortalities, linear body measurements (LBM: body length, wing length, keel length, shank length and breast width were used to estimate heterosis and performance of F1 progenies. Results of the experiment showed positive heterosis with significant differences among the F1 progenies over their parents in body weight, average feed intake and feed conversion ratio. The reciprocal cross (i.e. frizzle feather rooster x naked neck hen showed a significant improvement in their performances genetically, explaining that better results are achieved through crossbreeding of these indigenous breeds. With reference to their body linear parameters, the reciprocal cross of naked neck and frizzle feathered chickens developed higher body length, whereas the main crosses performed better in their wing length, keel length, shank length and body width respectively, mainly after 8 weeks suggesting that earlier performance was attributable to maternal influences.

  15. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias-Sfetsos naked singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes.

  16. Optical effects related to Keplerian discs orbiting Kehagias–Sfetsos naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate possible optical signatures of the Kehagias–Sfetsos (KS) naked singularity spacetimes representing a spherically symmetric vacuum solution of the modified Hořava gravity. In such spacetimes, accretion structures significantly different from those present in standard black hole spacetimes occur due to the ‘antigravity’ effect, which causes an internal static sphere surrounded by Keplerian discs. We focus our attention on the optical effects related to the Keplerian accretion discs, constructing the optical appearance of the Keplerian discs, the spectral continuum due to their thermal radiation, and the spectral profiled lines generated in the innermost parts of such discs. The KS naked singularity signature is strongly encoded in the characteristics of predicted optical effects, especially in cases where the spectral continuum and spectral lines are profiled by the strong gravity of the spacetimes due to the vanishing region of the angular velocity gradient influencing the effectiveness of the viscosity mechanism. We can conclude that optical signatures of KS naked singularities can be well distinguished from the signatures of standard black holes. (paper)

  17. Poikilothermic traits in Mashona mole-rat (Fukomys darlingi). Reality or myth?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemanová, Milada; Šumbera, R.; Okrouhlík, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2012), s. 485-489 ISSN 0306-4565 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : subterranean rodent * Bathyergidae * poikilothermy Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 1.376, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306456512000824

  18. The banded karyotype of the 2n=58 chromosomal race of mole rats from Erzincan, Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2013), s. 19-23 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ag-NOR staining * C-banding * Nannospalax xanthodon Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.741, year: 2013 http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0221259

  19. Review of chromosome races in blind mole rats (Spalax and Nannospalax)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Kryštufek, B.; Matur, F.; Zima, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2016), s. 249-301 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : karyotype * evolution * cytotypes * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  20. Kinship structure and mating system in a solitary subterranean rodent, the silvery mole-rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patzenhauerová, Hana; Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2010), s. 757-767 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : subterranean rodent * kinship structure * mating system * dispersal Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2010

  1. The reproductive biology of the giant Zambian mole-rat, Cryptomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptomys mechowi occurs in the mesic Miombo tropical woodland and savanna of Zambia, Zaïre and Angola. It is a colonial balhyergid in which reproduction is restricted lo a single female. Courtship and copulation are initiated by the female. Copulation is brief and does not involve multiple bouts. The gestation length is ...

  2. Seismic communication in demon African mole rat Tachyoryctes daemon from Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouzková, E.; Dvořáková, V.; Jedlička, Petr; Šumbera, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2013), s. 255-259 ISSN 0289-0771 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : seismic communication * substrate-borne vibration * subterranean mammal Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.790, year: 2013

  3. Oxygen-Binding Characteristics of Hemoglobins from Hypoxia and Hypercapnia Tolerant African Mole Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Jarvis, Jennifer U. M; Fago, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ) originating from a range of different biomes and soil types. The study shows no evidence for distinguishing interspecific differences in hematological characters (e.g. DPG and Hb levels and isoHb differentiation). Additionally small differences observed in Hb’s intrinsic O2 affinity and in the effects of p...

  4. Evaluation of the MoleMateTM training program for assessment of suspicious pigmented lesions in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel Wood

    2008-05-01

    Conclusion The MoleMateTM training program is a potentially effective and acceptable informatics tool to teach practitioners to recognise the features of SPLs identified by the MoleMateTM system. It will be used as part of the intervention in a randomised controlled trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy and appropriate referral rates of practitioners using the MoleMateTM system with best practice in primary care.

  5. Role of immunoexpression of cyclin D1, D3, retinoblastoma (Rb mutant and clinical risk factors on complete mole as risk factors of persistent mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi M Hidayat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Changes in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM that become persistent are difficult to handle because the malignant pathogenesis of CHM is still unclear. The growth of abnormal cells in CHM is thought to be caused by cell cycle abnormalities. Some components that play a role in this phase include cyclin D and retinoblastoma (Rb. The aim of our study was to determine the role of clinical risk factors, as well as cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and Rb-protein, in the occurrence of persistent moles. Materials and Method: This study involves 68 CHM cases at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital from 2007–2011. The protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and Rb were determined by immunohistochemistry. The results were analyzed by comparing the two groups of CHM that became persistent to those that returned to normal, as determined by a Mochizuki regression curve assessment. Results: 20 cases (29% of CHM became persistent and that 48 cases (71% returned to normal. Significant clinical variables were age (p 0.05. Conclusion: There is a strong relationship between clinical risk factors of age, excessive proliferation histopathology, serum βhCG levels ≥100,000 mU/mL, cyclin D1 and Rb mutations with the incidence of persistent moles after the evacuation of the CHM. We proposed a model to predict the risks of persistent moles with a cut-off point of 2.384, which can be used as a reference for patients with CHM.

  6. A Mole for Warm Magnetic and Optical Measurements of LHC Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Deferne, G; Glöckner, C; Jansen, H; Köster, A; Legrand, P; Rijllart, A; Sievers, P

    2000-01-01

    A new rotating coil probe (a mole) has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of the magnetic field and magnetic axis of warm superconducting LHC dipoles and associated corrector windings. The mole houses a radial rotating coil and travels inside the magnet aperture by means of an externally driven two-way traction belt. The coil is rotated by an on-board piezo motor, being tested in view of future devices for cold measurements as the only type of motor compatible with strong magnetic fields. A virtual light spot is generated in the coil center by a LED source. The position of this light spot is measured from the outside by a system including a telescope, a CCD camera and a DSP. Jigs on reference granite tables are used to transfer the optical measurements to the magnet fiducials. We describe here the main characteristics and performance of the mole

  7. Twin pregnancy with both complete hydatiform mole and coexistent alive fetus: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achour Radhouane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Twin pregnancy consisting of a complete hydatidiform mole coexisting with a live fetus is a rare condition with an incidence of 1 in 22000 to 1 in 100000 pregnancies. Clinical information is limited and management is difficult due to the risk of pregnancy complications such as fetal death, vaginal bleeding, preeclampsia, hyperthyroidism, and the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. Thus, the report described about the change of size and implantation site of the molar mass coexisting with a live fetus is rare especially about sonographic findings such as echo patterns. Recently we experienced a case of complete hydatidiform mole with a healthy infant delivered at term.

  8. Big insights from little animals: allosteric modulation and thermal sensitivity of shrew and mole hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, K.L.; Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Mass-specific metabolic rate varies inversely with size, while pulmonary transit time, muscle O2 storage capacity, and the ability to exploit anaerobic metabolism vary directly with this variable. Thus, small mammals must exploit a suite of morphological and physiological adjustments to supply...... and moles. Despite these constraints, several shrew (and mole) species flourish at elevations exceeding 4500 m (where atmospheric PO2 is ... operating near their upper limits, what if any additional functional properties of the Hb of these species make these achievements possible? Our findings suggest that changes in the intrinsic O2-affinity of the Hb moiety (rather than phosphate sensitivity) underlie transitions to and from hypoxic...

  9. Pre-evacuation hCG glycoforms in uneventful complete hydatidiform mole and persistent trophoblastic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C.M.G.; Kerkmeijer, L.G.W.; Ariaens, H.J.; Steen, R. van der; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sweep, F.C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the glycoform distribution patterns of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) obtained by chromatofocusing in pre-evacuation serum are different for patients who will eventually develop into persistent trophoblastic disease in case of complete hydatidiform mole

  10. Reading about the Power of Music: "Mole Music" and "Children of the Stone"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review two books that address the power of music for the individual and group. Both books address the benefits of making, learning, and listening to music during times of conflict. The first brief review is David McPhail's picture book "Mole Music." The second is "Children of the Stone: The Power of Music in a…

  11. The Vital Role of Basic Mathematics in Teaching and Learning the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Alka; Koul, Anjni

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the importance of activity-based teaching in understanding the mole concept and the vital role of basic mathematical operations. It describes needs-based training for teachers in a professional development programme in India. Analysis of test results before and after the training indicates that teachers improved their…

  12. Hydatidiform mole and fetus with normal karyotype: support of a separate entity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejerslev, L O; Sunde, L; Hansen, B F

    1991-01-01

    Repetitive hydatidiform mole was observed in four pregnancies. The pregnancies presented with heavy bleeding and vomiting, but the post-evacuation courses were uncomplicated, with rapid regression of serum hCG levels. Cytogenetic investigations, analyses of restriction fragment length polymorphis...

  13. A Mole in the Sole: Case Report on Eccrine Poroma | Das | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eccrine poroma is a benign tumor which arises from the intraepidermal portion of the eccrine sweat glands. 81 year old diabetic grandma worried about her persistently uncontrolled blood sugar owing to a painless mole in the sole of right foot for 2 years. Excisional biopsy revealed a sweat duct benign eccrine poroma.

  14. Hardness evaluation of cured urea-formaldehyde resins with different formaldehyde/urea mole ratios using nanoindentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byung-Dae Park; Charles R. Frihart; Yan Yu; Adya P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    To understand the influence of formaldehyde/urea (F/U) mole ratio on the properties of urea–formaldehyde (UF) resins, this study investigated hardness of cured UF resins with different F/U mole ratios using a nanoindentation method. The traditional Brinell hardness (HB) method was also used...

  15. Naked-Eye Detection of Glucose in Saliva with Bienzymatic Paper-Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Santana-Jiménez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in low-income regions has promoted the development of low-cost alternatives to replace blood-based procedures. In this work, we present a bienzymatic paper-based sensor suitable for the naked-eye detection of glucose in saliva samples. The sensor was obtained by a stamping procedure and modified with chitosan to improve the colorimetric readout. The bienzymatic reaction of GOx-HRP coupled with 2,4,6-tribromo-3-hydroxy benzoic acid was applied for the detection of glucose within a range from 0 to 180 mgdL−1 in buffer and artificial saliva solutions. The visual readout was perceived by the naked eye and registered with an office scanner to evaluate the analytical performance. The results showed a limit of detection of 0.37 mgdL−1 (S/N = 3 with an R.S.D. of 1.69% and a linear range from 1 to 22.5 mgdL−1 with an R2 of 0.99235. The analysis of human saliva samples was performed without pre-processing, achieving recoveries from 92 to 114%. The naked-eye detection was evaluated under two different light settings, showing average recoveries of 108.58 and 90.65% for standard and low illumination. The proposed device showed potential for easy-to-use, sensitive, low-cost, fast, and device-free detection of salivary glucose suitable for untrained personnel operation and limited facilities.

  16. Dew inspired breathing-based detection of genetic point mutation visualized by naked eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; Wang, Tongzhou; Huang, Tianqi; Hou, Wei; Huang, Guoliang; Du, Yanan

    2014-09-01

    A novel label-free method based on breathing-induced vapor condensation was developed for detection of genetic point mutation. The dew-inspired detection was realized by integration of target-induced DNA ligation with rolling circle amplification (RCA). The vapor condensation induced by breathing transduced the RCA-amplified variances in DNA contents into visible contrast. The image could be recorded by a cell phone for further or even remote analysis. This green assay offers a naked-eye-reading method potentially applied for point-of-care liver cancer diagnosis in resource-limited regions.

  17. Naked eye picometer resolution in a Michelson interferometer using conjugated twisted beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2017-01-15

    Michelson interferometry is one of the most widely used techniques for accuracy measurements. Its main characteristic feature is to infer a displacement in one of the arms of the interferometer from a phase measurement. Two different twisted beams, also called vortex beams, with opposite twisted rotations in each arm of the interferometer interfere in a daisy flower-like pattern. The number of petals is twice the topological charge. Their position depends on the relative phase of the beams. Naked eye detection of 44 pm displacements is achieved. The sensitivity of such an interferometer together with possible further improvements, and applications are then discussed.

  18. A preliminary phylogeny of the Palearctic naked-toed geckos (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Aaron M; Masroor, Rafaqat; Titus-McQuillan, James; Heinicke, Matthew P; Daza, Juan D; Jackman, Todd R

    2013-01-08

    Palearctic naked-toed geckos are a group of gekkonid geckos that range from North Africa to northern India and western China, with their greatest diversity in Iran and Pakistan. Relationships among the constituent genera remain incompletely resolved and the monophyly of key genera remains unverified. Further, competing classifications are in current use and many species have been allocated to different genera by different authors. We used both mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear genes (RAG1, PDC) to explore relationships among representatives of all but one genus in the group (Rhinogecko), including four genera not previously included in phylogenetic analyses (Asiocolotes, Altigekko, Indogekko, and Siwaligekko). Siwaligekko (and presumably other Tibeto-Himalayan species often referred to Cyrtopodion) are more closely related to tropical Asian Cyrtodactylus than to Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Sampled species of Asiocolotes and Altigekko are sister taxa, but both genera are here considered junior subjective synonyms of Altiphylax. Cyrtopodion sensu lato is non-monophyletic; Mediodactylus and Tenuidactylus, which have variably been considered as subgenera or synonyms of Cyrtopodion are both valid genera. Indogekko is embedded within Cyrtopodion and is here treated as a subgenus. Bunopus and Crossobamon are closely related to one-another, and with Agamura are interdigitated among taxa previously assigned to Cyrtopodion. Our data confirm the previous identification of a Saharo-Arabian Stenodactylus/Tropiocolotes/Pseudoceramodactylus clade and verify that Microgecko and Alsophylax are not members of the main clade of Palearctic naked-toed geckos. Osteological differences between Tropiocolotes and Microgecko, formerly treated as congeneric, are discussed and illustrated. The divergence between Cyrtodactylus and the Palearctic naked-toed clade predates the initial collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates, but deeper divergences within both groups are

  19. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Klaus

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD, possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that direct infusion of chemically modified (naked, murine-specific siRNA into the hippocampus significantly reduces SNCA levels. Reduction of SNCA in the hippocampus and cortex persists for a minimum of 1 week post-infusion with recovery nearing control levels by 3 weeks post-infusion. Conclusion We have developed naked gene-specific siRNAs that silence expression of SNCA in vivo. This approach may prove beneficial toward our understanding of the endogenous functional equilibrium of SNCA, its role in disease, and eventually as a therapeutic strategy for α-synucleinopathies resulting from SNCA overexpression.

  20. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jada; Melrose, Heather; Bumcrot, David; Hope, Andrew; Zehr, Cynthia; Lincoln, Sarah; Braithwaite, Adam; He, Zhen; Ogholikhan, Sina; Hinkle, Kelly; Kent, Caroline; Toudjarska, Ivanka; Charisse, Klaus; Braich, Ravi; Pandey, Rajendra K; Heckman, Michael; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Crook, Julia; Farrer, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA) in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that direct infusion of chemically modified (naked), murine-specific siRNA into the hippocampus significantly reduces SNCA levels. Reduction of SNCA in the hippocampus and cortex persists for a minimum of 1 week post-infusion with recovery nearing control levels by 3 weeks post-infusion. Conclusion We have developed naked gene-specific siRNAs that silence expression of SNCA in vivo. This approach may prove beneficial toward our understanding of the endogenous functional equilibrium of SNCA, its role in disease, and eventually as a therapeutic strategy for α-synucleinopathies resulting from SNCA overexpression. PMID:18976489

  1. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

  2. Productive performance of naked neck chickens that were fed leaf meal shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos M Herrera G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the productive performance of naked neck chickens (phases of initiation, growth and final that were fed meals Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan and Morus alba leaves. Materials and methods. 192 chickens, 1-84 days of age were distributed in a randomized block design with three experimental groups (5% of shrub in the diet, 48 animals/ group, eight replicates/ treatment, six animals/ reply and three animals/ sex in each replicate were used. The control group consumed diet based on corn and soybeans. They were reared on floor. Weighed every seven days. Weight gain, voluntary intake, conversion, balance and efficiency of feed utilization were calculated. Results. The highest total feed intake and average daily gain in rearing were 37.43g 9509.96 g respectively for M. alba (p<0.05, which also presented the best efficiency of energy and protein. Meanwhile, G. sepium showed the lowest values. Conclusions. It is possible to replace 5% of corn and soy in the diet of naked neck chickens, with the inclusion of leaf meal M. alba and get a favorable productive behavior.

  3. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms.

  4. Very low-energy and low-fluence ion beam bombardment of naked plasmid DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norarat, R.; Semsang, N.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Yu, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam bombardment of biological organisms has been recently applied to mutation breeding of both agricultural and horticultural plants. In order to explore relevant mechanisms, this study employed low-energy ion beams to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The study aimed at simulation of the final stage of the process of the ion beam bombardment of real cells to check whether and how very low-energy and low-fluence of ions can induce mutation. Argon and nitrogen ions at 5 keV and 2.5 keV respectively bombarded naked plasmid DNA pGFP to very low-fluences, an order of 10 13 ions/cm 2 . Subsequently, DNA states were analyzed using electrophoresis. Results provided evidences that the very low-energy and low-fluence ion bombardment indeed altered the DNA structure from supercoil to short linear fragments through multiple double strand breaks and thus induced mutation, which was confirmed by transfer of the bombarded DNA into bacteria Escherichia coli and subsequent expression of the marker gene.

  5. Ultra-low-energy (<10 eV/u) ion beam bombardment effect on naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Decelerated ultra-low energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. • DNA form change induced by ion bombardment was investigated. • N-ion bombardment at 32 eV induced DNA single and double strand breaks. • Ar-ion bombardment at a-few-hundreds eV induced DNA single strand break. - Abstract: Since ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range, it is very interesting to know effects from ultra-low-energy ion interaction with DNA for understanding ion-beam-induced genetic mutation. Tens-keV Ar- and N-ion beams were decelerated to ultra-low energy ranging from 20 to 100 eV, or only a few to 10 eV/u, to bombard naked plasmid DNA. The bombarded DNA was analyzed using gel electrophoresis for DNA form changes. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks after bombarded by tens-eV ion beam. N-ion beam was found more effective in inducing DNA change and mutation than Ar-ion beam. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was able to break DNA strands and thus potentially to cause genetic modification of biological cells. The experimental results were discussed in terms of direct atomic collision between the ions and DNA atoms

  6. Naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor for dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Takamasa; Murai, Rie; Mukoyama, Tomoyuki; Murawaki, Yoshiyuki; Hashiguchi, Ko-ichi; Yoshida, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kurimasa, Akihiro; Harada, Ken-ichi; Yashima, Kazuo; Nishimuki, Eiji; Shabana, Noriko; Kishimoto, Yukihiro; Kojyo, Haruhiko; Miura, Kunihiko; Murawaki, Yoshikazu; Kawasaki, Hironaka; Shiota, Goshi

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is progressive and relapsing disease. To explore the therapeutic effects of naked gene therapy of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on UC, the SRα promoter driving HGF gene was intrarectally administered to the mice in which colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Expression of the transgene was seen in surface epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The HGF-treated mice showed reduced colonic mucosal damage and increased body weights, compared with control mice (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). The HGF-treated mice displayed increased number of PCNA-positive cells and decreased number of apoptotic cells than in control mice (P < 0.01, each). Phosphorylated AKT was dramatically increased after HGF gene administration, however, phosphorylated ERK1/2 was not altered. Microarray analysis revealed that HGF induced expression of proliferation- and apoptosis-associated genes. These data suggest that naked HGF gene delivery causes therapeutic effects through regulation of many downstream genes

  7. Visualization of mole fraction distribution of slow jet forming stably stratified field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Hishida, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    An experimental study has been performed to investigate the behavior of flow and mass transfer in gaseous slow jet in which buoyancy force opposed the flow forming stably stratified field. The study has been performed to understand the basic features of air ingress phenomena at pipe rupture accident of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor. A displacement fringe technique was adopted in Mach-Zehnder interferometer to visualize the mole fraction distribution. As the result, the followings were obtained: (1) The stably stratified fields were formed in the vicinity of the outlet of the slow jet. The penetration distance of the stably stratified fields increased with Froude number. (2) Mass fraction distributions in the stably stratified fields were well correlated with the present model using the ramp mole velocity profile. (author)

  8. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  9. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in binary mixtures of water and tertiary butanol (TBA): alcohol mole fraction dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Ghoshal, Piue; Biswas, Ranjit

    2008-02-07

    The excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) has been studied in water-tertiary butanol (TBA) mixtures at different alcohol mole fractions by using steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The ratio between the areas under the locally excited (LE) and charge transferred (CT) emission bands is found to exhibit a sharp rise at alcohol mole fraction approximately 0.04, a value at which several thermodynamic properties of this mixture is known to show anomalous change due to the enhancement of H-bonding network. The radiative rate associated with the LE emission also shows a maximum at this TBA mole fraction. Although the structural transition from the water-like tetrahedral network to the alcohol-like chain is reflected in the red shift of the absorption spectrum up to TBA mole fraction approximately 0.10, the emission bands (both LE and CT) show the typical nonideal alcohol mole fraction dependence at all TBA mole fractions. Quantum yield, CT radiative rate as well as transition moments also exhibit a nonideal alcohol mole fraction dependence. The time-resolved emission decay of P4C has been found to be biexponential at all TBA mole fractions, regardless of emission collection around either the LE or the CT bands. The time constant associated with the slow component (tau(slow)) shows a minimum at TBA mole fraction approximately 0.04, whereas such a minimum for the fast time constant, tau(fast) (representing the rate of LE --> CT conversion reaction) is not observed. The nonobservation of the minimum in tau(fast) might be due to the limited time resolution employed in our experiments.

  10. Factors in Early Adolescence Associated With a Mole-Prone Phenotype in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoming; Marchetti, Michael A; Dusza, Stephen W; Chung, Esther; Fonseca, Maira; Scope, Alon; Geller, Alan C; Bishop, Marilyn; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Halpern, Allan C

    2017-10-01

    Nevi are important phenotypic risk factors for melanoma in adults. Few studies have examined the constitutional and behavioral factors associated with a mole-prone phenotype in adolescents. To identify host, behavioral, and dermoscopic factors in early adolescence (age, 14 years) that are associated with a mole-prone phenotype in late adolescence (age, 17 years). A prospective observational cohort study from the Study of Nevi in Children was conducted from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, with a 2- to 3-year follow-up. A total of 569 students from the school system in Framingham, Massachusetts, were enrolled in the 8th or 9th grade (baseline; mean [SD] age, 14.4 [0.7] years). The overall retention rate was 73.3%, and 417 students were reassessed in the 11th grade. Mole-prone phenotype in the 11th grade, defined as total nevus count of the back and 1 randomly selected leg in the top decile of the cohort or having any nevi greater than 5 mm in diameter. Of the 417 students assessed at follow-up in the 11th grade (166 females and 251 males; mean [SD] age, 17.0 [0.4] years), 111 participants (26.6%) demonstrated a mole-prone phenotype: 69 students (62.2%) with 1 nevus greater than 5 mm in diameter, 23 students (20.7%) with total nevus count in the top decile, and 19 students (17.1%) with both characteristics. On multivariate analysis, baseline total nevus count (adjusted odds ratio, 9.08; 95% CI, 4.0-23.7; P adolescents for higher-intensity counseling about sun protection and skin self-examination.

  11. Indium mole fraction effect on the structural and optical properties of quaternary AlInGaN epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J P; Jin, R Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, J F; Wu, M; Zhu, J J; Zhao, D G; Wang, Y T; Yang, H

    2004-01-01

    AlInGaN quaternary epilayers with varying In mole fraction were investigated using triple-axis x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The indium compositional fluctuation is enhanced with increasing In mole fraction, whereas the mosaicity of the AlInGaN epilayers is determined through the GaN template quality. Based on the analysis of the temperature dependence of the PL peak position, it is found that the localization effect strengthens with increasing In mole fraction due to the larger fluctuations of the In distribution. Increasing the influence of the localized state results in increasing the emission intensity and FWHM with the In content

  12. Radioimmunoassay of β sub unit HCG following hydatidiform mole or chorionic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherne, G.; Puerstner, P.

    1979-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of Beta Sub Unit HCG in the serum heralds a marked improvement in the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease. In nine cases of hydatidiform mole and three cases of chorionic carcinoma serial examinations of the Beta Sub Unit HCG were performed. When the immunologic pregnancy test became negative following a hydatidiform mole or following treatment of chorionic carcinoma, the HCG excretion remained above detectable values for several more weeks. The decrease of Beta Sub Unit serum HCG was either linear or in fluctuations. The detection of fluctuations or a secondary rise in the Beta Sub Unit HCG titre permits the early diagnosis of invasive trophoblastic disease following hydatidiform mole or of insufficient treatment or recurrence in cases of chorionic carcinoma. Our results suggest that the optimal follow-up with Beta Sub Unit serum HCG is by weekly determinations until four consecutive determinations remained negative. This is followed by two determinations at bi-weekly intervals and thereafter monthly follow-up examinations. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 BRE [de

  13. Moles (Nevi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  14. Hydatidiform mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid another pregnancy and to use a reliable contraceptive for 6 to 12 months after treatment for ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  15. Gene expression in the muscle and central nervous system following intramuscular inoculation of encapsidated or naked poliovirus replicons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Cheryl A.; Messinger, Jeff; Palmer, Matthew T.; Peduzzi, Jean D.; Morrow, Casey D.

    2003-01-01

    The spread of intramuscularly inoculated poliovirus to the central nervous system (CNS) has been documented in humans, monkeys, and mice transgenic for the human poliovirus receptor. Poliovirus spread is thought to be due to infection of the peripheral nerve and retrograde transport of poliovirus through the axon to the neuron cell body, where final virus uncoating occurs and translation/replication ensues. In previous studies, we have shown that polio-based vectors (replicons) can be used for gene delivery to motor neurons of the CNS. Using a replicon that encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP), we found that following intrathecal inoculation, GFP expression was confined to motorneurons of the spinal cord. To further characterize the gene expression of poliovirus in the periphery and CNS, we have intramuscularly inoculated transgenic mice with poliovirus replicons encoding GFP. Expression of GFP was demonstrated in the muscle, sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion, and the ventral horn motorneurons following intramuscular inoculation. There was no evidence of paralysis or behavioral abnormalities in the mice following intramuscular inoculation of the replicon encoding GFP. Injection of replicon RNA alone (naked RNA) into the muscle of transgenic mice or rats, which do not express the poliovirus receptor, also resulted in expression of GFP in the muscle, sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglion, and ventral horn motorneurons, indicating that transport of the replicon RNA from the periphery to CNS had occurred. GFP expression was found in the muscles and sciatic nerve as early as 6 h after injection of replicons or replicon RNA, even after sciatic nerve section. Analysis at longer times postinjection revealed GFP expression similar to 6 h levels in the cut sciatic nerves and robust expression in the nerves of uncut animals. The infection and expression of GFP in the CNS following intramuscular inoculation of encapsidated replicons encoding GFP occurred in juvenile or

  16. Phage-mediated counting by the naked eye of miRNA molecules at attomolar concentrations in a Petri dish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Cao, Peng; Zhu, Ye; Lu, Wuguang; Gu, Ning; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-01

    The ability to count biomolecules such as cancer-biomarker miRNAs with the naked eye is seemingly impossible in molecular diagnostics. Here, we show an ultrasensitive naked-eye-counting strategy for quantifying miRNAs by employing T7 phage--a bacteria-specific virus nanoparticle--as a surrogate. The phage is genetically engineered to become fluorescent and capable of binding a miRNA-capturing gold nanoparticle (GNP) in a one-to-one manner. Target miRNAs crosslink the resultant phage-GNP couple and miRNA-capturing magnetic microparticles, forming a sandwich complex containing equimolar phage and miRNA. The phage is then released from the complex and developed into one macroscopic fluorescent plaque in a Petri dish by plating it in a host bacterial medium. Counting the plaques by the naked eye enables the quantification of miRNAs with detection limits of ~3 and ~5 aM for single-target and two-target miRNAs, respectively. This approach offers ultrasensitive and convenient quantification of disease biomarkers by the naked eye.

  17. First 10 kg of naked Germanium detectors in liquid nitrogen installed in the GENIUS-Test-Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Chkvorets, O.; Krivosheina, I.V.; Strecker, H.; Tomei, C.

    2003-01-01

    The first four naked high-purity Germanium detectors were installed successfully in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS-Test-Facility in the GRAN SASSO Underground Laboratory on May 5, 2003. This is the first time ever that this novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is going to be tested underground. First operational parameters are presented

  18. Naked (C5Me5)(2)M cations (M = Sc, Ti, and V) and their fluoroarene complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwkamp, MW; Budzelaar, PHM; Gercama, J; Morales, ID; de Wolf, J; Meetsma, A; Troyanov, SI; Teuben, JH; Hessen, B; Budzelaar, Peter H.M.; Hierro Morales, Isabel Del; Troyanov, Sergei I.

    2005-01-01

    The ionic metallocene complexes [Cp*M-2][BPh4] (CP* = C5Me5) of the trivalent 3d metals Sc, Ti, and V were synthesized and structurally characterized. For M Sc, the anion interacts weakly with the metal center through one of the phenyl groups, but for M = Ti and V, the cations are naked. They each

  19. The perception of (naked only) bodies and faceless heads relies on holistic processing: Evidence from the inversion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonemei, Rob; Costantino, Andrea I; Battistel, Ilenia; Rivolta, Davide

    2018-05-01

    Faces and bodies are more difficult to perceive when presented inverted than when presented upright (i.e., stimulus inversion effect), an effect that has been attributed to the disruption of holistic processing. The features that can trigger holistic processing in faces and bodies, however, still remain elusive. In this study, using a sequential matching task, we tested whether stimulus inversion affects various categories of visual stimuli: faces, faceless heads, faceless heads in body context, headless bodies naked, whole bodies naked, headless bodies clothed, and whole bodies clothed. Both accuracy and inversion efficiency score results show inversion effects for all categories but for clothed bodies (with and without heads). In addition, the magnitude of the inversion effect for face, naked body, and faceless heads was similar. Our findings demonstrate that the perception of faces, faceless heads, and naked bodies relies on holistic processing. Clothed bodies (with and without heads), on the other side, may trigger clothes-sensitive rather than body-sensitive perceptual mechanisms. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Development of a Textile Nanocomposite as Naked Eye Indicator of the Exposition to Strong Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pallás

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burns, mainly produced by acids, are a topic of concern. A new sensing material for the detection of strong acids able to be incorporated into textiles has been developed. The material is prepared by the covalent attachment of 2,2′,4,4′,4″-pentamethoxy triphenyl methanol to a mesoporous material which further is included in a nitro resin to obtain a colourless composite. The response of this composite to diverse acid solutions was tested showing the appearance of an intense purple colour (with a colour difference higher than 160 that can be monitored by the naked eye or could be easily digitised to feed an instrumental sensor. Reversibility and resistance to washing cycles were studied with positive results. Finally, the response of the sensing composite to acid vapours was assayed, observing a colour change similar to that found in solution.

  1. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. I. The naked T Tauri stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Einstein X-ray observations of regions of active star formation in Taurus, Ophiuchus, and Corona Australis show a greatly enhanced surface density of stellar X-ray sources over that seen in other parts of the sky. Many of the X-ray sources are identified with low-mass, pre-main-sequence stars which are not classical T Tauri stars. The X-ray, photometric, and spectroscopic data for these stars are discussed. Seven early K stars in Oph and CrA are likely to be 1-solar-mass post-T Tauri stars with ages of 10-million yr. The late K stars in Taurus are not post-T Tauri, but naked T Tauri stars, which are coeval with the T Tauri stars, differing mainly in the lack of a circumstellar envelope. 72 references

  2. "All in the Day's Work": Cold War Doctoring and Its Discontents in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Michael

    In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self. Through policing the health of citizens, the doctors are some of the novel's most overt "Senders," or agents of capital-C Control, commodifying and exploiting the individual's humanity (mind and body) as a raw material in the generation of a knowledge that functions only in the legitimation and reinforcement of itself as authoritative.

  3. Magnetic purification of curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizome by novel naked maghemite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Campos, Rene; Baratella, Davide; Ferreira, Maria Izabela; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Corraducci, Vittorino; Uliana, Maíra Rodrigues; Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Santagata, Silvia; Sambo, Paolo; Vianello, Fabio

    2015-01-28

    Naked maghemite nanoparticles, namely, surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs), characterized by a diameter of about 10 nm, possessing peculiar colloidal stability, surface chemistry, and superparamagnetism, present fundamental requisites for the development of effective magnetic purification processes for biomolecules in complex matrices. Polyphenolic molecules presenting functionalities with different proclivities toward iron chelation were studied as probes for testing SAMN suitability for magnetic purification. Thus, the binding efficiency and reversibility on SAMNs of phenolic compounds of interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries, namely, catechin, tyrosine, hydroxytyrosine, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, naringenin, curcumin, and cyanidin-3-glucoside, were evaluated. Curcumin emerged as an elective compound, suitable for magnetic purification by SAMNs from complex matrices. A combination of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis-demethoxycurcumin was recovered by a single magnetic purification step from extracts of Curcuma longa rhizomes, with a purity >98% and a purification yield of 45%, curcumin being >80% of the total purified curcuminoids.

  4. Review of Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data by Charles Wheelan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Catalano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheelan, Charles. Naked Statistics: Stripping the Dread from Data (New York, NY, W. W. Norton & Company, 2014. 282 pp. ISBN 978-0-393-07195-5 In his review of What Numbers Say and The Numbers Game, Rob Root (Numeracy 3(1: 9 writes “Popular books on quantitative literacy need to be easy to read, reasonably comprehensive in scope, and include examples that are thought-provoking and memorable.” Wheelan’s book certainly meets this description, and should be of interest to both the general public and those with a professional interest in numeracy. A moderately diligent learner can get a decent understanding of basic statistics from the book. Teachers of statistics and quantitative literacy will find a wealth of well-related examples and stories to use in their classes.

  5. A genetic linkage map of hexaploid naked oat constructed with SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyuan Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Naked oat is a unique health food crop in China. Using 202 F2 individuals derived from a hybrid between the variety 578 and the landrace Sanfensan, we constructed a genetic linkage map consisting of 22 linkage groups covering 2070.50 cM and including 208 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The minimum distance between adjacent markers was 0.01 cM and the average was 9.95 cM. Each linkage group contained 2–22 markers. The largest linkage group covered 174.40 cM and the shortest one covered 36.80 cM, with an average of 94.11 cM. Thirty-six markers (17.3% showing distorted segregation were distributed across linkage groups LG5 to LG22. This map complements published oat genetic maps and is applicable for quantitative trait locus analysis, gene cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection.

  6. Population characteristics of the mole crab, Hippa adactyla Fabricius, in the intertidal sediment at Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Some population characteristics of a little known mole crab Hippa adactyla from the sandy intertidal habitat of Kavaratti atoll, Lakshadweep islands, were studied for understanding the resource potentials besides some features of breeding behavior...

  7. On the variably-charged black holes in general relativity: Hawking's radiation and naked singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibohal, Ng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper variably-charged non-rotating Reissner-Nordstrom and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes are discussed. Such a variable charge e with respect to the polar coordinate r in the field equations is referred to as an electrical radiation of the black hole. It is shown that every electrical radiation e(r) of the non-rotating black hole leads to a reduction in its mass M by some quantity. If one considers such electrical radiation taking place continuously for a long time, then a continuous reduction of the mass may take place in the black-hole body and the original mass of the black hole may be evaporated completely. At that stage, the gravity of the object may depend only on the electromagnetic field, not on the mass. Immediately after the complete evaporation of the mass, if the next radiation continues, there may be creation of a new mass leading to the formation of a negative mass naked singularity. It appears that this new mass of the naked singularity would never decrease, but might increase gradually as the radiation continues forever. A similar investigation is also discussed in the case of a variably-charged rotating Kerr-Newman black hole. Thus, it has been shown by incorporating Hawking's evaporation of radiating black holes in the form of spacetime metrics, every electrical radiation of variably-charged rotating and non-rotating black holes may produce a change in the mass of the body without affecting the Maxwell scalar

  8. Covalently bound DNA on naked iron oxide nanoparticles: Intelligent colloidal nano-vector for cell transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Martinello, Tiziana; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Gomiero, Chiara; Baratella, Davide; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Cozza, Giorgio; Patruno, Marco; Zboril, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2017-11-01

    Conversely to common coated iron oxide nanoparticles, novel naked surface active maghemite nanoparticles (SAMNs) can covalently bind DNA. Plasmid (pDNA) harboring the coding gene for GFP was directly chemisorbed onto SAMNs, leading to a novel DNA nanovector (SAMN@pDNA). The spontaneous internalization of SAMN@pDNA into cells was compared with an extensively studied fluorescent SAMN derivative (SAMN@RITC). Moreover, the transfection efficiency of SAMN@pDNA was evaluated and explained by computational model. SAMN@pDNA was prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and computational methods, and molecular dynamic simulation. The size and hydrodynamic properties of SAMN@pDNA and SAMN@RITC were studied by electron transmission microscopy, light scattering and zeta-potential. The two nanomaterials were tested by confocal scanning microscopy on equine peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ePB-MSCs) and GFP expression by SAMN@pDNA was determined. Nanomaterials characterized by similar hydrodynamic properties were successfully internalized and stored into mesenchymal stem cells. Transfection by SAMN@pDNA occurred and GFP expression was higher than lipofectamine procedure, even in the absence of an external magnetic field. A computational model clarified that transfection efficiency can be ascribed to DNA availability inside cells. Direct covalent binding of DNA on naked magnetic nanoparticles led to an extremely robust gene delivery tool. Hydrodynamic and chemical-physical properties of SAMN@pDNA were responsible of the successful uptake by cells and of the efficiency of GFP gene transfection. SAMNs are characterized by colloidal stability, excellent cell uptake, persistence in the host cells, low toxicity and are proposed as novel intelligent DNA nanovectors for efficient cell transfection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuldyuld@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.

  10. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yu, L.D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells

  11. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Napiera?a, Agnieszka; M?dra, Anna; Leszczy?ska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.; Go?dyn, Bart?omiej; B?oszyk, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be ...

  12. Efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score to predict gestational trophoblastic tumor from hydatidiform mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrismawan Khrismawan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective longitudinal analytic study assessing the efficacy of NETDC (New England Trophoblastic Disease Center prognostic index score in predicting malignancy after hydatidiform mole had been performed. Of the parameter evaluated; age of patients, type of hydatidiform mole, uterine enlargement, serum hCG level, lutein cyst, and presence of complicating factors were significant risk factors for malignancy after hydatidiform mole were evacuated (p<0.032. The study were done on 50 women diagnosed with hydatidiform mole with 1 year observation (January 2001-December 2002 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. The results showed that the NETDC prognostic index score predicted malignancy in 50% of high risk group and 10% in low risk group (p<0.05. This showed a higher number than that found by the WHO (19%-30%. The risk for incidence of  malignancy after hydatidiform mole in the high risk group is 9.0 times higher compared to that of the low risk group (CI: 1.769-45.786. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 40-6 Keywords: New England Trophoblastic Disease Center (NETDC, gestational trophoblastic tumor, hydatidiform mole, high and low risk

  13. Study of atmospheric CH4 mole fractions at three WMO/GAW stations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Ling-Xi; Masarie, Kenneth A.; Xu, Lin; Rella, Chris W.

    2013-05-01

    CH4 mole fractions were continuously measured from 2009 to 2011 at three WMO/GAW stations in China (Lin'an, LAN; Longfengshan, LFS; and Waliguan, WLG) using three Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instruments. LAN and LFS are GAW regional measurement stations. LAN is located in China's most economically developed region, and LFS is in a rice production area (planting area > 40,000 km2). WLG is a global measurement station in remote northwest China. At LAN, high methane mole fractions are observed in all seasons. Surface winds from the northeast enhance CH4 values, with a maximum increase of 32 ± 15 ppb in summer. The peak to peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle is 77 ± 35 ppb. At LFS, the diurnal cycle amplitude is approximately constant throughout the year except summer, when a value of 196 ± 65 ppb is observed. CH4 values at LFS reach their peak in July, which is different from seasonal variations typically observed in the northern hemisphere. CH4 mole fractions at WLG show both the smallest values and the lowest variability. Maximum values occur during summer, which is different from other northern hemisphere WMO/GAW global stations. The seasonal cycle amplitude is 17 ± 11 ppb. The linear growth rates at LAN, LFS, and WLG are 8.0 ± 1.2, 7.9 ± 0.9, and 9.4 ± 0.2 ppb yr-1, respectively, which are all larger than the global mean over the same 3 year period. Results from this study attempt to improve our basic understanding of observed atmospheric CH4 in China.

  14. Ultrasound imaging of partial hydatidiform mole in the second trimester of pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover Labiste, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The case report of a 27 year-old patient with 18 weeks gestation, admitted to the Obstetrics Department of 'Mariana Grajales Coello' Provincial Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Santiago de Cuba due to high blood pressure, cephalea and pain in lower abdomen is described. Additional tests confirmed a partial hydatidiform mole, so that uterine curettage was performed and small fragments of endometrial stroma were removed for pathological study. Outpatient medical monitoring was recommended and the patient had an appointment at 21 days for controlling and evaluating her general state

  15. Predictive value of some hematological parameters for non-invasive and invasive mole pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Özkaya, Enis; Yenidede, Ilter; Eser, Ahmet; Ergen, Evrim Bostancı; Tayyar, Ahter Tanay; Şentürk, Mehmet Baki; Karateke, Ates

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to discriminate mole pregnancies and invasive forms among cases with first trimester vaginal bleeding by the utilization of some complete blood count parameters conjunct to sonographic findings and beta human chorionic gonadotropin concentration. Consecutive 257 cases with histopathologically confirmed mole pregnancies and 199 women without mole pregnancy presented with first trimester vaginal bleeding who admitted to Zeynep Kamil Women and Children's Health Training Hospital between January 2012 and January 2016 were included in this cross-sectional study. The serum beta HCG level at presentation, and beta hCG levels at 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks of postevacuation with some parameters of complete blood count were utilized to discriminate cases with molar pregnancy and cases with invasive mole among first trimester pregnants presented with vaginal bleeding and abnormal sonographic findings. Levels of beta hCG at baseline (AUC = 0.700, p < 0.05) and 1st (AUC = 0.704, p < 0.05), 2nd (AUC = 0.870, p < 0.001) and 3rd (AUC = 0.916, p < 0.001) weeks of postevacuation period were significant predictors for the cases with persistent disease. While area under curve for mean platelet volume is 0.715, it means that mean platelet volume has 21.5% additional diagnostic value for predicting persistency in molar patients. For 8.55 cut-off point for mean platelet volume, sensitivity is 84.6% and specificity is 51.6%. Area under curve for platelet/lymphocyte ratio is 0.683 means that platelet/lymphocyte ratio has additional 18.3% diagnostic value. For 102.25 cut-off point sensitivity is 86.6% and specificity is 46.2. Simple, widely available complete blood count parameters may be used as an adjunct to other risk factors to diagnose molar pregnancies and predict postevacuation trophoblastic disease.

  16. The initial value problem for linearized gravitational perturbations of the Schwarzschild naked singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, Gustavo; Gleiser, Reinaldo J [Facultad de Matematica, AstronomIa y Fisica (FaMAF), Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-07

    The coupled equations for the scalar modes of the linearized Einstein equations around Schwarzschild's spacetime were reduced by Zerilli to a (1+1) wave equation partial deriv{sup 2}PSI{sub z} /partial derivt{sup 2} +HPSI{sub z} =0, where H= -partial deriv{sup 2} /partial derivx{sup 2} + V(x) is the Zerilli 'Hamiltonian' and x is the tortoise radial coordinate. From its definition, for smooth metric perturbations the field PSI{sub z} is singular at r{sub s} = -6M/(l - 1)(l +2), with l being the mode harmonic number. The equation PSI{sub z} obeys is also singular, since V has a second-order pole at r{sub s}. This is irrelevant to the black hole exterior stability problem, where r > 2M > 0, and r{sub s} < 0, but it introduces a non-trivial problem in the naked singular case where M < 0, then r{sub s} > 0, and the singularity appears in the relevant range of r (0 < r < infinity). We solve this problem by developing a new approach to the evolution of the even mode, based on a new gauge invariant function, PSI-circumflex, that is a regular function of the metric perturbation for any value of M. The relation of PSI-circumflex to PSI{sub z} is provided by an intertwiner operator. The spatial pieces of the (1 + 1) wave equations that PSI-circumflex and PSI{sub z} obey are related as a supersymmetric pair of quantum Hamiltonians H and H-circumflex. For M < 0,H-circumflex has a regular potential and a unique self-adjoint extension in a domain D defined by a physically motivated boundary condition at r = 0. This allows us to address the issue of evolution of gravitational perturbations in this non-globally hyperbolic background. This formulation is used to complete the proof of the linear instability of the Schwarzschild naked singularity, by showing that a previously found unstable mode belongs to a complete basis of H-circumflex in D, and thus is excitable by generic initial data. This is further illustrated by numerically solving the linearized equations for

  17. MOLE: A Multidisciplinary Observatory and Laboratory of Experiments in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Dresen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and mechanics of active Low Angle Normal Faults (LANFs have for decades b s been posing questions—in particular, if low angle normal faults accommodate crustal extension, and if they generate large magnitude earthquakes, or if they move aseismically. To shed new light on these challenging questions, MOLE intends to drill (down to 4–5 km an active LANF in the Umbria-Marche sector of the northern Apennines (Fig. 1 and to establish a deep borehole observatory. The target site offers a unique opportunity to reach a LANF at drillable seismogenic depth to unravel the “low angle normal fault mechanical paradox” (Wernicke, 1995; Axen, 2007. In order to discuss the scientific background and plan the MOLE project, ixty-two scientists from various research fields attended an international workshop in Spoleto, Italy, on 5–8 May 2008. The workshop focused on the following goals that need to be achieved: (I to collect new observational data at depth for constraining the fault zone structure; (II to perform laboratory experiments with gouge and fault zone materials to understand frictional properties and weakeningmechanisms; (III to record microearthquakes at distance comparable to the source radius, and (IV to obtain stress and strain measurements and geochemical data in and near the fault zone at depth to understand the mechanics of earthquakes and faulting.

  18. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Rella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  19. Resonant spin-flavor conversion of supernova neutrinos: Dependence on electron mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Takamura, Akira; Kimura, Keiichi; Yokomakura, Hidekazu; Kawagoe, Shio; Kajino, Toshitaka

    2009-01-01

    Detailed dependence of resonant spin-flavor (RSF) conversion of supernova neutrinos on electron mole fraction Y e is investigated. Supernova explosion forms a hot-bubble and neutrino-driven wind region of which electron mole fraction exceeds 0.5 in several seconds after the core collapse. When a higher resonance of the RSF conversion is located in the innermost region, flavor change of the neutrinos strongly depends on the sign of 1-2Y e . At an adiabatic high RSF resonance the flavor conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs in Y e e >0.5 and inverted mass hierarchy. In other cases of Y e values and mass hierarchies, the conversion of ν e ↔ν μ,τ occurs. The final ν e spectrum is evaluated in the cases of Y e e >0.5 taking account of the RSF conversion. Based on the obtained result, time variation of the event number ratios of low ν e energy to high ν e energy is discussed. In normal mass hierarchy, an enhancement of the event ratio should be seen in the period when the electron fraction in the innermost region exceeds 0.5. In inverted mass hierarchy, on the other hand, a dip of the event ratio should be observed. Therefore, the time variation of the event number ratio is useful to investigate the effect of the RSF conversion.

  20. Particle Collision Near 1 + 1-Dimensional Horava-Lifshitz Black Hole and Naked Singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halilsoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unbounded center-of-mass (CM energy of oppositely moving colliding particles near horizon emerges also in 1+1-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz gravity. This theory has imprints of renormalizable quantum gravity characteristics in accordance with the method of simple power counting. Surprisingly the result obtained is not valid for a 1-dimensional Compton-like process between an outgoing photon and an infalling massless/massive particle. It is possible to achieve unbounded CM energy due to collision between infalling photons and particles. The source of outgoing particles may be attributed to an explosive process just outside the horizon for a black hole and the naturally repulsive character for the case of a naked singularity. It is found that absence of angular momenta in 1+1-dimension does not yield unbounded energy for collisions in the vicinity of naked singularities.

  1. A stable algorithm for calculating phase equilibria with capillarity at specified moles, volume and temperature using a dynamic model

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2017-09-30

    Capillary pressure can significantly affect the phase properties and flow of liquid-gas fluids in porous media, and thus, the phase equilibrium calculation incorporating capillary pressure is crucial to simulate such problems accurately. Recently, the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature (NVT-flash) becomes an attractive issue. In this paper, capillarity is incorporated into the phase equilibrium calculation at specified moles, volume and temperature. A dynamical model for such problem is developed for the first time by using the laws of thermodynamics and Onsager\\'s reciprocal principle. This model consists of the evolutionary equations for moles and volume, and it can characterize the evolutionary process from a non-equilibrium state to an equilibrium state in the presence of capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. The phase equilibrium equations are naturally derived. To simulate the proposed dynamical model efficiently, we adopt the convex-concave splitting of the total Helmholtz energy, and propose a thermodynamically stable numerical algorithm, which is proved to preserve the second law of thermodynamics at the discrete level. Using the thermodynamical relations, we derive a phase stability condition with capillarity effect at specified moles, volume and temperature. Moreover, we propose a stable numerical algorithm for the phase stability testing, which can provide the feasible initial conditions. The performance of the proposed methods in predicting phase properties under capillarity effect is demonstrated on various cases of pure substance and mixture systems.

  2. Community structure variability of Uropodina mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) in nests of the common mole, Talpa europaea, in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.

  3. Self-similar cosmological solutions with dark energy. II. Black holes, naked singularities, and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hideki; Harada, Tomohiro; Carr, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    We use a combination of numerical and analytical methods, exploiting the equations derived in a preceding paper, to classify all spherically symmetric self-similar solutions which are asymptotically Friedmann at large distances and contain a perfect fluid with equation of state p=(γ-1)μ with 0<γ<2/3. The expansion of the Friedmann universe is accelerated in this case. We find a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions representing a black hole embedded in a Friedmann background. This suggests that, in contrast to the positive pressure case, black holes in a universe with dark energy can grow as fast as the Hubble horizon if they are not too large. There are also self-similar solutions which contain a central naked singularity with negative mass and solutions which represent a Friedmann universe connected to either another Friedmann universe or some other cosmological model. The latter are interpreted as self-similar cosmological white hole or wormhole solutions. The throats of these wormholes are defined as two-dimensional spheres with minimal area on a spacelike hypersurface and they are all nontraversable because of the absence of a past null infinity

  4. Cerebellar Expression of the Neurotrophin Receptor p75 in Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rahimi Balaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous mutation in the lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 (Acp2 mouse (nax—naked-ataxia mutant mouse correlates with severe cerebellar defects including ataxia, reduced size and abnormal lobulation as well as Purkinje cell (Pc degeneration. Loss of Pcs in the nax cerebellum is compartmentalized and harmonized to the classic pattern of gene expression of the cerebellum in the wild type mouse. Usually, degeneration starts in the anterior and posterior zones and continues to the central and nodular zones of cerebellum. Studies have suggested that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR plays a role in Pc degeneration; thus, in this study, we investigated the p75NTR pattern and protein expression in the cerebellum of the nax mutant mouse. Despite massive Pc degeneration that was observed in the nax mouse cerebellum, p75NTR pattern expression was similar to the HSP25 pattern in nax mice and comparable with wild type sibling cerebellum. In addition, immunoblot analysis of p75NTR protein expression did not show any significant difference between nax and wild type sibling (p > 0.5. In comparison with wild type counterparts, p75NTR pattern expression is aligned with the fundamental cytoarchitecture organization of the cerebellum and is unchanged in the nax mouse cerebellum despite the severe neurodevelopmental disorder accompanied with Pc degeneration.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of azo-guanidine based alcoholic media naked eye DNA sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmat, Uzma; Yousaf, Muhammad; Lal, Bhajan; Ullah, Shafiq; Holder, Alvin A.; Badshah, Amin

    2016-01-01

    DNA sensing always has an open meadow of curiosity for biotechnologists and other researchers. Recently, in this field, we have introduced an emerging class of molecules containing azo and guanidine functionalities. In this study, we have synthesized three new compounds (UA1, UA6 and UA7) for potential application in DNA sensing in alcoholic medium. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopies. Their DNA sensing potential were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy. The insight of interaction with DNA was further investigated by electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) and hydrodynamic (viscosity) studies. The results showed that compounds have moderate DNA binding properties, with the binding constants range being 7.2 × 103, 2.4 × 103 and 0.2 × 103 M−1, for UA1, UA6 and UA7, respectively. Upon binding with DNA, there was a change in colour (a blue shift in the λmax value) which was observable with a naked eye. These results indicated the potential of synthesized compounds as DNA sensors with detection limit 1.8, 5.8 and 4.0 ng µl−1 for UA1, UA6 and UA7, respectively. PMID:28018613

  6. Electrochromic Asymmetric Supercapacitor Windows Enable Direct Determination of Energy Status by the Naked Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Chai, Zhisheng; Liang, Zhimin; Sun, Peng; Xie, Weiguang; Zhao, Chuanxi; Mai, Wenjie

    2017-10-04

    Because of the popularity of smart electronics, multifunctional energy storage devices, especially electrochromic supercapacitors (SCs), have attracted tremendous research interest. Herein, a solid-state electrochromic asymmetric SC (ASC) window is designed and fabricated by introducing WO 3 and polyaniline as the negative and positive electrodes, respectively. The two complementary materials contribute to the outstanding electrochemical and electrochromic performances of the fabricated device. With an operating voltage window of 1.4 V and an areal capacitance of 28.3 mF cm -2 , the electrochromic devices show a high energy density of 7.7 × 10 -3 mW h cm -2 . Meanwhile, they exhibit an obvious and reversible color transition between light green (uncharged state) and dark blue (charged state), with an optical transmittance change between 55 and 12% at a wavelength of 633 nm. Hence, the energy storage level of the ASC is directly related to its color and can be determined by the naked eye, which means it can be incorporated with other energy cells to visual display their energy status. Particularly, a self-powered and color-indicated system is achieved by combining the smart windows with commercial solar cell panels. We believe that the novel electrochromic ASC windows will have great potential application for both smart electronics and smart buildings.

  7. Physical properties of naked DNA influence nucleosome positioning and correlate with transcription start and termination sites in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soler-López Montserrat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged into chromatin structure, where most of DNA is wrapped into nucleosomes. DNA compaction and nucleosome positioning have clear functional implications, since they modulate the accessibility of genomic regions to regulatory proteins. Despite the intensive research effort focused in this area, the rules defining nucleosome positioning and the location of DNA regulatory regions still remain elusive. Results Naked (histone-free and nucleosomal DNA from yeast were digested by microccocal nuclease (MNase and sequenced genome-wide. MNase cutting preferences were determined for both naked and nucleosomal DNAs. Integration of their sequencing profiles with DNA conformational descriptors derived from atomistic molecular dynamic simulations enabled us to extract the physical properties of DNA on a genomic scale and to correlate them with chromatin structure and gene regulation. The local structure of DNA around regulatory regions was found to be unusually flexible and to display a unique pattern of nucleosome positioning. Ab initio physical descriptors derived from molecular dynamics were used to develop a computational method that accurately predicts nucleosome enriched and depleted regions. Conclusions Our experimental and computational analyses jointly demonstrate a clear correlation between sequence-dependent physical properties of naked DNA and regulatory signals in the chromatin structure. These results demonstrate that nucleosome positioning around TSS (Transcription Start Site and TTS (Transcription Termination Site (at least in yeast is strongly dependent on DNA physical properties, which can define a basal regulatory mechanism of gene expression.

  8. Circular geodesics of naked singularities in the Kehagias-Sfetsos metric of Hořava's gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ronaldo S. S.; Schee, Jan; Kluźniak, Włodek; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Abramowicz, Marek

    2014-07-01

    We discuss photon and test-particle orbits in the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) metric of Hořava's gravity. For any value of the Hořava parameter ω, there are values of the gravitational mass M for which the metric describes a naked singularity, and this is always accompanied by a vacuum "antigravity sphere" on whose surface a test particle can remain at rest (in a zero angular momentum geodesic), and inside which no circular geodesics exist. The observational appearance of an accreting KS naked singularity in a binary system would be that of a quasistatic spherical fluid shell surrounded by an accretion disk, whose properties depend on the value of M, but are always very different from accretion disks familiar from the Kerr-metric solutions. The properties of the corresponding circular orbits are qualitatively similar to those of the Reissner-Nordström naked singularities. When event horizons are present, the orbits outside the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole are qualitatively similar to those of the Schwarzschild metric.

  9. An empirical examination of the relationship between naked shorting and share prices around the announcement of a firm’s need for external capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Murphy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research finds some empirical evidence that the sale of stock without delivering shares can contribute to pressuring down the equity prices of companies seeking to raise capital. By allowing for the delayed effects on prices of limit orders by naked shorts, a significant negative impact on equity value per share is discovered but only for naked short selling by market makers and only on stocks of firms in urgent need of external financing.

  10. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  11. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Bhishma; Seo, Tae Hoon; Ryu, Beo Deul; Cho, Jaehee

    2016-06-01

    The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40) is investigated. The current-voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  12. Current transport mechanism in graphene/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhishma Pandit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current transport mechanism of graphene formed on AlxGa1−xN/GaN heterostructures with various Al mole fractions (x = 0.15, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 is investigated. The current–voltage measurement from graphene to AlGaN/GaN shows an excellent rectifying property. The extracted Schottky barrier height of the graphene/AlGaN/GaN contacts increases with the Al mole fraction in AlGaN. However, the current transport mechanism deviates from the Schottky-Mott theory owing to the deterioration of AlGaN crystal quality at high Al mole fractions confirmed by reverse leakage current measurement.

  13. Carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of Naked-Neck and Thai indigenous chickens muscles reared under backyard production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsang, A.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain basic knowledge regarding carcass characteristics, physical property and chemical composition of the muscle meat of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens reared underthe backyard production systems. Ninety heads each of Naked-Neck and indigenous chickens of both sexes at 1.3, 1.5 and 1.8 kg of live weight were used in the study. From this study, there were no significant differences (P>0.05 in the chilled carcass percentage between the two breeds and two sexes. The Naked-Neckchickens had lower breast (Pectoralis major, fillet (Pectoralis minor (P0.05 in drip loss and cooking loss values. The shear value of cooked breast and thigh muscles of Naked-Neck chickens was significantly lower (P0.05, redness (a* (P0.05 in moisture, protein, fat and ash contents. The Naked-Neck chicken contained higher (P0.05 between breeds in soluble collagen percentage of both types of muscles. For the fatty acid composition ofNaked-Neck and indigenous chickens, both breast and thigh muscles contained more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Diagnostic reproducibility of hydatidiform moles: ancillary techniques (p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping) improve morphologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang, Russell; Gupta, Mamta; Wu, Lee-Shu-Fune; Yemelyanova, Anna V; Kurman, Robert J; Murphy, Kathleen M; Descipio, Cheryl; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2012-03-01

    Distinction of hydatidiform moles (HMs) from nonmolar specimens (NMs) and subclassification of HMs as complete hydatidiform moles (CHMs) and partial hydatidiform moles (PHMs) are important for clinical practice and investigational studies; yet, diagnosis based solely on morphology is affected by interobserver variability. Molecular genotyping can distinguish these entities by discerning androgenetic diploidy, diandric triploidy, and biparental diploidy to diagnose CHMs, PHMs, and NMs, respectively. Eighty genotyped cases (27 CHMs, 27 PHMs, and 26 NMs) were selected from a series of 200 potentially molar specimens previously diagnosed using p57 immunostaining and genotyping. Cases were classified by 3 gynecologic pathologists on the basis of H&E slides (masked to p57 immunostaining and genotyping results) into 1 of 3 categories (CHM, PHM, or NM) during 2 diagnostic rounds; a third round incorporating p57 immunostaining results was also conducted. Consensus diagnoses (those rendered by 2 of 3 pathologists) were determined. Genotyping results were used as the gold standard for assessing diagnostic performance. Sensitivity of a diagnosis of CHM ranged from 59% to 100% for individual pathologists and from 70% to 81% by consensus; specificity ranged from 91% to 96% for individuals and from 94% to 98% by consensus. Sensitivity of a diagnosis of PHM ranged from 56% to 93% for individual pathologists and from 70% to 78% by consensus; specificity ranged from 58% to 92% for individuals and from 74% to 85% by consensus. The percentage of correct classification of all cases by morphology ranged from 55% to 75% for individual pathologists and from 70% to 75% by consensus. The κ values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.59 to 0.73 (moderate to good) for a diagnosis of CHM, from 0.15 to 0.43 (poor to moderate) for PHM, and from 0.13 to 0.42 (poor to moderate) for NM. The κ values for intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.44 to 0.67 (moderate to good). Addition of the p57

  15. Estimating regional methane surface fluxes: the relative importance of surface and GOSAT mole fraction measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fraser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We use an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF, together with the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model, to estimate regional monthly methane (CH4 fluxes for the period June 2009–December 2010 using proxy dry-air column-averaged mole fractions of methane (XCH4 from GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite and/or NOAA ESRL (Earth System Research Laboratory and CSIRO GASLAB (Global Atmospheric Sampling Laboratory CH4 surface mole fraction measurements. Global posterior estimates using GOSAT and/or surface measurements are between 510–516 Tg yr−1, which is less than, though within the uncertainty of, the prior global flux of 529 ± 25 Tg yr−1. We find larger differences between regional prior and posterior fluxes, with the largest changes in monthly emissions (75 Tg yr−1 occurring in Temperate Eurasia. In non-boreal regions the error reductions for inversions using the GOSAT data are at least three times larger (up to 45% than if only surface data are assimilated, a reflection of the greater spatial coverage of GOSAT, with the two exceptions of latitudes >60° associated with a data filter and over Europe where the surface network adequately describes fluxes on our model spatial and temporal grid. We use CarbonTracker and GEOS-Chem XCO2 model output to investigate model error on quantifying proxy GOSAT XCH4 (involving model XCO2 and inferring methane flux estimates from surface mole fraction data and show similar resulting fluxes, with differences reflecting initial differences in the proxy value. Using a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs we characterize the posterior flux error introduced by non-uniform atmospheric sampling by GOSAT. We show that clear-sky measurements can theoretically reproduce fluxes within 10% of true values, with the exception of tropical regions where, due to a large seasonal cycle in the number of measurements because of clouds and aerosols, fluxes are within 15% of true fluxes. We evaluate our

  16. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hydatidiform Mole among Patients Undergoing Uterine Evacuation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Mulisya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with hydatidiform molar gestations amongst patients undergoing uterine evacuation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH, Mbarara, Uganda. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study carried out from November 2016 to February 2017. All patients admitted for uterine evacuation for nonviable pregnancy were included. The study registered 181 patients. Data were collected on sociodemographics, medical conditions, obstetrics, and gynecological factors. The evacuated tissue received a full gross and histopathologic examination. Cases of pathologically suspected complete hydatidiform mole were confirmed by p57 immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed using STATA 13. Results. The prevalence of hydatidiform mole was 6.1% (11/181. All detected moles were complete hydatidiform moles, and there were no diagnosed partial hydatidiform moles. Clinical diagnosis of molar pregnancy was suspected in 13 patients, but only 69.2% (9/13 were confirmed as molar pregnancies histologically. Two cases were clinically unsuspected. Factors that had a significant relationship with complete hydatidiform mole included maternal age of 35 years and above (aOR 13.5; CI: 1.46–125.31; p=0.00, gestational age beyond the first trimester at the time of uterine evacuation (aOR 6.2; CI: 1.07–36.14; p=0.04, and history of previous abortion (aOR 4.3; CI: 1.00–18.57; p=0.05. Conclusion. The prevalence of complete hydatidiform mole was high at 6.1%. Associated risk factors included advanced maternal age (35 years and above, history of previous abortions, and gestational age beyond the first trimester at the time of evacuations. Recommendations. We recommend putting in place capacity to do routine histopathological examination of all products of conception especially those at high risk for a molar gestation either by clinical suspicion or by risk factors including advanced maternal age, advanced gestational

  17. Evidência molecular da ocorrência de um fitoplasma associado ao lenho mole da macieira

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Luiz Fernando Caldeira; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo; Sanhueza,Rosa Maria Valdebenito

    2007-01-01

    O lenho mole da macieira é uma doença relevante em diversas partes do mundo. Sintomas típicos desta doença têm sido observados em pomares instalados em estados do sul do território brasileiro desde a década de oitenta. Enxertia tem revelado a natureza infecciosa da doença e a observação de corpúsculos filamentosos no floema tem evidenciado possível associação com fitoplasma. No presente trabalho plantas com sintomas de lenho mole foram coletadas em pomar comercial, visando demonstrar a presen...

  18. Fingerprinting: Modelling and mapping physical top soil properties with the Mole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonstra, Eddie; van Egmond, Fenny

    2010-05-01

    The Mole is a passive gamma ray soil sensor system. It is designed for the mobile collection of radioactive energy stemming from soil. As the system is passive, it only measures energy that reaches the surface of soil. In general, this energy comes from upto 30 to 40 cm deep, which can be considered topsoil. The gathered energy spectra are logged every second, are processed with the method of Full Spectrum Analysis. This method uses all available spectral data and processes it with a Chi square optimalisation using a set of standard spectra into individual nuclide point data. A standard spectrum is the measured full spectrum of a specific detector derived when exposed to 1 Bq/kg of a nuclide. With this method the outcome of the surveys become quantitative.The outcome of a field survey with the Mole results in a data file containing point information of position, Total Counts and the decay products of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs. Five elements are therefor available for the modelling of soil properties. There are several ways for the modelling of soil properties with sensor derived gamma ray data. The Mole generates ratio scale output. For modelling a quantitative deterministic approach is used based on sample locations. This process is called fingerprinting. Fingerprinting is a comparison of the concentration of the radioactive trace elements and the lab results (pH, clay content, etc.) by regression analysis. This results in a mathematical formula describing the relationship between a dependent and independent property. The results of the sensor readings are interpolated into a nuclide map with GIS software. With the derived formula a soil property map is composed. The principle of fingerprinting can be applied on large geographical areas for physical soil properties such as clay, loam or sand (50 micron), grain size and organic matter. Collected sample data of previous field surveys within the same region can be used for the prediction of soil properties elsewhere

  19. Slip casting of thoria-10 mole per cent yttria solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, S.; Rao, S.V.K.

    1990-01-01

    One end closed thoria-yttria solid electrolyte have been fabricated by the slip casting technique. A systematic study of the influence of the process parameters on the characteristics of the final bodies has been carried out. Slips of ThO 2 -10 mole % Y 2 O 3 were prepared; their fluidity and castability were studied as a function of concentration, pH and particle size. The bodies were sintered at 2000degC and the physical properties like density and microstructure were evaluated. Slip cast bodies of bulk densities around 95% T.D. with relatively inhomogenous but predominantly fine grained structure could be obtained by optimizing the process variables. (author). 5 figs., 10 refs

  20. The effect of carbon mole ratio on the fabrication of silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Niyomwas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon Carbide (SiC particles were synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS from a powder mixture of SiO2-C-Mg. The reaction was carried out in a SHS reactor under static argon gas at a pressure of 0.5 MPa. The standard Gibbs energy minimization method was used to calculate the equilibrium composition of the reacting species. The effects of carbon mole ratio on the precursor mixture (C/SiO2/Mg: 1/1/2 to 3/1/2 and on the SiC conversion were investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope technique. The as-synthesized products of SiC-MgO powders were leached with 0.1M HCl acid solution to obtain the SiC particles.

  1. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Bhagawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Local wisdom is a cultural heritage that needs to be preserved. The Cilacap’s coastal communities have traditional taxonomy knowledge that hasn’t been informed, especially about mole crab. This study aimed to explore the ethnotaxonomy knowledge of sand crabs (Crustacea: Hippoidea in Widarapayung coastal communities. The purposive snowball sampling was used for the method, followed by observation and semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents. Data were analyzed descriptively based on observations and interviews. The results showed that the coastal communities in Widarapayung tourist areas could be divided into five groups, namely catchers, collectors, processors, traders, and consumers. The catcher was able to recognize and describe three types of sand crabs based on the shape of the body and their catchment areas. Captured crabs had the local name of ‘yutuk jambe’ (Emerita emeritus Linnaeus 1767, the appellation was based on carapace shape that resembled the shape of areca fruit; ‘Yutuk bathok’ (Hippa adactyla Fabricius 1787, had the carapace shape resembling a coconut shell, and ‘yutuk Kethek’ (Albunea symmysta Linnaeus 1758, had ornaments on the carapace surface similar with a monkey face, there were dense setae on the edge of the carapace, spiny long antennas and aggressively pinch when captured. The knowledge and skills of sand crabs classification and local name entitlement acquired by the people were in accordance with the Berlin’s model. How to CiteBhagawati, D., Anggoro, S., Zainuri, M. & Sya’rani, L. (2016. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 222-230.

  2. High accuracy measurements of dry mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane in humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C. W.; Chen, H.; Andrews, A. E.; Filges, A.; Gerbig, C.; Hatakka, J.; Karion, A.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S. J.; Steinbacher, M.; Sweeney, C.; Wastine, B.; Zellweger, C.

    2013-03-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring the mole fractions of greenhouse gases in the well-mixed atmosphere have required dry sample gas streams (dew point < -25 °C) to achieve the inter-laboratory compatibility goals set forth by the Global Atmosphere Watch programme of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO/GAW) for carbon dioxide (±0.1 ppm in the Northern Hemisphere and ±0.05 ppm in the Southern Hemisphere) and methane (±2 ppb). Drying the sample gas to low levels of water vapour can be expensive, time-consuming, and/or problematic, especially at remote sites where access is difficult. Recent advances in optical measurement techniques, in particular cavity ring down spectroscopy, have led to the development of greenhouse gas analysers capable of simultaneous measurements of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour. Unlike many older technologies, which can suffer from significant uncorrected interference from water vapour, these instruments permit accurate and precise greenhouse gas measurements that can meet the WMO/GAW inter-laboratory compatibility goals (WMO, 2011a) without drying the sample gas. In this paper, we present laboratory methodology for empirically deriving the water vapour correction factors, and we summarise a series of in-situ validation experiments comparing the measurements in humid gas streams to well-characterised dry-gas measurements. By using the manufacturer-supplied correction factors, the dry-mole fraction measurements have been demonstrated to be well within the GAW compatibility goals up to a water vapour concentration of at least 1%. By determining the correction factors for individual instruments once at the start of life, this water vapour concentration range can be extended to at least 2% over the life of the instrument, and if the correction factors are determined periodically over time, the evidence suggests that this range can be extended up to and even above 4% water vapour concentrations.

  3. Molecular basis of a novel adaptation to hypoxic-hypercapnia in a strictly fossorial mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood O2 affinity enhances survival at low O2 pressures, and is perhaps the best known and most broadly accepted evolutionary adjustment of terrestrial vertebrates to environmental hypoxia. This phenotype arises by increasing the intrinsic O2 affinity of the hemoglobin (Hb molecule, by decreasing the intracellular concentration of allosteric effectors (e.g., 2,3-diphosphoglycerate; DPG, or by suppressing the sensitivity of Hb to these physiological cofactors. Results Here we report that strictly fossorial eastern moles (Scalopus aquaticus have evolved a low O2 affinity, DPG-insensitive Hb - contrary to expectations for a mammalian species that is adapted to the chronic hypoxia and hypercapnia of subterranean burrow systems. Molecular modelling indicates that this functional shift is principally attributable to a single charge altering amino acid substitution in the β-type δ-globin chain (δ136Gly→Glu of this species that perturbs electrostatic interactions between the dimer subunits via formation of an intra-chain salt-bridge with δ82Lys. However, this replacement also abolishes key binding sites for the red blood cell effectors Cl-, lactate and DPG (the latter of which is virtually absent from the red cells of this species at δ82Lys, thereby markedly reducing competition for carbamate formation (CO2 binding at the δ-chain N-termini. Conclusions We propose this Hb phenotype illustrates a novel mechanism for adaptively elevating the CO2 carrying capacity of eastern mole blood during burst tunnelling activities associated with subterranean habitation.

  4. Effect of Temperature and Mole Ratio on the Synthesis Yield of Rhenium-Tetrofosmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastuti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc tetrofosmin is widely used in nuclear medicine as a diagnostic agent for myocardial perfusion and as a tumor imaging agent. As a parenteral preparation it requires an evaluation of its pharmacokinetics and stability in-vivo. Since 99mTc has a short half-life and is only available in very low concentrations, it is impossible to characterize its chemical properties and presence in the body. Due to this reason, only technetium-99 (T1/2 = 5 × 105 years, which is available in macro quantities, or natural rhenium can be used for this purpose. In this study rhenium-188 (188Re tetrofosmin will be synthesized and applied, because non-radioactive Re can be easily obtained. Synthesis and radiochemical purity analysis of carrier-added 188Re-tetrofosmin were carried out as a model to study the in-vivo stability of technetium-99m tetrofosmin. Rhenium-188 was used as a tracer to identify the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. Rhenium gluconate was synthesized first prior to the formation of rhenium tetrofosmin. The quality of labeling for both rhenium gluconate and rhenium tetrofosmin was analyzed using paper- and thin-layer chromatography, respectively. Rhenium gluconate can be synthesized with high labeling yield within 1 hour, whereas rhenium tetrofosmin was synthesized both in room temperature and in an elevated temperature with various tetrofosmin-to-rhenium mole ratios.The results showed that heating at 95oC led to a higher yield of more than 90% within 30 minutes. Rhenium tetrofosmin could be produced in high radiochemical purity using an excess of tetrofosmin with mole ratio of 2000. It is concluded that rhenium tetrofosmin could be synthesized through the formation of rhenium gluconate, and a higher yield could be obtained in a shorter time by heating process.

  5. Q2122-444: A NAKED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FULLY DRESSED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliozzi, M.; Satyapal, S.; Panessa, F.; Franca, F. La; Saviane, I.; Monaco, L.; Foschini, L.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Sambruna, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Based on previous spectral and temporal optical studies, Q2122-444 has been classified as a naked active galactic nucleus (AGN) or true type 2 AGN, that is, an AGN that genuinely lacks a broad-line region (BLR). Its optical spectrum seemed to possess only narrow forbidden emission lines that are typical of type 2 (obscured) AGNs, but the long-term optical light curve, obtained from a monitoring campaign over more than two decades, showed strong variability, apparently ruling out the presence of heavy obscuration. Here we present the results from a ∼40 ks XMM-Newton observation of Q2122-444 carried out to shed light on the energetics of this enigmatic AGN. The X-ray analysis was complemented with Australia Telescope Compact Array radio data to assess the possible presence of a jet, and with new NTT/EFOSC2 optical spectroscopic data to verify the actual absence of a BLR. The higher-quality optical data revealed the presence of strong and broad Balmer lines that are at odds with the previous spectral classification of this AGN. The lack of detection of radio emission rules out the presence of a jet. The X-ray data combined with simultaneous UV observations carried out by the Optical Monitor (OM) aboard XMM-Newton confirm that Q2122-444 is a typical type 1 AGN without any significant intrinsic absorption. New estimates of the black hole mass independently obtained from the broad Balmer lines and from a new scaling technique based on X-ray spectral data suggest that Q2122-444 is accreting at a relatively high rate in Eddington units.

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION MODEL OF THE 'NAKED-EYE BURST' GRB 080319B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Granot, J.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Hüntemeyer, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    On 2008 March 19, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever recorded was detected by several ground- and space-based instruments spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays. With a peak visual magnitude of 5.3, GRB 080319B was dubbed the 'naked-eye' GRB, as an observer under dark skies could have seen the burst without the aid of an instrument. Presented here are results from observations of the prompt phase of GRB 080319B taken with the Milagro TeV observatory. The burst was observed at an elevation angle of 47°. Analysis of the data is performed using both the standard air shower method and the scaler or single-particle technique, which results in a sensitive energy range that extends from ∼5 GeV to >20 TeV. These observations provide the only direct constraints on the properties of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080319B at these energies. No evidence for emission is found in the Milagro data, and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux above 10 GeV are derived. The limits on emission between ∼25 and 200 GeV are incompatible with the synchrotron self-Compton model of gamma-ray production and disfavor a corresponding range (2 eV-16 eV) of assumed synchrotron peak energies. This indicates that the optical photons and soft (∼650 keV) gamma rays may not be produced by the same electron population.

  7. Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (UCOCGC) of the pancreas associated with the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorstra, Jan-Bart M.; Maitra, Anirban; Morsink, Folkert H. M.; Drillenburg, Paul; ten Kate, Fiebo J. W.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Offerhaus, Johan A.

    2008-01-01

    The familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome is caused by a germline mutation of p16. More than 90% of the sporadic pancreatic carcinomas contain genetic alterations that inactivate p16. Patients with the FAMMM syndrome have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Ductal

  8. Development of Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Pictorial-Based for Identifying High School Students Misconceptions on the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswaningsih, W.; Firman, H.; Zackiyah; Khoirunnisa, A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop the two-tier pictorial-based diagnostic test for identifying student misconceptions on mole concept. The method of this study is used development and validation. The development of the test Obtained through four phases, development of any items, validation, determination key, and application test. Test was developed in the form of pictorial consisting of two tier, the first tier Consist of four possible answers and the second tier Consist of four possible reasons. Based on the results of content validity of 20 items using the CVR (Content Validity Ratio), a number of 18 items declared valid. Based on the results of the reliability test using SPSS, Obtained 17 items with Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0703, the which means that items have accepted. A total of 10 items was conducted to 35 students of senior high school students who have studied the mole concept on one of the high schools in Cimahi. Based on the results of the application test, student misconceptions were identified in each label concept in mole concept with the percentage of misconceptions on the label concept of mole (60.15%), Avogadro’s number (34.28%), relative atomic mass (62, 84%), relative molecule mass (77.08%), molar mass (68.53%), molar volume of gas (57.11%), molarity (71.32%), chemical equation (82.77%), limiting reactants (91.40%), and molecular formula (77.13%).

  9. Dynamic Thermodynamics with Internal Energy, Volume, and Amount of Moles as States : Application to Liquefied Gas Tank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendsen, A. R. J.; Versteeg, G. F.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic models for process design, optimization, and control usually solve a set of heat and/or mass balances as a function of time and/or position in the process. To obtain more robust dynamic models and to minimize the amount of assumptions, internal energy, volume, and amount of moles are chosen

  10. Assessing filtering of mountaintop CO2 mole fractions for application to inverse models of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Heck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a widely recognized need to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchanges in areas of complex terrain including the United States Mountain West. CO2 fluxes over mountainous terrain are often difficult to measure due to unusual and complicated influences associated with atmospheric transport. Consequently, deriving regional fluxes in mountain regions with carbon cycle inversion of atmospheric CO2 mole fraction is sensitive to filtering of observations to those that can be represented at the transport model resolution. Using five years of CO2 mole fraction observations from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON, five statistical filters are used to investigate a range of approaches for identifying regionally representative CO2 mole fractions. Test results from three filters indicate that subsets based on short-term variance and local CO2 gradients across tower inlet heights retain nine-tenths of the total observations and are able to define representative diel variability and seasonal cycles even for difficult-to-model sites where the influence of local fluxes is much larger than regional mole fraction variations. Test results from two other filters that consider measurements from previous and following days using spline fitting or sliding windows are overly selective. Case study examples showed that these windowing-filters rejected measurements representing synoptic changes in CO2, which suggests that they are not well suited to filtering continental CO2 measurements. We present a novel CO2 lapse rate filter that uses CO2 differences between levels in the model atmosphere to select subsets of site measurements that are representative on model scales. Our new filtering techniques provide guidance for novel approaches to assimilating mountain-top CO2 mole fractions in carbon cycle inverse models.

  11. Regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck laying hens in a semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Domingos, Hérica Girlane Tertulino; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck hens that were subjected to different temperatures in a semi-arid environment. The surface temperature was measured in four body regions (face, neck, legs and feathered area) of 60 Naked Neck hens. The following environmental variables were measured at the center of the shed: the black globe temperature (T G ), air temperature (T A ), wind speed (U) and relative humidity (R H ). The T A was divided into three classes: 1 (24.0-26.0 °C), 2 (26.1-28.9 °C) and 3 (29.0-31.0 °C). An analysis of variance was performed by the least squares method and a comparison of the means by the Tukey-Kramer test. The results showed a significant effect of T A class, the body region and the interaction between these two effects on the surface temperature. There was no significant difference between the T A classes for the face and neck. The legs and feathered area showed significant differences between the T A classes. Regarding the effect of body regions within each T A class, there was a significant difference among all regions in the three T A classes. In all T A classes the neck had the highest average followed by the face and legs. The feathered area showed the lowest average of the different T A classes. In conclusion, this study showed that there are regional differences in the surface temperature of Naked Neck hens, with the legs acting as thermal windows.

  12. First 10 kg of naked germanium detectors installed in liquid nitrogen in GENIUS Test-Facility in GRAN-SASSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The GENIUS Test Facility has come into operation in Gran Sasso on May 5, 2003 with its first ten kg of naked Ge detectors in liquid nitrogen. This is the first time that this novel technique for extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is applied under the background conditions of an underground laboratory. GENIUS-TF has the potential to check the DAMA evidence for cold dark matter by modulation, and possibly, to improve the accuracy of the recently observed first signal for neutrinoless double beta decay. (orig.)

  13. First 10 kg of naked germanium detectors installed in liquid nitrogen in GENIUS Test-Facility in GRAN-SASSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    2004-01-01

    The GENIUS Test Facility has come into operation in Gran Sasso on May 5, 2003 with its first ten kg of naked Ge detectors in liquid nitrogen. This is the first time that this novel technique for extreme background reduction in search for rare decays is applied under the background conditions of an underground laboratory. GENIUS-TF has the potential to check the DAMA evidence for cold dark matter by modulation, and possibly, to improve the accuracy of the recently observed first signal for neutrinoless double beta decay. (orig.)

  14. The chromosome banding pattern in two cytotypes (2n = 36 and 38) of blind mole rats from Turkey (Mammalia: Spalaxidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Arisoy, A.; Zima, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2013), s. 95-100 ISSN 0939-7140 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nannospalax xanthodon * Ag-NOR staining * C-banding * Aydin * Manisa * western Anatolia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.524, year: 2013

  15. Phylogeny of species and cytotypes of mole rats (Spalacidae) in Turkey inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequencees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kandemir, I.; Sozen, M.; Matur, F.; Kankilic, T.; Martínková, Natália; Colak, F.; Ozkurt, S. O.; Colak, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 1 (2012), s. 25-33 ISSN 0139-7893 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nannospalax * molecular phylogeny * chromosomal form * Anatolia * Thrace Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  16. Burrow systems of mole-rats as refuges for frogs in the Miombo woodlands of south-east Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šklíba, J.; Jirků, Miloslav; Šumbera, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, MAR (2016), s. 158-161 ISSN 0266-4674 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : aestivation * Anura * Bathyergidae * commensalism * ecosystem engineer * Malawi * subterranean rodent * Zambia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2016

  17. The visual system in subterranean African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae): Retina, subcortical visual nuclei and primary visual cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, P.; Cveková, P.; Benada, Oldřich; Wielkopolska, E.; Olkowitz, S.; Turlejski, K.; Burda, H.; Bennett, N. C.; Peichl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, 2-4 (2008), s. 356-364 ISSN 0361-9230 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GA206/06/1469; ZA(ZA) 2069070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microphthalmia * ocular regression * subterranean mammals Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2008

  18. Transcriptome sequencing of the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax galili: Utility and potential for the discovery of novel evolutionary patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Assaf; Korol, Abraham; Hü bner, Sariel; Hernandez, Alvaro G.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Ali, Shahjahan; Glaser, Fabian; Paz, Arnon; Avivi, Aaron; Band, Mark

    2011-01-01

    sequencing of Spalax galili, a chromosomal type of S. ehrenbergi. cDNA pools from muscle and brain tissues isolated from animals exposed to hypoxic and normoxic conditions were sequenced using Sanger, GS FLX, and GS FLX Titanium technologies. Assembly

  19. A maze-lover's dream: Burrow architecture, natural history and habitat characteristics of Ansell's mole-rat (Fukomys anselli)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šklíba, J.; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Hrouzková, E.; Lövy, M.; Kott, O.; Šumbera, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 6 (2012), s. 420-427 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bathyergidae * Burrow system * Sociality * Habitat characteristics * Subterranean mammal * Fukomys anselli Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.246, year: 2012

  20. Variation in C-heterochromatin and NOR distribution among chromosomal races of mole rats (Spalacidae) from Central Anatolia,Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Sükrüye, A.; Zima, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 1 (2011), s. 28-35 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Nannospalax nehringi * Karyotype evolution * Speciation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.609, year: 2011

  1. THE “NAKED FACE” OF SECULAR EXCLUSION: BILL 94 AND THE PRIVATIZATION OF BELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Fournier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article will consider the case study of Québec’s Bill 94 (An Act to establish guidelines governing accommodation requests within the Administration and certain institutions, introduced in March 2010, one of many recent bans imposed on the wearing of the niqab in the West. Citing the importance of “the right to gender equality and the principle of religious neutrality of the State,” Bill 94 emphasizes the necessity of “un visage découvert” or “naked face” when giving or receiving a broad range of public services in Québec, including all government services, childcare centres, hospitals, and health and social service agencies. According to section 6 of the Act, “If an accommodation involves an adaptation of that practice and reasons of security, communication or identification warrant it, the accommodation must be denied.” While quasi-neutral, this bill clearly has a disproportionate impact on religious women who wear the niqab. In fact, as a direct result of the legislation, Muslim women will likely disappear from the public sphere and be restricted to the private home where they might effectively be dependent on male family members to navigate the “market place” on their behalf. Borrowing from Charles Taylor’s A Secular Age, this paper will consider the distributive consequences of the niqab ban, a critical juncture of “religion-state relations” in which belief is more and more relegated to the private sphere in Quebec. The article will use Bill 94 to explore this peculiar manifestation of “secularism” with the concurrent existence of “governance feminism”— how the privatization of belief goes hand in hand and is perversely reinforced by a colonial discourse on gender equality, leaving some already marginalized women out of the public gaze. Is this legislated demand for a “naked face” truly the logical outcome of a successful feminist movement (as some have asserted or isthis erasure of religious

  2. Raman and luminescence spectroscopy of zirconium oxide with the use of the MOLE microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, T.E.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Raman and luminescence spectroscopy with the use of the MOLE microprobe has been used to characterize ZrO 2 originating from oxidized fuel-rod cladding in nuclear accidents. Micro-Raman analysis of samples from Three Mile Island Unit 2 and the Power Burst Facility identified tetragonal and cubic ZrO 2 . The tetragonal and cubic phases are high-temperature polymorphs of ZrO 2 and provide information about temperatures and hydrogen formation in the TMI-2 core. The data suggest that the tetragonal ZrO 2 in TMI-2 samples was stabilized by a crystallite size effect, whereas cubic ZrO 2 in PBF debris samples was stabilized by impurities. Luminescence was used to differentiate yttria-stabilized ZrO 2 ceramics and oxidized fuel-rod cladding in PBF debris samples. The ZrO 2 ceramics produced strong, sharp luminescence peaks which indicated the presence of titanium and yttria in the ZrO 2 . Oxidized fuel-rod cladding displayed no luminescence

  3. Influence of the mole penetrator on measurements of heat flow in lunar subsurface layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzaszek, Roman; Drogosz, Michal; Seweryn, Karol; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; Grygorczuk, Jerzy

    Measuring the thermal gradient in subsurface layers is a basic method of determination the heat flux from the interior of a planetary body to its surface. In case of the Moon, such measurements complemented with the results of theoretical analysis and modeling can significantly improve our understanding of the thermal and geological evolution of the Moon. In practice, temperature gradient measurements are performed by at least two sensors located at different depths under the surface. These sensors will be attached to a penetrator [1] or to a cable pulled behind the penetrator. In both cases the object that carries the sensors, e.g. penetrator, perturb temperature measurements. In our study we analyze a case of two thermal sensors attached to the ends of 350mm long penetrator made of a composite material. In agreement with the studies of other authors we have found that the penetrator should be placed at the depth of 2-3 meters, where periodic changes of the temperature due to variation of solar flux at the surface are significantly smaller than the error of temperature measurement. The most important result of our analysis is to show how to deconvolve the real gradient of the temperature from the measurements perturbed by the penetrator body. In this way it will be possible to more accurately determine heat flux in the lunar regolith. [1] Grygorczuk J., Seweryn K., Wawrzaszek R., Banaszkiewicz M., Insertion of a Mole Pene-trator -Experimental Results, /39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference /League City, Texas 2008

  4. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  5. Antagonistic Coevolution Drives Whack-a-Mole Sensitivity in Gene Regulatory Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewoen Shin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Robustness, defined as tolerance to perturbations such as mutations and environmental fluctuations, is pervasive in biological systems. However, robustness often coexists with its counterpart, evolvability--the ability of perturbations to generate new phenotypes. Previous models of gene regulatory network evolution have shown that robustness evolves under stabilizing selection, but it is unclear how robustness and evolvability will emerge in common coevolutionary scenarios. We consider a two-species model of coevolution involving one host and one parasite population. By using two interacting species, key model parameters that determine the fitness landscapes become emergent properties of the model, avoiding the need to impose these parameters externally. In our study, parasites are modeled on species such as cuckoos where mimicry of the host phenotype confers high fitness to the parasite but lower fitness to the host. Here, frequent phenotype changes are favored as each population continually adapts to the other population. Sensitivity evolves at the network level such that point mutations can induce large phenotype changes. Crucially, the sensitive points of the network are broadly distributed throughout the network and continually relocate. Each time sensitive points in the network are mutated, new ones appear to take their place. We have therefore named this phenomenon "whack-a-mole" sensitivity, after a popular fun park game. We predict that this type of sensitivity will evolve under conditions of strong directional selection, an observation that helps interpret existing experimental evidence, for example, during the emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  6. Determination of mole fractions of ethyl-cellulose-containing monomers by NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-05

    Three samples of ethyl cellulose (EC) with different degrees of substitution (DS)-0.51, 1.41, and 2.28-were prepared by a slurry method using ethyl bromide as the etherification reagent. 1 H- 13 C HSQC and HSQC-TOCSY NMR spectral analysis allowed for complete assignment of the 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts, respectively, of eight anhydroglucose units (AGUs) comprising EC chains-un-, 2-mono-, 3-mono-, 6-mono-, 2,3-di-, 2,6-di-, 3,6-di-, and 2,3,6-tri-substituted AGUs. In addition, the lineshape of the quantitative 13 C NMR spectra of the three EC samples provided change in the mole fractions of these AGUs against DS, making it possible to estimate the reaction mechanism for the production of EC, elucidating reactivities of the hydroxyl groups at the 2, 3, and 6 positions of cellulose and interactions between the substituent groups within the same AGU and vicinal AGUs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mola hidatiforme e doença trofoblástica gestacional Hydatidiform mole and gestational trophoblastic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandyr Moreira de Andrade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A mola hidatiforme é uma complicação relativamente infrequente da gravidez, mas com potencial para evolução para formas que necessitam de tratamento sistêmico e podem ser ameaçadoras da vida. Sob a denominação de mola hidatiforme há duas entidades histopatológicas e clínicas: a mola parcial e a completa. As diferenças entre estas duas formas são importantes, devido ao risco de evolução para formas persistentes, ou seja, mais alto para as completas. O diagnóstico da mola hidatiforme, seu tratamento e seguimento após o tratamento inicial sofreram alterações importantes nos últimos anos. O número de pacientes assintomáticas tem aumentado devido ao emprego de ultrassonografia no início da gravidez. Para a resolução da mola hidatiforme é necessário evitar o emprego de medicamentos que induzam contrações uterinas e usar a vácuo-aspiração. Deve ser prescrito o método contraceptivo hormonal logo após o esvaziamento da mola. O seguimento é baseado nas dosagens seriadas semanais de gonadotrofinas coriônicas. É importante que o método empregado detecte todas as formas das gonadotrofinas coriônicas (molécula intacta, hiperglicosilada, subunidade β livre e fragmento central da subunidade β.The hydatiform mole is a relatively rare pregnancy complication, but with potential to evolve to forms which need systemic treatment and can be a threat to life. There are two histopathological and clinical entities under the name of hydatiform mole: the partial and the complete mole. The differences between the two forms are important due to risk of evolution to persistent forms, which is higher for the complete moles. The diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of hydatiform mole have been under important changes in the last years. The number of asymptomatic patients has increased, due to the use of ultrasonography at the onset of pregnancy. The use of medication that induces uterine contractions must be avoided, and vacuum

  8. Novel cellulose-based halochromic test strips for naked-eye detection of alkaline vapors and analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Yousef, Hussein; Khattab, Tawfik A; Youssef, Yehia A; Al-Balakocy, Naser; Kamel, Samir

    2017-08-01

    A simple, portable and highly sensitive naked-eye test strip is successfully prepared for optical detection of gaseous and aqueous alkaline analytes. Novel pH-sensory tricyanofuran-hydrazone (TCFH) disperse colorant containing a hydrazone recognition functional moiety is successfully synthesized via azo-coupling reaction between active methyl-containing tricyanofuran (TCF) heterocycle and diazonium salt of 4-aminobenzaldehyde followed by Knoevenagel condensation with malononitrile. UV-vis absorption spectra display solvatochromism and reversible color changes of the TCFH solution in dimethyl sulfoxide in response to pH variations. We investigate the preparation of hydrophobic cellulose/polyethylene terephthalate composites characterized by their high affinity for disperse dyes. Composite films made from CA, Cell/CA, PET/CA, and Cell/PET-CA are produced via solvent-casting procedure using 10-30% modified cellulose or modified polyethylene terephthalate. The mechanical properties and morphologies of these composite films are investigated. The prepared pH-sensory hydrazone-based disperse dye is then applied to dye the produced cellulose-based composite films employing the high temperature pressure dyeing procedure. The produced halochromic PET-CA-TCFH test strip provide an instant visible signal from orange to purple upon exposure to alkaline conditions as proved by the coloration measurements. The sensor strip exhibits high sensitivity and quick detection toward ammonia in both of aqueous and vapor phases by naked-eye observations at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Clipboard: Of pungency, pain, and naked mole rats: chili peppers revisited · Renee M Borges · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 605-611 Articles. Phenotypic plasticity and longevity in plants and animals: cause and effect? Renee M Borges · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Immobile plants ...

  10. Comparison of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions and source-sink characteristics at four WMO/GAW stations in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Siyang; Zhou, Lingxi; Tans, Pieter P.; An, Xingqin; Liu, Yunsong

    2018-05-01

    As CO2 is a primary driving factor of climate change, the mole fraction and source-sink characteristics of atmospheric CO2 over China are constantly inferred from multi-source and multi-site data. In this paper, we compared ground-based CO2 measurements with satellite retrievals and investigated the source-sink regional representativeness at China's four WMO/GAW stations. The results indicate that, firstly, atmospheric CO2 mole fractions from ground-based sampling measurement and Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) products reveal similar seasonal variation. The seasonal amplitude of the column-averaged CO2 mole fractions is smaller than that of the ground-based CO2 at all stations. The extrema of the seasonal cycle of ground-based and column CO2 mole fractions are basically synchronous except a slight phase delay at Lin'an (LAN) station. For the two-year average, the column CO2 is lower than ground-based CO2, and both of them reveal the lowest CO2 mole fraction at Waliguan (WLG) station. The lowest (∼4 ppm) and largest (∼8 ppm) differences between the column and ground-based CO2 appear at WLG and Longfengshan (LFS) stations, respectively. The CO2 mole fraction and its difference between GOSAT and ground-based measurement are smaller in summer than in winter. The differences of summer column CO2 among these stations are also much smaller than their ground-based counterparts. In winter, the maximum of ground-based CO2 mole fractions and the greatest difference between the two (ground-based and column) datasets appear at the LFS station. Secondly, the representative areas of the monthly CO2 background mole fractions at each station were found by employing footprints and emissions. Smaller representative areas appeared at Shangdianzi (SDZ) and LFS, whereas larger ones were seen at WLG and LAN. The representative areas in summer are larger than those in winter at WLG and SDZ, but the situation is opposite at LAN and LFS. The representative areas for the

  11. Expression patterns of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and other placentally expressed human endogenous retroviruses along the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolze, Pierre-Adrien; Patrier, Sophie; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Massardier, Jérôme; Hajri, Touria; Guillotte, Michèle; Bossus, Marc; Sanlaville, Damien; Golfier, François; Mallet, François

    2016-03-01

    Up to 20% of hydatidiform moles are followed by malignant transformation in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and require chemotherapy. Syncytin-1 is involved in human placental morphogenesis and is also expressed in various cancers. We assessed the predictive value of the expression of Syncytin-1 and its interactants in the malignant transformation process of hydatidiform moles. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was localized by immunohistochemistry in hydatidiform moles, gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and control placentas. The transcription levels of its locus ERVWE1, its interaction partners (hASCT1, hASCT2, TLR4 and DC-SIGN) and two loci (ERVFRDE1 and ERV3) involved the expression of other placental envelopes were assessed by real-time PCR. Syncytin-1 glycoprotein was expressed in syncytiotrophoblast of hydatidiform moles with an apical enhancement when compared with normal placentas. Moles with further malignant transformation had a higher staining intensity of Syncytin-1 surface unit C-terminus but the transcription level of its locus ERVWE1 was not different from that of moles with further remission and normal placentas. hASCT1 and TLR4, showed lower transcription levels in complete moles when compared to normal placentas. ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 transcription was down-regulated in hydatidiform moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Variations of Syncytin-1 protein localization and down-regulation of hASCT1 and TLR4 transcription are likely to reflect altered functions of Syncytin-1 in the premalignant context of complete moles. The reduced transcription in gestational trophoblastic diseases of ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, which expression during normal pregnancy is differentially regulated by promoter region methylation, suggest a joint dysregulation mechanism in malignant context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3H-α-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.

    1984-01-01

    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3 H - α -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- α -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3 H -acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs

  13. Rediscovery Of The Northern Mole Vole, Ellobius Talpinus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, At The Western Bank Of The Dnipro River, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusin M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ellobius talpinus was supposed to become extinct from the westernbank of the river Dnipro. Aft er 50 years the species was found again in Dnipropetrovsk and Kherson Region. The brief description of the current distribution of the northern mole vole to the west of the Dnipro is given. Altogether 11 localities were found. The rediscovered populations may be treated as endangered in the region.

  14. A new definition for the mole based on the Avogadro constant: a journey from physics to chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Martin J T

    2011-10-28

    The mole is the most recent addition to the set of base units that form the International System of Units, although its pre-cursor the 'gram-molecule', had been in use by both physicists and chemists for more than 120 years. A proposal has been published recently to establish a new definition for the mole based on a fixed value for the Avogadro constant. This would introduce consistent relative uncertainties for the molar and the atomic masses while making no change to the system of relative atomic masses ('atomic weights'). Although the proposal would have little impact on the measurement uncertainty of practical work, it has stimulated considerable debate about the mole and the nature of the quantity amount of substance. In this paper, the rationale for the new definition is explained against the background of changes in the way the quantity amount of substance has been used, from its first use during the early development of thermodynamics through to the use of the 'number of gram-molecules' at the end of the nineteenth century.

  15. TIM1 (HAVCR1 Is Not Essential for Cellular Entry of Either Quasi-enveloped or Naked Hepatitis A Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Receptor molecules play key roles in the cellular entry of picornaviruses, and TIM1 (HAVCR1 is widely accepted to be the receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV, an unusual, hepatotropic human picornavirus. However, its identification as the hepatovirus receptor predated the discovery that hepatoviruses undergo nonlytic release from infected cells as membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV virions that enter cells via a pathway distinct from naked, nonenveloped virions. We thus revisited the role of TIM1 in hepatovirus entry, examining both adherence and infection/replication in cells with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9-engineered TIM1 knockout. Cell culture-derived, gradient-purified eHAV bound Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells less efficiently than naked HAV at 4°C, but eliminating TIM1 expression caused no difference in adherence of either form of HAV, nor any impact on infection and replication in these cells. In contrast, TIM1-deficient Vero cells showed a modest reduction in quasi-enveloped eHAV (but not naked HAV attachment and replication. Thus, TIM1 facilitates quasi-enveloped eHAV entry in Vero cells, most likely by binding phosphatidylserine (PtdSer residues on the eHAV membrane. Both Tim1−/− Ifnar1−/− and Tim4−/− Ifnar1−/− double-knockout mice were susceptible to infection upon intravenous challenge with infected liver homogenate, with fecal HAV shedding and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT elevations similar to those in Ifnar1−/− mice. However, intrahepatic HAV RNA and ALT elevations were modestly reduced in Tim1−/−Ifnar1−/− mice compared to Ifnar1−/− mice challenged with a lower titer of gradient-purified HAV or eHAV. We conclude that TIM1 is not an essential hepatovirus entry factor, although its PtdSer-binding activity may contribute to the spread of quasi-enveloped virus and liver injury in mice.

  16. Naked singularities, branes and Chern-Simons couplings: The dark side of the 2+1 black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanelli, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Branes are naked singularities, analogous to linear or planar defects in crystals. Zero-branes in AdS spacetimes are n egative mass black holes , which can be generalized to higher-dimensional branes. When these solutions are endowed with angular momentum, the extremal spinning branes correspond to BPS states. On the other hand, the 2p-branes, spanning a (2p + 1)-dimensional worldsheet, provide a naturally coupling to CS field theories defined on a D-dimensional spacetime, with D > 2p + 1. In this picture, the field that lives in the D-dimensional spacetime, as well as the sources that couple to it are made out of the same stuff -an SO(D - 1,2) connection. The fact that on the brane the AdS group is necessarily broken down to SO(2p, 2), brings in a number of tensor fields that play the role of charged matter living on the brane.

  17. TIM1 (HAVCR1) Is Not Essential for Cellular Entry of Either Quasi-enveloped or Naked Hepatitis A Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman; Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; González-López, Olga; Rhein, Bethany; Moller-Tank, Sven; Brouillette, Rachel; Hensley, Lucinda; Misumi, Ichiro; Lovell, William; Cullen, John M; Whitmire, Jason K; Maury, Wendy; Lemon, Stanley M

    2017-09-05

    Receptor molecules play key roles in the cellular entry of picornaviruses, and TIM1 (HAVCR1) is widely accepted to be the receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV), an unusual, hepatotropic human picornavirus. However, its identification as the hepatovirus receptor predated the discovery that hepatoviruses undergo nonlytic release from infected cells as membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions that enter cells via a pathway distinct from naked, nonenveloped virions. We thus revisited the role of TIM1 in hepatovirus entry, examining both adherence and infection/replication in cells with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-engineered TIM1 knockout. Cell culture-derived, gradient-purified eHAV bound Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells less efficiently than naked HAV at 4°C, but eliminating TIM1 expression caused no difference in adherence of either form of HAV, nor any impact on infection and replication in these cells. In contrast, TIM1-deficient Vero cells showed a modest reduction in quasi-enveloped eHAV (but not naked HAV) attachment and replication. Thus, TIM1 facilitates quasi-enveloped eHAV entry in Vero cells, most likely by binding phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) residues on the eHAV membrane. Both Tim1 -/- Ifnar1 -/- and Tim4 -/- Ifnar1 -/- double-knockout mice were susceptible to infection upon intravenous challenge with infected liver homogenate, with fecal HAV shedding and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations similar to those in Ifnar1 -/- mice. However, intrahepatic HAV RNA and ALT elevations were modestly reduced in Tim1 -/- Ifnar1 -/- mice compared to Ifnar1 -/- mice challenged with a lower titer of gradient-purified HAV or eHAV. We conclude that TIM1 is not an essential hepatovirus entry factor, although its PtdSer-binding activity may contribute to the spread of quasi-enveloped virus and liver injury in mice. IMPORTANCE T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-containing domain protein 1 (TIM1) was reported more than

  18. ENERGETIC VALUE OF FORAGES FROM SEMI-ARID REGION AND DIGESTIBILITY OF RATIONS FOR NAKED NECK PULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEX MARTINS VARELA DE ARRUDA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding programs for naked neck chickens in semi-intensive production system from brazilian equatorial semi-arid environment, must consider regional food availability and respective nutritional values. Thus, to evaluate the digestibility and metabolizable energy of alternative forages, it was used 240 naked neck pullets (Isa Label lineage receiving water and ration ad libitum, pair-housed in cages for total collection of excreta on conventional warehouse. It was used a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement (5x2: one control ration (corn and soy meal and other four experimental rations with silk flower hay (Calotropis procera, cassava leafs hay (Manihot esculenta, kills pasture hay (Senna obtusifolia or leucaena leafs hay (Leucaena leucocephala, and all rations were balanced for two growing phases, between 8 and 10 weeks (young pullets and between 14 and 16 weeks of age (old pullets. The values of apparent digestibility of nutrients for all experimental rations were lower than control ration (P <0.05 and it was observed general means of 72.18% for dry matter, 78.12% for crude protein, 66.90% for ether extract, 28.08% for neutral detergent fiber, 18.51% for the acid detergent fiber, 71.64% for gross energy and availability of 15.61% for mineral matter. The general mean of apparent and corrected metabolizable energy of alternative forages was 1217 kcal/ kg and 1108 kcal/kg, respectively, and the higher value was determined for leucaena hay and the lower value for silk flower hay (P <0.05.

  19. Geochemical and Petrologic Constraints on the Source of Eocene Volcanism at Mole Hill, Rockingham County, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. A.; Beard, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    Mole Hill is an Eocene (48 Ma) basaltic volcanic neck located west of Harrisonburg, VA, and provides a unique opportunity to probe the mantle beneath the Shenandoah Valley. It lies on the northeastern edge of a swarm of alkaline-series volcanic plugs, dikes, and diatremes extending through Rockingham and Highland Counties, VA, and Pendleton County, WV. The Eocene volcanics are thought to have exploited extensive basement fracture systems originally formed during the Alleghenian Orogeny and subsequent rifting. The Eocene volcanism may have been triggered by reactivation of faults due to global shifts in relative plate motions (Southworth 1993, USGS Bull, B1839-I) but the source material and magmatic processes for the Eocene volcanism are largely unknown. Compositional and texture analyses of xenocrystic and groundmass clinopyroxene, olivine, and spinel were completed either at Virginia Tech on the Cameca SX-50 electron microprobe in the Dept of Geological Sciences, or in the Dept of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C using the JEOL JXA-8900R WD/EDS microanalyzer or the FEI NOVA nanoSEM600 FEG Variable Pressure Scanning Electron Microscope. Xenocrysts up to 2cm in diameter are distributed throughout the volcanic neck, with clinopyroxene >>spinel>olivine. The clinopyroxene and olivine xenocrysts show undulatory extinction in cross-polarized light and are found as individual crystals or as aggregates. Clinopyroxene xenocryst cores are high-Al, low-Cr augite ( ˜Wo44En46Fs10) with Mg# 78.5-85.9. The clinopyroxene xenocrysts have compositionally zoned rims 100-250 μm-wide containing abundant plagioclase inclusions and sparse melt inclusions in a sieve texture. The outer edges of xenocrysts approach the compositions of groundmass and microphenocryst clinopyroxenes ( ˜Wo47En38Fs15; Mg# 67.9-74.5). Olivine xenocrysts contain sulfide inclusions and Cr-rich spinel and have Mg-rich ( ˜Fo86-90) cores with more Fe- and Ca-rich rims (Fo70

  20. Experimental Investigation of InSight HP3 Mole Interaction with Martian Regolith Simulant. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Penetration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason P.; Hudson, Troy L.; Andrade, José E.

    2017-10-01

    The InSight mission launches in 2018 to characterize several geophysical quantities on Mars, including the heat flow from the planetary interior. This quantity will be calculated by utilizing measurements of the thermal conductivity and the thermal gradient down to 5 meters below the Martian surface. One of the components of InSight is the Mole, which hammers into the Martian regolith to facilitate these thermal property measurements. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the effect of the Mole's penetrating action on regolith compaction and mechanical properties. Quasi-static and dynamic experiments were run with a 2D model of the 3D cylindrical mole. Force resistance data was captured with load cells. Deformation information was captured in images and analyzed using Digitial Image Correlation (DIC). Additionally, we used existing approximations of Martian regolith thermal conductivity to estimate the change in the surrounding granular material's thermal conductivity due to the Mole's penetration. We found that the Mole has the potential to cause a high degree of densification, especially if the initial granular material is relatively loose. The effect on the thermal conductivity from this densification was found to be relatively small in first-order calculations though more complete thermal models incorporating this densification should be a subject of further investigation. The results obtained provide an initial estimate of the Mole's impact on Martian regolith thermal properties.

  1. Effect of the Ti/B4C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B4C powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B 4 C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB 2 is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B 4 C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al 3 BC or Al 4 C 3 when the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B 4 C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B 4 C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B 4 C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively

  2. Postprandial heat increment does not substitute for active thermogenesis in cold-challenged star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K L; McIntyre, I W; MacArthur, R A

    2000-01-01

    The postprandial increase in metabolic rate associated with consuming, assimilating and excreting a meal is often termed the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The metabolic heat production of star-nosed moles, Condylura cristata, held at thermoneutrality was monitored for 4 h following a single 10 min session of feeding on a ration consisting of 0 g (controls), 3.5 g or 10 g of earthworms. Coefficients for metabolizable energy digestibility and digesta passage rate of earthworms fed to C. cristata were also determined. We then tested whether feeding-induced thermogenesis substitutes partially or completely for thermoregulatory heat production in these animals exposed to sub-thermoneutral air temperatures (9-24 degrees C). A single feeding on earthworms had both short- and long-term effects on the metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio of C. cristata. The observed short-term (0-65 min) rise in metabolic rate, assumed to be associated primarily with the physical costs of nutrient digestion, absorption and excretion, was similar to the calculated mean retention time (66.7+/-7.8 min; mean +/- s.e. m., N=5) of this species. This component of the HIF represented 2.9 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 3.5 g (13.21 kJ) meal of earthworms and 1.4 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 7.5 g (28.09 kJ) meal of earthworms. At all test temperatures, resting metabolic rate typically remained above fasting levels for 1-4 h following ingestion of the high-protein earthworm diet. This protracted rise in metabolic rate, presumably associated with the biochemical costs of amino acid oxidation/gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, averaged 12.8 % of the metabolizable energy and 8.7 % of the gross energy intake. Despite the potential thermoregulatory benefit, we found no evidence that biochemical HIF substitutes for facultative thermogenesis in star-nosed moles exposed to low air temperatures.

  3. Diffusion coefficients in 4-component mixture expressed explicitly in terms of binary diffusion coefficients and mole fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    1996-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients in 4-component mixture D ij (4) were expressed explicitly in terms of binary diffusion coefficients and mole fractions by solving a ratio of determinants defined by Hirschfelder et al. The explicit expressions of D ij (4) were divided into two terms, a term due to the i-j pairs of attention and a term common to all the pairs out of the 4 components. The two terms of D ij (4) had extended structures similar to corresponding those of D ij (3) respectively. (author)

  4. Environmental physiology of the mole crab Emerita asiatica, at a power plant discharge area on the east coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, K.; Ahamed, M.S.; Durairaj, G.; Nair, K.V.K.

    1995-01-01

    Cage experiments at the discharge area of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) facilitated studies of thermal tolerance in Emerita asiatica. At the laboratory, oxygen consumption at various temperatures and varying salinities was also investigated. In the field 100% mortality of crabs was recorded at the Condenser Cooling Water Pumps (CCWP) discharge site compared to no mortality at the Processed Sea Water Pumps (PSWP) site. This observation implicated temperature as a stress factor at the CCWP outfall, because other factors, including residual chlorine and water velocity, were the same at the PSWP and CCWP sites. Laboratory experiments on tolerance revealed that 38.5 o C was lethal to mole crabs. The time taken for 100% mortality decreased as the temperature increased from 35 to 40 o C. Oxygen metabolism showed a progressive increase with temperature from 29 to 36 o c, and declined at 37 o C. The influence of salinity on oxygen consumption was marginal at salinities of 20 to 35o/oo but, when reduced to 15o/oo, the oxygen consumption declined. The present study thus indicates that temperature could be the lethal factor, determining the distribution of mole crabs near the power station, where water temperature can exceed 40 o C. (author)

  5. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H 2 O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H 2 O with buffer containing 1.2 mM 14 C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. 14 CO 2 production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by 14 CO 2 production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 μmoles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 μmoles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O 2 consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 μmoles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine

  6. Interaction of Thermus thermophilus ArsC enzyme and gold nanoparticles naked-eye assays speciation between As(III) and As(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Casale, Sandra; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Antonucci, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 encodes chromosomal arsenate reductase (TtArsC), the enzyme responsible for resistance to the harmful effects of arsenic. We report on adsorption of TtArsC onto gold nanoparticles for naked-eye monitoring of biomolecular interaction between the enzyme and arsenic species. Synthesis of hybrid biological–metallic nanoparticles has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase modulated infrared reflection absorption (PM-IRRAS) spectroscopies. Molecular interactions have been monitored by UV–vis and Fourier transform-surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR). Due to the nanoparticles’ aggregation on exposure to metal salts, pentavalent and trivalent arsenic solutions can be clearly distinguished by naked-eye assay, even at 85 μM concentration. Moreover, the assay shows partial selectivity against other heavy metals. (paper)

  7. Zinc deficiency leads to lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium of pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Julien

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with lipofuscin accumulation whereas the content of melanosomes decreases. Melanosomes are the main storage of zinc in the pigmented tissues. Since the elderly population, as the most affected group for AMD, is prone to zinc deficit, we investigated the chemical and ultrastructural effects of zinc deficiency in pigmented rat eyes after a six-month zinc penury diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult Long Evans (LE rats were investigated. The control animals were fed with a normal alimentation whereas the zinc-deficiency rats (ZD-LE were fed with a zinc deficient diet for six months. Quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalysis yielded the zinc mole fractions of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. The lateral resolution of the analysis was 100 nm. The zinc mole fractions of melanosomes were significantly smaller in the RPE of ZD-LE rats as compared to the LE control rats. Light, fluorescence and electron microscopy, as well as immunohistochemistry were performed. The numbers of lipofuscin granules in the RPE and of infiltrated cells (Ø>3 µm found in the choroid were quantified. The number of lipofuscin granules significantly increased in ZD-LE as compared to control rats. Infiltrated cells bigger than 3 µm were only detected in the choroid of ZD-LE animals. Moreover, the thickness of the Bruch's membrane of ZD-LE rats varied between 0.4-3 µm and thin, rangy ED1 positive macrophages were found attached at these sites of Bruch's membrane or even inside it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In pigmented rats, zinc deficiency yielded an accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE and of large pigmented macrophages in the choroids as well as the appearance of thin, rangy macrophages at Bruch's membrane. Moreover, we showed that a zinc diet reduced the zinc mole fraction of melanosomes in the RPE and modulated the thickness of the Bruch's membrane.

  8. Otolith microchemistry of modern versus well-dated ancient naked carp Gymnocypris przewalskii: Implication for water evolution of Lake Qinghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Chia-Hui; Li, Fuchun; Wang, Yujiao; Wang, Xulong; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Liumei; Du, Jinhua

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate over how the water level and composition of the water in Lake Qinghai changed in the past and might change in future. This study of the microchemistry of otoliths from ancient naked carp explores the chemistry of a relict lake isolated from Lake Qinghai during the Little Ice Age (LIA). A close correlation between the ages measured on fish bone and otoliths by AMS-14C, and by optically stimulated luminescence on overlying sediments, confirms a high water level in Lake Qinghai before 680-300 years ago. The contrasting compositions of the ancient otoliths relative to modern otoliths and waters indicate that the relict lake became enriched in 18O, Mg, Li, B and to a lesser extent Ba, but depleted in 13C, owing to strong evaporation, authigenic carbonates precipitation, (micro-)organism activity, and less fresh water input after it was isolated. If there were long-term fresh water input, however, a reverse trend might occur. The most important observation is that, because the waters have been supersaturated with respect to carbonates, authigenic carbonate precipitation would result in low but consistent Sr/Ca ratios in the lakes, as recorded by both the ancient and modern otoliths. The geochemical records of ancient versus modern biogenic carbonates provide insights into the long-term hydroclimatic evolution processes of an inland water body.

  9. Low-Dose Gene Therapy for Murine PKU Using Episomal Naked DNA Vectors Expressing PAH from Its Endogenous Liver Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiu Man Grisch-Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Limited duration of transgene expression, insertional mutagenesis, and size limitations for transgene cassettes pose challenges and risk factors for many gene therapy vectors. Here, we report on physiological expression of liver phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH by delivery of naked DNA/minicircle (MC-based vectors for correction of homozygous enu2 mice, a model of human phenylketonuria (PKU. Because MC vectors lack a defined size limit, we constructed a MC vector expressing a codon-optimized murine Pah cDNA that includes a truncated intron and is under the transcriptional control of a 3.6-kb native Pah promoter/enhancer sequence. This vector, delivered via hydrodynamic injection, yielded therapeutic liver PAH activity and sustained correction of blood phenylalanine comparable to viral or synthetic liver promoters. Therapeutic efficacy was seen with vector copy numbers of 95% loss of vector genomes and PAH activity in liver, demonstrating that MC vectors had not integrated into the liver genome. In conclusion, MC vectors, which do not have a defined size-limitation, offer a favorable safety profile for hepatic gene therapy due to their non-integration in combination with native promoters.

  10. Evidence for a new particle with naked ''beauty'' and for its associated production in high-energy (pp) interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, M.; Bonvicini, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; D'Ali, G.; Di Cesare, P.; Esposito, B.; Giusti, P.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Valenti, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bologna Univ.; Perugia Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is reported for the existence, with six standard deviations significance, of a new particle: the heaviest baryon observed so far, whose mass is measured to be m = (5,425 +- 75 175 ) MeV/c 2 . Its width is compatible with zero. It is electrically neutral and it decays into a proton, a D 0 , and a π - . This particle is produced in association with a hadronic state whose semileptonic decay contains a positive electron. The partial cross section for the observed effect is δσ = (3.8 +- 1.2) x 10 - 35 cm 2 . The interpretation of these results is in terms of the associated production of naked ''beauty'' states in (pp) interactions at √s = 62 GeV c.m. energy. The new particle is identified as the first ''beauty''-flavoured baryon with quark composition (udb), i.e. the #betta# 0 sub(b). The discrimination power of the experiment against ''known'' physics, is of the order of 10 - 10 . (author)

  11. Yield reduction caused by a soil-borne disease of naked, dwarf, and conventional oat in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PELTONEN-SAINIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A severe disease occurred in the field plots of naked (cv. Salomon, dwarf (cv. Pal, and conventional oat (cvs. Jalostettu maatiainen and Salo at the Viikki Experimental Farm of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 1994 and 1995. Symptoms were expressed as grayish-brown necrotic areas on the lower leaves which killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed contributed to the yield losses. The infection also resulted in less grains per panicle and lower weight of both panicle and vegetative above-ground biomass. From a total of 57 fungal isolates obtained from infected leaves, Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm. Sacc. and F. sambucinum Fuck. Dominated and subsequently caused infection (particularly foot and root rot in oat in laboratory tests. These two Fusarium spp. Were considered to be the primary causal agents of the symptoms observed in the field, although other pathogens may have been present. The disease was probably soil-borne. The results of this study suggested that the unusually dry and warm weather during late June and in July was the principal factor behind the severe disease outbreak. ;

  12. Performance comparison of dwarf laying hens segregating for the naked neck gene in temperate and subtropical environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordas André

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study compares laying performances between two environments of dwarf laying hen lines segregating for the naked neck mutation (NA locus, a selected dwarf line of brown-egg layers and its control line. Layers with one of the three genotypes at the NA locus were produced from 11 sires from the control line and 12 sires from the selected line. Two hatches produced 216 adult hens in Taiwan and 297 hens in France. Genetic parameters for laying traits were estimated in each environment and the ranking of sire breeding values was compared between environments. Laying performance was lower, and mortality was higher in Taiwan than in France. The line by environment interaction was highly significant for body weight at 16 weeks, clutch length and egg number, with or without Box-Cox transformation. The selected line was more sensitive to environmental change but in Taiwan it could maintain a higher egg number than the control line. Estimated heritability values in the selected line were higher in France than in Taiwan, but not for all the traits in the control line. The rank correlations between sire breeding values were low within the selected line and slightly higher in the control line. A few sire families showed a good ranking in both environments, suggesting that some families may adapt better to environmental change.

  13. Platyamoeba pseudovannellida n. sp., a naked amoeba with wide salt tolerance isolated from the Salton Sea, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, G; Rogerson, A; Anderson, O R

    2001-01-01

    A new species of naked amoeba, Platyamoeba pseudovannellida n.sp., is described on the basis of light microscopic and fine structural features. The amoeba was isolated from the Salton Sea, California, from water at a salinity of ca. 44%. Locomotive amoebae occasionally had a spatulate outline and floating cells had radiating pseudopodia, sometimes with pointed tips. Both these features are reminiscent of the genus Vannella. However, the surface coat (glycocalyx) as revealed by TEM indicates that this is a species of Platyamoeba. Although salinity was not used as a diagnostic feature, this species was found to have remarkable tolerance to fluctuating salinity levels, even when changes were rapid. Amoebae survived over the range 0 per thousand to 150 per thousand salt and grew within the range 0 per thousand to 138 per thousand salt. The generation time of cells averaged 29 h and was not markedly affected by salt concentration. This is longer than expected for an amoeba of this size and suggests a high energetic cost of coping with salinity changes. The morphology of cells changed with increasing salinity: at 0 per thousand cells were flattened and active and at the other extreme (138 per thousand) amoebae were wrinkled and domed and cell movement was very slow. At the ultrastructural level, the cytoplasm of cells grown at high salinity (98 per thousand was considerably denser than that of cells reared at 0 per thousand.

  14. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum TNF-α, EGF levels (with RIA) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum TNF- α and EGF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum TNF-α and EGF levels, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of malignant hydatidiform mole in patients was closely related to the serum TNF-α and EGF levels. (authors)

  15. Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome in an adult Indian male-case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika C G Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMMS is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple melanocytic nevi, usually more than 50, and a family history of melanoma. It is known to be associated with carcinoma of pancreas and other malignancies involving gastrointestinal tract, breast, lung, larynx, and skin in the kindred. There is no published report of FAMMMS in dark-skinned individuals. We report a case of FAMMMS in a dark-skinned adult Indian male, who had multiple extensive nevi all over the body and oral mucosa; associated with malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (Marjolin′s ulcer, and carcinoma of pancreas. His father had died of carcinoma of lung and his sister had a partial phenotypic expression. The clinical presentation of the case is discussed with review of literature.

  16. Response of mole crab, Emerita emeritus to the thermal effluents from the Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramoniam, T.; Munuswamy, N.; Israel, Sunil; Sathish, R.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2007-01-01

    Mole crabs belonging to the genus Emerita are exclusively inhabitants of exposed wave washed sandy beaches in certain temperate and tropical seas. Its sedentary adult life and a primitive filter-feeding behavior make this intertidal crab an excellent indicator species for monitoring anthropogenic impact. Hence, this sand crab has been used to determine the effect of elevated temperature (rT) arising out of the thermal effluent from the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam with special reference to the intertidal fauna. Since Emerita exhibits limited capacity to move from their place of habitation, an analysis of the population structure of Emerita emeritus in the Kalpakkam coast including the impacted and the adjoining control sandy beaches on either side of the mixing point in the vicinity of the power plant was done. The data indicate that in the impact zone having an elevated seawater temperature of <35 deg C, the crab is completely absent. However, as we move away from the impact zone, with normalization of seawater temperature, Emerita move to safer areas on either side of the impact zone. Thus, the extensive field data on the distribution of mole crabs indicated that population structure is affected by the thermal plume, although the shifting positions of the mixing point (caused by northerly and southerly long shore currents) allowed decolonization of Emerita due to transmigration in positions that were earlier mixing points. This paper also describes a complete larval development of Emerita emeritus in the laboratory. Different life stages of E. emeritus were subjected to various power plant stressors to determine their varying responses. The expression of heat shock protein (hsp) in the gill tissue of the adult crabs was also observed when the crabs were exposed to elevated temperatures (35 deg C). However, no expression of heat shock proteins was observed when the crabs were subjected to chlorine stress. (author)

  17. A phenolic acid based colourimetric 'naked-eye' chemosensor for the rapid detection of Cu(II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Priti; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Bose, Adity

    2018-06-01

    The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity. In this work, for the first time, we are exploring its ability to work as an efficient Cu2+ sensor. This sensor molecule selectively detected Cu2+ ions by changing its colour from colourless to pink within detection limit of 64.5 nM, which is much lower than other reported sensor molecules and the suggested limit by World Health Organization (WHO) and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The sensing mechanism was investigated through UV-vis and 1H NMR titration along with ESI-MS spectroscopy and further confirmed by DFT computational studies. Studies revealed the participation of hydroxyl group (sbnd OH) and methoxy group (sbnd OMe) of SA in complexation with Cu2+. The binding stoichiometry of SA to Cu2+ was found to be 1:2 through Job's plot and ESI-MS analysis. Importantly, paper strips of SA were prepared which could be used for a rapid "on-site" determination of Cu2+ containing samples.

  18. Effect of particle size on solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability: evaluation using coenzyme Q10 as naked nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Sun,1 Fan Wang,1,2 Yue Sui,1 Zhennan She,1 Wenjun Zhai,1 Chunling Wang,1 Yihui Deng11College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China; 2Beijing Zhijianjinrui Applied Pharmaceutical Science Inc, Beijing, ChinaAbstract: In this paper work, four naked nanocrystals (size range 80–700 nm were prepared without any surfactant or polymer using the solvent/nonsolvent method. The effects of particle size on their solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability were investigated. Solubility and dissolution testing were performed in three types of dissolution medium, and the studies demonstrated that the equilibrium solubilities of coenzyme Q10 nanocrystals and bulk drugs were not affected by the dissolution media but the kinetic solubilities were. Kinetic solubility curves and changes in particle size distribution were determined and well explained by the proposed solubilization model for the nanocrystals and bulk drugs. The particle size effect on dissolution was clearly influenced by the diffusion coefficients of the various dissolution media, and the dissolution velocity of coenzyme Q10 increased as particle size decreased. The bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 after oral administration in beagle dogs was improved by reducing the particle size. For 700 nm nanocrystals, the AUC0–48 was 4.4-fold greater than that for the coarse suspensions, but a further decrease in particle size from 700 nm to 120 nm did not contribute to improvement in bioavailability until the particle size was reduced to 80 nm, when bioavailability was increased by 7.3-fold.Keywords: particle size, solubility, dissolution, nanocrystal, bioavailability, coenzyme Q10

  19. Feasibilty of in utero DNA vaccination following naked gene transfer into pig fetal muscle: transgene expression, immunity and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Monica; Signori, Emanuela; Rosati, Paolo; Cannelli, Giorgio; Parrella, Paola; Iannace, Enrico; Monego, Giovanni; Ciafrè, Silvia Anna; Farace, Maria Giulia; Iurescia, Sandra; Fioretti, Daniela; Rasi, Guido; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2006-05-22

    The high toll of death among first-week infants is due to infections occurring at the end of pregnancy, during birth or by breastfeeding. This problem significantly concerns industrialized countries also. To prevent the typical "first-week infections", a vaccine would be protective as early as at the birth. In utero DNA immunization has demonstrated the effectiveness in inducing specific immunity in newborns. We have already published results of a 2-year follow-up showing long-term safety, protective antibody titers at birth and long-term immune memory, following intramuscular in utero anti-HBV DNA immunization in 90-days pig fetuses. We have now analyzed further parameters of short-term safety. Two different reporter genes were injected in the thigh muscles of 90-days fetuses. At 8 days following DNA injection, we found high-level of transgenes expression in all injected fetuses. A step gradient of expression from the area of injection was observed with both reporter genes. CMV promoter/enhancer produced higher levels of expression compared to SV40 promoter/enhancer. Moreover, no evidence of local or systemic flogistic alterations or fetal malformations, mortality or haemorrhage following intramuscular injection were observed. A single anti-HBV s-antigen DNA immunization in 90-days fetuses supported protective antibody levels in all immunized newborns, lasting at least up to 4 months after birth. Our report further sustains safety and efficacy of intramuscular in utero naked gene transfer and immunization. This approach may support therapeutic or prophylactic procedure in many early life-threatening pathologic conditions.

  20. Covalent Binding of Antibodies to Cellulose Paper Discs and Their Applications in Naked-eye Colorimetric Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanfen; Gelder, Victor Van; Amaladoss, Anburaj; Patel, Kadamb Haribhai

    2016-10-21

    This report presents two methods for the covalent immobilization of capture antibodies on cellulose filter paper grade No. 1 (medium-flow filter paper) discs and grade No. 113 (fast-flow filter paper) discs. These cellulose paper discs were grafted with amine functional groups through a silane coupling technique before the antibodies were immobilized on them. Periodate oxidation and glutaraldehyde cross-linking methods were used to graft capture antibodies on the cellulose paper discs. In order to ensure the maximum binding capacity of the capture antibodies to their targets after immobilization, the effects of various concentrations of sodium periodate, glutaraldehyde, and capture antibodies on the surface of the paper discs were investigated. The antibodies that were coated on the amine-functionalized cellulose paper discs through a glutaraldehyde cross-linking agent showed enhanced binding activity to the target when compared to the periodate oxidation method. IgG (in mouse reference serum) was used as a reference target in this study to test the application of covalently immobilized antibodies through glutaraldehyde. A new paper-based, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was successfully developed and validated for the detection of IgG. This method does not require equipment, and it can detect 100 ng/ml of IgG. The fast-flow filter paper was more sensitive than the medium-flow filter paper. The incubation period of this assay was short and required small sample volumes. This naked-eye, colorimetric immunoassay can be extended to detect other targets that are identified with conventional ELISA.

  1. Ultrasound-mediated gene delivery of naked plasmid DNA in skeletal muscles: a case for bolus injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Pedro Gomes; Mühlmeister, Mareike; Seip, Ralf; Kaijzel, Eric; Löwik, Clemens; Böhmer, Marcel; Tiemann, Klaus; Grüll, Holger

    2014-12-10

    Localized gene delivery has many potential clinical applications. However, the nucleic acids (e.g. pDNA and siRNA) are incapable of passively crossing the endothelium, cell membranes and other biological barriers which must be crossed to reach their intracellular targets. A possible solution is the use of ultrasound to burst circulating microbubbles inducing transient permeabilization of surrounding tissues which mediates nucleic acid extravasation and cellular uptake. In this study we report on an optimization of the ultrasound gene delivery technique. Naked pDNA (200 μg) encoding luciferase and SonoVue® microbubbles were co-injected intravenously in mice. The hindlimb skeletal muscles were exposed to ultrasound from a non-focused transducer (1 MHz, 1.25 MPa, PRI 30s) and injection protocols and total amounts as well as ultrasound parameters were systemically varied. Gene expression was quantified relative to a control using a bioluminescence camera system at day 7 after sonication. Bioluminescence ratios in sonicated/control muscles of up to 101× were obtained. In conclusion, we were able to specifically deliver genetic material to the selected skeletal muscles and overall, the use of bolus injections and high microbubble numbers resulted in increased gene expression reflected by stronger bioluminescence signals. Based on our data, bolus injections seem to be required in order to achieve transient highly concentrated levels of nucleic acids and microbubbles at the tissue of interest which upon ultrasound exposure should lead to increased levels of gene delivery. Thus, ultrasound mediated gene delivery is a promising technique for the clinical translation of localized drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Evasion of the Text; Invasion of the Text; Again, Evasion of the Text; "The Eagle and the Mole": The Affective Fallacy Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Edward R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Three writers debate whether English teachers should depend on external or internal criteria when analyzing and teaching literature. Each writer discusses the meaning of Elinor Wylie's poem, "The Eagle and the Mole," according to his particular view of literary analysis. Edward Ducharme, in "The Evasion of the Text," submits…

  3. An energy stable evolution method for simulating two-phase equilibria of multi-component fluids at constant moles, volume and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu; Wang, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an energy-stable evolution method for the calculation of the phase equilibria under given volume, temperature, and moles (VT-flash). An evolution model for describing the dynamics of two-phase fluid system is based on Fick

  4. Identification of patients with persistent trophoblastic disease after complete hydatidiform mole by using a normal 24-hour urine hCG regression curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromvoirt, S.M. van; Thomas, C.M.G.; Quinn, M.A.; McNally, O.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to establish a reference 24-hour urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) regression curve in patients with complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) as diagnostic tool in the prediction of persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD). METHODS: From 2004 to 2011, 312 cases

  5. [Effects of prophylactic chemotherapy on outcomes and prognosis of patients older than 40 years with invasive mole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Y; Li, L; Zhao, J; Xiang, Y; Wan, X R; Feng, F Z; Ren, T; Yang, J J

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To discuss the effects of prophylactic chemotherapy on the outcomes and prognosis of invasive mole patients. Methods: One hundred and fifteen invasive mole (IM) patients older than 40 years were registered in Peking Union Medical Collage Hospital.Eleven of them were treated with prophylactic chemotherapy before diagnosed as IM prophylactic chemotherapy group, while the other 104 cases received therapeutic chemotherapy after diagnosed as IM (non-prophylactic chemotherapy group). The general clinical data (including age, clinical stage, risk factor score), treatment, outcomes and relapse of patients were retrospectively compared between two groups. Results: (1) The age of prophylactic chemotherapy group and non-prophylactic chemotherapy group were (47±5) versus (46±4) years old. Ratio of clinical stageⅠ-Ⅱ were 3/11 versus 29.8% (31/104), clinical stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ were 8/11 versus 70.2% (73/104). Ratio of risk factor score 0-6 were 11/11 versus 84.6% (88/104), risk factor score >6 were 0 versus 15.4% (16/104). There were no significant statistical differences between two groups in age, clinical stage or risk factor score (all P> 0.05). (2) Treatment: the total chemotherapy courses between prophylactic chemotherapy group and non-prophylactic chemotherapy group (median 7 versus 5) were significantly different ( Z= 3.071, P= 0.002). There were no significant statistical differences between two groups in the chemotherapy courses until negative conversion of β-hCG, consolidation chemotherapy courses, total therapeutic chemotherapy courses or ratio of hysterectomy (all P> 0.05). (3) Outcomes and relapse: between the prophylactic chemotherapy group and the non-prophylactic chemotherapy group, the complete remission rate were 11/11 versus 98.1%(102/104), the relapse rate were 0 versus 1.0%(1/102). There were no significant difference between the two groups in outcomes or relapse rate ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: Prophylactic chemotherapy does not substantially

  6. Mola hidatiforme completa e eclâmpsia: relato de caso Complete hydatidiform mole and eclampsia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izildinha Maestá

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de pré-eclâmpsia ou eclâmpsia antes da 20ª semana deve levar à suspeita de mola hidatiforme. Descrevemos um caso de mola hidatiforme completa (MHC e eclâmpsia concomitante em paciente com 20 anos que apresentava sangramento genital, anemia, tamanho uterino excessivo e cistos de ovário, associados a hipertensão arterial e proteinúria. Os níveis de b-hCG estavam elevados e a função tiroidiana, alterada. A ultra-sonografia mostrou-se compatível com MHC. Após o esvaziamento uterino apresentou cefaléia e alterações visuais, seguidas por convulsões tônico-clônicas que cessaram com sulfato de magnésio hepta-hidratado a 50%. No seguimento pós-molar foi diagnosticado tumor trofoblástico gestacional (TTG prontamente tratado com quimioterapia. A associação de MHC e eclâmpsia determina esvaziamento uterino imediato e seguimento pós-molar rigoroso, pelo risco aumentado de desenvolvimento de TTG.Development of preeclampsia/eclampsia prior to 20 weeks of pregnancy should raise the suspicion of hydatidiform mole. We report a case of complete hydatidiform mole (CHM concurrent with eclampsia in a 20-year-old patient with vaginal bleeding, anemia, large uterine size, and ovary cysts associated with hypertension and proteinuria. Plasmatic b-hCG levels were high and there was abnormal thyroid function. The ultrasonographic findings were compatible with CHM. After uterine evacuation, the patient had headache and visual alterations, followed by tonic-clonic seizures, which ceased with the administration of 50% magnesium sulfate. At post-molar follow-up, a gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT was diagnosed and promptly treated with chemotherapy. Association between CHM and eclampsia requires immediate uterine evacuation and strict post-molar follow-up, due to increased risk of GTT development.

  7. Influence of 17β-estradiol treatment on the expression of NF-κB in complete hydatidiform mole culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatit Nurseta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Genetic evidence has established a role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling in oncogenesis. However, activity of NF-κB in complete hydatidiform mole (CHM cell culture under 17β-estradiol (E2 treatment is not yet known. Recently, a positive cross-talk between estrogen receptor (ER and NF-κB to promote survival and progress of cancer cells to a more aggressive phenotype was established. In the present study, we examined the influence of E2 treatment on the NF-κB expression in CHM’s culture.Methods:  This experimental study measured the expression of NF-κB in CHM culture treated with E2: 10, 100, 300, 600, and 1000 pg/mL and without E2. Imunohistochemistry staining was used to assess the expression of NF-κB. Microphotographs were taken using 400x magnification. Adobe photoshop CS2 was used to assess the NF-κB expression in cell nucleus. The lower the color intensity of cell RGBbv, is the higher the expression of NF-κB in cells. ANOVA test was performed to compare the expression of NF-κB.Results: NF-κB expression as indicated by color intensity in control group was 114.84 ± 9.02. NF-κB expression in E2 treatment groups were respectively: E2 10 pg/mL: 106.30 ± 13.95; E2 100 pg/mL: 82.47 ± 4.72; E2 300 pg/mL: 82.24 ± 2.67; E2 600 pg/mL: 69.05 ± 6.47; E2 1000 pg/mL: 68.49 ± 2.37. There was progressive decline in color intensity of cells with E2 treatment indicating the increase expression of NF-κB. Significant differences with the control group occurred in doses of E2 100, 300, 600, dan 1000 pg/mL.Conclusion: Treatment of CHM trophoblast culture with escalating doses of E2 was associated with the increase of NF-κB expression in a dose dependent manner. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:197-201. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.599Keywords: 17-β Estradiol, Hydatidiform mole, NF-κB

  8. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Hong Park

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1 C: control (no prebiotic, 2 T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3 T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40 group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS, microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  9. Microbial Populations in Naked Neck Chicken Ceca Raised on Pasture Flock Fed with Commercial Yeast Cell Wall Prebiotics via an Illumina MiSeq Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Si Hong; Lee, Sang In; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrate dietary supplements that selectively stimulate the growth of one or more beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of the host. These bacteria can inhibit colonization of pathogenic bacteria by producing antimicrobial substances such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and competing for niches with pathogens within the gut. Pasture flock chickens are generally raised outdoors with fresh grass, sunlight and air, which represents different environmental growth conditions compared to conventionally raised chickens. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in microbial populations from naked neck chicken ceca fed with commercial prebiotics derived from brewer's yeast cell wall via an Illumina MiSeq platform. A total of 147 day-of-hatch naked neck chickens were distributed into 3 groups consisted of 1) C: control (no prebiotic), 2) T1: Biolex® MB40 with 0.2%, and 3) T2: Leiber® ExCel with 0.2%, consistently supplemented prebiotics during the experimental period. At 8 weeks, a total of 15 birds from each group were randomly selected and ceca removed for DNA extraction. The Illumina Miseq platform based on V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was applied for microbiome analysis. Both treatments exhibited limited impact on the microbial populations at the phylum level, with no significant differences in the OTU number of Bacteroidetes among groups and an increase of Proteobacteria OTUs for the T1 (Biolex® MB40) group. In addition there was a significant increase of genus Faecalibacterium OTU, phylum Firmicutes. According to the development of next generation sequencing (NGS), microbiome analysis based on 16S rRNA gene proved to be informative on the prebiotic impact on poultry gut microbiota in pasture-raised naked neck birds.

  10. Status of GENIUS-TF-II and TF-III-The long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 10 39 80, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: H.Klapdor@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Krivosheina, I.V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 10 39 80, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    GENIUS-TF-II is a setup of six naked high purity Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso. It has been installed in October, 2004-after the first four naked Ge detectors had been installed on May 5, 2003 (GENIUS-TF-I). The GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF) is the first and up to now only setup ever testing the novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays in particular underground. The goal of GENIUS-TF was to test some key operational parameters of the full GENIUS project proposal in 1997 [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Z. Phys. A 359 ( 1997) 351 and nucl-ex/9801004; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, M. Hirsch, Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, CERN Courier, November 1997, pp. 16-18]. Simultaneous physical goal is to search for the annual modulation of the Dark Matter signal [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149; C. Tomei, A. Dietz, I. Krivosheina, H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 508 (2003) 343]. After operation of GENIUS-TF over three years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (1) Background from Rn222 diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (2) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen as result of increasing leakage current. None of the six detectors is running after three years with the nominal leakage current. Three of the six detectors do not work any more at all. The results of our three years of investigation of the long-term stability may cast doubt on the possibility to perform full GENIUS-like projects.

  11. Status of GENIUS-TF-II and TF-III-The long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Krivosheina, I.V.

    2006-01-01

    GENIUS-TF-II is a setup of six naked high purity Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso. It has been installed in October, 2004-after the first four naked Ge detectors had been installed on May 5, 2003 (GENIUS-TF-I). The GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF) is the first and up to now only setup ever testing the novel technique aiming at extreme background reduction in search for rare decays in particular underground. The goal of GENIUS-TF was to test some key operational parameters of the full GENIUS project proposal in 1997 [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 13 (1998) 3953; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, GENIUS-Proposal, 20 November 1997; J. Hellmig and H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Z. Phys. A 359 ( 1997) 351 and nucl-ex/9801004; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, M. Hirsch, Z. Phys. A 359 (1997) 361; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, J. Hellmig, M. Hirsch, J. Phys. G 24 (1998) 483; H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, CERN Courier, November 1997, pp. 16-18]. Simultaneous physical goal is to search for the annual modulation of the Dark Matter signal [H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 481 (2002) 149; C. Tomei, A. Dietz, I. Krivosheina, H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 508 (2003) 343]. After operation of GENIUS-TF over three years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (1) Background from Rn222 diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (2) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen as result of increasing leakage current. None of the six detectors is running after three years with the nominal leakage current. Three of the six detectors do not work any more at all. The results of our three years of investigation of the long-term stability may cast doubt on the possibility to perform full GENIUS-like projects

  12. Silencing the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Naked Cuticle Gene (nkd) Improves Host Immune Function and Reduces Nosema ceranae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Evans, Jay D.; Huang, Qiang; Rodríguez-García, Cristina; Liu, Jie; Hamilton, Michele; Grozinger, Christina M.; Webster, Thomas C.; Su, Songkun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nosema ceranae is a new and emerging microsporidian parasite of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, that has been implicated in colony losses worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi), a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism, has emerged as a potent and specific strategy for controlling infections of parasites and pathogens in honey bees. While previous studies have focused on the silencing of parasite/pathogen virulence factors, we explore here the possibility of silencing a host factor as a mechanism for reducing parasite load. Specifically, we used an RNAi strategy to reduce the expression of a honey bee gene, naked cuticle (nkd), which is a negative regulator of host immune function. Our studies found that nkd mRNA levels in adult bees were upregulated by N. ceranae infection (and thus, the parasite may use this mechanism to suppress host immune function) and that ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to nkd efficiently silenced its expression. Furthermore, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of nkd transcripts in Nosema-infected bees resulted in upregulation of the expression of several immune genes (Abaecin, Apidaecin, Defensin-1, and PGRP-S2), reduction of Nosema spore loads, and extension of honey bee life span. The results of our studies clearly indicate that silencing the host nkd gene can activate honey bee immune responses, suppress the reproduction of N. ceranae, and improve the overall health of honey bees. This study represents a novel host-derived therapeutic for honey bee disease treatment that merits further exploration. IMPORTANCE Given the critical role of honey bees in the pollination of agricultural crops, it is urgent to develop strategies to prevent the colony decline induced by the infection of parasites/pathogens. Targeting parasites and pathogens directly by RNAi has been proven to be useful for controlling infections in honey bees, but little is known about the disease impacts of RNAi silencing of host factors

  13. Silencing the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Naked Cuticle Gene (nkd) Improves Host Immune Function and Reduces Nosema ceranae Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Evans, Jay D; Huang, Qiang; Rodríguez-García, Cristina; Liu, Jie; Hamilton, Michele; Grozinger, Christina M; Webster, Thomas C; Su, Songkun; Chen, Yan Ping

    2016-11-15

    Nosema ceranae is a new and emerging microsporidian parasite of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, that has been implicated in colony losses worldwide. RNA interference (RNAi), a posttranscriptional gene silencing mechanism, has emerged as a potent and specific strategy for controlling infections of parasites and pathogens in honey bees. While previous studies have focused on the silencing of parasite/pathogen virulence factors, we explore here the possibility of silencing a host factor as a mechanism for reducing parasite load. Specifically, we used an RNAi strategy to reduce the expression of a honey bee gene, naked cuticle (nkd), which is a negative regulator of host immune function. Our studies found that nkd mRNA levels in adult bees were upregulated by N. ceranae infection (and thus, the parasite may use this mechanism to suppress host immune function) and that ingestion of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to nkd efficiently silenced its expression. Furthermore, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of nkd transcripts in Nosema-infected bees resulted in upregulation of the expression of several immune genes (Abaecin, Apidaecin, Defensin-1, and PGRP-S2), reduction of Nosema spore loads, and extension of honey bee life span. The results of our studies clearly indicate that silencing the host nkd gene can activate honey bee immune responses, suppress the reproduction of N. ceranae, and improve the overall health of honey bees. This study represents a novel host-derived therapeutic for honey bee disease treatment that merits further exploration. Given the critical role of honey bees in the pollination of agricultural crops, it is urgent to develop strategies to prevent the colony decline induced by the infection of parasites/pathogens. Targeting parasites and pathogens directly by RNAi has been proven to be useful for controlling infections in honey bees, but little is known about the disease impacts of RNAi silencing of host factors. Here, we demonstrate

  14. The Naked Blunder

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    In the past, we have published many different articles on a multitude of aspects of computer security and on the risk to CERN and to you when you use your computer at CERN or at home. Some were relevant to all of us, others only to a minority. This time, we would like to raise a rather delicate and fortunately rare issue: the consultation of pornographic websites and why it is forbidden at CERN.   With 10,000 people at CERN of different cultural and professional backgrounds, some working outside traditional working hours and some staying in one of the three CERN hostels, it is a natural fact that behaviours, interests, perceptions and attitudes vary significantly. CERN highly values the diversity of its personnel and users and the interaction between them. In this respect, the CERN campus is comparable to a small city and, as in every small city, some citizens are attracted to pornography. It is not easy to find a common definition of pornography. It depends on our cultural roots, our value...

  15. The naked experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.

    1982-01-01

    In an article critical of experts, the cases argued for and against nuclear power are discussed under the headings: environmental hazards arising from the nuclear fuel cycle; proliferation of nuclear weapons capabilities via expansion of the nuclear power industry; political and social threats and restraints of a nuclear society (terrorism, reduction in civil liberties, centralised political and economic power); economic and employment disadvantages of nuclear power; impact of uranium mining on (Australian) aboriginal culture; inadequacy of nuclear power as a solution to energy problems; advantages of a 'soft energy path' based around conservation and renewable energy technologies. (U.K.)

  16. The Naked Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier Sørensen, Bent; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    expressive and ‘liberated’ bodily comportment—is used tactically to shape the space of conduct of others in the company. The study foregrounds the managerial body as ‘signifier’ in its own right. Empirically, this is done through an analysis of video material produced by the film company Zentropa about...

  17. Why Is She Naked?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2018-01-01

    with a refinement of the previously presented Tripartite Digitisation Model (TDM). We begin by providing a short recapitulation of the TDM originally published in Vol. 10, with an emphasis on the role of evaluations. This model is exemplified with a concrete example of digitisation of ICH together with an Ova...

  18. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Recurrent hydatidiform mole: A case report of six consecutive molar pregnancies complicated by choriocarcinoma, and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam A Al-Ghamdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidiform mole (HM is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Recurrence of HM is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a patient with six consecutive partial HMs without normal pregnancy. A 42-year-old lady who was referred to us at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, initially as a case of 26-year-old with persistent trophoblastic disease after three recurrent molar pregnancies that were confirmed histologically in the referring hospital. She underwent evacuation and curettage and was followed up by serial β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, and did not require chemotherapy. She then had three more molar pregnancies in 1995, 1996, and 2004; all molar pregnancies were evacuated by suction curettage at her base hospital, but in the last event, she complained of shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Diagnostic workup in our hospital confirmed choriocarcinoma, for which she received multiple regimen chemotherapy and was cured. Unfortunately, she lately presented with symptoms suggestive of premature menopause.

  20. Large-area, uniform and low-cost dual-mode plasmonic naked-eye colorimetry and SERS sensor with handheld Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhida; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xinhao; Han, Kevin; Ameen, Abid; Khan, Ibrahim; Chang, Te-Wei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrated a highly-sensitive, wafer-scale, highly-uniform plasmonic nano-mushroom substrate based on plastic for naked-eye plasmonic colorimetry and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We gave it the name FlexBrite. The dual-mode functionality of FlexBrite allows for label-free qualitative analysis by SERS with an enhancement factor (EF) of 10(8) and label-free quantitative analysis by naked-eye colorimetry with a sensitivity of 611 nm RIU(-1). The SERS EF of FlexBrite in the wet state was found to be 4.81 × 10(8), 7 times stronger than in the dry state, making FlexBrite suitable for aqueous environments such as microfluid systems. The label-free detection of biotin-streptavidin interaction by both SERS and colorimetry was demonstrated with FlexBrite. The detection of trace amounts of the narcotic drug methamphetamine in drinking water by SERS was implemented with a handheld Raman spectrometer and FlexBrite. This plastic-based dual-mode nano-mushroom substrate has the potential to be used as a sensing platform for easy and fast analysis in chemical and biological assays.

  1. Interrelation between the Author and the Text in W. S. Burroughs’s Naked Lunch and Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Grivina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Article adopts Jacques Lacan’s concept of the “mirror stage” to study the mechanisms of the way the Author’s identity evolves in W. Burroughs’s Naked Lunch and Ch. Palahniuk’s Fight Club. Evolution of the Author is set against general process of personal growth. The study is primarily concerned with features of the Author’s evolution within transgressive fiction, as Chuck Palahniuk and William Burroughs are the key figures of this genre. Transgression presupposes addressing social taboos by explicating them, thus creating strong reactions within the readership. We argue and find evidence that Burroughs and Palahniuk in the process of facing their perfect images of the Author digress from what Lacan would consider normal development. When they are given a chance to produce a unified body of text, the writers chose unconscious strive for fragmentation instead. Fragmented images invade Naked Lunch and Fight Club. However the mirror stage in the case of Palahniuk and in the case of Burroughs differ. While Burroughs in the myth of the Interzone ends up rejecting the notion of unique Author as such, Palahniuk accepts the fact that he managed to form a new niche for transgressive fiction and stays true to this niche, continuing similar aesthetics in the works that follow.

  2. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Quantitative analysis of vasodilatory action of quercetin on intramural coronary resistance arteries of the rat in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Monori-Kiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary quercetin improves cardiovascular health, relaxes some vascular smooth muscle and has been demonstrated to serve as a substrate for the cyclooxygenase enzyme. AIMS: 1. To test quantitatively a potential direct vasodilatory effect on intramural coronary resistance artery segments, in different concentrations. 2. To scale vasorelaxation at different intraluminal pressure loads on such vessels of different size. 3. To test the potential role of prostanoids in vasodilatation induced by quercetin. METHODS: Coronary arterioles (70-240 µm were prepared from 24 rats and pressurized in PSS, using a pressure microangiometer. RESULTS: The spontaneous tone that developed at 50 mmHg was relaxed by quercetin in the 10(-9 moles/lit concentration (p<0.05, while 10(-5 moles/lit caused full relaxation. Significant relaxation was observed at all pressure levels (10-100 mmHg at 10(-7 moles/lit concentration of quercetin. The cyclooxygenase blocker indomethacin (10(-5 moles/lit induced no relaxation but contraction when physiological concentrations of quercetin were present in the tissue bath (p<0.02 with Anova, this contraction being more prominent in smaller vessels and in the higher pressure range (p<0.05, Pearson correlation. A further 2-8% contraction could be elicited by the NO blocker L-NAME (10(-4 moles/lit. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that circulating levels of quercetin (10(-7 moles/lit exhibit a substantial coronary vasodilatory effect. The extent of it is commeasurable with that of several other physiological mechanisms of coronary blood flow control. At least part of this relaxation is the result of an altered balance toward the production of endogenous vasodilatory prostanoids in the coronary arteriole wall.

  4. Molecular and Physiological Factors of Neuroprotection in Hypoxia-tolerant Models: Pharmacological Clues for the Treatment of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The naked mole-rat possesses several unique physiological and molecular features that underlie their remarkably and exceptional resistance to tissue hypoxia. Elevated pattern of Epo, an erythropoietin (Epo factor; c-fos; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1α contribute to the adaptive strategy to cope with hypoxic stress. Moreover, the naked mole-rat has a lower metabolic rate than any other eutherian mammal of comparable size that has been studied. The ability to actively reduce metabolic rate represents a strategy widely used in the face of decreased tissue oxygen availability. Understanding the different molecular and physiological factors that induce metabolic suppression could guide the development of pharmacological agents for the clinical management of stroke patient.

  5. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of C/O Mole Ratio on the Performance of Rotary Hearth Furnace Using a Combined Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wen, Zhi; Lou, Guofeng; Li, Zhi; Yong, Haiquan; Feng, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    In a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) the direct reduction of composite pellets and processes of heat and mass transfer as well as combustion in the chamber of RHF influence each other. These mutual interactions should be considered when an accurate model of RHF is established. This paper provides a combined model that incorporates two sub-models to investigate the effects of C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets on the reduction kinetics and heat and mass transfer as well as combustion processes in the chamber of a pilot-scale RHF. One of the sub-models is established to describe the direct reduction process of composite pellets on the hearth of RHF. Heat and mass transfer within the pellet, chemical reactions, and radiative heat transfer from furnace walls and combustion gas to the surface of the pellet are considered in the model. The other sub-model is used to simulate gas flow and combustion process in the chamber of RHF by using commercial CFD software, FLUENT. The two sub-models were linked through boundary conditions and heat, mass sources. Cases for pellets with different C/O mole ratio were calculated by the combined model. The calculation results showed that the degree of metallization, the total amounts of carbon monoxide escaping from the pellet, and heat absorbed by chemical reactions within the pellet as well as CO and CO2 concentrations in the furnace increase with the increase of C/O mole ratio ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, when calculation conditions are the same except for C/O molar ratio. Carbon content in the pellet has little influence on temperature distribution in the furnace under the same calculation conditions except for C/O mole ratio in the feed pellets.

  6. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm −1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm −1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H 2 O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis

  7. Long-term analysis of carbon dioxide and methane column-averaged mole fractions retrieved from SCIAMACHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 are the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launch 2002 was the first and is now with TANSO onboard GOSAT (launch 2009 one of only two satellite instruments currently in space whose measurements are sensitive to CO2 and CH4 concentration changes in the lowest atmospheric layers where the variability due to sources and sinks is largest.

    We present long-term SCIAMACHY retrievals (2003–2009 of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of both gases (denoted XCO2 and XCH4 derived from absorption bands in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared (NIR/SWIR spectral region focusing on large-scale features. The results are obtained using an upgraded version (v2 of the retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS including several improvements, while simultaneously maintaining its high processing speed. The retrieved mole fractions are compared to global model simulations (CarbonTracker XCO2 and TM5 XCH4 being optimised by assimilating highly accurate surface measurements from the NOAA/ESRL network and taking the SCIAMACHY averaging kernels into account. The comparisons address seasonal variations and long-term characteristics.

    The steady increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels can be clearly observed with SCIAMACHY globally. The retrieved global annual mean XCO2 increase agrees with CarbonTracker within the error bars (1.80±0.13 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.81±0.09 ppm yr−1. The amplitude of the XCO2 seasonal cycle as retrieved by SCIAMACHY, which is 4.3±0.2 ppm for the Northern Hemisphere and 1.4±0.2 ppm for the Southern Hemisphere, is on average about 1 ppm larger than for CarbonTracker.

    An investigation of the boreal forest carbon uptake during the

  8. Awareness of sunburn in childhood, use of sunbeds and change of moles in Denmark, Northern Ireland, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdarevic, Senada; Hvidberg, Line; Lin, Yulan; Donnelly, Conan; Gavin, Anna; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Runesdotter, Sara; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is increasing rapidly in Northern Europe. To reduce incidence and mortality through earlier diagnosis, public awareness of MM is important. Thus, we aim to examine awareness of risk factors and a symptom of MM, and how awareness varies by country and socio-demographic factors in Denmark, Northern Ireland (NI), Norway and Sweden. Population-based telephone interviews using the 'Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer' measure were conducted in 2011 among 8355 adults ≥50 years as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Module 2. Prevalence ratios (PRs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In these four countries, lowest awareness was found for 'sunburn in childhood' (63%), whereas awareness was high for 'use of sunbeds' (91%) and 'mole change' (97%). Lack of awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 1.38 (1.28-1.48)] but less prevalent among respondents from Northern Ireland (NI) [PR = 0.78 (0.72-0.85)] and Sweden [PR = 0.86 (0.79-0.93)] compared with respondents from Denmark. Lack of awareness of 'use of sunbeds' was more prevalent among respondents from Norway [PR = 2.99 (2.39-3.74)], Sweden [PR = 1.57 (1.22-2.00)], and NI [PR = 1.65 (1.30-2.10)] compared with respondents form Denmark. Being a man, age ≥70, living alone, and having lower education, were each independently associated with lack of MM-awareness. The results indicate relatively low awareness of 'sunburn in childhood' as a risk factor for MM, and important disparities in MM-awareness across countries and socio-demographic groups. Improved and more directed initiatives to enhance public MM-awareness, particularly about 'sunburn in childhood', are needed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Pigmentary Markers in Danes--Associations with Quantitative Skin Colour, Nevi Count, Familial Atypical Multiple-Mole, and Melanoma Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether pigmentation genes involved in the melanogenic pathway (melanogenesis contributed to melanoma predisposition, we compared pigmentary genetics with quantitative skin pigmentation measurements, the number of atypical nevi, the total nevus count, and the familial atypical multiple mole and melanoma (FAMMM syndrome. We typed 32 pigmentary SNP markers and sequenced MC1R in 246 healthy individuals and 116 individuals attending periodic control for malignant melanoma development, 50 of which were diagnosed with FAMMM. It was observed that individuals with any two grouped MC1R variants (missense, NM_002386:c. 456C > A (p.TYR152*, or NM_002386:c.83_84insA (p.Asn29Glnfs*14 had significantly (p<0.001 lighter skin pigmentation of the upper-inner arm than those with none or one MC1R variant. We did not observe any significant association of the MC1R variants with constitutive pigmentation measured on the buttock area. We hypothesize that the effect of MC1R variants on arm pigmentation is primarily reflecting the inability to tan when subjected to UVR. A gender specific effect on skin pigmentation was also observed, and it was found that the skin pigmentation of females on average were darker than that of males (p<0.01. We conclude that MC1R variants are associated with quantitative skin colour in a lightly pigmented Danish population. We did not observe any association between any pigmentary marker and the FAMMM syndrome. We suggest that the genetics of FAMMM is not related to the genetics of the pigmentary pathway.

  10. An energy stable evolution method for simulating two-phase equilibria of multi-component fluids at constant moles, volume and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2016-02-25

    In this paper, we propose an energy-stable evolution method for the calculation of the phase equilibria under given volume, temperature, and moles (VT-flash). An evolution model for describing the dynamics of two-phase fluid system is based on Fick’s law of diffusion for multi-component fluids and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The mobility is obtained from diffusion coefficients by relating the gradient of chemical potential to the gradient of molar density. The evolution equation for moles of each component is derived using the discretization of diffusion equations, while the volume evolution equation is constructed based on the mechanical mechanism and the Peng-Robinson equation of state. It is proven that the proposed evolution system can well model the VT-flash problem, and moreover, it possesses the property of total energy decay. By using the Euler time scheme to discretize this evolution system, we develop an energy stable algorithm with an adaptive choice strategy of time steps, which allows us to calculate the suitable time step size to guarantee the physical properties of moles and volumes, including positivity, maximum limits, and correct definition of the Helmhotz free energy function. The proposed evolution method is also proven to be energy-stable under the proposed time step choice. Numerical examples are tested to demonstrate efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  11. Effect of the growth temperature and the AlN mole fraction on In incorporation and properties of quaternary III-nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Pereiro, J.; Munoz, E.; Calleja, E.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Gago, R.; Bertram, F.; Christen, J.; Luna, E.; Trampert, A.

    2008-01-01

    Indium incorporation into wurtzite (0001)-oriented In x Al y Ga 1-x-y N layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was studied as a function of the growth temperature (565-635 deg. C) and the AlN mole fraction (0.01< y<0.27). The layer stoichiometry was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). RBS shows that indium incorporation decreased continuously with increasing growth temperature due to thermally enhanced dissociation of In-N bonds and for increasing AlN mole fractions. High resolution x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements did not show evidence of phase separation. The mosaicity of the quaternary layers was found to be mainly determined by the growth temperature and independent on alloy composition within the range studied. However, depending on the AlN mole fraction, nanometer-sized composition fluctuations were detected by TEM. Photoluminescence spectra showed a single broad emission at room temperature, with energy and bandwidth S- and W-shaped temperature dependences typical of exciton localization by alloy inhomogeneities. Cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that the alloy inhomogeneities, responsible of exciton localization, occur on a lateral length scale below 150 nm, which is corroborated by TEM

  12. Is Ki-67 of Diagnostic Value in Distinguishing Between Partial and Complete Hydatidiform Moles? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Xiong, Guang-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hang, B O

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the value of Ki-67 in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles. We searched electronic databases included Medline, WOK, Cochrane Library and CNKI, through January 24, 2015. Experts were consulted, and references from related articles were examined. The meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan5.3, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Mantel-Haenszel estimates were calculated and pooled under a random effect model, with data expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We analyzed eight trials with a total of 337 participants who underwent uterine curettage and met the inclusion criteria. A significantly higher expression of Ki-67 was observed in complete than in partial hydatidiform moles (OR=3.28; 95%CI=1.80-5.96; pvalue in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles. However, the present study had only a limited number of samples, so investigation of a greater number of cases is needed to confirm this conclusion. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Human chorionic gonadotrophin regression rate as a predictive factor of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasm in high-risk hydatidiform mole: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Wook; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Hyunki; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was early prediction of postmolar gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) after evacuation of high-risk mole, by comparison of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) regression rates. Fifty patients with a high-risk mole initially and spontaneously regressing after molar evacuation were selected from January 1, 1996 to May 31, 2010 (spontaneous regression group). Fifty patients with a high-risk mole initially and progressing to postmolar GTN after molar evacuation were selected (postmolar GTN group). hCG regression rates represented as hCG/initial hCG were compared between the two groups. The sensitivity and specificity of these rates for prediction of postmolar GTN were assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Multivariate analyses of associations between risk factors and postmolar GTN progression were performed. The mean regression rate of hCG between the two groups was compared. hCG regression rates represented as hCG/initial hCG (%) were 0.36% in the spontaneous regression group and 1.45% in the postmolar GTN group in the second week (p=0.003). Prediction of postmolar GTN by hCG regression rate revealed a sensitivity of 48.0% and specificity of 89.5% with a cut-off value of 0.716% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.759 in the 2nd week (pfactor for postmolar GTN. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Body Mole Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find any new or suspicious spots on your skin, or any spots that are changing, itching or bleeding, make an ... to you by the American Academy of Dermatology’s SPOT Skin Cancer ™ campaign, dedicated to a world without skin ...

  15. Cellular Basis for Learning Impairment in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    advances in therapy for neurological conditions such as stroke and epilepsy. KEY WORDS: Arctic ground squirrel, Cetacean, Hypoxia, Naked mole-rat...including migration and hibernation. Oxygen levels also vary widely, with animals adapted to sea level, high-altitude, underground and aquatic habitats...adapted for life in specific ecological niches as well as inform advances in therapy for neurological conditions such as stroke and epilepsy. Down for

  16. The Possible Therapeutic Role of Polyphenyl Constituents in Turmeric and Tamoxifen on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Chemically Induced in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a drug wildly used for the adjuvant therapy in the treatment of women with estrogen receptor-positive breast tumors and has a low incidence of serious side-effects. Feeding turmeric ( Curcuma longa L .) to rats has no apparent side effects; reduced the types of inflammation that can cause liver cell damage, blockage and scarring. Turmeric delay the damage caused by progressive inflammatory liver disease. This study was carried out to study the possible therapeutic effect of polyphenyl constituents in turmeric and tamoxifen on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats chemically induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Thirty five male rats were injected with DEN in a single dose i.p. (200mg/kg), 7 rats were sacrificed after ~6 months for histopathological examination for HCC nodules in different lobes and lobules, many nodules were observed by naked eye with a diameter of about ~2-3mm. The remaining 28 hepatoma (HCC) bearing rats chemically induced were randomized divided into 4 groups (each of 7rats): hepatoma bearing rats receiving the control diet; hepatoma bearing rats (supplemented with 4g/kg (wt/wt) turmeric (~200 μg curcumin /rat/day/4weeks; hepatoma bearing rats treated with 50mg/kg (wt/wt) tamoxifen dissolved in 0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide and diluted with normal saline and drinking water; hepatoma bearing rats treated with 50mg/kg (wt/wt) tamoxifen in 0.1 ml dimethylsulfoxide and diluted with normal saline and drinking water and supplemented with 4g/ kg (wt/wt) turmeric(~200 μg curcumin /rat/day/4weeks; besides, 7 male rats serves as control group. By the end of the experiment at 4 weeks, rats in each group were sacrificed for examination.

  17. Nonspecific nature of the vanadate inhibition of rat ileal (Na, K)-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, J.J.; Rowe, W.A.; Tomicic, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    Vanadate has been suggested as an intracellular regulator of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. To test this hypothesis the authors examined the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of vanadate on 86 Rb efflux and influx (measurements of the activity of the Na-pump) in rat ileum under conditions of normal, reduced and increased (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. The half maximal inhibition of the Rb efflux and the half maximal inhibition of the Rb influx were not different in the three conditions tested. This suggests that vanadate does not have a regulatory effect on the activity of the Na-K-transport enzyme. The vanadate effect seem rather, to be nonspecific in terms of being unrelated, on a mole per mole basis, to the activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase enzyme

  18. Nonspecific nature of the vanadate inhibition of rat ileal (Na, K)-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajjar, J.J.; Rowe, W.A.; Tomicic, T.K.

    1988-01-01

    Vanadate has been suggested as an intracellular regulator of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase. To test this hypothesis the authors examined the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of vanadate on /sup 86/Rb efflux and influx (measurements of the activity of the Na-pump) in rat ileum under conditions of normal, reduced and increased (Na+ + K+)-ATPase activity. The half maximal inhibition of the Rb efflux and the half maximal inhibition of the Rb influx were not different in the three conditions tested. This suggests that vanadate does not have a regulatory effect on the activity of the Na-K-transport enzyme. The vanadate effect seem rather, to be nonspecific in terms of being unrelated, on a mole per mole basis, to the activity of the (Na+ + K+)-ATPase enzyme.

  19. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  20. Employing a hydrazine linked asymmetric double naphthalene hybrid for efficient naked eye detection of F-: Crystal structure with real application for F-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arghyadeep; Makhal, Subhash Chandra; Ghosh, Soumen; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2018-06-01

    An asymmetric hydrazide, (12E, 13E)-2-((naphthalen-1-yl) methylene)-1-(1-(2-hydroxynaphthalen-6-yl) ethylidene) hydrazine (abbreviated as AH) is synthesized and characterized by standard techniques and crystal structure of AH has been obtained. The naked eye detection of F- in aqueous acetonitrile (acetonitrile: water = 7:3/v:v) by AH has been investigated by UV-Visible titration and in presence of other anions, the limit of detection being 1.31 × 10-6(M). The mechanism of F- sensing has been explored by 1H NMR titration. AH undergoes hydrogen bonding with F- followed by deprotonation. The practical utility of AH has been explored by successful test kit response and color change in toothpaste solution.

  1. A rapid, naked-eye detection of hypochlorite and bisulfite using a robust and highly-photostable indicator dye Quinaldine Red in aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Tanoy; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L.

    2018-02-01

    A ;naked-eye; detection of health hazardous bisulfite (HSO3-) and hypochlorite (ClO-) using an indicator dye (Quinaldine Red, QR) in a wide range of pH is demonstrated. The molecule contains a quinoline moiety linked to an N,N-dimethylaniline moiety with a conjugated double bond. Treatment of QR with HSO3- and ClO-, in aqueous solution at near-neutral pH, resulted in a colorless product with high selectivity and sensitivity. The detection limit was 47.8 μM and 0.2 μM for HSO3- and ClO- respectively. However, ClO- was 50 times more sensitive and with 2 times faster response compared to HSO3-. The detail characterization and related analysis demonstrate the potential of QR for a rapid, robust and highly efficient colorimetric sensor for the practical applications to detect hypochlorite in water samples.

  2. A dual-responsive colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor based on diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative for naked-eye detection of Fe3 + and its practical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Sun, Tao; Xiao, Dejun; Yuan, Fang; Li, Tianduo; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Haixia; Niu, Qingfen

    2018-01-01

    A novel dual-responsive colorimetric and fluorescent chemosensor L based on diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative for Fe3 + detection was designed and synthesized. In presence of Fe3 +, sensor L displayed strong colorimetric response as amaranth to rose pink and significant fluorescence enhancement and chromogenic change, which served as a naked-eye indicator by an obvious color change from purple to red. The binding constant for L-Fe3 + complex was found as 2.4 × 104 with the lower detection limit of 14.3 nM. The sensing mechanism was investigated in detail by fluorescence measurements, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Sensor L for Fe3 + detection also exhibited high anti-interference performance, good reversibility, wide pH response range and instantaneous response time. Furthermore, the sensor L has been used to quantify Fe3 + ions in practical water samples with good recovery.

  3. Effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products and reaction mechanism in an Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingjing [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Moo, E-mail: jmoolee@kims.re.kr [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Huashun [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-10-15

    The effect of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the fabrication behavior of Al composites is investigated using Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C powder mixtures as reactants. The quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI) process combined with the combustion reaction and DTA analysis were used. According to the thermodynamic predictions, which are verified in the experimental results, TiB{sub 2} is formed in all the samples whereas TiC is only formed in reactants with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of more than two. The C atoms from the reacted B{sub 4}C do not move into TiC but instead they move into Al{sub 3}BC or Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} when the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio is less than two. In addition, the reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively. - Highlights: • The critical role of the Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio on the reaction products of Al–Ti–B{sub 4}C was studied using experiments. • The experimental results are also supported by thermodynamic calculations presented in this paper. • The reaction mechanism with a Ti/B{sub 4}C mole ratio of 0.75 is investigated extensively.

  4. Effect of Al mole fraction on structural and electrical properties of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A. SH.; Hassan, Z.; Thahab, S.M.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, H. Abu; Chin, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Al mole fractions on the structural and electrical properties of Al x Ga 1-x N/GaN thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE) on Si (1 1 1) substrates has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. X-ray results revealed that the AlGaN/GaN/AlN was epitaxially grown on Si substrate. By applying Vegard's law, the Al mole fractions of Al x Ga 1-x N samples were found to be 0.11, 0.24, 0.30 and 0.43, respectively. The structural and morphology results indicated that there is a relatively larger tensile strain for the sample with the smallest Al mole fraction; while a smaller compressive strain and larger grain size appear with Al mole fraction equal to 0.30. The strain gets relaxed with the highest Al mole fraction sample. Finally, the linear relationship between the barrier height and Al mole fraction was obtained.

  5. Frequência de mola hidatiforme em tecidos obtidos por curetagem uterina Frequency of hydatidiform mole in tissue obtained by curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Biscaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a frequência de mola hidatiforme em tecidos obtidos por curetagem uterina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, prospectivo e descritivo que incluiu pacientes submetidas à curetagem uterina por diagnóstico de aborto ou mola hidatiforme cujo material obtido foi encaminhado para exame anatomopatológico. Foram excluídas aquelas que não aceitaram participar da pesquisa, recusando-se a assinar o Termo de Consentimento Informado Livre e Esclarecido. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: achados anatomopatológicos, idade, raça/cor, número de gestações e abortos prévios, idade gestacional no momento do diagnóstico, níveis séricos quantitativos da fração beta da gonadotrofina coriônica humana e achados ultrassonográficos. As variáveis foram empregadas para a verificação com o diagnóstico histológico, considerado o padrão-ouro. Os dados foram armazenados e analisados no software Microsoft Excel® e no programa Epi-Info, versão 6.0 (STATCALC e os resultados apresentados como frequência (porcentagem ou média±desvio padrão. Para a associação entre variáveis qualitativas foi usado o teste do χ², e admitiu-se significância estatística quando pPURPOSE: To determine the frequency of hydatiform mole in tissues obtained by curettage. METHODS: A cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive conducted on patients who underwent curretage due to a diagnosis of abortion or hydatiform mole whose material was sent for pathological examination. We excluded women who did not accept to participate and refused to sign the free informed consent form. We studied the following variables: pathological findings, age, race, number of pregnancies and previous abortions, gestational age at diagnosis, quantitative serum beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropin and ultrasound findings. The data were compared to the to histological diagnosis, considered to be the gold standard. Data were stored and analyzed in Microsoft Excel

  6. Phase behaviour of pseudo-binary systems of pressurized ((propane + L,L-lactide)) at different ethanol to L,L-lactide mole ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, João P.; Tres, Marcus V.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Ferreira, Sandra R.S.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase equilibrium data of (propane + L,L-lactide) system at different ethanol to monomer mole ratios. • Static synthetic method from (323 to 353) K and pressures up to 3.3 MPa. • (Vapour + liquid) (VLE) was observed with bubble point (BP) type transitions. • Experimental modelled using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation with the Wong–Sandler (PR–WS) rule. - Abstract: This work reports phase equilibrium data of pressurized (propane + L,L-lactide) system at different ethanol to monomer mole ratios (9:1; 7:1; 5:1). Phase equilibrium experiments were accomplished in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell employing the static synthetic method. (Vapour + liquid) equilibrium data for the pseudo-binary systems were determined within the temperature range from (323 to 353) K and pressures up to 3.3 MPa. For the systems investigated, (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) was visually recorded. It was observed that an increase in temperature or in propane concentration led to a pronounced rise in pressure transition values. On the other hand, an increase in the ethanol to L,L-lactide mole ratio led to a reduction in pressure transitions, whereas a reduction in ethanol concentration complicates the achievement of one-phase homogeneous system. Thus, rapid complete miscibility of the system can be controlled by the amount of ethanol added as a co-solvent. The experimental results were modelled using the Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state with the Wong–Sandler (PR–WS) mixing rule, providing a good representation of the experimental phase transition points

  7. Morphogenetic Effects of Resettlement of Mole Voles (Ellobius talpinus Pall., 1770) from the Southern Population to the Northern Boundary of the Species Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A G; Bol'shakov, V N; Vasil'eva, I A; Evdokimov, N G; Sineva, N V

    2018-01-01

    Geometric morphometry has been used to reveal transformations of mandible morphogenesis in the offspring of mole voles resettled to the northern part of the species range from a southern population. The transformations were new compared to both the original (southern) and the aboriginal (northern) populations. A significant increase in the intragroup morphological disparity estimated by the mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND) in the resettled animals compared to both aboriginal populations is an indirect indication of an increased developmental instability in the resettled animals exposed to new climatic conditions.

  8. Diagnostic reproducibility of hydatidiform moles: ancillary techniques (p57 immunohistochemistry and molecular genotyping) improve morphologic diagnosis for both recently trained and experienced gynecologic pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna V; Kurman, Robert J; Li, Fanghong Rose; Maambo, Emily C; Murphy, Kathleen M; DeScipio, Cheryl; Thompson, Carol B; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2012-12-01

    Distinction of hydatidiform moles from nonmolar specimens (NMs) and subclassification of hydatidiform moles as complete hydatidiform mole (CHM) and partial hydatidiform mole (PHM) are important for clinical practice and investigational studies; however, diagnosis based solely on morphology is affected by interobserver variability. Molecular genotyping can distinguish these entities by discerning androgenetic diploidy, diandric triploidy, and biparental diploidy to diagnose CHMs, PHMs, and NMs, respectively. Eighty genotyped cases (27 CHMs, 27 PHMs, 26 NMs) were selected from a series of 200 potentially molar specimens previously diagnosed using p57 immunohistochemistry and genotyping. Cases were classified by 6 pathologists (3 faculty level gynecologic pathologists and 3 fellows) on the basis of morphology, masked to p57 immunostaining and genotyping results, into 1 of 3 categories (CHM, PHM, or NM) during 2 diagnostic rounds; a third round incorporating p57 immunostaining results was also conducted. Consensus diagnoses (those rendered by 2 of 3 pathologists in each group) were also determined. Performance of experienced gynecologic pathologists versus fellow pathologists was compared, using genotyping results as the gold standard. Correct classification of CHMs ranged from 59% to 100%; there were no statistically significant differences in performance of faculty versus fellows in any round (P-values of 0.13, 0.67, and 0.54 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of PHMs ranged from 26% to 93%, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty versus fellows in each round (P-values of 0.04, <0.01, and <0.01 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of NMs ranged from 31% to 92%, with statistically significantly better performance of faculty only in round 2 (P-values of 1.0, <0.01, and 0.61 for rounds 1 to 3, respectively). Correct classification of all cases combined ranged from 51% to 75% by morphology and 70% to 80

  9. Effects of KOH:ZnCl2 mole ratio on the phase formation, morphological and inhibitive properties of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, F.; Ghasemi, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Mahdavian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure illustrates the inhibition mechanism. The film precipitation on the anodic and cathodic regions of the metal surface causes a drop in dissolution rate of steel. - Highlights: • We synthesized the ZP pigments via coprecipitation method. • Effect of KOH:ZnCl 2 on phase formation, morphology and inhibitive performance of pigment. • KOH:ZnCl 2 ratio is effective on phase formation and morphology of ZP pigments. • KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 phase showed superior corrosion inhibition behavior than KZnPO 4 . - Abstract: Different types of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The PZPs were obtained through changing KOH:ZnCl 2 mole ratio. The chemical composition of the pigments was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the extracts of the PZPs were prepared in 3.5% (w/w) NaCl solution. The inhibitive performance of the pigments was investigated by polarization technique and SEM surface analysis through dipping mild steel panels in the pigment extracts for different immersion times. Results showed that changing ZnCl 2 /KOH mole ratio could influence formation of KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 and KZnPO 4 phases. It was known that the KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 phase has a superior corrosion inhibition behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution than KZnPO 4 phase

  10. Familial Melanoma Associated with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome and Atypical Mole Syndrome: Total-body Digital Photography, Dermoscopy and Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavedoni, Priscila; Ririe, Marnie; Carrera, Cristina; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep

    2017-06-09

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the p53 gene. Melanoma is considered to be a rare, controversial component of LFS. The aim of this study is to describe the utility of systematic screening for melanoma in patients with LFS and atypical mole syndrome. Two 28-year-old identical twin sisters with LFS and atypical moles were monitored by physical examination, total-body digital photography and dermoscopy be-tween 2006 and 2014. A total of 117, predominantly dark-brown, reticular naevi were identified on case 1 and 105 on case 2. Excisions were performed during the evaluation period of 1 in-situ melanoma and 3 basal cell carcinomas in case 1, and 1 in-situ melanoma and 1 early invasive melanoma in case 2. The remaining melanocytic lesions in both patients were stable during follow-up. The 3 melanomas were new atypical lesions detected with total-body photography and dermoscopy. In conclusion, monitoring LFS patients with total-body photography and dermoscopy may be useful to detect early melanoma.

  11. Gestação gemelar de mola hidatiforme completa com feto vivo Twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and living fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Angerame Yela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A gestação gemelar de uma mola hidatiforme completa coexistindo com um feto vivo é uma entidade rara. Os poucos casos descritos na literatura mostram que, em geral, esse tipo de gestação cursa com risco aumentado de aborto espontâneo, parto prematuro, morte fetal intraútero, sangramento, pré-eclâmpsia e doença trofoblástica persistente. Neste artigo, descreveremos o caso de uma primigesta de 20 anos de idade que apresentou uma gestação gemelar de feto vivo com mola completa, a qual transcorreu sem intercorrências e complicações e cujo diagnóstico diferencial com degeneração da placenta foi feito com anatomopatológico.Twin pregnancy with a complete hydatidiform mole and a living fetus is a rare entity. According to the few cases described in the literature, this kind of gestation commonly has higher risks of miscarriage, preterm delivery, intrauterine fetal death, bleeding, preeclampsia and persistent trophoblastic disease. This study reports the case of a 20 years old primiparous patient with complete hydatidiform mole and living fetus, whose pregnancy was successfully carried to term. The differential diagnosis with placental degeneration was reached through anatomopathological investigation.

  12. Effect of Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio on structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by radiation induced method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini, Alam; Larki, Farhad; Saion, Elias; Noroozi, Monir [Putra Malaysia Univ., Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    2013-07-15

    Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation technique in aqueous solutions containing metal chlorides as precursors, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent, isopropanol as a radical scavenger, and distilled water as a solvent. The Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption spectrometry, powder X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The TEM, XRD, EDX, and absorption analyses confirmed the formation of core-shell structure of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles at lower Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio, and the formation of Cu-Al alloy nanoparticles at higher Cu{sup 2+}/Al{sup 3+} mole ratio. The TEM analysis for particle size and size distribution revealed that the average particle size of Cu-Al bimetallic nanoparticles decreased with the increase of absorbed dose. It may be explained due to the competition between nucleation and aggregation processes in the formation of metallic nanoparticles under irradiation. (orig.)

  13. Development of Mole Concept Module Based on Structured Inquiry with Interconection of Macro, Submicro, and Symbolic Representation for Grade X of Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, R.; Azra, F.; Azhar, M.

    2018-04-01

    The research has created the module of mole concept based on structured inquiry with interconection of macro, submicro, and symbolic representation and determined the validity and practicality of the module. The research type was Research and Development (R&D). The development model was 4-D models that consist of four steps: define, design, develop, and disseminate. The research was limited on develop step. The instrument of the research was questionnaire form that consist of validity and practicality sheets. The module was validated by 5 validators. Practicality module was tested by 2 chemistry teachers and 28 students of grade XI MIA 5 at SMAN 4 of Padang. Validity and practicality data were analysed by using the kappa Cohen formula. The moment kappa average of 5 validators was 0,95 with highest validity category. The moment kappa average of teachers and students were 0,89 and 0,91 praticality with high category. The result of the research showed that the module of mole concept based on structured inquiry with interconection of macro, submicro, and symbolic representation was valid and practice to be used on the learning chemistry.

  14. Effects of nickel chloride and nickel carbonyl upon glucose metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, E.; Zygowicz, E.R.; Tarabishy, R.; Mitchell, J.M.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hyperglucagonemia and hyperinsulinemia were observed in fasting rats 0.5 h after ip injection of NiCl 2 (68 μmole per kg). Infusion of somatostatine iv (0.5 mg per rat) did not prevent Ni(II)-mediated hyperglycemia, hyperglucagonemia or hyperinsulinemia. Exposure of rats to inhalation of Ni(CO) 4 (1.2 to 6.4 μmole per liter of air per 15 min) caused acute hyperglycemia, similar to that observed after ip injection of NiCl 2 . Hyperglycemia induced by NiCl 2 and Ni(CO) 4 was not associated with inhibition of erythrocyte glycolysis measured in vitro by erythrocyte uptake of 1- 14 C-glucose and release of 14 CO 2 . These findings indicate that Ni-induced hyperglycemia may be mediated by increased pancreatic release of glucagon, but that Ni stimulation of glucagon release differs from stimulation of glucagon release by arginine or epinephrine, since the Ni effect is not antagonized by somatostatin

  15. Sustainable Utilization of Bio waste towards the Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and its Utility in the Naked Eye Detection of Metals Coupled with its Larvicidal and Antimicrobial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikhila, P. S.; Satheesh, Namitha; Sreejitha, V. S.; Pillai, Anandu R.; Saritha, A.; Smitha Chandran, S.

    2018-02-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles has become a prominent zone of attention in the field of nanotechnology, as it is a nontoxic, economically feasible and green approach. In the present work we have developed an eco-friendly and zero cost method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using common a bio waste banana blossom peel. The well-known characteristic phenomenon of surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) has been exploited towards the characterization of the green synthesized nanoparticles. The aforementioned nanoparticles were characterized by UV spectroscopy and the behaviour of these particles towards naked eye detection of metal ions were observed. The sensitivity of the nanoparticles towards the detection of metal ions was carefully monitored by the shift in the SPR band. Moreover the larvicidal potential of these green synthesized silver nanoparticles were evaluated as per WHO standards. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were found to be an effective antibacterial agent against Gram negative bacteria-E.coli. The method we followed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles is economically feasible as well as environment friendly and also capable of rapid synthesis of nanoparticles at ambient conditions.

  16. Cell-penetrating DNA-binding protein as a safe and efficient naked DNA delivery carrier in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Sung; Yang, Seung-Woo [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Dong-Ki; Kim, Woo-Taek [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho-Guen [Department of Pathology, Yonsei Medical School, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Kyou, E-mail: sjrlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-29

    Non-viral gene delivery is a safe and suitable alternative to viral vector-mediated delivery to overcome the immunogenicity and tumorigenesis associated with viral vectors. Using the novel, human-origin Hph-1 protein transduction domain that can facilitate the transduction of protein into cells, we developed a new strategy to deliver naked DNA in vitro and in vivo. The new DNA delivery system contains Hph-1-GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter plasmid that includes the five repeats of GAL4 upstream activating sequence (UAS). Hph-1-GAL4-DBD protein formed complex with plasmid DNA through the specific interaction between GAL4-DBD and UAS, and delivered into the cells via the Hph-1-PTD. The pEGFP DNA was successfully delivered by the Hph-1-GAL4 system, and the EGFP was effectively expressed in mammalian cells such as HeLa and Jurkat, as well as in Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) plant cells. When 10 {mu}g of pEGFP DNA was intranasally administered to mice using Hph-1-GAL4 protein, a high level of EGFP expression was detected throughout the lung tissue for 7 days. These results suggest that an Hph-1-PTD-mediated DNA delivery strategy may be an useful non-viral DNA delivery system for gene therapy and DNA vaccines.

  17. ESTIMATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT STANDARD OF NEURAL TUBE IN EMBRYOS FROM TRANSYLVANIAN NAKED NECK AND PLYMOUTH ROCK HEN BREEDS, DURING EARLY EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRONCA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the Transylvanian Naked Neck hen breed is considered to be an“endangered” population, reason for which we consider that a special attentionshould have been given until now. Plymouth Rock breed was imported for the firsttime to Romania from the Studler Company, France in 1969. This paper is aimingto perform a profound analysis of the development patterns of the neural tube inthe two breeds, by measurements carried out at 30, 40, 50, and 60 hours ofincubation. Observations show that the closure of the neural canal and itstransformation into a tube follows an undulatory pattern, of which positive andnegative curls are diametrically opposed in the two breeds, while the developmentspeed during the whole studied period have a relative similar value between thetwo breeds. We estimate that the two breeds have a good combinative capacity,which recommend the utilization of these genetic materials to obtain hybrids forproducing “peasant-type” chicken meat, very well-appreciated by the Europeansbetween the two World Wars.

  18. A simple, reversible, colorimetric and water-soluble fluorescent chemosensor for the naked-eye detection of Cu2 + in 100% aqueous media and application to real samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niu, Qingfen; Li, Tianduo; Guo, Zongrang; Liu, Haixia

    2018-01-01

    A simple, reversible, colorimetric and water-soluble fluorescent chemosensor ADA for the naked-eye detection of Cu2 + was developed. Sensor ADA showed high selectivity and sensitivity toward Cu2 + in 100% aqueous media over wide pH range. Sensor ADA exhibited a red-shift in the absorption spectra from 466 to 480 nm that is accompanied by significant color change from light yellow to yellowish brown instantaneously. The Cu2 + recognition is based on the chelation-enhanced fluorescence quenching (CHEQ) effect of the paramagnetic nature. The lowest detection limit is determined to be 15.8 nM, which is much lower than the allowable level of Cu2 + in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ( 20 μM) and the World Health Organization ( 30 μM). The 1:1 binding process was confirmed by fluorescence measurements, IR analysis and DFT studies. Moreover, sensor ADA was successfully applied for determination of trace level of Cu2 + with 4 reuse cycles in various water samples, which affords promising potential in ion-detection field.

  19. Cell-penetrating DNA-binding protein as a safe and efficient naked DNA delivery carrier in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Sung; Yang, Seung-Woo; Hong, Dong-Ki; Kim, Woo-Taek; Kim, Ho-Guen; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2010-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery is a safe and suitable alternative to viral vector-mediated delivery to overcome the immunogenicity and tumorigenesis associated with viral vectors. Using the novel, human-origin Hph-1 protein transduction domain that can facilitate the transduction of protein into cells, we developed a new strategy to deliver naked DNA in vitro and in vivo. The new DNA delivery system contains Hph-1-GAL4 DNA-binding domain (DBD) fusion protein and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter plasmid that includes the five repeats of GAL4 upstream activating sequence (UAS). Hph-1-GAL4-DBD protein formed complex with plasmid DNA through the specific interaction between GAL4-DBD and UAS, and delivered into the cells via the Hph-1-PTD. The pEGFP DNA was successfully delivered by the Hph-1-GAL4 system, and the EGFP was effectively expressed in mammalian cells such as HeLa and Jurkat, as well as in Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) plant cells. When 10 μg of pEGFP DNA was intranasally administered to mice using Hph-1-GAL4 protein, a high level of EGFP expression was detected throughout the lung tissue for 7 days. These results suggest that an Hph-1-PTD-mediated DNA delivery strategy may be an useful non-viral DNA delivery system for gene therapy and DNA vaccines.

  20. A comparative study on low-energy ion beam and neutralized beam modifications of naked DNA and biological effect on mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapirom, S.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-02-01

    DNA conformation change or damage induced by low-energy ion irradiation has been of great interest owing to research developments in ion beam biotechnology and ion beam application in biomedicine. Mechanisms involved in the induction of DNA damage may account for effect from implanting ion charge. In order to check this effect, we used both ion beam and neutralized beam at keV energy to bombard naked DNA. Argon or nitrogen ion beam was generated and extracted from a radiofrequency (RF) ion source and neutralized by microwave-driven plasma in the beam path. Plasmid DNA pGFP samples were irradiated with the ion or neutralized beam in vacuum, followed by gel electrophoresis to observe changes in the DNA conformations. It was revealed that the ion charge played a certain role in inducing DNA conformation change. The subsequent DNA transfer into bacteria Escherichia coli ( E. coli) for mutation analysis indicated that the charged ion beam induced DNA change had high potential in mutation induction while neutralized beam did not. The intrinsic reason was attributed to additional DNA deformation and contortion caused by ion charge exchange effect so that the ion beam induced DNA damage could hardly be completely repaired, whereas the neutralized beam induced DNA change could be more easily recoverable owing to absence of the additional DNA deformation and contortion.

  1. A comparative study on low-energy ion beam and neutralized beam modifications of naked DNA and biological effect on mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapirom, S.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Prakrajang, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Yu, L.D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA conformation change or damage induced by low-energy ion irradiation has been of great interest owing to research developments in ion beam biotechnology and ion beam application in biomedicine. Mechanisms involved in the induction of DNA damage may account for effect from implanting ion charge. In order to check this effect, we used both ion beam and neutralized beam at keV energy to bombard naked DNA. Argon or nitrogen ion beam was generated and extracted from a radiofrequency (RF) ion source and neutralized by microwave-driven plasma in the beam path. Plasmid DNA pGFP samples were irradiated with the ion or neutralized beam in vacuum, followed by gel electrophoresis to observe changes in the DNA conformations. It was revealed that the ion charge played a certain role in inducing DNA conformation change. The subsequent DNA transfer into bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) for mutation analysis indicated that the charged ion beam induced DNA change had high potential in mutation induction while neutralized beam did not. The intrinsic reason was attributed to additional DNA deformation and contortion caused by ion charge exchange effect so that the ion beam induced DNA damage could hardly be completely repaired, whereas the neutralized beam induced DNA change could be more easily recoverable owing to absence of the additional DNA deformation and contortion.

  2. A simple, reversible, colorimetric and water-soluble fluorescent chemosensor for the naked-eye detection of Cu2+ in ~100% aqueous media and application to real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Niu, Qingfen; Li, Tianduo; Guo, Zongrang; Liu, Haixia

    2018-01-05

    A simple, reversible, colorimetric and water-soluble fluorescent chemosensor ADA for the naked-eye detection of Cu 2+ was developed. Sensor ADA showed high selectivity and sensitivity toward Cu 2+ in ~100% aqueous media over wide pH range. Sensor ADA exhibited a red-shift in the absorption spectra from 466 to 480nm that is accompanied by significant color change from light yellow to yellowish brown instantaneously. The Cu 2+ recognition is based on the chelation-enhanced fluorescence quenching (CHEQ) effect of the paramagnetic nature. The lowest detection limit is determined to be 15.8nM, which is much lower than the allowable level of Cu 2+ in drinking water set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (~20μM) and the World Health Organization (~30μM). The 1:1 binding process was confirmed by fluorescence measurements, IR analysis and DFT studies. Moreover, sensor ADA was successfully applied for determination of trace level of Cu 2+ with 4 reuse cycles in various water samples, which affords promising potential in ion-detection field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Controlled formation of Ni(DMG)2 microrods/tubes by manipulating the kinetics of chemical reactions and their application in naked-eye sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianli; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Xiujuan; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated controlled preparation of Ni(DMG)2 microrods/tubes via chemical reaction method. By manipulating the reaction kinetics via the concentration of reactants, shapes of the resulting microstructures can be easily tuned from microrods to microtubes. Size of the resulting products can also be controlled through changing the reaction temperatures. It was proposed that under high reactants' concentrations, molecules will prefer to grow at corners or edges of nuclei with high free energies, to reduce the total energy in the system, which would lead to partial or complete hollow interiors and eventually resulted in mircotubes. The fact that DMG show high selectivity with Ni2+ and accompanied with obvious color change enable us to fabricate test strip for naked-eye detection of Ni2+. Benefit from the large surface areas of DMG nanoparticles on the test strip, the detection limit is improved by two orders over that of conventional solution method. This strategy is sensitive, simple and easy to handle, thus expected to possess potentials for the practical Ni2+ detection applications.

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels, B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangcai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R level, peripheral blood B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum IL-2 ( with RIA), SIL-2R level (with ELISA) and peripheral blood B lymphocytes number as well as T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy serum SIL-2R level and B lymphocyte were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2 level, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were significantly lower (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy the levels changed markedly toward normal, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal immuno-regulation were present in patients with malignant mole. (authors)

  5. Quantification of urban atmospheric boundary layer greenhouse gas dry mole fraction enhancements in the dormant season: Results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Miles

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the detectability of city emissions via a tower-based greenhouse gas (GHG network, as part of the Indianapolis Flux (INFLUX experiment. By examining afternoon-averaged results from a network of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction measurements in Indianapolis, Indiana for 2011–2013, we quantify spatial and temporal patterns in urban atmospheric GHG dry mole fractions. The platform for these measurements is twelve communications towers spread across the metropolitan region, ranging in height from 39 to 136 m above ground level, and instrumented with cavity ring-down spectrometers. Nine of the sites were deployed as of January 2013 and data from these sites are the focus of this paper. A background site, chosen such that it is on the predominantly upwind side of the city, is utilized to quantify enhancements caused by urban emissions. Afternoon averaged mole fractions are studied because this is the time of day during which the height of the boundary layer is most steady in time and the area that influences the tower measurements is likely to be largest. Additionally, atmospheric transport models have better performance in simulating the daytime convective boundary layer compared to the nighttime boundary layer. Averaged from January through April of 2013, the mean urban dormant-season enhancements range from 0.3 ppm CO2 at the site 24 km typically downwind of the edge of the city (Site 09 to 1.4 ppm at the site at the downwind edge of the city (Site 02 to 2.9 ppm at the downtown site (Site 03. When the wind is aligned such that the sites are downwind of the urban area, the enhancements are increased, to 1.6 ppm at Site 09, and 3.3 ppm at Site 02. Differences in sampling height affect the reported urban enhancement by up to 50%, but the overall spatial pattern remains similar. The time interval over which the afternoon data are averaged alters the calculated urban enhancement by an average of 0.4 ppm

  6. Correlation analysis of reactivity in the oxidation of methionine by benzimidazolium fluorochromate in different mole fractions of acetic acid–water mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sheik Mansoor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of oxidation of methionine (Met by benzimidazolium fluorochromate (BIFC has been studied in the presence of chloroacetic acid. The reaction is first order with respect to methionine, BIFC and acid. The reaction rate has been determined at different temperatures and activation parameters calculated. With an increase in the mole fraction of acetic acid in its aqueous mixture, the rate increases. The solvent effect has been analyzed using the Kamlet’s multi parametric equation. A correlation of data with the Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic parameters (α, β, π∗ suggests that the specific solute–solvent interactions play a major role in governing the reactivity. The reaction does not induce polymerization of acrylonitrile. A suitable mechanism has been proposed.

  7. Avaliação das alterações em tecidos moles e duros de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia ortognática combinada utilizando cefalometria computadorizada

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Otávio Emmel

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as diferenças e verificar a correlação existente entre pontos de tecido mole e pontos de tecido duro do perfil facial e entre medidas em vias aéreas faríngeas e os movimentos nos ossos gnáticos, nos períodos pré operatório e pós operatórios, a curto e médio prazo, em pacientes com padrão facial Classe III, submetidos à cirurgia ortognática (CO) bimaxilar (combinada-avanço de maxila e recuo de mandíbula).MATERIAL E METODOS: Tele radiografias pré-operatórias (T1), pós-operatór...

  8. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  9. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E.; Sharp, Trudy M.; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  10. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), European Moles (Talpa europaea) and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sandra E; Sharp, Trudy M; Macdonald, David W

    2016-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1) establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes); 2) identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3) illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), moles (Talpa europaea) and crows (Corvus corone) in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot) and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation). For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among stakeholders about

  11. Karyotypic evolution and organization of the highly repetitive DNA sequences in the Japanese shrew-moles, Dymecodon pilirostris and Urotrichus talpoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, A; Yoshimura, A; Kuro-o, M; Obara, Y

    2005-01-01

    The karyological relationship and organization of highly repetitive DNA sequences in Japanese shrew-moles were studied by zoo-blot hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). When the genomic DNA of the eastern race of Urotrichus talpoides was digested with PstI, three fragments of highly repetitive DNA sequences, approximately 0.7, 0.9, and 1.4 kb in length, were observed as distinct bands. The results of FISH in the eastern race of U. talpoides using these three fragments separately as probes showed that the 0.7-kb PstI fragment was distributed in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes, and that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb fragments were predominantly located in the C-heterochromatin region of chromosome 13p. Although the western race of U. talpoides also had three PstI fragments, 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were more ambiguous than those of the eastern race. The PstI- digested genomic DNA in Dymecodonpilirostris produced only a faint 0.9-kb band, and its signal patterns obtained by zoo-blot hybridization were clearly different from those of U. talpoides. The 0.7-kb fragment of U. talpoides hybridized strongly with the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris. In a FISH analysis, the 0.9-kb fragment of D. pilirostris hybridized with highly repetitive DNA in the centromeric regions of most chromosomes from both D. pilirostris and U. talpoides. Zoo-blot hybridization and FISH analyses suggest that the 0.9- and 1.4-kb PstI fragments were generated specifically in the genome of U. talpoides after the common ancestor differentiated into two extant shrew-mole species. A difference in the length of the centromeric elements between U. talpoides and D. pilirostris might be observed due to certain modifications of the repeating unit.

  12. Assessing Animal Welfare Impacts in the Management of European Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, European Moles (Talpa europaea and Carrion Crows (Corvus corone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E Baker

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict is a global issue. Attempts to manage this conflict impact upon wild animal welfare, an issue receiving little attention until relatively recently. Where human activities harm animal welfare these effects should be minimised where possible. However, little is known about the welfare impacts of different wildlife management interventions, and opinions on impacts vary widely. Welfare impacts therefore need to be assessed objectively. Our objectives were to: 1 establish whether an existing welfare assessment model could differentiate and rank the impacts of different wildlife management interventions (for decision-making purposes; 2 identify and evaluate any additional benefits of making formal welfare assessments; and 3 illustrate issues raised by application of the model. We applied the welfare assessment model to interventions commonly used with rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, moles (Talpa europaea and crows (Corvus corone in the UK. The model ranked interventions for rabbits (least impact first: fencing, head shot, chest shot and crows (shooting, scaring, live trapping with cervical dislocation. For moles, managing molehills and tunnels scored least impact. Both spring trapping, and live trapping followed by translocation, scored greater impacts, but these could not be compared directly as they scored on different axes of the model. Some rankings appeared counter-intuitive, highlighting the need for objective formal welfare assessments. As well as ranking the humaneness of interventions, the model highlighted future research needs and how Standard Operating Procedures might be improved. The model is a milestone in assessing wildlife management welfare impacts, but our research revealed some limitations of the model and we discuss likely challenges in resolving these. In future, the model might be developed to improve its utility, e.g. by refining the time-scales. It might also be used to reach consensus among

  13. Effects of KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} mole ratio on the phase formation, morphological and inhibitive properties of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, F. [Inorganic Pigment and Glazes Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, E., E-mail: eghasemi@iust.ac.ir [Inorganic Pigment and Glazes Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B.; Mahdavian, M. [Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology, Tehran 1668814811 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: This figure illustrates the inhibition mechanism. The film precipitation on the anodic and cathodic regions of the metal surface causes a drop in dissolution rate of steel. - Highlights: • We synthesized the ZP pigments via coprecipitation method. • Effect of KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} on phase formation, morphology and inhibitive performance of pigment. • KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} ratio is effective on phase formation and morphology of ZP pigments. • KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase showed superior corrosion inhibition behavior than KZnPO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Different types of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The PZPs were obtained through changing KOH:ZnCl{sub 2} mole ratio. The chemical composition of the pigments was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the extracts of the PZPs were prepared in 3.5% (w/w) NaCl solution. The inhibitive performance of the pigments was investigated by polarization technique and SEM surface analysis through dipping mild steel panels in the pigment extracts for different immersion times. Results showed that changing ZnCl{sub 2}/KOH mole ratio could influence formation of KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and KZnPO{sub 4} phases. It was known that the KZn{sub 2}H(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase has a superior corrosion inhibition behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution than KZnPO{sub 4} phase.

  14. Near-infrared chemodosimetric probes based on heptamethine cyanine dyes for the “naked-eye” detection of cyanide in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Dali [College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Yijiang, E-mail: liuyijiang84@iccas.ac.cn [College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan Province (China); Li, Mengnan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Hongbiao, E-mail: chhb606@163.com [College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan Province (China); Li, Huaming [College of Chemistry, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan Province (China)

    2017-05-15

    Two simple chemodosimetric probes (P1 and P2) based on heptamethine cyanine dyes have been synthesized for highly sensitive and selective detection of cyanide anions (CN{sup −}) in aqueous media. The probes with an immobilized indolium salt as the specifically nucleophilic addition reaction site for CN{sup −} exhibit absorption bands in the near-infrared (NIR) region (650–850 nm). Upon the addition of CN{sup −}, the probes display a blue-shifted spectrum and result in apparent color change from green to brilliant yellow that can be easily observed by the naked eye even in the presence of other interfering anions such as F{sup −}, AcO{sup −}, Br{sup −}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and I{sup −}. There are good linear relationships between the fluorescence intensity of the probes and CN{sup −} concentrations, and the detection limits for P1 and P2 are estimated to be 0.017 μM and 0.2 μM, respectively. The sensing mechanism of the nucleophilic addition is confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the probe P2 is employed for cell imaging and the detection of CN{sup −} in living cells L929 is successfully realized. - Graphical abstract: Simple chemodosimetric probes based on heptamethine cyanine dye were synthesized and applied to detect CN{sup −} in aqueous media with colorimetric and fluorescent dual channel recognition.

  15. Rhodamine B immobilized on hollow Au-HMS material for naked-eye detection of Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, College of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Li, Gang, E-mail: liganghg@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, College of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Cheng, Zhuhong [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, College of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Zuo, Xiujin [Key Laboratory of Bio-organic Chemistry, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Graphical abstract: Au-HMS-Probe with worm-like mesoporous framework for detection of Hg{sup 2+} in aqueous media has been simply and effectively synthesized by immobilizing a Rhodamine B derivative on Au-HMS via Au-N groups under room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au-HMS-Probe is prepared via Au-N bonds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gold nanoparticles are chosen as connectors instead of silane agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au-HMS is chosen as carrier for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The immobilization method of Au-HMS-Probe is very simple and effective. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au-HMS-Probe shows excellent ability for detecting Hg{sup 2+} by naked-eye. - Abstract: A simple, effective method has been demonstrated to immobilize Rhodamine B (RhB) probes on mesoporous silica (Au-HMS). The prepared chemosensor (Au-HMS-Probe) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrum and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Further application of Au-HMS-Probe in sensing Hg{sup 2+} was confirmed by fluorescence titration experiment. Au-HMS-Probe afforded 'turn-on' fluorescence enhancement and displayed high brightness in water, and it also showed excellent selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} over alkali (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}), alkaline earth (Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) and other heavy metal ions (Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}). Importantly, Au-HMS-Probe could be regenerated by treatment with tetrapropylammonium hydroxide solution.

  16. Estimation of genetic variability and selection response for clutch length in dwarf brown-egg layers carrying or not the naked neck gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tixier-Boichard Michèle

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the possibility of using the dwarf gene for egg production, two dwarf brown-egg laying lines were selected for 16 generations on average clutch length; one line (L1 was normally feathered and the other (L2 was homozygous for the naked neck gene NA. A control line from the same base population, dwarf and segregating for the NA gene, was maintained during the selection experiment under random mating. The average clutch length was normalized using a Box-Cox transformation. Genetic variability and selection response were estimated either with the mixed model methodology, or with the classical methods for calculating genetic gain, as the deviation from the control line, and the realized heritability, as the ratio of the selection response on cumulative selection differentials. Heritability of average clutch length was estimated to be 0.42 ± 0.02, with a multiple trait animal model, whereas the estimates of the realized heritability were lower, being 0.28 and 0.22 in lines L1 and L2, respectively. REML estimates of heritability were found to decline with generations of selection, suggesting a departure from the infinitesimal model, either because a limited number of genes was involved, or their frequencies were changed. The yearly genetic gains in average clutch length, after normalization, were estimated to be 0.37 ± 0.02 and 0.33 ± 0.04 with the classical methods, 0.46 ± 0.02 and 0.43 ± 0.01 with animal model methodology, for lines L1 and L2 respectively, which represented about 30% of the genetic standard deviation on the transformed scale. Selection response appeared to be faster in line L2, homozygous for the NA gene, but the final cumulated selection response for clutch length was not different between the L1 and L2 lines at generation 16.

  17. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  18. [Variability of Cytochrome b Gene and Adjacent Section of Gene tRNA-Thr of Mitochondrial DNA in the Northern Mole Vole Ellobius talpinus (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A S; Lebedev, V S; Zykov, A E; Bakloushinskaya, I Yu

    2015-12-01

    The Northern mole vole E. talpinus, despite its wide distribution, is characterized by a stable karyotype (2n = NF = 54) and slight morphological polymorphism. We made a preliminary analysis of a mitochondrial DNA fragment to clarify the level of genetic variation and differentiation of E. talpinus. the complete cytochrome b gene (cyt b, 1143 bp) and a short part of its flanking gene tRNA-Thr (27 bp) were sequenced. We studied 16 specimens from eight localities, including Crimea, the Volga region, the Trans-Volga region, the Southern Urals, Western Siberia, and Eastern Turkmenistan. Mitotypes of E. talpinus were distributed on a ML dendrogram as four distinct clusters: the first (I) contains specimens from the Crimea, the second (II) combines individuals from the Volgograd region and the left bank of the Don River, the third (III) includes those from the Trans-Volga region, Southern Urals, the left bank of the Irtysh River, and Eastern Turkmenistan; the fourth (IV) are those from the right bank of the Irtysh River. These clusters were relatively distant from each other: the mean genetic distances (D) between them are 0.021-0.051. The Eastern mole vole E. tancrei differed from E. talpinus population groups 1.5-2 times more (D = 0.077-0.084) than the latter did among themselves. Such variations indirectly proved the unity of E. talpinus, despite its high intraspecific differentiation for the studied fragment of mitochondrial DNA. This differentiation apparently occurred because of the long isolation of E. talpinus population groups, which was due to geographic barriers, in particular, the large rivers that completely separate the species range meridionally (the Volga River, the Irtysh River). Sociality and underground lifestyle could accelerate the fixation of mutations in disjunct populations. The composition and distribution of intraspecific groups of E. talpinus, which were identified in analysis of the mitochondrial DNA fragment, do not coincide with the

  19. Acute effects of organotins on brain, liver and kidney in rats<