WorldWideScience

Sample records for naive northern fur

  1. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  2. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  3. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  4. Alaska northern fur seal migration and foraging strategies telemetry and environmental data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was used for the analysis of adult male and female northern fur seal winter migration and foraging behavior published by Sterling et al. (2014)....

  5. Alaska northern fur seal adult male satellite telemetry data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of satellite-linked telemetry data collected to investigate winter migration patterns and foraging strategies of adult male northern fur...

  6. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  7. Alaska Northern Fur Seal Foraging Habitat Model Stable Isotope Data, 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets were used by Zeppelin et al. (2015) to model northern fur seal foraging habitats based on stable isotope values measured in plasma and red blood...

  8. Fukushima derived radiocesium in subsistence-consumed northern fur seal and wild celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth; Duncan, Colleen; Dickerson, Bobette; Williams, Michael; Gelatt, Thomas; Bell, Justin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    In July 2014, our investigative team traveled to St. Paul Island, Alaska to measure concentrations of radiocesium in wild-caught food products, primarily northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus). The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident released radiocesium into the atmosphere and into the western Pacific Ocean; other investigators have detected Fukushima-derived radionuclides in a variety of marine products harvested off the western coast of North America. We tested two subsistence-consumed food products from St. Paul Island, Alaska for Fukushima-derived radionuclides: 54 northern fur seal, and nine putchki (wild celery, Angelica lucida) plants. Individual northern fur seal samples were below minimum detectable activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs, but when composited, northern fur seal tissues tested positive for trace quantities of both isotopes. Radiocesium was detected at an activity concentration of 37.2 mBq (134)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 35.9-38.5) and 141.2 mBq (137)Cs kg(-1) f.w. (95% CI: 135.5-146.8). The measured isotopic ratio, decay-corrected to the date of harvest, was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.25-0.28). The Fukushima nuclear accident released (134)Cs and (137)Cs in roughly equal quantities, but by the date of harvest in July 2014, this ratio was 0.2774, indicating that this population of seals has been exposed to small quantities of Fukushima-derived radiocesium. Activity concentrations of both (134)Cs and (137)Cs in putchki were below detection limits, even for composited samples. Northern fur seal is known to migrate between coastal Alaska and Japan and the trace (134)Cs in northern fur seal tissue suggests that the population under study had been minimally exposed Fukushima-derived radionuclides. Despite this inference, the radionuclide quantities detected are small and no impact is expected as a result of the measured radiation exposure, either in northern fur seal or human populations consuming this species.

  9. Alaska Northern Fur Seal Adult Female Satellite Telemetry and Oceanographic Data, 2002/03 and 2009/10

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of data used for an analysis of the interactions between adult female northern fur seal migratory and foraging behavior and oceanographic...

  10. Energetic costs and thermoregulation in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups: the importance of behavioral strategies for thermal balance in furred marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwanag, Heather E M

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral thermoregulation represents an important strategy for reducing energetic costs in thermally challenging environments, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates. Because of the cryptic lifestyle of aquatic species, the energetic benefits of such behaviors in marine endotherms have been much more difficult to demonstrate. In this study, I examined the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pup, a small-bodied endotherm that spends prolonged periods at sea. The thermal neutral zones of three weaned male northern fur seal pups (body mass range = 11.8-12.8 kg) were determined by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry at water temperatures ranging from 2.5° to 25.0°C. Metabolic rate averaged 10.03 ± 2.26 mL O₂kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ for pups resting within their thermal neutral zone; lower critical temperature was 8.3° ± 2.5°C , approximately 8°C higher than the coldest sea surface temperatures encountered in northern Pacific waters. To determine whether behavioral strategies could mitigate this potential thermal limitation, I measured metabolic rate during grooming activities and the unique jughandling behavior of fur seals. Both sedentary grooming and active grooming resulted in significant increases in metabolic rate relative to rest (P = 0.001), and percent time spent grooming increased significantly at colder water temperatures (P strategies may help to mitigate thermal challenges faced by northern fur seal pups while resting at sea.

  11. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  12. Northern fur seal demography studies at San Miguel Island, California conducted from 1975-10-07 to 2014-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0141240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  13. Isotopic and genetic insights into the persistence of the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, P. L.; Hadly, E. A.; Pinsky, M. L.; Newsome, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    What factors allow some species to survive in the face of climate change, disease, or anthropogenic disturbance? How do species shift their geographic distributions in the face of such challenges? These pressing questions in ecology and conservation biology are difficult to answer when looking solely at modern populations or the recent historical record. We explore these questions through analysis of DNA and the isotopic composition of modern and ancient northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus). The NFS is an eared seal (otariid) that ranges along the north Pacific, where it breeds on offshore islands; by far the largest modern rookeries are on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The species shows a high degree of philopatry, and females feed while nursing, wean pups at 4 months, and spend the rest of the year foraging far offshore further south. Archaelogical study reveals that Holocene NFS had numerous breeding colonies from the Channel Islands to the Aleutians. Temperate latitude colonies collapsed in the late Holocene in response to hunting pressures and perhaps, environmental change. The species has recolonized parts of its former range since the 1960s. Despite facing similar threats, other marine mammals have failed to rebound (e.g., Guadalupe fur seals) or have exceptionally low genetic diversity indicating recent and prolonged bottlenecks (e.g., northern elephant seals). Isotopic analyses of sub-fossil growth series indicate that extirpated mid-latitude colonies weaned much later (≥12 months), like all other otariid species that breed at temperate latitudes. As a result, females were tied to rookery sites year-round and had a much-reduced migratory range relative to modern NFS females breeding in the Bering Sea, a result also supported by isotopic analyses. Serial coalescent simulations of ancient and modern DNA reveals that exceptionally high migration rates and Arctic refugia provided resilience to NFS. These traits allowed the species to

  14. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  15. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...://www.fakr.noaa.gov/protectedresources/seals/fur.htm . Send comments to Kaja Brix, Assistant Regional...: Kaja Brix, Assistant Regional Administrator, Protected Resources Division, Alaska Region, NMFS, P.O... ; Kaja Brix, (907) 586-7235, email Kaja.Brix@noaa.gov ; or Tom Eagle, (301) 713-2322, ext. 105, email...

  16. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of

  17. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  18. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  19. The Sun, Moon, Wind, and Biological Imperative–Shaping Contrasting Wintertime Migration and Foraging Strategies of Adult Male and Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Sterling, Jeremy T.; Springer, Alan M.; Iverson, Sara J.; Johnson, Shawn P.; Noel A Pelland; Johnson, Devin S.; Mary-Anne Lea; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data logg...

  20. The global fur industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2014-01-01

    with regards to the fur sector, and the price of fur is volatile in the short and long run. A new world trade pattern and international specialization have emerged in recent years. The comparative advantages of the fur sector change along the fur value chain, while China’s position on the global fur market has...... and international statistics about the fur sector. This article analyzes the production and international trade in fur based on information from official statistics, trade associations, companies, scientific papers and reports, interviews with experts, etc.. Markets and market conditions play a very important role...

  1. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Sterling

    Full Text Available Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon, and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1 are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2 ease environmental

  2. The sun, moon, wind, and biological imperative-shaping contrasting wintertime migration and foraging strategies of adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Jeremy T; Springer, Alan M; Iverson, Sara J; Johnson, Shawn P; Pelland, Noel A; Johnson, Devin S; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A

    2014-01-01

    Adult male and female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are sexually segregated in different regions of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea during their winter migration. Explanations for this involve interplay between physiology, predator-prey dynamics, and ecosystem characteristics, however possible mechanisms lack empirical support. To investigate factors influencing the winter ecology of both sexes, we deployed five satellite-linked conductivity, temperature, and depth data loggers on adult males, and six satellite-linked depth data loggers and four satellite transmitters on adult females from St. Paul Island (Bering Sea, Alaska, USA) in October 2009. Males and females migrated to different regions of the North Pacific Ocean: males wintered in the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific Ocean, while females migrated to the Gulf of Alaska and California Current. Horizontal and vertical movement behaviors of both sexes were influenced by wind speed, season, light (sun and moon), and the ecosystem they occupied, although the expression of the behaviors differed between sexes. Male dive depths were aligned with the depth of the mixed layer during daylight periods and we suspect this was the case for females upon their arrival to the California Current. We suggest that females, because of their smaller size and physiological limitations, must avoid severe winters typical of the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea and migrate long distances to areas of more benign environmental conditions and where prey is shallower and more accessible. In contrast, males can better tolerate often extreme winter ocean conditions and exploit prey at depth because of their greater size and physiological capabilities. We believe these contrasting winter behaviors 1) are a consequence of evolutionary selection for large size in males, important to the acquisition and defense of territories against rivals during the breeding season, and 2) ease environmental

  3. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus off the Washington (USA coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel A Pelland

    Full Text Available Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar, mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses

  4. Temporal increase in HIV-1 non-R5 tropism frequency among antiretroviral-naive patients from northern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosz Parczewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sequencing of the third hypervariable loop allows to identify genotype-based HIV tropism. R5-tropic viruses associated with early stages of infection are preferentially transmitted, while non-R5 HIV-1 tropism has been associated with severe immunodeficiency and lower lymphocyte CD4 nadir and may reflect delayed HIV diagnosis. In this study, we investigate the changes in tropism frequency from 2007 to 2013. Materials and Methods: Study included 194 patients with confirmed HIV infection linked to care in 2007–2013. Baseline plasma samples from treatment naive patients were used for HIV-1 genotypic tropism assessment based on triplicate V3 loop sequencing. Non-R5 tropism prediction thresholds were assigned using a false positive rate (FPR of 10% and 5.75% FPR and associated with clinical and laboratory data (age, gender, date of HIV diagnosis, route of transmission, CDC clinical category at diagnosis, pretreatment HIV viral load, baseline and nadir lymphocyte CD4 counts. For statistics, chi-square and Mann–Whitney U tests were used, time trends were examined using logistic regression (R statistical platform, v. 3.1.0 for binary variables and linear regression for continuous ones. Results: Overall non-R5 tropism frequency for the 5.75% FPR was 15.5% and 27.8% for 10% FPR. Frequency of the non-R5 tropism predicted using 5.75% FPR increased significantly from 2007 (0% to 2013 (25% [OR: 1.44 (95% CI 1.14–1.86, p=0.003, rough slope +3.89%/year] (Figure 1a. With 10% FPR, the frequency changed from 7% (2007 to 33% (2013 [OR: 1.17 (95% CI 0.99–1.39, p=0.054, rough slope +3.0%/year] (Figure 1b. Baseline lymphocyte CD4 count and nadir, as well as pretreatment HIV-1 viral loads were stable over time of observation (r=0.014, p=0.84; r=0.13, p=0.085; r=0.016, p=0.83 for CD4 baseline, nadir and HIV load, respectively. Frequency of AIDS at HIV diagnosis increased from 21.4% in 2007 to 38.0% in 2013, however trend over time was insignificant

  5. Fur seal investigations, 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annually a report is made on the fur seal investigations carried on by the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries on the Pribilof Islands and at sea. Investigations on the...

  6. Fur and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla; Tanderup, Sisse

    2016-01-01

    interviews and observations at the premises of Kopenhagen Fur, as well as with stakeholders and collaborate partners in Denmark and in China. The definition of sustainability in the report must be seen as related to Design School Kolding's research umbrella of Sustainable Futures - a term chosen to unite...... of operationalizing shared memory in relation to issues of fur and sustainability (by Sisse Tanderup, PhD in art history) • a perspective on material processing that point towards ways of promoting and communicating best practices of i.e. dressing and dying of raw skin (by Karen Marie Hasling, PhD in textile...... engineering) • a perspective on design processes within the fur sector that point towards traditional and potentially future practices for designing more sustainably (by Ulla Ræbild, PhD in design research) • a perspective on user experiences of fur garment that point towards potentials for more sustainable...

  7. 16 CFR 301.38 - Advertising of furs and fur products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising of furs and fur products. 301.38... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.38 Advertising of furs and fur products. (a)(1) In advertising furs or fur products, all parts of the required information shall be stated...

  8. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... trade with fur skin products between Asia and Europe has increased remarkably during the recent decades. Europe accounts for a major share of world production and export of raw fur skin, and Asia accounts for the major part of the subsequent processing. This means that there is a significant export...... of raw fur skin from Europe to Asia, and a major export of fur garments from Asia to Europe including Russia. The conclusion is, that there is a major international trade of both fur skin and fur garments between Europe and Asia, and that the international specialization in this sector is high....

  9. Fur and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Csaba, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of deeper luxury, which insists that 'real' luxury should involve sustainable practices in the production and consumption of luxury goods. It traces historical and recent developments in the field of fur, to understand the implications, uncertainties and ambiguities...... of luxury’s confrontation with sustainability. Considering fur in relation to future standards for luxury products, we raise questions about moral problematisation and justification of luxury in terms of sustainability. We first examine the encounter of luxury with sustainability and explain...... the significance of the notion of ‘deeper luxury’. After taking stock of the impact of sustainability on luxury and various directions in which sustainable luxury is evolving, we discuss concepts of sustainable development in relation to the history of moral problematisation of luxury. This leads to the case...

  10. 75 FR 21233 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Replacement and Repair of Fur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... adverse impact on such species or stock and its habitat, paying particular attention to rookeries, mating... northern fur seals are identified to evaluate the construction actions potential contribution to the...

  11. The Naive Central Banker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Carvalho Griebeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been in some countries a trend of assigning other functions to central banks besides price stability. The most suggested function to be added to monetary authority’s obligations is to pursue economic growth or full employment. In this paper we characterize the behavior and analyse the optimal monetary policy of, what we call, a naive central banker. We describe the naive behavior as one that does face the inflation-unemployment trade-off, but it tries to minimize both variables simultaneously. Our findings, both under discretion and commitment, indicate that the naive central banker delivers lower expected inflation and inflation variance than the benchmark behavior whenever the economy is rigid enough. However, the degree of conservativeness also affects this result, such that the less conservative the naive policymaker, the more rigidity is necessary.

  12. 76 FR 13550 - Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... misbranding and false advertising of fur products, and requires labeling of most fur products. 15 U.S.C. 69 et... advertising fur products. 16 CFR 301.38. Finally, to assist the Commission in enforcing these requirements... advertising of fur products, if any, are not covered by the Rules? (a) What evidence demonstrates the...

  13. Selected bibliography on the northern fur seal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Prepared by staff of the Branch of Marine Mammal Research. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as requested at the First Meeting of the...

  14. Regional differences in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity and interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in the fur seal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LYAMIN, OLEG I; PAVLOVA, IVETTA F; KOSENKO, PETER O; MUKHAMETOV, LEV M; SIEGEL, JEROME M

    2012-01-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) in the northern fur seal ( Callorhinus ursinus ) is characterized by a highly expressed interhemispheric electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, called ‘unihemispheric’ or ‘asymmetrical’ SWS...

  15. High prevalence and significance of hepatitis D virus infection among treatment-naive HBsAg-positive patients in Northern Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Tien Sy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (HDV infection is considered to cause more severe hepatitis than hepatitis B virus (HBV monoinfection. With more than 9.5 million HBV-infected people, Vietnam will face an enormous health burden. The prevalence of HDV in Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients is speculative. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of HDV in Vietnamese patients, determined the HDV-genotype distribution and compared the findings with the clinical outcome. METHODS: 266 sera of well-characterized HBsAg-positive patients in Northern Vietnam were analysed for the presence of HDV using newly developed HDV-specific RT-PCRs. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed for HDV-genotyping. RESULTS: The HDV-genome prevalence observed in the Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients was high with 15.4% while patients with acute hepatitis showed 43.3%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a predominance of HDV-genotype 1 clustering in an Asian clade while HDV-genotype 2 could be also detected. The serum aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT as well as total and direct bilirubin were significantly elevated in HDV-positive individuals (p<0.05. HDV loads were mainly low (<300 to 4.108 HDV-copies/ml. Of note, higher HDV loads were mainly found in HBV-genotype mix samples in contrast to single HBV-infections. In HBV/HDV-coinfections, HBV loads were significantly higher in HBV-genotype C in comparison to HBV-genotype A samples (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: HDV prevalence is high in Vietnamese individuals, especially in patients with acute hepatitis B. HDV replication activity showed a HBV-genotype dependency and could be associated with elevated liver parameters. Besides serological assays molecular tests are recommended for diagnosis of HDV. Finally, the high prevalence of HBV and HDV prompts the urgent need for HBV-vaccination coverage.

  16. Naive Realism about Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Daumer, Martin; Dürr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zanghì, Nino

    1996-01-01

    A source of much difficulty and confusion in the interpretation of quantum mechanics is a ``naive realism about operators.'' By this we refer to various ways of taking too seriously the notion of operator-as-observable, and in particular to the all too casual talk about ``measuring operators'' that occurs when the subject is quantum mechanics. Without a specification of what should be meant by ``measuring'' a quantum observable, such an expression can have no clear meaning. A definite specifi...

  17. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  18. Hybrid fur rendering: combining volumetric fur with explicit hair strands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tobias Grønbeck; Falster, Viggo; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    Hair is typically modeled and rendered using either explicitly defined hair strand geometry or a volume texture of hair densities. Taken each on their own, these two hair representations have difficulties in the case of animal fur as it consists of very dense and thin undercoat hairs in combination...... with coarse guard hairs. Explicit hair strand geometry is not well-suited for the undercoat hairs, while volume textures are not well-suited for the guard hairs. To efficiently model and render both guard hairs and undercoat hairs, we present a hybrid technique that combines rasterization of explicitly...... defined guard hairs with ray marching of a prismatic shell volume with dynamic resolution. The latter is the key to practical combination of the two techniques, and it also enables a high degree of detail in the undercoat. We demonstrate that our hybrid technique creates a more detailed and soft fur...

  19. Fur skin and fur garment trade between Europe and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    International trade and specialization with agricultural raw materials and processed products is often rather limited due to trade barriers, logistic problems and food security. This production of raw fur skin - which is also considered an agricultural product - mostly takes place in the Western...... as two major trading partners. Data is provided from international trade statistics, national statistical institutions and organizations. The analyses combine international trade theories with trade statistics and in this way results and conclusions are presented. The analyses show that international...

  20. COMPOSITION OF SPATIAL FORMS OF FUR GARMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva M. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fact that the composition of fur models has significant importance for the customers, surpassing even the importance of quality and comfort clothing for the consumers. It systematizes features of the compositional solutions of fur garments, determining the integrity of the image and the artistic unity of structure components. It describes methods of combining different types of fur and various textile materials in one product, as well as types of decorative finishes. It shows the influence of different height of hair, color and texture of fur on visual and tactile perception of spatial forms and appearance of fur. The subordination of the constituent parts of form, rhythm of expressive elements and the presence of asymmetry details give a dynamic composition solution of fur garments. To improve the aesthetic properties and enhance consumer value, a composition of fur garment should be holistic, proportionate, harmonious in color and texture of the fur, of decorative trim, with the rhythmic arrangement of parts. The composition of the external forms of fur clothing takes into account visual and tactile features of fur, a variety of design cut, ensures the artistic expression of clothing

  1. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  2. Naive realism about operators

    CERN Document Server

    Daumer, M; Goldstein, S; Zanghì, N; Daumer, Martin; Durr, Detlef; Goldstein, Sheldon; Zangh, Nino

    1996-01-01

    A source of much difficulty and confusion in the interpretation of quantum mechanics is a ``naive realism about operators.'' By this we refer to various ways of taking too seriously the notion of operator-as-observable, and in particular to the all too casual talk about ``measuring operators'' that occurs when the subject is quantum mechanics. Without a specification of what should be meant by ``measuring'' a quantum observable, such an expression can have no clear meaning. A definite specification is provided by Bohmian mechanics, a theory that emerges from Sch\\"rodinger's equation for a system of particles when we merely insist that ``particles'' means particles. Bohmian mechanics clarifies the status and the role of operators as observables in quantum mechanics by providing the operational details absent from standard quantum mechanics. It thereby allows us to readily dismiss all the radical claims traditionally enveloping the transition from the classical to the quantum realm---for example, that we must a...

  3. 16 CFR 301.13 - Fur products having furs with different countries of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... products having furs with different countries of origin. When a fur product is composed of furs with different countries of origin the names of such countries shall be set forth in the required information in... countries of origin. 301.13 Section 301.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS...

  4. 16 CFR 301.17 - Misrepresentation of origin of furs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of furs. No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the geographical or zoological origin of the animal producing a fur shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising furs or...

  5. YAP Induces Human Naive Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human naive pluripotent stem cell (PSC state, corresponding to a pre-implantation stage of development, has been difficult to capture and sustain in vitro. We report that the Hippo pathway effector YAP is nuclearly localized in the inner cell mass of human blastocysts. Overexpression of YAP in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs promotes the generation of naive PSCs. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA can partially substitute for YAP to generate transgene-free human naive PSCs. YAP- or LPA-induced naive PSCs have a rapid clonal growth rate, a normal karyotype, the ability to form teratomas, transcriptional similarities to human pre-implantation embryos, reduced heterochromatin levels, and other hallmarks of the naive state. YAP/LPA act in part by suppressing differentiation-inducing effects of GSK3 inhibition. CRISPR/Cas9-generated YAP−/− cells have an impaired ability to form colonies in naive but not primed conditions. These results uncover an unexpected role for YAP in the human naive state, with implications for early human embryology.

  6. Pet fur color and texture classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  7. Detailed analysis of Helicobacter pylori Fur-regulated promoters reveals a Fur box core sequence and novel Fur-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pich, Oscar Q; Carpenter, Beth M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Merrell, D Scott

    2012-06-01

    In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.

  8. The Fur regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium: identification of new Fur targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcriptional regulator that controls iron homeostasis in bacteria. Although the regulatory role of Fur in Escherichia coli is well characterized, most of the studies were conducted under routine culture conditions, i.e., in ambient oxygen concentration. To reveal potentially novel aspects of the Fur regulon in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium under oxygen conditions similar to that encountered in the host, we compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic Δfur strain under anaerobic conditions. Results Microarray analysis of anaerobically grown Δfur S. Typhimurium identified 298 differentially expressed genes. Expression of several genes controlled by Fnr and NsrR appeared to be also dependent on Fur. Furthermore, Fur was required for the activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide disumutases (MnSOD and FeSOD. The regulation of FeSOD gene, sodB, occurred via small RNAs (i.e., the ryhB homologs, rfrA and rfrB with the aid of the RNA chaperone Hfq. The transcription of sodA was increased in Δfur; however, the enzyme was inactive due to the incorporation of iron instead of manganese in SodA. Additionally, in Δfur, the expression of the gene coding for the ferritin-like protein (ftnB was down-regulated, while the transcription of the gene coding for the nitric oxide (NO· detoxifying flavohemoglobin (hmpA was up-regulated. The promoters of ftnB and hmpA do not contain recognized Fur binding motifs, which indicated their probable indirect regulation by Fur. However, Fur activation of ftnB was independent of Fnr. In addition, the expression of the gene coding for the histone-like protein, H-NS (hns was increased in Δfur. This may explain the observed down-regulation of the tdc operon, responsible for the anaerobic degradation of threonine, and ftnB in Δfur. Conclusions This study determined that Fur is a positive factor in ftn

  9. Fur Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Muscatatuck NWR Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The plan provides a description of the Refuge, describes the relation of...

  10. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  11. Naive Bayesian for Email Filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a method of email filter based on Naive Bayesian theory that can effectively filter junk mail and illegal mail. Furthermore, the keys of implementation are discussed in detail. The filtering model is obtained from training set of email. The filtering can be done without the users specification of filtering rules.

  12. MEANS OF SHAPING AND FORMSERIALIZE IN MODERN FUR CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we perform an analysis of the means of shaping and formserialize in fur clothes taken in the production of domestic and foreign fur companies. The spatial form of fur garments is solved, in the main, constructive. The type, direction and amount of articulation were determined by the design of the product and the properties of the fur: the height of the hairline, the size of fur semi-finished product. The proposed positioning of the shaping of articulation in fur clothes has to be performed in the environment of 3D CAD. It is established that in modern models of the silhouette of a fur product may be formed not only by design divisions but also by a combination of the product of different types of fur. We have performed studies on the use of funds of formation in models of industrial collections fur coat 2015-16 presented on the trading spots of Moscow. We have conducted a monitoring of consumer preferences on the types of fur among women and determined the causes of loss of fur, clothing of spatial forms under adverse conditions of wearing. We have also proposed innovative means of formserialize in a fur garment of solid and perforated fur

  13. Basic fur management plan : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This fur management plan for Stillwater Wildlife Management Area outlines methods of fur harvest, trapping territories, selection of trappers, trapping equipment,...

  14. 76 FR 72132 - Regulations Under The Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... Guide; (2) the presence in the fur product of any used, bleached, dyed, or otherwise artificially... Commission to maintain ``a register setting forth the names of hair, fleece, and fur-bearing animals.'' \\9...

  15. 16 CFR 301.39 - Exempted fur products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the fur product is to be labeled, invoiced and advertised in accordance with the requirements of the... fur product; (2) If any false, deceptive, or misleading representations as to the fur contained in the... advertising without disclosing: (i) In the case of labels, the information required to be disclosed under...

  16. Apo and Iron Bound Fur Repression and the Role of Fur in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    Results from this study showed that Campylobacter jejuni, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae Fur...1994. Analysis of the complexity of gene regulation by fur in Vibrio cholerae . J Bacteriol 176:240-8. 134. Liu, H., D. S. Merrell, C. Semino-Mora, M...Payne. 2005. Characterization of Vibrio cholerae RyhB: the RyhB regulon and role of ryhB in biofilm formation. Infect Immun 73:5706-19. 157. Miller, C

  17. Investigating Fur as Mediator of Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else; Ræbild, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This paper builds on two sub-projects conducted under the framework of a larger research programme called Fur and Sustainability – a Design Perspective. From 2014-16, we (Skjold et al 2016) took part in the programme which was part of a larger partnership agreement between Design School Kolding (...

  18. Fur-mediated global regulatory circuits in pathogenic Neisseria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-12-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein has been shown to function as a repressor of transcription in a number of diverse microorganisms. However, recent studies have established that Fur can function at a global level as both an activator and a repressor of transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Fur-mediated indirect activation occurs via the repression of additional repressor proteins, or small regulatory RNAs, thereby activating transcription of a previously silent gene. Fur mediates direct activation through binding of Fur to the promoter regions of genes. Whereas the repressive mechanism of Fur has been thoroughly investigated, emerging studies on direct and indirect Fur-mediated activation mechanisms have revealed novel global regulatory circuits.

  19. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  20. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  1. 29 CFR 780.124 - Raising of fur-bearing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of fur-bearing animals. 780.124 Section 780.124... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.124 Raising of fur-bearing animals. (a) The term “fur-bearing animals” has reference to animals which bear fur...

  2. Vitalism in naive biological thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S C; Taplin, J E; Gelman, S A

    2000-09-01

    Vitalism is the belief that internal bodily organs have agency and that they transmit or exchange a vital force or energy. Three experiments investigated the use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-old English-speaking children and adults, focusing on 2 components: the notion that bodily organs have intentions and the notion that some life force or energy is transmitted. The original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking was replicated in Experiment 1 with English-speaking 5-year-olds. Experiment 2 indicated that the more active component of vitalism for these children is a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes, and Experiment 3 suggested an additional, albeit lesser, role for organ intentionality. A belief in vital energy may serve a causal placeholder function within a naive theory of biology until a more precisely formulated mechanism is known.

  3. Fur animal botulism hazard due to feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykoski, J; Lindström, M; Bekema, E; Pölönen, I; Korkeala, H

    2011-06-01

    To assess the botulism hazard in fur animal feed production, 236 fur animal feed components and feed samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum by detecting BoNT-encoding genes (botA, botB, botC, botE or botF) by PCR and for sulphite-reducing clostridia (SRC) by iron sulphite agar. The quality of the hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) -based in-house control system (IHCS) was evaluated with respect to botulism risk in feed plants (n=32). The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 13% in different feed components and 5% in feed. The estimated MPN count of C. botulinum in feed components was 6.4 × 10(3)/kg at the highest and was shown to poorly correlate with SRC count. The critical control points in IHCSs were variable, and control limits were improperly set in most feed-producing plants. C. botulinum possesses a persistent safety hazard for fur animals by feed production, and control practices should be reassessed.

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: northern fur seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Callorhinus+ursinus&t=NS ...

  5. Construction of a fur null mutant and RNA-sequencing provide deeper global understanding of the Aliivibrio salmonicida Fur regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunniva Katharina Thode

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a transcription factor and the main regulator of iron acquisition in prokaryotes. When bound to ferric iron, Fur recognizes its DNA binding site and generally executes its function by repressing transcription of its target genes. Due to its importance in virulence, the Fur regulon is well studied for several model bacteria. In our previous work, we used computational predictions and microarray to gain insights into Fur-regulation in Aliivibrio salmonicida, and have identified a number of genes and operons that appear to be under direct control of Fur. To provide a more accurate and deeper global understanding of the biological role of Fur we have now generated an A. salmonicida fur knock-out strain and used RNA-sequencing to compare gene expression between the wild-type and fur null mutant strains. Results An A. salmonicida fur null mutant strain was constructed. Biological assays demonstrate that deletion of fur results in loss of fitness, with reduced growth rates, and reduced abilities to withstand low-iron conditions, and oxidative stress. When comparing expression levels in the wild-type and the fur null mutant we retrieved 296 differentially expressed genes distributed among 18 of 21 functional classes of genes. A gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the siderophore bisucaberin represented the highest up-regulated genes in the fur null mutant. Other highly up-regulated genes all encode proteins important for iron acquisition. Potential targets for the RyhB sRNA was predicted from the list of down-regulated genes, and significant complementarities were found between RyhB and mRNAs of the fur, sodB, cysN and VSAL_I0422 genes. Other sRNAs with potential functions in iron homeostasis were identified. Conclusion The present work provides by far the most comprehensive and deepest understanding of the Fur regulon in A. salmonicida to date. Our data also contribute to a better understanding of how

  6. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...

  7. Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that the ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) functions as a transcriptional repressor in diverse microorganisms. Recent studies demonstrated that Fur also functions as a transcriptional activator. In this study we defined Fur-mediated activation of gene transcription in the sexually transmitted disease pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Analysis of 37 genes which were previously determined to be iron induced and which contained putative Fur boxes revealed that only 30 of these genes exhibited reduced transcription in a gonococcal fur mutant strain. Fur-mediated activation was established by examining binding of Fur to the putative promoter regions of 16 Fur-activated genes with variable binding affinities observed. Only ∼50% of the newly identified Fur-regulated genes bound Fur in vitro, suggesting that additional regulatory circuits exist which may function through a Fur-mediated indirect mechanism. The gonococcal Fur-activated genes displayed variable transcription patterns in a fur mutant strain, which correlated with the position of the Fur box in each (promoter) region. These results suggest that Fur-mediated direct transcriptional activation is fulfilled by multiple mechanisms involving either competing with a repressor or recruiting RNA polymerase. Collectively, our studies have established that gonococcal Fur functions as an activator of gene transcription through both direct and indirect mechanisms.

  8. 16 CFR 301.14 - Country of origin of used furs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.14 Country of origin of used furs. When the country of origin of used furs is unknown, and no representations are made directly or... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of used furs....

  9. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  10. Litter size, fur quality and genetic analyses of American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia

    Mink is a production animal breed for the fur. Both quality and quantity of the produced skin are important for the producer. In these analyses both fur quality traits, such as structure of guard hair and wool, which determines the quality of the skin, and litter size which determines the quantity...... of the skin, have been analyzed. Both fur quality traits and litter size are complex traits underlying quantitative genetic variation. Methods for estimating genetic variance, spanning from pedigree information to the use of different genetic markers, have been utilized in order to gain knowledge about...... these production traits...

  11. Entwicklung eines Gasmoderators f\\"ur Positronen

    CERN Document Server

    Löwe, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    (Translated Title: Development of a positron gas moderator) In this work a positron moderator that is based on inelastic positron scattering in nitrogen gas has been developed and set-up. A positron beam enters a gas cell through a small aperture. In the cell the positrons lose kinetic energy through collisions with the nitrogen molecules. By means of an electric field the positrons are then focused towards an exit where their kinetic energy is analysed. During measurements at the NEPOMUC beam moderated positrons could be observed. ----- Im Rahmen dieser Diplomarbeit wurde das Konzept eines Moderators f\\"ur Positronen untersucht, welches auf der Abbremsung und dem Drift von Positronen in gasf\\"ormigem Stickstoff beruht. Dazu wurde ein Versuchsaufbau konstruiert, aufgebaut und in Betrieb genommen. Ein Positronenstrahl wird durch eine kleine Blende in eine Gaszelle eingekoppelt, dort durch St\\"o{\\ss}e mit den Gasmolek\\"ulen abgebremst, durch ein elektrisches Feld auf den Ausgang fokussiert und dahinter analysie...

  12. Utility of fur as a biomarker for persistent organic pollutants in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shannon; Lynch, Michael; Terkildsen, Michael; Stevenson, Gavin; Yates, Alan; Piro, Nino; de Araujo, Jesuina; Gray, Rachael

    2017-08-25

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) can cause toxic effects in many species which include endocrine dysfunction, immunotoxicity, developmental defects and neoplasia. Species dominating the upper trophic level are vulnerable to these effects due to bioaccumulation. In Bass Strait, the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) is an important top order predator and sentinel species for ecosystem health. An alopecia syndrome is seen at high prevalence in juvenile, female Australian fur seals at Lady Julia Percy Island, Victoria, Australia. Previous investigations suggest causality could be due to an endocrine-like toxicant. The alopecia syndrome has significance for thermoregulation and is a likely risk factor for mortality. Fur collected from case (alopecic) and control (unaffected) seals sampled at Lady Julia Percy Island were analysed for POPs. To investigate the utility of fur for monitoring POPs concentrations in pinnipeds, a comparison of POPs concentrations in the fur and blubber of Australian fur seals stranded along the Victorian coast was undertaken. The concentration of selected POPs including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonate/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS/PFOA) were determined in fur using either High Resolution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry or Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Results indicate detectable, and in some individuals, elevated levels of dl-PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PBDEs in juvenile fur seals sampled on Lady Julia Percy Island, with significantly higher levels of dl-PCBs in case compared to control seals. Elevated levels of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were found in blubber samples collected from stranded fur seals with significant correlations between blubber and fur concentrations seen, particularly for dl-PCBs. This study discusses the significance of POPs concentrations in relation to

  13. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  14. 77 FR 57043 - Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... versus carnivore) and gait (clumsy versus ``often very swift'').\\57\\ \\55\\ NRF at 4. FICA similarly... Federated Department Stores and Lord & Taylor no longer sell the furs made from the animal because consumers...

  15. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1968-69

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines refuge goals for the fur trapping season of 1968-69. The goal is to reduce muskrat populations in order to preserve refuge marshes, thus enhancing...

  16. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1966-67

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines refuge goals for the fur trapping season of 1966. The goal is to reduce muskrat populations in order to preserve refuge marshes, thus enhancing...

  17. Fur Harvest Program Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1976-77

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan outlines the current status, objectives, methods and trapping dates for each of the four impoundments at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge where fur...

  18. Amendment I : Basic fur management plan : Stillwater Wildlife Management Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This amendment to the fur management plan for Stillwater Wildlife Management area calls for the annual trapping of beaver. The Lower Carson River is overpopulated...

  19. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  20. Stress-induced Cushing's syndrome in fur-chewing chinchillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisljar, Marina; Janić, D; Grabarević, Z; Simpraga, Borka; Marinculić, A; Pinter, Ljiljana; Janicki, Z; Nemanic, Ankica

    2002-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in the chinchilla industry is 'fur-chewing', when the chinchilla bites off areas of its own or some other animal's fur. The condition generally develops in both genders at the age of 6-8 months. In chinchilla farms in Croatia an incidence of 15-20% has been observed. A pathomorphological, microbiological and parasitological investigation was conducted on eleven 6- to 11-month-old chinchillas of both sexes with clinical symptoms of 'fur-chewing' and three chinchillas without such signs. Histopathology of the adrenal glands and of the chewed skin revealed changes typical of Cushing's syndrome in 'fur-chewed' chinchillas, such as hyperkeratinisation of the epidermis, epidermal atrophy, pronounced follicular and sebaceous gland atrophy, hyperkeratinisation of the follicles with comedo formations and the presence of calcium salts in subcutis.

  1. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Benton Lake NWR Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the environmental...

  2. Fur is a repressor of biofilm formation in Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengjun Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis synthesizes the attached biofilms in the flea proventriculus, which is important for the transmission of this pathogen by fleas. The hmsHFRS operons is responsible for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (the major component of biofilm matrix, which is activated by the signaling molecule 3', 5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP synthesized by the only two diguanylate cyclases HmsT, and YPO0449 (located in a putative operonYPO0450-0448. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phenotypic assays indicated that the transcriptional regulator Fur inhibited the Y. pestis biofilm production in vitro and on nematode. Two distinct Fur box-like sequences were predicted within the promoter-proximal region of hmsT, suggesting that hmsT might be a direct Fur target. The subsequent primer extension, LacZ fusion, electrophoretic mobility shift, and DNase I footprinting assays disclosed that Fur specifically bound to the hmsT promoter-proximal region for repressing the hmsT transcription. In contrast, Fur had no regulatory effect on hmsHFRS and YPO0450-0448 at the transcriptional level. The detection of intracellular c-di-GMP levels revealed that Fur inhibited the c-di-GMP production. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Y. pestis Fur inhibits the c-di-GMP production through directly repressing the transcription of hmsT, and thus it acts as a repressor of biofilm formation. Since the relevant genetic contents for fur, hmsT, hmsHFRS, and YPO0450-0448 are extremely conserved between Y. pestis and typical Y. pseudotuberculosis, the above regulatory mechanisms can be applied to Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  3. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqin; Dong, Chunling; Zhao, Tingchang; Han, Jucai; Wang, Tieling; Wen, Xiangzhen; Huang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur) regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv), we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  4. Functional Analysis of the Ferric Uptake Regulator Gene fur in Xanthomonas vesicatoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqin Liu

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for the growth and survival of many organisms. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur regulates the high-affinity ferric uptake system in many bacteria. To investigate the function of the fur gene in Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv, we generated a fur mutant strain, fur-m, by site-directed mutagenesis. Whereas siderophore production increased in the Xv fur mutant, extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, swimming ability and quorum sensing signals were all significantly decreased. The fur mutant also had significantly reduced virulence in tomato leaves. The above-mentioned phenotypes significantly recovered when the Xv fur mutation allele was complemented with a wild-type fur gene. Thus, Fur either negatively or positively regulates multiple important physiological functions in Xv.

  5. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained...... incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6-24 months and subsequently received an annual infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg or placebo after low-trauma hip-fracture repair. In total, 2,127 men...... and women were included. Of the qualifying hip fractures, 5.2% were subtrochanteric, 54.8% femoral neck, 33.0% intertrochanteric, and 7.1% other (generally complex fractures of mixed type). Significant baseline (pre-hip fracture) differences were seen between index hip-fracture types, with the percentage...

  6. Yugoslav Naive Art and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Kordiš

    2009-12-01

    After the Second World War, the Yugoslav socialist state also strove to equalize and democratize society through art by minimizing the differences between the producers and consumers of art. Such a policy led to the decentralization of culture by forming various cultural and artistic institutions and by holding cultural events and spectacles in the countryside and peripheral areas. Through these various informal ideological mechanisms, the state apparatus exercised its authority in socializing its people in the spirit of Yugoslav socialist self-management and the ideology of brotherhood and unity by joining together the producers and consumers of naive art from various ethnicities, cultures, and social classes. Unfortunately this transformed naive art at its peak of popularity into a decorative and souvenir artifact with a pastoral image and folklore motifs. The encouragement from the authorities on the one hand and the market on the other produced and reproduced simple art forms and narrative contents without a complex iconography, which were consumed uncritically and on a large scale. Consequently, this completely denied the core of naive art and resulted in its final devaluation.

  7. 16 CFR 301.45 - Representations as to construction of fur products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Representations as to construction of fur products. (a) No misleading nor deceptive statements as to the construction of fur products shall be used directly or indirectly in labeling, invoicing or advertising such..., invoices and advertising. ...

  8. Quaternary Structure of Fur Proteins, a New Subfamily of Tetrameric Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérard, Julien; Covès, Jacques; Castellan, Mathieu; Solard, Charles; Savard, Myriam; Miras, Roger; Galop, Sandra; Signor, Luca; Crouzy, Serge; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; de Rosny, Eve

    2016-03-15

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) belongs to the family of the DNA-binding metal-responsive transcriptional regulators. Fur is a global regulator found in all proteobacteria. It controls the transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in iron metabolism but also in oxidative stress or virulence factor synthesis. When bound to ferrous iron, Fur can bind to specific DNA sequences, called Fur boxes. This binding triggers the repression or the activation of gene expression, depending on the regulated genes. As a general view, Fur proteins are considered to be dimeric proteins both in solution and when bound to DNA. In this study, we have purified Fur from four pathogenic strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Legionella pneumophila) and compared them to Fur from Escherichia coli (EcFur), the best characterized of this family. By using a series of "in solution" techniques, including multiangle laser light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as cross-linking experiments, we have shown that the Fur proteins can be classified into two groups, according to their quaternary structure. The group of dimers is represented by EcFur and YpFur and the group of very stable tetramers by PaFur, FtFur, and LpFur. Using PaFur as a case study, we also showed that the dissociation of the tetramers into dimers is necessary for binding of Fur to DNA, and that this dissociation requires the combined effect of metal ion binding and DNA proximity.

  9. Expression of the gonococcal global regulatory protein Fur and genes encompassing the Fur and iron regulon during in vitro and in vivo infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sarika; Sebastian, Shite; Szmigielski, Borys; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2008-05-01

    The ferric uptake regulatory protein, Fur, functions as a global regulatory protein of gene transcription in the mucosal pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We have shown previously that several N. gonorrhoeae Fur-repressed genes are expressed in vivo during mucosal gonococcal infection in men, which suggests that this organism infects in an iron-limited environment and that Fur is expressed under these conditions. In this study we have demonstrated expression of the gonococcal fur gene in vitro, in human cervical epithelial cells, and in specimens from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection. In vitro studies confirmed that the expression of the gonococcal fur gene was repressed during growth under iron-replete growth conditions but that a basal level of the protein was maintained. Using GFP transcriptional fusions constructed from specific Fur binding sequences within the fur promoter/operator region, we determined that this operator region was functional during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Furthermore, reverse transcription-PCR analysis, as well as microarray analysis, using a custom Neisseria Fur and iron regulon microarray revealed that several Fur- and iron-regulated genes were expressed during N. gonorrhoeae infection of cervical epithelial cells. Microarray analysis of specimens obtained from female subjects with uncomplicated gonococcal infection corroborated our in vitro findings and point toward a key role of gonococcal Fur- and iron-regulated genes in gonococcal disease.

  10. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS....24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  11. FurA contributes to the oxidative stress response regulation of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelt, Elke; Meißner, Thorsten; Meens, Jochen; Laarmann, Kristin; Nerlich, Andreas; Jarek, Michael; Weiss, Siegfried; Gerlach, Gerald-F; Goethe, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator A (FurA) is known to be involved in iron homeostasis and stress response in many bacteria. In mycobacteria the precise role of FurA is still unclear. In the presented study, we addressed the functional role of FurA in the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by construction of a furA deletion strain (MAPΔfurA). RNA deep sequencing revealed that the FurA regulon consists of repressed and activated genes associated to stress response or intracellular survival. Not a single gene related to metal homeostasis was affected by furA deletion. A decisive role of FurA during intracellular survival in macrophages was shown by significantly enhanced survival of MAPΔfurA compared to the wildtype, indicating that a principal task of mycobacterial FurA is oxidative stress response regulation in macrophages. This resistance was not associated with altered survival of mice after long term infection with MAP. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that mycobacterial FurA is not involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis. However, they provide strong evidence that FurA contributes to intracellular survival as an oxidative stress sensing regulator.

  12. 16 CFR 301.12 - Country of origin of imported furs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.12 Country of origin of imported... products made from furs imported into the United States from a foreign country, the country of origin of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin of imported furs....

  13. Role of a Fur homolog in iron metabolism in Nitrosomonas europaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottomley Peter J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to environmental iron concentrations, many bacteria coordinately regulate transcription of genes involved in iron acquisition via the ferric uptake regulation (Fur system. The genome of Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, carries three genes (NE0616, NE0730 and NE1722 encoding proteins belonging to Fur family. Results Of the three N. europaea fur homologs, only the Fur homolog encoded by gene NE0616 complemented the Escherichia coli H1780 fur mutant. A N. europaea fur:kanP mutant strain was created by insertion of kanamycin-resistance cassette in the promoter region of NE0616 fur homolog. The total cellular iron contents of the fur:kanP mutant strain increased by 1.5-fold compared to wild type when grown in Fe-replete media. Relative to the wild type, the fur:kanP mutant exhibited increased sensitivity to iron at or above 500 μM concentrations. Unlike the wild type, the fur:kanP mutant was capable of utilizing iron-bound ferrioxamine without any lag phase and showed over expression of several outer membrane TonB-dependent receptor proteins irrespective of Fe availability. Conclusions Our studies have clearly indicated a role in Fe regulation by the Fur protein encoded by N. europaea NE0616 gene. Additional studies are required to fully delineate role of this fur homolog.

  14. Deciphering Fur transcriptional regulatory network highlights its complex role beyond iron metabolism in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Sang Woo; Kim, Donghyuk; Latif, Haythem;

    2014-01-01

    The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) plays a critical role in the transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism. However, the full regulatory potential of Fur remains undefined. Here we comprehensively reconstruct the Fur transcriptional regulatory network in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 in response...

  15. Joint competition – the world dominance of Danish fur production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2010-01-01

    the challenges of a globalised, knowledge-based economy because they are known to have deeper specialization, which in turn is seen as a prerequisite for constructing comparative advantages and industrial strongholds. The paper takes the point of departure in the Danish fur production and an agglomeration....... Moreover, there is an extensive division of labour on an industry level concerning sorting furs, slaughtering, sales, etc. Several links in the value chain is thus covered in a vertical integration. Although innovation is limited on an organisational level the cooperative organisation and governance...

  16. Trends in price and productivity in the fur sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Price and productivity are two important competitive factors for the fur skin production worldwide. In the paper it is demonstrated that there are significant long-term trends towards increasing productivity and decreasing price ratios. The trend follows the same pattern as for other agricultural...... in the long term. The terms of trade - the ratio between output and input prices - is also unstable but with a clear negative long-term trend. The developments in prices and productivity cause high demands on management both on individual fur farms and further down the value chain....

  17. The allosteric behavior of Fur mediates oxidative stress signal transduction in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePelliciari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is exposed to oxidative stress originating from the aerobic environment, the oxidative burst of phagocytes and the formation of reactive oxygen species, catalyzed by iron excess. Accordingly, the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress defense have been repeatedly linked to the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Moreover, mutations in the Fur protein affect the resistance to metronidazole, likely due to loss-of-function in the regulation of genes involved in redox control. Although many advances in the molecular understanding of HpFur function were made, little is known about the mechanisms that enable Fur to mediate the responses to oxidative stress.Here we show that iron-inducible, apo-Fur repressed genes, such as pfr and hydA, are induced shortly after oxidative stress, while their oxidative induction is lost in a fur knockout strain. On the contrary, holo-Fur repressed genes, such as frpB1 and fecA1, vary modestly in response to oxidative stress. This indicates that the oxidative stress signal specifically targets apo-Fur repressed genes, rather than impairing indiscriminately the regulatory function of Fur. Footprinting analyses showed that the oxidative signal strongly impairs the binding affinity of Fur towards apo-operators, while the binding towards holo-operators is less affected. Further evidence is presented that a reduced state of Fur is needed to maintain apo-repression, while oxidative conditions shift the preferred binding architecture of Fur towards the holo-operator binding conformation, even in the absence of iron. Together the results demonstrate that the allosteric regulation of Fur enables transduction of oxidative stress signals in H. pylori, supporting the concept that apo-Fur repressed genes can be considered oxidation inducible Fur regulatory targets. These findings may have important implications in the study of H. pylori treatment and resistance to

  18. Do the Naive Know Best? The Predictive Power of Naive Ratings of Couple Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Katherine J. W.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We examined the utility of naive ratings of communication patterns and relationship quality in a large sample of distressed couples. Untrained raters assessed 10-min videotaped interactions from 134 distressed couples who participated in both problem-solving and social support discussions at each of 3 time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, and…

  19. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (⩽20 cm for seals and ⩽12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation

  20. Search for naive human pluripotent stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone Aparecida Siqueira Fonseca; Roberta Montero Costas; Lygia Veiga Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Normal mouse pluripotent stem cells were originallyderived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocystsand shown to be the in vitro equivalent of those preimplantationembryonic cells, and thus were calledembryonic stem cells (ESCs). More than a decade later,pluripotent cells were isolated from the ICM of humanblastocysts. Despite being called human ESCs, thesecells differ significantly from mouse ESCs, includingdifferent morphology and mechanisms of control ofpluripotency, suggesting distinct embryonic originsof ESCs from the two species. Subsequently, mousepluripotent stem cells were established from the ICMderivedepiblast of post-implantation embryos. Thesemouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are morphologicaland epigenetically more similar to human ESCs. Thisraised the question of whether cells from the humanICM are in a more advanced differentiation stage thantheir murine counterpart, or whether the availableculture conditions were not adequate to maintain thosehuman cells in their in vivo state, leading to a transitioninto EpiSC-like cells in vitro . More recently, novel cultureconditions allowed the conversion of human ESCs intomouse ESC-like cells called naive (or ground state)human ESCs, and the derivation of naive human ESCsfrom blastocysts. Here we will review the characteristicsof each type of pluripotent stem cells, how (andwhether) these relate to different stages of embryonicdevelopment, and discuss the potential implications ofnaive human ESCs in research and therapy.

  1. Vitalistic causality in young children's naive biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kayoko; Hatano, Giyoo

    2004-08-01

    One of the key issues in conceptual development research concerns what kinds of causal devices young children use to understand the biological world. We review evidence that children predict and interpret biological phenomena, especially human bodily processes, on the basis of 'vitalistic causality'. That is, they assume that vital power or life force taken from food and water makes humans active, prevents them from being taken ill, and enables them to grow. These relationships are also extended readily to other animals and even to plants. Recent experimental results show that a majority of preschoolers tend to choose vitalistic explanations as most plausible. Vitalism, together with other forms of intermediate causality, constitute unique causal devices for naive biology as a core domain of thought.

  2. Fuzzy Naive Bayesian for constructing regulated network with weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xi Y; Tian, Xue W; Lim, Joon S

    2015-01-01

    In the data mining field, classification is a very crucial technology, and the Bayesian classifier has been one of the hotspots in classification research area. However, assumptions of Naive Bayesian and Tree Augmented Naive Bayesian (TAN) are unfair to attribute relations. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm named Fuzzy Naive Bayesian (FNB) using neural network with weighted membership function (NEWFM) to extract regulated relations and weights. Then, we can use regulated relations and weights to construct a regulated network. Finally, we will classify the heart and Haberman datasets by the FNB network to compare with experiments of Naive Bayesian and TAN. The experiment results show that the FNB has a higher classification rate than Naive Bayesian and TAN.

  3. Analysis of a Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) Mutant ofDesulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Kelly S.; Yen, Huei-Che Bill; Hemme, Christopher L.; Yang, Zamin K.; He, Zhili; He, Qiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Huang, Katherine H.; Alm, Eric J.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2007-09-21

    Previous experiments examining the transcriptional profileof the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris demonstrated up-regulation of theFur regulon in response to various environmental stressors. To test theinvolvement of Fur in the growth response and transcriptional regulationof D. vulgaris, a targeted mutagenesis procedure was used for deletingthe fur gene. Growth of the resulting ?fur mutant (JW707) was notaffected by iron availability, but the mutant did exhibit increasedsensitivity to nitrite and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type.Transcriptional profiling of JW707 indicated that iron-bound Fur acts asa traditional repressor for ferrous iron uptake genes (feoAB) and othergenes containing a predicted Fur binding site within their promoter.Despite the apparent lack of siderophore biosynthesis genes within the D.vulgaris genome, a large 12-gene operon encoding orthologs to TonB andTolQR also appeared to be repressed by iron-bound Fur. While other genespredicted to be involved in iron homeostasis were unaffected by thepresence or absence of Fur, alternative expression patterns that could beinterpreted as repression or activation by iron-free Fur were observed.Both the physiological and transcriptional data implicate a globalregulatory role for Fur in the sulfate-reducing bacterium D.vulgaris.

  4. FurA from Anabaena PCC 7120: New insights on its regulation and the interaction with DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J. A.; López-Gomollón, S.; Pellicer, S.; Martín, B.; Sevilla, E.; Bes, M. T.; Peleato, M. L.; Fillat, M. F.

    2006-08-01

    Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins are global regulatory proteins involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis. They recognize specific DNA sequences denoted iron boxes. It is assumed that Fur proteins act as classical repressors. Under iron-rich conditions, Fur dimers complexed with ferrous ions bind to iron boxes, preventing transcription. In addition to iron homeostasis, Fur proteins control the concerted response to oxidative and acidic stresses in heterotrophic prokaryotes. Our group studies the interaction between Fur proteins and target DNA sequences. Moreover, the regulation of FurA in the nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, whose genome codes for three fur homologues has been investigated. We present an overview about the different factors involved in the regulation of FurA and analyze the parameters that influence FurA-DNA interaction in the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120.

  5. Joint competition – the world dominance of Danish fur production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2010-01-01

    the challenges of a globalised, knowledge-based economy because they are known to have deeper specialization, which in turn is seen as a prerequisite for constructing comparative advantages and industrial strongholds. The paper takes the point of departure in the Danish fur production and an agglomeration...... of the industry as such is an important factor in explaining the ability of Danish producers to remain competitive....

  6. Novel Insights into Fur Regulation in Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    infection leads to the development of IDA. For example, in a murine infection model, H. pylori diminishes host iron stores, as measured by serum ferritin ...this essential nutrient from the host. Once inside the bacterial cell, the majority of free iron is stored in a prokaryotic ferritin molecule, Pfr...stronger or more complete repression in conditions where high concentrations of iron are present in the cell. The third Fur binding site (box III) is

  7. Molecular Criteria for Defining the Naive Human Pluripotent State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Thorold W; Friedli, Marc; He, Yupeng; Planet, Evarist; O'Neil, Ryan C; Markoulaki, Styliani; Pontis, Julien; Wang, Haoyi; Iouranova, Alexandra; Imbeault, Michaël; Duc, Julien; Cohen, Malkiel A; Wert, Katherine J; Castanon, Rosa; Zhang, Zhuzhu; Huang, Yanmei; Nery, Joseph R; Drotar, Jesse; Lungjangwa, Tenzin; Trono, Didier; Ecker, Joseph R; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-10-06

    Recent studies have aimed to convert cultured human pluripotent cells to a naive state, but it remains unclear to what extent the resulting cells recapitulate in vivo naive pluripotency. Here we propose a set of molecular criteria for evaluating the naive human pluripotent state by comparing it to the human embryo. We show that transcription of transposable elements provides a sensitive measure of the concordance between pluripotent stem cells and early human development. We also show that induction of the naive state is accompanied by genome-wide DNA hypomethylation, which is reversible except at imprinted genes, and that the X chromosome status resembles that of the human preimplantation embryo. However, we did not see efficient incorporation of naive human cells into mouse embryos. Overall, the different naive conditions we tested showed varied relationships to human embryonic states based on molecular criteria, providing a backdrop for future analysis of naive human pluripotency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fur Regulon▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Lydgia A.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Day, Michael W.; Zaitshik, Jeremy B.; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2009-01-01

    To ensure survival in the host, bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire the essential element iron. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ferric uptake regulator Fur regulates metabolism through transcriptional control of iron-responsive genes by binding conserved Fur box (FB) sequences in promoters during iron-replete growth. Our previous studies showed that Fur also controls the transcription of secondary regulators that may, in turn, control pathways important to pathogenesis, indicating an in...

  9. Characterization of the Shewanella oneidensis Fur gene: roles in iron and acid tolerance response

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Liyou; Luo Feng; Harris Daniel P; Yang Yunfeng; Parsons Andrea B; Palumbo Anthony V; Zhou Jizhong

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Iron homeostasis is a key metabolism for most organisms. In many bacterial species, coordinate regulation of iron homeostasis depends on the protein product of a Fur gene. Fur also plays roles in virulence, acid tolerance, redox-stress responses, flagella chemotaxis and metabolic pathways. Results We conducted physiological and transcriptomic studies to characterize Fur in Shewanella oneidensis, with regard to its roles in iron and acid tolerance response. A S. oneidensisf...

  10. Expanding the Role of FurA as Essential Global Regulator in Cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés González

    Full Text Available In the nitrogen-fixing heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA plays a global regulatory role. Failures to eliminate wild-type copies of furA gene from the polyploid genome suggest essential functions. In the present study, we developed a selectively regulated furA expression system by the replacement of furA promoter in the Anabaena sp. chromosomes with the Co2+/Zn2+ inducible coaT promoter from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. By removing Co2+ and Zn2+ from the medium and shutting off furA expression, we showed that FurA was absolutely required for cyanobacterial growth. RNA-seq based comparative transcriptome analyses of the furA-turning off strain and its parental wild-type in conjunction with subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assays and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were carried out in order to identify direct transcriptional targets and unravel new biological roles of FurA. The results of such approaches led us to identify 15 novel direct iron-dependent transcriptional targets belonging to different functional categories including detoxification and defences against oxidative stress, phycobilisome degradation, chlorophyll catabolism and programmed cell death, light sensing and response, heterocyst differentiation, exopolysaccharide biosynthesis, among others. Our analyses evidence novel interactions in the complex regulatory network orchestrated by FurA in cyanobacteria.

  11. Gender recognition using local binary pattern and Naive Bayes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender recognition using local binary pattern and Naive Bayes Classifier. ... identity authentication, access control and human-computer interaction amongst others. Gender recognition is a fundamental task for human beings, as many social ...

  12. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  13. Using naive Bayes classifier for classification of convective rainfall intensities based on spectral characteristics retrieved from SEVIRI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Slimane Hameg; Mourad Lazri; Soltane Ameur

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm to classify convective clouds and determine their intensity, based oncloud physical properties retrieved from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI).The convective rainfall events at 15 min, 4 × 5 km spatial resolution from 2006 to 2012 are analysed overnorthern Algeria. The convective rain classification methodology makes use of the relationship betweencloud spectral characteristics and cloud physical properties such as cloud water path (CWP), cloudphase (CP) and cloud top height (CTH). For this classification, a statistical method based on ‘naiveBayes classifier’ is applied. This is a simple probabilistic classifier based on applying ‘Bayes’ theoremwith strong (naive) independent assumptions. For a 9-month period, the ability of SEVIRI to classifythe rainfall intensity in the convective clouds is evaluated using weather radar over the northern Algeria.The results indicate an encouraging performance of the new algorithm for intensity differentiation ofconvective clouds using SEVIRI data.

  14. Proceeding of the Xth International Scientific Congress in fur animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2012-01-01

    wade on all genotyped mink by Kopenhagen Fur. The QTL analyses were performed by least square regression implemented in the software Grid QTL. Evidence was found for QTL for the fur quality on eight autosomal chromosomes (LOD score >3.0). QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2...

  15. Social facilitation of fur rubbing behavior in white-faced capuchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, H; Petit, O; Deneubourg, J-L

    2008-02-01

    In their natural environment, capuchins select certain plants, containing secondary compounds with bactericide, insecticide or fungicide properties, to rub their pelage energetically (i.e. fur rubbing). Fur rubbing can be performed in solitary, or collectively in subgroups of variable size and composition, and most of the time fur rubbing happens in synchrony with other group members. The aim of this study is to understand the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon, and, more particularly, to determine the processes involved in its synchronization. For this purpose, we designed a set of experiments where white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) were presented with onions (Allium cepa) that they use to fur rub. We conducted a detailed kinetic study of fur rubbing behavior to determine if its synchronization is the consequence of simultaneous responses of different individuals to the same stimulus or if, on the contrary, there is a real collective phenomenon where individuals respond to conspecific behavior. Our results reveal that fur rubbing is a collective behavior with a mimetic underlying mechanism. If fur rubbing with onions (a plant with antifungal and repellent properties) allows capuchins to treat their fur against parasites or pathogens, its synchronization would optimize the treatment by acting as a group barrier to ectoparasite propagation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. 16 CFR 301.31 - Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of fur products consisting of two... Labeling of fur products consisting of two or more units. (a) The label shall be attached to and appear upon each garment or separate article of wearing apparel subject to the act irrespective of whether two...

  17. 16 CFR 1.63 - Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctions: Wool, fur, and textile cases. 1... textile cases. In those cases arising under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, Fur Products Labeling Act, and Textile Fiber Products Identification Act, where it appears to the Commission that it...

  18. Gene Expression Profiling Analysis Reveals Fur Development in Rex Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bohao; Chen, Yang; Yan, Xiaorong; Hao, Ye; Zhu, Jie; Weng, Qiiaoqing; Wu, Xinsheng

    2017-08-29

    Fur is an important economic trait in rabbits. The identification of genes that influence fur development and knowledge regarding the actions of these genes provides useful tools for improving fur quality. However, the mechanism of fur development is unclear. To obtain candidate genes related to fur development, the transcriptomes of tissues from backs and bellies of Chinchilla rex rabbits were compared. Of the genes analyzed, 336 showed altered expression in the two groups (285 upregulated and 51 downregulated), P≤0.05, fold-change≥2 or ≤0.5). Using GO and KEGG to obtain gene classes that were differentially enriched, we found several genes to be involved in many important biological processes. In addition, we identified several signaling pathways involved in fur development, including the Wnt and MAPK signaling pathways, revealing mechanisms of skin and hair follicle development, and epidermal cell and keratinocytes differentiation. The obtained rabbit transcriptome and differentially expressed gene profiling data provided comprehensive gene expression information for SFRP2, FRZB, CACNG1, SLC25A4 and SLC16A3. To validate the RNA-seq data, the expression levels of eight differentially expressed genes involved in fur development were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of rabbit transcriptomic profiling provide a basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms of fur development.

  19. Entanglements of Consumption, Cruelty, Privacy, and Fashion: The Social Controversy over Fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kathryn M.; Goodnight, G. Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Posits a critical approach to the study of contemporary social controversy. Examines objectives to the use of fur as oppositional argument, rhetoric that veers from the goal of persuasion to block conventional associations and refashion communication norms. Shows how pro-fur responses illustrate strategies available to bolster, alter, or abandon…

  20. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  1. Bacillus licheniformis Contains Two More PerR-Like Proteins in Addition to PerR, Fur, and Zur Orthologues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The ferric uptake regulator (Fur family proteins include sensors of Fe (Fur, Zn (Zur, and peroxide (PerR. Among Fur family proteins, Fur and Zur are ubiquitous in most prokaryotic organisms, whereas PerR exists mainly in Gram positive bacteria as a functional homologue of OxyR. Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus encode three Fur family proteins: Fur, Zur, and PerR. In this study, we identified five Fur family proteins from B. licheniformis: two novel PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 in addition to Fur (BL05249, Zur (BL03703, and PerR (BL00075 homologues. Our data indicate that all of the five B. licheniformis Fur homologues contain a structural Zn2+ site composed of four cysteine residues like many other Fur family proteins. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the PerR-like proteins (BL00690 and BL00950 as well as PerRBL (BL00075, but not FurBL (BL05249 and ZurBL (BL03703, can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation with different sensitivity. We also show that PerR2 (BL00690 has a PerR-like repressor activity for PerR-regulated genes in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that B. licheniformis contains three PerR subfamily proteins which can sense H2O2 by histidine oxidation not by cysteine oxidation, in addition to Fur and Zur.

  2. 16 CFR 1.24 - Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules applicable to wool, fur, and textile... applicable to wool, fur, and textile fiber products and rules promulgated under the Fair Packaging and... Labeling Act of 1939, section 8 of the Fur Products Labeling Act, section 7 of the Textile Fiber...

  3. On the identity of the three young fur seals (genus Arctocephalus) stranded in New Caledonia (Mammalia, Pinnipedia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, Judith E.

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 and 1973 a total of three young fur seals was stranded in New Caledonia, much further north than any fur seal normally occurs. Comparison of the skulls of these young animals with similar sized skulls of young fur seals from Australia (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) and New Zealand (Arcto

  4. Risk of Erectile Dysfunction in Transfusion-naive Thalassemia Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities. PMID:25837766

  5. Marine debris ingestion by the South American Fur Seal from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denuncio, Pablo; Mandiola, María Agustina; Pérez Salles, Sofía Belén; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo H; De Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we examined the ingestion of marine debris (MD) in South American fur seals (SAFS), Arctocephalus australis, found dead in coastal beaches of northern Argentina and southern Brazil. Seven percent of 133 SAFS analyzed presented marine debris in their stomach (n=10), with no differences between sampling countries (Brazil n=7, Argentina n=3) and sexes (female=3; male=6). However, significant differences were observed between ages classes, with MD exclusively present in stomach contents of young specimens. Plastics represents 90% of MD ingested by the SAFS, whereas regarding the source, fishery-related items (e.g. monofilament lines) were the main MD (70%), with a lesser proportion of packaging (e.g. pieces of bags). Low numbers but large size pieces of MD were found in each stomach affected. Negative effects on the individuals could not be fully evaluated. Therefore, the potential impacts of the marine debris to the SAFS deserve further elucidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF ECOLOGIC FURS OBTAINED BY TUFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan – Pavel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are goods obtained by methods other than the classic spinning, weaving and knitting. They are manufactured by mechanically or chemically reinforcing a fabric consisting of fiber layers or a combination of fiber, weaving, yarn or textile layers. Also, unconventional textiles can be obtained by mechanically or chemically reinforcing a yarn pattern or multiple yarn patterns. The tendency of the industry to increase production of synthetic fibers în comparison to natural fibers is also visible în the field of unconventional textiles. Additionally, there is more and more emphasis on using fibers recovered from recycled materials and products which resulted from a classic textile manufacturing process. A TUFTING product is made from a backing fabric, usually cloth, reinforced with yarn introduced through the fabric in loops spaced equally relative to the stitches, and raised at the ends. The fur substitutes can also be obtained with unconventional TUFTING technologies, by reinforcing a backing cloth and then undergoing a final reinforcement by raising and felting on one side. The TUFTING product obtained by reinforcing and weaving can be used în the manufacturing process because it is predisposed to unraveling and has an inadequate aspect. For an optimal uniformity în Tufting fur substitutes, it is recommended that the backing cloth has a mean apparent density of 300Kg/m3 with a 5% irregularity. It is recommended to use the goods for manufacturing childen's clothing, coat linings and children's hats.

  7. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Ohad; Weinberger, Leehee; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Manor, Yair S; Chomsky, Elad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kalma, Yael; Viukov, Sergey; Maza, Itay; Zviran, Asaf; Rais, Yoach; Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Zerbib, Mirie; Geula, Shay; Caspi, Inbal; Schneir, Dan; Shwartz, Tamar; Gilad, Shlomit; Amann-Zalcenstein, Daniela; Benjamin, Sima; Amit, Ido; Tanay, Amos; Massarwa, Rada; Novershtern, Noa; Hanna, Jacob H

    2013-12-12

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3β signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, and global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters. Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naive mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include predominant use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalent domain acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility of establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in mouse ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation

  8. FurC regulates expression of zupT for the central zinc importer ZupT of Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher; Schwarzenberger, Claudia; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2014-10-01

    The zinc importer ZupT is required for the efficient allocation of zinc to zinc-dependent proteins in the metal-resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans but not for zinc import per se. The expression of zupT is upregulated under conditions of zinc starvation. C. metallidurans contains three members of the Fur family of regulators that qualify as candidates for the zupT regulator. The expression of a zupT-lacZ reporter gene fusion was strongly upregulated in a ΔfurC mutant but not in a ΔfurA or ΔfurB mutant. Expression of the genes for transition-metal importers (pitA, corA1, corA2, and corA3) was not changed in this pattern in all three Δfur mutants, but they were still downregulated under conditions of elevated zinc concentrations, indicating the presence of another zinc-dependent regulator. FurA was a central regulator of the iron metabolism in C. metallidurans, and furA was constitutively expressed under the conditions tested. Expression of furB was upregulated under conditions of iron starvation, and FurB could be an iron starvation Fur connecting general metal and iron homeostasis, as indicated by the phenotype of a ΔfurB ΔfurC double mutant. FurC was purified as a Strep-tagged protein and retarded the electrophoretic mobility of a DNA fragment upstream of zupT. Binding of FurC to this operator region was influenced by the presence of zinc ions and EDTA. Thus, FurC is the main zinc uptake regulator (Zur) of C. metallidurans and represses synthesis of the central zinc importer ZupT when sufficient zinc is present.

  9. Random and Site-Specific Mutagenesis of the Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator Provides Insight into Fur Structure-Function Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Besold, Angelique N.; Cha, Jeong-Heon; Maier, Robert J.; Michel, Sarah L.J.; Maynard, Ernest L.; Merrell, D. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Summary The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) of Helicobacter pylori is a global regulator that is important for colonization and survival within the gastric mucosa. H. pylori Fur is unique in its ability to activate and repress gene expression in both the iron-bound (Fe-Fur) and apo forms (apo-Fur). In the current study we combined random and site-specific mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues important for both Fe-Fur and apo-Fur function. We identified 25 mutations that affected Fe-Fur repression and 23 mutations that affected apo-Fur repression, as determined by transcriptional analyses of the Fe-Fur target gene amiE, and the apo-Fur target gene, pfr. In addition, eight of these mutations also significantly affected levels of Fur in the cell. Based on regulatory phenotypes, we selected several representative mutations to characterize further. Of those selected, we purified the wildtype (HpFurWT) and three mutant Fur proteins (HpFurE5A, HpFurA92T, and HpFurH134Y), which represent mutations in the N-terminal extension, the regulatory metal binding site (S2) and the structural metal binding site (S3), respectively. Purified proteins were evaluated for secondary structure by circular dichroism spectroscopy, iron-binding by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, oligomerization in iron-substituted and apo conditions by in vitro cross-linking assays, and DNA binding to Fe-Fur and apo-Fur target sequences by fluorescence anisotropy. The results showed that the N-terminal, S2, and S3 regions play distinct roles in terms of Fur structure-function relationships. Overall, these studies provide novel information regarding the role of these residues in Fur function, and provide mechanistic insight into how H. pylori Fur regulates gene expression in both the iron-bound and apo forms of the protein. PMID:23710935

  10. The regulatory role of ferric uptake regulator (Fur during anaerobic respiration of Shewanella piezotolerans WP3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available Ferric uptake regulator (Fur is a global regulator that controls bacterial iron homeostasis. In this study, a fur deletion mutant of the deep-sea bacterium Shewanella piezotolerans WP3 was constructed. Physiological studies revealed that the growth rate of this mutant under aerobic conditions was only slightly lower than that of wild type (WT, but severe growth defects were observed under anaerobic conditions when different electron acceptors (EAs were provided. Comparative transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that Fur is involved not only in classical iron homeostasis but also in anaerobic respiration. Fur exerted pleiotropic effects on the regulation of anaerobic respiration by controlling anaerobic electron transport, the heme biosynthesis system, and the cytochrome c maturation system. Biochemical assays demonstrated that levels of c-type cytochromes were lower in the fur mutant, consistent with the transcriptional profiling. Transcriptomic analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a primary regulation network for Fur in WP3. These results suggest that Fur may act as a sensor for anoxic conditions to trigger and influence the anaerobic respiratory system.

  11. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Mariana; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Tavares, Maurício; de Amorim, Derek Blaese; Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Giongo, Adriana; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis). Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5) were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals. PMID:26986573

  12. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  13. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunxiao; Lopez, Carlos A; Hu, Han; Xia, Yu; Freedman, David S; Reddington, Alexander P; Daaboul, George G; Unlü, M Selim; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2014-01-01

    The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur) is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS), to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  14. Fault Diagnosis for Fuel Cell Based on Naive Bayesian Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of uncertain factors may exist in the process of fault diagnosis and affect diagnostic results. Bayesian network is one of the most effective theoretical models for uncertain knowledge expression and reasoning. The method of naive Bayesian classification is used in this paper in fault diagnosis of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC system. Based on the model of PEMFC, fault data are obtained through simulation experiment, learning and training of the naive Bayesian classification are finished, and some testing samples are selected to validate this method. Simulation results demonstrate that the method is feasible.    

  15. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae Fur Regulon▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lydgia A.; Ducey, Thomas F.; Day, Michael W.; Zaitshik, Jeremy B.; Orvis, Joshua; Dyer, David W.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure survival in the host, bacteria have evolved strategies to acquire the essential element iron. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the ferric uptake regulator Fur regulates metabolism through transcriptional control of iron-responsive genes by binding conserved Fur box (FB) sequences in promoters during iron-replete growth. Our previous studies showed that Fur also controls the transcription of secondary regulators that may, in turn, control pathways important to pathogenesis, indicating an indirect role for Fur in controlling these downstream genes. To better define the iron-regulated cascade of transcriptional control, we combined three global strategies—temporal transcriptome analysis, genomewide in silico FB prediction, and Fur titration assays (FURTA)—to detect genomic regions able to bind Fur in vivo. The majority of the 300 iron-repressed genes were predicted to be of unknown function, followed by genes involved in iron metabolism, cell communication, and intermediary metabolism. The 107 iron-induced genes encoded hypothetical proteins or energy metabolism functions. We found 28 predicted FBs in FURTA-positive clones in the promoters and within the open reading frames of iron-repressed genes. We found lower levels of conservation at critical thymidine residues involved in Fur binding in the FB sequence logos of FURTA-positive clones with intragenic FBs than in the sequence logos generated from FURTA-positive promoter regions. In electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies, intragenic FBs bound Fur with a lower affinity than intergenic FBs. Our findings further indicate that transcription under iron stress is indirectly controlled by Fur through 12 potential secondary regulators. PMID:19854902

  16. Regulation of the Helicobacter pylori Fe-S cluster synthesis protein NifS by iron, oxidative stress conditions, and fur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamuri, Praveen; Mehta, Nalini; Burk, Andrew; Maier, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Transcription of both chromosomal and extrachromosomally introduced nifS was regulated (up-expressed) by oxygen or by supplemental iron conditions. This up-expression was not observed in a fur mutant strain background or when an iron chelator was added. Iron-bound Fur (but not apo-Fur) recognized the nifS promoter, and Fur bound significantly farther upstream (-155 bp to -190 bp and -210 to -240 bp) in the promoter than documented Helicobacter pylori Fur binding regions. This binding was stronger than Fur recognition of the flgE or napA promoter and includes a Fur recognition sequence common to the H. pylori pfr and sodB upstream areas. Studies of Fur-regulated genes in H. pylori have indicated that apo-Fur acts as a repressor, but our results demonstrate that iron-bound Fur activates (nifS) transcription.

  17. Fur : un portrait imaginaire de Diane Arbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Kempf et Morgan Riou

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fur, film américain de Steven Shainberg, sorti en France début janvier 2007, propose un « portrait imaginaire de Diane Arbus », photographe américaine des années 1960, devenue célèbre par quelques-unes de ses images étranges et inquiétantes, telles celle du jeune garçon tenant une grenade dans Central Park ou celles des jumelles en habit du dimanche, mais surtout en raison de sa vie tourmentée et de son suicide en 1971 à l’âge de 48 ans. Le film de Shainberg (qui s’était fait connaître par Th...

  18. Assessment of Hazardous Chemicals Risk in Fur Industry in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė Vaitelytė

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the research on the possibilities of hazardous chemicals replacement with less hazardous substances. This issue has become of special importance to industrial companies after the adoption of the REACH Regulation. The article examines fur industry and traditional chemicals used in it, namely, sodium dichromate, formaldehyde, and naphthalene. Because of their properties these chemicals are pretending to be included in the REACH Regulation lists of the authorised chemicals. The risks of quasi-materials to the workplaces and the environment have been studied. This research has also looked for the alternatives to hazardous chemicals and has conducted their risk assessment. The analyzed chemicals have been compared with their alternatives with a view of disclosing specific risk reduction.

  19. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search. For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a

  20. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  1. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  2. Theory-Driven Science and Naive Empiricism in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Stanley R.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that counseling psychologists' aversion to theory-driven science and their enthusiasm for naive empiricism impede scientific progress. Identifies "received view" of science as theory-driven science, points out symptoms and consequences of the failure to apply this view, and argues that greater scientific progress will result from moving…

  3. Thinking Process of Naive Problem Solvers to Solve Mathematical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairing, Jackson Pasini

    2017-01-01

    Solving problems is not only a goal of mathematical learning. Students acquire ways of thinking, habits of persistence and curiosity, and confidence in unfamiliar situations by learning to solve problems. In fact, there were students who had difficulty in solving problems. The students were naive problem solvers. This research aimed to describe…

  4. Children's Conceptions of Mental Illness: A Naive Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine; Buchanan-Barrow, Eithne; Barrett, Martyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naive theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing…

  5. A Workshop for High School Students on Naive Set Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Sven-Ake

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present the prototype of a workshop on naive set theory designed for high school students in or around the seventh year of primary education. Our concept is based on two events which the author organized in 2006 and 2010 for students of elementary school and high school, respectively. The article also includes a practice report…

  6. Expert and Naive Raters Using the PAG: Does it Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Edwin T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Questions the observed correlation between job experts and naive raters using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ); and conducts a replication of the Smith and Hakel study (1979) with college students (N=39). Concluded that PAQ ratings from job experts and college students are not equivalent and therefore are not interchangeable. (LLL)

  7. Enzalutamide monotherapy in hormone-naive prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Borre, Michael; Rathenborg, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide is approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that has progressed on docetaxel. Our aim was to assess the activity and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy in men with hormone-naive prostate cancer. METHODS:...

  8. Naive Fault Trees for Safety Evaluations in Early Project Phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Naive Fault Trees (NFT) aim to extend the application of Fault Trees (FT) and make them appealing for system designers in the early project life cycle. NFT use input intervals and values to estimate the frequency of a top event. This extension facilitates the assignment of failure probability to

  9. Volcano-climate interactions during the PETM and U-Pb dating from the Fur Formation, Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan; Augland, Lars; Svensen, Henrik; Tegner, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Willumsen, Pi

    2016-04-01

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at ~56 Ma is one of the most extreme global warming events in Earth's history. Vast quantities of CO2 and CH4 were released to the atmosphere, causing a rapid (within 20,000 years) 5-6 °C warming that persisted for ~170,000 years. The PETM occurred during an abnormally warm period in Earth history, and was followed by other hyperthermal events later in the Eocene. The PETM also coincided with the second and major pulse of magmatism from the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) during the break-up of Laurentia and Eurasia at 54-56 Ma. Evidence of explosive volcanism is prevalent at Fur, an island in northern Denmark, where over 180 distinct >1 cm thick ash horizons are preserved in a shallow marine succession (numbered from #-39 to #+140). These ash layers are believed to have originated from volcanic centres in east Greenland and western UK, which indicates that that they were formed during very large volcanic eruptions. Here we present the results of two key sections of the Fur Formation: a beach section at Stolleklint that includes sediment deposited syn-PETM, and a quarry section at Jenshøj that encompasses post-PETM sediments. A detailed chemostratigraphic log of δ13C (TOC) and δ15N values through the section suggests that there may be part of sequence missing, either through glaciotectonism or a depositional hiatus. The δ13C values around ash #-33 are typical of the PETM negative carbon isotope excursion (-31 to -32 ‰), yet are back to background values of ~-26 ‰ just four metres up section. The quarry section around ash #+19 displays further variations in δ13C values, suggesting a coincidence with one of the later Eocene hyperthermal events. High precision U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from ash layer #+19 conforms to a post-PETM depositional age, giving a mean deposition rate of approximately ~5 cm kyr-1. The correlation between the largest ash layers (#-33 and #+19) and the largest perturbations to

  10. WelFur - mink: development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W; Rousing, Tine

    2012-01-01

    European Fur Breeder's Association initiated the "WelFur" project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the Welfare Quality® standards. The assessment is based on four welfare principles (Good feeding, good housing, good health and appropriate...... behaviour) and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured on-farm. The major steps in the development of the WelFur mink protocols are described: (1) Writing leterature reviews and listing potential measures. (2) Identifying valid, reliable and feasable welfare measures. (3) Developing registration protocols......, descriptions, and schemes. (4) Testing preliminary protocols in relevant seasons of the annual production. This paper focus on the evaluation of validity, reliability anf feasibility of the 22 measures that have been selected for the WelFur assessment protocols. These protocols haev been tested in the three...

  11. 78 FR 36693 - Rules and Regulations Under the Fur Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... statistics, inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes, or customer names. If you want... with the Fur Rules. Nonetheless, the Commission seeks comment and information on the need, if any,...

  12. From the Fur Trade to Acid Rain: A Study of Canadian Natural Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winans, Linda

    1988-01-01

    Presents a teaching module for upper elementary students that devotes eight class periods of study to Canadian resources. Includes study of the Canadian fur trade, fishing industry, forestry, and the problems caused by acid rain. Includes the unit evaluation. (DB)

  13. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  14. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 All antigens Blood Naive T cells SRX1425815,SRX...1425816,SRX1425814,SRX1425808 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Naive T cells SRX1425808 h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Naive T cells SRX1425808 h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Naive T cells SRX1425808 h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Naive T cells SRX1425808 h...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  19. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng [ORNL; McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Parsons, Andrea [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Feng, Sheng [Duke University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. It is unclear in the g-proteobacterium S. oneidensis whether TCA is also regulated by Fur and RyhB. Results: In the present study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. Consistently, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and experimentally demonstrated the gene expression. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. Conclusions: These cumulative results delineate an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other g-proteobacteria. This work represents a step forward for understanding the unique regulation in S. oneidensis.

  20. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.

  1. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Information or otherwise sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments. Attachments... the annual harvest on August 8 to reduce the probability of the accidental killing of females to the... accidentally killed since 1987. The average accidental killing of females on St. Paul and St. George...

  2. Northern fur seal foraging strategies, Bogoslof and St. Paul Islands 2004-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of North Pacific Research Board Project 414 and Project 514. Project 514 provided a second year of data collection to the study detailed in Banks...

  3. 77 FR 6682 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    .... George. DATES: Effective March 12, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Williams, (907) 271-5117, email Michael.Williams@noaa.gov ; Kim Rivera, (907) 586-7424, email Kim.Rivera@noaa.gov ; or...: February 3, 2012. Alan D. Risenhoover, Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory...

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Argos Telemetry Data Archive

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Ecosystems Program of the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducts research and monitoring on Steller sea lions and...

  5. Fur-rubbing with Piper leaves in the San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huashuayo-Llamocca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report observations on fur-rubbing with leaves from Piper aduncum by a San Martín titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe. Fur-rubbing occurred during the transition from the dry to the rainy season in a titi monkey group living in a forest fragment in the Moyobamba region of Peru. Since Piper leaves include very potent compounds that may affect ectoparasites, we tentatively interpret the observed fur-rubbing as self-medication.

  6. Acquiring a naive theory of kinship through inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, K

    1995-04-01

    The present study focused on how children acquire a naive theory of kinship. Young children appear to have theoretical beliefs about the biological meaning of kinship relations. It was argued here that these beliefs reflect inductive inferences from simple facts about prenatal growth (e.g, where babies grow). An informal model of the inferences linking facts to theory was proposed and tested. In Experiment 1, 4-7-year-olds who knew the basic facts of prenatal growth were most likely to also express the naive theory of kinship. Virtually none of the children who expressed the theory were unaware of the basic facts. In Experiment 2, teaching the facts to a sample of preschoolers led to some increase in their acceptance of the kinship theory. Overall, the results implicate a type of theory building that involves inferences from preexisting knowledge rather than structural change, use of analogy, or acquisition of new knowledge.

  7. Children's naive theories of intelligence influence their metacognitive judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, David B; Son, Lisa K; Metcalfe, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the metacognitive judgments adults infer from their experiences of encoding effort vary in accordance with their naive theories of intelligence. To determine whether this finding extends to elementary schoolchildren, a study was conducted in which 27 third graders (M(age) = 8.27) and 24 fifth graders (M(age) = 10.39) read texts presented in easy- or difficult-to-encode fonts. The more children in both grades viewed intelligence as fixed, the less likely they were to interpret effortful or difficult encoding as a sign of increasing mastery and the more likely they were to report lower levels of comprehension as their perceived effort increased. This suggests that children may use naive theories of intelligence to make motivationally relevant inferences earlier than previously thought.

  8. Note---Naive Diversification and Portfolio Risk---A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Bird; Mark Tippett

    1986-01-01

    A number of authors have used the portfolio standard deviation to model the risk reduction advantages of naive diversification. Other authors have pointed out that when risk is modelled by the portfolio's variance the modelling process becomes much simpler and is computationally more efficient. In this note we derive an exact parametric relationship between portfolio standard deviation and size and thus highlight the dangers of using the standard deviation in conjunction with O.L.S. regressio...

  9. Fur-regulated iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri and its influence on pathogenesis and immunogenicity in the catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Golden, Greg; Wanda, Soo-Young; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-08-01

    The ability of bacterial pathogens to take up iron from the host during infection is necessary for their multiplication within the host. However, host high-affinity iron binding proteins limit levels of free iron in fluids and tissues. To overcome this deficiency of iron during infection, bacterial pathogens have developed iron uptake systems that are upregulated in the absence of iron, typically tightly controlled by the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein. The iron uptake system of Edwardsiella ictaluri, a host-restricted pathogen of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and the main pathogen of this fish in aquaculture, is unknown. Here we describe the E. ictaluri Fur protein, the iron uptake machinery controlled by Fur, and the effects of fur gene deletion on virulence and immunogenicity in the fish host. Analysis of the E. ictaluri Fur protein shows that it lacks the N-terminal region found in the majority of pathogen-encoded Fur proteins. However, it is fully functional in regulated genes encoding iron uptake proteins. E. ictaluri grown under iron-limited conditions upregulates an outer membrane protein (HemR) that shows heme-hemoglobin transport activity and is tightly regulated by Fur. In vivo studies showed that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant is attenuated and immune protective in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), triggering systemic immunity. We conclude that an E. ictaluri Δfur mutant could be an effective component of an immersion-oral vaccine for the catfish industry.

  10. Caroline Furness and the Evolution of Visual Variable Star Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars by Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, was published in October 2015. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars as well as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World’s Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness’s work is therefore a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. Furness’s book and its reception in the scientific community are analyzed, and parallels with (and departures from) the current advice given by the AAVSO to beginning variable star observers today are highlighted.

  11. 50 CFR 23.69 - How can I trade internationally in fur skins and fur skin products of bobcat, river otter, Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.69 How can I trade internationally in fur... export will not be detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild. (1) A State or......

  12. Reproductive performance and weaning success in fur-chewing chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, María G; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta; Ponzio, Marina F

    2014-09-01

    In captive chinchillas, one of the most challenging behavioral problems is the development of a stress-related abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) known as "fur-chewing". We investigated whether there is a relationship between the severity of fur-chewing behavior and reproductive function in male and female chinchillas. Regardless of the severity of abnormal behavior, fur-chewing males did not show significant differences in seminal quality (sperm concentration, motility and viability; integrity of sperm membrane and acrosome) and the response to the process of semen collection (the number of stimuli needed to achieve ejaculation) when compared to those with normal behavior. Also, females showing normal or fur-chewing behavior presented similar reproductive performance in terms of number of litters per female per year and litter size. However, pup survival rate was lower (p=0.05) in fur-chewing females than in normal females. These results seem to be consistent with data suggesting non-significant effects of ARBs on reproductive performance.

  13. The tricarboxylic acid cycle in Shewanella oneidensis is independent of Fur and RyhB control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng; McCue, Lee Ann; Parsons, Andrea B.; Feng, Sheng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-10-26

    It is well established in E. coli and Vibrio cholerae that strains harboring mutations in the ferric uptake regulator gene (fur) are unable to utilize tricarboxylic acid (TCA) compounds, due to the down-regulation of key TCA cycle enzymes, such as AcnA and SdhABCD. This down-regulation is mediated by a Fur-regulated small regulatory RNA named RyhB. In this study, we showed that a fur deletion mutant of the γ-proteobacterium S. oneidensis could utilize TCA compounds. In addition, expression of the TCA cycle genes acnA and sdhA was not down-regulated in the mutant. To explore this observation further, we identified a ryhB gene in Shewanella species and demonstrated its expression experimentally. Further experiments suggested that RyhB was up-regulated in fur mutant, but that AcnA and SdhA were not controlled by RyhB. This work delineates an important difference of the Fur-RyhB regulatory cycle between S. oneidensis and other γ-proteobacteria.

  14. Transcriptome expression profiling of fur color formation in domestic rabbits using Solexa sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, L Z; Wang, W Z; Shi, L J; Wan, X Y; Yan, X R; Weng, Q Q; Wu, X S

    2016-04-25

    Fur color is an important, genetically determined characteristic of domestic rabbits, and rabbit furs are of great economic value. To investigate the molecular genetics associated with fur color determination in domestic rabbits, we used Solexa-sequencing technology to probe gene expression in dorsal skin tissues sampled from full-sibling Rex rabbits of different colors. The number of expressed genes in each sample was approximately 14,700. Among the top 30 genes and transcription factors with the highest reads per kilobase per million values, the elongation factor-alpha 1 gene was highly expressed in all samples, as were genes of the ribosomal protein and keratin gene families. Compared with the chinchilla (C) Rex rabbit control sample, the numbers of genes in the black (B) and white (W) rabbit samples were 1809 and 460, respectively, and the number of common differentially expressed genes was 257. Clustering analysis of these 257 genes revealed that 32 were up-regulated in sample B and down-regulated in sample W. Of these 32 genes, we identified some that are related to fur formation, including Tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and Tyrosinase (TYR), as well as genes with unknown functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to verify the expression patterns of those genes. The findings are expected to provide reference for the further study of fur color formation in rabbits.

  15. The iron stimulon and fur regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens and their role in energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Mallory; Qiu, Yu; Shieu, Wendy; Nagarajan, Harish; O'Neil, Regina; Lovley, Derek; Zengler, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    Iron plays a critical role in the physiology of Geobacter species. It serves as both an essential component for proteins and cofactors and an electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. Here, we investigated the iron stimulon and ferric uptake regulator (Fur) regulon of Geobacter sulfurreducens to examine the coordination between uptake of Fe(II) and the reduction of Fe(III) at the transcriptional level. Gene expression studies across a variety of different iron concentrations in both the wild type and a Δfur mutant strain were used to determine the iron stimulon. The stimulon consists of a broad range of gene products, ranging from iron-utilizing to central metabolism and iron reduction proteins. Integration of gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data sets assisted in the identification of the Fur transcriptional regulatory network and Fur's role as a regulator of the iron stimulon. Additional physiological and transcriptional analyses of G. sulfurreducens grown with various Fe(II) concentrations revealed the depth of Fur's involvement in energy metabolism and the existence of redundancy within the iron-regulatory network represented by IdeR, an alternative iron transcriptional regulator. These characteristics enable G. sulfurreducens to thrive in environments with fluctuating iron concentrations by providing it with a robust mechanism to maintain tight and deliberate control over intracellular iron homeostasis.

  16. Evaluation of silk-floss fiber and dog fur as sorbent materials for the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Lucas P. dos [Universidade Federal do Parana (PGMec/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Dubiella, Juliana [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica; Perotta, Larissa [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa Interdisciplinar em Engenharia de Petroleo e Gas Natural; Satyanarayana, Kestur G. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Flores-Sahagun, Thais Sydenstricker [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEMEC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    In this study silk-floss and dog fur were tested as sorbent materials for oils and the results were compared with peat, a commercial sorbent. Sorption tests were carried out in dry and aqueous systems, with and without stirring for different periods of time (5-1440 min). Density, hydrophobicity, buoyancy and water uptake by the fibers of the impregnated sorbents have been determined. The use of silk-floss and dog fur was also tested in columns to purify water containing toluene, benzene, motor oil or sunflower oil. Breakthrough curves during 120 min were drawn for each material with the samples (oily water or water containing benzene or toluene) and were analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy. It was concluded that the silk-floss is the best sorbent material (65.3 g oil/g sorbent) followed by the dog fur (34.6 g oil/g sorbent) and peat (19.5 g oil/g sorbent), for sorption time of 1 h in dynamic condition. The efficiency of the pollutant removal from water with the use of adsorption columns was high for both materials although the use of dog fur was preferable because of the slight superiority in efficiency compared to silk-floss and also, due to the easier packing of the dog fur in the column. (author)

  17. The behavioural response of Australian fur seals to motor boat noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy S Tripovich

    Full Text Available Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10'S, 146°18'E. Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64-70 dB versus high (75-85 dB sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats.

  18. The Behavioural Response of Australian Fur Seals to Motor Boat Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Hall-Aspland, Sophie; Charrier, Isabelle; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Australian fur seals breed on thirteen islands located in the Bass Strait, Australia. Land access to these islands is restricted, minimising human presence but boat access is still permissible with limitations on approach distances. Thirty-two controlled noise exposure experiments were conducted on breeding Australian fur seals to determine their behavioural response to controlled in-air motor boat noise on Kanowna Island (39°10′S, 146°18′E). Our results show there were significant differences in the seals' behaviour at low (64–70 dB) versus high (75–85 dB) sound levels, with seals orientating themselves towards or physically moving away from the louder boat noise at three different sound levels. Furthermore, seals responded more aggressively with one another and were more alert when they heard louder boat noise. Australian fur seals demonstrated plasticity in their vocal responses to boat noise with calls being significantly different between the various sound intensities and barks tending to get faster as the boat noise got louder. These results suggest that Australian fur seals on Kanowna Island show behavioural disturbance to high level boat noise. Consequently, it is recommended that an appropriate level of received boat sound emissions at breeding fur seal colonies be below 74 dB and that these findings be taken into account when evaluating appropriate approach distances and speed limits for boats. PMID:22623998

  19. Neonatal thymectomy reveals differentiation and plasticity within human naive T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Theo; Delemarre, Eveline M.; Janssen, Willemijn J.M.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Broen, Jasper C.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, Jose A.M.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.; Prakken, Berent J.; Mokry, Michal; Jansen, Nicolaas J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of naive T cells is dependent on thymic output, but in adults, the naive T cell pool is primarily maintained by peripheral proliferation. Naive T cells have long been regarded as relatively quiescent cells; however, it was recently shown that IL-8 production is a signatory effector function of naive T cells, at least in newborns. How this functional signature relates to naive T cell dynamics and aging is unknown. Using a cohort of children and adolescents who underwent neonatal thymectomy, we demonstrate that the naive CD4+ T cell compartment in healthy humans is functionally heterogeneous and that this functional diversity is lost after neonatal thymectomy. Thymic tissue regeneration later in life resulted in functional restoration of the naive T cell compartment, implicating the thymus as having functional regenerative capacity. Together, these data shed further light on functional differentiation within the naive T cell compartment and the importance of the thymus in human naive T cell homeostasis and premature aging. In addition, these results affect and alter our current understanding on the identification of truly naive T cells and recent thymic emigrants. PMID:26901814

  20. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  1. Instrumentation and handling effects on Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Anne Blanchet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biologging instruments has greatly improved our understanding of the behaviour, physiology and ecology of free-ranging marine mammals. However, handling wild animals and attaching instruments to streamlined bodies can cause stress and potentially influence behaviour and swimming/diving energetics. The goals of this study, undertaken on Bouvetøya, were (1 to determine if the first trip to sea after instrumentation is representative of subsequent trips in lactating Antarctic fur seals, to explore potential handling effects and assess possible biases in having multiple short-duration deployments (inflating N, using a limited number of tags and (2 to evaluate potential effects of two different instrument combinations (SMRU satellite data relay loggers and very high frequency radio transmitters versus Wildlife Computers time–depth recorders and very high frequency radio transmitters on trip durations, dive parameters, female body condition and pup growth. Handling did not appear to have any effects on the parameters studied; data from the first and second trips did not differ significantly. This implies that multiple short-term deployments are unlikely to result in biased data in this species. Instrument type did have measurable effects; time-at-sea was greater and pup growth was lower for pairs in which mothers carried bulkier instruments. This suggests that instrument streamlining is important to avoid negative impacts and that bulkier equipment should be deployed on lactating females with caution and only for short periods. The study highlights that instrument effects should be taken into account when comparing data from experiments collected using different equipment packages.

  2. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo.

  3. Control of Fur synthesis by the non-coding RNA RyhB and iron-responsive decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecerek, Branislav; Moll, Isabella; Bläsi, Udo

    2007-02-21

    The Fe2+-dependent Fur protein serves as a negative regulator of iron uptake in bacteria. As only metallo-Fur acts as an autogeneous repressor, Fe2+scarcity would direct fur expression when continued supply is not obviously required. We show that in Escherichia coli post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms ensure that Fur synthesis remains steady in iron limitation. Our studies revealed that fur translation is coupled to that of an upstream open reading frame (uof), translation of which is downregulated by the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) RyhB. As RyhB transcription is negatively controlled by metallo-Fur, iron depletion creates a negative feedback loop. RyhB-mediated regulation of uof-fur provides the first example for indirect translational regulation by a trans-encoded ncRNA. In addition, we present evidence for an iron-responsive decoding mechanism of the uof-fur entity. It could serve as a backup mechanism of the RyhB circuitry, and represents the first link between iron availability and synthesis of an iron-containing protein.

  4. 19 CFR 113.68 - Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions. 113.68 Section 113.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... § 113.68 Wool and fur products labeling acts and fiber products identification act bond conditions....

  5. The FurA regulon in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120: in silico prediction and experimental validation of novel target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Andrés; Angarica, Vladimir Espinosa; Sancho, Javier; Fillat, María F

    2014-04-01

    In the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the ferric uptake regulator FurA functions as a global transcriptional regulator. Despite several analyses have focused on elucidating the FurA-regulatory network, the number of target genes described for this essential transcription factor is limited to a handful of examples. In this article, we combine an in silico genome-wide predictive approach with experimental determinations to better define the FurA regulon. Predicted FurA-binding sites were identified upstream of 215 genes belonging to diverse functional categories including iron homeostasis, photosynthesis and respiration, heterocyst differentiation, oxidative stress defence and light-dependent signal transduction mechanisms, among others. The probabilistic model proved to be effective at discerning FurA boxes from non-cognate sequences, while subsequent electrophoretic mobility shift assay experiments confirmed the in vitro specific binding of FurA to at least 20 selected predicted targets. Gene-expression analyses further supported the dual role of FurA as transcriptional modulator that can act both as repressor and as activator. In either role, the in vitro affinity of the protein to its target sequences is strongly dependent on metal co-regulator and reducing conditions, suggesting that FurA couples in vivo iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress to major physiological processes in cyanobacteria.

  6. Sensory Adaptation in Naive Peripheral CD4 T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Katy; Seddon, Benedict; Purbhoo, Marco A.; Zamoyska, Rose; Fisher, Amanda G.; Merkenschlager, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    T cell receptor interactions with peptide/major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligands control the selection of T cells in the thymus as well as their homeostasis in peripheral lymphoid organs. Here we show that pMHC contact modulates the expression of CD5 by naive CD4 T cells in a process that requires the continued expression of p56lck. Reduced CD5 levels in T cells deprived of pMHC contact are predictive of elevated Ca2+ responses to subsequent TCR engagement by anti-CD3 or nominal anti...

  7. Naive Bayesian classifiers for multinomial features: a theoretical analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available are individually binomial. Then, if we apply the naive Bayesian philosophy and define the likelihood function as the product of all binomial features, we get the likelihood function of class cr p(x¯|cr) = DY d=1 m! xd!(m− xd)!p xd dcrq m−xd dcr (1...) where x¯ is the input vector, xd is the frequency count for feature d, m is the number of Bernoulli trials done, pdcr is the proba- bility of feature d occurring in a Bernoulli trial for class cr and qdcr = 1− pdcr . The advantage of using eq. (1...

  8. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  9. Growth deficiency of a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae fur mutant in rice leaves is rescued by ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoni, Sujatha; Sonti, Ramesh V

    2005-07-01

    Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice. A mutation was isolated in the ferric uptake regulator (fur) gene of X. oryzae pv. oryzae and it was shown to result in the production of siderophores in a constitutive manner. The fur mutant is hypersensitive to the metallo-antibiotic streptonigrin, a phenotype that is indicative of intracellular free-iron overload, and also exhibits a slow growth phenotype on rich medium. The fur mutant is virulence deficient, hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide, and exhibits reduced catalase activity. Exogenous supplementation with ascorbic acid (an antioxidant) rescues the growth deficiency of the fur mutant in rice leaves. The virulence deficiency of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae fur mutant is proposed to be due, at least in part, to an impaired ability to cope with the oxidative stress conditions that are encountered during infection.

  10. The development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for foxes and mink: the WelFur project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mononen, J; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W;

    2012-01-01

    The WelFur project aims at the development of on-farm welfare assessment protocols for farmed foxes (the blue fox [Vulpes lagopus], the silver fox [Vulpes vulpes]) and mink (Neovison vison). The WelFur protocols are based on Welfare Quality® (WQ) principles and criteria. Here, we describe the Wel......Fur protocols after two years of developmental work. Reviews for each of the 12 WQ welfare criteria were written for foxes and mink to identify the welfare measures that have been used in scientific studies. The reviews formed the basis for potential measures to be included in the WelFur protocols. All measures...... which the welfare of animals on European fur farms can be assessed....

  11. On the nature of fur evolution: A phylogenetic approach in Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson David R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the evolution of global transcription regulators is essential for comprehending the complex networks of cellular metabolism that have developed among related organisms. The fur gene encodes one of those regulators – the ferric uptake regulator Fur – widely distributed among bacteria and known to regulate different genes committed to varied metabolic pathways. On the other hand, members of the Actinobacteria comprise an ecologically diverse group of bacteria able to inhabit various natural environments, and for which relatively little is currently understood concerning transcriptional regulation. Results BLAST analyses revealed the presence of more than one fur homologue in most members of the Actinobacteria whose genomes have been fully sequenced. We propose a model to explain the evolutionary history of fur within this well-known bacterial phylum: the postulated scenario includes one duplication event from a primitive regulator, which probably had a broad range of co-factors and DNA-binding sites. This duplication predated the appearance of the last common ancestor of the Actinobacteria, while six other duplications occurred later within specific groups of organisms, particularly in two genera: Frankia and Streptomyces. The resulting paralogues maintained main biochemical properties, but became specialised for regulating specific functions, coordinating different metal ions and binding to unique DNA sequences. The presence of syntenic regions surrounding the different fur orthologues supports the proposed model, as do the evolutionary distances and topology of phylogenetic trees built using both Neighbor-Joining and Maximum-Likelihood methods. Conclusion The proposed fur evolutionary model, which includes one general duplication and two in-genus duplications followed by divergence and specialization, explains the presence and diversity of fur genes within the Actinobacteria. Although a few rare

  12. PHP und MySQL der Web-Baukasten fur Einsteiger und Individualisten

    CERN Document Server

    Damaschke, Giesbert

    2015-01-01

    Sie haben schon eigene Webseiten gebaut und mochten diese nun mit Funktionen ausstatten, fur die Sie PHP und MySQL benotigen? Giesbert Damaschke zeigt Ihnen in diesem Buch, wie Sie das schaffen. Schritt fur Schritt erlernen Sie die benotigten Programmier- und Datenbankgrundlagen - immer im Rahmen von typischen dynamischen Anwendungen. So erheben und speichern Sie zum Beispiel mit Formularen Kontaktdaten, prufen Benutzereingaben, erstellen Menus, richten einen Besucherzahler ein, verschicken E-Mails mit PHP oder entwickeln sogar einen eigenen Blog. Alle Codebeispiele werden ausfuhrlich erklart,

  13. Multi-objective optimization in formation tasks of leather and fur materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Викторовна Сангинова

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of the efficiency of different ways to obtain a compromise solution in the multi-objective constrained optimization tasks has been conducted. The analysis was performed for a number of innovative technologies of leather and fur materials forming.

  14. Bilateral ocular anomalies in a South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Heegaard, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    A female South African fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus) began having obvious clinical ophthalmologic problems by 8 weeks of age. The initial clinical sign was diffuse corneal edema, which progressed to bullae formation and ulcers; the underlying cause of corneal edema and bullous...

  15. Furios: a web-based tool for identification of Vibrionaceae species using the fur gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Cardoso, Joao; Giubergia, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Gene based methods for identification of species from the Vibrionaceae family have been developed during the last decades to address the limitations of the commonly used 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Recently, we found that the ferric-uptake regulator gene (fur) can be used as a single identification ...... makes it suitable for any research environment, from academia to industry. Introduction...

  16. Transcriptional profiling of Helicobacter pylori Fur- and iron-regulated gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); S. Bereswill (Stefan); B. Waidner (Barbara); J. Stoof (Jeroen); U. Mader; J.G. Kusters (Johannes); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. Kist (Manfred); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); G. Homuth (Georg)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntracellular iron homeostasis is a necessity for almost all living organisms, since both iron restriction and iron overload can result in cell death. The ferric uptake regulator protein, Fur, controls iron homeostasis in most Gram-negative bacteria. In the human

  17. [Is the Furness-Moore Code applicable for computer and telex?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötzscher, K

    1979-12-01

    The extent to which the identification of disaster victims could be improved with the code for dental findings developed by Furness and Moore (1969) was studied. This code records the most important data for a set of teeth in 12 digits.

  18. Transcriptional profiling of Helicobacter pylori Fur- and iron-regulated gene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); S. Bereswill (Stefan); B. Waidner (Barbara); J. Stoof (Jeroen); U. Mader; J.G. Kusters (Johannes); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. Kist (Manfred); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud); G. Homuth (Georg)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIntracellular iron homeostasis is a necessity for almost all living organisms, since both iron restriction and iron overload can result in cell death. The ferric uptake regulator protein, Fur, controls iron homeostasis in most Gram-negative bacteria. In the human gastri

  19. Distribution of mercury in archived fur from little brown bats across Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Megan E; Burgess, Neil M; Broders, Hugh G; Campbell, Linda M

    2015-12-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in archived fur from adult female little brown bats sampled at maternity roosts across Atlantic Canada. Mercury concentrations varied significantly among regions and roosts. Bats from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland had the highest median Hg concentrations (9.67 μg/g and 9.51 μg/g) among regions, and individuals from Kejimkujik National Park had the highest Hg (median: 28.38 μg/g) among roosts. Over one third of individuals sampled had fur Hg concentrations exceeding thresholds associated with neurochemical responses. Within-roost examinations of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in fur showed inconsistent associations with Hg concentrations. Therefore, the hypothesis that within-roost variation in Hg is driven by variation in diet is not supported by this data, and it is recommended that key prey items be included in future mercury bioaccumulation studies for bats. The elevated mercury fur concentrations for bats from southern Nova Scotia remains an anomaly of concern even when placed in the larger context of Atlantic Canada.

  20. 19 CFR 11.12a - Labeling of fur products to indicate composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manner as in the case of marking of country of origin, § 134.55 of this chapter. (c) Packages of fur... and regulations promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 301.1-301.49). The term... shall be taken to effect the collection of liquidated damages in an amount equal to the entered value...

  1. Effects of dietary protein level on growth, health and physiological parameters in growing-furring mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Larsen, Peter F.; Clausen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the dietary protein level and the feeding strategy on growth, health and physiological blood and liver parameters in growing-furring male mink. Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 22% of metabolizable energy (MEp) to experimental p...

  2. A high-throughput method to examine protein-nucleotide interactions identifies targets of the bacterial transcriptional regulatory protein fur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Yu

    Full Text Available The Ferric uptake regulatory protein (Fur is a transcriptional regulatory protein that functions to control gene transcription in response to iron in a number of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we applied a label-free, quantitative and high-throughput analysis method, Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (IRIS, to rapidly characterize Fur-DNA interactions in vitro with predicted Fur binding sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. IRIS can easily be applied to examine multiple protein-protein, protein-nucleotide and nucleotide-nucleotide complexes simultaneously and demonstrated here that seventy percent of the predicted Fur boxes in promoter regions of iron-induced genes bound to Fur in vitro with a range of affinities as observed using this microarray screening technology. Combining binding data with mRNA expression levels in a gonococcal fur mutant strain allowed us to identify five new gonococcal genes under Fur-mediated direct regulation.

  3. Left ventricular function in treatment-naive early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Brian B; Deibjerg, Lone K; Hedemann-Andersen, Agnete;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of inflammation and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unclear. Previous studies have suggested that both disease activity and disease duration are associated...... with atherosclerosis and a higher mortality rate caused primarily by coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how disease activity, anti-CCP status and coronary calcium score in treatment-naive early RA impacts left ventricular (LV) systolic function. METHODS: Fifty-tree patients (30 women) with mean age 58...... by computed tomography by calculating the Agaston score. One experienced senior rheumatologist and one experienced cardiologist performed all the clinical assessments as well as all the transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and coronary CT analysis. RESULTS: Disease activity scores before treatment at baseline...

  4. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Allen, Elena A; Eichele, Heike;

    2016-01-01

    and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. RESULTS: We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions......BACKGROUND: We examined the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We acquired...... functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8-12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions...

  5. Reduced error signalling in medication-naive children with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Allen, Elena A; Eichele, Heike

    2016-01-01

    functional MRI data during a Flanker task in medication-naive children with ADHD and healthy controls aged 8-12 years and analyzed the data using independent component analysis. For components corresponding to performance monitoring networks, we compared activations across groups and conditions......BACKGROUND: We examined the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation in brain regions that signal errors and their association with intraindividual behavioural variability and adaptation to errors in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We acquired...... and correlated them with reaction times (RT). Additionally, we analyzed post-error adaptations in behaviour and motor component activations. RESULTS: We included 25 children with ADHD and 29 controls in our analysis. Children with ADHD displayed reduced activation to errors in cingulo-opercular regions...

  6. Professional Stereotypes of Interprofessional Education Naive Pharmacy and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Maria Miller; Harris, Elaine C.; Ryan, Gina J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess and compare interprofessional education (IPE) naive pharmacy and nursing student stereotypes prior to completion of an IPE activity. Methods. Three hundred and twenty-three pharmacy students and 275 nursing students at Mercer University completed the Student Stereotypes Rating Questionnaire. Responses from pharmacy and nursing students were compared, and responses from different level learners within the same profession also were compared. Results. Three hundred and fifty-six (59.5%) students completed the survey. Pharmacy students viewed pharmacists more favorably than nursing students viewed pharmacists for all attributes except the ability to work independently. Additionally, nursing students viewed nurses less favorably than pharmacy students viewed nurses for academic ability and practical skills. There was some variability in stereotypes between professional years. Conclusion. This study confirms the existence of professional stereotypes, although overall student perceptions of their own profession and the other were generally positive. PMID:28720912

  7. Naive Bayes-Guided Bat Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majid Taha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When the amount of data and information is said to double in every 20 months or so, feature selection has become highly important and beneficial. Further improvements in feature selection will positively affect a wide array of applications in fields such as pattern recognition, machine learning, or signal processing. Bio-inspired method called Bat Algorithm hybridized with a Naive Bayes classifier has been presented in this work. The performance of the proposed feature selection algorithm was investigated using twelve benchmark datasets from different domains and was compared to three other well-known feature selection algorithms. Discussion focused on four perspectives: number of features, classification accuracy, stability, and feature generalization. The results showed that BANB significantly outperformed other algorithms in selecting lower number of features, hence removing irrelevant, redundant, or noisy features while maintaining the classification accuracy. BANB is also proven to be more stable than other methods and is capable of producing more general feature subsets.

  8. Supervised Classification: The Naive Beyesian Returns to the Old Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilja Hulden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A few years back, William Turkel wrote a series of blog posts called A Naive Bayesian in the Old Bailey, which showed how one could use machine learning to extract interesting documents out of a digital archive. This tutorial is a kind of an update on that blog essay, with roughly the same data but a slightly different version of the machine learner. The idea is to show why machine learning methods are of interest to historians, as well as to present a step-by-step implementation of a supervised machine learner. This learner is then applied to the Old Bailey digital archive, which contains several centuries’ worth of transcripts of trials held at the Old Bailey in London. We will be using Python for the implementation.

  9. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Farid, Dewan Md; Rahman, Mohammad Zahidur; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposed algorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS). We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learn...

  10. Naive T cells are resistant to anergy induction by anti-CD3 antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andris, F.; Denanglaire, S.; Mattia, F.P. de; Urbain, J.; Leo, O.

    2004-01-01

    Anti-CD3 mAbs are potent immunosuppressive agents used in clinical transplantation. It has been generally assumed that one of the anti-CD3 mAb-mediated tolerance mechanisms is through the induction of naive T cell unresponsiveness, often referred to as anergy. We demonstrate in this study that naive

  11. The Persistence of "Solid" and "Liquid" Naive Conceptions: A Reaction Time Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Reuven; Amsterdamer, Anat

    2008-01-01

    The study explores whether the naive concepts of "solid" and "liquid" persist in adolescence. Accuracy of responses and reaction times where measured while 41 ninth graders classified different solids (rigid, non-rigid and powders) and different liquids (runny, dense) into solid or liquid. The results show that these naive conceptions affect…

  12. A review of 20 years of naive tests of significance for high-dimensional mean vectors and covariance matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang; Bai, ZhiDong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we will introduce the so called naive tests and give a brief review on the newly development. Naive testing methods are easy to understand and performs robust especially when the dimension is large. In this paper, we mainly focus on reviewing some naive testing methods for the mean vectors and covariance matrices of high dimensional populations and believe this naive test idea can be wildly used in many other testing problems.

  13. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Amer......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found...

  14. Mutations of ferric uptake regulator (fur) impair iron homeostasis, growth, oxidative stress survival, and virulence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2010-05-01

    Iron is essential in numerous cellular functions. Intracellular iron homeostasis must be maintained for cell survival and protection against iron's toxic effects. Here, we characterize the roles of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) fur, which encodes an iron sensor and a transcriptional regulator that acts in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and virulence. Herein, we isolated spontaneous Xcc fur mutants that had high intracellular iron concentrations due to constitutively high siderophore levels and increased expression of iron transport genes. These mutants also had reduced aerobic plating efficiency and resistance to peroxide killing. Moreover, one fur mutant was attenuated on a host plant, thus indicating that fur has important roles in the virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris.

  15. Investigation of death losses in fur seal pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, June 28 to August 15, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted in 1957 to understand the causes of death in fur seal pups. A discussion of the results is included.

  16. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  17. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 Input control Blood Naive T cells SRX1425815,SR...X1425816,SRX1425814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Naive_T_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Naive_T_cells hg19 Input control Blood Naive T cells SRX1425815,SR...X1425816,SRX1425814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Naive_T_cells.bed ...

  19. Effect of iron limitation and fur gene inactivation on the transcriptional profile of the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileva, Delyana; Janssen, Holger; Hönicke, Daniel; Ehrenreich, Armin; Bahl, Hubert

    2012-07-01

    Iron is a nutrient of critical importance for the strict anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum, as it is involved in numerous basic cellular functions and metabolic pathways. A gene encoding a putative ferric uptake regulator (Fur) has been identified in the genome of C. acetobutylicum. In this work, we inactivated the fur gene by using insertional mutagenesis. The resultant mutant showed a slow-growing phenotype and enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress, but essentially no dramatic change in its fermentation pattern. A unique feature of its physiology was the overflowing production of riboflavin. To gain further insights into the role of the Fur protein and the mechanisms for establishment of iron balance in C. acetobutylicum, we characterized and compared the gene-expression profile of the fur mutant and the iron-limitation stimulon of the parental strain. Not surprisingly, a repertoire of iron-transport systems was upregulated in both microarray datasets, suggesting that they are regulated by Fur according to the availability of iron. In addition, iron limitation and inactivation of fur affected the expression of several genes involved in energy metabolism. Among them, two genes, encoding a lactate dehydrogenase and a flavodoxin, were highly induced. In order to support the function of the latter, the ribDBAH operon responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis was also upregulated significantly. Furthermore, the iron-starvation response of C. acetobutylicum involved transcriptional modifications that were not detected in the fur mutant, suggesting that there exist additional mechanisms for adaptation to low-iron environments. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum senses and responds to availability of iron on multiple levels using a sophisticated system, and that Fur plays an important role in this process.

  20. Fur fashion design from competion view%大赛视角下的皮草服装设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 周怡

    2011-01-01

    时下的服装设计流行趋势会影响大赛中皮草设计的方向,与此同时大赛中的设计理念的变化和应用的变化也会让皮草服装设计获得新的流行元素,通过大赛视角来分析皮草服装的变化趋势,了解大赛作品与成衣化皮草服装设计之间的影响关系,剖析大赛设计视角下的皮草服装设计对行业发展的帮助,最终探索皮草大赛与皮草服装设计的发展方向.%Nowadays of costume design popular trend will influence the direction of fur clothing design contest, and at the same time series of the design concept of change and application of change would also allow fur clothing design to obtain new fashionable element, through the contest Angle to analyze the fur clothing change trend, understand contest of fur clothing works and garment dress design, this article analyzes the relationship between the influence of contest of design, from the perspective of fur clothing design industry development, and finally explores the help of fur clothing fashion design contest and the direction of its development.

  1. First description of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum XIIa subtype family in farmed fur animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnerová, Klára; Holubová, Nikola; Jandová, Anna; Vejčík, Antonín; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the Czech Republic and Poland. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 American mink (Mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis of PCR amplified products. Three mink and two chinchillas from two different farms tested positive for Cryptosporidium ubiquitum DNA. The presence of C. ubiquitum DNA was not associated with diarrhoea. Subtyping of C. ubiquitum isolates by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene showed that isolates belonged to the XIIa subtype family, which was previously restricted to humans and ruminants. This suggests that C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa has a broader host range than previously reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Regional differences in plastic ingestion among Southern Ocean fur seals and albatrosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Peter G; de Bruyn, P J Nico; Bester, Marthán N

    2016-03-15

    We provide data on regional differences in plastic ingestion for two Southern Ocean top predators: Arctocephalus fur seals and albatrosses (Diomedeidae). Fur seals breeding on Macquarie Island in the 1990s excreted small (mainly 2-5 mm) plastic fragments, probably derived secondarily from myctophid fish. No plastic was found in the scats of these seals breeding on three islands in the southwest Indian and central South Atlantic Oceans, despite myctophids dominating their diets at these locations. Compared to recent reports of plastic ingestion by albatrosses off the east coast of South America, we confirm that plastic is seldom found in the stomachs of Thalassarche albatrosses off South Africa, but found no Diomedea albatrosses to contain plastic, compared to 26% off South America. The reasons for such regional differences are unclear, but emphasize the importance of reporting negative as well as positive records of plastic ingestion by marine biota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Study of the elements determination method in animal fur by microwave digestion ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tian-ping; Wang, Song-jun; Cao, Lin; Chang, Ping; Hou, Yue

    2008-08-01

    Considering the complex matrix of the sample, the animal fur is carried on to the sample pretreatment method studies specially. The microwave closed system has its unique merit: The microwave radiation has the very strong penetrability and the rapid in-depth heating function. After absorbing microwave the sample and the molecules of reactant may carry on the reaction in short time. But the microwave power is very weak, reaction consumes much time, the resolution is also incomplete. Besides the output excessively is high dispels in the pot the reagent differential pressure to increase the test solution to produce the storm rapidly to boil. As a result of those flaws, the minute step microwave heating digestion method is used to digest test specimen after treated by the acid pickling over night. In the experiment, the specialized microwave reactor is replaced by civil microwave; the microwave heating technology is adopted. According to the different characteristics of reagents, different allocated proportion and the test solution volume of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid and the water are tested separately. Meanwhile, in order to optimize the experimental condition, the different response power and respond time is also studied. At last, the experimental condition is determined: HNO3-H2O2-HCl-H2O acid system is chose(four reagent allocated proportions are 8:1:1:5); test specimen is heated up 10 minutes when the output is 150 W and 5 minutes when the output is 360 W continuously; carries on the test specimen airtight resolution processing animal fur by the sample. To guarantee the standard solution system is consistent with the biological sample substrate, the artificial simulation biology sample substrate is used to match law configuration standard solution; the ration the substrate element calcium is added. To eliminate disturbance of the sample complex substrate, the substrate match law, which reduces the substrate element disturbance is used

  4. Characteristics of marine debris that entangle Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, T J; Wilcox, Chris; Johns, Karen; Dann, P; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-15

    Marine debris is a global issue that can have devastating impacts on marine mammals. To understand the types of materials that result in entanglement and thus the potential impact of entangling items on marine wildlife, we analysed data collected from items in which Australian fur seals had been entangled in southern Victoria, Australia over a 15year period. From 1997 to 2012, 138 entangling items were removed from seals. The majority of these entanglements were plastic twine or rope, and seals were entangled in green items more than in any other colour. In general, younger seals were more likely to be entangled than adults. Understanding the effects of marine debris entanglement on the Australian fur seal population can lead to more effective management of the sources of debris and the wildlife that interact with it.

  5. A small galliform bird from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation, northwestern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Dyke, Gareth John

    2007-01-01

    A pair of fossilized imprints of feet represent the first published galliform (landfowl) specimen from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of northwest Denmark. The specimen is referable to Galliformes due to the presence of a distinctly asymmetric trochlea metatarsi III. The specimen appears distinct...... from previously described Eocene Galliformes (e.g. Gallinuloididae, Quercymegapodiidae and Paraortygidae) and may represent a new taxon of Galliformes, increasing the diversity of this group in the Lower Eocene....

  6. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md. Farid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposedalgorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS. We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learning algorithms by employing on the KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm achieved high detection rates (DR andsignificant reduce false positives (FP for different types of network intrusions using limited computational resources

  7. Local Naive Bayes Nearest Neighbor for Image Classification

    CERN Document Server

    McCann, Sancho

    2011-01-01

    We present Local Naive Bayes Nearest Neighbor, an improvement to the NBNN image classification algorithm that increases classification accuracy and improves its ability to scale to large numbers of object classes. The key observation is that only the classes represented in the local neighborhood of a descriptor contribute significantly and reliably to their posterior probability estimates. Instead of maintaining a separate search structure for each class, we merge all of the reference data together into one search structure, allowing quick identification of a descriptor's local neighborhood. We show an increase in classification accuracy when we ignore adjustments to the more distant classes and show that the run time grows with the log of the number of classes rather than linearly in the number of classes as did the original. This gives a 100 times speed-up over the original method on the Caltech 256 dataset. We also provide the first head-to-head comparison of NBNN against spatial pyramid methods using a co...

  8. Executed Movement Using EEG Signals through a Naive Bayes Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Machado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interface (BCI technology. An independent BCI is a communication system for controlling a device by human intension, e.g., a computer, a wheelchair or a neuroprosthes is, not depending on the brain’s normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles, but on detectable signals that represent responsive or intentional brain activities. This paper presents a comparative study of the usage of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA and the naive Bayes (NB classifiers on describing both right- and left-hand movement through electroencephalographic signal (EEG acquisition. For the analysis, we considered the following input features: the energy of the segments of a band pass-filtered signal with the frequency band in sensorimotor rhythms and the components of the spectral energy obtained through the Welch method. We also used the common spatial pattern (CSP filter, so as to increase the discriminatory activity among movement classes. By using the database generated by this experiment, we obtained hit rates up to 70%. The results are compatible with previous studies.

  9. Naive Dimensional Analysis for Three-Body Forces Without Pions

    CERN Document Server

    Griesshammer, H W

    2005-01-01

    For systems of three identical particles in which short-range forces produce shallow two-particle bound states, and in particular for the ``pion-less'' Effective Field Theory of Nuclear Physics, I extend and systematise the power-counting of three-body forces to all partial-waves and orders, including external currents. With low-energy observables independent of the details of short-distance dynamics, the typical strength of a three-body force is determined from the superficial degree of divergence of the three-body diagrams which contain only two-body forces. This na\\"ive dimensional analysis must be amended as the asymptotic solution to the leading-order Faddeev equation depends for large off-shell momenta crucially on the partial wave and spin-combination of the system. It is shown by analytic construction to be weaker in most channels with angular momentum smaller than 3 than expected. This demotes many three-nucleon forces to high orders. Observables like the quartet-S-scattering length are less sensitiv...

  10. Similar Words Identification Using Naive and TF-IDF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya K.S.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Requirement satisfaction is one of the most important factors to success of software. All the requirements that are specified by the customer should be satisfied in every phase of the development of the software. Satisfaction assessment is the determination of whether each component of the requirement has been addressed in the design document. The objective of this paper is to implement two methods to identify the satisfied requirements in the design document. To identify the satisfied requirements, similar words in both of the documents are determined. The methods such as Naive satisfaction assessment and TF-IDF satisfaction assessment are performed to determine the similar words that are present in the requirements document and design documents. The two methods are evaluated on the basis of the precision and recall value. To perform the stemming, the Porter’s stemming algorithm is used. The satisfaction assessment methods would determine the similarity in the requirement and design documents. The final result would give a accurate picture of the requirement satisfaction so that the defects can be determined at the early stage of software development. Since the defects determines at the early stage, the cost would be low to correct the defects.

  11. NORTHERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inertia, water balance, physiological strength, and susceptibility to predation between adults .... Judd PW and Rose FL 1977 Aspects of the thermal biology of the Texas tortoise ... pctrdolis lmheoeki) and their conservation in northern Tanzania.

  12. Treatment and prevention of infection following bites of the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouliev T

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Timur Kouliev,1 Victoria Cui2 1Beijing United Family Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: In recent decades, an increasing number of people have traveled to sub-Antarctic and Antarctic regions each year for research, tourism, and resource exploitation. Hunting of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella almost pushed the species to extinction in the early 1900s, but populations have since shown rapid and substantial recovery. The species' range has re-expanded to include several islands south of the Antarctic Convergence, most notably South Georgia, and now overlaps with many popular Antarctic travel destinations. Both male and female fur seals can become extremely aggressive when provoked, and their bites, if not properly treated, pose a significant risk of infection by microorganisms not usually encountered in cases of animal bites. In this report, we present the case of a patient treated for a fur seal bite during an Antarctic expedition cruise, review the literature concerning seal bites, and suggest the use of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent complications. Keywords: zoonotic, polar tourism, prophylaxis, seal finger, expedition medicine

  13. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  14. Fur-type transcriptional repressors and metal homeostasis in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eLudwig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal homeostasis is a crucial cellular function for nearly all organisms. Some heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Zn, Co, Mo are essential because they serve as cofactors for enzymes or metalloproteins, and chlorophototrophs such as cyanobacteria have an especially high demand for iron. At excessive levels, however, metals become toxic to cyanobacteria. Therefore, a tight control mechanism is essential for metal homeostasis. Metal homeostasis in microorganisms comprises two elements: metal acquisition from the environment and detoxification or excretion of excess metal ions. Different families of metal-sensing regulators exist in cyanobacteria and each addresses a more or less specific set of target genes. In this study the regulons of three Fur-type and two ArsR-SmtB-type regulators were investigated in a comparative approach in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. One Fur-type regulator controls genes for iron acquisition (Fur; one controls genes for zinc acquisition (Zur; and the third controls two genes involved in oxidative stress (Per. Compared to other well-investigated cyanobacterial strains, however, the set of target genes for each regulator is relatively small. Target genes for the two ArsR-SmtB transcriptional repressors (SmtB (SYNPCC7002_A2564 and SYNPCC7002_A0590; ArsR are involved in zinc homeostasis in addition to Zur. Their target genes, however, are less specific for zinc and point to roles in a broader heavy metal detoxification response.

  15. Eggshell- and fur-like microstructures of yttrium silicate film prepared by laser chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akihiko, E-mail: itonium@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Miyagi (Japan); Endo, Jun; Kimura, Teiichi; Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Miyagi (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    Yttrium silicate (Y-Si-O) films with eggshell- and fur-like microstructures were prepared by laser chemical vapor deposition using a Nd:YAG laser, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and yttrium dipivaloylmethane (Y(dpm){sub 3}) precursors. Amorphous Y-Si-O films were prepared at deposition temperature below 1200 K. The crystalline Y-Si-O films with mixtures of Y{sub 4.67}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3}O and {alpha}-Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases were obtained at deposition temperature above 1200 K. y-Y{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and X1-Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} minor phases were also formed at a higher deposition temperature. At deposition temperature ranging between 1285 and 1355 K, a dome-like structure covered with fine fur-like projections was formed under a total pressure of 3.5 kPa, whereas an eggshell-like structure 200-300 {mu}m in diameter and 10-20 {mu}m in shell thickness was formed at 7.5 kPa. The deposition rate for the Y-Si-O films with fur- and eggshell-like microstructures reached 300 and 1000 {mu}m h{sup -1}, respectively.

  16. A novel fur- and iron-regulated small RNA, NrrF, is required for indirect fur-mediated regulation of the sdhA and sdhC genes in Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, J R; Goswami, Sulip; Grogan, Susan; Tjaden, Brian; Genco, Caroline A

    2007-05-01

    Iron is both essential for bacterial growth and toxic at higher concentrations; thus, iron homeostasis is tightly regulated. In Neisseria meningitidis the majority of iron-responsive gene regulation is mediated by the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur), a protein classically defined as a transcriptional repressor. Recently, however, microarray studies have identified a number of genes in N. meningitidis that are iron and Fur activated, demonstrating a new role for Fur as a transcriptional activator. Since Fur has been shown to indirectly activate gene transcription through the repression of small regulatory RNA molecules in other organisms, we hypothesized that a similar mechanism could account for Fur-dependent, iron-activated gene transcription in N. meningitidis. In this study, we used a bioinformatics approach to screen for the presence of Fur-regulated small RNA molecules in N. meningitidis MC58. This screen identified one small RNA, herein named NrrF (for neisserial regulatory RNA responsive to iron [Fe]), which was demonstrated to be both iron responsive and Fur regulated and which has a well-conserved orthologue in N. gonorrhoeae. In addition, this screen identified a number of other likely, novel small RNA transcripts. Lastly, we utilized a new bioinformatics approach to predict regulatory targets of the NrrF small RNA. This analysis led to the identification of the sdhA and sdhC genes, which were subsequently demonstrated to be under NrrF regulation in an nrrF mutant. This study is the first report of small RNAs in N. meningitidis and the first to use a bioinformatics approach to identify, a priori, regulatory targets of a small RNA.

  17. Improving Naive Bayes with Online Feature Selection for Quick Adaptation to Evolving Feature Usefulness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J

    2007-09-19

    The definition of what makes an article interesting varies from user to user and continually evolves even for a single user. As a result, for news recommendation systems, useless document features can not be determined a priori and all features are usually considered for interestingness classification. Consequently, the presence of currently useless features degrades classification performance [1], particularly over the initial set of news articles being classified. The initial set of document is critical for a user when considering which particular news recommendation system to adopt. To address these problems, we introduce an improved version of the naive Bayes classifier with online feature selection. We use correlation to determine the utility of each feature and take advantage of the conditional independence assumption used by naive Bayes for online feature selection and classification. The augmented naive Bayes classifier performs 28% better than the traditional naive Bayes classifier in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! RSS feeds.

  18. Subtrochanteric Fractures in Bisphosphonate-Naive Patients: Results from the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6–24 months and subsequently received an annu...

  19. Human Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Model X Chromosome Dampening and X Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahakyan, Anna; Kim, Rachel; Chronis, Constantinos; Sabri, Shan; Bonora, Giancarlo; Theunissen, Thorold W; Kuoy, Edward; Langerman, Justin; Clark, Amander T; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Plath, Kathrin

    2017-01-05

    Naive human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be derived from primed hESCs or directly from blastocysts, but their X chromosome state has remained unresolved. Here, we show that the inactive X chromosome (Xi) of primed hESCs was reactivated in naive culture conditions. Like cells of the blastocyst, the resulting naive cells contained two active X chromosomes with XIST expression and chromosome-wide transcriptional dampening and initiated XIST-mediated X inactivation upon differentiation. Both establishment of and exit from the naive state (differentiation) happened via an XIST-negative XaXa intermediate. Together, these findings identify a cell culture system for functionally exploring the two X chromosome dosage compensation processes in early human development: X dampening and X inactivation. However, remaining differences between naive hESCs and embryonic cells related to mono-allelic XIST expression and non-random X inactivation highlight the need for further culture improvement. As the naive state resets Xi abnormalities seen in primed hESCs, it may provide cells better suited for downstream applications.

  20. Naive Juveniles Are More Likely to Become Breeders after Witnessing Predator Mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesser, Michael; Suzuki, Toshitaka N

    2017-01-01

    Responding appropriately during the first predatory attack in life is often critical for survival. In many social species, naive juveniles acquire this skill from conspecifics, but its fitness consequences remain virtually unknown. Here we experimentally demonstrate how naive juvenile Siberian jays (Perisoreus infaustus) derive a long-term fitness benefit from witnessing knowledgeable adults mobbing their principal predator, the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Siberian jays live in family groups of two to six individuals that also can include unrelated nonbreeders. Field observations showed that Siberian jays encounter predators only rarely, and, indeed, naive juveniles do not respond to predator models when on their own but do when observing other individuals mobbing them. Predator exposure experiments demonstrated that naive juveniles had a substantially higher first-winter survival after observing knowledgeable group members mobbing a goshawk model, increasing their likelihood of acquiring a breeding position later in life. Previous research showed that naive individuals may learn from others how to respond to predators, care for offspring, or choose mates, generally assuming that social learning has long-term fitness consequences without empirical evidence. Our results demonstrate a long-term fitness benefit of vertical social learning for naive individuals in the wild, emphasizing its evolutionary importance in animals, including humans.

  1. Effects of Dietary Copper and Zinc Supplementation on Growth Performance, Tissue Mineral Retention, Antioxidant Status, and Fur Quality in Growing-Furring Blue Foxes (Alopex lagopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Wu, Xuezhuang; Zhang, Tietao; Guo, Jungang; Gao, Xiuhua; Yang, Fuhe; Xing, Xiumei

    2015-12-01

    A 4×2 factorial experiment with four supplemental levels of copper (0, 20, 40, or 60 mg copper per kg dry matter) from copper sulfate and two supplemental levels of zinc (40 or 200 mg zinc per kg dry matter) from zinc sulfate was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary copper and zinc supplementation on growth performance, tissue mineral retention, antioxidant status, and fur quality in growing-furring blue foxes. One hundred and twenty healthy 15-week-old male blue foxes were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments with 15 replicates per treatment for a 70-day trial from mid-September to pelting in December. The average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were increased with copper supplementation in the first 35 days as well as the overall period (Pzinc did not affect body gain (P>0.10) and feed intake (P>0.10) but improved feed conversion (Pzinc throughout the experiment. No copper×zinc interaction was observed for growth performance except that a tendency (P=0.09) was found for feed intake in the first 35 days. Supplementation of copper or zinc improved crude fat digestibility (Pzinc addition (Pzinc was affected only by dietary zinc addition (P0.05). However, the level of copper in the liver was increased with copper supplementation (Pzinc supplementation (P=0.08). Dietary zinc addition tended to increase the activity of alkaline phosphatase (P=0.07). The activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and catalase tended to increase by copper (P=0.08) and zinc addition (P=0.05). Moreover, a copper×zinc interaction was observed for catalase in the experiment (Pzinc levels (Pzinc supplementation can improve growth by increasing feed intake and improving fat digestibility. Additionally, copper and zinc can enhance the antioxidant capacity of blue foxes. This study also indicates that additional zinc up to 200 mg/kg did not exert significant adverse effects on the copper metabolism of growing-furring blue foxes.

  2. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    2014-01-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with Ameri......Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally...... correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3...... and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some...

  3. Anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões europeus hígidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Ayres Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos o furão (Mustela putorius furo tornou-se um conhecido animal de estimação sendo observada uma população em constante crescimento no Brasil, e por conseqüência cada vez mais presente em clínicas veterinárias. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões-europeus hígidos. Foram utilizados 20 animais, dentre os quais nove eram machos e onze fêmeas, com idade média total de três anos. Localizaram-se em 100% dos furões os linfonodos mesentéricos, em 55% dos animais os linfonodos pancreático-duodenal e esplênico, em 20% o linfonodo gástrico e em 5% o linfonodo hepático. Conclui-se que a localização e características ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais em furões são muito similares aos linfonodos abdominais de gatos, sendo este estudo uma orientação preliminar para a localização dos linfonodos abdominais de furões hígidos.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of Enterococcus spp. isolates from wild Arctocephalus australis (South American fur seal) and Arctocephalus tropicalis (Subantarctic fur seal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santestevan, Naiara Aguiar; de Angelis Zvoboda, Dejoara; Prichula, Janira; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Medeiros, Aline Weber; de Amorin, Derek Blaese; Tavares, Maurício; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Franco, Ana Claudia; Frazzon, Jeverson; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2015-12-01

    Enterococci are natural inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts in humans and animals. Epidemiological data suggest that enterococci are important reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant genes that may be transmitted from other bacterial species The aim of this study was to investigate the species composition, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococci recovered from fecal samples of wild Arctocephalus australis and A. tropicalis found dead along the South Coast of Brazil. From a total of 43 wild fur seals, eleven were selected for this study. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations were used to classify Enterococcus species. Strains were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics, presence of ace, gelE, asa, cylA, tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes by PCR, and genetic variability using RAPD-PCR. Among the 50 enterococci isolated, 40% were Enterococcus faecalis, 40% E. hirae, 12% E. casseliflavus and 8 % other enterococcal species. Resistance profiles were observed to erythromycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The prevalence of virulence genes was ace (68%), gelE (54%), asa (22%) and cylA (4%). In erythromycin- and tetracycline strains, erm(B) and tet(M) were detected, respectively. The RAPD-PCR demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship between the enterococci isolated from A. australis and A. tropicalis. In conclusion, different enterococcus species showing antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinates were isolated from fecal samples of fur seals. Antibiotic resistant strains in these animals could be related within food chain and aquatic pollutants or linked to environmental resistome, and demonstrates the potential importance of these animals as reservoirs and disseminators of such determinants in marine environmental.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection: Is sequential therapy superior to standard triple therapy? A single-centre Italian study in treatment-naive and non-treatment-naive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgesi, R; Pelecca, G; Cianci, R; Masini, A; Zampaletta, C; Riccioni, ME; Faggiani, R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clarithromycin resistance has decreased the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori. AIMS: To determine whether a 10-day course of sequential therapy (ST) is more effective at eradicating H pylori infection than triple therapy (TT) in the first or second line, and to assess side effects and compliance with therapy. METHODS: One hundred sixty treatment-naive and 40 non-treatment-naive patients who were positive for H pylori infection by 13C-urea breath test or endoscopy were enrolled. Eighty of 160 patients underwent TT, while 80 of 160 underwent ST with omeprazole (20 mg) plus amoxicillin (1 g) twice/day for five days, followed by omeprazole (20 mg) with tinidazole (500 mg) twice/day and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice/day for five consecutive days. H pylori eradication was evaluated by 13C-urea breath test no sooner than four weeks after the end of treatment. RESULTS: Eradication was achieved in 59 of 80 treatment-naive patients treated with TT (74%), in 74 of 80 patients treated with ST (93%), and in 38 of 40 non-treatment-naive patients (95%). Eradication rates in treatment-naive patients with ST were statistically significantly higher than TT (92.5% versus 73.7%; P=0.0015; OR 4.39 [95% CI 1.66 to 11.58]). Mild adverse effects were reported for both regimens. CONCLUSIONS: ST appears to be a well-tolerated, promising therapy; however, randomized controlled trials with larger and more diverse sample populations are needed before it can be recommended as a first-line treatment. PMID:21766091

  6. Differential T cell receptor-mediated signaling in naive and memory CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, D L; Acuto, O; Bottomly, K

    1997-08-01

    Naive and memory CD4 T cells differ in cell surface phenotype, function, activation requirements, and modes of regulation. To investigate the molecular bases for the dichotomies between naive and memory CD4 T cells and to understand how the T cell receptor (TCR) directs diverse functional outcomes, we investigated proximal signaling events triggered through the TCR/CD3 complex in naive and memory CD4 T cell subsets isolated on the basis of CD45 isoform expression. Naive CD4 T cells signal through TCR/CD3 similar to unseparated CD4 T cells, producing multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protein species overall and phosphorylating the T cell-specific ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase which is recruited to the CD3zeta subunit of the TCR. Memory CD4 T cells, however, exhibit a unique pattern of signaling through TCR/CD3. Following stimulation through TCR/CD3, memory CD4 T cells produce fewer species of tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates and fail to phosphorylate ZAP-70, yet unphosphorylated ZAP-70 can associate with the TCR/CD3 complex. Moreover, a 26/28-kDa phosphorylated doublet is associated with CD3zeta in resting and activated memory but not in naive CD4 T cells. Despite these differences in the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and CD3-associated proteins, the ZAP-70-related kinase, p72syk, exhibits similar phosphorylation in naive and memory T cell subsets, suggesting that this kinase could function in place of ZAP-70 in memory CD4 T cells. These results indicate that proximal signals are differentially coupled to the TCR in naive versus memory CD4 T cells, potentially leading to distinct downstream signaling events and ultimately to the diverse functions elicited by these two CD4 T cell subsets.

  7. Assessing transmissibility of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations from treated and from drug-naive individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winand, Raf; Theys, Kristof; Eusébio, Mónica; Aerts, Jan; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Gomes, Perpetua; Suchard, Marc A.; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Abecasis, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) in drug-naive patients are typically used to survey HIV-1-transmitted drug resistance (TDR). We test here how SDRMs in patients failing treatment, the original source of TDR, contribute to assessing TDR, transmissibility and transmission source of SDRMs. Design: This is a retrospective observational study analyzing a Portuguese cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. Methods: The prevalence of SDRMs to protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in drug-naive and treatment-failing patients was measured for 3554 HIV-1 subtype B patients. Transmission ratio (prevalence in drug-naive/prevalence in treatment-failing patients), average viral load and robust linear regression with outlier detection (prevalence in drug-naive versus in treatment-failing patients) were analyzed and used to interpret transmissibility. Results: Prevalence of SDRMs in drug-naive and treatment-failing patients were linearly correlated, but some SDRMs were classified as outliers – above (PRO: D30N, N88D/S, L90 M, RT: G190A/S/E) or below (RT: M184I/V) expectations. The normalized regression slope was 0.073 for protease inhibitors, 0.084 for NRTIs and 0.116 for NNRTIs. Differences between SDRMs transmission ratios were not associated with differences in viral loads. Conclusion: The significant linear correlation between prevalence of SDRMs in drug-naive and in treatment-failing patients indicates that the prevalence in treatment-failing patients can be useful to predict levels of TDR. The slope is a cohort-dependent estimate of rate of TDR per drug class and outlier detection reveals comparative persistence of SDRMs. Outlier SDRMs with higher transmissibility are more persistent and more likely to have been acquired from drug-naive patients. Those with lower transmissibility have faster reversion dynamics after transmission and are associated with

  8. Radiative contribution to thermal conductance in animal furs and other woolly insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Priscilla; Rattal, Mourad; Oualim, El Mostafa; Mouhse, Azeddine; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2014-01-27

    This paper deals with radiation's contribution to thermal insulation. The mechanism by which a stack of absorbers limits radiative heat transfer is examined in detail both for black-body shields and grey-body shields. It shows that radiation energy transfer rates should be much faster than conduction rates. It demonstrates that, for opaque screens, increased reflectivity will dramatically reduce the rate of heat transfer, improving thermal insulation. This simple model is thought to contribute to the understanding of how animal furs, human clothes, rockwool insulators, thermo-protective containers, and many other passive energy-saving devices operate.

  9. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita;

    2008-01-01

    Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov.......) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene...... psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crowngroup parrot....

  10. Two new parrots (Psittaciformes) from the Lower Eocene Fur Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waterhouse, David; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Zelenkov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    .) is the largest fossil parrot yet known. Both specimens are the first fossil records of these birds from Denmark. Although the phylogenetic position of Mopsitta is unclear (it is classified as family incertae sedis), this form is phylogenetically closer to Recent Psittacidae than to other known Palaeogene......Two new fossil psittaciform birds from the Lower Eocene ‘Mo Clay' (Fur Formation) of Denmark (c. 54 Ma) are described. An unnamed specimen is assigned to the extinct avian family of stem-group parrots, Pseudasturidae (genus and species incertae sedis), while a second (Mopsitta tanta gen. et sp. nov...... psittaciforms and may, therefore, represent the oldest known crowngroup parrot....

  11. 皮草抽刀工艺的数字化分析%Digital Analysis on the Fur Knife Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋湲; 姚震宇

    2016-01-01

    Knife technique is a special technique to control the shape and the shade for furs fabrication.The quality of fabricated furs depends on the skill and experience of the fur craftsmen.This article focus on knife technique.The formation of knife technique,the commonly used skills and key technologies were analyzed.The relationship of different parameters in processing were discussed.Meanwhile,a solution for fast slitting was proposed based on the deformation of furs.By constructing a mathematical model,a new calculation method was established,leading to improve the production yield and efficiency,reduce scrap rate on furs,eventually benefit to construct a data base for furs industry.%皮草制作工艺中,为了改变皮草的毛色和形状,常采用抽刀工艺技术,其成品质量取决于皮草工匠的经验和操作技艺.针对皮草抽刀工艺,对其形成原因、常用手法、关键技术进行分析;研究皮草抽刀工艺参数之间的关系,探讨根据皮草的变形量快速准确走刀的解决方案.通过建立数学模型,对抽刀工艺参数提出一种新的计算方法,对提高生产效率、减少料耗,具有实用性提升,对促进皮草工艺的数字化建设具有一定意义.

  12. Pertussis toxin activates adult and neonatal naive human CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonon, Sandrine; Badran, Bassam; Benghiat, Fleur Samantha; Goriely, Stanislas; Flamand, Véronique; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Willems, Fabienne; Goldman, Michel; De Wit, Dominique

    2006-07-01

    Pertussis toxin (PTX) is known to be mitogenic for T lymphocytes, but its direct action on naive human T cells has not been specified. Herein, we show that PTX induces the proliferation of purified adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) T cells independently of its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. PTX directly induces TNF-alpha and IL-2 mRNA expression, modulates the level of several cell surface receptors and induces Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) protein accumulation in naive CD4(+) T cells. Addition of autologous dendritic cells was found to be required for the production of high levels of IFN-gamma by PTX-stimulated naive T cells. These effects of PTX occurred in conjunction with activation of NF-kappaB and NFAT transcription factors. Overall, responses of neonatal CD4(+) T cells to PTX were similar to those of adult CD45RA(+)CD4(+) naive T cells except for their blunted CD40 ligand up-regulation. We suggest that the adjuvant properties of PTX during primary cell-mediated immune responses involve a direct action on naive T lymphocytes in addition to activation of antigen-presenting cells.

  13. Bim/Bcl-2 balance is critical for maintaining naive and memory T cell homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Sara; Tripathi, Pulak; Bourdeau, Tristan; Acero, Luis; Grimes, H. Leighton; Katz, Jonathan D.; Finkelman, Fred D.; Hildeman, David A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the role of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in combating the proapoptotic molecule Bim in control of naive and memory T cell homeostasis using Bcl-2−/− mice that were additionally deficient in one or both alleles of Bim. Naive T cells were significantly decreased in Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice, but were largely restored in Bim−/−Bcl-2−/− mice. Similarly, a synthetic Bcl-2 inhibitor killed wild-type, but not Bim−/−, T cells. Further, T cells from Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice died rapidly ex vivo and were refractory to cytokine-driven survival in vitro. In vivo, naive CD8+ T cells required Bcl-2 to combat Bim to maintain peripheral survival, whereas naive CD4+ T cells did not. In contrast, Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice generated relatively normal numbers of memory T cells after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Accumulation of memory T cells in Bim+/−Bcl-2−/− mice was likely caused by their increased proliferative renewal because of the lymphopenic environment of the mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role for a balance between Bim and Bcl-2 in controlling homeostasis of naive and memory T cells. PMID:17591857

  14. Northern fur seal pup production, adult male counts and harvest data for the Pribilof Islands, Alaska 1909 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on pup production estimates, adult male counts and harvests (commercial and subsistence) for the Pribilof Islands of St. Paul and...

  15. Northern fur seal foraging behavior and prey fields in the Bering Sea, Alaska during July-October 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used by Kuhn et al. (2015) to investigate how conclusions about predator-prey relationships change with increasing temporal disparity between...

  16. Naive T cell homeostasis: from awareness of space to a sense of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kensuke; Jameson, Stephen C

    2009-12-01

    The peripheral naive T cell pool is fairly stable in number, diversity and functional competence in the absence of vigorous immune responses. However, this apparent tranquility is not an intrinsic property of T cells but involves continuous tuning of the T cell pool composition by homeostatic signals. In the past decade, studies have revealed that naive T cells rely on combinatorial signals from self-peptide-MHC complexes and interleukin-7 for their physical and functional maintenance. Competition for these factors dictates T cell 'space'. In addition, recent studies show that these and other homeostatic factors are offered to T cells on stromal cell networks, which also serve to guide T cell trafficking in secondary lymphoid organs. Such findings suggest the importance of 'place' in the perception and integration of homeostatic cues for the maintenance and functional tuning of the naive T cell pool.

  17. Hippocampal and caudate volume reductions in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn Hylsebeck; Glenthøj, Birte; Rasmussen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    to be influenced by a history of substance abuse. Exploratory analyses indicated reduced volume of the nucleus accumbens in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. LIMITATIONS: This study was not a priori designed to test for differences between schizophrenia patients with or without lifetime substance abuse......BACKGROUND: Enlarged ventricles and reduced hippocampal volume are consistently found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Studies investigating brain structure in antipsychotic-naive patients have generally focused on the striatum. In this study, we examined whether ventricular...... enlargement and hippocampal and caudate volume reductions are morphological traits of antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia. METHODS: We obtained high-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans for 38 antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients and 43 matched...

  18. Foraging-Based Enrichment Promotes More Varied Behaviour in Captive Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hocking

    Full Text Available During wild foraging, Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus encounter many different types of prey in a wide range of scenarios, yet in captive environments they are typically provided with a narrower range of opportunities to display their full repertoire of behaviours. This study aimed to quantitatively explore the effect of foraging-based enrichment on the behaviour and activity patterns displayed by two captive Australian fur seals at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. Food was presented as a scatter in open water, in a free-floating ball device, or in a static box device, with each treatment separated by control trials with no enrichment. Both subjects spent more time interacting with the ball and static box devices than the scatter feed. The total time spent pattern swimming was reduced in the enrichment treatments compared to the controls, while the time spent performing random swimming behaviours increased. There was also a significant increase in the total number of bouts of behaviour performed in all three enrichment treatments compared to controls. Each enrichment method also promoted a different suit of foraging behaviours. Hence, rather than choosing one method, the most effective way to increase the diversity of foraging behaviours, while also increasing variation in general activity patterns, is to provide seals with a wide range of foraging scenarios where food is encountered in different ways.

  19. Acoustic features involved in the neighbour-stranger vocal recognition process in male Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripovich, J S; Charrier, I; Rogers, T L; Canfield, R; Arnould, J P Y

    2008-09-01

    Many territorial species have the ability to recognise neighbours from stranger individuals. If the neighbouring individual is assumed to pose less of a threat, the territorial individual responds less and avoids unnecessary confrontations with familiar individuals at established boundaries, thus avoiding the costly energy expenditure associated with fighting. Territorial male Australian fur seals respond more to strangers than to neighbouring males. The present study evaluated which acoustic features were important in the neighbour-stranger recognition process in male Australian fur seals. The results reveal that there was an increase in response strength or intensity from males when they heard more bark units, indicating the importance of repetition to detect a caller. However, lengthening and shortening the inter-unit spaces, (i.e. changing the rhythm of the call) did not appear to significantly affect an animal's response. In addition, the whole frequency spectrum was considered important to recognition with results suggesting that they may vary in their importance. A call containing the dominant and surrounding harmonics was considered important to a male's ability to recognise its neighbour. Furthermore, recognition occurs even with a partial bark, but males need to hear between 25 and 75% of each bark unit from neighbouring seals. Our study highlights which acoustic features induce stronger or weaker responses from territorial males, decoding the important features in neighbour-stranger recognition.

  20. Ascent exhalations of Antarctic fur seals: a behavioural adaptation for breath-hold diving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Sascha K; Miller, Patrick J O; Johnson, Mark P; Cox, Oliver P; Boyd, Ian L

    2005-02-22

    Novel observations collected from video, acoustic and conductivity sensors showed that Antarctic fur seals consistently exhale during the last 50-85% of ascent from all dives (10-160 m, n > 8000 dives from 50 seals). The depth of initial bubble emission was best predicted by maximum dive depth, suggesting an underlying physical mechanism. Bubble sound intensity recorded from one seal followed predictions of a simple model based on venting expanding lung air with decreasing pressure. Comparison of air release between dives, together with lack of variation in intensity of thrusting movement during initial descent regardless of ultimate dive depth, suggested that inhaled diving lung volume was constant for all dives. The thrusting intensity in the final phase of ascent was greater for dives in which ascent exhalation began at a greater depth, suggesting an energetic cost to this behaviour, probably as a result of loss of buoyancy from reduced lung volume. These results suggest that fur seals descend with full lung air stores, and thus face the physiological consequences of pressure at depth. We suggest that these regular and predictable ascent exhalations could function to reduce the potential for a precipitous drop in blood oxygen that would result in shallow-water blackout.

  1. Winter habitat predictions of a key Southern Ocean predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; De Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Trathan, Phil; Goebel, Michael; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of the physical and biological environmental factors that influence the spatial distribution of higher trophic species is central to inform management and develop ecosystem models, particularly in light of ocean changes. We used tracking data from 184 female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) to develop habitat models for three breeding colonies for the poorly studied Southern Ocean winter period. Models were used to identify and predict the broadly important winter foraging habitat and to elucidate the environmental factors influencing these areas. Model predictions closely matched observations and several core areas of foraging habitat were identified for each colony, with notable areas of inter-colony overlap suggesting shared productive foraging grounds. Seals displayed clear choice of foraging habitat, travelling through areas of presumably poorer quality to access habitats that likely offer an energetic advantage in terms of prey intake. The relationships between environmental predictors and foraging habitat varied between colonies, with the principal predictors being wind speed, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, bathymetry and distance to the colony. The availability of core foraging areas was not consistent throughout the winter period. The habitat models developed in this study not only reveal the core foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals from multiple colonies, but can facilitate the hindcasting of historical foraging habitats as well as novel predictions of important habitat for other major colonies currently lacking information of the at-sea distribution of this major Southern Ocean consumer.

  2. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE FUR MICROBIOTA OF CALLITRICHIDS KEPT IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Raquel Albuquerque; Milanelo, Liliane; Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Bentubo, Henri Donnarumma Levy

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to isolate filamentous fungi from the fur of primates of the genus Callithrix kept in the Centre for Rehabilitation of Wild Animals (CRWA) at the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Samples of the fur of 19 specimens of black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) and 6 specimens of white-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were obtained by the square carpet technique. The samples were plated on Mycosel™ agar medium (Difco™) and incubated at 25°C for 21 days. The identification of each isolated mold was based on its macroscopic and microscopic features and followed classical recommendations. The following filamentous fungi were isolated: Penicillium spp. (76%), Cladosporium spp. (60%), Acremonium spp. (44%), Scopulariopsis spp. (24%), Aspergillus spp. (16%), Chrysosporium spp. (16%), and Fusarium spp. (8%). Dermatophyte fungi were not detected. We conclude that C. penicillata and C. jacchus kept in captivity are sources of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi that may represent a risk factor for immunocompromised individuals who may eventually establish contact with them.

  3. Colony-level assessment of Brucella and Leptospira in the Guadalupe fur seal, Isla Guadalupe, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehl-Quirós, E Carolina; García-Aguilar, María C; Mellink, Eric

    2017-01-24

    The relatively small population size and restricted distribution of the Guadalupe fur seal Arctocephalus townsendi could make it highly vulnerable to infectious diseases. We performed a colony-level assessment in this species of the prevalence and presence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp., pathogenic bacteria that have been reported in several pinniped species worldwide. Forty-six serum samples were collected in 2014 from pups at Isla Guadalupe, the only place where the species effectively reproduces. Samples were tested for Brucella using 3 consecutive serological tests, and for Leptospira using the microscopic agglutination test. For each bacterium, a Bayesian approach was used to estimate prevalence to exposure, and an epidemiological model was used to test the null hypothesis that the bacterium was present in the colony. No serum sample tested positive for Brucella, and the statistical analyses concluded that the colony was bacterium-free with a 96.3% confidence level. However, a Brucella surveillance program would be highly recommendable. Twelve samples were positive (titers 1:50) to 1 or more serovars of Leptospira. The prevalence was calculated at 27.1% (95% credible interval: 15.6-40.3%), and the posterior analyses indicated that the colony was not Leptospira-free with a 100% confidence level. Serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Bratislava were detected, but only further research can unveil whether they affect the fur seal population.

  4. Mating success and body condition not related to foraging specializations in male fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Cherel, Y; Guinet, C; Arnould, J P Y

    2016-07-01

    Individual specialization is widespread among wild populations. While its fitness consequences are central in predicting the ecological and evolutionary trajectories of populations, they remain poorly understood. Long-term individual foraging specializations occur in male Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and Australian (A. pusillus doriferus) fur seals. Strong selective pressure is expected in these highly dimorphic and polygynous species, raising the question of the fitness payoffs associated with different foraging strategies. We investigated the relationship between individual isotopic niche (a proxy of foraging specialization), body size and condition, and an index of reproductive success (harem size) in territorial males. Individuals varied greatly in their skin and fur isotopic values reflecting a range of foraging strategies within the two populations. However, in both species, isotopic niche was not correlated to body size, condition or mating success (R (2)/ρ < 0.06). Furthermore, no foraging niche was predominant in either species, which would have indicated a substantial long-term fitness benefit of a particular strategy via a higher survival rate. These results suggest that the fitness consequences of a foraging strategy depend not only on the quality of prey and feeding habitat but also on an individual's hunting efficiency and skills.

  5. Temporal Change in Fur Color in Museum Specimens of Mammals: Reddish-Brown Species Get Redder with Storage Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Museum collections have great value for zoological research, but despite careful preservation, over time specimens can show subtle changes in color. We examined the effect of storage time on fur color of two reddish-brown species, golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli and eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus. Using image analysis, we obtained color data (hue, saturation, and density on 91 golden mice and 49 chipmunks from Georgia, USA. Analyses that considered body size, gender, and collection year showed significant effects of year on fur color of golden mice (hue and saturation and of agouti color of chipmunks. Older specimens tended to be redder in color than newer specimens, consistent with a prior study of red bats (Lasiurus borealis. Hair samples showed reddening of fine body hairs, but not in thicker guard hairs. There was no temporal change in black or white stripe color in chipmunks, indicating that this temporal effect would be limited to species with reddish-brown fur. This effect may be caused by breakdown of eumelanin pigments (which make dark colors over time, leaving a greater proportion of pheomelanin pigments (which make red colors. These results show that storage time needs to be considered in research projects where fur color is of importance.

  6. Iron-responsive regulation of the Helicobacter pylori iron-cofactored superoxide dismutase SodB is mediated by Fur.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); G. Homuth (Georg); J. Stoof (Jeroen); U. Mader; B. Waidner (Barbara); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M. Kist (Manfred); J.G. Kusters (Johannes); S. Bereswill (Stefan); A.H.M. van Vliet (Arnoud)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractMaintaining iron homeostasis is a necessity for all living organisms, as free iron augments the generation of reactive oxygen species like superoxide anions, at the risk of subsequent lethal cellular damage. The iron-responsive regulator Fur controls iron metabolism in many bacteria, inc

  7. Genetic Diversity and Population Parameters of Sea Otters, Enhydra lutris, before Fur Trade Extirpation from 1741–1911

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Shawn; Jameson, Ron; Etnier, Michael; Jones, Terry; Hall, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged. PMID:22403635

  8. Genetic diversity and population parameters of sea otters, Enhydra lutris, before fur trade extirpation from 1741-1911.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    Full Text Available All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and Russia. We then compared those values to genetic diversity and population structure found within five modern sea otter populations throughout their current range: California, Prince William Sound, Amchitka Island, Southeast Alaska and Washington. We found twice the genetic diversity in the pre-fur trade populations when compared to modern sea otters, a level of diversity that was similar to levels that are found in other mammal populations that have not experienced population bottlenecks. Even with the significant loss in genetic diversity modern sea otters have retained historical structure. There was greater gene flow before extirpation than that found among modern sea otter populations but the difference was not statistically significant. The most dramatic effect of pre fur trade population extirpation was the loss of genetic diversity. For long term conservation of these populations increasing gene flow and the maintenance of remnant genetic diversity should be encouraged.

  9. An der Schwelle zur Zweisprachigkeit: Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene (On the Threshold of Bilingualism: Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Silvia, Ed.; Portmann, Paul R., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This collection of articles on Bilingualism includes: "Fremdsprachenunterricht fur Fortgeschrittene: ein Uberblick" (Foreign Language Learning for Advanced Students: An Overview) (Paul R. Portmann); "Never Mind the Width, Feel the Quality: From Quantity to Quality in Language Teaching at Advanced Levels" (Mike Makosch); "Irren ist menschlich: Ein…

  10. Reconstitution of naive T cells during antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infected adults is dependent on age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, James; Hamann, Dörte; Borleffs, Jan; Roos, Marijke; Miedema, Frank; Boucher, Charles; de Boer, Rob

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of age on the regeneration rate of naive and memory T cells in the blood of 45 adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: The age of the patients ranged from 25 to 57 years. Naive cells were defined as CD45RA+CD27+. Cells negative for CD45R

  11. Children's Naive Theories of Intelligence Influence Their Metacognitive Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, David B.; Son, Lisa K.; Metcalfe, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the metacognitive judgments adults infer from their experiences of encoding effort vary in accordance with their naive theories of intelligence. To determine whether this finding extends to elementary schoolchildren, a study was conducted in which 27 third graders (M[subscript age] = 8.27) and 24 fifth graders…

  12. Providing probability distributions for the causal pathogen of clinical mastitis using naive Bayesian networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Gaag, van der L.C.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical mastitis (CM) can be caused by a wide variety of pathogens and farmers must start treatment before the actual causal pathogen is known. By providing a probability distribution for the causal pathogen, naive Bayesian networks (NBN) can serve as a management tool for farmers to decide which t

  13. Using Unsupervised Learning to Improve the Naive Bayes Classifier for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, G.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Hurink, Johann L.

    2012-01-01

    Online processing is essential for many sensor network applications. Sensor nodes can sample far more data than what can practically be transmitted using state of the art sensor network radios. Online processing, however, is complicated due to limited resources of individual nodes. The naive Bayes

  14. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  15. PERBANDINGAN K-NEAREST NEIGHBOR DAN NAIVE BAYES UNTUK KLASIFIKASI TANAH LAYAK TANAM POHON JATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Srianto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data mining adalah proses menganalisa data dari perspektif yang berbeda dan menyimpulkannya menjadi informasi-informasi penting yang dapat dipakai untuk meningkatkan keuntungan, memperkecil biaya pengeluaran, atau bahkan keduanya. Secara teknis, data mining dapat disebut sebagai proses untuk menemukan korelasi atau pola dari ratusan atau ribuan field dari sebuah relasional database yang besar. Pada perum perhutani KPH SEMARANG saat ini masih menggunakan cara manual untuk menentukan jenis tanaman (jati / non jati. K-Nearest Neighbour atau k-NN merupakan algoritma data mining yang dapat digunakan untuk proses klasifikasi dan regresi. Naive bayes Classifier merupakan suatu teknik yang dapat digunakan untuk teknik klasifikasi. Pada penelitian ini k-NN dan Naive Bayes akan digunakan untuk mengklasifikasi data pohon jati dari perum perhutani KPH SEMARANG. Yang mana hasil klasifikasi dari k-NN dan Naive Bayes akan dibandingkan hasilnya. Pengujian dilakukan menggunakan software RapidMiner. Setelah dilakukan pengujian k-NN dianggap lebih baik dari Naife Bayes dengan akurasi 96.66% dan 82.63. Kata kunci -k-NN,Klasifikasi,Naive Bayes,Penanaman Pohon Jati

  16. The Effect of Naive Ideas on Students' Reasoning about Electricity and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppavirta, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Traditional multiple-choice concept inventories measure students' critical conceptual understanding and are designed to reveal students' naive or alternate ideas. The overall scores, however, give little information about the state of students' knowledge and the consistency of reasoning. This study investigates whether students have consistent…

  17. Naive T lymphocytes traffic to inflamed central nervous system, but require antigen recognition for activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    2000-01-01

    shown, although many studies have shown extravasation of activated or memory T cells. We have used a novel experimental system to track naive T cells to the central nervous system (CNS) in TCR transgenic mice with adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ovalbumin (OVA...

  18. Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Hotova Svadova, K.; Fucikova, E.; Drent, P.; Stys, P.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in reactions to aposematic prey is common among conspecific individuals of bird predators. It may result from different individual experience but it also exists among naive birds. This variation may possibly be explained by the effect of personality—a complex of correlated, heritable

  19. Observation of the naive-T-odd Sivers effect in deep-inelastic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, A; Akopov, N; Akopov, Z; Aschenauer, E C; Augustyniak, W; Avetissian, A; Avetisyan, E; Bacchetta, A; Ball, B; Bianchi, N; Blok, H P; Böttcher, H; Bonomo, C; Borissov, A; Bryzgalov, V; Burns, J; Capiluppi, M; Capitani, G P; Cisbani, E; Ciullo, G; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, P F; Deconinck, W; De Leo, R; De Nardo, L; De Sanctis, E; Diefenthaler, M; Di Nezza, P; Dreschler, J; Düren, M; Ehrenfried, M; Elbakian, G; Ellinghaus, F; Elschenbroich, U; Fabbri, R; Fantoni, A; Felawka, L; Frullani, S; Gabbert, D; Gapienko, G; Gapienko, V; Garibaldi, F; Gharibyan, V; Giordano, F; Gliske, S; Hadjidakis, C; Hartig, M; Hasch, D; Hill, G; Hillenbrand, A; Hoek, M; Holler, Y; Hristova, I; Imazu, Y; Ivanilov, A; Jackson, H E; Jo, H S; Joosten, S; Kaiser, R; Keri, T; Kinney, E; Kisselev, A; Korotkov, V; Kozlov, V; Kravchenko, P; Lagamba, L; Lamb, R; Lapikás, L; Lehmann, I; Lenisa, P; Linden-Levy, L A; López Ruiz, A; Lorenzon, W; Lu, X-G; Lu, X-R; Ma, B-Q; Mahon, D; Makins, N C R; Manaenkov, S I; Manfré, L; Mao, Y; Marianski, B; Martinez de la Ossa, A; Marukyan, H; Miller, C A; Miyachi, Y; Movsisyan, A; Murray, M; Mussgiller, A; Nappi, E; Naryshkin, Y; Nass, A; Negodaev, M; Nowak, W-D; Pappalardo, L L; Perez-Benito, R; Reimer, P E; Reolon, A R; Riedl, C; Rith, K; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, A; Rubin, J; Ryckbosch, D; Salomatin, Y; Sanftl, F; Schäfer, A; Schnell, G; Schüler, K P; Seitz, B; Shibata, T-A; Shutov, V; Stancari, M; Statera, M; Steijger, J J M; Stenzel, H; Stewart, J; Stinzing, F; Taroian, S; Terkulov, A; Trzcinski, A; Tytgat, M; Vandenbroucke, A; van der Nat, P B; Van Haarlem, Y; Van Hulse, C; Varanda, M; Veretennikov, D; Vikhrov, V; Vilardi, I; Vogel, C; Wang, S; Yaschenko, S; Ye, H; Ye, Z; Yen, S; Yu, W; Zeiler, D; Zihlmann, B; Zupranski, P

    2009-10-09

    Azimuthal single-spin asymmetries of leptoproduced pions and charged kaons were measured on a transversely polarized hydrogen target. Evidence for a naive-T-odd, transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function is deduced from nonvanishing Sivers effects for pi(+), pi(0), and K(+/-), as well as in the difference of the pi(+) and pi(-) cross sections.

  20. Naive T lymphocytes traffic to inflamed central nervous system, but require antigen recognition for activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakowski, M L; Owens, T

    2000-01-01

    Organ-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by infiltration of the target tissue by CD4(+) T cells with specificity for self antigen(s). As disease progresses, T cells of other specificities appear in the tissue. Traffic of naive, antigen-inexperienced T cells to target tissues has not been...

  1. Binary naive Bayesian classifiers for correlated Gaussian features: a theoretical analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available error rate to that obtained when Monte-Carlo simulations are performed for a 2 and 12 dimensional binary classification problem. Finally, we illustrate the robust performances obtained with Naive Bayesian classifiers (as opposed to a maximum likelihood...

  2. Using Unsupervised Learning to Improve the Naive Bayes Classifier for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, G.J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Hurink, Johann L.

    2012-01-01

    Online processing is essential for many sensor network applications. Sensor nodes can sample far more data than what can practically be transmitted using state of the art sensor network radios. Online processing, however, is complicated due to limited resources of individual nodes. The naive Bayes c

  3. Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Hotova Svadova, K.; Fucikova, E.; Drent, P.; Stys, P.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in reactions to aposematic prey is common among conspecific individuals of bird predators. It may result from different individual experience but it also exists among naive birds. This variation may possibly be explained by the effect of personality—a complex of correlated, heritable behav

  4. Loss of naive T cells and repertoire constriction predict poor response to vaccination in old primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicin-Sain, Luka; Smyk-Pearson, Susan; Smyk-Paerson, Sue; Currier, Noreen; Byrd, Laura; Koudelka, Caroline; Robinson, Tammie; Swarbrick, Gwendolyn; Tackitt, Shane; Legasse, Alfred; Fischer, Miranda; Nikolich-Zugich, Dragana; Park, Byung; Hobbs, Theodore; Doane, Cynthia J; Mori, Motomi; Axthelm, Michael K; Axthelm, Michael T; Lewinsohn, Deborah A; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko

    2010-06-15

    Aging is usually accompanied by diminished immune protection upon infection or vaccination. Although aging results in well-characterized changes in the T cell compartment of long-lived, outbred, and pathogen-exposed organisms, their relevance for primary Ag responses remain unclear. Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the loss of naive T cells, their partial replacement by oligoclonal memory populations, and the consequent constriction of TCR repertoire limit the Ag responses in aging primates. We show in this study that aging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exhibit poor CD8 T cell and B cell responses in the blood and poor CD8 responses in the lungs upon vaccination with the modified vaccinia strain Ankara. The function of APCs appeared to be maintained in aging monkeys, suggesting that the poor response was likely intrinsic to lymphocytes. We found that the loss of naive CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the appearance of persisting T cell clonal expansions predicted poor CD8 responses in individual monkeys. There was strong correlation between early CD8 responses in the transitory CD28+ CD62L- CD8+ T cell compartment and the peak Ab titers upon boost in individual animals, as well as a correlation of both parameters of immune response to the frequency of naive CD8+ T cells in old but not in adult monkeys. Therefore, our results argue that T cell repertoire constriction and naive cell loss have prognostic value for global immune function in aging primates.

  5. Erk5 Is a Key Regulator of Naive-Primed Transition and Embryonic Stem Cell Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A.C. Williams

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells (ESCs can self-renew or differentiate into any cell type, a phenomenon known as pluripotency. Distinct pluripotent states, termed naive and primed pluripotency, have been described. However, the mechanisms that control naive-primed pluripotent transition are poorly understood. Here, we perform a targeted screen for kinase inhibitors, which modulate the naive-primed pluripotent transition. We find that XMD compounds, which selectively inhibit Erk5 kinase and BET bromodomain family proteins, drive ESCs toward primed pluripotency. Using compound selectivity engineering and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we reveal distinct functions for Erk5 and Brd4 in pluripotency regulation. We show that Erk5 signaling maintains ESCs in the naive state and suppresses progression toward primed pluripotency and neuroectoderm differentiation. Additionally, we identify a specialized role for Erk5 in defining ESC lineage selection, whereby Erk5 inhibits a cardiomyocyte-specific differentiation program. Our data therefore reveal multiple critical functions for Erk5 in controlling ESC identity.

  6. Test of the Universality of Naive-Time-Reversal-Odd Fragmentation Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vogelsang, Werner; Yuan, Feng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the "spontaneous'' hyperon transverse polarization in e(+)e(-) annihilation and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes as a test of the universality of the naive-time-reversal-odd transverse momentum dependent fragmentation functions. We find that universality implies defi

  7. Effects of Noise Suppression on Intelligibility: Experts' Opinions and Naive Normal-Hearing Listeners' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkhuysen, Gaston L. M.; Gaubitch, Nikolay; Huckvale, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated how well experts can adjust the settings of a commercial noise-reduction system to optimize the intelligibility for naive normal-hearing listeners. Method: In Experiment 1, 5 experts adjusted parameters for a noise-reduction system while aiming to optimize intelligibility. The stimuli consisted of…

  8. Using Unsupervised Learning to Improve the Naive Bayes Classifier for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes, G.J.; Havinga, P.J.M.; Smit, G.J.M.; Hurink, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Online processing is essential for many sensor network applications. Sensor nodes can sample far more data than what can practically be transmitted using state of the art sensor network radios. Online processing, however, is complicated due to limited resources of individual nodes. The naive Bayes c

  9. Cysteine Mutational Studies Provide Insight into a Thiol-Based Redox Switch Mechanism of Metal and DNA Binding in FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    OpenAIRE

    Botello-Morte, Laura; Pellicer, Silvia; Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C.; Contreras, Lellys M.; Neira, José Luis; Abián, Olga; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F; Bes, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is the main transcriptional regulator of genes involved in iron homeostasis in most prokaryotes. FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five cysteine residues, four of them arranged in two redox-active CXXC motifs. The protein needs not only metal but also reducing conditions to remain fully active in vitro. Through a mutational study of the cysteine residues present in FurA, we have investigated their involvement in metal and DNA binding. Results: Re...

  10. 三点差别检验感官评定毛皮色泽的差异%Sensory Evaluation of Fur Color Difference by Difference Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈普

    2013-01-01

      研究了应用三点差别检验法感官评定毛皮色泽,说明该方法能评定出毛皮色泽上的差异,对毛皮色泽的感官差别检验,有一定的借鉴作用。%  Sensory evaluation in fur color was researched based on the method of difference test. The result revealed that this method could evaluate the difference of fur color, and be suitable for sensory evaluation in fur color.

  11. Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Alejandra; Fang, Victoria; Chen, Cynthia; Serasinghe, Madhavika; Verma, Akanksha; Muller, James; Chaluvadi, V Sai; Dustin, Michael L; Hla, Timothy; Elemento, Olivier; Chipuk, Jerry E; Schwab, Susan R

    2017-06-01

    Effective adaptive immune responses require a large repertoire of naive T cells that migrate throughout the body, rapidly identifying almost any foreign peptide. Because the production of T cells declines with age, naive T cells must be long-lived. However, it remains unclear how naive T cells survive for years while constantly travelling. The chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) guides T cell circulation among secondary lymphoid organs, including spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, where T cells search for antigens. The concentration of S1P is higher in circulatory fluids than in lymphoid organs, and the S1P1 receptor (S1P1R) directs the exit of T cells from the spleen into blood, and from lymph nodes and Peyer's patches into lymph. Here we show that S1P is essential not only for the circulation of naive T cells, but also for their survival. Using transgenic mouse models, we demonstrate that lymphatic endothelial cells support the survival of T cells by secreting S1P via the transporter SPNS2, that this S1P signals through S1P1R on T cells, and that the requirement for S1P1R is independent of the established role of the receptor in guiding exit from lymph nodes. S1P signalling maintains the mitochondrial content of naive T cells, providing cells with the energy to continue their constant migration. The S1P signalling pathway is being targeted therapeutically to inhibit autoreactive T cell trafficking, and these findings suggest that it may be possible simultaneously to target autoreactive or malignant cell survival.

  12. A cohort study of workers compensated for mercury intoxication following employment in the fur hat industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, E; Boffetta, P; Masala, G; Monechi, V; Bani, F

    1994-11-01

    This article presents the preliminary results of a follow-up study (1950-1992) of 1,146 subjects (person-years = 30,954; 23,055 for women) receiving compensation for mercury poisoning. In a province of Tuscany in central Italy, severe exposure to mercury occurred during fur hat production. A deficit in all causes of mortality was observed in both sexes, whereas mortality due to cancer was slightly higher than expected. Mortality from stomach cancer was significantly elevated for men and women. A significant excess of lung cancer was observed in women only. Whereas the excess of stomach cancer probably reflects elevated rates in the study area rather than exposure to mercury, the excess of lung cancer mortality does appear to be related to mercury exposure. Smoking habits or other exposures at work do not seem to explain the excess of lung cancer.

  13. The book Venus in Furs and its influence on other art forms: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Claúdia Raquel Castro

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Mediação Cultural e Literária Venus in Furs é uma obra literária escrita em 1870 pelo autor austríaco Leopold von Sacher-Masoch. Maioritariamente desconhecida do grande público, esta novela não deixa, ainda assim, de ter influenciado um número significativo de manifestações artísticas das mais diversas áreas. Esta dissertação é uma reflexão sobre o influxo exercido por essa obra literária em versões musicais e cinematográficas. Após a elaboração...

  14. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes, tobacco smoke and furred pets and wheeze in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Allermann, L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    Persistent wheeze in childhood is associated with airway inflammation. The present study investigated relationships between polymorphisms in inflammatory genes, exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets and risk of recurrent wheeze in children. Within a birth cohort of 101,042 children we...... on number of episodes with wheeze (18 months), exposure to tobacco smoke and pet-keeping. Recurrent wheeze was defined as at least four episodes of wheeze before the child was 18 months old. There was a statistically significant association between the IL-13 Arg144Gln polymorphism and risk of recurrent...... wheeze (p = 0.01). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant interaction between this polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, though this was probably a chance finding. There were no other statistically significant effects of the polymorphisms or interactions with exposure...

  15. Reproductive Tract Histology in South American Fur Seal Pups (Arctophoca australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Helena; Johansson, Olle

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, a detailed histological description of the female reproductive tract of South American fur seal (Arctophoca australis) pups has been conducted. The uterine tube was covered by cuboidal to columnar epithelium; nerve fibers were present in the mesosalpinx and beneath the muscular layer. The uterus was bipartitus; the endometrial surface of the horns was lined by a simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium with deep tubular glands; caudally ("the transition area"), the epithelium changed to pseudostratified columnar, few tubular glands were present and the myometrium increased in width. A bistratified epithelium internally coated the uterine body, whereas it changed to cylindrical stratified epithelium with a highly vascularized lamina propria and a strong muscular layer in the cervix; no endometrial glands were observed in this region. From the transition area of the uterus to the vagina there were several nerve fibers and ganglia belonging to the uterovaginalis plexus. In the vestibule, hymenal folds were poorly developed; adnexa structures included the major vestibular glands and a neurovascular structure similar to the vestibular bulb. Minor vestibular glands were associated with the clitoris. The skin of the perineum was lined by a keratinized stratified epithelium, pigmented, with sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles. This is the first detailed histological description of the reproductive tract of South American fur seal pups, including the glandular adnexa and nerve structures. These results contribute to the reproductive biology in Pinniped species, and give a better understanding of the utero-placental perfusion mechanism during diving. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 300:600-613, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Determinants of individual foraging specialization in large marine vertebrates, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Arnould, John P Y; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2015-07-01

    The degree of individual specialization in resource use differs widely among wild populations where individuals range from fully generalized to highly specialized. This interindividual variation has profound implications in many ecological and evolutionary processes. A recent review proposed four main ecological causes of individual specialization: interspecific and intraspecific competition, ecological opportunity and predation. Using the isotopic signature of subsampled whiskers, we investigated to what degree three of these factors (interspecific and intraspecific competition and ecological opportunity) affect the population niche width and the level of individual foraging specialization in two fur seal species, the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and Arctocephalus tropicalis), over several years. Population niche width was greater when the two seal species bred in allopatry (low interspecific competition) than in sympatry or when seals bred in high-density stabilized colonies (high intraspecific competition). In agreement with the niche variation hypothesis (NVH), higher population niche width was associated with higher interindividual niche variation. However, in contrast to the NVH, all Antarctic females increased their niche width during the interbreeding period when they had potential access to a wider diversity of foraging grounds and associated prey (high ecological opportunities), suggesting they all dispersed to a similar productive area. The degree of individual specialization varied among populations and within the annual cycle. Highest levels of interindividual variation were found in a context of lower interspecific or higher intraspecific competition. Contrasted results were found concerning the effect of ecological opportunity. Depending on seal species, females exhibited either a greater or lower degree of individual specialization during the interbreeding period, reflecting species-specific biological constraints

  17. Biological and environmental drivers of energy allocation in a dependent mammal, the Antarctic fur seal pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Birgitte I; Goebel, Michael E; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how variation in the pattern and magnitude of parental effort influences allocation decisions in offspring. We determined the energy budget of Antarctic fur seal pups and examined the relative importance of timing of provisioning, pup traits (mass, condition, sex), and weather (wind chill and solar radiation) on allocation of energy obtained in milk by measuring milk energy intake, field metabolic rate (FMR), and growth rate in 48 Antarctic fur seal pups over three developmental stages (perinatal, premolt, and molt). The relative amount of milk energy used for growth was 59.1% ± 8.1% during the perinatal period but decreased to 23.4% ± 15.5% and 26.0% ± 13.9% during the premolt and molt. This decrease was associated with a greater amount of time spent fasting, along with an increase in pup activity while the mother was at sea foraging. Average daily milk intake, pup mass, and condition were all important in determining how much energy was available for growth, but the amount of energy obtained as milk was the single most important factor determining pup growth. While mean mass-specific FMR did not change with developmental stage (range = 1.74-1.77 mL O(2)/g/h), the factors that accounted for variation in FMR did. Weather (wind chill and solar radiation) and pup traits (mass and condition) influenced mass-specific FMR, but these impacts varied across development. This study provides information about the factors influencing how offspring allocate energy toward growth and maintenance and improves our predictions about how a changing environment may affect energy allocation in pups.

  18. Determining through numerical modeling the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system with low emissivity material and furred-airspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabed, Hamed H.; Swinton, M. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Reserch in Construction, Ottawa, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper determined the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system with low emissivity material and furred airspace through numerical modelling. The model hygIRC-C , a 2D and 3D hygrothermal model, was used to conduct numerical simulations to determine the effective thermal resistance of a foundation wall system having a furred airspace assembly and incorporating low emissivity foil materials. This model accounts for surface-to-surface radiation between the surfaces of the furring, gypsum board and foil. A parametric was conducted to determine the effective thermal resistance of the foundation wall system as a function of foil emissivity. The results showed that, with the furring installed horizontally, a low foil emissivity of 0.05 can increase the wall R-value by as much as approximately 10%. A benchmarking of the present model against experimental data is currently being performed.

  19. Preliminary report on the aboriginal take of 41 female fur seals from the Sitka area, Alaska, 24 March-1 April, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the preliminary results of a study on the feeding habits and conditions of the reproductive tracts of fur seals. Collection methods are...

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Semi-aquatic, Fur-bearing Mammal Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_s_mammal_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for small semi-aquatic, fur-bearing mammals in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent areas of...

  1. Limited immune reconstitution at intermediate stages of HIV-1 infection during one year of highly active antiretroviral therapy in antiretroviral-naive versus non-naive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, M; Echevarría, S; Leyva-Cobián, F; Pereda, I; López-Hoyos, M

    2001-12-01

    Although several reports have attributed the clinical benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to a possible immune restoration, long-term data are still scarce and most derive from patients with either advanced or very early stages of HIV infection. In the present study, changes in lymphocyte subsets, activation markers, and adhesion molecules in CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were carefully monitored over a 1-year period in 27 HIV-infected adults at an intermediate stage of HIV infection. Cytokine-producing patterns were also studied. In these patients the HIV viral load disappeared by month 4 of HAART. Only limited immunological changes were observed: an incomplete recovery of naive CD4+ T cells, a less activated state of CD8+ T cells, and a repopulation of IL-2- and IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ T cells. These changes were observed principally in patients with more advanced disease. Furthermore, HIV-infected subjects who had received HAART previously showed less marked immunological changes than antiretroviral-naive individuals. In conclusion, the sustained viral suppression during 1 year of HAART was accompanied by limited immunological recovery at intermediate stages of HIV infection. This finding indicates a need for longer HIV suppression in order to achieve effective recovery of the immune system.

  2. Cysteine Mutational Studies Provide Insight into a Thiol-Based Redox Switch Mechanism of Metal and DNA Binding in FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Morte, Laura; Pellicer, Silvia; Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C.; Contreras, Lellys M.; Neira, José Luis; Abián, Olga; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Peleato, María Luisa; Fillat, María F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is the main transcriptional regulator of genes involved in iron homeostasis in most prokaryotes. FurA from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 contains five cysteine residues, four of them arranged in two redox-active CXXC motifs. The protein needs not only metal but also reducing conditions to remain fully active in vitro. Through a mutational study of the cysteine residues present in FurA, we have investigated their involvement in metal and DNA binding. Results: Residue C101 that belongs to a conserved CXXC motif plays an essential role in both metal and DNA binding activities in vitro. Substitution of C101 by serine impairs DNA and metal binding abilities of FurA. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that the redox state of C101 is responsible for the protein ability to coordinate the metal corepressor. Moreover, the redox state of C101 varies with the presence or absence of C104 or C133, suggesting that the environments of these cysteines are mutually interdependent. Innovation: We propose that C101 is part of a thiol/disulfide redox switch that determines FurA ability to bind the metal corepressor. Conclusion: This mechanism supports a novel feature of a Fur protein that emerges as a regulator, which connects the response to changes in the intracellular redox state and iron management in cyanobacteria. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 173–185. PMID:26414804

  3. 中国毛皮产业发展历程与现状分析%Analysis of Development History and Current Situation of Fur Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑策; 张旭; 全颖; 凌立莹; 刘彦

    2013-01-01

    Chinese fur industry has a long history ,especially after the founding of New China .The Chinese fur industry has been developing rapidly ,China now has become the world's leading fur raw materials and fur products processing Country ,depending on the stage characteris-tics ,the fur industry can be divided into three times ,the paper elaborated on the development characteristics of different periods ,the policy envi-ronment and other issues ,and analyzes the current situation and problems of China's fur industry are facing .%中国毛皮产业历史悠久,尤其新中国成立以后,产业发展迅速,目前已成为世界上最主要的毛皮原料产地和毛皮产品加工地,根据发展速度、规模、方式的不同,将毛皮产业发展大体分为3个时期,详细阐述了不同时期的发展特点、政策环境等问题,并分析了中国毛皮产业的现状及存在的问题。

  4. The naive CD4+ count in HIV-1-infected patients at time of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with the level of immunological recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, OG; Kirk, O; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2002-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy can induce considerable, sustained viral suppression followed by immunological recovery, in which naive CD4 + cells are important. Long-term immunological recovery was investigated during the first 3 y of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 210 HIV-1...... was sustained. There was no association between plasma viral load and the increase in naive CD4 + cell count. Importantly, baseline naive CD4 + cell count was significantly associated with the change in naive CD4 + cell count, suggesting that the naive cell count at baseline does influence the immunological...

  5. Effects of a calm companion on fear reactions in naive test horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Malmkvist, Jens; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2008-01-01

    Reasons for performing study: In fear-eliciting situations, horses tend to show flight reactions that can be dangerous for both horse and man. Finding appropriate methods for reducing fearfulness in horses has important practical implications. Objectives: To investigate whether the presence...... of a calm companion horse influences fear reactions in naive subject horses. Hypotheses: The presence of a habituated (calm) companion horse in a fear-eliciting situation can reduce fear reactions in naive subject horses, compared to subject horses with a nonhabituated companion (control). Methods......: Minimally handled (n = 36), 2-year-old stallions were used, 18 as subjects and 18 as companions. Companion horses (n = 9) were habituated to an otherwise frightening, standardised test stimulus (calm companions), whereas the rest (n = 9) of the companion horses remained nonhabituated (control companions...

  6. Modeling Spammer Behavior: Na\\"ive Bayes vs. Artificial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Saiful; Farhan, Khalid; Rahman, Md Abdur; Rahman, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Addressing the problem of spam emails in the Internet, this paper presents a comparative study on Na\\"ive Bayes and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based modeling of spammer behavior. Keyword-based spam email filtering techniques fall short to model spammer behavior as the spammer constantly changes tactics to circumvent these filters. The evasive tactics that the spammer uses are themselves patterns that can be modeled to combat spam. It has been observed that both Na\\"ive Bayes and ANN are best suitable for modeling spammer common patterns. Experimental results demonstrate that both of them achieve a promising detection rate of around 92%, which is considerably an improvement of performance compared to the keyword-based contemporary filtering approaches.

  7. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interaction Sites Based on Naive Bayes Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein functions through interactions with other proteins and biomolecules and these interactions occur on the so-called interface residues of the protein sequences. Identifying interface residues makes us better understand the biological mechanism of protein interaction. Meanwhile, information about the interface residues contributes to the understanding of metabolic, signal transduction networks and indicates directions in drug designing. In recent years, researchers have focused on developing new computational methods for predicting protein interface residues. Here we creatively used a 181-dimension protein sequence feature vector as input to the Naive Bayes Classifier- (NBC- based method to predict interaction sites in protein-protein complexes interaction. The prediction of interaction sites in protein interactions is regarded as an amino acid residue binary classification problem by applying NBC with protein sequence features. Independent test results suggested that Naive Bayes Classifier-based method with the protein sequence features as input vectors performed well.

  8. Na\\"ive Physics and Quantum Mechanics: The Cognitive Bias of Everett's Many-Worlds Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Andrew Sid

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the role that intuitive theories of physics play in the interpretation of quantum mechanics. We compare and contrast na\\"ive physics with quantum mechanics and argue that quantum mechanics is not just hard to understand but that it is difficult to believe, often appearing magical in nature. Quantum mechanics is often discussed in the context of "quantum weirdness" and quantum entanglement is known as "spooky action at a distance." This spookiness is more than just because quantum mechanics doesn't match everyday experience; it ruffles the feathers of our na\\"ive physics cognitive module. In Everett's many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, we preserve a form of deterministic thinking that can alleviate some of the perceived weirdness inherent in other interpretations of quantum mechanics, at the cost of having the universe split into parallel worlds at every quantum measurement. By examining the role cognitive modules play in interpreting quantum mechanics, we conclude that the many-worlds...

  9. System Dynamics Modelling of the Processes Involving the Maintenance of the Naive T Cell Repertoire

    CERN Document Server

    Figueredo, Grazziela P; Whitbrook, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The study of immune system aging, i.e. immunosenescence, is a relatively new research topic. It deals with understanding the processes of immunodegradation that indicate signs of functionality loss possibly leading to death. Even though it is not possible to prevent immunosenescence, there is great benefit in comprehending its causes, which may help to reverse some of the damage done and thus improve life expectancy. One of the main factors influencing the process of immunosenescence is the number and phenotypical variety of naive T cells in an individual. This work presents a review of immunosenescence, proposes system dynamics modelling of the processes involving the maintenance of the naive T cell repertoire and presents some preliminary results.

  10. The fur Gene as a New Phylogenetic Marker for Vibrionaceae Species Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) has been used successfully in the identification of Vibrio species, the technique has several limitations. They include the fact that several locus amplifications and sequencing have to be performed, which still sometimes lead to doubtful identifications. Using...... from its use were in agreement with those observed for 16S rRNA analysis and MLSA. Furthermore, we developed a fur PCR sequencing-based method that allowed identification of Vibrio species. The discovery of the phylogenetic power of the fur gene and the development of a PCR method that can be used......Microbial taxonomy is essential in all areas of microbial science. The 16S rRNA gene sequence is one of the main phylogenetic species markers; however, it does not provide discrimination in the family Vibrionaceae, where other molecular techniques allow better interspecies resolution. Although...

  11. Anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões europeus hígidos

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Aparecida Ayres Garcia; Luana Célia Stunitz da Silva; Rogério Ribas Lange; Tilde Rodrigues Froes

    2011-01-01

    Nos últimos anos o furão (Mustela putorius furo) tornou-se um conhecido animal de estimação sendo observada uma população em constante crescimento no Brasil, e por conseqüência cada vez mais presente em clínicas veterinárias. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a anatomia ultrassonográfica dos linfonodos abdominais de furões-europeus hígidos. Foram utilizados 20 animais, dentre os quais nove eram machos e onze fêmeas, com idade média total de três anos. Localizaram-se em 100% dos f...

  12. Interleukin 7-engineered stromal cells: a new approach for hastening naive T cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Del Papa, Beatrice; De Ioanni, Maria; Terenzi, Adelmo; Sportoletti, Paolo; Moretti, Lorenzo; Falzetti, Franca; Gaozza, Eugenia; Zei, Tiziana; Spinozzi, Fabrizio; Bagnis, Claude; Mannoni, Patrice; Bonifacio, Elisabetta; Falini, Brunangelo; Martelli, Massimo F; Tabilio, Antonio

    2005-06-01

    In this study we determined whether human stromal cells could be engineered with a retroviral vector carrying the interleukin 7 (IL-7) gene and investigated the effects on T cells in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. Transduced mesenchymal cells strongly express CD90 (98.15%), CD105 (87.6%), and STRO-1 (86.7%). IL-7 production was 16.37 (+/-2 SD) pg/ml, which remained stable for 60 days. In vitro-immunoselected naive T cells maintained the CD45RA+ CD45RO- naive phenotype (4.2 times more than controls) after 7 days of culture with IL-7-engineered stromal cells. The apoptosis rate (4.7%) of the naive T cells cultured with transduced stromal cells overlapped with that of freshly isolated cells. Immunohistological analysis detected stromal cells in bone marrow, spleen, and thymus. Cotransplantation of IL-7-engineered stromal cells with CD34+ cells improved engraftment in terms of CD45+ cells and significantly increased the CD3+ cell count in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen. These data demonstrate the following: (1) human stromal cells can be transduced, generating a normal layer; (2) transduced stromal cells in vitro maintain the naive T cell phenotype; and (3) IL-7-transduced stromal cells in vivo home to lymphoid organs and produce sufficient IL-7 in loco, supporting T cell development in a cotransplantation model. Because of their efficient cytokine production and homing, IL-7-engineered stromal cells might be an ideal vehicle to hasten immunological reconstitution in T cell-depleted hosts.

  13. Attenuation of morphine tolerance by minocycline and pentoxifylline in naive and neuropathic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Joanna; Wawrzczak-Bargiela, Agnieszka; Osikowicz, Maria; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that glial inhibitors reduce the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia, potentiating the effect of a single morphine dose in a neuropathic pain model. This study explores the effects of two glial activation inhibitors, minocycline and pentoxifylline, on the development of tolerance to morphine in naive and chronic constriction injury (CCI)-exposed mice. Administration of morphine to naive (20 mg/kg; i.p.) and CCI-exposed mice (40 mg/kg; i.p.) twice daily resulted in tolerance to its anti-nociceptive effect after 6 days. Injections of morphine were combined with minocycline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg, i.p.) administered as two preemptive doses before first morphine administration in naive or pre-injury in CCI-exposed mice, and repeated twice daily 30 min before each morphine administration. With treatment, development of morphine tolerance was delayed by 5 days (from 6 to 11 days), as measured by the tail-flick test in naive and by tail-flick, von Frey, and cold plate tests in CCI-exposed mice. Western blot analysis of CD11b/c and GFAP protein demonstrated that minocycline and pentoxifylline, at doses delaying development of tolerance to morphine analgesia, significantly diminished the morphine-induced increase in CD11b/c protein level. We found that repeated systemic administration of glial inhibitors significantly delays development of morphine tolerance by attenuating the level of this microglial marker under normal and neuropathic pain conditions. Our results support the idea that targeting microglial activation during morphine therapy/treatment is a novel and clinically promising method for enhancing morphine's analgesic effects, especially in neuropathic pain.

  14. Naive and primed murine pluripotent stem cells have distinct miRNA expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jouneau, A.; Ciaudo, C.; Sismeiro, O.; Brochard, V.; Jouneau, L.; Vandormael-Pournin, S; Coppee, J.-Y.; Zhou, Q.; Heard, E.; Antoniewski, C.; Cohen-Tannoudji, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last years, the microRNA (miRNA) pathway has emerged as a key component of the regulatory network of pluripotency. Although clearly distinct states of pluripotency have been described in vivo and ex vivo, differences in miRNA expression profiles associated with the developmental modulation of pluripotency have not been extensively studied. Here, the authors performed deep sequencing to profile miRNA expression in naive (embryonic stem cell [ESC]) and primed (epiblast stem cell [EpiSC...

  15. Are Prolactin Levels in Drug-Naive Schizophrenia Patients A Clinical Indicator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Yalcin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The relationship between serum prolactin (PRL levels in patients with schizophrenia and the psychopathology, risk of relapse, symptom severity, the side effects after antipsychotics and schizophrenia subtypes are known. The aim of this study is to examine the serum PRL level difference between drug naive schizophrenia patients and healthy control group and between schizophrenia subtypes. Material and Method: 45 untreated volunteer participant between the ages of 18-55 who applied to Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, in patient and outpatient departments of Psychiatry, diagnosed with schizophrenia with the DSM IV-TR classification were included to study before getting treated. Participants were given sociodemographic information form; Axis-II for definitions Semi-Structured Clinical Interview, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF and biochemical measurements were made. Results: The mean serum PRL levels in drug naive patients with schizophrenia were higher compared to the control group (p = 0.004. When patients with schizophrenia divided in to two groups as “paranoid” and “non-paranoid”, the mean serum prolactin levels among these groups were significantly different (p = 0.000. There was no significant relationship between serum PRL levels and GAF scores (P = 0.116 or PANSS total scores (P = 0.676 in patients with drug naive schizophrenia. Discussion: The difference between mean serum PRL levels in drug naive schizophrenia patients and schizophrenia subtypes are consistent with studies in the literature. As to use PRL levels as a marker in the clinic, further studies are needed.

  16. Are Prolactin Levels in Drug-Naive Schizophrenia Patients A Clinical Indicator?

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The relationship between serum prolactin (PRL) levels in patients with schizophrenia and the psychopathology, risk of relapse, symptom severity, the side effects after antipsychotics and schizophrenia subtypes are known. The aim of this study is to examine the serum PRL level difference between drug naive schizophrenia patients and healthy control group and between schizophrenia subtypes. Material and Method: 45 untreated volunteer participant between the ages of 18-55 who applied to Ank...

  17. Diagnosis of combined faults in Rotary Machinery by Non-Naive Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asr, Mahsa Yazdanian; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad; Hassannejad, Reza; Razavi, Seyed Naser

    2017-02-01

    When combined faults happen in different parts of the rotating machines, their features are profoundly dependent. Experts are completely familiar with individuals faults characteristics and enough data are available from single faults but the problem arises, when the faults combined and the separation of characteristics becomes complex. Therefore, the experts cannot declare exact information about the symptoms of combined fault and its quality. In this paper to overcome this drawback, a novel method is proposed. The core idea of the method is about declaring combined fault without using combined fault features as training data set and just individual fault features are applied in training step. For this purpose, after data acquisition and resampling the obtained vibration signals, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is utilized to decompose multi component signals to Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs). With the use of correlation coefficient, proper IMFs for feature extraction are selected. In feature extraction step, Shannon energy entropy of IMFs was extracted as well as statistical features. It is obvious that most of extracted features are strongly dependent. To consider this matter, Non-Naive Bayesian Classifier (NNBC) is appointed, which release the fundamental assumption of Naive Bayesian, i.e., the independence among features. To demonstrate the superiority of NNBC, other counterpart methods, include Normal Naive Bayesian classifier, Kernel Naive Bayesian classifier and Back Propagation Neural Networks were applied and the classification results are compared. An experimental vibration signals, collected from automobile gearbox, were used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. During the classification process, only the features, related individually to healthy state, bearing failure and gear failures, were assigned for training the classifier. But, combined fault features (combined gear and bearing failures) were examined as test data. The achieved

  18. Characterization of a new epidemic necrotic pyoderma in fur animals and its association with Arcanobacterium phocae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Nordgren

    Full Text Available A new type of pyoderma was detected in Finnish fur animals in 2007. The disease continues to spread within and between farms, with severe and potentially fatal symptoms. It compromises animal welfare and causes considerable economic losses to farmers. A case-control study was performed in 2010-2011 to describe the entity and to identify the causative agent. Altogether 99 fur animals were necropsied followed by pathological and microbiological examination. The data indicated that the disease clinically manifests in mink (Neovison vison by necrotic dermatitis of the feet and facial skin. In finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides, it causes painful abscesses in the paws. Foxes (Vulpes lagopus are affected by severe conjunctivitis and the infection rapidly spreads to the eyelids and facial skin. A common finding at necropsy was necrotic pyoderma. Microbiological analysis revealed the presence of a number of potential causative agents, including a novel Streptococcus sp. The common finding from all diseased animals of all species was Arcanobacterium phocae. This bacterium has previously been isolated from marine mammals with skin lesions but this is the first report of A. phocae isolated in fur animals with pyoderma. The results obtained from this study implicate A. phocae as a potential causative pathogen of fur animal epidemic necrotic pyoderma (FENP and support observations that the epidemic may have originated in a species-shift of the causative agent from marine mammals. The variable disease pattern and the presence of other infectious agents (in particular the novel Streptococcus sp. suggest a multifactorial etiology for FENP, and further studies are needed to determine the environmental, immunological and infectious factors contributing to the disease.

  19. The influence of the social thermoregulation on the cold-adaptive growth of BAT in hairless and furred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmaier, G

    1975-03-26

    When mice were living in groups they developed less brown adipose tissue (BAT) during cold adaptation as compared with single mice. This effect of social aggregation was more pronounced in genetically hairless mice than in furred mice. In both races of mice the most significant difference in BAT growth was found between single mice and pairs of mice, indicating that the formation of pairs causes the relatively most effective improvement of thermal balance.

  20. Effects of a 17q21 chromosome gene variant, tobacco smoke and furred pets on infant wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E V; Loft, S; Raaschou-Nielsen, O

    2012-01-01

    investigated associations between the rs7216389 polymorphism in the 17q21 locus affecting ORMDL3 expression and the risk for recurrent wheeze and interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets during pregnancy and infancy using a birth cohort of 101¿042 infants. Rs7216389 was significantly...... association between pets and wheeze among homozygous wild-type carriers and a negative association among homozygous variant allele carriers. There was no interaction between rs7216389 and tobacco smoke exposure....

  1. Cape Fur Seal Arctocephalus pusillus predation on Cape Cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis and other birds at Dyer Island, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marks, M.M.; Brooke, R.K.; Gildenhuys, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Predation on seabirds by fur seals and sea lions (Otariidae) has been widely reported (Glegg 1945, Hamilton 1946, Spellerberg 1975, Bonner 1981, Bonner & Hunter 1982, Lucas & McLaren 1988, Gjertz 1990, Riedman 1990). The incidents were, however, at low levels of intensity and the predatory behaviour appeared to have been restricted to small subgroups. Penguins (Spheniscidae) and auks (Alcidae) are the families most commonly preyed upon, whereas petrels (Procellariidae), d...

  2. Mathematical model of naive T cell division and survival IL-7 thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eMolina-Paris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop a mathematical model to describe the homeostasis of naive T~cells in the peripheral immune system of ageing humans, incorporating thymic output and the availability of interleukin-7 (IL-7. The model is formulated as three ordinary differential equations: two describe T~cell numbers, in a resting state and progressing through the cell cycle. The third is introduced to describe changes in IL-7 availability. Thymic output is a decreasing function of time, representative of thymic atrophy found in ageing humans. Each T~cell is assumed to possess two interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R signalling thresholds: a survival threshold and a second, higher, proliferation threshold. If the IL-7R signalling strength is below its survival threshold, a cell may undergo apoptosis. When the signalling strength is above the survival threshold, but below the proliferation threshold, the cell survives but does not divide. Signalling strength above the proliferation threshold enables entry into cell cycle. Assuming that individual cell thresholds are log-normally distributed, we derive population-average rates for apoptosis and entry into cell cycle. We have analysed the adiabatic change in homeostasis as thymic output decreases. With a parameter set representative of a healthy individual, the model predicts a unique equilibrium number of T~cells. In a parameter range representative of persistent virus or bacterial infection, where naive T~cell survival is impaired, a decrease in thymic output may result in the collapse of the naive T~cell repertoire.

  3. Ensemble of Chaotic and Naive Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Video Encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyamala; Thiruvengadam, S J

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i) generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES) and (ii) generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security.

  4. Anorexic activity of cocaine and coca extract in naive and cocaine tolerant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vee, G L; Fink, G B; Constantine, G H

    1983-04-01

    Dose response curves for reducing limited access food consumption were determined for cocaine HCl IP, cocaine HCl PO, and whole Erythroxylum coca extract PO. The ED50's for cocaine HCl in drug naive rats were 19.6 mg/kg (IP) and 34.6 mg/kg (PO). When the dose of E. coca extract was expressed in terms of cocaine HCl content, the ED50 was 52.6 mg/kg (PO). When dose response curves were determined in rats that had received cocaine (45 mg/kg, PO) for 30 days, a shift to the right in the cocaine HCl curve (an ED50 of 98.4 mg/kg PO) indicated tolerance. However, the shift to the right was less for E. coca extract than for cocaine HCl. Although the anorexic activity of E. coca extract was less than that of an equivalent amount of cocaine in naive rats it was often more than that of equivalent doses of cocaine HCl in tolerant rats. Interaction with other constituents of E. coca extract appears to alter the potency of the cocaine content of the extract in different directions in naive and tolerant rats.

  5. Efficiently stimulated adult microglia cross-prime naive CD8+ T cells injected in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarry, Ulrich; Jeannin, Pascale; Pineau, Laurent; Donnou, Sabrina; Delneste, Yves; Couez, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    Microglia are the major myeloid-immune cells of the brain parenchyma. In a steady state, microglia monitor their environment for pathogens or damaged cells. In response to neural injury or inflammation, microglia become competent APCs able to prime CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. We previously demonstrated that neonatal and adult microglia cross-present exogenous soluble Ags in vitro. However, whether microglia are able to cross-present Ag to naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo, within the brain microenvironment, remains undetermined. Here, we have designed an original protocol in order to exclude the involvement in cross-presentation activity of peripheral migrating APCs and of CNS-associated APCs. In C57Bl/6 mice, in which the body but not the head has been properly irradiated, we analyzed the ability of resident microglia to stimulate intracerebrally injected CD8(+) T cells in vivo. This study demonstrates for the first time that adult microglia cross-present Ag to naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo and that full microglia activation is required to overcome the inhibitory constrains of the brain and to render microglia able to cross-prime naive CD8(+) T cells injected in the brain. These observations offer new insights in brain-tumor immunotherapy based on the induction of cytotoxic antitumoral T cells. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Naive (commonsense) geography and geobrowser usability after ten years of Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, J. D.

    2016-04-01

    In 1995, the concept of ‘naive geography’ was formally introduced as an area of cognitive geographic information science representing ‘the body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world’ and reflecting ‘the way people think and reason about geographic space and time, both consciously and subconsciously’. The need to incorporate such commonsense knowledge and reasoning into design of geospatial technologies was identified but faced challenges in formalizing these relationships and processes in software implementation. Ten years later, the Google Earth geobrowser was released, marking the beginning of a new era of open access to, and application of, geographic data and information in society. Fast-forward to today, and the opportunity presents itself to take stock of twenty years of naive geography and a decade of the ubiquitous virtual globe. This paper introduces an ongoing research effort to explore the integration of naive (or commonsense) geography concepts in the Google Earth geobrowser virtual globe and their possible impact on Google Earth's usability, utility, and usefulness. A multi-phase methodology is described, combining usability reviews and usability testing with use-case scenarios involving the U.S.-Canadian Yellowstone to Yukon Initiative. Initial progress on a usability review combining cognitive walkthroughs and heuristics evaluation is presented.

  7. The BMP Pathway Participates in Human Naive CD4+ T Cell Activation and Homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor G Martínez

    Full Text Available Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs form a group of secreted factors that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily. Among different roles in a number of immune cell types, BMPs are known to regulate T cell development within the thymus, although the role of BMP signaling in human mature T cells remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that canonical BMP signaling is necessary during two critical events that regulate the size and function of human naive CD4+ T cell population: activation and homeostasis. Upon stimulation via TCR, naive CD4+ T cells upregulate the expression of BMP ligands triggering canonical BMP signaling in CD25+ cells. Blockade of BMP signaling severely impairs CD4+ T cell proliferation after activation mainly through regulation of IL-2, since the addition of this cytokine recuperates normal T cell expansion after inhibition of BMP signaling. Similarly, activation of canonical BMP pathway is required for both the maintenance of cell survival and the homeostatic proliferation induced by IL-7, a key factor for T cell homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of two critical receptors for T cell homeostasis, CXCR4 and CCR9, triggered by IL-7 is also abrogated in the absence of BMP signaling. Collectively, we describe important roles of the canonical BMP signaling in human naive CD4+ T cell activation and homeostasis that could be valuable for clinical application.

  8. Right lateralized white matter abnormalities in first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Zhening; Gao, Keming; Xiao, Changqing; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2012-11-30

    Numerous studies in first-episode schizophrenia suggest the involvement of white matter (WM) abnormalities in multiple regions underlying the pathogenesis of this condition. However, there has never been a neuroimaging study in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia by using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) method. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with TBSS method to investigate the brain WM integrity in patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia. Twenty patients with first-episode, drug-naive paranoid schizophrenia and 26 healthy subjects matched with age, gender, and education level were scanned with DTI. An automated TBSS approach was employed to analyze the data. Voxel-wise statistics revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia had decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II, the right fornix, the right internal capsule, and the right external capsule compared to healthy subjects. Patients did not have increased FA values in any brain regions compared to healthy subjects. There was no correlation between the FA values in any brain regions and patient demographics and the severity of illness. Our findings suggest right-sided alterations of WM integrity in the WM tracts of cortical and subcortical regions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of paranoid schizophrenia.

  9. Ensemble of Chaotic and Naive Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Video Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamala Chandrasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES and (ii generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security.

  10. Arrangement of Players Position in Soccer using the Technique of Naive Bayes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Made Trisetya Putra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern soccer era, soccer is already considered as an entertainment, even modern soccer already become as an industry or a business that considered can bring a great profit to the club owner. One of the most important factor in building a team is young age soccer player development. Right young age soccer player development method, can be very helpful in establish a good team. A professional team must have a coach, for the first team or junior team. The duties of a coach is determine a right position for soccer player in the game, this duties sometimes make a coach is hard to making a right decision. This research will discuss about how to design a decision support system for determine soccer player using naive bayes technique. Data mining used naive bayes technique for find a prediction for soccer player based on the player skill test result. From this research result, it can be seen that by using decision support system using data mining with naive bayes technique can be help coach performance in determine position for soccer player especially for young age soccer player development so that can help coach in the making right decision effectively and efficiently.

  11. Epigenomic comparison reveals activation of "seed" enhancers during transition from naive to primed pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Daniel C; Corradin, Olivia; Zentner, Gabriel E; Saiakhova, Alina; Song, Lingyun; Chenoweth, Josh G; McKay, Ronald D; Crawford, Gregory E; Scacheri, Peter C; Tesar, Paul J

    2014-06-05

    Naive mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and primed epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) represent successive snapshots of pluripotency during embryogenesis. Using transcriptomic and epigenomic mapping we show that a small fraction of transcripts are differentially expressed between mESCs and mEpiSCs and that these genes show expected changes in chromatin at their promoters and enhancers. Unexpectedly, the cis-regulatory circuitry of genes that are expressed at identical levels between these cell states also differs dramatically. In mESCs, these genes are associated with dominant proximal enhancers and dormant distal enhancers, which we term seed enhancers. In mEpiSCs, the naive-dominant enhancers are lost, and the seed enhancers take up primary transcriptional control. Seed enhancers have increased sequence conservation and show preferential usage in downstream somatic tissues, often expanding into super enhancers. We propose that seed enhancers ensure proper enhancer utilization and transcriptional fidelity as mammalian cells transition from naive pluripotency to a somatic regulatory program.

  12. The Iron-Dependent Regulator Fur Controls Pheromone Signaling Systems and Luminescence in the Squid Symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septer, Alecia N.; Lyell, Noreen L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria often use pheromones to coordinate group behaviors in specific environments. While high cell density is required for pheromones to achieve stimulatory levels, environmental cues can also influence pheromone accumulation and signaling. For the squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri ES114, bioluminescence requires pheromone-mediated regulation, and this signaling is induced in the host to a greater extent than in culture, even at an equivalent cell density. Our goal is to better understand this environment-specific control over pheromone signaling and bioluminescence. Previous work with V. fischeri MJ1 showed that iron limitation induces luminescence, and we recently found that ES114 encounters a low-iron environment in its host. Here we show that ES114 induces luminescence at lower cell density and achieves brighter luminescence in low-iron media. This iron-dependent effect on luminescence required ferric uptake regulator (Fur), which we propose influences two pheromone signaling master regulators, LitR and LuxR. Genetic and bioinformatic analyses suggested that under low-iron conditions, Fur-mediated repression of litR is relieved, enabling more LitR to perform its established role as an activator of luxR. Interestingly, Fur may similarly control the LitR homolog SmcR of Vibrio vulnificus. These results reveal an intriguing regulatory link between low-iron conditions, which are often encountered in host tissues, and pheromone-dependent master regulators. PMID:23315731

  13. Variation in the mitochondrial control region in the Juan Fernández fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsworthy, S; Francis, J; Boness, D; Fleischer, R

    2000-01-01

    The Juan Fernandez fur seal (Arctocephalus philippii was allegedly extremely abundant, numbering as many as 4 million prior to sealing which continued from the late 17th to the late 19th century. By the end of the sealing era the species was thought to be extinct until they were rediscovered at Alejandro Selkirk Island in 1965. Historic records would suggest that the species underwent a substantial population bottleneck as a result of commercial sealing, and from population genetic theory we predicted that the genetic variability in the species would be low. We compared the mtDNA control region sequence from 28 Juan Fernandez fur seals from two islands in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago (Chile). Contrary to expectation, we found that variation in the Juan Fernandez fur seals is not greatly reduced in comparison to other pinniped taxa, especially given the apparent severity of the bottleneck they underwent. We also determined minor, but significantly different haplotype frequencies among the populations on the two islands (Alejandro Selkirk and Robinson Crusoe Islands), but no difference in their levels of variability. Such differences may have arisen stochastically via a recent founder event from Alejandro Selkirk to Robinson Crusoe Island or subsequent genetic drift.

  14. Evaluation of the concentration of allergens from mites in fur and households dust of dogs with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dévaki L. de Assunção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the concentration of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in the fur and households of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD and 20 healthy dogs. The diagnosis of AD was clinical based on Favrot’s criteria. Dust samples were collected with a domestic vacuum cleaner. For each site, 1m2 was vacuumed for 2 min. The samples were collected in separate filters, transferred into plastic containers, sealed and kept frozen until ELISA analysis. In the fur of atopic dogs the average concentration of Der p 1 was 0.25μg/g compared to 0.03μg/g in healthy dogs. In households with atopic dogs the highest concentrations of Der p 1 were found in carpets (2.18μg/g, followed by couches (1.53μg/g, beds (1.14μg/g, dogs’ bed linen (0.64μg/g and floors (0.14μg/g. The concentrations of Der p 1 on carpets, couches and beds were significantly higher than in atopic dogs’ fur (p0.05. The concentrations of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 were equivalent in atopic and non-atopic dog’s households. Among the allergens studied, Der p 1 was the most commonly found, predominantly in carpets and couches.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of chitosan/DNA nanoparticles on the differentiation of human naive CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanxia; Bai, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Dunwan; Song, Liping; Wang, Hai; Dong, Xia; Zhang, Hailing; Leng, Xigang

    2011-06-01

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most widely studied polymers in non-viral gene delivery since it is a cationic polysaccharide that forms nanoparticles with DNA and hence protects the DNA against digestion by DNase. However, the impact of CS/DNA nanoparticle on the immune system still remains poorly understood. Previous investigations did not found CS/DNA nanoparticles had any significant impact on the function of human and murine macrophages. To date, little is known about the interaction between CS/DNA nanoparticles and naive CD4+ T cells. This study was designed to investigate whether CS/DNA nanoparticles affect the initial differentiation direction of human naive CD4+ T cells. The indirect impact of CS/DNA nanoparticles on naive CD4+ T cell differentiation was investigated by incubating the nanoparticles with human macrophage THP-1 cells in one chamber of a transwell co-incubation system, with the enriched human naive CD4+ T cells being placed in the other chamber of the transwell. The nanoparticles were also co-incubated with the naive CD4+ T cells to explore their direct impact on naive CD4+ T cell differentiation by measuring the release of IL-4 and IFN-γ from the cells. It was demonstrated that CS/DNA nanoparticles induced slightly elevated production of IL-12 by THP-1 cells, possibly owing to the presence of CpG motifs in the plasmid. However, this macrophage stimulating activity was much less significant as compared with lipopolysaccharide and did not impact on the differentiation of the naive CD4+ T cells. It was also demonstrated that, when directly exposed to the naive CD4+ T cells, the nanoparticles induced neither the activation of the naive CD4+ T cells in the absence of recombinant cytokines (recombinant human IL-4 or IFN-γ) that induce naive CD4+ T cell polarization, nor any changes in the differentiation direction of naive CD4+ T cells in the presence of the corresponding cytokines.

  16. Evaluation of the impact of chitosan/DNA nanoparticles on the differentiation of human naive CD4{sup +} T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lanxia; Bai Yuanyuan; Zhu Dunwan; Song Liping; Wang Hai; Dong Xia; Zhang Hailing; Leng Xigang, E-mail: lengxg@bme.org.cn [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Lab of Bioengineering, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2011-06-15

    Chitosan (CS) is one of the most widely studied polymers in non-viral gene delivery since it is a cationic polysaccharide that forms nanoparticles with DNA and hence protects the DNA against digestion by DNase. However, the impact of CS/DNA nanoparticle on the immune system still remains poorly understood. Previous investigations did not found CS/DNA nanoparticles had any significant impact on the function of human and murine macrophages. To date, little is known about the interaction between CS/DNA nanoparticles and naive CD4{sup +} T cells. This study was designed to investigate whether CS/DNA nanoparticles affect the initial differentiation direction of human naive CD4{sup +} T cells. The indirect impact of CS/DNA nanoparticles on naive CD4{sup +} T cell differentiation was investigated by incubating the nanoparticles with human macrophage THP-1 cells in one chamber of a transwell co-incubation system, with the enriched human naive CD4{sup +} T cells being placed in the other chamber of the transwell. The nanoparticles were also co-incubated with the naive CD4{sup +} T cells to explore their direct impact on naive CD4{sup +} T cell differentiation by measuring the release of IL-4 and IFN-{gamma} from the cells. It was demonstrated that CS/DNA nanoparticles induced slightly elevated production of IL-12 by THP-1 cells, possibly owing to the presence of CpG motifs in the plasmid. However, this macrophage stimulating activity was much less significant as compared with lipopolysaccharide and did not impact on the differentiation of the naive CD4{sup +} T cells. It was also demonstrated that, when directly exposed to the naive CD4{sup +} T cells, the nanoparticles induced neither the activation of the naive CD4{sup +} T cells in the absence of recombinant cytokines (recombinant human IL-4 or IFN-{gamma}) that induce naive CD4{sup +} T cell polarization, nor any changes in the differentiation direction of naive CD4{sup +} T cells in the presence of the corresponding

  17. IL-7-Induced Proliferation of Human Naive CD4 T-Cells Relies on Continued Thymic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana L.; Albuquerque, Adriana S.; Matoso, Paula; Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Bénédicte; Cheynier, Rémi; Ligeiro, Dário; Abecasis, Miguel; Anjos, Rui; Barata, João T.; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Sousa, Ana E.

    2017-01-01

    Naive CD4 T-cell maintenance is critical for immune competence. We investigated here the fine-tuning of homeostatic mechanisms of the naive compartment to counteract the loss of de novo CD4 T-cell generation. Adults thymectomized in early childhood during corrective cardiac surgery were grouped based on presence or absence of thymopoiesis and compared with age-matched controls. We found that the preservation of the CD31− subset was independent of the thymus and that its size is tightly controlled by peripheral mechanisms, including prolonged cell survival as attested by Bcl-2 levels. Conversely, a significant contraction of the CD31+ naive subset was observed in the absence of thymic activity. This was associated with impaired responses of purified naive CD4 T-cells to IL-7, namely, in vitro proliferation and upregulation of CD31 expression, which likely potentiated the decline in recent thymic emigrants. Additionally, we found no apparent constraint in the differentiation of naive cells into the memory compartment in individuals completely lacking thymic activity despite upregulation of DUSP6, a phosphatase associated with increased TCR threshold. Of note, thymectomized individuals featuring some degree of thymopoiesis were able to preserve the size and diversity of the naive CD4 compartment, further arguing against complete thymectomy in infancy. Overall, our data suggest that robust peripheral mechanisms ensure the homeostasis of CD31− naive CD4 pool and point to the requirement of continuous thymic activity to the maintenance of IL-7-driven homeostatic proliferation of CD31+ naive CD4 T-cells, which is essential to secure T-cell diversity throughout life. PMID:28154568

  18. Superb winter fur insulation in the small Siberian musk deer (Moschus moschiferus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldus Schytte Blix

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the morphology and thermal characteristics of winter pelage from two Siberian musk deer Moschus moschiferus (aged 5 and 41 mo.; 5.7 and 9.5 kg and two Eurasian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus (aged >48 mo.; 73 and 79 kg.  The depth of the fur over the back of musk deer was less (approximately 30 mm than in reindeer (approximately 40 mm.  Guard hairs of musk deer were longer (mean = 50.0 mm and had greater diameter at half-length (mean = 314.4 μm than those of reindeer (mean = 38.6mm and = 243.9 μm, respectively.  The thermal characteristics (thermal conductivity and resistance of the winter pelage of the two species were nevertheless similar (0.057 W·m-1·K-1 and 0.79 K·m2·W-1; and 0.037 W·m-1 ·K-1 and 1.00 K·m2·W-1, respectively despite a tenfold difference in their body mass.

  19. Fur and iron transport proteins in the Brazilian purpuric fever clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, L M; Bell, E C; Crosa, J H; Actis, L A

    1999-07-01

    The Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius causes a fatal septicaemic disease, resembling fulminant meningococcal sepsis, in children. When isolate F3031 was grown under iron-limiting conditions, the presence of several iron-regulated proteins of 38-110 kDa was revealed by electrophoretic analysis and a Fur homologue was shown by immunoblotting. Dot-blot assays and immunoblotting indicated that BPF cells bound human transferrin and contained transferrin-binding proteins in the outer membrane. However, the binding activity and the biosynthesis of these proteins were detected even under iron-rich conditions. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated the presence of a periplasmic protein related to the ferric iron-binding protein A (FbpA), the major iron-binding protein described in Neisseria spp. However, the FbpA homologue in strain F3031 was constitutively expressed and was smaller than the periplasmic protein detected in H. influenzae type b strain Eagan. The periplasm of strain F3031 also contained a protein related to the Streptococcus parasanguis FimA protein which recently has been shown to be involved in iron acquisition in Yersinia pestis. Although the Eagan and F3031 FimA homologues had a similar mol. wt, of 31 kDa, the expression of the BPF fimA-like gene was not regulated by the iron concentration of the culture medium.

  20. Effects of the presence of official-looking volunteers on harassment of New Zealand fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Acevedo, Lisa; Boren, Laura

    2011-06-01

    An increased number of tourists viewing animals in the wild have increased stress on these animals (hereafter wildlife). Many wildlife-viewing locations rely on voluntary compliance with posted regulations to protect animals from tourists because of the expense of employing on-site enforcement personnel. Voluntary compliance, however, is ineffective. The presence of official-looking volunteers may decrease the incidence of wildlife harassment by tourists. To test this possibility, we observed tourists interacting with 5- to 12-month-old New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) at the popular Ohau Stream waterfall while in the absence or presence of a young woman in plain sight wearing a neon vest (i.e., observer) and when an observer was not present. We observed 254 tourist groups at the waterfall when young seals were present. The percentage of groups in which at least one person harassed (approached, touched, or threw objects) a young seal was two-thirds lower when the official-looking observer was present. Frequency of harassment was inversely related to observer presence. Programs in which volunteers work at tourist sites are popular in countries with high tourism rates, such as New Zealand. Our results show that a relatively inexpensive and effective tourism-management strategy may be to post such volunteers as observers at sites where tourists view wildlife.

  1. Resting metabolic rate and heat increment of feeding in juvenile South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassis, M; Rodríguez, D H; Ieno, E N; Denuncio, P E; Loureiro, J; Davis, R W

    2014-02-01

    Bio-energetic models used to characterize an animal's energy budget require the accurate estimate of different variables such as the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the heat increment of feeding (HIF). In this study, we estimated the in air RMR of wild juvenile South American fur seals (SAFS; Arctocephalus australis) temporarily held in captivity by measuring oxygen consumption while at rest in a postabsorptive condition. HIF, which is an increase in metabolic rate associated with digestion, assimilation and nutrient interconversion, was estimated as the difference in resting metabolic rate between the postabsorptive condition and the first 3.5h postprandial. As data were hierarchically structured, linear mixed effect models were used to compare RMR measures under both physiological conditions. Results indicated a significant increase (61%) for the postprandial RMR compared to the postabsorptive condition, estimated at 17.93±1.84 and 11.15±1.91mL O2 min(-1)kg(-1), respectively. These values constitute the first estimation of RMR and HIF in this species, and should be considered in the energy budgets for juvenile SAFS foraging at-sea.

  2. Gene discovery in the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) skin transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph I

    2011-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides a powerful new approach for developing functional genomic tools for nonmodel species, helping to narrow the gap between studies of model organisms and those of natural populations. Consequently, massively parallel 454 sequencing was used to characterize a normalized cDNA library derived from skin biopsy samples of twelve Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) individuals. Over 412 Mb of sequence data were generated, comprising 1.4 million reads of average length 286 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler 2.3 yielded 156 contigs plus 22 869 isotigs, which in turn clustered into 18,576 isogroups. Almost half of the assembled transcript sequences showed significant similarity to the nr database, revealing a functionally diverse array of genes. Moreover, 97.9% of these mapped to the dog (Canis lupis familiaris) genome, with a strong positive relationship between the number of sequences locating to a given chromosome and the length of that chromosome in the dog indicating a broad genomic distribution. Average depth of coverage was also almost 20-fold, sufficient to detect several thousand putative microsatellite loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms. This study constitutes an important step towards developing genomic resources with which to address consequential questions in pinniped ecology and evolution. It also supports an earlier but smaller study showing that skin tissue can be a rich source of expressed genes, with important implications for studying the genomics not only of marine mammals, but also more generally of species that cannot be destructively sampled.

  3. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L; Arnould, J P Y; Guinet, C; Cazelles, B; Richard, P; Cherel, Y

    2016-09-13

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  4. Mass mortality of adult male subantarctic fur seals: are alien mice the culprits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Nico de Bruyn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass mortalities of marine mammals due to infectious agents are increasingly reported. However, in contrast to previous die-offs, which were indiscriminate with respect to sex and age, here we report a land-based mass mortality of Subantarctic fur seals with apparent exclusivity to adult males. An infectious agent with a male-predilection is the most plausible explanation for this die-off. Although pathogens with gender-biased transmission and pathologies are unusual, rodents are known sources of male-biased infectious agents and the invasive Mus musculus house mouse, occurs in seal rookeries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular screening for male-biased pathogens in this potential rodent reservoir host revealed the absence of Cardiovirus and Leptospirosis genomes in heart and kidney samples, respectively, but identified a novel Streptococcus species with 30% prevalence in mouse kidneys. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Inter-species transmission through environmental contamination with this novel bacterium, whose congenerics display male-bias and have links to infirmity in seals and terrestrial mammals (including humans, highlights the need to further evaluate disease risks posed by alien invasive mice to native species, on this and other islands.

  5. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  6. Results of analyses of fur samples from the San Joaquin Kit Fox and associated soil and water samples from the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Tupman, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, G.W. II; Rosen, A.E.; Beauchamp, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kato, T.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether analysis of the elemental content of fur from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes macrotis mutica) and of water and soil from kit fox habitats could be used to make inferences concerning the cause of an observed decline in the kit fox population on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Fur samples that had been collected previously from NPR-1, another oil field (NPR-2), and two sites with no oil development were subjected to neutron activation analysis. In addition, soil samples were collected from the home ranges of individual foxes from undisturbed portions of major soil types on NPR-1 and from wastewater samples were collected from tanks and sumps and subjected to neutron activation analysis. Most elemental concentrations in fur were highest at Camp Roberts and lowest on the undeveloped portions of NPR-I. Fur concentrations were intermediate on the developed oil fields but were correlated with percent disturbance and with number of wells on NPR-1 and NPR-2. The fact that most elements covaried across the range of sites suggests that some pervasive source such as soil was responsible. However, fur concentrations were not correlated with soft concentrations. The kit foxes on the developed portion of NPR-1 did not have concentrations of elements in fur relative to other sites that would account for the population decline in the early 1980s. The oil-related elements As, Ba, and V were elevated in fox fur from oil fields, but only As was sufficiently elevated to suggest a risk of toxicity in individual foxes. However, arsenic concentrations suggestive of sublethal toxicity were found in only 0.56% of foxes from developed oil fields, too few to account for a population decline.

  7. Risk of erectile dysfunction in transfusion-naive thalassemia men: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities.

  8. Fur is required for the activation of virulence gene expression through the induction of the sae regulatory system in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Miranda; Sengupta, Mrittika; Purves, Joanne; Tarrant, Emma; Williams, Peter H; Cockayne, Alan; Muthaiyan, Arunachalam; Stephenson, Robert; Ledala, Nagender; Wilkinson, Brian J; Jayaswal, Radheshyam K; Morrissey, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that both Sae and Fur are required for the induction of eap and emp expression in low iron. In this study, we show that expression of sae is also iron-regulated, as sae expression is activated by Fur in low iron. We also demonstrate that both Fur and Sae are required for full induction of the oxidative stress response and expression of non-covalently bound surface proteins in low-iron growth conditions. In addition, Sae is required for the induced expression of the important virulence factors isdA and isdB in low iron. Our studies also indicate that Fur is required for the induced expression of the global regulators Agr and Rot in low iron and a number of extracellular virulence factors such as the haemolysins which are also Sae- and Agr-regulated. Hence, we show that Fur is central to a complex regulatory network that is required for the induced expression of a number of important S. aureus virulence determinants in low iron.

  9. Role of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Fur regulator and small RNAs RfrA and RfrB in iron homeostasis and interaction with host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jean-Mathieu; Dozois, Charles M; Daigle, France

    2013-03-01

    Iron is an essential element but can be toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, its acquisition and storage require tight control. Salmonella encodes the global regulator Fur (ferric uptake regulator) and the small regulatory non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) RfrA and RfrB, homologues of RyhB. The role of these iron homeostasis regulators was investigated in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). Strains containing either single or combined deletions of these regulators were obtained. The mutants were tested for growth in low and high iron conditions, resistance to oxidative stress, expression and production of siderophores, and during interaction with host cells. The fur mutant showed a growth defect and was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. The expression of the sRNAs was responsible for these defects. Siderophore expression by S. Typhi and both sRNAs were regulated by iron and by Fur. Fur contributed to invasion of epithelial cells, and was shown for the first time to play a role in phagocytosis and intracellular survival of S. Typhi in human macrophages. The sRNAs RfrA and RfrB were not required for interaction with epithelial cells, but both sRNAs were important for optimal intracellular replication in macrophages. In S. Typhi, Fur is a repressor of both sRNAs, and loss of either RfrA or RfrB resulted in distinct phenotypes, suggesting a non-redundant role for these regulatory RNAs.

  10. Subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive patients: results from the HORIZON-recurrent fracture trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Jonathan D; Lyles, Kenneth; Boonen, Steven; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Hyldstrup, Lars; Nordsletten, Lars; Pieper, Carl; Recknor, Chris; Su, Guoqin; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Magaziner, Jay

    2011-12-01

    Our purpose was to characterize the risks of osteoporosis-related subtrochanteric fractures in bisphosphonate-naive individuals. Baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the HORIZON-Recurrent Fracture Trial with a study-qualifying hip fracture were examined, comparing those who sustained incident subtrochanteric fractures with those sustaining other hip fractures. Subjects were bisphosphonate-naive or had a bisphosphonate washout period of 6-24 months and subsequently received an annual infusion of zoledronic acid 5 mg or placebo after low-trauma hip-fracture repair. In total, 2,127 men and women were included. Of the qualifying hip fractures, 5.2% were subtrochanteric, 54.8% femoral neck, 33.0% intertrochanteric, and 7.1% other (generally complex fractures of mixed type). Significant baseline (pre-hip fracture) differences were seen between index hip-fracture types, with the percentage of patients with extreme mobility problems being twofold higher in patients with index subtrochanteric fracture (9.9%) compared to other patients. The distribution of hip-fracture types was similar between the treatment groups at baseline. No patients with index subtrochanteric fractures and six patients with other qualifying hip fractures reported prior bisphosphonate use. Only one further subtrochanteric fracture occurred in each treatment group over an average 2-year patient follow-up. Subtrochanteric fractures are not uncommon in bisphosphonate-naive patients. Extreme difficulties with mobility may be a unique risk factor predisposing to development of incident subtrochanteric fractures rather than other types of hip fracture. In patients with recent hip fracture who received zoledronic acid therapy, the incidence of new subtrochanteric fractures was too small to draw any meaningful conclusions.

  11. Klasifikasi Teks Bahasa Bali dengan Metode Information Gain dan Naive Bayes Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Gede Widnyana Putra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ketersediaan dokumen teks bahasa Bali yang meningkat jumlahnya membuat proses pencarian informasi pada dokumen teks berbahasa Bali menjadi semakin sulit. Mengklasifikasikanya secara manual menjadi tidak efisien mengingat peningkatan jumlah dokumen yang semakin banyak. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan sebuah aplikasi yang dapat mengklasifikasikan teks bahasa Bali ke dalam kategori yang ditentukan. Aplikasi ini menggunakan metode klasifikasi Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC dan metode Information Gain(IG untuk seleksi fitur. Aplikasi ini diuji dengan teknik cross validation. Hasilnya adalah nilai rata-rata akurasi dari 10 fold cross validation sebesar  95,22%.

  12. A Naive Glance to Postmodern Architecture in 21st Century: Termination or Transformation?

    OpenAIRE

    Lerzan ARAS

    2015-01-01

    Too many years have past since Venturi’s Las Vegas analysis. Our taste, point of views, and of course our societal structure has changed. Gene Roddenberry’s cult TV series Star Trek which remained years on screen, turned out to be naive, and charming but also deficient for us. Communication channels have been increased. Technology’s rapid progress has surprised even itself. Lyotard’s analysis about postmodern conditions, or Hassan’s renewed descriptions about postmodernism should be moved to ...

  13. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F J; Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G

    1996-01-01

    During a one year period, 944 dogs from the Municipal kennel of Barcelona were examined to detect animals with suspected dermatophytosis. Only a few animals (1.8%) presented skin lesions but none of them had dermatophytosis. A representative number of dogs without visible skin lesions (n = 172), selected at random, were used to carry out a seasonal study of the mycobiota of their fur. Fifteen isolates belonging to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton were isolated from 14 of the 172 (8.1%) dogs without lesions. The identity of these fungi was Microsporum gypseum (6/15), Trichophyton terrestre (4/15), M. canis (2/15), M. cookei (2/15) and Trichophyton ajelloi (1/15) (one strain each of M. gypseum and T. ajelloi were isolated from one dog). Species of Penicillium (% prevalence = 89.5%), Alternaria (86.6%), Cladosporium (84.9%), Aspergillus (77.3%), Scopulariopsis (65.7%) and Chrysosporium (64.5%) were the most prevalent. No significant differences in the fungal biota were observed with respect to age, gender, hair length or between mixed and pure breed dogs. A large number of isolates, including species belonging to the genera Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Scopulariopsis, that macroscopically and/or microscopically resemble dermatophytes and may be mistaken for them, produced a red color change in Dermatophyte Test Medium. No significant seasonal difference was detected among the isolates belonging to the most frequently encountered genera, with the exception of Scopulariopsis (higher in summer and autumn) and Chrysosporium (higher in summer). Species from other genera, with lower occurrence also presented significant differences in their seasonal distribution. Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium and Phoma spp. presented maximum prevalence peaks in spring, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Phoma and Rhizopus spp. in summer and Geotrichum and Mucor spp. in autumn. The Microsporum and Trichophyton species were more frequently isolated in summer.

  14. Pollution profile and biodegradation characteristics of fur-suede processing effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Töre, G; Insel, G; Ubay Cokgör, E; Ferlier, E; Kabdaşli, I; Orhon, D

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of stream segregation on the biodegradation characteristics of wastewaters generated by fur-suede processing. It was conducted on a plant located in an organized industrial district in Turkey. A detailed in-plant analysis of the process profile and the resulting pollution profile in terms of significant parameters indicated the characteristics of a strong wastewater with a maximum total COD of 4285 mg L(-1), despite the excessive wastewater generation of 205 m3 (ton skin)(-1). Respirometric analysis by model calibration yielded slow biodegradation kinetics and showed that around 50% of the particulate organics were utilized at a rate similar to that of endogenous respiration. A similar analysis on the segregated wastewater streams suggested that biodegradation of the plant effluent is controlled largely by the initial washing/pickling operations. The effect of other effluent streams was not significant due to their relatively low contribution to the overall organic load. The respirometric tests showed that the biodegradation kinetics of the joint treatment plant influent of the district were substantially improved and exhibited typical levels reported for tannery wastewater, so that the inhibitory impact was suppressed to a great extent by dilution and mixing with effluents of the other plants. The chemical treatment step in the joint treatment plant removed the majority of the particulate organics so that 80% of the available COD was utilized in the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) test, a ratio quite compatible with the biodegradable COD fractions of tannery wastewater. Consequently, process kinetics and especially the hydrolysis rate appeared to be significantly improved.

  15. Temporal allocation of foraging effort in female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500-1600 m·h(-1 and a reduction in postdive duration (111-90 s. This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (2.9 d effort increased up to 2-3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips between 4-5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species.

  16. Temporal Allocation of Foraging Effort in Female Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Across an individual's life, foraging decisions will be affected by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic drivers that act at differing timescales. This study aimed to assess how female Australian fur seals allocated foraging effort and the behavioural changes used to achieve this at three temporal scales: within a day, across a foraging trip and across the final six months of the lactation period. Foraging effort peaked during daylight hours (57% of time diving) with lulls in activity just prior to and after daylight. Dive duration reduced across the day (196 s to 168 s) but this was compensated for by an increase in the vertical travel rate (1500–1600 m·h−1) and a reduction in postdive duration (111–90 s). This suggests physiological constraints (digestive costs) or prey availability may be limiting mean dive durations as a day progresses. During short trips (2.9 d) effort increased up to 2–3 d and then decreased. Dive duration decreased at the same rate in short and long trips, respectively, before stabilising (long trips) between 4–5 d. Suggesting that the same processes (digestive costs or prey availability) working at the daily scale may also be present across a trip. Across the lactation period, foraging effort, dive duration and vertical travel rate increased until August, before beginning to decrease. This suggests that as the nutritional demands of the suckling pup and developing foetus increase, female effort increases to accommodate this, providing insight into the potential constraints of maternal investment in this species. PMID:24244511

  17. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P < 0.0001). The results of this study indicate a high prevalence of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. SURVEY FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN THE SOUTH AMERICAN FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS AUSTRALIS) POPULATION AT PUNTA SAN JUAN, PERU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Gwen; Adkesson, Michael J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Majluf, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    The Peruvian population of the South American fur seal ( Arctocephalus australis ) is a distinct evolutionarily significant unit that is endangered. One of the largest rookeries for this species in Peru is located within the Punta San Juan marine protected area (15°22'S, 75°12'W). To better understand the current health status of this population, exposure to 10 pinniped pathogens was evaluated in adult female fur seals (n=29) via serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in November 2010. The results suggest this population is naïve to canine and phocine distemper viruses (serum neutralization test), five Leptospira interrogans serovars (microscopic agglutination test), and Brucella canis (card test). Indirect fluorescent antibody testing for Toxoplasma gondii , Neospora caninum , and Sarcocystis neurona was also uniformly negative. PCR testing of nasal swabs using previously described Mycoplasma spp. primers was positive in 37.9% (11/29) of samples. One animal was positive via card test for Brucella abortus , whereas 53.7% (15/28) were positive or suspect using a marine Brucella competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody to phocine herpesvirus-1 (PHV-1) was identified in 85.7% (24/28) of the sampled population by serum neutralization testing. Overall, exposure to Mycoplasma spp., Brucella spp., and PHV-1 was observed, but results demonstrated low to no exposure to many key pinniped pathogens. The expansion of human populations, agriculture, and industry along the Peruvian coast may lead to increased pathogen exposure from human, domestic, and wild animal sources. The naïve nature of this key population of South American fur seals raises concerns about potential risk for disease outbreaks.

  19. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A. FRATTO, Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms, those with dark, or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating, especially if they live in warm climates, because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate. However, experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent, or minimize heat stress, although it is not clear what properties do so. Here, we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers, which would create a lighter (in terms of weight coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative coo- ling. We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger, a species native to the United States and one that displays brown, grey or all-black pelage color, and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail. From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown, 9 black and 15 grey, and 1,720 hairs, we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs, but significant differences in hair fiber widths. Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner, but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker than the others. Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation, we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day. The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation, since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies. These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6: 731–736, 2011].

  20. Do black-furred animals compensate for high solar absorption with smaller hairs? A test with a polymorphic squirrel species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie A. FRATTO; Andrew K. DAVIS

    2011-01-01

    In polymorphic mammalian species that display multiple color forms,those with dark,or melanic pelage would be prone to overheating,especially if they live in warm climates,because their fur absorbs solar energy at a higher rate.However,experimental studies indicate that certain physical properties of fur of dark individuals appear to prevent,or minimize heat stress,although it is not clear what properties do so.Here,we tested the possibility that black-furred individuals simply have shorter or thinner hair fibers,which would create a lighter (in terms of weight) coat or one that allows greater air flow for evaporative cooling.We examined museum specimens of eastern fox squirrels Sciurus niger,a species native to the United States and one that displays brown,grey or all-black pelage color,and used image analysis procedures to quantify hairs from the dorsal surface and tail.From examination of 43 specimens (19 brown,9 black and 15 grey),and 1,720 hairs,we found no significant difference in hair lengths across color morphs,but significant differences in hair fiber widths.Black squirrels had thinner body hairs than other forms (7% thinner),but thicker tail hairs (9% thicker) than the others.Given that the dorsal surface would be directly exposed to solar radiation,we interpret this to be an adaptation to prevent heat stress during the day.The thicker tail hairs may be an adaptation for nighttime thermoregulation,since squirrels sleep with their tails wrapped around their bodies.These results add to a growing literature body of the functional significance of mammalian pelage [Current Zoology 57 (6):731-736,2011].

  1. Analysis of Factors Influencing Fur Quality in Minks of Standard, Pastel, Platinum and White Hedlunda Colour Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Socha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aimed at the analysis of the factors that influence conformation traits, included animal size and fur quality traits in four colour types of mink: standard, pastel, platinum and white Hedlunda. The data concerns the evaluation of animal conformation traits in the period of three years. The analysis of variance of particular traits indicates statistically significant effect of the year of birth, colour type and animal sex on the majority of analysed traits. Higher means of license evaluation were obtained by males in majority of the traits. Statistic analysis of body weight showed that the highest body weight characterized males of platinum and white Hedlunda colour types. Minks of standard and pastel colour types were characterised by lower body weight. The mean body weight of males was 2581.17g and of females 1401.42g (there is a clear sexual dimorphism in minks. Minks of white Hedlunda colour type were characterised by the highest means of colour purity, both males and females. Other colour types obtained lower means. The best fur quality characterised platinum minks. Variability of traits, measured by variability coefficient, had the highest values in animal weight (in grams and ranged from 6.0 to 32.0%. Variability of total number of scores ranged from 2.00 to 8.20%. Positive phenotypic correlations were the highest between body size (in points and total number of scores (0.676, while the lowest were obtained between body size (in points and fur quality (–0.178.

  2. TLR activation excludes circulating naive CD8+ T cells from gut-associated lymphoid organs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Kirchner, Sophie-Kathrin; Stephan, Nicolas; Bohn, Bernadette; Suhartha, Nina; Hotz, Christian; Anz, David; Sandholzer, Nadja; Stecher, Bärbel; Rüssmann, Holger; Endres, Stefan; Bourquin, Carole

    2013-05-15

    The trafficking of effector T cells is tightly regulated by the expression of site-specific sets of homing molecules. In contrast, naive T cells are generally assumed to express a uniform pattern of homing molecules and to follow a random distribution within the blood and secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, we demonstrate that systemic infection fundamentally modifies the trafficking of circulating naive CD8(+) T cells. We show that on naive CD8(+) T cells, the constitutive expression of the integrin α4β7 that effects their entry into GALT is downregulated following infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium. We further show that this downregulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and that the TLR-activated naive CD8(+) T cells are blocked from entering GALT. This contrasts strongly with Ag-experienced effector T cells, for which TLR costimulation in the GALT potently upregulates α4β7 and enhances trafficking to intestinal tissues. Thus, TLR activation leads to opposite effects on migration of naive and effector CD8(+) T cells. Our data identify a mechanism that excludes noncognate CD8(+) T cells from selected immune compartments during TLR-induced systemic inflammation.

  3. Monitoring the initiation and kinetics of human dendritic cell-induced polarization of autologous naive CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Oth

    Full Text Available A crucial step in generating de novo immune responses is the polarization of naive cognate CD4+ T cells by pathogen-triggered dendritic cells (DC. In the human setting, standardized DC-dependent systems are lacking to study molecular events during the initiation of a naive CD4+ T cell response. We developed a TCR-restricted assay to compare different pathogen-triggered human DC for their capacities to instruct functional differentiation of autologous, naive CD4+ T cells. We demonstrated that this methodology can be applied to compare differently matured DC in terms of kinetics, direction, and magnitude of the naive CD4+ T cell response. Furthermore, we showed the applicability of this assay to study the T cell polarizing capacity of low-frequency blood-derived DC populations directly isolated ex vivo. This methodology for addressing APC-dependent instruction of naive CD4+ T cells in a human autologous setting will provide researchers with a valuable tool to gain more insight into molecular mechanisms occurring in the early phase of T cell polarization. In addition, it may also allow the study of pharmacological agents on DC-dependent T cell polarization in the human system.

  4. Identification Method of Commercially Available Imitation Mink Fur%市售仿水貂毛皮的鉴别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 袁玉平; 姜苏杰

    2014-01-01

    As mink fur has high economic value, it is often appeared that commercially available fur is counterfeited with weasel , beaver (Castor) and muskrat (Qing Gendiao) fur, which is very difficult for consumers even professionals to distinguish through the senses. In this paper, by means of modern analysis instruments, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe scale characteristics of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur;the fiber fineness instrument (FFI) was used to observe internal ultrastructure of mink, weasel, beaver, muskrat fur. The results showed that: scanning electron microscope analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and beaver fur, mink and muskrat fur;but as the weasel and mink belong to the same carnivores Mustelidae, the downy flake morphology were basically the same, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. The fiber fineness instrument analysis could effectively distinguish the mink and weasel fur, mink and beaver fur;but the mink and muskrat villous morphology were partly consistent, and their furs could not be effectively distinguished. Therefore, in the actual identification process, the two kinds of methods are corroborated each other, which can be used as the material basis for the identification of mink fur.%水貂毛皮具有很高的经济价值,市售毛皮产品中经常出现以黄狼(黄鼠狼)、河狸(海狸)、麝鼠(青根貂)毛皮来仿冒水貂毛皮的现象,令普通消费者甚至专业人士很难通过感官区分。本文借助现代分析仪器,利用扫描电镜法(SEM)观察水貂、黄狼、河狸、麝鼠毛皮绒毛的鳞片层特征;利用纤维细度仪法(FFI)观察这四种动物毛皮绒毛的内部超微结构。结果表明:通过扫描电镜分析可以有效区分水貂与河狸、水貂与麝鼠的毛皮,但由于黄狼和水貂均属于食肉目鼬科,其绒毛的鳞片形态基本一致,无法被有效区分;通过纤维细度仪分析可

  5. Biomonitoring the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Canine Fur

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Dan; Neuman, Zachary L.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of fourteen out of sixteen healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine f...

  6. Study on Relationship between the Thickness of Tongue Fur and the Expressions of Apoptosis-related Genes of the Tongue Epithelial Cells in Patients with Diseases of the Digestive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhengzhi; Li Ming; Zhang Yongfeng; Chen Manyin

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the thickness of tongue fur, apoptosis of the tongue fur epithelial cells and expressions of apoptosis-related genes in diseases of the digestive system,apoptosis-related genes TGF-β3, fas mRNA and protein products were detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyurine triphosphate (d-UTP) nick-end labeling(TUNEL)technique, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical methods, and image analysis technique,respectively. Results indicated that compared with the normal tongue fur, over-expression of fas gene was found in the peeling fur with an increase in cell apoptosis, while a low-expression of TGF-β3 in the thick fur with a decrease in cell apoptosis. The changes in expression levels of fas and TGF-β3 genes,apoptosis-promoting genes in the tongue fur epithelial cells, had a similar tendency of cell apoptosis level.It is concluded that the changes in expression levels of fas and TGF-β3 are possibly important reasons influencing apoptosis of epithelial cells of tongue fur and leading to changes in thickness of the tongue fur.

  7. Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exnerová, Alice; Svádová, Katerina Hotová; Fucíková, Eva; Drent, Pieter; Stys, Pavel

    2010-03-01

    Variation in reactions to aposematic prey is common among conspecific individuals of bird predators. It may result from different individual experience but it also exists among naive birds. This variation may possibly be explained by the effect of personality--a complex of correlated, heritable behavioural traits consistent across contexts. In the great tit (Parus major), two extreme personality types have been defined. 'Fast' explorers are bold, aggressive and routine-forming; 'slow' explorers are shy, non-aggressive and innovative. Influence of personality type on unlearned reaction to aposematic prey, rate of avoidance learning and memory were tested in naive, hand-reared great tits from two opposite lines selected for exploration (slow against fast). The birds were subjected to a sequence of trials in which they were offered aposematic adult firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus). Slow birds showed a greater degree of unlearned wariness and learned to avoid the firebugs faster than fast birds. Although birds of both personality types remembered their experience, slow birds were more cautious in the memory test. We conclude that not only different species but also populations of predators that differ in proportions of personality types may have different impacts on survival of aposematic insects under natural conditions.

  8. Analysis of relationships between peptide/MHC structural features and naive T cell frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Legoux, François; Gras, Stéphanie; Trudel, Eric; Chouquet, Anne; Léger, Alexandra; Le Gorrec, Madalen; Machillot, Paul; Bonneville, Marc; Saulquin, Xavier; Housset, Dominique

    2014-12-15

    The structural rules governing peptide/MHC (pMHC) recognition by T cells remain unclear. To address this question, we performed a structural characterization of several HLA-A2/peptide complexes and assessed in parallel their antigenicity, by analyzing the frequency of the corresponding Ag-specific naive T cells in A2(+) and A2(-) individuals, as well as within CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets. We were able to find a correlation between specific naive T cell frequency and peptide solvent accessibility and/or mobility for a subset of moderately prominent peptides. However, one single structural parameter of the pMHC complexes could not be identified to explain each peptide antigenicity. Enhanced pMHC antigenicity was associated with both highly biased TRAV usage, possibly reflecting favored interaction between particular pMHC complexes and germline TRAV loops, and peptide structural features allowing interactions with a broad range of permissive CDR3 loops. In this context of constrained TCR docking mode, an optimal peptide solvent exposed surface leading to an optimal complementarity with TCR interface may constitute one of the key features leading to high frequency of specific T cells. Altogether our results suggest that frequency of specific T cells depends on the fine-tuning of several parameters, the structural determinants governing TCR-pMHC interaction being just one of them. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. Subjective taste and smell changes in treatment-naive people with solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotten, L; Corish, C; Lorton, C; Dhuibhir, P Ui; O'Donoghue, N; O'Connor, B; Cunningham, M; El Beltagi, N; Gillham, C; Walsh, D

    2016-07-01

    Taste and smell changes (TSCs) are common in head and neck (H&N) cancer and during and after chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT). It is an area that has been under-investigated, particularly in the treatment-naive, but can negatively impact nutritional status. This study examined the prevalence, severity and characteristics of TSCs in people with non-H&N solid tumours, before CT and RT, and their relationship with co-occurring symptoms. A prospective, observational study was conducted. Forty consecutive pre-treatment cancer patients, referred to radiation oncology outpatients over 6 weeks, were recruited. Data on TSCs, symptoms and nutritional status were obtained using the 'Taste and Smell Survey' and the 'abridged Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment' (abPG-SGA). BMI was measured. SPSS® was used for statistical analysis. Two-sided P values smell sensation. Those at nutritional risk reported more TSCs (n = 13/20). TSCs were significantly associated with dry mouth (P < 0.01), early satiety (P < 0.05) and fatigue (P < 0.05). TSCs preceded CT or RT in almost half of treatment-naive patients with solid tumours, notably stronger sweet and salt tastes. Half of the study group were at nutritional risk; the majority of these reported TSCs. TSCs were significantly associated with other symptoms. Future research and clinical guidelines, with a common terminology for assessment, diagnosis and management of cancer TSCs, are needed.

  10. Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exnerová, Alice; Svádová, Kateřina Hotová; Fučíková, Eva; Drent, Pieter; Štys, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Variation in reactions to aposematic prey is common among conspecific individuals of bird predators. It may result from different individual experience but it also exists among naive birds. This variation may possibly be explained by the effect of personality—a complex of correlated, heritable behavioural traits consistent across contexts. In the great tit (Parus major), two extreme personality types have been defined. ‘Fast’ explorers are bold, aggressive and routine-forming; ‘slow’ explorers are shy, non-aggressive and innovative. Influence of personality type on unlearned reaction to aposematic prey, rate of avoidance learning and memory were tested in naive, hand-reared great tits from two opposite lines selected for exploration (slow against fast). The birds were subjected to a sequence of trials in which they were offered aposematic adult firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus). Slow birds showed a greater degree of unlearned wariness and learned to avoid the firebugs faster than fast birds. Although birds of both personality types remembered their experience, slow birds were more cautious in the memory test. We conclude that not only different species but also populations of predators that differ in proportions of personality types may have different impacts on survival of aposematic insects under natural conditions. PMID:19889698

  11. Epitope-Specific Vaccination Limits Clonal Expansion of Heterologous Naive T Cells during Viral Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexus R. Johnson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite robust secondary T cell expansion primed by vaccination, the impact on primary immune responses to heterotypic antigens remains undefined. Here we show that secondary expansion of epitope-specific memory CD8+ T cells primed by prior infection with recombinant pathogens limits the primary expansion of naive CD8+ T cells with specificity to new heterologous antigens, dampening protective immunity against subsequent pathogen challenge. The degree of naive T cell repression directly paralleled the magnitude of the recall response. Suppressed primary T cell priming reflects competition for antigen accessibility, since clonal expansion was not inhibited if the primary and secondary epitopes were expressed on different dendritic cells. Interestingly, robust recall responses did not impact antigen-specific NK cells, suggesting that adaptive and innate lymphocyte responses possess different activation requirements or occur in distinct anatomical locations. These findings have important implications in pathogen vaccination strategies that depend on the targeting of multiple T cell epitopes.

  12. DR3 regulation of apoptosis of naive T-lymphocytes in children with acute infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Elena Nikolaevna; Anisenkova, Elena Viktorovna; Presnyakova, Nataliya Borisovna; Utkin, Oleg Vladimirovich

    2016-09-01

    Acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) is a widespread viral disease that mostly affects children. Development of AIM is accompanied by a change in the ratio of immune cells. This is provided by means of different biological processes including the regulation of apoptosis of naive T-cells. One of the potential regulators of apoptosis of T-lymphocytes is a death receptor 3 (DR3). We have studied the role of DR3 in the regulation of apoptosis of naive CD4(+) (nTh) and CD8(+) (nCTL) T-cells in healthy children and children with AIM. In healthy children as well as in children with AIM, the activation of DR3 is accompanied by inhibition of apoptosis of nTh. In healthy children, the stimulation of DR3 resulted in the increase in apoptosis of nCTL. On the contrary, in children with AIM, the level of apoptosis of nCTL decreased after DR3 activation, which is a positive contribution to the antiviral immune response. In children with AIM, nCTL are characterized by reduced level of apoptosis as compared with healthy children. These results indicate that DR3 can be involved in the reduction of sensitivity of nCTL to apoptosis in children with AIM.

  13. Antiretroviral drug resistance and HIV-1 subtypes among treatment-naive prisoners in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Tengku Ahmad Akram Tengku Mohd; Mohamad, Suharni; Yusuf, Wan Nazirah Wan; Shueb, Rafidah Hanim

    2014-08-13

    The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and continuous reports of HIV-1 strains developing resistance to these drugs is rather alarming, as transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons is possible. This study aimed to determine HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of primary mutations associated with antiretroviral (ARV) resistance among treatment-naive prisoners on the east coast of Malaysia. Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 21 treatment-naive prisoners. Protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions were amplified and sequenced. Stanford HIV database algorithms were used for interpretation of resistance, and phylogenetic analysis was performed for subtype assignment. In the PR gene, no antiviral resistance-associated mutation was detected. For RT-associated mutations, K103N was the most prevalent in sequenced samples (14.3%). Genetic subtyping on the pol gene revealed that the majority of the prisoners were infected with subtype CRF33_01B (52.4%). Continuous surveillance of newly infected individuals is required to help strategize the best antiviral treatment for these patients.

  14. The Use Level of Chrome Tannage For Rabbit Fur Leather Observed on Tearing Strength, Stitch Tearing Strength, Water Absorption and Organoleptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the appropiate of chrome tannage level for rabbit fur leather quality. The result were expected to contribute information for many people who relate with tanning technology, especialy about the use level of chrome tannage for fur leather quality and could as patern to hold further research.The material that used were 12 pieces of three months of rabbit skin. The method is Completely Randomized Design, consist of three treatments of chrome tannage (Chromosal B, they were : B1 (Chromosal B 6%, B2 (Chromosal B 8%, and B3 (Chromosal B 10%. Each of treatment hold on four replications. The variables which measured are tearing strength, stitch teraing strength, water absorption and organoleptic consist of “kekuatan bulu”’ “kerataan bulu” and “kelemasan kulit” in fur leather. Data was analysed by analysis variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of this research show that the use level of chromosal B give very significant influence among tearing strength, stitch tearing strength and water absorption. It gave significant influence among the organoleptic test. Based on the result, can be concluded that 10 percent of chrome tannage (chromosal B, produce the best result on tearing strength, stitch tearing strength, water absorption and organoleptic for “kekuatan bulu” and “kerataan bulu”. The incrase of chrome tannage offer will decrease the “kelemasan kulit” in fur leather and the best “kelemasan kulit” produced by the lowest chrome tannage offer, that was 6 percent of Chromosal B. The best quality of rabbit fur leather produced by 10 percent of chrome tannage offer.   Keywords: chrome, tannage, fur leather

  15. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianjun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV, a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively.

  16. Transcription Factor Ets-2 Acts as a Preinduction Repressor of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Transcription in Naive T Helper Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulias, Ioannis; Georgakopoulos, Tassos; Aggeletopoulou, Ioanna; Agelopoulos, Marios; Thanos, Dimitris; Mouzaki, Athanasia

    2016-12-23

    IL-2 is the first cytokine produced when naive T helper (Th) cells are activated and differentiate into dividing pre-Th0 proliferating precursors. IL-2 expression is blocked in naive, but not activated or memory, Th cells by the transcription factor Ets-2 that binds to the antigen receptor response element (ARRE)-2 of the proximal IL-2 promoter. Ets-2 acts as an independent preinduction repressor in naive Th cells and does not interact physically with the transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) that binds to the ARRE-2 in activated Th cells. In naive Th cells, Ets-2 mRNA expression, Ets-2 protein levels, and Ets-2 binding to ARRE-2 decrease upon cell activation followed by the concomitant expression of IL-2. Cyclosporine A stabilizes Ets-2 mRNA and protein when the cells are activated. Ets-2 silences directly constitutive or induced IL-2 expression through the ARRE-2. Conversely, Ets-2 silencing allows for constitutive IL-2 expression in unstimulated cells. Ets-2 binding to ARRE-2 in chromatin is stronger in naive compared with activated or memory Th cells; in the latter, Ets-2 participates in a change of the IL-2 promoter architecture, possibly to facilitate a quick response when the cells re-encounter antigen. We propose that Ets-2 expression and protein binding to the ARRE-2 of the IL-2 promoter are part of a strictly regulated process that results in a physiological transition of naive Th cells to Th0 cells upon antigenic stimulation. Malfunction of such a repression mechanism at the molecular level could lead to a disturbance of later events in Th cell plasticity, leading to autoimmune diseases or other pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Cortical and subcortical 5-HT2A receptor binding in neuroleptic-naive first-episode schizophrenic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erritzoe, David; Rasmussen, Hans; Kristiansen, Klaus Nyegaard

    2008-01-01

    of this disease. The aim of this study is to investigate cortical and subcortical 5-HT(2A) binding in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. Fifteen neuroleptic-naive patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (age 27.5+/-4.5 years), 11 men and 4 women, and 15 healthy control subjects matched for age (28.......5+/-5.7 years) and gender underwent a 40 min positron emission tomography (PET) study using the 5-HT(2A) antagonist, [(18)F]altanserin, as a radioligand. PET images were co-registered to 3 T magnetic resonance images (MRIs) for each individual subject, and ROIs were applied automatically onto the individual...

  18. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Geisler, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions.

  20. Experimental Infection of Mink Enforces the Role of Arcanobacterium phocae as Causative Agent of Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Heli; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Sukura, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-01-01

    Fur Animal Epidemic Necrotic Pyoderma (FENP) is a severe, often lethal infectious disease affecting all three fur animal species: mink (Neovision vision), foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and finnraccoons (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Previous studies showed an association between Arcanobacterium phocae and FENP. An experimental infection was conducted to confirm the ability of A. phocae to infect mink either alone or concurrently with a novel Streptococcus sp. found together with A. phocae in many cases of FENP. Different inoculation methods were tested to study possible routes of transmission. Typical signs, and gross- and histopathological findings for FENP were detected when naïve mink were infected with the tissue extract of mink with FENP, using a subcutaneous/ intradermal infection route. Edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and pus formation were detected in the infection site. A pure culture preparation of A. phocae alone or concurrently with the novel Streptococcus sp. caused severe acute signs of lethargy, apathy and anorexia and even mortality. The histopathological findings were similar to those found in naturally occurring cases of FENP. In contrast, the perorally infected mink presented no clinical signs nor any gross- or histopathological lesions. This study showed that A. phocae is able to cause FENP. The study also indicated that predisposing factors such as the environment, the general condition of the animals, temperature and skin trauma contribute to the development of the disease. PMID:27973532

  1. Fur Animals' Vaccines and its Application%毛皮动物疫苗与使用原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门晓林; 王晓龙

    2013-01-01

    毛皮动物主要疾病目前都依赖于疫苗进行防控和治疗,对于促进养殖业的发展起到了巨大的作用。但是众多养殖户对疫苗以及疫苗的使用等方面还认识模糊,甚至存在着错误的理解,不仅给疫苗的正确使用带来影响,也增加了一些不必要的纠纷。本文对我国当前毛皮动物疫苗情况加以简要回顾和梳理,以期对实际应用有所帮助。%At present, the main diseases of fur animals are dependent on the vaccines for prevention and treat-ment, which has played a huge role in promoting the development of breeding industry. While ambiguous knowl-edge towards what is vaccine and how to use vaccine is still exist in farmer′s minds;even there is wrong under-standing of vaccines. All those not only affect the correct use of the vaccines, but also rose some unnecessary dis-putes. In this article the current situation of fur animals' vaccines is briefly reviewed and a little help is expected for the practical application.

  2. Effects of a 17q21 chromosome gene variant, tobacco smoke and furred pets on infant wheeze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, E V; Loft, S; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Vogel, U; Andersen, P S; Sørensen, M

    2012-01-01

    The first common genetic factor identified for pediatric asthma by genome-wide association is the chromosome 17q21 locus, harbouring the ORMDL3 gene. ORMDL3 is involved in facilitation of endoplasmic reticulum-mediated inflammatory responses, believed to underlie its asthma association. We investigated associations between the rs7216389 polymorphism in the 17q21 locus affecting ORMDL3 expression and the risk for recurrent wheeze and interactions with exposure to tobacco smoke and furred pets during pregnancy and infancy using a birth cohort of 101,042 infants. Rs7216389 was significantly associated with recurrent wheeze risk among 18-month-old infants. There was a 1.35-fold higher risk of recurrent wheeze among homozygous variant allele carriers compared with homozygous wild-type allele carriers. There was significant interaction between rs7216389 and domestic furred pets, with a positive association between pets and wheeze among homozygous wild-type carriers and a negative association among homozygous variant allele carriers. There was no interaction between rs7216389 and tobacco smoke exposure.

  3. Targeted Help for Spoken Dialogue Systems: Intelligent Feedback Improves Naive Users' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockey, Beth Ann; Lemon, Oliver; Campana, Ellen; Hiatt, Laura; Aist, Gregory; Hieronymous, Jim; Gruenstein, Alexander; Dowding, John

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental evidence that providing naive users of a spoken dialogue system with immediate help messages related to their out-of-coverage utterances improves their success in using the system. A grammar-based recognizer and a Statistical Language Model (SLM) recognizer are run simultaneously. If the grammar-based recognizer suceeds, the less accurate SLM recognizer hypothesis is not used. When the grammar-based recognizer fails and the SLM recognizer produces a recognition hypothesis, this result is used by the Targeted Help agent to give the user feed-back on what was recognized, a diagnosis of what was problematic about the utterance, and a related in-coverage example. The in-coverage example is intended to encourage alignment between user inputs and the language model of the system. We report on controlled experiments on a spoken dialogue system for command and control of a simulated robotic helicopter.

  4. Attenuated neural response to gamble outcomes in drug-naive patients with Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Vegt, Joyce P M; Hulme, Oliver J; Zittel, Simone;

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, manifesting as a spectrum of motor, cognitive and affective deficits. Parkinson's disease also affects reward processing, but disease-related deficits in reinforcement learning are thought to emerge...... at a slower pace than motor symptoms as the degeneration progresses from dorsal to ventral striatum. Dysfunctions in reward processing are difficult to study in Parkinson's disease as most patients have been treated with dopaminergic drugs, which sensitize reward responses in the ventral striatum, commonly...... resulting in impulse control disorders. To circumvent this treatment confound, we assayed the neural basis of reward processing in a group of newly diagnosed patients with Parkinson's disease that had never been treated with dopaminergic drugs. Thirteen drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease and 12...

  5. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in treatment-naive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karen Bjerg; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Møller, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , pilot study of 26 eyes of 26 patients, all previously treatment-naive to photodynamic therapy, argon laser or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), were treated with one or more intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Of the 26 patients, 15 (57.7%) had occult choroidal...... neovascularization (CNV), 6 (23.1%) had predominantly classic CNV and 5 (19.2%) had minimally classic CNV. Ophthalmic outcome measures included changes in standardized Early Treatment Diabetic Research Study (ETDRS) VA, contrast sensitivity and OCT. The patients were examined at baseline and 1 week, 6 weeks, 3...... months and 6 months after the first injection. Re-treatment was given on an 'as needed' basis. Results: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients completed 6 months of follow-up. Two patients chose to discontinue the study. Mean ETDRS VA score improved from 55 letters at baseline to 60 letters at 1 week (P

  6. Text Classification using Association Rule with a Hybrid Concept of Naive Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kamruzzaman, S M; Hasan, Ahmed Ryadh

    2010-01-01

    Text classification is the automated assignment of natural language texts to predefined categories based on their content. Text classification is the primary requirement of text retrieval systems, which retrieve texts in response to a user query, and text understanding systems, which transform text in some way such as producing summaries, answering questions or extracting data. Now a day the demand of text classification is increasing tremendously. Keeping this demand into consideration, new and updated techniques are being developed for the purpose of automated text classification. This paper presents a new algorithm for text classification. Instead of using words, word relation i.e. association rules is used to derive feature set from pre-classified text documents. The concept of Naive Bayes Classifier is then used on derived features and finally a concept of Genetic Algorithm has been added for final classification. A system based on the proposed algorithm has been implemented and tested. The experimental ...

  7. Clinical role of obinutuzumab in the treatment of naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerquozzi, Sonia; Owen, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of targeted therapy against CD20(+) with the monoclonal antibody rituximab has dramatically improved the survival of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Unfortunately, CLL remains incurable with chemoimmunotherapy, with many patients having refractory or relapsing disease after rituximab-containing therapy. Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel humanized Type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been investigated and compared to rituximab. Here, we provide an overview of obinutuzumab, including its mechanisms of action, preclinical data, and Phase I to III clinical studies. Preclinical data illustrate obinutuzumab's higher potency compared to rituximab through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and direct cell death. Recently, the CLL11 study presented a significant benefit from obinutuzumab chemoimmunotherapy and supports its use for treatment-naive unfit CLL patients. Herein, we review that obinutuzumab is both a safe and effective alternative to rituximab.

  8. Routine Bone Marrow Biopsy Has Little or No Therapeutic Consequence for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Staged Treatment-Naive Patients With Hodgkin Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; d´Amore, Francesco; Juul Mylam, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Routine Bone Marrow Biopsy Has Little or No Therapeutic Consequence for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Staged Treatment-Naive Patients With Hodgkin Lymphoma......Routine Bone Marrow Biopsy Has Little or No Therapeutic Consequence for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography-Staged Treatment-Naive Patients With Hodgkin Lymphoma...

  9. Low-affinity TCR engagement drives IL-2-dependent post-thymic maintenance of naive CD4+T cells in aged humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; Abdulahad, Wayel H.; Teteloshvili, Nato; Tete, Sarah M.; Peters, Jorieke H.; Horst, Gerda; Lorencetti, Pedro G.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Lambeck, Annechien; Roozendaal, Caroline; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Koenen, Hans J. P. M.; Joosten, Irma; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Insight into the maintenance of naive T cells is essential to understand defective immune responses in the context of aging and other immune compromised states. In humans, naive CD4+ T cells, in contrast to CD8+ T cells, are remarkably well retained with aging. Here, we show that low-affinity TCR

  10. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and radiation therapy for treatment-naive patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dong Ryul; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Shin, Sung Wook; Cho, Sung Ki; Gwak, Geum Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Paik, Yong Han; Paik, Seung Woon [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by radiotherapy (RT) in treatment-naive patients with locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eligibility criteria were as follows: newly diagnosed with HCC, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C, Child-Pugh class A or B, and no prior treatment for HCC. Patients with extrahepatic spread were excluded. A total of 59 patients were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were treated with TACE followed by RT. The time interval between TACE and RT was 2 weeks as per protocol. A median RT dose was 47.25 Gy10 as the biologically effective dose using the α/β = 10 (range, 39 to 65.25 Gy10). At 1 month, complete response was obtained in 3 patients (5%), partial response in 27 patients (46%), stable disease in 13 patients (22%), and progressive disease in 16 patients (27%). The actuarial one- and two-year OS rates were 60.1% and 47.2%, respectively. The median OS was 17 months (95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 28.4 months). The median time to progression was 4 months (range, 1 to 35 months). Grade 3 or greater liver enzyme elevation occurred in only two patients (3%) after RT. Grade 3 gastroduodenal toxicity developed in two patients (3%). The combination treatment of TACE followed by RT with two-week interval was safe and it showed favorable outcomes in treatment-naive patients with locally advanced HCC. A prospective randomized trial is needed to validate these results.

  11. Efficacy of tofacitinib monotherapy in methotrexate-naive patients with early or established rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Roy M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Kavanaugh, Arthur F; Wilkinson, Bethanie; Kwok, Kenneth; DeMasi, Ryan; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tofacitinib monotherapy was previously shown to inhibit structural damage, reduce clinical signs and symptoms of RA, and improve physical functioning over 24 months in methotrexate (MTX)-naive adult patients with RA. In this post hoc analysis, we compared efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with early (disease duration <1 year) versus established (≥1 year) RA. MTX-naive patients ≥18 years with active RA received tofacitinib monotherapy (5 or 10 mg two times a day, or MTX monotherapy, in a 24-month Phase 3 trial. Of 956 patients (tofacitinib 5 mg two times a day, n=373; tofacitinib 10 mg two times a day, n=397; MTX, n=186), 54% had early RA. Baseline disease activity and functional disability were similar in both groups; radiographic damage was greater in patients with established RA. At month 24, clinical response rates were significantly greater in patients with early versus established RA in the tofacitinib 5 mg two times a day group. Both tofacitinib doses had greater effects on clinical, functional and radiographic improvements at 1 and 2 years compared with MTX, independent of disease duration. No new safety signals were observed. Treatment response was generally similar in early and established RA; significantly greater improvements were observed at month 24 with tofacitinib 5 mg two times a day in early versus established RA. Tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg two times a day demonstrated greater efficacy versus MTX irrespective of disease duration. No difference in safety profiles was observed between patients with early or established RA. NCT01039688; Results.

  12. Short Communication: Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance in Antiretroviral-Naive Pregnant Women in North Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagay, Atiene S.; Chaplin, Beth; Chebu, Philippe; Musa, Jonah; Okpokwu, Jonathan; Hamel, Donald J.; Pam, Ishaya C.; Agbaji, Oche; Samuels, Jay; Meloni, Seema; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Okonkwo, Prosper; Kanki, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends periodic surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in communities in which antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been scaled-up for greater than 3 years. We conducted a survey of TDR mutations among newly detected HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV)-naive pregnant women. From May 2010 to March 2012, 38 ARV-naive pregnant women were recruited in three hospitals in Jos, Plateau state, north central Nigeria. Eligible subjects were recruited using a modified version of the binomial sequential sampling technique recommended by WHO. HIV-1 genotyping was performed and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations were characterized according to the WHO 2009 surveillance drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list. HIV subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analysis. The women's median age was 25.5 years; the median CD4+ cell count was 317 cells/μl and the median viral load of 16 was 261 copies/ml. Of the 38 samples tested, 34 (89%) were successfully genotyped. The SDRM rate was <5% for all ART drug classes, with 1/34 (2.9%) for NRTIs/NNRTIs and none for protease inhibitors 0/31 (0%). The specific SDRMs detected were M41L for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and G190A for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). HIV-1 subtypes detected were CRF02_AG (38.2%), G′ (41.2%), G (14.7%), CRF06-CPX (2.9%), and a unique AG recombinant form (2.9%). The single ARV-native pregnant woman with SDRMs was infected with HIV-1 subtype G′. Access to ART has been available in the Jos area for over 8 years. The prevalence of TDR lower than 5% suggests proper ART administration, although continued surveillance is warranted. PMID:24164431

  13. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  14. Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhtej Sahni

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.

  15. Nonspecific Effect of Stress on Brain Gray Matter Volume in Drug-naive Female Patients with First Depressive Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Jun Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the results of the present study suggest the absence of significant differences in brain gray matter volume between female drug-naive patients after the first episode of major depression with and without SLEs after FDR correction, the study provides useful information for exploring the definitive role of stress in the onset of depression.

  16. Ribavirin rather than PEG-interferon pharmacodynamics predict nonresponse to antiviral therapy in naive chronic hepatitis C patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlerken, L.G. Van; Huisman, E.J.; Soest, H. van; Boland, G.J.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Siersema, P.D.; Burger, D.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van

    2012-01-01

    Twenty to fifty per cent of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) experience nonresponse to current antiviral therapy, which may relate in part to ribavirin or PEG-interferon pharmacodynamics. We evaluated potential relevance of various factors for nonresponse. Two hundred forty-two naive CHC pati

  17. Daclatasvir plus peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for treatment-naive chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 or 4 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hézode, Christophe; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Ghesquiere, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of daclatasvir, an HCV NS5A inhibitor with pangenotypic activity, administered with peginterferon-alfa-2a/ribavirin. DESIGN: In this Phase 2b double-blind, placebo-controlled study, treatment-naive adults with HCV genotype 1 (N=365) or 4 (N=30) infec...

  18. Altered Pattern of Naive and Memory B cells and B1 Cells in Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohsenzadegan, Monireh; Fattahi, Fahimeh; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Beni, Fariba Naderi; Movahedi, Masoud; Pourpak, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a greatly increased susceptibility to severe fungal and bacterial infections caused by defects in NADPH oxidase of phagocytic cells. We aimed to investigate immunophenotype alterations of naive and memor

  19. Predicting Ecstasy Use among Young People at Risk: A Prospective Study of Initially Ecstasy-Naive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaeke, Hylke K.E.; Benschop, Annemieke; Van Den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

    2008-01-01

    Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged up to 18 years who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in the near future. After an 11- to…

  20. Predicting ecstasy use among young people at risk: a prospective study of initially ecstasy-naive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K.E. Vervaeke; A. Benschop; W. van den Brink; D.J. Korf

    2008-01-01

    Our aim is to identify predictors of first-time ecstasy use in a prospective study among young people at risk. As part of the multidisciplinary Netherlands XTC Toxicity Study (NeXT), we monitored 188 subjects aged ≥ 18 who were ecstasy-naive at baseline but seemed likely to start taking ecstasy in t

  1. The Galileo Bias: A Naive Conceptual Belief That Influences People's Perceptions and Performance in a Ball-Dropping Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; McBeath, Michael K.; Madigan, Sean C.; Sugar, Thomas G.

    2005-01-01

    This research introduces a new naive physics belief, the Galileo bias, whereby people ignore air resistance and falsely believe that all objects fall at the same rate. Survey results revealed that this bias is held by many and is surprisingly strongest for those with formal physics instruction. In 2 experiments, 98 participants dropped ball pairs…

  2. A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Evaluate Parent Preferences for Treatment of Young, Medication Naive Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Rimas, Heather L.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waxmonsky, James; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Robb, Jessica A.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Scime, Mindy; Hoffman, Martin T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined treatment preferences of 183 parents of young (average age = 5.8 years, SD = 0.6), medication naive children with ADHD. Preferences were evaluated using a discrete choice experiment in which parents made choices between different combinations of treatment characteristics, outcomes, and costs. Latent class analysis…

  3. Autotaxin-mediated lipid signaling intersects with LIF and BMP signaling to promote the naive pluripotency transcription factor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Cody; Sakaki-Yumoto, Masayo; Goodrich, Leeanne; Hayashi, Yohei; Sami, Salma; Derynck, Rik; Asahi, Michio; Panning, Barbara; Yamanaka, Shinya; Tomoda, Kiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Developmental signaling molecules are used for cell fate determination, and understanding how their combinatorial effects produce the variety of cell types in multicellular organisms is a key problem in biology. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and ascorbic acid (AA) efficiently converts mouse primed pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into naive PSCs. Signaling by the lipid LPA through its receptor LPAR1 and downstream effector Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) cooperated with LIF signaling to promote this conversion. BMP4, which also stimulates conversion to naive pluripotency, bypassed the need for exogenous LPA by increasing the activity of the extracellular LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX). We found that LIF and LPA-LPAR1 signaling affect the abundance of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which induces a previously unappreciated Kruppel-like factor (KLF)2-KLF4-PR domain 14 (PRDM14) transcription factor circuit key to establish naive pluripotency. AA also affects this transcription factor circuit by controlling PRDM14 expression. Thus, our study reveals that ATX-mediated autocrine lipid signaling promotes naive pluripotency by intersecting with LIF and BMP4 signaling. PMID:27738243

  4. Fertilization of Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Lea; D.G. Brockway

    1986-01-01

    Northern hardwoods grow over a considerable range of climatic and edaphic conditions and exhibit a wide range in productivity.Many northern hardwood forests are capable of high production relative to other forest types, but are often slow to reach maximum productivity because of low nutrient availability.Altering the patterns of biomass accumulation so that managers...

  5. Thermal implications of interactions between insulation, solar reflectance, and fur structure in the summer coats of diverse species of kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Maloney, Shane K

    2017-04-01

    Not all of the solar radiation that impinges on a mammalian coat is absorbed and converted into thermal energy at the coat surface. Some is reflected back to the environment, while another portion is reflected further into the coat where it is absorbed and manifested as heat at differing levels. Substantial insulation in a coat limits the thermal impact at the skin of solar radiation, irrespective where in the coat it is absorbed. In coats with low insulation, the zone where solar radiation is absorbed may govern the consequent heat load on the skin (HL-SR). Thin summer furs of four species of kangaroo from differing climatic zones were used to determine how variation in insulation and in coat spectral and structural characteristics influence the HL-SR. Coat depth, structure, and solar reflectance varied between body regions, as well as between species. The modulation of solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were measured at low (1 m s(-1)) and high (6 m s(-1)) wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectrum similar to solar radiation was used as a proxy for the sun. We established that coat insulation was largely determined by coat depth at natural fur lie, despite large variations in fibre density, fibre diameter, and fur mass. Higher wind speed decreased coat insulation, but depth still determined the overall level. A multiple regression analysis that included coat depth (insulation), fibre diameter, fibre density, and solar reflectance was used to determine the best predictors of HL-SR. Only depth and reflectance had significant impacts and both factors had negative weights, so, as either insulation or reflectance increased, HL-SR declined, the larger impact coming from coat reflectance. This reverses the pattern observed in deep coats where insulation dominates over effects of reflectance. Across all coats, as insulation declined, reflectance increased

  6. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hilt@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Heine, Guido, E-mail: guido.heine@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, Bjoern, E-mail: bjoern.hartmann@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgrass, Ria, E-mail: baumgrass@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Radbruch, Andreas, E-mail: radbruch@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Worm, Margitta, E-mail: margitta.worm@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  7. HIV-1 drug resistance mutations emerging on darunavir therapy in PI-naive and -experienced patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouzidi, Kate; White, Ellen; Mbisa, Jean L; Sabin, Caroline A; Phillips, Andrew N; Mackie, Nicola; Pozniak, Anton L; Tostevin, Anna; Pillay, Deenan; Dunn, David T

    2016-12-01

    Darunavir is considered to have a high genetic barrier to resistance. Most darunavir-associated drug resistance mutations (DRMs) have been identified through correlation of baseline genotype with virological response in clinical trials. However, there is little information on DRMs that are directly selected by darunavir in clinical settings. We examined darunavir DRMs emerging in clinical practice in the UK. Baseline and post-exposure protease genotypes were compared for individuals in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort Study who had received darunavir; analyses were stratified for PI history. A selection analysis was used to compare the evolution of subtype B proteases in darunavir recipients and matched PI-naive controls. Of 6918 people who had received darunavir, 386 had resistance tests pre- and post-exposure. Overall, 2.8% (11/386) of these participants developed emergent darunavir DRMs. The prevalence of baseline DRMs was 1.0% (2/198) among PI-naive participants and 13.8% (26/188) among PI-experienced participants. Emergent DRMs developed in 2.0% of the PI-naive group (4 mutations) and 3.7% of the PI-experienced group (12 mutations). Codon 77 was positively selected in the PI-naive darunavir cases, but not in the control group. Our findings suggest that although emergent darunavir resistance is rare, it may be more common among PI-experienced patients than those who are PI-naive. Further investigation is required to explore whether codon 77 is a novel site involved in darunavir susceptibility. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  8. Mercury poisoning in a free-living northern river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; Cristol, Daniel A; White, Ariel E; Evers, David C; Gerhold, R W; Keel, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    A moribund 5-year-old female northern river otter (Lontra canadensis) was found on the bank of a river known to be extensively contaminated with mercury. It exhibited severe ataxia and scleral injection, made no attempt to flee, and died shortly thereafter of drowning. Tissue mercury levels were among the highest ever reported for a free-living terrestrial mammal: kidney, 353 microg/g; liver, 221 microg/g; muscle, 121 microg/g; brain (three replicates from cerebellum), 142, 151, 151 microg/g (all dry weights); and fur, 183 ug/g (fresh weight). Histopathologic findings including severe, diffuse, chronic glomerulosclerosis and moderate interstitial fibrosis were the presumptive cause of clinical signs and death. This is one of a few reports to document the death of a free-living mammal from presumed mercury poisoning.

  9. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...

  10. WelFur-mink: inter-observer reliability of on-farm welfare assessment in the growth season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Rousing, Tine; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    the consequences of operating with several observers. Animal based measures on 9 Danish mink farms were taken in November 2011. Eight observers individually, but in paris on herd level, carried out data collection on the measures involving subjective grading, e.g. mink "activity", "injuries" and "fur......-chewing" on approximately 120 cages with mink per farm. The assessment of the two observers gave similar frequencies of welfare problems and thus similar welfare assessments. The individual problems observed were however, not the same leading to poor or fair, but rarely good inter observer reliability. Despite the skilled...... assessors, the short training was not sufficient to get highly reliable results. No overall difference was found between the inter observer reliability of cages with ≤2 or ≥3 mink in a cage. More training and better training material and, for some measures, observation procedures are needed in order...

  11. Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus use raptorial biting and suction feeding when targeting prey in different foraging scenarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hocking

    Full Text Available Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging.

  12. Aplikasi sistem pakar diagnosis penyakit ispa berbasis speech recognition menggunakan metode naive bayes classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Marlina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakISPA (Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut adalah suatu penyakit gangguan saluran pernapasan yang dapat menimbulkan berbagai spektrum penyakit mulai dari penyakit tanpa gejala, infeksi ringan sampai penyakit yang parah dan mematikan akibat faktor lingkungan. Kurangnya pengetahuan masyarakat mengenai gejala dan cara penanganan penyakit ISPA merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab tingginya angka kematian akibat ISPA. Peran sistem pakar yang disediakan dalam bentuk aplikasi sangat diperlukan untuk membantu seseorang dalam melakukan diagnosa penyakit ISPA secara mudah dan cepat. Dengan berusaha mengadopsi pengetahuan manusia ke komputer, sistem pakar mampu menyelesaikan permasalahan seperti yang dilakukan oleh seorang pakar. Oleh Karena itu, Aplikasi Sistem Pakar Diagnosis Penyakit ISPA Berbasis Speech Recognition Menggunakan Metode Naive Bayes Classifier dapat digunakan untuk mendiagnosis penyakit ISPA terhadap seseorang berdasarkan konversi hasil deteksi suara pengguna. Dengan aplikasi ini pengguna seakan berkonsultasi kepada seorang dokter/pakar yang menangani penyakit ISPA. Aplikasi dibangun berbasis android dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Java dan database MySQL. Kata kunci : Sistem pakar, speech recognition, ISPA, metode naïve bayes classifier, Android. AbstractISPA (Acute Respiratory Tract Infection is a respiratory disorder disease that can lead to a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic disease, mild infection to severe and deadly disease due to environmental factors. So if someone complains of respiratory disorders not necessarily just have regular respiratory problems because it could be the person has ARI disease. The role of expert systems provided in the form of an application is needed to help a person in the diagnosis of ARI disease easily and quickly. By trying to adopt human knowledge into a computer, an expert system is capable of solving problems like that of an expert. Therefore, the Application of Expert

  13. Using an Integrated Naive Bayes Calssifier for Crawling Relevent Data on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihsra, A.

    2015-12-01

    In our experiments (at JPL, NASA) for DARPA Memex project, we wanted to crawl a large amount of data for various domains. A big challenge was data relevancy in the crawled data. More than 50% of the data was irrelevant to the domain at hand. One immediate solution was to use good seeds (seeds are the initial urls from where the program starts to crawl) and make sure that the crawl remains into the original host urls. This although a very efficient technique, fails under two conditions. One when you aim to reach deeper into the web; into new hosts (not in the seed list) and two when the website hosts myriad content types eg. a News website.The relevancy calculation used to be a post processing step i.e. once we had finished crawling, we trained a NaiveBayes Classifier and used it to find a rough relevancy of the web pages that we had. Integrating the relevancy into the crawling rather than after it was very important because crawling takes resources and time. To save both we needed to get an idea of relevancy of the whole crawl during run time and be able to steer its course accordingly. We use Apache Nutch as the crawler, which uses a plugin system to incorporate any new implementations and hence we built a plugin for Nutch.The Naive Bayes Parse Plugin works in the following way. It parses every page and decides, using a trained model (which is built in situ only once using the positive and negative examples given by the user in a very simple format), if it is relevant; If true, then it allows all the outlinks from that page to go to the next round of crawling; If not, then it gives the urls a second chance to prove themselves by checking some commonly expected words in the url relevant to that domain. This two tier system is very intuitive and efficient in focusing the crawl. In our initial test experiments over 100 seed urls, the results were astonishingly good with a recall of 98%.The same technique can be applied to geo-informatics. This will help scientists

  14. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni dsb gene expression is regulated by iron in a Fur-dependent manner and by a translational coupling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabowska Anna D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many bacterial extracytoplasmic proteins are stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bridges that are formed post-translationally between their cysteine residues. This protein modification plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis, and is facilitated by the Dsb (disulfide bond family of the redox proteins. These proteins function in two parallel pathways in the periplasmic space: an oxidation pathway and an isomerization pathway. The Dsb oxidative pathway in Campylobacter jejuni is more complex than the one in the laboratory E. coli K-12 strain. Results In the C. jejuni 81-176 genome, the dsb genes of the oxidative pathway are arranged in three transcriptional units: dsbA2-dsbB-astA, dsbA1 and dba-dsbI. Their transcription responds to an environmental stimulus - iron availability - and is regulated in a Fur-dependent manner. Fur involvement in dsb gene regulation was proven by a reporter gene study in a C. jejuni wild type strain and its isogenic fur mutant. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA confirmed that analyzed genes are members of the Fur regulon but each of them is regulated by a disparate mechanism, and both the iron-free and the iron-complexed Fur are able to bind in vitro to the C. jejuni promoter regions. This study led to identification of a new iron- and Fur-regulated promoter that drives dsbA1 gene expression in an indirect way. Moreover, the present work documents that synthesis of DsbI oxidoreductase is controlled by the mechanism of translational coupling. The importance of a secondary dba-dsbI mRNA structure for dsbI mRNA translation was verified by estimating individual dsbI gene expression from its own promoter. Conclusions The present work shows that iron concentration is a significant factor in dsb gene transcription. These results support the concept that iron concentration - also through its influence on dsb gene expression - might control the abundance of extracytoplasmic proteins

  16. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Drug Resistance Mutations Among Treatment-Naive Adult Patients in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoel Wahid, Firoz; Sno, Rachel; Darcissac, Edith; Lavergne, Anne; Adhin, Malti R; Lacoste, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    The molecular epidemiologic profile of HIV-1 in Suriname was determined through protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences obtained from HIV-1 strains collected from 100 drug-naive HIV-1-infected persons. Subtype determination revealed that most viruses were of subtype B (94.9%) in both PR and RT genomic regions, followed by B/D recombinants (5.1%). Analysis of drug resistance mutations showed only one transmitted dug resistance mutation (TDRM) (V75M) in a single strain. The genetic data obtained can serve as a baseline for Suriname to monitor emerging mutations. This study reveals that the HIV-1 epidemic in Suriname is still characterized by a low TDRM rate (1%) and a low level of subtype diversity. However, both genes display a high genetic polymorphism. This high polymorphism may ultimately lead to drug resistance. Continuous monitoring of the baseline resistance is therefore a prerequisite to safeguard effective long-term treatment for people living with HIV-1 in Suriname.

  17. Naive theories of intelligence and the role of processing fluency in perceived comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, David B; Molden, Daniel C

    2010-08-01

    Previous research overwhelmingly suggests that feelings of ease people experience while processing information lead them to infer that their comprehension is high, whereas feelings of difficulty lead them to infer that their comprehension is low. However, the inferences people draw from their experiences of processing fluency should also vary in accordance with their naive theories about why new information might be easy or difficult to process. Five experiments that involved reading novel texts showed that participants who view intelligence as a fixed attribute, and who tend to interpret experiences of processing difficulty as an indication that they are reaching the limits of their ability, reported lower levels of comprehension as fluency decreased. In contrast, participants who view intelligence as a malleable attribute that develops through effort, and who do not tend to interpret experiences of processing difficulty as pertaining to some innate ability, did not report lower levels of comprehension as fluency decreased. In fact, when these participants were particularly likely to view effort as leading to increased mastery, decreases in fluency led them to report higher levels of comprehension.

  18. Timing of dialysis initiation in transplant-naive and failed transplant patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Miklos Z.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, most guidelines have advocated early dialysis initiation on the basis of studies showing improved survival in patients starting dialysis early. These recommendations led to an increase in the proportion of patients initiating dialysis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >10 ml/min/1.73 m2, from 20% in 1996 to 52% in 2008. During this period, patients starting dialysis with an eGFR ≥15 ml/min/1.73 m2 increased from 4% to 17%. However, recent studies have failed to substantiate a benefit of early dialysis initiation and some data have suggested worse outcomes in patients starting dialysis with a higher eGFR. Several reasons for this seemingly paradoxical observation have been suggested, including the fact that patients requiring early dialysis are likely to have more severe symptoms and comorbidities, leading to confounding by indication, as well as biological mechanisms that causally relate early dialysis therapy to adverse outcomes. Dialysis reinitiation in patients with a failing renal allograft encounters similar problems. However, unique factors associated with a failed allograft means that the optimal timing of dialysis initiation in failed transplant patients might differ from that in transplant-naive patients. In this Review, we will discuss studies of dialysis initiation and compare risks and benefits of early versus late dialysis therapy. PMID:22371250

  19. Naive Treg-like CCR7(+) mononuclear cells indicate unfavorable prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jie-Yi; Duan, Meng; Sun, Qi-Man; Yang, Liuxiao; Wang, Zhi-Chao; Mynbaev, Ospan A; He, Yi-Feng; Wang, Ling-Yan; Zhou, Jian; Tang, Qi-Qun; Cao, Ya; Fan, Jia; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Gao, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Chemokine receptor-like 1 (CCRL1) has the potential in creating a low level of CCL19 and CCL21 to hinder CCR7(+) cell tracking to tumor tissue. Previously, we found a tumor suppressive role of CCRL1 by impairing CCR7-related chemotaxis of tumor cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we reported a contribution of CCR7(+) mononuclear cells in the tumor microenvironment to the progression of disease. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the distribution and clinical significance of CCR7(+) cells in a cohort of 240 HCC patients. Furthermore, the phenotype, composition, and functional status of CCR7(+) cells were determined by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and in vitro co-culture assays. We found that CCR7(+) mononuclear cells were dispersed around tumor tissue and negatively related to tumoral expression of CCRL1 (P CCR7(+) mononuclear cells positively correlated with the absence of tumor capsule, vascular invasion, and poor differentiation (P CCR7(+) mononuclear cells was significantly associated with worse survival and increased recurrence. We found that CCR7(+) mononuclear cells featured a naive Treg-like phenotype (CD45RA(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) and possessed tumor-promoting potential by producing TGF-β1. Moreover, CCR7(+) cells were also composed of several immunocytes, a third of which were CD8(+) T cells. CCR7(+) Treg-like cells facilitate tumor growth and indicate unfavorable prognosis in HCC patients, but fortunately, their tracking to tumor tissue is under the control of CCRL1.

  20. Stateless Malware Packet Detection by Incorporating Naive Bayes with Known Malware Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismahani Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malware detection done at the network infrastructure level is still an open research problem ,considering the evolution of malwares and high detection accuracy needed to detect these threats. Content based classification techniques have been proven capable of detecting malware without matching for malware signatures. However, the performance of the classification techniques depends on observed training samples. In this paper, a new detection method that incorporates Snort malware signatures into Naive Bayes model training is proposed. Through experimental work, we prove that the proposed work results in low features search space for effective detection at the packet level. This paper also demonstrates the viability of detecting malware at the stateless level (using packets as well as at the stateful level (using TCP byte stream. The result shows that it is feasible to detect malware at the stateless level with similar accuracy to the stateful level, thus requiring minimal resource for implementation on middleboxes. Stateless detection can give a better protection to end users by detecting malware on middleboxes without having to reconstruct stateful sessions and before malwares reach the end users.

  1. A Naive Glance to Postmodern Architecture in 21st Century: Termination or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerzan ARAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Too many years have past since Venturi’s Las Vegas analysis. Our taste, point of views, and of course our societal structure has changed. Gene Roddenberry’s cult TV series Star Trek which remained years on screen, turned out to be naive, and charming but also deficient for us. Communication channels have been increased. Technology’s rapid progress has surprised even itself. Lyotard’s analysis about postmodern conditions, or Hassan’s renewed descriptions about postmodernism should be moved to another dimension. As Hassan speaks, "... Postmodernism became more than an artistic style or historical trend or Zeitgeist, it is a way of reading all our signs under the mandate of misprision." (Hassan, 2003 For some critics, the postmodern architecture is about to come to a ‘cul de sac’ while we are experiencing the first quarter of the 21st century. But the matter for question is, whether the postmodern architecture is undergoing a transformation, or the point at issue is a termination. This study aims to evaluate postmodern architecture at this threshold after a short reminder of the past.

  2. Clinical role of obinutuzumab in the treatment of naive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerquozzi S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonia Cerquozzi,1 Carolyn Owen2 1Department of Hematology, University of Calgary, 2Department of Hematology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: The introduction of targeted therapy against CD20+ with the monoclonal antibody rituximab has dramatically improved the survival of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Unfortunately, CLL remains incurable with chemoimmunotherapy, with many patients having refractory or relapsing disease after rituximab-containing therapy. Obinutuzumab (GA101 is a novel humanized Type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been investigated and compared to rituximab. Here, we provide an overview of obinutuzumab, including its mechanisms of action, preclinical data, and Phase I to III clinical studies. Preclinical data illustrate obinutuzumab's higher potency compared to rituximab through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and direct cell death. Recently, the CLL11 study presented a significant benefit from obinutuzumab chemoimmunotherapy and supports its use for treatment-naive unfit CLL patients. Herein, we review that obinutuzumab is both a safe and effective alternative to rituximab. Keywords: CLL, GA101, antibody, CD20 

  3. Neisseria lactamica selectively induces mitogenic proliferation of the naive B cell pool via cell surface Ig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Brackenbury, Louise S; Massari, Paola; Davenport, Victoria; Gorringe, Andrew; Heyderman, Robert S; Williams, Neil A

    2010-09-15

    Neisseria lactamica is a commensal bacteria that colonizes the human upper respiratory tract mucosa during early childhood. In contrast to the closely related opportunistic pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, there is an absence of adaptive cell-mediated immunity to N. lactamica during the peak age of carriage. Instead, outer membrane vesicles derived from N. lactamica mediate a B cell-dependent proliferative response in mucosal mononuclear cells that is associated with the production of polyclonal IgM. We demonstrate in this study that this is a mitogenic human B cell response that occurs independently of T cell help and any other accessory cell population. The ability to drive B cell proliferation is a highly conserved property and is present in N. lactamica strains derived from diverse clonal complexes. CFSE staining of purified human tonsillar B cells demonstrated that naive IgD(+) and CD27(-) B cells are selectively induced to proliferate by outer membrane vesicles, including the innate CD5(+) subset. Neither purified lipooligosaccharide nor PorB from N. lactamica is likely to be responsible for this activity. Prior treatment of B cells with pronase to remove cell-surface Ig or treatment with BCR-specific Abs abrogated the proliferative response to N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles, suggesting that this mitogenic response is dependent upon the BCR.

  4. A Naive Bayes machine learning approach to risk prediction using censored, time-to-event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julian; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Elidrisi, Mohamed; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Vock, David M; Musgrove, Donald; Adomavicius, Gediminas; Johnson, Paul E; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2015-09-20

    Predicting an individual's risk of experiencing a future clinical outcome is a statistical task with important consequences for both practicing clinicians and public health experts. Modern observational databases such as electronic health records provide an alternative to the longitudinal cohort studies traditionally used to construct risk models, bringing with them both opportunities and challenges. Large sample sizes and detailed covariate histories enable the use of sophisticated machine learning techniques to uncover complex associations and interactions, but observational databases are often 'messy', with high levels of missing data and incomplete patient follow-up. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the well-known Naive Bayes machine learning approach to time-to-event outcomes subject to censoring. We compare the predictive performance of our method with the Cox proportional hazards model which is commonly used for risk prediction in healthcare populations, and illustrate its application to prediction of cardiovascular risk using an electronic health record dataset from a large Midwest integrated healthcare system.

  5. Sentiment Analysis of Movie Reviews using Hybrid Method of Naive Bayes and Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The area of sentiment mining (also called sentiment extraction, opinion mining, opinion extraction, sentiment analysis, etc. has seen a large increase in academic interest in the last few years. Researchers in the areas of natural language processing, data mining, machine learning, and others have tested a variety of methods of automating the sentiment analysis process. In this research work, new hybrid classification method is proposed based on coupling classification methods using arcing classifier and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble was designed using Naive Bayes (NB, Genetic Algorithm (GA. In the proposed work, a comparative study of the effectiveness of ensemble technique is made for sentiment classification. The ensemble framework is applied to sentiment classification tasks, with the aim of efficiently integrating different feature sets and classification algorithms to synthesize a more accurate classification procedure. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by means of movie review that is widely used in the field of sentiment classification. A wide range of comparative experiments are conducted and finally, some in-depth discussion is presented and conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of ensemble technique for sentiment classification.

  6. HIV-2 integrase variation in integrase inhibitor-naive adults in Senegal, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey S Gottlieb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 infection is hampered by intrinsic resistance to many of the drugs used to treat HIV-1. Limited studies suggest that the integrase inhibitors (INIs raltegravir and elvitegravir have potent activity against HIV-2 in culture and in infected patients. There is a paucity of data on genotypic variation in HIV-2 integrase that might confer intrinsic or transmitted INI resistance. METHODS: We PCR amplified and analyzed 122 HIV-2 integrase consensus sequences from 39 HIV-2-infected, INI-naive adults in Senegal, West Africa. We assessed genetic variation and canonical mutations known to confer INI-resistance in HIV-1. RESULTS: No amino acid-altering mutations were detected at sites known to be pivotal for INI resistance in HIV-1 (integrase positions 143, 148 and 155. Polymorphisms at several other HIV-1 INI resistance-associated sites were detected at positions 72, 95, 125, 154, 165, 201, 203, and 263 of the HIV-2 integrase protein. CONCLUSION: Emerging genotypic and phenotypic data suggest that HIV-2 is susceptible to the new class of HIV integrase inhibitors. We hypothesize that intrinsic HIV-2 integrase variation at "secondary" HIV-1 INI-resistance sites may affect the genetic barrier to HIV-2 INI resistance. Further studies will be needed to assess INI efficacy as part of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-2-infected patients.

  7. Diagnostic value of sonography in treatment-naive chronic inflammatory neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedee, H Stephan; van der Pol, W Ludo; van Asseldonk, Jan-Thies H; Franssen, Hessel; Notermans, Nicolette C; Vrancken, Alexander J F E; van Es, Michael A; Nikolakopoulos, Stavros; Visser, Leo H; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2017-01-10

    To determine the diagnostic value of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) for detection of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), Lewis-Sumner syndrome (LSS), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Between January 2013 and January 2015, we enrolled 75 consecutive treatment-naive patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies and 70 disease controls. We performed extensive nerve conduction and standardized HRUS studies bilaterally of large arm and leg nerves and brachial plexus. We determined optimal sonographic cutoff values of nerve size and used receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression models to identify nerve combinations with optimal diagnostic performance. Enlargement of median nerve at forearm >10 mm(2), upper arm >13 mm(2), and any trunk of brachial plexus >8 mm(2) was 99% specific for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. A shortened HRUS protocol for detecting this abnormal nerve enlargement showed high sensitivity (83%-95%), positive predictive value (100%), and negative predictive value (98%) in discriminating CIDP, LSS, and MMN from clinical mimics. Sonographic enlargement of proximal median nerve segments in the arms and brachial plexus is a key feature of chronic inflammatory neuropathies, which helps to reliably distinguish them from axonal neuropathies and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study provides Class II evidence that, in absence of clinical features that suggest a hereditary demyelinating neuropathy, sonographic enlargement of proximal median nerve segments and brachial plexus accurately identifies patients with chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Raw telemetry data for California sea lions and northern fur seals in waters off California, Oregon, and Washington during 2002-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to obtain data that are pertinent to assessing aspects of the distribution and foraging ecology of pinnipeds inhabiting the...

  9. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sebastiano, Andrea R; Yong-Yow, Sabrina; Wagner, Lauren; Lehman, Michael N; Coolen, Lique M

    2010-08-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to test the hypothesis that orexin is critical for sexual motivation and performance in male rats. First, cFos expression in orexin neurons was demonstrated following presentation of a receptive or non-receptive female without further activation by different elements of mating. Next, the functional role of orexin was tested utilizing orexin-B conjugated saporin, resulting in orexin cell body lesions in the hypothalamus. Lesions were conducted in sexually naive males and subsequent sexual behavior was recorded during four mating trials. Lesion males showed shortened latencies to mount and intromit during the first, but not subsequent mating trials, suggesting lesions facilitated initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naive, but not experienced males. Likewise, lesions did not affect sexual motivation in experienced males, determined by runway tests. Finally, elevated plus maze tests demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behaviors in lesioned males, supporting a role for orexin in anxiety associated with initial exposure to the female in naive animals. Overall, these findings show that orexin is not critical for male sexual performance or motivation, but may play a role in arousal and anxiety related to sexual behavior in naive animals.

  10. Endothelial cell‐derived angiopoietin‐2 is a therapeutic target in treatment‐naive and bevacizumab‐resistant glioblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Alexander; Harter, Patrick N.; Cremer, Sebastian; Yalcin, Burak H; Gurnik, Stefanie; Yamaji, Maiko; Di Tacchio, Mariangela; Sommer, Kathleen; Baumgarten, Peter; Bähr, Oliver; Steinbach, Joachim P; Trojan, Jörg; Glas, Martin; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Krex, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is treated by surgical resection followed by radiochemotherapy. Bevacizumab is commonly deployed for anti‐angiogenic therapy of recurrent GBM; however, innate immune cells have been identified as instigators of resistance to bevacizumab treatment. We identified angiopoietin‐2 (Ang‐2) as a potential target in both naive and bevacizumab‐treated glioblastoma. Ang‐2 expression was absent in normal human brain endothelium, while the highest Ang‐2 levels were ...

  11. Corpus linguistics and naive discriminative learning A linguística de corpus e a aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Harald Baayen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three classifiers from machine learning (the generalized linear mixed model, memory based learning, and support vector machines are compared with a naive discriminative learning classifier, derived from basic principles of error-driven learning characterizing animal and human learning. Tested on the dative alternation in English, using the Switchboard data from (BRESNAN; CUENI; NIKITINA; BAAYEN, 2007, naive discriminative learning emerges with stateof-the-art predictive accuracy. Naive discriminative learning offers a united framework for understanding the learning of probabilistic distributional patterns, for classification, and for a cognitive grounding of distinctive collexeme analysis.Três classificadores de aprendizagem de máquina (modelos mistos lineares generalizados, aprendizagem baseada na memória e máquinas de apoio a vetores são comparados com o classificador da aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua, derivada de princípios básicos da aprendizagem guiada por erros de humanos e animais. Testada na alternância dativa do inglês, usando os dados do Switchboard (BRESNAN; CUENI; NIKITINA; BAAYEN, 2007, a aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua emerge com uma acurácia predicativa no estado da arte. A aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua oferece um arcabouço unificado para a compreensão da aprendizagem de padrões distribucionais probabilísticos, para a classificação, e para um embasamento cognitivo para a análise de colexemas distintivos.

  12. Nonspecific Effect of Stress on Brain Gray Matter Volume in Drug-naive Female Patients with First Depressive Episode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Jun Zhuo; Hai-Man Bian; Yan-Jie Gao; Xiao-Lei Ma; Sheng-Zhang Ji; Meng-Yuan Yao; Ning Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to observe the differences in brain gray matter volume in drug-naive female patients after the first episode of major depression with and without stressful life events (SLEs) before the onset of depression.Methods: Forty-three drug-naive female patients voluntarily participated in the present study after the first major depressive episode.The life event scale was used to evaluate the severity of the impact of SLEs during 6 months before the onset of the major depressive episode.High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained, and the VBM and SPM8 software process were used to process and analyze the MRI.Results: Compared to that in patients without SLEs, the volume of brain gray matter was lower in the bilateral temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and right limbic lobe in the SLE group.However, the gray matter volume did not differ significantly between the two groups after the application of false discovery rate (FDR) correction.Conclusions: Although the results of the present study suggest the absence of significant differences in brain gray matter volume between female drug-naive patients after the first episode of major depression with and without SLEs after FDR correction, the study provides useful information for exploring the definitive role of stress in the onset of depression.

  13. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing by integrated Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Fenton: Process optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Weiguang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of tannery wastewater has been a challenge in remediation of aquatic environment in developing countries. Removal of organic pollutants in tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing was studied using integrated processes of Anoxic/Oxic and Fenton. Analysis of COD composition based...... on particle size found about 10% of the total COD was in the particulate and colloidal range, the remaining 90% was soluble with 72% biodegradable. Biodegradation of real tannery wastewater as well as typical tanning agents were performed in batch experiments, aerobic degradation presented much better...... for treatment of a special type of tannery wastewater from wet-blue fur processing with low organic load. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....

  14. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugavero, M.J.; May, M.; Harris, R.; Saag, M.S.; Costagliola, D.; Egger, M.; Phillips, A.; Gunthard, H.F.; Dabis, F.; Hogg, R.; Wolf, F. de; Fatkenheuer, G.; Gill, M.J.; Justice, A.; Monforte, A. D'Arminio; Lampe, F.; Miro, J.M.; Staszewski, S.; Sterne, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naive patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between

  15. Funkcje i znaczenie Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau jako instytucji wspierającej sektor małych i średnich przedsiębiorstw w Niemczech

    OpenAIRE

    Michalska, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Extreme importance of the small and medium-sized enterprises for the functioning of the economy is unquestionable. However, this sector often does not have enough prospects for development, especially in the countries transforming their economy. The solution to this problem could be creation of so called “supporting banks” , of which the example is Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau, functioning in Germany for the last 50 years. This institution is inseparably connected with t...

  16. WelFur-mink: on-farm welfare assessment of mink (Neovision vision) - effect of sample size on animal based measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2012-01-01

    " in validity, reliability as well as feasibility - the latter both as regards time and economy costs. This paper based on empiric data addressed the questions on needed sample size for a robust herd assessment of animal based measures. The animal based part of the full WelFur protocol including 9 animal based...... in herd prevalence of the mentioned parameters. Statistical analyses showed that a sample size of 125 adult mink was a robus estimate of the herd level of animal based measures....

  17. Low immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children with severe immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resino, Salvador; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; de José, Maria Isabel; Martin-Fontelos, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Maria Dolores Gurbindo; Léon, Juan Antonio; Ramos, José Tomás; Ciria, Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the CD4 recovery of naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with severe immunodeficiency who were followed up during at least 4 years of receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Children with baseline CD4 of or =25% after the 4th year on HAART. We conclude that starting HAART after severe immunosuppression of naive HIV-infected children may not be effective for recovery of normal %CD4.

  18. Zur (FurB) is a key factor in the control of the oxidative stress response in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein-Echaluce, Violeta C; González, Andrés; Napolitano, Mauro; Luque, Ignacio; Barja, Francisco; Peleato, M Luisa; Fillat, María F

    2015-06-01

    Iron and zinc are necessary nutrients whose homeostasis is tightly controlled by members of the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) superfamily in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120. Although the link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress management is well documented, little is known about the connection between zinc homeostasis and the oxidative stress response in cyanobacteria. Zinc homeostasis in Anabaena is controlled by Zur, also named FurB. When overexpressed in Escherichia coli, Zur (FurB) improved cell survival during oxidative stress. In order to investigate the possible correlation between Zur and the oxidative stress response in Anabaena, zur deletion and zur-overexpressing strains have been constructed, and the consequences of Zur imbalance evaluated. The lack of Zur increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), whereas an excess of Zur enhanced oxidative stress resistance. Both mutants displayed pleiotropic phenotypes, including alterations on the filament surfaces observable by scanning electron microscopy, reduced content of endogenous H2 O2 and altered expression of sodA, catalases and several peroxiredoxins. Transcriptional and biochemical analyses unveiled that the appropriate level of Zur is required for proper control of the oxidative stress response and allowed us to identify major antioxidant enzymes as novel members of the Zur regulon.

  19. Antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lissette; Kourí, Vivian; Alemán, Yoan; Abrahantes, Yeisel; Correa, Consuelo; Aragonés, Carlos; Martínez, Orlando; Pérez, Jorge; Fonseca, Carlos; Campos, Jorge; Álvarez, Delmis; Schrooten, Yoeri; Dekeersmaeker, Nathalie; Imbrechts, Stijn; Beheydt, Gertjan; Vinken, Lore; Soto, Yudira; Álvarez, Alina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Van Laethem, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    In Cuba, antiretroviral therapy rollout started in 2001 and antiretroviral therapy coverage has reached almost 40% since then. The objectives of this study were therefore to analyze subtype distribution, and level and patterns of drug resistance in therapy-naive HIV-1 patients. Four hundred and one plasma samples were collected from HIV-1 therapy-naive patients in 2003 and in 2007-2011. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping was performed in the pol gene and drug resistance was interpreted according to the WHO surveillance drug-resistance mutations list, version 2009. Potential impact on first-line therapy response was estimated using genotypic drug resistance interpretation systems HIVdb version 6.2.0 and Rega version 8.0.2. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Neighbor-Joining. The majority of patients were male (84.5%), men who have sex with men (78.1%) and from Havana City (73.6%). Subtype B was the most prevalent subtype (39.3%), followed by CRF20-23-24_BG (19.5%), CRF19_cpx (18.0%) and CRF18_cpx (10.3%). Overall, 29 patients (7.2%) had evidence of drug resistance, with 4.0% (CI 1.6%-4.8%) in 2003 versus 12.5% (CI 7.2%-14.5%) in 2007-2011. A significant increase in drug resistance was observed in recently HIV-1 diagnosed patients, i.e. 14.8% (CI 8.0%-17.0%) in 2007-2011 versus 3.8% (CI 0.9%-4.7%) in 2003 (OR 3.9, CI 1.5-17.0, p=0.02). The majority of drug resistance was restricted to a single drug class (75.8%), with 55.2% patients displaying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), 10.3% non-NRTI (NNRTI) and 10.3% protease inhibitor (PI) resistance mutations. Respectively, 20.7% and 3.4% patients carried viruses containing drug resistance mutations against NRTI+NNRTI and NRTI+NNRTI+PI. The first cases of resistance towards other drug classes than NRTI were only detected from 2008 onwards. The most frequent resistance mutations were T215Y/rev (44.8%), M41L (31.0%), M184V (17.2%) and K103N (13.8%). The median genotypic susceptibility score for the

  20. Drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive children newly diagnosed with HIV-1 in Manaus, Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Solange Dourado de; Sabidó, Meritxell; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2017-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM), the prevalence of drug susceptibility [transmitted drug resistance (TDR)] and the prevalence of HIV-1 variants among treatment-naive HIV-infected children in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Children born to HIV-infected mothers and diagnosed with HIV in an HIV reference service centre and with available pol sequence between 2010 and 2015 prior to antiretroviral initiation were included. TDR was identified using the Calibrated Population Resistance Tool. HIV-1 subtypes were defined by Rega and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred and seventeen HIV-infected children with a median age of 3.7 years were included. Among them, 28.2% had been exposed to some form of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). HIV DRM were present in 21.4% of all children. Among PMTCT-exposed children, 3% had NRTI mutations, 15.2% had NNRTI mutations and 3% had PI mutations. Among PMTCT-unexposed children, 1.2% had NRTI mutations, 21.4% had non-NNRTI mutations and 1.2% had PI mutations. The most common DRM was E138A (8.5%). The prevalence of TDR was 16.2%; 21.1% among PMTCT-exposed children and 14.3% among PMTC-unexposed children. The analysis of HIV-1 subtypes revealed that 80.2% were subtype B, 6.0% were subtype C, 3.4% were subtype F1 and 10.3% were possible unique recombinant forms (BF1, 4.3%; DB, 4.3%; BC, 0.9%; KC, 0.9%). We report a high prevalence of DRM in this population, including in almost a quarter of children with no reported PMTCT. The high prevalence of TDR observed might compromise ART effectiveness. Results show extensive HIV-1 diversity and expansion of subtype C, which highlights the need for surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes in Amazonas state.

  1. Vitamin D supplementation improves sustained virologic response in chronic hepatitis C(genotype 1)-naive patientsaa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saif Abu-Mouch; Zvi Fireman; Jacob Jarchovsky; Abdel-Rauf Zeina; Nimer Assy

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether adding vitamin D, a potent immunomodulator, improves the hepatitis C virus (HCV) response to antiviral therapy. METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 were randomized into two groups: the treatment group (n = 36, 50% male, mean age 47 ± 11 years) received Peg-α-2b interferon (1.5 μg/kg per week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/d) together with vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d, target serum level > 32 ng/mL), and the control group (n = 36, 60% male, mean age 49 ± 7 years) received identical therapy without vitamin D. HCV-RNA was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (sensitivity, 10 IU/mL). The sustained virologic response (SVR) was defined as undetectable HCV-RNA at 24 wk post-treatment. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. The treatment group had a higher mean body mass index (27 ± 4 kg/m2 vs 24 ± 3 kg/m2, P F2: 42% vs 19%, P < 0.001) than the controls. At week 4, 16 (44%) treated patients and 6 (17%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). At week 12, 34 (94%) treated patients and 17 (48%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). At 24 wk post-treatment (SVR), 31 (86%) treated patients and 15 (42%) controls were HCV-RNA negative (P < 0.001). Viral load, advanced fibrosis and vitamin D supplementation were strongly and independently associated with SVR (multivariate analysis). Adverse events were mild and typical of Peg-α-2b/ribavirin. CONCLUSION: Adding vitamin D to conventional Peg-α-2b/ribavirin therapy for treatment-naive patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection significantly improves the viral response.

  2. An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naive discriminative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baayen, R Harald; Milin, Petar; Đurđević, Dusica Filipović; Hendrix, Peter; Marelli, Marco

    2011-07-01

    A 2-layer symbolic network model based on the equilibrium equations of the Rescorla-Wagner model (Danks, 2003) is proposed. The study first presents 2 experiments in Serbian, which reveal for sentential reading the inflectional paradigmatic effects previously observed by Milin, Filipović Đurđević, and Moscoso del Prado Martín (2009) for unprimed lexical decision. The empirical results are successfully modeled without having to assume separate representations for inflections or data structures such as inflectional paradigms. In the next step, the same naive discriminative learning approach is pitted against a wide range of effects documented in the morphological processing literature. Frequency effects for complex words as well as for phrases (Arnon & Snider, 2010) emerge in the model without the presence of whole-word or whole-phrase representations. Family size effects (Moscoso del Prado Martín, Bertram, Häikiö, Schreuder, & Baayen, 2004; Schreuder & Baayen, 1997) emerge in the simulations across simple words, derived words, and compounds, without derived words or compounds being represented as such. It is shown that for pseudo-derived words no special morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism, as posited by Rastle, Davis, and New (2004), is required. The model also replicates the finding of Plag and Baayen (2009) that, on average, words with more productive affixes elicit longer response latencies; at the same time, it predicts that productive affixes afford faster response latencies for new words. English phrasal paradigmatic effects modulating isolated word reading are reported and modeled, showing that the paradigmatic effects characterizing Serbian case inflection have crosslinguistic scope.

  3. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  4. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  5. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurocognitive function in treatment-naive adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; Faridi, Nazlie; Casey, Kevin F; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Hechtman, Lily; Joober, Ridha; Baker, Glen B; Palmer, Jennifer; Dagher, Alain; Leyton, Marco; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [(11)C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87 ± 8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44 ± 6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity.

  6. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  7. Renal function, urinalysis abnormalities and correlates among HIV-infected Cameroonians naive to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FolefackKaze, Francois; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Pefura Yone, Eric Walter; NdamFemben, Nelly Sandra; Ashuntantang, Gloria

    2013-11-01

    As per guidelines and recommendations, screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, this remains largely unimplemented in many settings across Sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the renal function, urinalysis abnormalities and their correlates in HIV-infected individuals who were naïve to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of 2 months' duration involving 104 HIV-infected outpatients naive to HAART (71 women, 68%) attending the HIV clinic of the Yaoundé General Hospital in Cameroon. Renal and urinalysis parameters were measured and the Student t-test and Fischer exact test were used to compare the groups of participants. The mean age and CD4 count were, respectively, 35 ± 10.7 years and 305 ± 202/mL. Fifty-six (54%) patients presented with stages 3 and 4 of HIV infection. Forty-three (41%) patients had urinalysis abnormalities, including proteinuria (36%), leukocyturia (13%) and hematuria (12%). Proteinuria was associated with increased age, advanced stage of HIV infection, decreased CD4 count, hematuria and renal failure (P HIV infection, respectively (P = 0.04). The mean estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate was 100.2 ± 32.7 mL/min; three (3%) patients had renal failure (eGFR patients had reduced kidney function 60 ≤eGFR ≤90 mL/min. There was a high prevalence of decreased kidney function and proteinuria among Cameroonian HIV-infected patients naïve to HAART. Indicators of the severity of HIV infection, including advanced stage and low CD4 count, were associated with urinalysis abnormalities.

  8. Learning the Hang Power Clean: Kinetic, Kinematic, and Technical Changes in Four Weightlifting Naive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, William B; Drinkwater, Eric J; Chapman, Dale W

    2015-07-01

    The investment in learning required to reach benefit with weightlifting training is currently not well understood in elite athletes. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify changes in vertical jump power production and kinematic variables in hang power clean (HPC) performance during the learning process from a naive state in a multiple single-subject research design. Four elite athletes undertook HPC learning for approximately 20-30 minutes twice per week over a 169-day period. Changes in parameters of vertical power production during squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) were monitored from baseline (day 0) and at 3 additional occasions. Hang power clean movement kinematics and bar path traces were monitored from day 35 and at 3 additional occasions particular to the individual's periodized training plan. Descriptive statistics were reported within athletes as mean ± SD. We observed a 14.1-35.7% (SJ) and a -14.4 to 20.5% (CMJ) gain in peak power across the 4 jump testing occasions with improvements over the first 4 weeks (SJ: 9.2-32.6%; CMJ: -2.91 to 20.79%). Changes in HPC movement kinematics and barbell path traces occurred for each athlete indicating a more rearward-directed center of pressure over the concentric phase, greater double knee bend during the transition phase, decreased maximal plantar flexion, and minimal vertical displacement of body mass with HPC learning. Considering the minimal investment of 4 weeks to achieve increases in vertical power production, the benefits of training with HPC justified the associated time costs for these 4 elite athletes.

  9. Neurocognitive function in acromegaly after surgical resection of GH-secreting adenoma versus naive acromegaly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Martín-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Patients with active untreated acromegaly show mild to moderate neurocognitive disorders that are associated to chronic exposure to growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I hypersecretion. However, it is unknown whether these disorders improve after controlling GH/IGF-I hypersecretion. The aim of this study was to compare neurocognitive functions of patients who successfully underwent GH-secreting adenoma transsphenoidal surgery (cured patients with patients with naive acromegaly. In addition, we wanted to determine the impact of different clinical and biochemical variables on neurocognitive status in patients with active disease and after long-term cure. A battery of six standardized neuropsychological tests assessed attention, memory and executive functioning. In addition, a quantitative electroencephalography with Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA solution was performed to obtain information about the neurophysiological state of the patients. Neurocognitive data was compared to that of a healthy control group. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted using clinical and hormonal parameters to obtain a set of independent predictors of neurocognitive state before and after cure. Both groups of patients scored significantly poorer than the healthy controls on memory tests, especially those assessing visual and verbal recall. Patients with cured acromegaly did not obtain better cognitive measures than naïve patients. Furthermore memory deficits were associated with decreased beta activity in left medial temporal cortex in both groups of patients. Regression analysis showed longer duration of untreated acromegaly was associated with more severe neurocognitive complications, regardless of the diagnostic group, whereas GH levels at the time of assessment was related to neurocognitive outcome only in naïve patients. Longer duration of post-operative biochemical remission of acromegaly was associated with

  10. Neuropsychological Functioning in Obsessive-Compulsive Washers: Drug-Naive Without Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Ali Akbar; Shariat, Seyed Vahid; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dolatshahi, Behrooz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a complex and heterogeneous neuropsychiatric syndrome. Contamination obsessions and washing/cleaning compulsions are the most frequent clinical OCD subtypes. The current study aimed at examining the neuropsychological impairments in drug-naive obsessive-compulsive (OC) washers without depressive symptoms and their association with the severity of symptoms. Methods: In the current causal-comparative study, 35 patients with diagnostic and statistical mental disorders class (DSM)-IV diagnosed with washing-subtype OCD and 35 healthy subjects were selected by the convenience sampling method and evaluated by computerized neuropsychology battery and clinical tests as Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Go/No-Go Test, Digits Forward (DF), Digits Backward (DB), Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28. The patients were matched to the comparison group with regard to age, gender, intelligence quotient (IQ), education, and handedness. All the tests were standardized in Iran. SPSS version 20.00 was used for descriptive and analytical data analysis. Results: There was no statistically significant different between the OCD washing and the control groups regarding socio-demographic variables or IQ. There were significant differences between the OC washer and the healthy control groups on the neuropsychological functioning. The obtained results suggested that OC washers performed significantly worse on neuropsychological measures than the controls. There was no significant association between the severity of OC symptoms and the neuropsychological functions in the OCD washing group. Conclusion: It was concluded that executive function impairment, which is a core feature in OC washers was trait-like in nature. PMID:28781731

  11. Tuberculosis in sea lions and fur seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardelli, A; Bastida, R; Loureiro, J; Michelis, H; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Costa, E

    1996-09-01

    Diverse pathological conditions causing the strandings and/or deaths of several species of sea lions and seals on the northern coast of the province of Buenos Aires are being studied. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in six cases of strandings, involving two otariid seal species (one Otaria flavescens and five Arctocephalus australis), between March 1989 and December 1992. Necropsies were performed on all six cases. Granulomatous lesions were observed in the prescapular and hepatic lymph nodes. Lesions were also seen in the lungs, pleura, liver, spleen and peritoneum. Bacteriological isolation was attempted from all the samples. The isolates were identified as belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Some showed characteristics consistent with M. bovis, whereas others demonstrated properties of M. tuberculosis. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from these strains was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), using IS6110, a genetic marker found only in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Using the IS6110 probe, similar fingerprints were obtained, suggesting a common source of infection. However, the pattern of DNA differed from DNA patterns of M. bovis isolated from humans and cattle in Argentina, which generally contain a unique 1.9 kbp band. These results suggest that mycobacteria isolated from wild seals form a different grouping inside the M. tuberculosis complex. This is the first time that tuberculosis has been detected in wild seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

  12. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir Yassir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections and the possible risk factors among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur State of western Sudan, which has never been studied before. A total of 400 male blood donors were tested for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies, (6.25% were found reactive for HBsAg and (0.65% were reactive for anti-HCV antibodies. The highest seroprevalence (30.8% was found in those between 19-24 and 37-42 years for HBsAg, whereas it was (50% in those between 31-36 years for anti-HCV antibodies. Unprotected sexual activities (20% was the most apparent predisposing risk factor for both HBV and HCV seroreactors, followed by razor sharing (13.3%, parenteral drug injections (10%, history of migration to Egypt and alcoholism (6.6% for each, tattooing and surgical procedures (3.3% for each and (36.6% were not aware for their condition. Serum alanine aminotansferase (ALT was elevated in (30.7% of HBV seroreactors and in (50% of HCV seroreactors. Serum albumin was reduced in (23.1% HBV and in (50% HCV seroreactors. The study concluded that the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was in an intermediate and low rates respectively and unprotected sexual activities was the major risk factor for infection in the population studied.

  13. ASPECTS OF THE ECOLOGY OF THE TULLBERG’S SOFT - FURRED MOUSE ( PRAOMYS TULLBERGI : THOMAS 1894 IN MOUNT AFADJATO, GHANA

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    Benjamin Yeboah Ofori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relative abundance, age - structure, sex - ratio, biomass and breeding activity of Praomys tullbergi (Tullberg’s soft - furred mouse were studied over an eight - month period (June 2008 to January 2009 at Mount Afadjato Conservation Area in the Volta Region of Ghana. The methodology involved the use of live - trapping techniques using Sherman colla psible traps. There were 183 captures of 80 individual mice in 3,360 trap - nights, giving overall trapping success and relative abundance of 5.4% and 2.4%, respectively. Adults constituted about 93% of the total number of individuals captured, while the rem aining 7% were all sub - adults. Majorities (59% of the individuals recorded were males, and these were generally slightly heavier than their non - pregnant female counterparts. Breeding activity was evident throughout the study period, peaking during the wet season. All the captured female individuals showed evidence of breeding activity (perforate vaginas, enlarged nipples, pregnancy, whereas 84% of the males had scrotal testes. The highest number of individuals was recorded in August. The year - round breedi ng activity of P. tullbergi may, to a large extent, account for their dominance in most forests in Ghana

  14. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae.

  15. Bleaching of melanin in the epidermis of South American fur seal and its application on enzyme immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis is an amphibious marine mammal distributed along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America. The species is well adjusted to different habitats due to the morphology of its fin-like members and due to some adaptations in their integumentary system. Immunohistochemical studies are very important to evaluate the mechanisms of skin adaptation due the differential expression of the antigens present in the tissue depending of the region of the body surface. However, its strongly pigmented (melanin epidermis prevents the visualization of the immuno-histochemical chromogens markers. In this study a melanin bleaching method was developed aimed to allow the visualization of the chromogens without interfering in the antigen-antibody affinity for immunohistochemistry. The analysis of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen index in the epidermis of A. australis by immunohistochemistry with diaminobenzidine (DAB as chromogen was used to test the method. The bleaching of the melanin allowed to obtain the cell proliferation index in epidermis and to avoid false positive results without affecting the immunohistochemical results.

  16. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, John P Y; Monk, Jacquomo; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Hindell, Mark A; Semmens, Jayson; Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks) on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) was investigated. For 9 (25%) of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability). A total of 26 (72%) individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration) with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35%) of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  17. insurgents in Northern Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the rebel movements in northern Uganda, see Human Rights Watch 2003, and ... of Uganda enacted an Amnesty Act in 2000, and to date more than ten thousand ..... Amnesty Certificate, and then in theory, a package.20 In the case of former .... [H]uman rights obligations are contracted on an international level.

  18. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  19. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  20. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  1. ARABIC PART OF SPEECH TAGGING USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBOUR AND NAIVE BAYES CLASSIFIERS COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rund Mahafdah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part Of Speech (POS tagging forms the important preprocessing step in many of the natural language processing applications such as text summarization, question answering and information retrieval system. It is the process of classifying every word in a given context to its appropriate part of speech. Different POS tagging techniques in the literature have been developed and experimented. Currently, it is well known that some POS tagging models are not performing well on the Quranic Arabic due to the complexity of the Quranic Arabic text. This complexity presents several challenges for POS tagging such as high ambiguity, data sparseness and large existence of unknown words. With this in mind, the main problem here is to find out how existing and efficient methods perform in Arabic and how can Quranic corpus be utilized to produce an efficient framework for Arabic POS tagging. We propose a classifiers combination experimental framework for Arabic POS tagger, by selecting two best diverse probabilistic classifiers used in numerous works in non-Arabic language; namely K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN and Naive Bayes (NB. The Majority voting is used here as the combination strategy to exploit classifiers advantages. In addition, an in-depth study has been conducted on a large list of features for exploiting effective features and investigating their role in enhancing the performance of POS taggers for the Quranic Arabic. Hence, this study aims to efficiently integrate different feature sets and tagging algorithms to synthesize more accurate POS tagging procedure. The data used in this study is the Arabic Quranic Corpus, an annotated linguistic resource consisting of 77,430 words with Arabic grammar, syntax and morphology for each word in the Holy Quran. The highest accuracy in the results achieved is 98.32%, which can be a significant enhancement for the state-of-the-art for Arabic Quranic text. The most effective features that yield this accuracy are a

  2. Outpatient urological procedures in antibiotic-naive patients with bladder cancer with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Harry W

    2012-12-01

    Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Urine culture and antibiotics are usually given before outpatient urological procedures, namely cystoscopy or intravesical BCG therapy. Injudicious use of antibiotics promotes multidrug bacterial resistance. Pretreatment antibacterial therapy may not be necessary before outpatient urological procedures in patients with bladder cancer. Such strategy facilitates timely intervention and avoids antibiotic resistance. •  To investigate the frequency of infectious complications after intravesical BCG therapy or cystoscopy in antibiotic-naive patients with bladder tumours who have asymptomatic bacteriuria. •  The aim was to avoid antibiotics in infected patients undergoing these common outpatient urological procedures. •  A total of 354 patients received induction BCG therapy and another 663 patients underwent cystoscopy after submitting a voided urine sample for culture. They received no antibiotics before or after the procedure. •  Significant bacteriuria was defined as >10(4) or >10(5) colony-forming units per millilitre with a single organism. •  The patients were followed for 3 months for onset of febrile UTI, defined as dysuria and fever >38 °C requiring antibiotics. •  Ninety BCG-treated patients (25%) and 114 cystoscopy patients (17%) had bacteriuria. •  After BCG therapy, two patients with infected urine (2.2%) and three with sterile cultures (1.1%) had febrile UTIs (P= 0.17). •  After cystoscopy, four infected patients (3.5%) and five uninfected patients (1%) had febrile UTIs (P= 0.08). •  All UTIs resolved within 24 h with oral antibiotics, and none of the patients was admitted for bacterial sepsis. •  Antibacterial prophylaxis before intravesical BCG therapy or outpatient cystoscopy does not appear to be necessary in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. •  Such strategy avoids overuse of

  3. Endoscopic findings can predict the efficacy of leukocytapheresis for steroid-naive patients with moderately active ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasushi Umehara; Masatoshi Kudo; Masanori Kawasaki

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the therapeutic usefulness of leukocytapheresis (LCAP;Cellsoba) in steroid-naive patients with moderately active ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS:Eighteen steroid-naive patients with moderately active UC received one LCAP session every week for five consecutive weeks.RESULTS:The remission rate 8 weeks after the last LCAP session was 61.1% (11/18).All three patients with deep ulcers showed worsening after LCAP.For the remaining 15 patients,who had erosions or geographic ulcers,the average clinical activity index (CAI) score dropped significantly from 9.4 to 3.8eight weeks after the last LCAP session (t=4.89,P=0.001).The average C-reactive protein (CRP) levels before and after LCAP were 1.2 mg/dL and 1.0 mg/dL,respectively.Of the patients with erosions,geographic ulcers,and deep ulcers,100% (9/9),33.3% (2/6),and 0% (0/3) were in remission 8 weeks after the last LCAP session,respectively (x2=7.65,P < 0.005).Fortyeight weeks after the last LCAP session,the remission rates for patients with erosions and geographic ulcers were 44.4% (4/9) and 16.7% (1/6),respectively.Only one patient suffered a mild adverse event after LCAP (nausea).CONCLUSION:LCAP is a useful and safe therapy for steroid-naive UC patients with moderate disease activity.Moreover,the efficacy of the treatment can be predicted on the basis of endoscopic findings.

  4. Cell-mediated immunity induced by chimeric tetravalent dengue vaccine in naive or flavivirus-primed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Bruno; Nougarede, Nolwenn; Begue, Sarah; Sanchez, Violette; Souag, Nadia; Carre, Murielle; Chambonneau, Laurent; Morrisson, Dennis N; Shaw, David; Qiao, Ming; Dumas, Rafaele; Lang, Jean; Forrat, Remi

    2008-10-23

    Three independent, phase 1 clinical trials were conducted in Australia and in USA to assess the safety and immunogenicity of sanofi pasteur dengue vaccine candidates. In this context, Dengue 1-4 and Yellow Fever 17D-204 (YF 17D)-specific CD4 and CD8 cellular responses induced by tetravalent chimeric dengue vaccines (CYD) were analyzed in flavivirus-naive or flavivirus-immune patients. Tetravalent CYD vaccine did not trigger detectable changes in serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, whatever the vaccinees immune status, while inducing significant YF 17D NS3-specific CD8 responses and dengue serotype-specific T helper responses. These responses were dominated by serotype 4 in naive individuals, but a booster vaccination (dose #2) performed 4 months following dose #1 broadened serotype-specific responses. A similar, broader response was seen after primary tetravalent immunization in subjects with pre-existing dengue 1 or 2 immunity caused by prior monovalent live-attenuated dengue vaccination. In all three trials, the profile of induced response was similar, whatever the subjects' immune status, i.e. an absence of Th2 response, and an IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha ratio dominated by IFN-gamma, for both CD4 and CD8 responses. Our results also showed an absence of cross-reactivity between YF 17D or Dengue NS3-specific CD8 responses, and allowed the identification of 3 new CD8 epitopes in the YF 17D NS3 antigen. These data are consistent with the previously demonstrated excellent safety of these dengue vaccines in flavivirus-naive and primed individuals.

  5. IL-7 and IL-15 instruct the generation of human memory stem T cells from naive precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieri, Nicoletta; Camisa, Barbara; Cocchiarella, Fabienne; Forcato, Mattia; Oliveira, Giacomo; Provasi, Elena; Bondanza, Attilio; Bordignon, Claudio; Peccatori, Jacopo; Ciceri, Fabio; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Mavilio, Fulvio; Mondino, Anna; Bicciato, Silvio; Recchia, Alessandra; Bonini, Chiara

    2013-01-24

    Long-living memory stem T cells (T(SCM)) with the ability to self-renew and the plasticity to differentiate into potent effectors could be valuable weapons in adoptive T-cell therapy against cancer. Nonetheless, procedures to specifically target this T-cell population remain elusive. Here, we show that it is possible to differentiate in vitro, expand, and gene modify in clinically compliant conditions CD8(+) T(SCM) lymphocytes starting from naive precursors. Requirements for the generation of this T-cell subset, described as CD62L(+)CCR7(+)CD45RA(+)CD45R0(+)IL-7Rα(+)CD95(+), are CD3/CD28 engagement and culture with IL-7 and IL-15. Accordingly, T(SCM) accumulates early after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The gene expression signature and functional phenotype define this population as a distinct memory T-lymphocyte subset, intermediate between naive and central memory cells. When transplanted in immunodeficient mice, gene-modified naive-derived T(SCM) prove superior to other memory lymphocytes for the ability to expand and differentiate into effectors able to mediate a potent xenogeneic GVHD. Furthermore, gene-modified T(SCM) are the only T-cell subset able to expand and mediate GVHD on serial transplantation, suggesting self-renewal capacity in a clinically relevant setting. These findings provide novel insights into the origin and requirements for T(SCM) generation and pave the way for their clinical rapid exploitation in adoptive cell therapy.

  6. OPERA: use of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for treating HCV-HIV coinfection in interferon-naive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Giampiero; Bruno, Raffaele; Cariti, Giuseppe; Nasta, Paola; Gulminetti, Roberto; Galli, Massimo; Angarano, Gioacchino; Verucchi, Gabriella; Pontali, Emanuele; Capetti, Amedeo; Raise, Enzo; Ravasio, Veronica; Maida, Ivana; Iannacone, Claudio; Caputo, Antonietta; Puoti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The Optimized Pegylated interferons Efficacy and anti-Retroviral Approach (OPERA) study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety profile of treatment with pegylated interferons (PEG-IFNs) in interferon-naive patients with chronic HCV and HIV infection in routine clinical practice. This was a multicentre, prospective observational cohort study conducted at 98 Italian referral centres for the treatment of chronic HCV and HIV coinfection. Adult subjects (n=1,523) with a confirmed diagnosis of HCV and stable HIV coinfection were followed between April 2005 and March 2011; of these, 1,284 were interferon-naive and were the focus of this analysis. Patients received PEG-IFN-α2a or -α2b plus ribavirin combination therapy. The choice of treatment and dose was at the investigator's discretion, according to the summary of product characteristics and current guidelines. The primary efficacy end point was sustained virological response (SVR). Secondary end points included rates of rapid viral response, early viral response and response at end of treatment. SVR was achieved by 40.0% of patients; the highest SVR rate was observed in patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3. More genotype 2 and 3 than genotype 1 and 4 patients achieved rapid and early viral responses, and end of treatment responses. Higher SVR rates were also associated with ≥80% anti-HCV treatment compliance and lower baseline HCV levels. The OPERA study results show that PEG-IFN plus ribavirin is an effective treatment for HCV-HIV coinfection in interferon-naive patients. Independent predictors of SVR include HCV genotype, undetectable baseline HIV RNA and baseline HCV RNA<500,000 IU/ml.

  7. Clinical efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and poor prognostic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhovens, R; Robles, M; Ximenes, A C; Nayiager, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Durez, P; Gomez-Reino, J; Grassi, W; Haraoui, B; Shergy, W; Park, S-H; Genant, H; Peterfy, C; Becker, J-C; Covucci, A; Helfrick, R; Bathon, J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of abatacept in methotrexate-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and poor prognostic factors. Methods: In this double-blind, phase IIIb study, patients with RA for 2 years or less were randomly assigned 1 : 1 to receive abatacept (∼10 mg/kg) plus methotrexate, or placebo plus methotrexate. Patients were methotrexate-naive and seropositive for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) type 2 or both and had radiographic evidence of joint erosions. The co-primary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28)-defined remission (C-reactive protein) and joint damage progression (Genant-modified Sharp total score; TS) at year 1. Safety was monitored throughout. Results: At baseline, patients had a mean DAS28 of 6.3, a mean TS of 7.1 and mean disease duration of 6.5 months; 96.5% and 89.0% of patients were RF or anti-CCP2 seropositive, respectively. At year 1, a significantly greater proportion of abatacept plus methotrexate-treated patients achieved remission (41.4% vs 23.3%; p<0.001) and there was significantly less radiographic progression (mean change in TS 0.63 vs 1.06; p = 0.040) versus methotrexate alone. Over 1 year, the frequency of adverse events (84.8% vs 83.4%), serious adverse events (7.8% vs 7.9%), serious infections (2.0% vs 2.0%), autoimmune disorders (2.3% vs 2.0%) and malignancies (0.4% vs 0%) was comparable for abatacept plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone. Conclusions: In a methotrexate-naive population with early RA and poor prognostic factors, the combination of abatacept and methotrexate provided significantly better clinical and radiographic efficacy compared with methotrexate alone and had a comparable, favourable safety profile. PMID:19124524

  8. Development of Metabolic Syndrome in Drug-Naive Adolescents After 12 Months of Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Mental illness is often accompanied by poor physical health and shorter life expectancy. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are suspected of increasing cardiovascular risk, possibly through development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the risk of adverse outcome is even higher...... if obesity or metabolic aberration starts in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: Drug-naive adolescents were recruited after contact with an outpatient Psychosis Team. Changes relative to baseline in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG...

  9. Contribution of Tongue Diagnosis in Cold-induced Febrile Disease to the Formation of the Concept of Greasy Fur%伤寒舌诊对腻苔概念形成的贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张前进; 梁嵘; 姚叙莹; 王盛花; 王召平

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to discuss the relationship of tongue diagnosis in cold-induced febrile disease and the formation of greasy fur. By reading 46 typhoid tongue medical case books, cases with slippery fur and greasy fur tongue diagnosis records were extracted. Meanwhile, cases had been searched in the Chinese Medical Classics CD with keywords of "greasy fur". These cases had been chronologically arranged for further analysis. The results showed that the records of slippery fur in the typhoid tongue diagnosis cases showed a decreasing trend, while the greasy fur records had an obvious growth. And the earliest record of greasy fur can be traced back to Shang Han Lun Tiao Bian by Fang Youzhi in the Ming dynasty. It was concluded that greasy fur was o-riginated from the slippery fur. And this achievement came from the study of typhoid tongue. At the same time, the inner relation of typhoid tongue and warm disease tongue was revealed.%目的:探讨伤寒舌诊中腻苔概念的形成.方法:查阅46 部伤寒病舌诊医案,摘录与滑、腻相关的医案,并以"腻"为关键词,检索中有关腻苔的著作,并进行分析.结果:随着时间的推移,伤寒舌诊医案中对滑苔的记录呈下降的趋势,而腻苔的记录呈增长的趋势.明代方有执的是最早在滑苔中描述苔"腻"的著作.经过滑、腻并存的时段后,腻苔成为一个独立的舌象.结论:腻苔是从滑苔中分化出来的舌象,是伤寒舌诊研究的成果之一,同时也使我们认识到伤寒舌诊与温病舌诊的内在联系.

  10. Naive and memory human B cells have distinct requirements for STAT3 activation to differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenick, Elissa K; Avery, Danielle T; Chan, Anna; Berglund, Lucinda J; Ives, Megan L; Moens, Leen; Stoddard, Jennifer L; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Tsumura, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masao; Arkwright, Peter D; Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Roesler, Joachim; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Adelstein, Stephen; Choo, Sharon; Smart, Joanne M; French, Martyn A; Fulcher, David A; Cook, Matthew C; Picard, Capucine; Durandy, Anne; Klein, Christoph; Holland, Steven M; Uzel, Gulbu; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ma, Cindy S; Tangye, Stuart G

    2013-11-18

    Long-lived antibody memory is mediated by the combined effects of long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells generated in response to T cell-dependent antigens (Ags). IL-10 and IL-21 can activate multiple signaling pathways, including STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5; ERK; PI3K/Akt, and potently promote human B cell differentiation. We previously showed that loss-of-function mutations in STAT3, but not STAT1, abrogate IL-10- and IL-21-mediated differentiation of human naive B cells into plasmablasts. We report here that, in contrast to naive B cells, STAT3-deficient memory B cells responded to these STAT3-activating cytokines, differentiating into plasmablasts and secreting high levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA, as well as Ag-specific IgG. This was associated with the induction of the molecular machinery necessary for PC formation. Mutations in IL21R, however, abolished IL-21-induced responses of both naive and memory human B cells and compromised memory B cell formation in vivo. These findings reveal a key role for IL-21R/STAT3 signaling in regulating human B cell function. Furthermore, our results indicate that the threshold of STAT3 activation required for differentiation is lower in memory compared with naive B cells, thereby identifying an intrinsic difference in the mechanism underlying differentiation of naive versus memory B cells.

  11. Effect of animal-borne camera and flash on the diving behaviour of the female Antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Hooker, Sascha K.

    2008-09-01

    Studies have documented effects of drag created by data-logging units attached to seals, but the effect of visual stimuli from such units has not been investigated. We evaluated potential effects of camera attachment including near-infrared flash operation by comparing the diving behaviour of 15 female Antarctic fur seals ( Arctocephalus gazella) with cameras and 10 seals without cameras. Irrespective of the presence of the camera or flash, all seals exhibited an expected diel dive pattern with shallower, shorter dives, less time at the bottom of a dive, and slower ascent and descent rates at night following krill vertical migration. We also observed a previously unreported foraging trip dive pattern with faster ascents and descents near the end of trips. With cameras present, dive duration and bottom time increased and ascents were slower. During flash operation, dive duration increased and bottom time remained constant throughout the day contrary to the expected diel trend. Also during flash operation, bottom time was shorter at the beginning of a foraging trip and dives were deeper, with longer duration and bottom time later in the trip. We were unable to conclude whether the flash emission spectrum overlapped with the visual sensitivity of seals and Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) since visual sensitivity data for seals and krill at longer wavelengths were not available. It is possible that the flash was bright enough for the seals or krill to detect; however, although there was a change in diving behaviour observed during flash operation this behaviour was within the range of values normally observed for these seals and should not cause ethical concern.

  12. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; Trathan, Phil; Jonsen, Ian; Staniland, Iain; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Wege, Mia; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche specialization and modifiers of

  13. Long-term species, sexual and individual variations in foraging strategies of fur seals revealed by stable isotopes in whiskers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ(13C and δ(15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years. δ(13C and δ(15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and

  14. Long-Term Species, Sexual and Individual Variations in Foraging Strategies of Fur Seals Revealed by Stable Isotopes in Whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cazelles, Bernard; Arnould, John P. Y.; Richard, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ13C and δ15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years). δ13C and δ15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located) where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. Conclusions/Significance Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and migration-related changes. It

  15. The ‘Otter-Man’ Empires: The Pacific Fur Trade, Incorporation and the Zone of Ignorance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon D. Carlson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the concept of the ‘external arena’, the relationship it holds to the expansion of the modern world-system, and the process of systemic incorporation. In order to address the notion of systemic expansion, I examine how boundaries of the system are de?ned by networks of exchange and interaction and I echo criticisms that information and luxury goods networks exert important systemic impacts. Signi?cant change occurs well prior to the point at which traditional world-systems literature considers an arena ‘incorporated’. The case of the sea-otter fur trade and the relationship with the natives of the Northwest coast of America is used as an example of these processes of change in action. This case isselected because there is no question that the area is ‘pristine’; initially it is outside the realm of European contact. This region characterizes a ‘zone of ignorance’ beyond the traditional world-system that must undergo a signi?cant ‘grooming process’ before incorporation is more fully expanded, and this process is partially operationalized by the use of historically contemporary maps. Finally, the case o?ers a good example of the impact that external regions can exert on internal systemic behavior, as European powers were pushed to the brink of war in their e?orts to exploit the resources and peoples of the Nootka Sound region. I conclude by o?ering a more developed conceptualization of the process of incorporation and related concepts.

  16. Return customers: foraging site fidelity and the effect of environmental variability in wide-ranging antarctic fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Arthur

    Full Text Available Strategies employed by wide-ranging foraging animals involve consideration of habitat quality and predictability and should maximise net energy gain. Fidelity to foraging sites is common in areas of high resource availability or where predictable changes in resource availability occur. However, if resource availability is heterogeneous or unpredictable, as it often is in marine environments, then habitat familiarity may also present ecological benefits to individuals. We examined the winter foraging distribution of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazelle, over four years to assess the degree of foraging site fidelity at two scales; within and between years. On average, between-year fidelity was strong, with most individuals utilising more than half of their annual foraging home range over multiple years. However, fidelity was a bimodal strategy among individuals, with five out of eight animals recording between-year overlap values of greater than 50%, while three animals recorded values of less than 5%. High long-term variance in sea surface temperature, a potential proxy for elevated long-term productivity and prey availability, typified areas of overlap. Within-year foraging site fidelity was weak, indicating that successive trips over the winter target different geographic areas. We suggest that over a season, changes in prey availability are predictable enough for individuals to shift foraging area in response, with limited associated energetic costs. Conversely, over multiple years, the availability of prey resources is less spatially and temporally predictable, increasing the potential costs of shifting foraging area and favouring long-term site fidelity. In a dynamic and patchy environment, multi-year foraging site fidelity may confer a long-term energetic advantage to the individual. Such behaviours that operate at the individual level have evolutionary and ecological implications and are potential drivers of niche

  17. Dive characteristics can predict foraging success in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus as validated by animal-borne video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth L. Volpov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dive characteristics and dive shape are often used to infer foraging success in pinnipeds. However, these inferences have not been directly validated in the field with video, and it remains unclear if this method can be applied to benthic foraging animals. This study assessed the ability of dive characteristics from time-depth recorders (TDR to predict attempted prey capture events (APC that were directly observed on animal-borne video in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, n=11. The most parsimonious model predicting the probability of a dive with ≥1 APC on video included only descent rate as a predictor variable. The majority (94% of the 389 total APC were successful, and the majority of the dives (68% contained at least one successful APC. The best model predicting these successful dives included descent rate as a predictor. Comparisons of the TDR model predictions to video yielded a maximum accuracy of 77.5% in classifying dives as either APC or non-APC or 77.1% in classifying dives as successful verses unsuccessful. Foraging intensity, measured as either total APC per dive or total successful APC per dive, was best predicted by bottom duration and ascent rate. The accuracy in predicting total APC per dive varied based on the number of APC per dive with maximum accuracy occurring at 1 APC for both total (54% and only successful APC (52%. Results from this study linking verified foraging dives to dive characteristics potentially opens the door to decades of historical TDR datasets across several otariid species.

  18. Postsealing genetic variation and population structure of two species of fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynen, L P; Goldsworthy, S D; Guinet, C; Bester, M N; Boyd, I L; Gjertz, I; Hofmeyr, G J; White, R W; Slade, R

    2000-03-01

    Commercial sealing in the 18th and 19th centuries had a major impact on the Antarctic and subantarctic fur seal populations (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) in the Southern Ocean. The intensive and unrestricted nature of the industry ensured substantial reductions in population sizes and resulted in both species becoming locally extinct at some sites. However, both species are continuing to recover, through the recolonization of islands across their former range and increasing population size. This study investigated the extent and pattern of genetic variation in each species to examine the hypothesis that higher levels of historic sealing in A. gazella have resulted in a greater loss of genetic variability and population structure compared with A. tropicalis. A 316-bp section of the mitochondrial control region was sequenced and revealed nucleotide diversities of 3.2% and 4.8% for A. gazella and A. tropicalis, respectively. There was no geographical distribution of lineages observed within either species, although the respective PhiST values of 0.074 and 0.19 were significantly greater than zero. These data indicate low levels of population structure in A. gazella and relatively high levels in A. tropicalis. Additional samples screened with restriction endonucleases were incorporated, and the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence haplotypes were examined to identify the main source populations of newly recolonized islands. For A. tropicalis, the data suggest that Macquarie Island and Iles Crozet were probably recolonized by females from Marion Island, and to a lesser extent Ile Amsterdam. Although there was less population structure within A. gazella, there were two geographical regions identified: a western region containing the populations of South Georgia and Bouvetoya, which were the probable sources for populations at Marion, the South Shetland and Heard Islands; and an eastern region containing the panmictic

  19. Use of Anthropogenic Sea Floor Structures by Australian Fur Seals: Potential Positive Ecological Impacts of Marine Industrial Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Y Arnould

    Full Text Available Human-induced changes to habitats can have deleterious effects on many species that occupy them. However, some species can adapt and even benefit from such modifications. Artificial reefs have long been used to provide habitat for invertebrate communities and promote local fish populations. With the increasing demand for energy resources within ocean systems, there has been an expansion of infrastructure in near-shore benthic environments which function as de facto artificial reefs. Little is known of their use by marine mammals. In this study, the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures (pipelines, cable routes, wells and shipwrecks on the foraging locations of 36 adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus was investigated. For 9 (25% of the individuals, distance to anthropogenic sea floor structures was the most important factor in determining the location of intensive foraging activity. Whereas the influence of anthropogenic sea floor structures on foraging locations was not related to age and mass, it was positively related to flipper length/standard length (a factor which can affect manoeuvrability. A total of 26 (72% individuals tracked with GPS were recorded spending time in the vicinity of structures (from 75% of the foraging trip duration with pipelines and cable routes being the most frequented. No relationships were found between the amount of time spent frequenting anthropogenic structures and individual characteristics. More than a third (35% of animals foraging near anthropogenic sea floor structures visited more than one type of structure. These results further highlight potentially beneficial ecological outcomes of marine industrial development.

  20. Decrease in immune activation in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy correlates with the function of hematopoietic progenitor cells and the number of naive CD4+ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Sørensen, T U; Ersbøll, A K;

    2000-01-01

    determined. During the study period, the naive CD4+ count and the cloning efficiency increased significantly. Immune activation was found in HIV-infected patients and decreased during HAART. The level of immune activation correlated negatively with both the naive CD4+ count and the function of progenitor...... cells. A negative correlation was found between apoptosis and the naive CD4+ count. Alterations in cytokine production during HAART or correlation between cytokine production and the naive CD4+ count or the cloning efficiency of progenitor cells were not detected. In conclusion, immune activation in HIV...

  1. Interactive Naive Bayesian network: A new approach of constructing gene-gene interaction network for cancer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue W; Lim, Joon S

    2015-01-01

    Naive Bayesian (NB) network classifier is a simple and well-known type of classifier, which can be easily induced from a DNA microarray data set. However, a strong conditional independence assumption of NB network sometimes can lead to weak classification performance. In this paper, we propose a new approach of interactive naive Bayesian (INB) network to weaken the conditional independence of NB network and classify cancers using DNA microarray data set. We selected the differently expressed genes (DEGs) to reduce the dimension of the microarray data set. Then, an interactive parent which has the biggest influence among all DEGs is searched for each DEG. And then we calculate a weight to represent the interactive relationship between a DEG and its parent. Finally, the gene-gene interaction network is constructed. We experimentally test the INB network in terms of classification accuracy using leukemia and colon DNA microarray data sets, then we compare it with the NB network. The INB network can get higher classification accuracies than NB network. And INB network can show the gene-gene interactions visually.

  2. Cultivation and qPCR Detection of Pathogenic and Antibiotic-Resistant Bacterial Establishment in Naive Broiler Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J P; McLaughlin, M R; Adeli, A; Miles, D M

    2016-05-01

    Conventional commercial broiler production involves the rearing of more than 20,000 broilers in a single confined space for approximately 6.5 wk. This environment is known for harboring pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, but studies have focused on previously established houses with mature litter microbial populations. In the current study, a set of three naive houses were followed from inception through 11 broiler flocks and monitored for ambient climatic conditions, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance. Within the first 3 wk of the first flock cycle, 100% of litter samples were positive for and , whereas was cultivation negative but PCR positive. Antibiotic resistance genes were ubiquitously distributed throughout the litter within the first flock, approaching 10 to 10 genomic units g. Preflock litter levels were approximately 10 CFU g for heterotrophic plate count bacteria, whereas midflock levels were >10 colony forming units (CFU) g; other indicators demonstrated similar increases. The influence of intrahouse sample location was minor. In all likelihood, given that preflock levels were negative for pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes and 4 to 5 Log lower than flock levels for indicators, incoming birds most likely provided the colonizing microbiome, although other sources were not ruled out. Most bacterial groups experienced a cyclical pattern of litter contamination seen in other studies, whereas microbial stabilization required approximately four flocks. This study represents a first-of-its-kind view into the time required for bacterial pathogens and antibiotic resistance to colonize and establish in naive broiler houses.

  3. ANALISIS SENTIMENT PADA SOSIAL MEDIA TWITTER MENGGUNAKAN NAIVE BAYES CLASSIFIER TERHADAP KATA KUNCI “KURIKULUM 2013”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyarsa Singgih Pamungkas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twitter salah satu situs sosial media yang memungkinkan penggunanya untuk menulis tentang berbagai hal yang terjadi dalam sehari-hari. Banyak pengguna mentweet sebuah produk atau layanan yang mereka gunakan. Tweet tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai sumber data untuk menilai sentimen pada Twitter. Pengguna sering menggunakan singkatan kata dan ejaan kata yang salah, dimana dapat menyulitkan fitur yang diambil serta mengurangi ketepatan klasifikasi. Dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Twitter Search API untuk mengambil data dari twitter, penulis menerapkan proses n-gram karakter untuk seleksi fitur serta menggunakan algoritma Naive Bayes Classifier untuk mengklasifikasi sentimen secara otomatis. Penulis menggunakan 3300 data tweet tentang sentimen kepada kata kunci “kurikulum 2013”. Data tersebut diklasifikasi secara manual dan dibagi kedalam masing-masing 1000 data untuk sentimen positif, negatif dan netral. Untuk proses latih di gunakan 3000 data tweet dan 1000 tweet tiap kategori sentimentnya. Hasil penelitian ini menghasilkan sebuah sistem yang dapat mengklasifikasi sentimen secara otomatis dengan hasil pengujian 3000 data latih dan 100 tweet data ujicoba mencapai 91 %. Kata kunci : Twitter, Twitter Search API, sosial media, tweet, analisis sentimen, sentimen, N-gram, Naive Bayes Classifier.

  4. Entecavir: a potent antiviral with minimal long-term resistance in nucleoside-naive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Chang, Ting-Tsung

    2008-10-01

    Entecavir has demonstrated safety and efficacy in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection. It is the prototype for the cyclopentane class of nucleoside/nucleotide chronic hepatitis B antiviral agents. It has a high potency and, due to its structural formula and mechanism of action, entecavir is associated with emergence of minimal resistance in the long-term treatment of nucleoside-naive patients. Research suggests that long-term treatment may be required for chronic hepatitis B patients, especially those who acquire HBV early in life, to achieve maximum viral suppression and improve outcomes. Several recent studies have evaluated the long-term safety, efficacy and development of resistance in nucleoside-naive patients treated with entecavir. Results indicate that the long-term use of entecavir is well tolerated and associated with continuous clinical improvement -- with an increasing number of patients achieving undetectable levels of HBV DNA, HBeAg seroconversion and minimal resistance. These data underscore the position of entecavir for first-line therapy and highlight its role in the long-term treatment of chronic hepatits B.

  5. First-episode medication-naive major depressive disorder is associated with altered resting brain function in the affective network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD has been associated with abnormal structure and function of the brain's affective network, including the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC. However, it is unclear if alterations of resting-state function in this affective network are present at the initial onset of MDD. AIMS: To examine resting-state function of the brain's affective network in first-episode, medication-naive patients with MDD compared to healthy controls (HCs. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was performed on 32 first-episode, medication-naive young adult patients with MDD and 35 matched HCs. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal and amygdala-seeded functional connectivity (FC were investigated. RESULTS: Compared to HC, MDD patients showed reduced ALFF in the bilateral OFC and increased ALFF in the bilateral temporal lobe extending to the insular and left fusiform cortices. Enhanced anti-correlation of activity between the left amygdala seed and the left OFC was found in MDD patients but not in HCs. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced ALFF in the OFC suggests hypo-functioning of emotion regulation in the affective network. Enhanced anti-correlation of activity between the amygdala and OFC may reflect dysfunction of the amygdala-OFC network and additionally represent a pathological process of MDD.

  6. Tissue-resident macrophages can contain replication-competent virus in antiretroviral-naive, SIV-infected Asian macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Knox, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    SIV DNA can be detected in lymphoid tissue–resident macrophages of chronically SIV-infected Asian macaques. These macrophages also contain evidence of recently phagocytosed SIV-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we examine whether these macrophages contain replication-competent virus, whether viral DNA can be detected in tissue-resident macrophages from antiretroviral (ARV) therapy–treated animals and humans, and how the viral sequences amplified from macrophages and contemporaneous CD4+ T cells compare. In ARV-naive animals, we find that lymphoid tissue–resident macrophages contain replication-competent virus if they also contain viral DNA in ARV-naive Asian macaques. The genetic sequence of the virus within these macrophages is similar to those within CD4+ T cells from the same anatomic sites. In ARV-treated animals, we find that viral DNA can be amplified from lymphoid tissue–resident macrophages of SIV-infected Asian macaques that were treated with ARVs for at least 5 months, but we could not detect replication-competent virus from macrophages of animals treated with ARVs. Finally, we could not detect viral DNA in alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected individuals who received ARVs for 3 years and had undetectable viral loads. These data demonstrate that macrophages can contain replication-competent virus, but may not represent a significant reservoir for HIV in vivo.

  7. Telomere Elongation and Naive Pluripotent Stem Cells Achieved from Telomerase Haplo-Insufficient Cells by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Sung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Haplo-insufficiency of telomerase genes in humans leads to telomere syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenital and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Generation of pluripotent stem cells from telomerase haplo-insufficient donor cells would provide unique opportunities toward the realization of patient-specific stem cell therapies. Recently, pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (ntESCs have been efficiently achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. We tested the hypothesis that SCNT could effectively elongate shortening telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient cells in the ntESCs with relevant mouse models. Indeed, telomeres of telomerase haplo-insufficient (Terc+/− mouse cells are elongated in ntESCs. Moreover, ntESCs derived from Terc+/− cells exhibit naive pluripotency as evidenced by generation of Terc+/− ntESC clone pups by tetraploid embryo complementation, the most stringent test of naive pluripotency. These data suggest that SCNT could offer a powerful tool to reprogram telomeres and to discover the factors for robust restoration of telomeres and pluripotency of telomerase haplo-insufficient somatic cells.

  8. Multisensory interaction in vibrotactile detection and discrimination of amplitude modulation: insights from expert MFS surgeons and naive participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Perception of vibration during drilling demands integration of haptic and auditory information with force information. In this study we explored the ability to detect and discriminate changes in vibrotactile stimuli amplitude based either on purely haptic feedback or together with congruent synthesized auditory cues in groups of naive subjects and expert surgeons. Our results point toward the complex influence of multimodal experience during vibration perception. First, in naive subjects, we showed that detection and discrimination of amplitude change in complex vibro-tactile stimulus is selectively sensitive to combination of modality and previous experience. In the domain of discrimination, our results suggest that bi-modal performance is always better than uni-modal performance regardless of order of experience. Second, experiments with expert surgeons revealed that expertise in complex skill of maxilla-facial surgery strongly relies on enhanced touch perception, as measured in reaction times and discrimination ability in bi-modal vibro-auditory conditions. These observations suggest that acquisition of mandibular surgery skill has brought to an enhanced representation of vibro-tactile modulations in relevant stimuli ranges. Altogether, our results provide basis to assume that during acquisition of mandibular drilling skill, trainees may benefit from training of relevant basic aspects of touch perception - sensitivity to vibration and accompanying modulations of sound.

  9. 阳原县皮毛产业发展对策研究%Research on the Development Countermeasures of Fur Industry in Yangyuan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2015-01-01

    皮毛产业是阳原县的核心及支柱产业,在张家口市乃至河北省的经济发展中占有举足轻重的地位。如今,阳原县利用其在政策环境、基础设施、工艺技术等方面的发展优势,形成了初具规模的特色产业集群。但是,阳原县皮毛产业也面临着在治污排污、人才培养、品牌建设、内销外贸等方面的诸多问题,为实现阳原县皮毛产业综合实力的提升,本文有针对性地提出了相关对策。%Fur industry is the core and pillar industry of Yangyuan County, which occupies a pivotal position in the economic development of Zhangjiakou City, or even Hebei province. Nowadays, With the use of their development advantages in the policy environment, infrastructure, process and technology, etc, there has been formed a certain scale characteristics industrial clusters in Yangyuan County. However, the fur industry of Yangyuan County is also facing many problems such as pollution control and discharge, talent cultivation, brand building, domestic and foreign trade, etc. In order to achieve the leapfrog development of the fur industry in Yangyuan County, some targeted countermeasures were put forward in this paper.

  10. 中国桑坡毛皮工业发展现状及启示%The Development Status and Revelations of Fur and Leather Industry in Sangpo China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安博; 丁海毅; 李栋

    2015-01-01

    回顾了桑坡村“公司+农户”型毛皮产业集群的发展历程,详细阐述了桑坡村毛皮工业发展现状及存在的问题,并提出了毛皮工业可持续发展的措施,介绍了桑坡村毛皮工业给企业发展带来的有益启示。%In this paper it was reviewed the development history of "company plus farmer" pattern, a kind of fur and leather industry cluster in Sangpo. At the same time, the development status and problems of fur and leather industry were elaborated. Then, measures for sustainable development were also proposed. Fi-nally, the beneficial enlightenment from fur and leather industry in Sang Bo to the enterprise development was introduced.

  11. The fur of mammals in exposed environments; do crypsis and thermal needs necessarily conflict? The polar bear and marsupial koala compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Terence J; Webster, Koa N; Maloney, Shane K

    2014-02-01

    The furs of mammals have varied and complex functions. Other than for thermoregulation, fur is involved in physical protection, sensory input, waterproofing and colouration, the latter being important for crypsis or camouflage. Some of these diverse functions potentially conflict. We have investigated how variation in cryptic colouration and thermal features may interact in the coats of mammals and influence potential heat inflows from solar radiation, much of which is outside the visible spectral range. The coats of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the marsupial koala (Phascolarctus cinereus) have insulative similarities but, while they feature cryptic colouration, they are of contrasting colour, i.e. whitish and dark grey. The reflectance of solar radiation by coats was measured across the full solar spectrum using a spectroradiometer. The modulation of incident solar radiation and resultant heat flows in these coats were determined at a range of wind speeds by mounting them on a heat flux transducer/temperature-controlled plate apparatus in a wind tunnel. A lamp with a spectral distribution of radiation similar to the solar spectrum was used as a proxy for the sun. Crypsis by colour matching was apparent within the visible spectrum for the two species, U. maritimus being matched against snow and P. cinereus against Eucalyptus forest foliage. While reflectances across the full solar spectrum differed markedly, that of U. maritimus being 66 % as opposed to 10 % for P. cinereus, the heat influxes from solar radiation reaching the skin were similar. For both coats at low wind speed (1 m s(-1)), 19 % of incident solar radiation impacted as heat at the skin surface; at higher wind speed (10 m s(-1)) this decreased to approximately 10 %. Ursus maritimus and P. cinereus have high and comparable levels of fur insulation and although the patterns of reflectance and depths of penetrance of solar radiation differ for the coats, the considerable insulation limited the

  12. Identification of Tanned Leather and Fur%动物鞣制皮革与毛皮的种类鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王名宫

    2012-01-01

    阐述了动物鞣制皮革和毛皮种类鉴定的方法,包括了传统感官方法、红外光谱法和分子生物法,并分析了各种方法的优点及存在的问题。%The identification methods of tanned leather and fur are presented in this paper,including traditional sensory analysis, FT-IR method and molecular biology methods. Meanwhile, the advantages of various methods and existing problems are analysed.

  13. The Runx1 Transcription Factor Inhibits the Differentiation of Naive CD4+ T Cells into the Th2 Lineage by Repressing GATA3 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, Okiru; Hayashi, Keitaro; Natsume, Waka; Watanabe, Toshio; Seki, Youichi; Seki, Noriyasu; Yagi, Ryoji; Sukzuki, Wataru; Tamauchi, Hidekazu; Hozumi, Katsuto; Habu, Sonoko; Kubo, Masato; Satake, Masanobu

    2003-01-01

    Differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into helper T (Th) cells is controlled by a combination of several transcriptional factors. In this study, we examined the functional role of the Runx1 transcription factor in Th cell differentiation. Naive T cells from transgenic mice expressing a dominant interfering form of Runx1 exhibited enhanced interleukin 4 production and efficient Th2 differentiation. In contrast, transduction of Runx1 into wild-type T cells caused a complete attenuation of Th2 differentiation and was accompanied by the cessation of GATA3 expression. Furthermore, endogenous expression of Runx1 in naive T cells declined after T cell receptor stimulation, at the same time that expression of GATA3 increased. We conclude that Runx1 plays a novel role as a negative regulator of GATA3 expression, thereby inhibiting the Th2 cell differentiation. PMID:12835475

  14. Seroprotection of HIV-infected subjects after influenza A(H1N1) vaccination is directly associated with baseline frequency of naive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Lorenzo A; Daniel, Alexander; Frank, Ian; Tebas, Pablo; Boyer, Jean D

    2014-08-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, despite receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), often have impaired vaccine responses. We examined the role that immune activation and cellular phenotypes play in influenza A(H1N1) vaccine responsiveness in HIV-infected subjects receiving ART. Subjects received the H1N1 vaccine (15-µg dose; Novartis), and antibody titers at baseline and after immunization were evaluated. Subjects were classified as responders if, by week 3, seroprotection guidelines were met. Responders had higher percentages of baseline naive T cells and lower percentages of terminally differentiated T cells, compared with nonresponders. Additionally, the naive CD4(+) T-cell percentage and age were negatively correlated. Preservation of naive T-cell populations by starting therapy early could impact vaccine responses against influenza virus and other pathogens, especially as this population ages.

  15. Effects of Dopamine D2/D3 Blockade on Human Sensory and Sensorimotor Gating in Initially Antipsychotic-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düring, Signe; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Andersen, Gitte Saltoft;

    2014-01-01

    , habituation, and sensitization. Treatment with amisulpride showed no effects on these measures, either at 2 or 6 weeks of follow-up. This is the first study investigating the effects of monotherapy with a relatively selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist (amisulpride) on sensory and sensorimotor gating......, the effects of a potent D2/D3 receptor antagonist, amisulpride, were investigated on PPI and P50 gating in a large sample of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia. A total of 52 initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients were assessed for their P50 gating, PPI...... deficits in a longitudinal study of a large group of initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia. Our finding that amisulpride effectively reduced symptom severity in our patients without reducing their PPI deficits indicates that increased activity of dopamine D2 receptors may...

  16. Genetic diversity on the integrase region of the pol gene among HIV type 1-infected patients naive for integrase inhibitors in São Paulo City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Liã Bárbara; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto M; Duarte, Alberto J S; Casseb, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The presence of mutations associated with integrase inhibitor (INI) resistance among INI-naive patients may play an important clinical role in the use of those drugs Samples from 76 HIV-1-infected subjects naive to INIs were submitted to direct sequencing. No differences were found between naive (25%) subjects and subjects on HAART (75%). No primary mutation associated with raltegravir or elvitegravir resistance was found. However, 78% of sequences showed at least one accessory mutation associated with resistance. The analysis of the 76 IN sequences showed a high polymorphic level on this region among Brazilian HIV-1-infected subjects, including a high prevalence of aa substitutions related to INI resistance. The impact of these findings remains unclear and further studies are necessary to address these questions.

  17. Application of an overall heat transfer coefficient test platform in mammalian fur science%传热系数测试平台在毛皮学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华彦; 马建章; 张伟; 郑雷

    2011-01-01

    被毛的热力学特性是反映哺乳动物形态特征及环境适应性的重要参数.介绍了自行研制稳态过程传热系数测试平台的系统组成以及在毛皮学研究的具体应用.测试平台可测定单一非生物生态因子和多个因子综合作用下动物被毛的传热系数,丰富了毛皮学在功能形态、被毛进化和毛皮产品检测等方面的研究技术手段,促进了毛皮学与传热学等学科的交叉.%The heat transfer characteristics of fur are important parameters to assess the morphological character of mammalian coat and capability of adapting ambience and species dispersal potential. This article describes system components of the test platform of overall heat transfer coefficient during steady process and specific application in the fur science. Using this platform, the fur heat transfer coefficient can be determined under the conditions of multiple ecological factors, including temperature, moisture, wind speed, and sun illumination. The test platform enhances fur science research area on coat functional morphology, pelt evolution, and fur product testing techniques and so on, to promote the disciplines crossing between fur science and heat transfer, ecology, materials science.

  18. A Combined Omics Approach to Generate the Surface Atlas of Human Naive CD4+ T Cells during Early T-Cell Receptor Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessel, Anke; Hauck, Stefanie M; von Toerne, Christine; Kloppmann, Edda; Goldberg, Tatyana; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schindler, Michael; Knapp, Bettina; Krause, Linda; Dietz, Katharina; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Suttner, Kathrin

    2015-08-01

    Naive CD4(+) T cells are the common precursors of multiple effector and memory T-cell subsets and possess a high plasticity in terms of differentiation potential. This stem-cell-like character is important for cell therapies aiming at regeneration of specific immunity. Cell surface proteins are crucial for recognition and response to signals mediated by other cells or environmental changes. Knowledge of cell surface proteins of human naive CD4(+) T cells and their changes during the early phase of T-cell activation is urgently needed for a guided differentiation of naive T cells and may support the selection of pluripotent cells for cell therapy. Periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation technology was applied with subsequent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS to generate a data set describing the surface proteome of primary human naive CD4(+) T cells and to monitor dynamic changes during the early phase of activation. This led to the identification of 173 N-glycosylated surface proteins. To independently confirm the proteomic data set and to analyze the cell surface by an alternative technique a systematic phenotypic expression analysis of surface antigens via flow cytometry was performed. This screening expanded the previous data set, resulting in 229 surface proteins, which were expressed on naive unstimulated and activated CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we generated a surface expression atlas based on transcriptome data, experimental annotation, and predicted subcellular localization, and correlated the proteomics result with this transcriptional data set. This extensive surface atlas provides an overall naive CD4(+) T cell surface resource and will enable future studies aiming at a deeper understanding of mechanisms of T-cell biology allowing the identification of novel immune targets usable for the development of therapeutic treatments. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A Combined Omics Approach to Generate the Surface Atlas of Human Naive CD4+ T Cells during Early T-Cell Receptor Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graessel, Anke; Hauck, Stefanie M.; von Toerne, Christine; Kloppmann, Edda; Goldberg, Tatyana; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schindler, Michael; Knapp, Bettina; Krause, Linda; Dietz, Katharina; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B.; Suttner, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Naive CD4+ T cells are the common precursors of multiple effector and memory T-cell subsets and possess a high plasticity in terms of differentiation potential. This stem-cell-like character is important for cell therapies aiming at regeneration of specific immunity. Cell surface proteins are crucial for recognition and response to signals mediated by other cells or environmental changes. Knowledge of cell surface proteins of human naive CD4+ T cells and their changes during the early phase of T-cell activation is urgently needed for a guided differentiation of naive T cells and may support the selection of pluripotent cells for cell therapy. Periodate oxidation and aniline-catalyzed oxime ligation technology was applied with subsequent quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem MS to generate a data set describing the surface proteome of primary human naive CD4+ T cells and to monitor dynamic changes during the early phase of activation. This led to the identification of 173 N-glycosylated surface proteins. To independently confirm the proteomic data set and to analyze the cell surface by an alternative technique a systematic phenotypic expression analysis of surface antigens via flow cytometry was performed. This screening expanded the previous data set, resulting in 229 surface proteins, which were expressed on naive unstimulated and activated CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, we generated a surface expression atlas based on transcriptome data, experimental annotation, and predicted subcellular localization, and correlated the proteomics result with this transcriptional data set. This extensive surface atlas provides an overall naive CD4+ T cell surface resource and will enable future studies aiming at a deeper understanding of mechanisms of T-cell biology allowing the identification of novel immune targets usable for the development of therapeutic treatments. PMID:25991687

  20. Estudo do fluxo salivar, status periodontal e prevalência de lesões orais de doentes VIH1 e VIH2 naives: estudo seccional cruzado

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cristina Gutierrez Castanheira

    2013-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Medicina Dentária, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, 2013 Objetivo: Identificar alterações do fluxo salivar estimulado, alterações periodontais e caracterizar padrões de doença oral associados ou não à infecção por VIH em doentes VIH1 e VIH2 naives. Desenho de estudo: Estudo Observacional Seccional Cruzado Materiais e métodos: A amostra foi constituída por 70 participantes, (N=70) dos quais 27 VIH1 e 24 VIH2 naives (sem terapia anti-retroviral) recru...